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  1. Ankle syndesmosis repair and rehabilitation in professional rugby league players: a case series report.

    PubMed

    Latham, Alex James; Goodwin, Peter Charles; Stirling, Ben; Budgen, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The distal tibiofibular joint is described as a syndesmosis. Traditionally, severe syndesmotic injuries with diastasis have been treated surgically with screw fixation. This case series details an ankle syndesmosis tightrope repair and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol that reduces the amount of time to return to professional rugby league in the UK. The aim of this study was to describe players' journey from injury, through diagnosis to surgery, rehabilitation and return to participation, detailing time scales and methods used at each stage to highlight the change in current practice. Players were identified via a single orthopaedic surgeon in the UK who specialises in ankle syndesmosis repair. Between January 2010 and September 2015, adult men playing full-time professional rugby league in the UK Super League with ankle syndesmosis injuries were identified. Eighteen players from six different clubs were included. The most common mechanism of injury was forced dorsiflexion/eversion. The average return to participation was 64 days (SD 17.2, range 38-108). This compares favourably to reports of between 120 and 180 days following screw fixation. Ankle syndesmosis tightrope repair and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol is as safe as traditional methods. The accelerated rehabilitation protocol promotes early weight-bearing and has shown to expedite the return to sport for professional Rugby League players. It is possible to return to sport 2 months after a tightrope repair and accelerated rehabilitation, compared with 3-6 months post screw fixation. This is extremely encouraging for the professional sporting population.

  2. Traumatic superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysms in a minor league baseball player: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Romero, Anthony C; Fulkerson, Eric; Rockman, Caron B; Bosco, Joe; Rosen, Jeffrey

    2004-04-01

    Traumatic STA aneurysm is a rare complication of facial trauma occuring typically in young men. We present the case of a minor league baseball player who developed 2 pseudoaneurysms after being struck by a baseball and review all cases associated with sports activities. Reports associated with sports activities are increasing and may represent an increasing incidence. The team physician should suspect this condition when a player presents with a new temporal mass after facial trauma. Diagnosis is typically made on history and physical examination, but can be confirmed by duplex ultrasound. Definitive treatment is surgical resection of the aneurysm after proximal and distal ligation of the vessel.

  3. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a National Football League Player: Case report and emerging medicolegal practice questions.

    PubMed

    Omalu, Bennet I; Hamilton, Ronald L; Kamboh, M Ilyas; DeKosky, Steven T; Bailes, Julian

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a retired National Football League (NFL) Player with autopsy findings, apolipoprotein E genotype, and brain tissue evidence of chronic brain damage. This 44-year-old retired NFL player manifested a premortem history of cognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment, which included in part, chronic depression, suicide attempts, insomnia, paranoia, and impaired memory before he finally committed suicide. A full autopsy was performed with Polymerase Chain Reaction-based analyses of his blood to determine the apolipoprotein genotype. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on topographical gross sections of the brain. Autopsy confirmed a fatal gunshot wound of the head. The apolipoprotein E genotype was E3/E3 and the brain tissue revealed diffuse cerebral taupathy (Neurofibrillary Tangles and Neuritic Threads). This will be the third case of CTE in a national football player, which has been reported in the medical literature. Omalu et al., reported the first two cases in 2005 and 2006. This case series manifested similar premortem history of neuropsychiatric impairment with autopsy evidence of cerebral taupathy without any neuritic amyloidopathy. For a definitive diagnosis of CTE to be made, and for medicolegal purposes, a full autopsy must be performed with histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of the brain to identify the presence of Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFTs) and Neuritic Threads (NTs). Further longitudinal prospective studies are required to confirm the common denominators and epidemiology of CTE in professional American football players, which have been identified by this case series.

  4. Tennis elbow: incidence in local league players.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, R.

    1981-01-01

    Seventy-four local league players were surveyed through a questionnaire and interview to establish the incidence of tennis elbow, the perceived causes, preventive measures taken and their perceived effectiveness. Of these 35% suffered from tennis elbow, 77% of those critically. The tennis racquet used, technique and timing and the condition of the court were perceived as the main causes, whilst playing tennis frequently was seen as the main contributory factor. The effectiveness of both medical treatment and non-medical measures are noted, but only 5 cases of complete recovery from the injury are reported. Medical help was not sought in almost 50% of the cases, and lack of faith in the GP's interest or advice was noted. Information about tennis elbow did not appear to be easily accessible. More sports injury clinics and wider dissemination of information are suggested. The American research is reviewed. PMID:7317723

  5. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  6. Case study: Muscle atrophy and hypertrophy in a premier league soccer player during rehabilitation from ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Milsom, Jordan; Barreira, Paulo; Burgess, Darren J; Iqbal, Zafar; Morton, James P

    2014-10-01

    The onset of injury and subsequent period of immobilization and disuse present major challenges to maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and function. Although the characteristics of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy are well documented in laboratory studies, comparable data from elite athletes in free-living conditions are not readily available. We present a 6-month case-study account from a professional soccer player of the English Premier League characterizing rates of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy (as assessed by DXA) during immobilization and rehabilitation after ACL injury. During 8 weeks of inactivity and immobilization, where the athlete adhered to a low carbohydrate-high protein diet, total body mass decreased by 5 kg attributable to 5.8 kg loss and 0.8 kg gain in lean and fat mass, respectively. Changes in whole-body lean mass was attributable to comparable relative decreases in the trunk (12%, 3.8 kg) and immobilized limb (13%, 1.4 kg) whereas the nonimmobilized limb exhibited smaller declines (7%, 0.8 kg). In Weeks 8 to 24, the athlete adhered to a moderate carbohydrate-high protein diet combined with structured resistance and field based training for both the lower and upper-body that resulted in whole-body muscle hypertrophy (varying from 0.5 to 1 kg per week). Regional hypertrophy was particularly pronounced in the trunk and nonimmobilized limb during weeks 8 to 12 (2.6 kg) and 13 to 16 (1.3 kg), respectively, whereas the previously immobilized limb exhibited slower but progressive increases in lean mass from Week 12 to 24 (1.2 kg). The athlete presented after the totality of the injured period with an improved anthropometrical and physical profile.

  7. Does Education Matter? Major League Baseball Players and Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-01-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…

  8. Does Education Matter? Major League Baseball Players and Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-01-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…

  9. Case Study: Nutritional and Lifestyle Support to Reduce Infection Incidence in an International-Standard Premier League Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Bannock, Laurent; Robinson, Scott L

    2016-04-01

    Professional soccer players are exposed to large amounts of physiological and psychological stress, which can increase infection risk and threaten availability for training and competition. Accordingly, it is important for practitioners to implement strategies that support player well-being and prevent illness. This case study demonstrates how a scientifically supported and practically applicable nutrition and lifestyle strategy can reduce infection incidence in an illness-prone professional soccer player. In the 3 months before the intervention, the player had 3 upper-respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and subsequently missed 3 competitive matches and 2 weeks' training. He routinely commenced morning training sessions in the fasted state and was estimated to be in a large daily energy deficit. Throughout the 12-week intervention, the amount, composition, and timing of energy intake was altered, quercetin and vitamin D were supplemented, and the player was provided with a daily sleep and hygiene protocol. There was a positive increase in serum vitamin D 25(OH) concentration from baseline to Week 12 (53 n·mol-1 to 120 n·mol-1) and salivary immunoglobulin-A (98 mg·dl-1 to 135 mg·dl-1), as well as a decline in the number of URTI symptoms (1.8 ± 2.0 vs. 0.25 ± 0.5 for Weeks 0-4 and Weeks 8-12, respectively). More important, he maintained availability for all training and matches over the 12-week period. We offer this case study as a real-world applied example for other players and practitioners seeking to deploy nutrition and lifestyle strategies to reduce risk of illness and maximize player availability.

  10. Little League Baseball and Players' Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)

  11. Patellar tendon ruptures in National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore; Koonce, Ryan; Genuario, James; Lind, Charles; Hamming, David

    2011-11-01

    Although knee injuries are common among professional football players, ruptures of the patellar tendon are relatively rare. Predisposing factors, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well established in high-level athletes. Professional football players with isolated rupture of the patellar tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-four ruptures of the patellar tendon in 22 National Football League (NFL) players were identified from 1994 through 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Player game statistics and draft status were analyzed to identify return to play predictors. A successful outcome was defined as participating in 1 regular-season NFL game. Eleven of the 24 injuries had antecedent symptoms. The most common mechanism of injury was an eccentric overload to a contracting extensor mechanism. Physical examination demonstrated a palpable defect in all players. Twenty-two were complete ruptures, and 2 were partial injuries. Three of the 24 cases had a concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. In 19 of the 24 injuries, the player returned to participate in at least 1 game in the NFL. Players who returned were drafted, on average, in the fourth round, while those who failed to return to play were drafted, on average, in the sixth round. Of those players who returned to play, the average number of games played was 45.4, with a range of 1 to 142 games. Patellar tendon ruptures can occur in otherwise healthy professional football players without antecedent symptoms or predisposing factors. The most common mechanism of injury is eccentric overload. Close attention should be paid to stability examination of the knee given the not uncommon occurrence of concomitant ACL injury. Although this is usually a season-ending injury when it occurs in

  12. Monitoring for overreaching in rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Aaron J; Reaburn, Peter; Piva, Terrence J; Rowsell, Greg J

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify indicators of non-functional overreaching (NFOR) in team sport athletes undertaking intensive training loads. Eighteen semi-professional rugby league players were randomly assigned into two pair matched groups. One group completed 6 weeks of normal training (NT) whilst the other group was deliberately overreached through intensified training (IT). Both groups then completed the same 7-day stepwise training load reduction taper. Multistage fitness test (MSFT) performance, VO2 (max), peak aerobic running velocity (V (max)), maximal heart rate, vertical jump, 10-s cycle sprint performance and body mass were measured pre- and post-training period and following the taper. Hormonal, haematological and immunological parameters were also measured pre-training and following weeks 2, 4 and 6 of training and post-taper. MANOVA for repeated measures with contrast analysis indicated that MSFT performance and VO2 (max) were significantly reduced in the IT group over time and condition, indicating that a state of overreaching was attained. However, the only biochemical measure that was significantly different between the IT and NT group was the glutamine to glutamate (Gln/Glu) ratio even though testosterone, testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio, plasma glutamate, and CK activity were significantly changed after training in both groups. Positive endurance and power performance changes were observed post-taper in the IT group confirming NFOR. These changes were associated with increases in the T/C ratio and the Gln/Glu ratio and decreases in plasma glutamate and CK activity. These results indicate that although there was no single reliable biochemical marker of NFOR in these athletes, the Gln/Glu ratio and MSFT test may be useful measures for monitoring responses to IT in team sport athletes.

  13. A Preseason Checklist for Predicting Elbow Injury in Little League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Yukutake, Taiki; Kuwata, Masumi; Yamada, Minoru; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    Despite pitch count limits, the incidence of Little League elbow is increasing. A risk-evaluation tool capable of predicting which players are predisposed to throwing injury could potentially prevent injuries. To investigate the effectiveness of a risk factor checklist for predicting elbow injury in Little League baseball players during 1 season. The hypothesis was that a preseason risk-evaluation checklist could predict which players were predisposed to elbow injury. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A preseason risk-evaluation checklist was distributed to Little League baseball teams in Japan. Six months later, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to determine injuries sustained during the season. Logistic regression analysis was performed, assigning presence or absence of elbow injury during the season as the dependent variable, and an injury risk score (IRS) was developed based on the statistically significant variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to determine the predictive validity of the checklist and the optimal cutoff IRS. Data from 389 Little League players were analyzed. Among them, 53 players experienced an elbow injury requiring medical treatment during the season. Six checklist items associated with a medical history of throwing injury, pitch volume, and arm fatigue were found to be significant. Responses to the items could predict the players who were susceptible to injury during the season, with a two-thirds cutoff value for a 6-item checklist (area under the curve, 0.810; sensitivity, 0.717; specificity, 0.771). Results from a 6-item preseason checklist can predict which Little League players are to sustain an elbow injury by the end of the season. The ability to predict which Little League baseball players are predisposed to elbow injury allows parents and coaches to initiate preventive measures in those players prior to and during the baseball season, which could lead to fewer elbow injuries.

  14. Australian Football League concussion guidelines: what do community players think?

    PubMed

    White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players' views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players' rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players' desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport.

  15. Quadriceps tendon injuries in national football league players.

    PubMed

    Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D

    2013-08-01

    Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There

  16. Physiological characteristics of junior and senior rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, T J

    2002-10-01

    To investigate the physiological characteristics of subelite junior and senior rugby league players and establish performance standards for these athletes. A total of 159 junior (under 16, 15, 14, and 13, n = 88) and senior (first grade, second grade, and under 19, n = 71) rugby league players (forwards, n = 80, backs, n = 79), competing at a subelite level, underwent measurements of body mass, muscular power (vertical jump), speed (10 m, 20 m, and 40 m sprint), agility (Illinois agility run), and estimated maximal aerobic power (multistage fitness test). Data were also collected on match and training frequency and playing experience. There was a significant effect (p<0.05) of age and playing level on playing experience, body mass, muscular power, speed, agility, and estimated maximal aerobic power, with the physiological capacities of players increasing as the playing level increased. Forwards were heavier than backs for all junior and senior teams. Forwards and backs had similar estimated maximal aerobic power, except for under 16 players, for whom significant (p<0.05) differences were detected (mean (95% confidence intervals) 42.9 (40.1 to 45.7) v 49.5 (46.4 to 52.6) ml/kg/min for forwards and backs respectively). Scores for speed, muscular power, and agility were not significantly different between forwards and backs for any of the junior or senior teams. The results show that there is a progressive improvement in the physiological capacities of rugby league players as the playing level increases. These findings provide normative data and performance standards for subelite junior and senior rugby league players. Further studies on the sociological, physical, psychological, and personal predictors of talent in rugby league are warranted.

  17. Does education matter? Major League Baseball players and longevity.

    PubMed

    Kalist, David E; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-08-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the educaton [sic]-health link applies to professional athletes. Another important determinant of longevity was race. In addition, a player's body mass index was positively associated with a higher hazard of death. Compared with the general population, the death rate of baseball players was lower--the observed number of deaths in the dataset was only 31% of the expected number. Findings in this article are likely attributable to education being correlated with other variables that affect longevity, most likely intelligence and time preference.

  18. Evaluating Australian football league player contributions using interactive network simulation.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Jonathan; Bedford, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL) players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line ". Key pointsA simulated interaction matrix for Australian Rules football players is proposedThe simulations were carried out by fitting unique negative binomial distributions to each player pairing in a sideEigenvector centrality was calculated for each player in a simulated matrix, then for the teamThe team centrality measure adequately predicted the team's winning marginA player's net effect on margin could hence be estimated by replacing him in

  19. Movement Demands and Running Intensities of Semi-Professional Rugby League Players during A 9’s Tournament: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, Paul; Bird, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the movement demands and running intensities of semi-professional rugby league players during a rugby league 9’s (RL9’s) tournament. Six semi-professional rugby league players competed in a RL9’s tournament over a two-day period comprising of six games. Movement demands and running intensities were recorded using Global Positioning System (GPS) devices providing data on distance and speeds. Data is presented as mean (95% Confidence Intervals) with changes (≥ 75%) likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change (0.2) considered practically important. Outside backs performed significantly (p < 0.05) more relative VHSR (3.9 m [3.5-4.3] vs 2.4 m [2.1-2.8]) absolute (97.7 m [81.3-114.1] vs 22.6m [15.8-29.3]) and relative (5.0 m·min-1 [4.2-5.9] vs 1.2 m·min-1 [0.8-1.6]) sprint distance than the forwards. Outside backs also performed significantly (p < 0.05) more absolute (97.7 m [81.3-114.1] vs 43.9 m [27.2-60.7]) and relative (5.0 m·min-1 [4.2-5.9] vs 2.3 m·min-1 [1.4-3.2]) sprint distance than the adjustables. Moderate (0.6 – 1.2) to very large (> 2.0) decreases in performance variables were observed over the two days. The biggest magnitude of change over the two days was seen with very large decreases in relative HSR (- 2.10) and sprint (- 2.14) distance. Between playing groups, the outside backs had the biggest decrease in running intensity with a very large (- 2.32) significant (p < 0.05) decrease in VHSR on day 2 (3.3 m·min-1 [2.5 – 4.1]) compared to day 1 (4.9 m·min-1 [4.4 – 5.4]). Running intensities are decreased during an intensified RL9’s tournament in semi-professional rugby league players. The observed decreases in running performances between playing groups are in agreement with previous research and may support the use of individualized player monitoring and recovery management during a RL9’s tournament-style competition. Key points Running intensities are decreased during an intensified

  20. Strength, speed and power characteristics of elite rugby league players.

    PubMed

    de Lacey, James; Brughelli, Matt E; McGuigan, Michael R; Hansen, Keir T

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare strength, speed, and power characteristics between playing position (forwards and backs) in elite rugby league players. A total of 39 first team players (height, 183.8 ± 5.95 cm; body mass, 100.3 ± 10.7 kg; age, 24 ± 3 years) from a National Rugby League club participated in this study. Testing included 10-, 40-m sprint times, sprint mechanics on an instrumented nonmotorized treadmill, and concentric isokinetic hip and knee extension and flexion. Backs, observed to have significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lighter body mass (effect size [ES] = 0.98), were significantly faster (10-m ES = 1.26; 40-m ES = 1.61) and produced significantly greater relative horizontal force and power (ES = 0.87 and 1.04) compared with forwards. However, no significant differences were found between forwards and backs during relative isokinetic knee extension, knee flexion, relative isokinetic hip extension, flexion, prowler sprints, sprint velocity, contact time, or flight time. The findings demonstrate that backs have similar relative strength in comparison with forwards, but run faster overground and produce significantly greater relative horizontal force and power when sprinting on a nonmotorized instrumented treadmill. Developing force and power in the horizontal direction may be beneficial for improving sprint performance in professional rugby league players.

  1. Vitamin D profile in National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina M; Bost, Jeffrey W; Amos, Austin; Winkelman, Robert; Yates, Anthony P; Duca, Mark A; Norwig, John A

    2015-05-01

    By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players. To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position. Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season. Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League

  2. Neurodegenerative causes of death among retired National Football League players

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Misty J.; Baron, Sherry L.; Gersic, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze neurodegenerative causes of death, specifically Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among a cohort of professional football players. Methods: This was a cohort mortality study of 3,439 National Football League players with at least 5 pension-credited playing seasons from 1959 to 1988. Vital status was ascertained through 2007. For analysis purposes, players were placed into 2 strata based on characteristics of position played: nonspeed players (linemen) and speed players (all other positions except punter/kicker). External comparisons with the US population used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs); internal comparisons between speed and nonspeed player positions used standardized rate ratios (SRRs). Results: Overall player mortality compared with that of the US population was reduced (SMR 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48−0.59). Neurodegenerative mortality was increased using both underlying cause of death rate files (SMR 2.83, 95% CI 1.36−5.21) and multiple cause of death (MCOD) rate files (SMR 3.26, 95% CI 1.90−5.22). Of the neurodegenerative causes, results were elevated (using MCOD rates) for both ALS (SMR 4.31, 95% CI 1.73−8.87) and AD (SMR 3.86, 95% CI 1.55−7.95). In internal analysis (using MCOD rates), higher neurodegenerative mortality was observed among players in speed positions compared with players in nonspeed positions (SRR 3.29, 95% CI 0.92−11.7). Conclusions: The neurodegenerative mortality of this cohort is 3 times higher than that of the general US population; that for 2 of the major neurodegenerative subcategories, AD and ALS, is 4 times higher. These results are consistent with recent studies that suggest an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease among football players. PMID:22955124

  3. Neurodegenerative causes of death among retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Everett J; Hein, Misty J; Baron, Sherry L; Gersic, Christine M

    2012-11-06

    To analyze neurodegenerative causes of death, specifically Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among a cohort of professional football players. This was a cohort mortality study of 3,439 National Football League players with at least 5 pension-credited playing seasons from 1959 to 1988. Vital status was ascertained through 2007. For analysis purposes, players were placed into 2 strata based on characteristics of position played: nonspeed players (linemen) and speed players (all other positions except punter/kicker). External comparisons with the US population used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs); internal comparisons between speed and nonspeed player positions used standardized rate ratios (SRRs). Overall player mortality compared with that of the US population was reduced (SMR 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.59). Neurodegenerative mortality was increased using both underlying cause of death rate files (SMR 2.83, 95% CI 1.36-5.21) and multiple cause of death (MCOD) rate files (SMR 3.26, 95% CI 1.90-5.22). Of the neurodegenerative causes, results were elevated (using MCOD rates) for both ALS (SMR 4.31, 95% CI 1.73-8.87) and AD (SMR 3.86, 95% CI 1.55-7.95). In internal analysis (using MCOD rates), higher neurodegenerative mortality was observed among players in speed positions compared with players in nonspeed positions (SRR 3.29, 95% CI 0.92-11.7). The neurodegenerative mortality of this cohort is 3 times higher than that of the general US population; that for 2 of the major neurodegenerative subcategories, AD and ALS, is 4 times higher. These results are consistent with recent studies that suggest an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease among football players.

  4. Movement demands of elite rugby league players during Australian National Rugby League and European Super League matches.

    PubMed

    Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie; Waldron, Mark; Edwards, Emma; Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim J

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the movement demands of players competing in matches from the elite Australian and European rugby league competitions. Global positioning system devices were used to measure 192 performances of forwards, adjustables, and outside backs during National Rugby League (NRL; n = 88) and European Super League (SL; n = 104) matches. Total and relative distances covered overall and at low (0-3.5 m/s), moderate (3.6-5 m/s), and high (>5 m/s) speeds were measured alongside changes in movement variables across the early, middle, and late phases of the season. The relative distance covered in SL matches (95.8 ± 18.6 m/min) was significantly greater (P < .05) than in NRL matches (90.2 ± 8.3 m/min). Relative low-speed activity (70.3 ± 4.9 m/min vs 75.5 ± 18.9 m/min) and moderate-speed running (12.5 ± 3.3 m m/min vs 14.2 ± 3.8 m/min) were highest (P < .05) in the SL matches, and relative high-speed distance was greater (P < .05) during NRL matches (7.8 ± 2.1 m/min vs 6.1 ± 1.7 m/min). NRL players have better maintenance of high-speed running between the first and second halves of matches and perform less low- and moderate-speed activity, indicating that the NRL provides a higher standard of rugby league competition than the SL.

  5. On-field performance of national football league players after return from concussion.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neil S; Chin, Matthew; O'Neill, Craig; Jakoi, Andre M; Tabb, Loni; Wolf, Michael

    2014-09-01

    There are few data examining the short-term effects of concussions on player performance upon return to play. This study examined changes in on-field performance and the influence of epidemiologic factors on performance and return to play. On-field performance is different in players who return within 7 days after concussion compared with players who miss at least 1 game. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Players in the National Football League who were active during the 2008 to 2012 seasons were considered for inclusion. Weekly injury reports identified concussed players. All players played in at least 4 games before and after the game of injury (sentinel game) within the year of injury (sentinel year). Players who had missed games secondary to another injury or had sustained a second concussion within the sentinel year were excluded. The players' league profiles were used to determine age, position, body mass index, career experience, and games missed. ProFootballFocus performance scores determined player ratings. Statistical analysis used 2-sided t tests and both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. There were a total of 131 concussions in the 124 players who qualified for this study; 55% of these players missed no games. Defensive secondary, wide receiver, and offensive line were the most commonly affected positions. Players who missed at least 1 game were younger and less experienced. Preinjury ProFootballFocus performance scores were similar to postinjury performance in players without games missed (0.16 vs 0.33; P = .129) and players who missed at least 1 game (-0.06 vs 0.10; P = .219). Age, body mass index, experience, and previous concussion did not correlate with changes in postinjury scores (P > .05). Older, more experienced players and players with late-season concussions were more likely to return to play without missing games (P < .05). The odds of returning within 7 days increased by 18% for each career year and by 40% for

  6. MR Spectroscopy Findings in Retired Professional Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew J; Iverson, Grant L; Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Levi, Christopher R; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Schofield, Peter W; Zafonte, Ross; Shultz, Sandy R; Lin, Alexander P; Stanwell, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine brain neurometabolite concentrations in retired rugby league players who had a history of numerous self-reported concussions. Participants were 16 retired professional rugby league players (ages 30-45 years) with an extensive history of concussion and participation in contact sports, and 16 age- and education-matched controls who had no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports. All completed a clinical interview, psychological and cognitive testing, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) investigation. MRS voxels were placed in posterior cingulate grey matter and parietal white matter. Neurometabolite concentrations were quantified using LCModel. It was hypothesized that retired athletes would differ on N-acetyl aspartate, myo-inositol, choline, glutamate, and glutathione. Retired players had significantly lower concentrations of grey matter glutathione (p=0.02, d=0.91). They did not significantly differ in concentrations of other neurometabolites. There were no significant differences between groups on measures of depression, anxiety, or cognitive functioning. The retired athletes reported significantly greater alcohol use (p<0.01; Cohen's d=1.49), and they had worse manual dexterity using their non-dominant hand (p=0.03; d=1.08). These preliminary findings suggest that MRS might be modestly sensitive to biochemical differences in athletes after their athletic careers have ended in the absence of clinical differences in cognitive performance and self-reported psychological functioning. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Anthropometric and physical characteristics of english academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Tester, Emma; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English academy rugby league players by annual-age category (under 16s-under 20s) and between backs and forwards. Data were collected on 133 academy players over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 257 assessments). Player assessments comprised of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (vertical jump, 10- and 20-m sprint, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max via the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, absolute 1 repetition maximum [1RM], and relative squat, bench press, and prone row) measures. Univariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in height, body mass, vertical jump, absolute, and relative strength measures across the 5 annual-age categories (e.g., body mass: under 16s = 75.2 ± 11.1, under 20s = 88.9 ± 8.5 kg; vertical jump: under 16s = 45.7 ± 5.2, under 20s = 52.8 ± 5.4 cm; 1RM bench press: under 16s = 73.9 ± 13.2, under 20s = 114.3 ± 15.3 kg). Independent t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between backs and forwards for anthropometric (e.g., under 16s body mass: backs = 68.4 ± 8.6, forwards = 80.9 ± 9.7 kg) and physical (e.g., under 19s 20-m sprint: backs = 3.04 ± 0.08, forwards = 3.14 ± 0.12s; under 18s relative squat: backs = 1.65 ± 0.18, forwards = 1.51 ± 0.17 kg·kg) characteristics that were dependent on the age category and measure assessed. Findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across annual-age categories and between backs and forwards in academy rugby league players. These findings provide comparative data for such populations and support the need to monitor player development in junior rugby league players.

  8. Hydration status of rugby league players during home match play throughout the 2008 Super League season.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, John Paul; Jones, Benjamin Lee; Tsakirides, Costas; Carroll, Sean; Cooke, Carlton Brian; King, Roderick Frederick Gerardus Joseph

    2010-12-01

    The hydration status of rugby league players during competitive home match play was assessed throughout the 2008 Super League season. Fourteen players from 2 Super League clubs were monitored (72 observations). On arrival, 2 h prior to kick off, following normal prematch routines, players' body mass were measured following a urine void. Prematch fluid intake, urine output, and osmolality were assessed until kick off, with additional measurements at half time. Fluid intake was also monitored during match play for club B only, and final measurements of variables were made at the end of the match. Mean body mass loss per match was 1.28 ± 0.7 kg (club A, 1.15 kg; club B, 1.40 kg), which would equate to an average level of dehydration of 1.31% (mass loss, assumed to be water loss, expressed as a percentage of body mass), with considerable intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV, 47%). Mean fluid intake for club B was 0.64 ± 0.5 L during match play, while fluid loss was 2.0 ± 0.7 L, with considerable intra-individual CV (51% and 34%, respectively). Mean urine osmolality was 396 ± 252 mosm·kg-1 on arrival, 237 ± 177 mosm·kg-1 prematch, 315 ± 133 mosm·kg-1 at half time, and 489 ± 150 mosm·kg-1 postmatch. Body mass losses were primarily a consequence of body fluid losses not being completely balanced by fluid intake. Furthermore, these data show that there is large inter- and intra-individual variability of hydration across matches, highlighting the need for future assessment of individual relevance.

  9. Anthropometric characteristics of Australian junior representative rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; O'Connor, Helen; Kay, Shelley; Cook, Rebecca; Parker, Helen; Orr, Rhonda

    2014-09-01

    To comprehensively describe anthropometric characteristics of Australian junior elite rugby league players and assess potential anthropometric dissimilarities between players of varying positional groups, ethnicity (Polynesian vs. non-Polynesian) and playing level (junior vs. professional; using published data from Australian professional players). Cross-sectional study. Height, body mass, eight skinfolds, five girths and two bone breadths were measured with body fat (BF%) and somatotype calculated using population-appropriate equations. mean ± SD. This study recruited 116 junior players. Mean age, mass and BF% were 17 ± 1 y, 87.0 ± 11.6 kg and 14.0 ± 4.6% respectively. Compared to backs, forwards had greater mass (92.6 ± 12.2 vs. 80.9 ± 7.1 kg), skinfolds, girths, femur breadth, BF% (16.1 ± 4.8% vs. 11.8 ± 3.2%) (all p<0.01), and were more endo- and mesomorphic, but less ectomorphic (all p<0.001). Compared to other positional groups, props had greater mass, adiposity, calf girth and endomorphy, while adjustables (fullbacks, five-eighths, halfbacks, hookers) had the shortest stature (all p<0.01). Polynesians exhibited greater height (181.0 ± 5.7 vs. 178.7 ± 6.3 cm), mass (90.6 ± 11.7 vs. 84.7 ± 11.1 kg), arm and calf girths, bone breadths and mesomorphy (7.6 ± 1.2 vs. 6.7 ± 1.1) than non-Polynesians (all p<0.05). Juniors had lower height, mass, waist and smaller sum of skinfolds than professional players (all p<0.05). Greater mass, mesomorphy, adiposity and bone size in forwards is desirable for tackling and attacking and may protect against high impact forces sustained in this position. Advantageous anthropometric attributes exhibited in Polynesian players may influence selection into junior elite rugby league teams. Anthropometric data from this study may assist other junior players and coaches with training, dietary modification and position allocation. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  11. Body size and composition of National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Torine, Jon C; Silvestre, Ricardo; French, Duncan N; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a profile of body size and composition of National Football League (NFL) players prior to the start of the regular season. Fifty-three members of the Indianapolis Colts professional football team were measured for height, body mass, and percentage body fat using the BOD POD air-displacement plethysmography system during summer camp of the 2003 football season. These data were categorized by position for comparison with previous studies of NFL football players. The relationships observed were as follows (= represents nonsignificant; > represents p < or = 0.05): Height: Offensive Line = Defensive Line = Quarterbacks/Kickers/Punters = Tight Ends > Linebackers > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Body Mass: Offensive Line = Defensive Line > Tight Ends = Linebackers > Running Backs = Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters > Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Percentage Body Fat: Offensive Line > Defensive Line > Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters = Linebackers = Tight Ends > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Comparisons to teams in the 1970s indicate that body mass has increased only for offensive and defensive linemen; however, height and body fat among player positions have not dramatically changed. Furthermore, the body mass index is not an accurate measure or representation of body fat or obesity in NFL players. These data provide a basic template for size profiles and differences among various positions and allow comparisons with other studies for changes in the NFL over the past 3 decades.

  12. Groin injuries in professional rugby league players: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Donna

    2004-07-01

    Altogether, 100 uninjured professional rugby league players were evaluated over a 2-year period. Their height, body mass, sum of skinfolds, girths and bone diameters were recorded. A Cybex 340 isokinetic dynamometer was used to determine peak torque, work, power, endurance ratios and peak torque ratios of the hip abductors and adductors (5 repetitions at 0.52 and 2.08 rad. s(- 1); 20 repetitions at 3.66 rad. s(- 1)) and knee flexors and extensors (4 repetitions at 1.04 and 3.14 rad. s(- 1); 30 repetitions at 5.22 rad. s(- 1)). Hip abduction and adduction were also assessed with the hip in external rotation. Discriminant function analysis was conducted on all predictor variables to develop a multivariate predictive model capable of classifying players with a high degree of accuracy into groups with and without a groin injury. The model consisted of eight variables and correctly classified 91.7% of the non-injured players and 90.5% of the injured players. The correct classification for the model as a whole was 91.4%. The aetiological factors identified as being related to injury of the groin musculotendinous unit included abduction and adduction-with-rotation peak torque, angle of adduction and abduction-with-rotation peak torque, strength ratio of hip muscle groups, bilateral difference in extension peak torque, femur diameter and body mass.

  13. Effects of multiple concussions on retired national hockey league players.

    PubMed

    Caron, Jeffrey G; Bloom, Gordon A; Johnston, Karen M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the meanings and lived experiences of multiple concussions in professional hockey players using hermeneutic, idiographic, and inductive approaches within an interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviewer was an athlete who had suffered multiple concussions, and the interviewees were five former National Hockey League athletes who had retired due to medically diagnosed concussions suffered during their careers. The men discussed the physical and psychological symptoms they experienced as a result of their concussions and how the symptoms affected their professional careers, personal relationships, and quality of life. The former professional athletes related these symptoms to the turmoil that is ever present in their lives. These findings are of interest to athletes, coaches, sport administrators, family members, sport psychology practitioners, and medical professionals, as they highlight the severity of short- and long-term effects of concussions.

  14. Concussion in the National Football League: viewpoint of an elite player.

    PubMed

    DeLamielleure, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy resulting from head hits and concussions is an unfortunate illness that has affected numerous football players, especially in the National Football League. Many of my fellow players suffer from this problem, and many have died prematurely because of it. I make some suggestions for improving the situation for retired and current players. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. Triceps Tendon Ruptures Requiring Surgical Repair in National Football League Players

    PubMed Central

    Finstein, Joseph L.; Cohen, Steven B.; Dodson, Christopher C.; Ciccotti, Michael G.; Marchetto, Paul; Pepe, Matthew D.; Deluca, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Complete triceps tendon ruptures are relatively rare in the general population but slightly more prevalent in professional football. One prior study found 11 complete ruptures over a 6-season period. Hypothesis: Triceps ruptures occur more commonly in football linemen due to forced elbow flexion during an eccentric contraction and may occur more commonly with the increasing size and speed of professional players. Surgical repair allows full return to sports, but with a lengthy recovery time. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A search of the National Football League Injury Surveillance System (NFLISS) found a total of 37 triceps tendon ruptures requiring surgical repair from the years 2000 to 2009. Data were obtained for setting of injury, player position, activity causing injury, play type, time of game when injury occurred, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and number of days lost from football. Results: There were 37 players requiring surgical repair for triceps tendon ruptures over the 10-season period. The average height, weight, and BMI of the players were 75 inches, 292 pounds, and 36.5 kg/m2, respectively. The majority of players were linemen (86%): 16 defensive, 15 offensive, and 1 tight end. The injury took place while blocking or being blocked in 29 players (78%) and while tackling or being tackled in 5 players (14%). Players missed an average of 165 days (range, 49-318 days) from football as a result of their injury and surgery. Conclusion: Triceps tendon tears requiring surgical repair are more common in professional football players than in the general population and are occurring more commonly than previously reported. Surgical repair allows return to play. Clinical Relevance: Our study identifies the rate of triceps tendon tears requiring repair in the NFL according to position, identifying which players may be most at risk for this injury. PMID:26535394

  16. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Miller, Marc A; Croft, Lori B; Belanger, Adam R; Romero-Corral, Abel; Somers, Virend K; Roberts, Arthur J; Goldman, Martin E

    2008-05-01

    The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health mortality study of National Football League (NFL) players concluded that retired NFL linemen have an increased risk of cardiovascular death compared with both nonlinemen and the general population. Though elevated body mass index contributed to the increased cardiac risk of linemen, it could not fully account for the mortality observed, suggesting that other unmeasured cardiovascular risk factors were involved. We performed a cross-sectional prevalence study of metabolic syndrome (MS), and its individual component criteria, in 510 retired NFL players who were recruited to multicity health screenings from February 2004 through June 2006. The International Diabetes Federation criteria were used to define MS. The MS component criteria of body mass index>30 kg/m2, reduced high-density lipoprotein, and raised fasting glucose were more prevalent in linemen compared with nonlinemen (85.4% vs 50.3%, p<0.001; 42.1% vs 32.7%, p=0.04; 60.4% vs 37.6%, p<0.001, respectively). Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in linemen compared with nonlinemen (59.8% vs 30.1%, p<0.001). In conclusion, linemen exhibited a high prevalence of MS, almost double the prevalence of their nonlinemen counterparts. These findings may partially explain the increased risk for cardiovascular death observed in retired linemen and could have significant public health implications for preprofessional training regimens and postprofessional health maintenance.

  17. Player Selection Bias in National Football League Draftees.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Redd, Michael J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2016-11-01

    Beyer, KS, Fukuda, DH, Redd, MJ, Stout, JR, and Hoffman, JR. Player selection bias in National Football League draftees. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2965-2971, 2016-Relative age effects (RAEs) have been studied as a potential factor associated with player selection bias in numerous sports. However, little research has examined the role of RAEs among National Football League (NFL) draftees. The purpose of the current study was to determine the existence of RAEs in NFL draftees from the last 10 NFL drafts. Draftee birth dates were collected and divided into calendar and scholastic quarters (SQ1-SQ4). To determine the presence of RAEs in specific subsets, NFL draftees were grouped according to round drafted, position, level of conference play, and age at the time of the draft. Significant χ tests (p ≤ 0.05) comparing observed birth-date distributions vs. the expected birth-date distribution from the general population were followed up by calculating the standardized residual for each quarter (z > ±2.0 indicating significance). Overall, no RAEs were seen when birth-date distribution was assessed using calendar quarters (p = 0.47), but more draftees were born in SQ2 (December-February) than expected (p < 0.01; z = +2.2). Significantly more draftees were born in SQ2 than expected for middle-round draftees (p = 0.01; z = +2.4), skill positions (p = 0.03; z = +2.3), Power Five college draftees (p < 0.01; z = +2.6), and early draftees (p < 0.01; z = +3.1). However, reverse RAEs were seen among late draftees, with fewer draftees being born in SQ2 (z = -3.6) and more being born in SQ4 (June-August; z = +2.6) than expected. In contrast to previous research, the current study observed significant RAEs in NFL draftees from the last 10 years. This player selection bias should be considered when evaluating long-term athlete development models in American football.

  18. Anthropometric and Physical Qualities of Elite Male Youth Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Scantlebury, Sean; Jones, Ben

    2017-06-03

    Rugby league is a collision team sport played at junior and senior levels worldwide, whereby players require highly developed anthropometric and physical qualities (i.e. speed, change-of-direction speed, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and power). Within junior levels, professional clubs and national governing bodies implement talent identification and development programmes to support the development of youth (i.e. 13-20 years) rugby league players into professional athletes. This review presents and critically appraises the anthropometric and physical qualities of elite male youth rugby league players aged between 13 and 20 years, by age category, playing standard and playing position. Height, body mass, body composition, linear speed, change-of-direction speed, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and power characteristics are presented and demonstrate that qualities develop with age and differentiate between playing standard and playing position. This highlights the importance of anthropometric and physical qualities for the identification and development of youth rugby league players. However, factors such as maturity status, variability in development, longitudinal monitoring and career attainment should be considered to help understand, identify and develop the physical qualities of youth players. Further extensive research is required into the anthropometric and physical qualities of youth rugby league players, specifically considering national standardised testing batteries, links between physical qualities and match performance, together with intervention studies, to inform the physical development of youth rugby league players for talent identification and development purposes.

  19. Relationship between static and dynamic balance abilities in Italian professional and youth league soccer players.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Arippa, Federico; Leban, Bruno; Corona, Federica; Ibba, Gianfranco; Todde, Francesco; Scorcu, Marco

    2015-08-01

    To assess the existence of correlations between static and dynamic balance abilities in young and professional elite soccer players. Cross-sectional. Fifty-one elite players who regularly compete at national level divided into two groups: Professional (age 18-34, n = 20) and Under 15-17 (age 14-16, n = 31). Dynamic balance was assessed for the case of a single-leg landing task by means of vertical time to stabilization (TTS) and postural sway calculated on the basis of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories (sway area, COP displacements in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction, COP path length). The same parameters were also measured for a 20 s one-legged stance to assess static balance abilities. No significant correlations were found between static and dynamic balance parameters except for TTS and COP displacements in the antero-posterior direction (r = 0.29, p = 0.003). Professional players are characterized by lower TTS in comparison with youth leagues players (0.767 vs. 1.188 s for the dominant limb, p < 0.001) and exhibit reduced sway area (of 34-40%, p < 0.05) for both conditions tested. The assessment of balance in soccer players should be performed with both dynamic and static tests, considering that the postural control performances in the two cases are not related. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stages and demands in the careers of Canadian National Hockey League players.

    PubMed

    Battochio, Randy C; Stambulova, Natalia; Schinke, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have identified some demands of Canadian National Hockey League (NHL) players, yet there is little direction for players hoping to reach the lucrative league. The objectives of this study were to identify the stages, statuses and demands in Canadian NHL players' careers and propose an empirical career model of Canadian NHL players. In total, 5 rookies, 5 veterans and 13 retirees had their interviews undergo an interpretive thematic analysis. Prospects face the NHL combine, training camp and minor league assignment. While developing into NHL players, rookies deal with NHL call-ups, team competition and formative production while sophomores seemed preoccupied by the opposition. Prime veterans become All-Stars by garnering point production and challenging for the Stanley Cup while seasoned veterans remain relevant through training camps. A discussion about the model's viability is followed by applications for sport psychology researchers and practitioners.

  1. Performance and Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Male Major League Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Harris, Joshua D; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Bach, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Gupta, Anil K; McCormick, Frank M; Cole, Brian J

    2013-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in male Major League Soccer (MLS) players in the United States. To determine (1) return-to-sport (RTS) rate in MLS following ACL reconstruction (ACLR), (2) timing of RTS, (3) performance upon RTS, and (4) the difference in RTS and performance between players who underwent ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and controls. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. MLS players undergoing ACLR between 1996 and 2012 were evaluated. Player data were extracted from publically available sources. All demographic data were analyzed. A control group of players matched by age, body mass index (BMI), sex, position, performance, and MLS experience (occurred at 2.6 years into career, designated "index year") was selected from the MLS during the same years as those undergoing ACLR. The RTS and performance in the MLS were analyzed and compared between cases and controls. Student ttests were performed for analysis of within- and between-group variables. A total of 52 players (57 knees) that met inclusion criteria underwent ACLR while in the MLS. Mean player age was 25.6 ± 3.98 years. Forty players were able to resume play (77%). Of the 40 players (45 knees), 38 (43 knees; 95%) resumed play the season following ACLR (mean, 10 ± 2.8 months after surgery). Mean career length in the MLS after ACLR was 4.0 ± 2.8 years. The revision rate was 10%. There was a significant increase in the incidence of ACL tears in the MLS by year (P < .001), and there was a significantly (P= .002) greater number of ACL tears on the left knee as opposed to the right. Performance in the MLS upon RTS after ACLR was not significantly different versus preinjury. There was no significant difference in survival in the MLS between cases and controls after ACLR or index year. The only significant performance differences between cases and controls were that cases had significantly greater shots taken per season (P= .005) and assists (P= .005) than did controls

  2. Strength and power characteristics in English elite rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; Graham-Smith, Phillip; Matthews, Martyn J; Bamber, Chris

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this article is to present data on the strength and power characteristics of forwards and backs in a squad of elite English rugby league players and compare these findings to previously published literature from Australia. Participants were elite English rugby league players (n = 18; height 184.16 ± 5.76 cm; body mass 96.87 ± 10.92 kg, age 21.67 ± 4.10 years) who were all regular first team players for an English Superleague club. Testing included 5-, 10-, 20-m sprint times, agility, vertical jump, 40-kg squat jump, isometric squat, concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Independent t-tests were performed to compare results between forwards and backs, with paired samples t-tests used to compare bilateral differences from isokinetic assessments and agility tests. Forwards demonstrated significantly (p < 0.05) greater body mass (102.15 ± 7.5 kg), height (186.30 ± 5.47 cm), power during the 40-kg jump squat (2,106 ± 421 W), isometric force (3,122 ± 611 N) and peak torque during left concentric isokinetic knee extension (296.1 ± 54.2 N·m) compared to the backs (86.30 ± 8.97 kg; 179.87 ± 3.72 cm; 1,709 ± 286 W; 2,927 ± 607 N; 241.7 ± 35.2 N·m, respectively). However, no significant differences (p > 0.05) were noted between forwards and backs during right concentric isokinetic knee extension (274.8 ± 37.7 and 246.8 ± 25.8 N·m), concentric isokinetic knee flexion for both left (158.8 ± 28.6 and 141.0 ± 22. 7 N·m) and right legs (155.3 ± 22.9 and 128.0 ± 23.9 N·m), eccentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension, hamstring quadriceps ratios, or vertical jump (37.25 ± 4.35 and 40.33 ± 6.38 cm). In comparison, relative measures demonstrated that backs performed significantly better compared to the forwards during the 40-kg jump squat (20.71 ± 5.15 and 19.91 ± 3.91 W·kg⁻¹) and the isometric squat (34.32 ± 7.9 and 30.65 ± 5.34 N·kg⁻¹). Bilateral comparisons revealed no significant differences (p > 0

  3. Precocity Predicts Shorter Life for Major League Baseball Players: Confirmation of Mccann's Precocity-Longevity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested McCann's precocity-longevity hypothesis, which proposes that early career achievement is related to premature death, for Major League baseball players (N = 3,760). Age at debut was the definition for precocity. We controlled for possible artifacts of life expectancy selection, the "healthy worker" effect, player position, and body-mass…

  4. Precocity Predicts Shorter Life for Major League Baseball Players: Confirmation of Mccann's Precocity-Longevity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested McCann's precocity-longevity hypothesis, which proposes that early career achievement is related to premature death, for Major League baseball players (N = 3,760). Age at debut was the definition for precocity. We controlled for possible artifacts of life expectancy selection, the "healthy worker" effect, player position, and body-mass…

  5. Skill qualities as risk factors for contact injury in professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Ullah, Shahid; Jenkins, David; Abernethy, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between skill qualities and contact injury risk in professional rugby league players. Sixty-six professional rugby league players aged 23 ± 4 years (mean ± s) participated in this three-year prospective study. Players underwent assessments of tackling proficiency, dual-task draw-and-pass proficiency, reactive agility, pattern recall, and pattern prediction. The frailty model was applied to calculate the adjusted risk ratios of injury. When the players' age and playing position were adjusted in the frailty model, the risk ratios showed that reactive agility was a predictor for the risk of injury. Players with reactive agility decision times of >80 ms had a lower incidence (relative risk = 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.98, P = 0.04) of injuries than players with reactive agility decision times of ≤ 80 ms. Although there was no relationship between injury and the majority of skill qualities (P = 0.47-0.93), players with poor reactive agility performances (specifically longer decision times) had a lower risk of injury, suggesting that poor perceptual skill is protective against contact injuries in professional rugby league players. These players might inadvertently avoid the heavy collisions that result in injury, or at best result in partial contact that does not result in exposure to the full force of a tackle.

  6. Do players and staff sleep more during the pre- or competitive season of elite rugby league?

    PubMed

    Caia, Johnpaul; Scott, Tannath J; Halson, Shona L; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-09-01

    This study establishes the sleep behaviour of players and staff during the pre- and competitive seasons of elite rugby league. For seven days during both the pre- and competitive seasons, seven rugby league players and nine full-time staff from one professional Australian rugby league club had their sleep monitored via wrist actigraphy and self-report sleep diaries. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance determined differences between the pre- and competitive season in players and staff, with effect sizes (ES) used to interpret the practical magnitude of differences. Findings show an earlier bed time and wake time for players (-34 min, ES = 1.5; ±0.5 and -39 min, 2.1; ±0.5 respectively) and staff (-29 min, ES = 0.8; ±0.3 and -35 min, ES = 1.7; ±0.4 respectively) during pre-season when compared to the competitive season. Despite this, no differences were seen when considering the amount of time in bed, sleep duration or sleep efficiency obtained between the pre- and competitive seasons. Our results suggest that early morning training sessions scheduled during pre-season advances wake time in elite rugby league. However, both players and staff can aim to avoid reductions in sleep duration and sleep efficiency with subsequent adjustment of night time sleep patterns. This may be particularly pertinent for staff, who wake earlier than players during both the pre- and competitive seasons.

  7. Using anthropometric and performance characteristics to predict selection in junior UK Rugby League players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Brightmore, Amy; Cooke, Carlton; Chapman, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Research examining the factors influencing selection within talented junior Rugby League players is limited. The aims of this study were firstly to determine whether differences existed for anthropometric and performance characteristics between regional and national selection in high performance UK junior Rugby League players, and secondly to identify variables that discriminated between these selection levels. Regional representative (n=1172) selected junior players (aged 13-16 years) undertook an anthropometric and fitness testing battery with players split according to selection level (i.e., national, regional). MANCOVA analyses, with age and maturation controlled, identified national players as having lower sum of 4 skinfolds scores compared to regional players, and also performed significantly better on all physical tests. Stepwise discriminant analysis identified that estimated maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), chronological age, body mass, 20 m sprint, height, sum of 4 skinfolds and sitting height discriminated between selection levels, accounting for 28.7% of the variance. This discriminant analysis corresponded to an overall predictive accuracy of 63.3% for all players. These results indicate that performance characteristics differed between selection levels in junior Rugby League players. However, the small magnitude of difference between selection levels suggests that physical qualities only partially explain higher representative selection. The monitoring and evaluation of such variables, alongside game related performance characteristics, provides greater knowledge and understanding about the processes and consequences of selection, training and performance in youth sport. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Return to Play in National Football League Players After Operative Jones Fracture Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lareau, Craig R; Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Jones fractures commonly occur in professional athletes and operative treatment remains the standard of care in this patient population. In our clinical experience, an aggressive postoperative rehabilitation protocol for National Football League (NFL) players with an average return to play (RTP) between 8 and 10 weeks can have successful outcomes with few complications. The purpose of this study was to quantify RTP and rate of complications, including nonunion, refracture, and reoperation among a cohort of NFL players with operatively treated Jones fractures. Between 2004 and 2014, 25 consecutive NFL players who underwent acute Jones fracture fixation by a single surgeon were reviewed. Operative treatment for the majority of patients involved fixation with a Jones-specific intramedullary screw and iliac crest bone marrow aspirate with demineralized bone matrix injected at the fracture site. Additionally, our protocol involved the use of noninvasive bone stimulators, application of customized orthoses, and an aggressive patient-specific rehabilitation protocol. Patient demographics were recorded along with position played, seasons played after surgery, RTP, and complications. RTP was defined as the ability to play in a single regular-season NFL game after surgery. At the time of surgery, average age for all patients was 24.0 years and BMI 31.0. Player positions included 8 wide receivers, 4 linebackers, 4 tight ends, 2 defensive tackles, 2 cornerbacks, 1 offensive tackle, 1 center, 1 tackle, 1 defensive end, and 1 quarterback. Seventy-six percent of players underwent operative fixation during their first 3 seasons. Forty-eight percent were diagnosed before or during their rookie (first) season.RTP was 100% for all players and 80% were still playing at time of publication. Three patients (12.0%) refractured and required revision surgery. Time until RTP was influenced by other variables and difficult to measure because many surgeries were performed early in the

  9. Correlates of tackling ability in high-performance rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the tackling ability of high-performance rugby league players and determined the relationship between physiological and anthropometric qualities and tackling ability in these athletes. Twenty professional (National Rugby League) and 17 semiprofessional (Queensland Cup) rugby league players underwent a standardized 1-on-1 tackling drill in a 10-m grid. Video footage was taken from the rear, side, and front of the defending player. Tackling proficiency was assessed using standardized technical criteria. In addition, all players underwent measurements of standard anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of 7 skinfolds), acceleration (10-m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), and lower body muscular power (vertical jump). Professional players had significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) tackling proficiency than semiprofessional players (87.5 ± 2.0 vs. 75.0 ± 2.3%). Professional players were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) older, more experienced, leaner, and had greater acceleration than semiprofessional players. The strongest individual correlates of tackling ability were age (r = 0.41, p ≤ 0.05), playing experience (r = 0.70, p ≤ 0.01), skinfold thickness (r = -0.59, p ≤ 0.01), acceleration (r = 0.41, p ≤ 0.05), and lower body muscular power (r = 0.38, p ≤ 0.05). When hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to determine which of the variables predicted tackling ability, playing experience and lower body muscular power were the only variables that contributed significantly (r2 = 0.60, p ≤ 0.01) to the predictive model. From a practical perspective, strength and conditioning coaches should emphasize the development of acceleration, lower body muscular power, and lean muscle mass to improve tackling ability in high-performance rugby league players.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in the Symptomatic Hips of Younger Retired National Football League Players.

    PubMed

    Domb, Benjamin G; Jackson, Timothy J; Carter, Christopher C; Jester, Jon R; Finch, Nathan A; Stake, Christine E

    2014-07-01

    American football players have an increased level of risk for hip injuries because of the high level of contact, biomechanical load, and anatomic strain placed on the hip joint. Many injuries are attributed to soft tissue injury rather than intra-articular lesions. However, because of improved imaging and increased knowledge, physicians are attributing unexplained hip pain to intra-articular lesions with increasing frequency. To assess the prevalence of pathologic intra-articular hip lesions in a younger, retired National Football League (NFL) player cohort evaluated for persistent hip pain. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective chart review was performed of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on retired NFL players evaluated at an orthopaedic clinic for persistent hip pain. All MRIs were performed at the same location and reviewed by the same independent radiologist. The study included 62 hips; MRI was used to evaluate 27 hips, and MRI arthrogram was used to evaluate 35 hips. Images were assessed for labral tears, chondral lesions, ligamentum teres (LT) tears, bone cysts, osteophytes, loose bodies, trochanteric bursitis, and alpha angle. Player demographics, including position and seasons played, were recorded. From February 2011 to December 2012, a total of 50 retired players from the NFL (average age, 33 years; range, 27-39 years) received impairment evaluations assessing all symptomatic joints. Thirty-eight (76%) players had hip complaints and underwent a dedicated hip MRI. Twenty-four players (63%) had bilateral hip pain, for a total of 62 hips evaluated. There were 55 (89%) labral tears, 61 (98%) chondral lesions, and 50 (81%) partial or complete LT tears identified on MRI. Additional findings included 3 (5%) hips with osteophytes, 9 (14.5%) with subchondral bone cysts, and 3 (5%) with paralabral cysts. None of the players were found to have trochanteric bursitis or loose bodies. Fifty-eight of 62 alpha angles could be measured, for a mean of 59

  11. PLAYERS' PERCEPTIONS OF HOME ADVANTAGE IN THE AUSTRALIAN RUGBY LEAGUE COMPETITION.

    PubMed

    Mcguckin, Teneale A; Sinclair, Wade H; Sealey, Rebecca M; Bowman, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to pilot a survey to explore players' perception of home advantage in a rugby league. Twenty-seven players from one team with an identified home advantage believed a home advantage existed as a result of their home crowd (52%), family and friends' support (41%), normal travel (45%) and sleeping arrangements (37%), home weather conditions (48%), and familiarity with playing amenities (37%). However, the players were less definite about influences while playing away from home. The current sample of players identified differing influences, highlighting individual variations in perceived determinants. Individual interviews or focus groups will be required for further exploration.

  12. Repair of Acute Superficial Deltoid Complex Avulsion During Ankle Fracture Fixation in National Football League Players.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Lareau, Craig R; Anderson, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    Infolding and retraction of an avulsed deltoid complex after ankle fracture can be a source of persistent increased medial clear space, malreduction, and postoperative pain and medial instability. The purpose of this descriptive case series was to analyze the preliminary outcomes of acute superficial deltoid complex avulsion repair during ankle fracture fixation in a cohort of National Football League (NFL) players. We found that there is often complete avulsion of the superficial deltoid complex off the proximal aspect of the medial malleolus during high-energy ankle fractures in athletes. Between 2004 and 2014, the cases of 14 NFL players who underwent ankle fracture fixation with open deltoid complex repair were reviewed. Patients with chronic deltoid ligament injuries or ankle fractures more than 2 months old were excluded. Average age for all patients was 25 years and body mass index 34.4. Player positions included 1 wide receiver, 1 tight end, 1 safety, 1 running back, 1 linebacker, and 9 offensive linemen. Average time from injury to surgery was 7.5 days. Surgical treatment for all patients consisted of ankle arthroscopy and debridement, followed by fibula fixation with plate and screws, syndesmotic fixation with suture-button devices, and open deltoid complex repair with suture anchors. Patient demographics were recorded with position played, time from injury to surgery, games played before and after surgery, ability to return to play, and postoperative complications. Return to play was defined as the ability to successfully participate in at least 1 full regular-season NFL game after surgery. All NFL players were able to return to running and cutting maneuvers by 6 months after surgery. There were no significant differences in playing experience before surgery versus after surgery. Average playing experience before surgery was 3.3 seasons, 39 games played, and 22 games started. Average playing experience after surgery was 1.6 seasons, 16 games played, and

  13. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.

  14. Reliability and Usefulness of Linear Sprint Testing in Adolescent Rugby Union and League Players.

    PubMed

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Roe, Gregory; Till, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) whether there were differences in sprint times at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 m between rugby union and rugby league players, (b) determine the reliability and usefulness of linear sprint testing in adolescent rugby players. Data were collected on 28 rugby union and league academy players over 2 testing sessions, with 3-day rest between sessions. Rugby league players were faster at 5 m than rugby union players, with further difference unclear. Sprint time at 10, 20, 30, and 40 m was all reliable (coefficient of variation [CV] = 3.1, 1.8, 2.0, and 1.3%) but greater than the smallest worthwhile change (SWC [0.2 × between-subject SD]), rating the test as marginal for usefulness. Although the test was incapable of detecting the SWC, we recommend that practitioners and researchers use Hopkins' proposed method; whereby plotting the change score of the individual at each split (±typical error [TE] expressed as a CV) against the SWC and visually inspecting whether the TE crosses into the SWC are capable of identifying whether a change is both real (greater than the noise of the test, i.e., >TE) and of practical significance (>SWC). Researchers and practitioners can use the TE and SWC from this study to assess changes in performance of adolescent rugby players when using single beam timing gates.

  15. "Role Models" among Elite Young Male Rugby League Players in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Scott; Hardman, Alun; Jones, Carwyn; Sheridan, Heather

    2005-01-01

    There is a taken-for-granted acceptance that sports stars have responsibilities as "role models", yet the concept of a "role model" is unclear. The present study addressed the choice of "role models" amongst elite young British rugby league players, and the reasons for their choices. During the summer of 2002 under-13…

  16. Attitudes on Inclusion of a Player with Disabilities in a Regular Softball League.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Malloy, Mike

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the attitudes of 88 girls (ages 10-12) without disabilities, parents, and coaches toward the inclusion of a child with a disability in a regular fast-pitch softball league. Players and parents had a favorable attitude toward inclusion and modifying game rules. Coaches were undecided about inclusion and rule modifications.…

  17. "Role Models" among Elite Young Male Rugby League Players in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Scott; Hardman, Alun; Jones, Carwyn; Sheridan, Heather

    2005-01-01

    There is a taken-for-granted acceptance that sports stars have responsibilities as "role models", yet the concept of a "role model" is unclear. The present study addressed the choice of "role models" amongst elite young British rugby league players, and the reasons for their choices. During the summer of 2002 under-13…

  18. Creatine kinase and endocrine responses of elite players pre, during, and post rugby league match play.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Christopher P; Lovell, Dale I; Gass, Gregory C

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to (a) examine player-movement patterns to determine total distance covered during competitive Rugby League match play using global positioning systems (GPSs) and (b) examine pre, during, and postmatch creatine kinase (CK) and endocrine responses to competitive Rugby League match play. Seventeen elite rugby league players were monitored for a single game. Player movement patterns were recorded using portable GPS units (SPI-Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia). Saliva and blood samples were collected 24 hours prematch, 30 minutes prematch, 30 minutes postmatch, and then at 24-hour intervals for a period of 5 days postmatch to determine plasma CK and salivary testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone:cortisol ratio (T:C). The change in the dependent variables at each sample collection time was compared to 24-hour prematch measures. Backs and forwards traveled distances 5,747 ± 1,095 and 4,774 ± 1,186 m, respectively, throughout the match. Cortisol and CK increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 30 minutes prematch to 30 minutes postmatch. Creatine kinase increased significantly (p < 0.05) postmatch, with peak CK concentration measured 24 hours postmatch (889.25 ± 238.27 U·L). Cortisol displayed a clear pattern of response with significant (p < 0.05) elevations up to 24 hours postmatch, compared with 24 hours prematch. The GPS was able to successfully provide data on player-movement patterns during competitive rugby league match play. The CK and endocrine profile identified acute muscle damage and a catabolic state associated with Rugby League match play. A return to normal T:C within 48 hours postmatch indicates that a minimum period of 48 hours is required for endocrine homeostasis postcompetition. Creatine kinase remained elevated despite 120 hours of recovery postmatch identifying that a prolonged period of at least 5 days modified activity is required to achieve full recovery after muscle damage during competitive Rugby

  19. Skill-based conditioning games as an alternative to traditional conditioning for rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of skill-based conditioning games and traditional conditioning for improving speed, agility, muscular power, and maximal aerobic power in rugby league players. Sixty-nine subelite rugby league players performed either a skill-based conditioning games program (N = 32) or a traditional conditioning (i.e., running activities with no skill component) program (N = 37). Each player participated in a 9-week in-season training program, performed over 2 competitive seasons. Players performed 2 organized field-training sessions each week. Players underwent measurements of speed (10-m, 20-m, and 40-m sprint), muscular power (vertical jump), agility (L run), and maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test) before and after the training period. Skill-based conditioning games induced a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in 10-m, 20-m, and 40-m speed, muscular power, and maximal aerobic power, whereas traditional conditioning activities improved 10-m speed and maximal aerobic power only. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected between the traditional conditioning and skill-based conditioning games groups for changes in 10-m speed, agility, and maximal aerobic power. Both groups won 6 of 8 matches played within the training period, resulting in a win-loss ratio of 75%. However, on average, the skill-based conditioning games group scored more points in attack (p < 0.05) and had a greater (p < 0.05) points differential than the traditional conditioning group. The results of this study demonstrate that skill-based conditioning games offer an effective method of in-season conditioning for rugby league players. In addition, given that skills learned from skill-based conditioning games are more likely to be applied in the competitive environment, their use may provide a practical alternative to traditional conditioning for improving the physiological capacities and playing performance of rugby league players.

  20. Preseason Assessment of Radiographic Abnormalities in Elbows of Little League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Pennock, Andrew T; Pytiak, Andrew; Stearns, Phillip; Roocroft, Joanna H; Dwek, Jerry; Kruk, Peter; Bastrom, Tracey P

    2016-05-04

    Youth baseball has been associated with elbow pain and elbow abnormalities, leading to the implementation of throwing and pitching guidelines. The purpose of the current study was to examine elbow abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in asymptomatic Little League baseball players and to correlate these findings with the players' throwing history and physical examinations. A prospective study of Little League players who were 10 to 13 years of age was performed. Players were recruited prior to the start of the season and underwent bilateral elbow MRI. All players underwent a physical examination and responded to a questionnaire addressing their playing history and any arm pain. The MRIs were read by 2 radiologists. Responses on the questionnaire and physical examination findings were compared between subjects with and without positive MRI findings utilizing chi-square and analysis of variance techniques. Twenty-six players were enrolled. The majority (77%) were right-handed and 14 (54%) were a pitcher and/or catcher. Nine players (35%) had 12 positive MRI findings: 7 findings of edema or signal change of the medial epicondyle apophysis, 2 findings of fragmentation of the medial epicondyle, and 3 findings of edema or signal change of the sublime tubercle. The prevalence of positive MRI findings and a history of arm pain were not greater in pitchers and catchers compared with other players. Players with a positive MRI finding demonstrated greater reduction in shoulder internal rotation (12°) compared with the nondominant arm (3°) (p = 0.04). The two factors associated with a positive MRI finding were year-round play (47% of year-round players compared with 11% of non-year-round players; p < 0.01) and working with a private coach (71% compared with 21%; p = 0.02). Additionally, a history of pain was associated with year-round play and a private coach (p < 0.05). MRI abnormalities involving the medial aspect of the elbow are common in year-round Little

  1. Factors That Influence Running Intensity in Interchange Players in Professional Rugby League.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-11-01

    Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (Pmet) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and Pmet. As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.

  2. Muscular Strength and Power Correlates of Tackling Ability in Semiprofessional Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Michael J A; Gabbett, Tim J; Johnston, Rich D; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between muscular strength and power and tackling ability in semiprofessional rugby league players. Thirty-six semiprofessional (mean ± SD age, 23.1 ± 3.6 years) rugby league players, from 3 distinct playing divisions (first grade, second grade, and under 20s), underwent tests of upper-body strength (3 repetition maximum [RM] bench press), lower-body strength (3RM squat), upper-body power (plyometric push-up [PPU]), and lower-body power (countermovement jump). Muscular strength relative to body mass was also calculated. Tackling ability of the players was tested using video analysis of a standardized one-on-one tackling drill. For all players, the strongest correlates of tackling ability were squat (r = 0.67), bench press (r = 0.58), relative squat (r = 0.41), and PPU (r = 0.56). The strongest correlates of tackling ability in first grade players were squat (r = 0.72), bench press (r = 0.72), relative squat (r = 0.86), and PPU (r = 0.70). For second grade players, only relative squat (r = 0.60) and PPU (r = 0.67) were associated with tackling ability. The strongest correlates of tackling ability in under 20s players were squat (r = 0.77), bench press (r = 0.70), and PPU (r = 0.65). The findings of this study demonstrate that muscular strength and upper-body power contribute to tackling ability in semiprofessional rugby league players. Therefore, as long as the technical aspects of tackling technique are adequately coached and practiced, then enhancements in muscular strength and power may serve as foundational components to underpin improvement in tackling ability.

  3. Early-onset arthritis in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Marshall, Stephen W; Callahan, Leigh F; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Injury has been identified as a potential risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no previous study has addressed playing-career injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis in a large sample of former athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of arthritis and osteoarthritis in retired professional football players. Self-reported arthritis prevalence and retrospectively-recalled injury history were examined in a cross-sectional survey of 2,538 retired football players. Football players reported a high incidence of injury from their professional playing days (52.8% reported knee injuries, 74.1% reported ligament/tendon injuries, and 14.2% reported anterior cruciate ligament tears). For those under 60 years, 40.6% of retired NFL players reported arthritis, compared with 11.7% of U.S. males (prevalence ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 3.3 to 3.7). Within the retired NFL player cohort, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in those with a history of knee injury (prevalence ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5 to 1.9) and ligament/tendon injury (prevalence ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4 to 1.9). In males under the age of 60, arthritis is over 3 times more prevalent in retired NFL players than in the general U.S. population. This excess of early-onset arthritis may be due to the high incidence of injury in football.

  4. Position specific differences in the anthropometric characteristics of elite European Super League rugby players.

    PubMed

    Morehen, James C; Routledge, Harry E; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    Rugby league is a collision sport which traditionally adopts a large emphasis on lean muscle mass. Currently there is limited research on the anthropometry of European Super League players. The aim of this study was to assess body composition using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans to identify the typical profile of elite rugby league players. One hundred and twelve players from five different clubs competing in the European Super League were recruited for the study. DXA scans were performed and the total mass, lean mass, fat mass and percentage body fat were reported for each positional group. For the Fullback and Wingers, Centres, Half Backs, Hookers, Props and Back Row Forwards the mean (SD) body fat percentage was 13 (2.1), 13 (2.4), 12 (3.4), 15 (3.9), 16 (4.3) and 15 (2.1)%, respectively, and total mass was 86 (8.2), 91 (6.6), 81 (8), 84 (9.5) 102 (8.5) and 93 (5.5) kg, respectively. Despite small to very large inter positional differences in all anthropometric variables (effect sizes = -0.08 to 2.56), particularly between the Prop and the other playing positions, there was large intra-position variation in body fat, lean mass and total mass making a standardised position specific profile difficult to establish. When used with other key performance indicators, these data provide the first multi-team anthropometric profile of elite Super League players that can be used to guide individualised training and nutrition practices for current and aspiring athletes.

  5. Physical Qualities of International Female Rugby League Players by Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Hind, Karen; Nicholson, Gareth; Rutherford, Zoe; Till, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anthropometric, body composition, and fitness characteristics of female rugby league players by playing position. Data were collected on 27 players who were part of the English elite women's rugby league squad. Player assessments comprised anthropometric (stature and body mass), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and fitness {lower-body power (countermovement jump [CMJ], 20 kg jump squat [JS], and 30 cm drop jump), 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 m sprint, 505 agility, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1} measures. Players were classified into playing position (i.e., forwards and backs) before analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences for body mass, stature, total fat, lean mass, and percentage body fat between forwards and backs. Positional differences were also observed for speed, agility, and lower-body power. Significant relationships were observed between total body fat and all fitness variables, and total lean mass was related to CMJ and JS peak power. This study provides comparative data for female rugby league forwards and backs. Body fat was strongly associated with performance and should therefore be considered in developing fitness characteristics. The relationship to match performance and trainability of these characteristics warrants further investigation.

  6. Nutritional knowledge and eating habits of professional rugby league players: does knowledge translate into practice?

    PubMed

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected during the Super League competitive season in the first team squad of 21 professional Rugby league players (mean age 25 ± 5 yrs, BMI 27 ± 2.4 kg/m2, experience in game 6 ± 4 yrs). According to their nutritional knowledge scores, the players were assigned to either good or poor nutritional knowledge group (n = 11, n = 10, respectively). Their dietary habits were assessment using a food frequency questionnaire. The findings revealed that nutritional knowledge was adequate (mean 72.82%) in this group of athletes with the highest scores in dietary advice section (85.71%), followed by food groups (71.24%) and food choice (69.52%). The majority of athletes were not aware of current carbohydrate recommendations. This translated into their dietary habits as many starchy and fibrous foods were consumed only occasionally by poor nutritional knowledge group. In terms of their eating habits, the good nutritional knowledge group consumed significantly more fruit and vegetables, and starchy foods (p <.05). Nutritional knowledge was positively correlated to fruit and vegetables consumption (rs = .52, p <.05) but not to any other eatwell plate categories. The study identified adequate general nutritional knowledge in professional rugby league players with the exception of recommendation for starchy and fibrous foods. Players who scored higher in nutritional knowledge test were more likely to consume more fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate-rich foods.

  7. Depression, Anxiety, and Alcohol Use in Elite Rugby League Players Over a Competitive Season.

    PubMed

    Du Preez, Etienne J; Graham, Kenneth S; Gan, Thomas Y; Moses, Bassam; Ball, Chris; Kuah, Donald E

    2017-01-17

    To assess the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and rates of alcohol misuse in elite rugby league players in Australasia. A cross-sectional, epidemiological study with repeated measures. Surveys were conducted during the 2015 preseason and in-season. Four hundred four elite rugby league players participated preseason and 278 players in-season. Symptoms of depression were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale, symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) with the GAD-7 scale, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption scale was used to assess hazardous alcohol use. The overall prevalence of depression was 12.6% preseason and 10.1% in-season. Generalized anxiety disorder had a prevalence of 14.6% and 10.1% for these 2 periods. Overall, 68.6% of players had hazardous levels of alcohol use preseason, and 62.8% in-season. There was no significant difference for any of the main outcomes between the periods. Players with a history of mental illnesses had 5.62 greater odds (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.62-12.04) of depression than those without during preseason, and 22.08 greater odds (95% CI, 7.77-62.71) in-season. Players reporting ≥3 previous concussions had 2.02 greater odds (95% CI, 1.07-3.82) of depression than those reporting ≤2 in the preseason sample. Rugby league players have a lower prevalence of depression compared with studies of the general population and other athletes, but a higher prevalence of GAD, and high rates of alcohol misuse. Clubs may consider implementing regular screening for these conditions. Further prospective research to determine causality of independent factors is required.

  8. Relationships between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players. Fifty-eight high-performance rugby league players underwent measurements for anthropometry (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and estimated maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. National Rugby League matches were coded for attacking (e.g. line breaks, try assists, etc.) and defensive (e.g. missed tackles, tackling efficiency, etc.) statistics commonly used to assess rugby league playing performance. The number of line break assists was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with greater playing experience (r = 0.36), dual-task draw and pass proficiency (r = 0.54), reactive agility (r = 0.29), and pattern recall (r = 0.32) and prediction (r = 0.28) ability, while faster speed over 40 m (r = -0.42) was associated (P < 0.05) with a higher number of tries scored. Greater age and playing experience, better lower body muscular power, and faster 10 m and 40 m speed were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the number of tackle attempts (positive), tackles completed (positive), and proportion of missed tackles (negative). These findings demonstrate that well-developed physical and skill qualities are associated with effective playing performance in National Rugby League players.

  9. Concussions are associated with decreased batting performance among Major League Baseball players.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Erin B; Abar, Beau; Shah, Manish N; Wasserman, Daniel; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2015-05-01

    Concussions impair balance, visual acuity, and reaction time--all of which are required for high-level batting performance--but the effects of concussion on batting performance have not been reported. The authors examined this relationship between concussion and batting performance among Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Batting performance among concussed MLB players will be worse upon return to play than batting performance among players missing time for noninjury reasons. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors identified MLB players who sustained a concussion between 2007 and 2013 through league disabled-list records and a Baseball Prospectus database. For a comparison group, they identified players who went on paternity or bereavement leave during the same period. Using repeated-measures generalized linear models, the authors compared 7 batting metrics between the 2 groups for the 2 weeks upon return, as well as 4 to 6 weeks after return, controlling for pre-leave batting metrics, number of days missed, and position. The authors identified 66 concussions and 68 episodes of bereavement/paternity leave to include in the analysis. In the 2 weeks after return, batting average (.235 vs .266), on-base percentage (.294 vs .326), slugging percentage (.361 vs .423), and on-base plus slugging (.650 vs .749) were significantly lower among concussed players relative to the bereavement/paternity leave players (time×group interaction, P<.05). In weeks 4 to 6 after leave, these metrics were slightly lower in concussed players but not statistically significantly so. Although concussed players may be asymptomatic upon return to play, the residual effects of concussion on the skills required for batting may still be present. Further work is needed to clarify the mechanism through which batting performance after concussion is adversely affected and to identify better measures to use for return-to-play decisions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Mild traumatic brain injury in major and Minor League Baseball players.

    PubMed

    Green, Gary A; Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Schickendantz, Mark S; Caplinger, Roger; Weber, Kathleen; Valadka, Alex; McAllister, Thomas W; Dick, Randall W; Mandelbaum, Bert; Curriero, Frank C

    2015-05-01

    Although mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is not as common in professional baseball as in collision sports, it does occur and frequently results in significant loss of time away from the sport. To date, no study has investigated MTBI among an entire cohort of professional baseball players. To investigate MTBIs in major and minor league baseball players to determine the most common mechanisms of injury, activity at time of injury, position, level of play, and time lost, as well as ultimately inform prevention efforts. A secondary objective was to document the association between MTBI and return to play using several different measures. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data were captured from a newly implemented league-wide injury surveillance system that records injuries among all professional baseball players as entered by certified athletic trainers and physicians. The MTBIs were identified with respect to level of play, activity, field location, and mechanism of injury. Time loss was assessed by 3 measures of return to play, and MTBI game rates were reported as injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures. Data were combined over the 2011-2012 seasons for analysis, and results were presented separately for minor and major league players. Chi-square tests were used to test the hypothesis of equal proportions between the various categories of MTBI injury characteristics. There were 41 reported MTBIs in the major leagues and 266 in the minor leagues over the 2-year period under study. The overall MTBI game rate across both major and minor league ball clubs was 0.42 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The median time lost was 9 days. Mild traumatic brain injury accounted for 1% of all injuries resulting in time lost from play. For MTBIs that occurred while fielding, catchers were significantly overrepresented. No differences were noted among the 3 measures of time lost. Mild traumatic brain injury is an important problem in professional baseball players, especially for catchers

  11. Contributing Factors to Change-of-Direction Ability in Professional Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Jace A; Scott, Tannath J; Ballard, David A; Duthie, Grant M; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Lockie, Robert G; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-10-01

    Rugby league is an intermittent team sport in which players are regularly required to accelerate, decelerate, and change direction rapidly. This study aimed to determine the contributing factors to change-of-direction (COD) ability in professional rugby league players and to validate the physical and physiological components of a previously proposed COD ability predictor model. Thirty-one male professional rugby league players (age: 24.3 ± 4.4 years; height: 1.83 ± 0.06 m; body mass: 98.1 ± 9.8 kg) were assessed for anthropometry, linear speed, various leg muscle qualities, and COD ability. Change-of-direction ability was assessed for both the dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) legs using the 505 test. Stepwise multiple regression analyses determined the combined effect of the physical and physiological variables on COD ability. Maximal linear speed (SpMax) and relative squat strength (squat:BM) explained 61% of the variance in 505-D performance, whereas measures of mass, unilateral, and bilateral power contributed 67% to 505-ND performance. These results suggest that the 505-ND task was heavily dependent on relative strength and power, whereas the 505-D task was best predicted by linear sprint speed. Second, the physical component of the COD predictor model demonstrated poor correlations (r = -0.1 to -0.5) between absolute strength and power measures and COD ability. When made relative to body mass, strength and power measures and COD ability shared stronger relationships (r = -0.3 to -0.7). Change-of-direction ability in professional rugby league players would be best improved through increases in an athlete's strength and power while maintaining lean muscle mass.

  12. Attitudes on inclusion of a player with disabilities in a regular softball league.

    PubMed

    Block, M E; Malloy, M

    1998-04-01

    Although attitudes of sports participants relate significantly to the successful inclusion of individuals with disabilities in regular sport programs, there has been no published research on attitudes toward inclusion or rule modifications. We examined attitudes of girls without disabilities, their parents, and their coaches towards inclusion of a child with disabilities in a regular girls' fast-pitch softball league. They completed the Attitudes Towards Integrated Sports Inventory prior to the season. Results suggest that players and parents had a favorable attitude towards inclusion and towards modifying the game rules to enable this player to have a safe, successful experience. Coaches were undecided about inclusion and rule modifications.

  13. Seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within English academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Tester, Emma; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-09-01

    Professional rugby league clubs implement training programmes for the development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within an academy programme. However, research that examines seasonal changes in these characteristics is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics of academy rugby league players by age category (i.e., under 14, 16, 18, 20). Data were collected on 75 players pre- and postseason over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 195 assessments). Anthropometric (body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, vertical jump, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and 1 repetition maximum squat, bench press, and prone row) measures were collected. The under 14s and 16s showed greater seasonal improvements in body mass (e.g., under 14s = 7.4 ± 4.3% vs. under 20s = 1.2 ± 3.3%) and vertical jump performance than under 18s and under 20s. In contrast, under 18s and under 20s players showed greater seasonal improvements in Yo-Yo performance and 10-m sprint (e.g., under 14s = 1.3 ± 3.9% vs. under 20s = -1.9 ± 1.2%) in comparison to under 14s and under 16s. Seasonal strength improvements were greater for the under 18s compared with under 20s. This study provides comparative data for seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within rugby league players aged 13-20 years. Coaches should be aware that seasonal improvements in speed may not exist within younger age categories, until changes in body mass stabilize and consider monitoring changes in other characteristics (e.g., momentum). Large interplayer variability suggests that player development should be considered on an individual and longitudinal basis.

  14. Do physical qualities influence the attainment of professional status within elite 16-19 year old rugby league players?

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Geeson-Brown, Tom

    2016-07-01

    The current study retrospectively compared the physical qualities of elite academy rugby league players (aged 16-19 years) by career attainment level (i.e., academy or professional). Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal design. Eighty-one academy rugby league players were assessed for physical qualities (height, body mass, skinfolds, speed, momentum, vertical jump, Yo-Yo Level 1 and 1-RM squat, bench press and prone row) at the Under 17-19 age categories between 2007 and 2012. Player's career attainment level was determined in 2014. Longitudinal changes in physical qualities between Under 17 and 19s were compared by career attainment level. Professional players demonstrated moderate significant advantages for height (d=0.98) and 1-RM squat (d=0.66) at the Under 17s, 1-RM bench press (d=0.76) at the Under 18s and 1-RM prone row (d=0.73) at the Under 19s age categories when compared to academy players. When assessed longitudinally (Under 17s-19s), professional players significantly outperformed academy players for 1-RM squat (η(2)=0.20). Professional players also demonstrated greater increases in body mass (8.2 vs. 2.9kg) and 10m momentum (47 vs. 17kgs(-1)) than academy players between the Under 17s and 19s. Advanced physical qualities, particularly height and absolute strength, within 16-19 year old players may contribute to attaining professional status in rugby league. Further, the development of body mass and momentum for players within an academy is an important consideration in the progress towards professional rugby league. Therefore, practitioners should aim to identify and develop the physical qualities, especially size and strength, within academy rugby league players. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between tests of physical qualities, team selection, and physical match performance in semiprofessional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Seibold, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the physical qualities that discriminated state-based rugby league players competing for selection in a semiprofessional rugby league team, and determined the relationship between tests of physical qualities and physical match performance in these players. Thirty-two rugby league players (mean ± SD age, 24 ± 3 years) from a Queensland Cup rugby league squad participated in this study. The players performed tests of upper-body strength (3 repetition maximum [RM] bench press; 3RM weighted chin-up), upper-body strength endurance (body-mass maximum repetition bench press), lower-body strength (3RM squat), lower-body power (vertical jump), and prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, level 1). Global positioning system data, sampling at 10 Hz, were collected during 5 Queensland Cup rugby league matches. Selected players had greater (p < 0.05) 3RM squat, 3RM chin-up, body-mass bench press, vertical jump, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performances than nonselected players. After controlling for playing position, players with better 3RM squat performances covered greater total distances (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) including greater distances at low (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) and high (r = 0.97, p < 0.05) speeds. Significant associations (r = 0.96, p < 0.05) were also found between 3RM squat performances and the number of repeated high-intensity effort bouts performed in competition. These findings highlight the importance of lower-body strength, upper-body strength and endurance, and prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability to team selection in semiprofessional rugby league. Furthermore, our findings suggest that well-developed lower-body strength contributes to effective physical match performance in semiprofessional rugby league players.

  16. Relationship Between Accelerometer Load, Collisions, and Repeated High-Intensity Effort Activity in Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-12-01

    Triaxial accelerometers have been critical in providing information on the high-acceleration, low-velocity movements that occur in team sports. In addition, these sensors have proven to be useful in quantifying the activities that do not involve the vertical acceleration associated with locomotion (e.g., tackling, on-ground wrestling, and grappling). This study investigated the relationship between Player Load (PL), 2D Player Load (2DPL), and Player Load Slow (PL Slow), collisions, and repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) activity in rugby league players. One hundred and eighty-two rugby league players (age, 24.3 ± 3.3 years) participated in this study. Movement was recorded using a global positioning system unit sampling at 10 Hz and triaxial accelerometer sampling at 100 Hz. Analysis was completed during 26 matches (totaling 386 appearances). Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow and total collisions and RHIE activity. When all players were considered, weak relationships were found between PL and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts performed. However, PL was strongly associated (p ≤ 0.05) with total distance, low-speed activity, high-speed running distance, total collisions, and the number of RHIE bouts for forwards and hookers. Weak and typically insignificant relationships were found between PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts performed by the adjustables and outside backs positional groups. The relationships between PL and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts are stronger in positions where contact and repeated-effort demands are high. From a practical perspective, these results suggest that PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow offer useful "real-time" measures of collision and RHIE activity, particularly in forwards and hookers, to inform interchange strategies and ensure players are training at an adequate intensity.

  17. The Effect of Caffeine on Repeat-High-Intensity-Effort Performance in Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Wellington, Brandon M; Leveritt, Michael D; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-02-01

    Repeat-high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) have recently been shown to occur at critical periods of rugby league matches. To examine the effect that caffeine has on RHIE performance in rugby league players. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 11 semiprofessional rugby league players (age 19.0 ± 0.5 y, body mass 87.4 ± 12.9 kg, height 178.9 ± 2.6 cm) completed 2 experimental trials that involved completing an RHIE test after either caffeine (300 mg caffeine) or placebo (vitamin H) ingestion. Each trial consisted of 3 sets of 20-m sprints interspersed with bouts of tackling. During the RHIE test, 20-m-sprint time, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate were measured. Total time to complete the nine 20-m sprints during the caffeine condition was 1.0% faster (28.46 ± 1.4 s) than during the placebo condition (28.77 ± 1.7 s) (ES = 0.18, 90%CI -0.7 to 0.1 s). This resulted in a very likely chance of caffeine being of benefit to RHIE performance (99% likely to be beneficial). These improvements were more pronounced in the early stages of the test, with a 1.3%, 1.0%, and 0.9% improvement in sprint performance during sets 1, 2, and 3 respectively. There was no significant difference in RPE across the 3 sets (P = .47, 0.48, 1.00) or mean HR (P = .36), maximal HR (P = .74), or blood lactate (P = .50) between treatment conditions. Preexercise ingestion of 300 mg caffeine produced practically meaningful improvements in RHIE performance in rugby league players.

  18. Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Everett J; Hein, Misty J; Gersic, Christine M

    2016-10-01

    There is current disagreement in the scientific literature about the relationship between playing football and suicide risk, particularly among professional players in the National Football League (NFL). While some research indicates players are at high risk of football-related concussions, which may lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy and suicide, other research finds such a connection to be speculative and unsupported by methodologically sound research. To compare the suicide mortality of a cohort of NFL players to what would be expected in the general population of the United States. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A cohort of 3439 NFL players with at least 5 credited playing seasons between 1959 and 1988 was assembled for statistical analysis. The vital status for this cohort was updated through 2013. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), the ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths, and 95% CIs were computed for the cohort; 95% CIs that excluded unity were considered statistically significant. For internal comparison purposes, standardized rate ratios were calculated to compare mortality results between players stratified into speed and nonspeed position types. Suicide among this cohort of professional football players was significantly less than would be expected in comparison with the United States population (SMR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24-0.82). There were no significant differences in suicide mortality between speed and nonspeed position players. There is no indication of elevated suicide risk in this cohort of professional football players with 5 or more credited seasons of play. Because of the unique nature of this cohort, these study results may not be applicable to professional football players who played fewer than 5 years or to college or high school players. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Everett J.; Hein, Misty J.; Gersic, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is current disagreement in the scientific literature about the relationship between playing football and suicide risk, particularly among professional players in the National Football League (NFL). While some research indicates players are at high risk of football-related concussions, which may lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy and suicide, other research finds such a connection to be speculative and unsupported by methodologically sound research. Purpose To compare the suicide mortality of a cohort of NFL players to what would be expected in the general population of the United States. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A cohort of 3439 NFL players with at least 5 credited playing seasons between 1959 and 1988 was assembled for statistical analysis. The vital status for this cohort was updated through 2013. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), the ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths, and 95% CIs were computed for the cohort; 95% CIs that excluded unity were considered statistically significant. For internal comparison purposes, standardized rate ratios were calculated to compare mortality results between players stratified into speed and nonspeed position types. Results Suicide among this cohort of professional football players was significantly less than would be expected in comparison with the United States population (SMR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24–0.82). There were no significant differences in suicide mortality between speed and nonspeed position players. Conclusion There is no indication of elevated suicide risk in this cohort of professional football players with 5 or more credited seasons of play. Because of the unique nature of this cohort, these study results may not be applicable to professional football players who played fewer than 5 years or to college or high school players. PMID:27159317

  20. Epidemiology and Impact of Knee Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Diane L; Curriero, Frank C; Camp, Christopher L; Brophy, Robert H; Leo, Tony; Meister, Keith; Paletta, George A; Steubs, John A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Pollack, Keshia M

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the frequency and impact of lower extremity injuries, such as those to the knee, among professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to detail the epidemiology of knee injuries in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players during the 2011-2014 seasons. It was hypothesized that knee injuries are a common occurrence in these athletes, and represent a significant source of time away from play. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with knee injuries during the 2011-2014 seasons. All injuries that occurred during the preseason, regular season, and postseason that resulted in time away from play were included. Injury data analyzed included total number of knee injuries, specific diagnoses, injury mechanisms, locations, player positions, and time lost. Descriptive statistics were conducted and injury rates per athlete-exposures were calculated. During the 2011-2014 seasons, a total of 2171 knee injuries occurred in MLB and MiLB players, representing 6.5% of all injuries in professional baseball. The knee injury rate across both the MLB and MiLB was 1.2 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The mean number of days missed per injury across both leagues was 16.2 with a total of 30,449 days of missed play amongst all athletes over the 4 seasons. Injuries to the knee were the fifth most common cause of missed time in all of baseball, and the fourth most common reason for missed games in the MLB alone. Approximately 12% of all injuries required surgical intervention. The most common mechanism of injury was noncontact (44%), and base runners were injured more frequently than any other position (24%). The infield (30%) and home plate (23%) were the most common locations in which injuries occurred. These data can be utilized for targeted injury prevention initiatives.

  1. A prospective study of concussions among National Hockey League players during regular season games: the NHL-NHLPA Concussion Program.

    PubMed

    Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Rizos, John; Kang, Jian; Burke, Charles J

    2011-05-17

    In 1997, the National Hockey League (NHL) and NHL Players' Association (NHLPA) launched a concussion program to improve the understanding of this injury. We explored initial postconcussion signs, symptoms, physical examination findings and time loss (i.e., time between the injury and medical clearance by the physician to return to competitive play), experienced by male professional ice-hockey players, and assessed the utility of initial postconcussion clinical manifestations in predicting time loss among hockey players. We conducted a prospective case series of concussions over seven NHL regular seasons (1997-2004) using an inclusive cohort of players. The primary outcome was concussion and the secondary outcome was time loss. NHL team physicians documented post-concussion clinical manifestations and recorded the date when a player was medically cleared to return to play. Team physicians reported 559 concussions during regular season games. The estimated incidence was 1.8 concussions per 1000 player-hours. The most common postconcussion symptom was headache (71%). On average, time loss (in days) increased 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.62) for every subsequent (i.e., recurrent) concussion sustained during the study period. Controlling for age and position, significant predictors of time loss were postconcussion headache (p < 0.001), low energy or fatigue (p = 0.01), amnesia (p = 0.02) and abnormal neurologic examination (p = 0.01). Using a previously suggested time loss cut-point of 10 days, headache (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-3.54) and low energy or fatigue (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.85) were significant predictors of time loss of more than 10 days. Postconcussion headache, low energy or fatigue, amnesia and abnormal neurologic examination were significant predictors of time loss among professional hockey players.

  2. Time-Loss Injuries in Sub-Elite and Emerging Rugby League Players

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Mark; Orr, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to 1) investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in emerging rugby league players; and 2) explore the differences in injury incidence and characteristics between the various sub-elite competitions. An NRL emerging player development squad (n = 34) was observed from the beginning of pre-season until the finish of competition. Time-loss injury was defined as any physical pain or impairment sustained that resulted in players missing a match. Injuries were categorised according to circumstance, incidence, characteristics, playing position and competition level. Of a total of 196 injuries that were recorded, 45 were time-loss and 151 were transient. The total injury incidence was 7.9/1,000 playing hours. The most common sites for time-loss injuries were the shoulder, ankle/foot and knee. Ligament injuries accounted for the highest number of injuries by type. Forwards sustained the greatest number of injuries. However, backs suffered the greatest injury cost. The majority of time-loss injuries were sustained during competition matches. Injuries sustained during open age matches resulted in significantly higher injury cost to those received at NYC matches. NRL development and emerging rugby league players are exposed to high risk of injury. Lower limb and shoulder injuries to bone or connective tissue are prevalent as a result of contact during match play. Players at this developmental level feed into several different playing squads where disparities in physical development, maturation, playing intensity and training regimes are evident. This presents a challenge in matching physiological capabilities with playing demands for NRL development squads. Key points Developing players experience a high proportion of shoulder injuries. Compared to previous studies. A Higher percentage of fractures was observed compared to previous studies. Injuries sustained during open age competition (RM/SS) demonstrated greater severity than those sustained in

  3. Semi-Professional Rugby League Players have Higher Concussion Risk than Professional or Amateur Participants: A Pooled Analysis.

    PubMed

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-02-01

    A combined estimate of injuries within a specific sport through pooled analysis provides more precise evidence and meaningful information about the sport, whilst controlling for between-study variation due to individual sub-cohort characteristics. The objective of this analysis was to review all published rugby league studies reporting injuries from match and training participation and report the pooled data estimates for rugby league concussion injury epidemiology. A systematic literature analysis of concussion in rugby league was performed on published studies from January 1990 to October 2015. Data were extracted and pooled from 25 studies that reported the number and incidence of concussions in rugby league match and training activities. Amateur rugby league players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in match activities (19.1 per 1000 match hours) while semi-professional players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in training activities (3.1 per 1000 training hours). This pooled analysis showed that, during match participation activities, amateur rugby league participants had a higher reported concussion injury rate than professional and semi-professional participants. Semi-professional participants had nearly a threefold greater concussion injury risk than amateur rugby league participants during match participation. They also had nearly a 600-fold greater concussion injury risk than professional rugby league participants during training participation.

  4. Perfusion Neuroimaging Abnormalities Alone Distinguish National Football League Players from a Healthy Population.

    PubMed

    Amen, Daniel G; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A

    2016-04-25

    National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. A cohort of retired and current NFL players (n = 161) were recruited in a longitudinal study starting in 2009 with ongoing interval follow up. A healthy control group (n = 124) was separately recruited for comparison. Assessments included medical examinations, neuropsychological tests, and perfusion neuroimaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion estimates of each scan were quantified using a standard atlas. We hypothesized that hypoperfusion particularly in the orbital frontal, anterior cingulate, anterior temporal, hippocampal, amygdala, insular, caudate, superior/mid occipital, and cerebellar sub-regions alone would reliably separate controls from NFL players. Cerebral perfusion differences were calculated using a one-way ANOVA and diagnostic separation was determined with discriminant and automatic linear regression predictive models. NFL players showed lower cerebral perfusion on average (p < 0.01) in 36 brain regions. The discriminant analysis subsequently distinguished NFL players from controls with 90% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and 94% accuracy (95% CI 95-99). Automatic linear modeling achieved similar results. Inclusion of age and clinical co-morbidities did not improve diagnostic classification. Specific brain regions commonly damaged in traumatic brain injury show abnormally low perfusion on SPECT in professional NFL players. These same regions alone can distinguish this group from healthy subjects with high diagnostic accuracy. This study carries implications for the neurological safety

  5. Perfusion Neuroimaging Abnormalities Alone Distinguish National Football League Players from a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Amen, Daniel G.; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. Objective: To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. Method: A cohort of retired and current NFL players (n = 161) were recruited in a longitudinal study starting in 2009 with ongoing interval follow up. A healthy control group (n = 124) was separately recruited for comparison. Assessments included medical examinations, neuropsychological tests, and perfusion neuroimaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion estimates of each scan were quantified using a standard atlas. We hypothesized that hypoperfusion particularly in the orbital frontal, anterior cingulate, anterior temporal, hippocampal, amygdala, insular, caudate, superior/mid occipital, and cerebellar sub-regions alone would reliably separate controls from NFL players. Cerebral perfusion differences were calculated using a one-way ANOVA and diagnostic separation was determined with discriminant and automatic linear regression predictive models. Results: NFL players showed lower cerebral perfusion on average (p < 0.01) in 36 brain regions. The discriminant analysis subsequently distinguished NFL players from controls with 90% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and 94% accuracy (95% CI 95-99). Automatic linear modeling achieved similar results. Inclusion of age and clinical co-morbidities did not improve diagnostic classification. Conclusion: Specific brain regions commonly damaged in traumatic brain injury show abnormally low perfusion on SPECT in professional NFL players. These same regions alone can distinguish this group from healthy subjects with high diagnostic accuracy. This

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Retired National Football League Players

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alice Y.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Cannaday, John; Zhang, Song; Patel, Amit; Palmer, M. Dean; Reddy, Gautham P.; Ordovas, Karen G.; Stillman, Arthur E; Janowitz, Warren; Radford, Nina B.; Roberts, Arthur J.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity exists among National Football League (NFL) players as determined by body mass index (BMI). It is not established whether elevated BMI is associated with a greater prevalence of CV risk factors or coronary atherosclerosis in former NFL players as in non-athletes. This study compared cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and coronary atherosclerosis among retired NFL players and two groups of community controls, the population-based Dallas Heart Study and the preventive medicine cohort, the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Retired NFL players (n=201) were matched for ethnicity, age and BMI (Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, age only). CV risk factors were assessed by survey and screening visit. Coronary atherosclerosis was measured by computed tomography as coronary artery calcium (CAC). Compared to population-based controls, retired NFL players had a significantly lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome, yet a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and hyperlipidemia. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of detectable CAC (46 v 48.3%, p=0.69) or distribution of CAC (0-10, 10-100, 100-400, 400+, p=0.11). Comparing retired NFL players to the physically active preventive medicine controls, there was no difference in the amount of CAC. Among retired NFL players, age and hyperlipidemia, not body size, were the most significant predictors of CAC. In conclusion, despite their large body size, retired NFL players do not have a greater prevalence of CV risk factors or amount of CAC than community controls. PMID:19733715

  7. Morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players.

    PubMed

    Jelaska, Petra Mandić; Katić, Ratko; Jelaska, Igor

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the structure of morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players and their impact on the estimated quality of the players. According to the goal of the research, a sample consisted of 70 Croatian first league female football players. Participants were measured in 18 tests for assessing morphological characteristics, a set of 12 basic motor abilities tests and a set of 7 tests for assessing football-specific motor abilities. Exploratory factor analysis strategy was applied separately to all measured tests: morphological, basic motor abilities and football specific motor abilities. Factor analysis of morphological tests has shown existence of 3 significant latent dimensions that explain 64% of the total variability. Factors are defined as transverse dimensionality of the skeleton and voluminosity (35%), subcutaneous fat tissue (16%) and longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton (13%). In the area of basic motor abilities, four factors were extracted. The first factor is responsible for the integration of agility and explosive power of legs, i.e. a factor of movement regulation (agility/lower body explosiveness) (23%), the second one defines muscle tone regulation (15%), the third one defines the frequency of leg movements (12%), while the fourth one is recognized as responsible for the manifestation of basic strength, particularly of basic core strength (19%). Two factors were isolated in the space of football-specific motor abilities: football-specific efficiency (53%) and situational football coordination (27%). Furthermore, by use of factor analysis on extracted latent dimensions (morphological, basic and football specific motor abilities) two higher order factors (explaining 87% of common variability) were extracted. They were named morphological-motor factor (54%) and football-specific motor abilities factor (33%). It is assumed that two extracted higher-order factors fully

  8. A prospective study of concussions among National Hockey League players during regular season games: the NHL-NHLPA Concussion Program

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Brian W.; Meeuwisse, Willem H.; Rizos, John; Kang, Jian; Burke, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 1997, the National Hockey League (NHL) and NHL Players’ Association (NHLPA) launched a concussion program to improve the understanding of this injury. We explored initial postconcussion signs, symptoms, physical examination findings and time loss (i.e., time between the injury and medical clearance by the physician to return to competitive play), experienced by male professional ice-hockey players, and assessed the utility of initial postconcussion clinical manifestations in predicting time loss among hockey players. Methods We conducted a prospective case series of concussions over seven NHL regular seasons (1997–2004) using an inclusive cohort of players. The primary outcome was concussion and the secondary outcome was time loss. NHL team physicians documented post-concussion clinical manifestations and recorded the date when a player was medically cleared to return to play. Results Team physicians reported 559 concussions during regular season games. The estimated incidence was 1.8 concussions per 1000 player-hours. The most common postconcussion symptom was headache (71%). On average, time loss (in days) increased 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41–3.62) for every subsequent (i.e., recurrent) concussion sustained during the study period. Controlling for age and position, significant predictors of time loss were postconcussion headache (p < 0.001), low energy or fatigue (p = 0.01), amnesia (p = 0.02) and abnormal neurologic examination (p = 0.01). Using a previously suggested time loss cut-point of 10 days, headache (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% CI 1.33–3.54) and low energy or fatigue (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04–2.85) were significant predictors of time loss of more than 10 days. Interpretation Postconcussion headache, low energy or fatigue, amnesia and abnormal neurologic examination were significant predictors of time loss among professional hockey players. PMID:21502355

  9. Relations of attachment styles and group cohesion in premier league female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Tiryaki, M Sefik; Cepikkurt, Fatma

    2007-02-01

    The relations of attachment styles with group cohesion were monitored for premier league female volleyball teams. 74 volleyball players from 8 teams responded to the Relationship Scales Questionnaire and Group Environment Questionnaire. Pearson correlations indicated significant association of attachment styles with group cohesion. Specifically, a significant negative correlation was found between female volleyball players' individual attraction to the group-social subscale and fearful attachment style. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation for scores on the group integration-social and secure and preoccupied attachment subscales and a significant negative correlation for scores on the group integration-task subscale and preoccupied attachment style. In conclusion, attachment styles might be considered important in predicting group cohesion

  10. Normative neurocognitive data for National Football League players: an initial compendium.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Lovell, Mark R; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C

    2015-03-01

    The use of clinical neuropsychological tests in the evaluation of National Football League (NFL) players has been ongoing for more than two decades. Prior research has demonstrated that the NFL population may perform differently than the general population on standard paper and pencil neuropsychological tests. Given the increased interest in the longitudinal and long-term assessment of neurocognitive functioning in this group of athletes, we reviewed the published neuropsychological literature in an attempt to compile an initial compendium of available normative data on paper and pencil as well as computerized neuropsychological tests for this group of football players. Thirteen published studies met the inclusion criteria, and the results are presented by athlete status (active vs. retired) and classified by neuropsychological domain. Suggestions for potential core batteries with this population are discussed, as are directions for future research.

  11. Olfactory Function and Associated Clinical Correlates in Former National Football League Players.

    PubMed

    Alosco, Michael L; Jarnagin, Johnny; Tripodis, Yorghos; Platt, Michael; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Cantu, Robert C; Stern, Robert A

    2017-02-15

    Professional American football players incur thousands of repetitive head impacts (RHIs) throughout their lifetime. The long-term consequences of RHI are not well characterized, but may include olfactory dysfunction. RHI has been associated with changes to brain regions involved in olfaction, and olfactory impairment is common after traumatic brain injury. Olfactory dysfunction is a frequent early sequelae of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), and RHI is associated with the neurodegenerative disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We examined olfaction, and its association with clinical measures, in former National Football League (NFL) players. Ninety-five former NFL players (ages 40-69) and 28 same-age controls completed a neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric evaluation as part of a National Institutes of Health-funded study. The Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) assessed olfaction. Principal component analysis generated a four-factor structure of the clinical measures: behavioral/mood, psychomotor speed/executive function, and verbal and visual memory. Former NFL players had worse B-SIT scores relative to controls (p = 0.0096). A B-SIT cutoff of 11 had the greatest accuracy (c-statistic = 0.61) and specificity (79%) for discriminating former NFL players from controls. In the former NFL players, lower B-SIT scores correlated with greater behavioral/mood impairment (p = 0.0254) and worse psychomotor speed/executive functioning (p = 0.0464) after controlling for age and education. Former NFL players exhibited lower olfactory test scores relative to controls, and poorer olfactory test performance was associated with worse neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric functioning. Future work that uses more-comprehensive tests of olfaction and structural and functioning neuroimaging may improve understanding on the association between RHI and olfaction.

  12. Movement analysis of Australian national league soccer players using global positioning system technology.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, George M; Hartwig, Timothy B; Duncan, Craig S

    2014-03-01

    Player activity profiles of match play provide valuable information for optimal athlete training prescriptions, competition strategies, and managing load and recovery and are currently lacking in elite Australian-league (A-League) soccer. The aims of the study were, therefore, to (a) determine match activity profiles for elite A-League soccer players and make match-half and positional comparisons and (b) examine the effect of situational factors including evolving match status (drawing, winning, or losing) and goals being scored and conceded on selected match activity profile variables. Global positioning system tracking devices were used to determine activity profiles of 19 elite male adult soccer players during 8 preseason matches (n = 95 files). Total distance, average speed, high-intensity running (HIR) distance, and very high-intensity running distance decreased from the first to the second half by 7.92, 9.47, 10.10, and 10.99%, respectively. Midfielders covered 11.69% more total distance, 28.08% more HIR distance, and had a 10.93% higher average speed than defenders (p ≤ 0.05; d = 1.90, 1.03, and 1.83, respectively). Attackers performed 27.50 and 30.24% less medium accelerations than defenders and midfielders, respectively (p < 0.01; d = 1.54, and 1.73). When the team was winning, average speed was 4.17% lower than when the team was drawing (p ≤ 0.05, d = 0.32). Scoring or conceding goals did not appear to affect HIR. This study adds to limited knowledge of match demands in elite A-League soccer. The match activity profiles provide descriptive benchmarks that could be used to make comparisons with other elite level soccer populations while also providing a framework for game-specific training prescription, competition strategy, and load management. The generalization that defenders experience a relatively lower match load may be questionable given their relatively high acceleration and deceleration demands.

  13. Changes in physical size among major league baseball players and its attribution to elite offensive performance.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players have not been longitudinally examined for changes in physical size. Height, weight, and body mass indices (BMIs) were examined among offensive league leaders (OLL) and MLB reference cohorts at 1970, 1990, and 2010. Anthropometric values were expected to increase successively, where OLL were expected to be larger at each respective time point. A Mixed Model analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) examined anthropometric differences over time within and between groups. Mass and BMI increased over successive years with the largest effect seen between 1990 and 2010 (p < 0.001). A significant height reduction was shown for OLL from 1970 to 1990 (p ≤ 0.05), being the only significant decrease in physical size; yet, leaders were heavier and taller compared with the MLB reference population (p < 0.014). Results show that physical size has evolved in MLB, with the OLL being the largest players shown at each year in succession. Professional baseball scouts may have been influenced by greater offensive prowess shown by larger athletes; yet, increased secular anthropometrics must also be factored in greater heights, weights, BMIs shown over time in MLB. It is possible that greater participation in strength and conditioning programs at an earlier age, advances in sport nutrition, and potential abuse of anabolic drugs are factors perpetuating growth rates at present.

  14. Monitoring changes in rugby league players' perceived stress and recovery during intensified training.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Aaron J; Reaburn, Peter

    2008-06-01

    This study assessed whether the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) could be used to monitor changes in perceived stress and recovery during intensified training of rugby league players. 20 semiprofessional rugby league players were divided into two equal groups randomly assigned to complete 6 wk. of Normal Training or Intensified Training, each followed with a 7-day taper. Multistage Fitness Test performance and RESTQ-Sport measures were taken at the beginning, at 2-wk. intervals, and at the end of the training period. Endurance significantly decreased with Intensified Training and returned to baseline levels following the taper, while remaining unchanged in the Normal Training group. The RESTQ-Sport scores with training were positively related to stress subscale scores (Fatigue, Disturbed Breaks, and General Stress) and recovery subscale measures (Success, Physical Recovery, Being in Shape, Self-efficacy, Social Relaxation, General Well-being, and Sleep Quality) decreasing in the Intensified Training group and then normalising following the taper (Stress subscales: Fatigue and General Stress, and Recovery subscales: Physical Recovery and General Well-being). The RESTQ-Sport is a practical psychometric tool for monitoring responses to training in team-sport athletes.

  15. Risk factors for elbow pain in Little League baseball players: a cross-sectional study focusing on developmental factors.

    PubMed

    Yukutake, T; Nagai, K; Yamada, M; Aoyama, T

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of Little League elbow is increasing. However, the risk factors for Little League elbow, especially those related to development have not previously been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for elbow pain in Little League baseball players while focusing on the developmental factors. A total of 654 baseball players aged 6-12 years, all male, participated in this study. Participants completed an original questionnaire that included items assessing demographic data, developmental factors (increase in height and increase in weight over the preceding 12 months), and baseball-related factors. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for elbow pain during the 12 months prior to the study. The data collected for 392 players without omissions or blank answers were submitted to statistical analysis. We found that 19.1% of Little League baseball players had experienced elbow pain in the 12 months leading up to the study. The analysis revealed that height (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.03-1.17) and increase in height (OR, 1.16; 95%CI, 1.00-1.34) were risk factors that increased the risk of elbow pain after adjustment for demographic data, developmental data, and baseball-related factors. Our results suggested that an increase over height in the last 12 months may predispose young baseball players to elbow pain.

  16. Association between eye and hand dominance and hitting, fielding and pitching skill among players of the Southern Baseball League.

    PubMed

    Classe, J G; Daum, K; Semes, L; Wisniewski, J; Rutstein, R; Alexander, L; Beisel, J; Mann, K; Nawakowski, R; Smith, M; Bartolucci, A

    1996-02-01

    The relationship between eye dominance and batting skill in baseball has been investigated, but conflicting results have been obtained. In addition, little attention has been given to the relationship, if any, between eye dominance and fielding and pitching skill. A vision screening of 215 professional baseball players in the Southern Baseball League was performed and the eye dominance of these players was determined by a sighting test. Handedness for batting, fielding, and pitching was determined by history. The screening revealed that 66 percent of players were right-eye dominant and that, of 92 players who met the criteria established to qualify for the league batting championship, 60 percent had matched dominance of eye and hand. When official league batting averages were obtained for these 92 players, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between batters with matched dominance (.278 mean batting average). For the 149 fielders in the league, no statistically significant differences based on eye dominance were found for fielding average (.893 matched dominance, .864 crossed dominance); for the 89 pitchers, a similar result was obtained. Pitchers were also evaluated with respect to eye dominance and earned run average, but no significant difference was found (3.91 matched dominance, 4.03 crossed dominance). Results indicate that there is no association between eye dominance, and hitting, fielding, or pitching skill in baseball.

  17. Injury, Pain, and Prescription Opioid Use Among Former National Football League (NFL) Players*

    PubMed Central

    Cottler, Linda B.; Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Cummings, Simone M.; Barr, John; Banks, Rayna; Forchheimer, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    Background Athletes with injury-related pain, especially National Football League (NFL) players, are at increased risk for opioid use and misuse which may result in medical, psychiatric and social problems. This is the first study to evaluate the intersection of sports pain and opioid use and misuse among former NFL players. Methods A telephone survey of 644 retired NFL players from the 2009 Retired Players Association Directory was conducted (53.4% completion rate) from March to August 2010. Results Over half (52%) used opioids during their NFL career with 71% reporting misuse. Additionally, 15% of NFL misusers currently misused vs. 5% among players who used just as prescribed during their NFL career. Prevalence of current opioid use was 7%--3 times the rate of the general population. Multivariate analyses indicated that significant NFL pain increased the adjusted odds (AOR) of any current opioid use vs. non-use (AOR 6.76, 95%CI 2.88-15.87), as did moderate to severe mental impairment (AOR 1.88, 95%CI 1.19-2.98) and heavy drinking in the past week (AOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.17-3.98). Undiagnosed concussions singly predicted current misuse vs. use just as prescribed (AOR 4.25, 95%CI 1.12-16.22). Three variables predicted current misuse vs. non-use: significant pain (AOR 8.33, 95%CI 1.98-35.04), undiagnosed concussions (AOR 3.51, 95%CI 1.98-35.04) and heavy drinking (AOR 3.48, 95%CI 1.63-7.41). Conclusions Players who misused during their NFL career were most likely to misuse currently compared to others. Current misuse was associated with more NFL pain, undiagnosed concussions and heavy drinking. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the long term effects of opioid misuse among athletes. PMID:21277121

  18. Injury, pain, and prescription opioid use among former National Football League (NFL) players.

    PubMed

    Cottler, Linda B; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Cummings, Simone M; Barr, John; Banks, Rayna; Forchheimer, Ronnie

    2011-07-01

    Athletes with injury-related pain, especially National Football League (NFL) players, are at increased risk for opioid use and misuse which may result in medical, psychiatric and social problems. This is the first study to evaluate the intersection of sports pain and opioid use and misuse among former NFL players. A telephone survey of 644 retired NFL players from the 2009 Retired Players Association Directory was conducted (53.4% completion rate) from March to August 2010. Over half (52%) used opioids during their NFL career with 71% reporting misuse. Additionally, 15% of NFL misusers currently misused vs. 5% among players who used just as prescribed during their NFL career. Prevalence of current opioid use was 7%-3 times the rate of the general population. Multivariate analyses indicated that significant NFL pain increased the adjusted odds (AOR) of any current opioid use vs. non-use (AOR 6.76, 95%CI 2.88-15.87), as did moderate to severe mental impairment (AOR 1.88, 95%CI 1.19-2.98) and heavy drinking in the past week (AOR 2.15, 95%CI 1.17-3.98). Undiagnosed concussions singly predicted current misuse vs. use just as prescribed (AOR 4.25, 95%CI 1.12-16.22). Three variables predicted current misuse vs. non-use: significant pain (AOR 8.33, 95%CI 1.98-35.04), undiagnosed concussions (AOR 3.51, 95%CI 1.98-35.04) and heavy drinking (AOR 3.48, 95%CI 1.63-7.41). Players who misused during their NFL career were most likely to misuse currently compared to others. Current misuse was associated with more NFL pain, undiagnosed concussions and heavy drinking. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the long term effects of opioid misuse among athletes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The athletic performance of elite rugby league players is improved after an 8-week small-sided game training intervention.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Laurent B; Rivière, Maxence; de Villarreal, Eduardo S; Haff, G Gregory

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a small-sided game training intervention on the intermittent shuttle running performance, speed, and repeated sprint ability of elite rugby league players during the competitive phase of a rugby league season. Ten elite rugby league players from a Stobart Super League team academy underwent 2 small-sided game sessions per week over an 8-week period. Each session consisted of four 10-minute blocks of 1 small-sided game, interspersed with a 3-minute recovery. Changes in physical performance were assessed before and after the training intervention with an intermittent shuttle running test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test), speed tests (10-, 20-, and 40-m linear sprints) and a repeated sprint ability test (8 × 20-m linear sprint, departing every 20 seconds). Results showed that the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (+1.29%), 10-m (-3.17%), 20-m (-1.37%), and 40-m (-0.96%) sprint times and mean sprint time (-2.11%), total sprint time (-2.11%), and percentage of sprint decrement (7.10 vs. 5.93%) during the repeated sprint ability test were significantly improved after the training intervention. Based on these results, it was concluded that an 8-week small-sided game training intervention was an effective method for improving the physical performance of elite rugby league players during the competitive phase of the season.

  20. Premier League academy soccer players' experiences of competing in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Sean P; Brown, Daniel J; Mitchell, Siobhan; Bunce, James; Hunt, Dan; Hedges, Chris; Crane, Gregory; Gross, Aleks; Scott, Sam; Franklin, Ed; Breakspear, Dave; Dennison, Luke; White, Paul; Cain, Andrew; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2017-06-19

    Individual differences in the growth and maturation have been shown to impact player performance and development in youth soccer. This study investigated Premier League academy players' experiences of participating in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Players (N = 66) from four professional soccer clubs aged 11 and 14 years and between 85-90% of adult stature participated in a tournament. Players competed in three 11 vs 11 games on a full size pitch with 25-min halves. Sixteen players participated in four 15-min focus groups and were asked to describe their experiences of participating in the bio-banded tournament in comparison to age group competition. All players described their experience as positive and recommended the Premier League integrate bio-banding into the existing games programme. In comparison to age-group competitions, early maturing players described the bio-banded games more physically challenging, and found that they had to adapt their style of play placing a greater emphasis on technique and tactics. Late maturing players considered the games to be less physically challenging, yet appreciated the having more opportunity to use, develop and demonstrate their technical, physical, and psychological competencies. Bio-banding strategies appear to contribute positively towards the holistic development of young soccer players.

  1. Longitudinal development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Darrall-Jones, Josh; Emmonds, Stacey; Cooke, Carlton

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the annual and long-term (i.e., 4 years) development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy (16-20 years) rugby league players. Players were assessed at the start of preseason over a 6-year period and were required to be assessed on consecutive years to be included in the study (Under 16-17, n = 35; Under 17-18, n = 44; Under 18-19, n = 35; Under 19-20, n = 16). A subset of 15 players were assessed for long-term changes over 4 years (Under 16-19). Anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, 10-m momentum, vertical jump, yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, 1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat, bench press, and prone row) assessments were collected. Paired t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated significant annual (e.g., body mass, U16 = 76.4 ± 8.4, U17 = 81.3 ± 8.3 kg; p < 0.001, d = 0.59) and long-term (e.g., vertical jump, Under 16 = 44.1 ± 3.8, Under 19 = 52.1 ± 5.3 cm; p < 0.001, d = 1.74) changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics. Greater percentage changes were identified between the Under 16-17 age categories compared with the other ages (e.g., 1RM squat, U16-17 = 22.5 ± 19.5 vs. U18-19 = 4.8 ± 6.4%). Findings demonstrate the annual and long-term development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy rugby league players establishing greater changes occur at younger ages upon the commencement of a structured training program within an academy. Coaches should understand the long-term development of physical characteristics and use longitudinal methods for monitoring and evaluating player performance and development.

  2. Bringing the Game into Disrepute": The Ben Cousins Saga, Sports Entertainment, Player Welfare and Surveillance in the Australian Football League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Hickey, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the elite Australian Rules footballer Ben Cousins was suspended by the Australian Football League for 12 months for "bringing the game into disrepute". Cousins was the first, and at the time of writing, the only player to be suspended by the AFL for actions and behaviors that were claimed to be damaging to the reputation of the…

  3. Player Activity Profiles in the Australian Second-Tier Rugby League Competitions.

    PubMed

    Hausler, Joanne; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda

    2016-09-01

    To investigate activity profiles of Australian rugby league players during match play by competition, position, and match outcome in the New South Wales (NSW) second-tier competitions. Eighteen NSW Cup (NSWC) and 22 National Youth Competition (NYC) players, participating in this prospective cohort study, were categorized into 3 positional groups: forwards, adjustables, and outside backs. Global positioning system devices were used to examine activity profiles (distance and relative distance covered in walking, jogging, moderate, high, very high, and sprinting speed zones and quantification of high-speed movement) during match play in 21 NSWC and 22 NYC matches (N = 339 files). NSWC players performed more sprints (36.5 ± 9.3 vs 28.4 ± 9.2) and greater relative distance in moderate speed zones (18.4 ± 3.2 vs 15.8 ± 3.1 m/min) than NYC. NSWC outside backs covered greater relative distance in jogging (29.4 ± 2.9 vs 24.8 ± 2.7 m/min) and moderate speed zones (17.0 ± 2.6 vs 12.8 ± 2.8 m/min) than their NYC counterparts. Adjustables performed more sprints (39.4 ± 10.1 vs 27.0 ± 9.2), high-intensity accelerations (3.7 ± 1.4 vs 1.9 ± 1.4), and relative distance (84.8 ± 4.3 vs 88.6 ± 4.8 m/min) than forwards and greater relative distance (81.5 ± 3.8 m/min) and sprints (31.0 ± 8.0) than outside backs. Adjustables recorded greater relative distance (19.8 m/min) in moderate speed zones than forwards (16.7 ± 3.1 m/min) and outside backs (14.9 ± 2.7 m/min). Adjustables covered ~685 m more than outside backs during a win. This is the first study to document the activity profiles of the NSW second-tier rugby league competition. The findings underscore the elevated match demands of adjustables and indicate higher intensity of play in NSWC than NYC that may more closely resemble the demands of National Rugby League match play.

  4. The Impact of 3 Different-Length Between-Matches Microcycles on Training Loads in Professional Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; Kempton, Tom; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-09-01

    To examine the impact of varying between-matches microcycles on training characteristics (ie, intensity, duration, and load) in professional rugby league players and to report on match load related to these between-matches microcycles. Training-load data were collected during a 26-wk competition period of an entire season. Training load was measured using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method for every training session and match from 44 professional rugby league players from the same National Rugby League team. Using the category-ratio 10 RPE scale, the training intensity was divided into 3 zones (low <4 AU, moderate ≥ 4-≤ 7 AU, and high >7 AU). Three different-length between-matches recovery microcycles were used for analysis: 5-6 d, 7-8 d, and 9-10 d. A total of 3848 individual sessions were recorded. During the shorter-length between-matches microcycles (5-6 d), significantly lower training load was observed. No significant differences for subsequent match load or intensity were identified between the various match recovery periods. Overall, 16% of the training sessions were completed at the low-intensity zone, 61% at the moderate-intensity zone, and 23% at the high-intensity zone. The findings demonstrate that rugby league players undertake higher training load as the length of between-matches microcycles is increased. The majority of in-season training of professional rugby league players was at moderate intensity, and a polarized approach to training that has been reported in elite endurance athletes does not occur in professional rugby league.

  5. Factors associated with increased propensity for hamstring injury in English Premier League soccer players.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Gary; Barnes, Christopher A; Portas, Matthew D

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to concurrently model the influence of a number of physical and performance parameters on subsequent incidence of hamstring injury in a squad of English Premier League soccer players. Thirty six healthy, male, elite, professional soccer players (age 22.6+/-5.2 years, height 1.81+/-0.08 m, mass 75.8+/-9.4 kg, lean mass 69.0+/-8.0 kg) were assessed during the first week of pre-season training for anthropometry, flexibility, lower limb strength and power, speed and agility. Over the subsequent 45 week competitive season all hamstring injuries were diagnosed and recorded. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to link individual physical and performance capabilities with propensity to sustain a hamstring injury. A model containing age, lean mass, non-counter movement jump (NCM) performance and active hip flexion range of movement (ROM) was significantly (p<0.05) associated with increased propensity for hamstring injury. Odds for sustaining an injury increased x 1.78 for each 1 year increase in age, x 1.47 for each 1cm increase in NCM and x 1.29 for each 1 degrees decrease in active range of hip flexion. Older, more powerful and less flexible soccer players are at greater risk of sustaining a hamstring injury. Support staff should identify such individuals and make appropriate interventions to minimise risk without compromising performance capabilities. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging of Glial Cell Activation and White Matter Integrity in Brains of Active and Recently Retired National Football League Players

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Jennifer M.; Wang, Yuchuan; Minn, Il; Bienko, Nicholas; Ambinder, Emily B.; Xu, Xin; Peters, Matthew E.; Dougherty, John W.; Vranesic, Melin; Koo, Soo Min; Ahn, Hye-Hyun; Lee, Merton; Cottrell, Chris; Sair, Haris I.; Sawa, Akira; Munro, Cynthia A.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Dannals, Robert F.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Kassiou, Michael; Smith, Gwenn; Caffo, Brian; Mori, Susumu; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the brain’s response to injury and neurodegenerative processes. It has been proposed that prolonged microglial activation occurs after single and repeated traumatic brain injury, possibly through sports-related concussive and subconcussive injuries. Limited in vivo brain imaging studies months to years after individuals experience a single moderate to severe traumatic brain injury suggest widespread persistent microglial activation, but there has been little study of persistent glial cell activity in brains of athletes with sports-related traumatic brain injury. OBJECTIVE To measure translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), a marker of activated glial cell response, in a cohort of National Football League (NFL) players and control participants, and to report measures of white matter integrity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cross-sectional, case-control study included young active (n = 4) or former (n = 10) NFL players recruited from across the United States, and 16 age-, sex-, highest educational level-, and body mass index-matched control participants. This study was conducted at an academic research institution in Baltimore, Maryland, from January 29, 2015, to February 18, 2016. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Positron emission tomography-based regional measures of TSPO using [11C]DPA-713, diffusion tensor imaging measures of regional white matter integrity, regional volumes on structural magnetic resonance imaging, and neuropsychological performance. RESULTS The mean (SD) ages of the 14 NFL participants and 16 control participants were 31.3 (6.1) years and 27.6 (4.9) years, respectively. Players reported a mean (SD) of 7.0 (6.4) years (range, 1–21 years) since the last self-reported concussion. Using [11C]DPA-713 positron emission tomographic data from 12 active or former NFL players and 11 matched control participants, the NFL players showed higher total

  7. Imaging of Glial Cell Activation and White Matter Integrity in Brains of Active and Recently Retired National Football League Players.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Jennifer M; Wang, Yuchuan; Minn, Il; Bienko, Nicholas; Ambinder, Emily B; Xu, Xin; Peters, Matthew E; Dougherty, John W; Vranesic, Melin; Koo, Soo Min; Ahn, Hye-Hyun; Lee, Merton; Cottrell, Chris; Sair, Haris I; Sawa, Akira; Munro, Cynthia A; Nowinski, Christopher J; Dannals, Robert F; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Kassiou, Michael; Smith, Gwenn; Caffo, Brian; Mori, Susumu; Guilarte, Tomas R; Pomper, Martin G

    2017-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the brain's response to injury and neurodegenerative processes. It has been proposed that prolonged microglial activation occurs after single and repeated traumatic brain injury, possibly through sports-related concussive and subconcussive injuries. Limited in vivo brain imaging studies months to years after individuals experience a single moderate to severe traumatic brain injury suggest widespread persistent microglial activation, but there has been little study of persistent glial cell activity in brains of athletes with sports-related traumatic brain injury. To measure translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), a marker of activated glial cell response, in a cohort of National Football League (NFL) players and control participants, and to report measures of white matter integrity. This cross-sectional, case-control study included young active (n = 4) or former (n = 10) NFL players recruited from across the United States, and 16 age-, sex-, highest educational level-, and body mass index-matched control participants. This study was conducted at an academic research institution in Baltimore, Maryland, from January 29, 2015, to February 18, 2016. Positron emission tomography-based regional measures of TSPO using [11C]DPA-713, diffusion tensor imaging measures of regional white matter integrity, regional volumes on structural magnetic resonance imaging, and neuropsychological performance. The mean (SD) ages of the 14 NFL participants and 16 control participants were 31.3 (6.1) years and 27.6 (4.9) years, respectively. Players reported a mean (SD) of 7.0 (6.4) years (range, 1-21 years) since the last self-reported concussion. Using [11C]DPA-713 positron emission tomographic data from 12 active or former NFL players and 11 matched control participants, the NFL players showed higher total distribution volume in 8 of the 12 brain regions examined (P < .004). We also

  8. Neck circumference is not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Macedo, Francisco Y; Nambi, Vijay; Martin, Seth S; Nasir, Khurram; Wong, Nathan D; Boone, Jeffrey; Roberts, Arthur J; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2014-07-01

    Neck circumference (NC) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general population. It is not known if NC is associated with MetS and subclinical atherosclerosis in retired National Football League (NFL) players. We hypothesized that NC is associated with MetS and subclinical atherosclerosis (assessed as coronary artery calcium [CAC] and carotid artery plaque [CAP]) in retired NFL players. NC was measured midway between the midcervical spine and midanterior neck in 845 retired NFL players. CAC presence was defined as total CAC score >0. CAP was defined as carotid plaque of at least 50% greater than that of the surrounding vessel wall, with a minimal thickness of at least 1.2 mm on carotid ultrasound. Logistic regression analysis was used for the association of NC with CAC or CAP. Of the participants, 21% had MetS. CAC and CAP were present in 62% and 56%, respectively. Those with MetS had a higher median NC than those without MetS (17 vs 16 inches, P < 0.0001). NC was not associated with the presence of CAC or CAP in an unadjusted model and after adjusting for age, race, and cardiometabolic risk factors (odds ratio [OR]: 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.31 for CAC; OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.82-1.12 for CAP per 1-standard deviation increase in NC [3.8 inches]). The results were similar when the predictor variable was NC indexed to body mass index. In retired NFL players with a high prevalence of CAC and CAP, NC was not associated with coronary or carotid subclinical atherosclerosis. NC may not be the most appropriate risk marker for atherosclerosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Game Related Statistics Discriminating Between Starters and Nonstarters Players in Women'S National Basketball Association League (WNBA).

    PubMed

    Gòmez, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo, Alberto; Ortega, Enrique; Sampaio, Jaime; Ibàñez, Sergio-José

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that allow discriminating between starters and nonstarter players in women's basketball when related to winning or losing games and best or worst teams. The sample comprised all 216 regular season games from the 2005 Women's National Basketball Association League (WNBA). The game-related statistics included were 2- and 3- point field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful), free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, blocks, fouls, steals, turnovers and minutes played. Results from multivariate analysis showed that when best teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.47), successful free-throws (SC = 0.44), fouls (SC = -0.41), assists (SC = 0.37), and defensive rebounds (SC = 0.37). When the worst teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field- goals (SC = 0.37), successful free-throws (SC = 0.45), assists (SC = 0.58), and steals (SC = 0.35). The results showed that the successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and the assists were the most powerful variables discriminating between starters and nonstarters. These specific characteristics helped to point out the importance of starters' players shooting and passing ability during competitions. Key pointsThe players' game-related statistical profile varied according to team status, game outcome and team quality in women's basketball.The results of this work help to point out the different player's performance described in women's basketball compared with men's basketball.The results obtained enhance the importance of starters and nonstarters contribution to team's performance in different game contexts.Results showed the power of successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and assists discriminating between starters and nonstarters in all the analyses.

  10. Repeated-sprint ability and team selection in Australian football league players.

    PubMed

    Le Rossignol, Peter; Gabbett, Tim J; Comerford, Dan; Stanton, Warren R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between selected physical capacities and repeated-sprint performance of Australian Football League (AFL) players and to determine which physical capacities contributed to being selected for the first competition game. Sum of skinfolds, 40-m sprint (with 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-m splits), repeated-sprint ability (6 × 30-m sprints), and 3-km-run time were measured during the preseason in 20 AFL players. The physical qualities of players selected to play the first match of the season and those not selected were compared. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship among variables, and a regression analysis identified variables significantly related to repeated-sprint performance. In the regression analysis, maximum velocity was the best predictor of repeated-sprint time, with 3-km-run time also contributing significantly to the predictive model. Sum of skinfolds was significantly correlated with 10-m (r = .61, P < .01) and 30-m (r = .53, P < .05) sprint times. A 2.6% ± 2.1% difference in repeated-sprint time (P < .05, ES = 0.88 ± 0.72) was observed between those selected (25.26 ± 0.55 s) and not selected (25.82 ± 0.80 s) for the first game of the season. The findings indicate that maximum-velocity training using intervals of 30-40 m may contribute more to improving repeated-sprint performance in AFL players than short 10- to 20-m intervals from standing starts. Further research is warranted to establish the relative importance of endurance training for improving repeated-sprint performance in AFL football.

  11. Physical Attributes and NFL Combine Performance Tests Between Italian National League and American Football Players: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Caumo, Andrea; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; La Torre, Antonio; Battaglini, Claudio L; Carandente, Franca

    2016-10-01

    Vitale, JA, Caumo, A, Roveda, E, Montaruli, A, La Torre, A, Battaglini, CL, and Carandente, F. Physical attributes and NFL Combine performance tests between Italian National League and American football players: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2802-2808, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine anthropometric measurements and the results of a battery of performance tests administered during the National Football League (NFL) Combine between American football players who were declared eligible to participate in the NFL Combine and football players of a top Italian team (Rhinos Milan). Participants (N = 50) were categorized by position into 1 of 3 groups based on playing position: skill players (SP) included wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs; big skill players (BSP) consisted of fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends; lineman (LM) included centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. A 1-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used for comparisons between Italian players by playing position. Ninety-five percent CIs were used for comparisons between American and Italian football for the NFL Combine performance tests. Significant differences for all the variables between the 3 playing categories were observed among the Italian players; LM had higher anthropometric and body composition values than SP (p < 0.001) and BSP (p < 0.001), whereas LM performed significantly worse in the physical tests, except for the 225-lb bench press test when compared with SP (p < 0.002). American football players presented significantly higher anthropometric values and test performance scores when compared with Italian players. Administrators of professional football teams in Italy need to improve the player's physical attributes, so the gap that currently exists between American and Italian players can be reduced, which could significantly improve the

  12. Risk Stratification for Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury in Major League Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    DeFroda, Steven F.; Kriz, Peter K.; Hall, Amber M.; Zurakowski, David; Fadale, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury has become increasingly common in Major League Baseball (MLB) players in recent years. Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in preinjury fastball velocity between MLB pitchers with tears and matched controls without UCL injury. Pitchers with injuries are throwing harder and getting injured earlier in their MLB careers. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, a total of 170 documented UCL injuries (156 pitchers, 14 position players) occurred in MLB. Inclusion criteria for this study consisted of any player who tore his UCL in MLB during this time frame. There were 130 regular-season tears (April-September). From this group, 118 players who pitched more than 100 innings prior to tear were matched to subjects with no tear and were compared using a logistic regression analysis. A subgroup of “early tear” players who threw less than 100 career innings (n = 37) was also identified and compared with the larger tear group using a logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 130 tears that occurred during the regular season, a significantly larger number (62%) occurred in the first 3 months (P = .011). The rate of UCL tears per MLB player (P = .001) was statistically significant. In the group of 118 matched tears, the mean fastball velocity was greater in the tear group (91.7 mph) compared with the control group (91.0 mph; P = .014). Furthermore, relief pitchers made up a greater percentage of the early tear group (<100 innings) compared with the later tear group (P = .011). Sixteen of the 170 UCL tears (9.4%) were recurrent tears, with 5 of 16 experiencing both tear and retear within the past 4 years. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference in the mean fastball velocity of pitchers who injure their UCL. Small increases in pitcher fastball velocity are a main contribution to the increased rate of tear in MLB. In addition, there has been an increased

  13. Performance After Rotator Cuff Tear and Operative Treatment: A Case-Control Study of Major League Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith; Ahn, Albert; Huffman, G. Russell; Sennett, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Little is known about pitching performance or lack of it among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who undergo operative treatment of rotator cuff tears. Objective: To assess pitching performance outcomes in MLB players who needed operative treatment of rotator cuff tears and to compare performance in these athletes with that in a control group of MLB players. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Publicly available player profiles, press releases, and team injury reports. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-three MLB pitchers with documented surgery to treat rotator cuff tears and 117 control pitchers who did not have documented rotator cuff tears were identified. Main Outcome Measure(s): Major League Baseball pitching attrition and performance variables. Results: Players who underwent rotator cuff surgery were no more likely not to play than control players. Performance variables of players who underwent surgery improved after surgery but never returned to baseline preoperative status. Players who needed rotator cuff surgery typically were more experienced and had better earned run averages than control players. Conclusions: Pitchers who had symptomatic rotator cuff tears that necessitated operative treatment tended to decline gradually in performance leading up to their operations and to improve gradually over the next 3 seasons. In contrast to what we expected, they did not have a greater attrition rate than their control counterparts; however, their performances did not return to preoperative levels over the course of the study. PMID:21669100

  14. Daily Distribution of Macronutrient Intakes of Professional Soccer Players From the English Premier League.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-28

    The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 h recalls) of professional soccer players (n=6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the pre-match (<1.5 g.kg(-1) body mass) and post-match (1 g.kg(-1) body mass) meals (in recovery from an evening kick-off) were similar (P>0.05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for pre-match CHO intake and post-match recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (P<0.05 for all comparisons) to protein feeding such that dinner (0.8 g.kg(-1))>lunch (0.6 g.kg(-1))>breakfast (0.3 g.kg(-1))>evening snacks (0.1 g.kg(-1)). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the pre-match and post-match meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen re-synthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.

  15. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention.

  16. Prevalence and characterization of mild cognitive impairment in retired national football league players.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Christopher; Karantzoulis, Stella; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to repetitive head trauma from contact sports over a long-playing career may eventuate in an increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment. There are currently two competing hypotheses about the possible mechanism underlying such impairment. One is the presence of a unique neurodegenerative disorder known as ‘‘chronic traumatic encephalopathy’’ (CTE). The other is diminished cerebral reserve leading to the earlier clinical expression of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease(AD). The present study examined informant AD8 inventory data in a sample of 513 retired National Football League(NFL) players. These data were indicative of possible cognitive impairment in 35.1% of this relatively young sample. A comparison of neurocognitive profiles in a subsample of this group to a clinical sample of patients with a diagnosis of MCI due to AD revealed a highly similar profile of impairments. Overall, the data suggest that there may be an increased prevalence of late-life cognitive impairment in retired NFL players, which may reflect diminished cerebral reserve. The findings are considered preliminary, but emphasize the need for larger, controlled studies on this issue.

  17. Three-compartment body composition changes in elite rugby league players during a super league season, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Harley, Jamie A; Hind, Karen; O'hara, John P

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the acute changes in body composition that occur over the course of a competitive season in elite rugby league players. Twenty elite senior players from an English Super League rugby league team underwent a total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan at 3 phases of a competitive season: preseason (February), midseason (June), and postseason (September). Body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), lean mass, percentage body fat, and bone mineral content (BMC) were reported at each phase. Between the start and midpoint of the season, BM, lean mass, FM, and body fat percentage showed no significant change (p > 0.05); however, BMC was significantly increased (+0.71%; 30.70 ± 38.00 g; p < 0.05). Between the midseason and postseason phase, BM and BMC showed no significant change (p > 0.05); however, significant changes were observed in lean mass (-1.54%; 1.19 ± 1.43 kg), FM (+4.09%; 0.57 ± 1.10 kg), and body fat percentage (+4.98%; 0.78 ± 1.09%; p < 0.05). The significant changes in body composition seen over the latter stages of the competitive season may have implications for performance capabilities at this important stage of competition. An increase in FM and decrease in lean mass may have a negative effect on the power/BM ratio, and therefore may be a cause for concern for playing, coaching, and medical staff. Coaching and strength and conditioning staff should aim to prescribe appropriate training and nutritional practices with the aim of maintaining the players' optimal body composition until the conclusion of the competitive season, in order that performance capabilities are maximized over the entire competition period.

  18. The effects of tapering on power-force-velocity profiling and jump performance in professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    de Lacey, James; Brughelli, Matt; McGuigan, Michael; Hansen, Keir; Samozino, Pierre; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a preseason taper on individual power-force-velocity profiles and jump performance in professional National Rugby League players. Seven professional rugby league players performed concentric squat jumps using ascending loads of 25, 50, 75, 100% body mass before and after a 21-day step taper leading into the in-season. Linear force-velocity relationships were derived, and the following variables were obtained: maximum theoretical velocity (V0), maximum theoretical force (F0), and maximum power (Pmax). The players showed likely-to-very likely increases in F0 (effect size [ES] = 0.45) and Pmax (ES = 0.85) from pre to posttaper. Loaded squat jump height also showed likely-to-most likely increases at each load (ES = 0.83-1.04). The 21-day taper was effective at enhancing maximal power output and jump height performance in professional rugby players, possibly as a result of a recovery from fatigue and thus increased strength capability after a prolonged preseason training period. Rugby league strength and conditioning coaches should consider reducing training volume while maintaining intensity and aerobic conditioning (e.g., step taper) leading into the in-season.

  19. The influence of training age on the annual development of physical qualities within academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Weakley, Jonathon; Roe, Greg; Jones, Ben

    2016-07-15

    Previous research in academy rugby league players has evaluated the development of physical qualities according to chronological age. However, no study has considered the training age, defined as the number of formalized years of strength and conditioning training, of these players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to present and compare the annual changes in physical qualities of academy rugby league players according to training age. Sixty-one academy players undertook a fitness testing assessment including anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of four skinfolds) and physical (10 and 20m sprint, 10m momentum, vertical jump, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [Yo-Yo IRTL1], one-repetition maximum [1-RM] squat, bench press and prone row) measures at the start of pre-season on two consecutive annual occasions. Players were categorized into one of three training age groups (i.e., 0, 1 or 2 years) and were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. Almost certain, very likely or likely annual improvements were identified for body mass, 10m momentum, Yo-Yo IRTL1, vertical jump and all strength measures for the three training age groups. When training age groups were compared, 1 years showed possibly or likely lower strength increases than 0 years training age. However, the 2 years training age group demonstrated possibly or likely increased strength changes compared to 1 years. These findings suggest that training age is an important consideration for strength and conditioning practitioners but it is likely to be a combination of chronological age, biological maturity and training experience alongside dynamic inter-player variability that influences the physical development of academy rugby league players.

  20. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of junior elite and sub-elite rugby league players, with special reference to starters and non-starters.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim; Kelly, Jason; Ralph, Steve; Driscoll, Damian

    2009-01-01

    While several studies have documented the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of senior rugby league players, investigations of the physical qualities of junior rugby league players are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical qualities of junior rugby league players competing at the elite and sub-elite level, and determine if pre-season fitness measures were significantly different for the players selected to play in the first game of the season (i.e. starters) compared to the players not selected (i.e. non-starters). Thirty-six junior sub-elite and 28 junior elite rugby league players participated in this study. All sub-elite players were registered with the same junior recreational rugby league club, while elite players were members of a National Rugby League club junior development program. Subjects underwent measurements of anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of seven skinfolds), speed (10m, 20m, and 40m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), estimated lower body power (vertical jump), and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test) at the beginning of the competitive season. Elite players had better developed speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and maximal aerobic power than sub-elite players. Elite starters were taller and heavier than non-starters, while sub-elite starters were taller and had greater change of direction speed than non-starters. A high estimated maximal aerobic power was a common discriminator between starters and non-starters for both elite and sub-elite competitors. These findings demonstrate that some physical qualities can discriminate starters and non-starters in elite and sub-elite junior rugby league teams.

  1. Match intensity and pacing strategies in rugby league: an examination of whole-game and interchanged players, and winning and losing teams.

    PubMed

    Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J

    2014-06-01

    There is currently limited information on whether pacing occurs during rugby league match play. In addition, to date no research has investigated whether pacing strategies differ between winning and losing teams. This study investigated the pacing strategies of whole-game and interchanged rugby league players. Furthermore, we investigated the pacing strategies of winning and losing teams. Fifty-two rugby league players, from a sample of 11 teams competing in a semi-elite competition, underwent global positioning system analysis. Performances were divided into match quartiles for whole-game and interchanged players. Total distance, including low- and high-speed distances, and repeated high-intensity effort bouts were recorded. The total distance and low-speed distance covered across all quartiles of the match, but specifically quartiles 1 and 8, were greater for interchanged players than whole-game players. The match outcome differentially affected the pacing strategies of whole-game and interchanged players. Whole-game players from winning teams set a higher pacing strategy than whole-game players from losing teams (effect size [ES] = 1.03 ± 0.77, 96%, very likely), whereas interchanged players from losing teams demonstrated a greater "end-spurt" than interchanged players from winning teams (ES = 0.60 ± 0.52, 96%, very likely). The pacing strategies of interchanged players were higher than whole-game players, irrespective of playing position. The results of this study suggest that pacing strategies differ between interchanged and whole-game rugby league players. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a different pacing strategy between winning and losing teams. These findings suggest that physical preparation for rugby league matches, and recovery from these matches, should be individualized for whole-game and interchanged players. Finally, performing physically intense training on a regular basis is likely to develop the physical and mental qualities required to

  2. Anthropometric and Three-Compartment Body Composition Differences between Super League and Championship Rugby League Players: Considerations for the 2015 Season and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; Barlow, Matthew; Lees, Matthew; O’Hara, John Paul; Hind, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Super League (SL) and Championship (RLC) rugby league players will compete against each other in 2015 and beyond. To identify possible discrepancies, this study compared the anthropometric profile and body composition of current SL (full-time professional) and RLC (part-time semi-professional) players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A cross-sectional design involved DXA scans on 67 SL (n=29 backs, n=38 forwards) and 46 RLC (n=20 backs, n=26 forwards) players during preseason. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare age, stature, body mass, soft tissue fat percentage, bone mineral content (BMC), total and regional (i.e., arms, legs and trunk) fat and lean mass between SL forwards, SL backs, RLC forwards and RLC backs. No significant differences in age, stature or body mass were observed. SL forwards and backs had relatively less soft tissue fat (17.5 ± 3.7 and 14.8 ± 3.6 vs. 21.4 ± 4.3 and 20.8 ± 3.8%), greater BMC (4,528 ± 443 and 4,230 ± 447 vs. 4,302 ± 393 and 3,971 ± 280 g), greater trunk lean mass (37.3 ± 3.0 and 35.3 ± 3.8 vs. 34.9 ± 32.3 and 32.3 ± 2.6 kg) and less trunk fat mass (8.5 ± 2.7 and 6.2 ± 2.1 vs. 10.7 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 2.9 kg) than RLC forwards and backs. Observed differences may reflect selection based on favourable physical attributes, or training adaptations. To reduce this discrepancy, some RLC players should reduce fat mass and increase lean mass, which may be of benefit for the 2015 season and beyond. PMID:26221720

  3. Critical reflection of the advanced rehabilitation of an elite rugby league player sustaining a posterior Bankart lesion.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Andrew; Funk, Lennard

    2013-02-01

    The following is a critical description and discussion of the successful assessment and rehabilitation of a right shoulder posterior Bankart repair in an elite rugby league player. The rehabilitation follows accelerated, goal based guidelines, widely adopted in current sports practice but not well documented in the literature (Funk & Snow, 2007; Park, Lin, Yokota, & McFarland, 2004). The study serves to be the first critical discussion of such a regime.

  4. Effect of different between-match recovery times on the activity profiles and injury rates of national rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Murray, Nick B; Gabbett, Tim J; Chamari, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Professional rugby league competition does not coincide with a standardized amount of recovery between matches; matches can be separated by as many as 10 days and as few as 5 days. These variations in recovery time could influence the match activity profiles and injury rates of players. This study investigated the effect of different between-match recovery times on the activity profiles and injury rates of National Rugby League (NRL) players. Forty-three elite male rugby league players participated in this study. Between-match recovery cycles were defined as short (separated by 5 or 6 days), medium (separated by 7 or 8 days), and long (separated by 9 or 10 days) recovery. Movement was recorded using a commercially available microtechnology unit, which provided information on speed, distance, and repeated high-intensity effort activity. Injuries sustained in either training or match play, which resulted in a missed match, were recorded. Significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) relative total distance was covered after matches involving short recovery than those involving medium (effect size [ES] = 1.13) or long (ES = 1.08) recovery periods. This difference was because of greater low-speed activity. Injury rates for the adjustables positional group were the highest after short between-match recovery cycles, whereas the injury rates of hit-up forwards and outside backs positional groups were the highest after long between-match recovery cycles. These findings suggest that the activity profiles of NRL match play and the injury rates of specific playing positions are influenced by the amount of recovery between matches. The differences in the activity profiles and injury rates between short, medium, and long between-match recovery cycles should be considered when developing recovery strategies for professional rugby league players.

  5. Radiographic Hip Anatomy Correlates With Range of Motion and Symptoms in National Hockey League Players.

    PubMed

    Larson, Christopher M; Ross, James R; Kuhn, Andrew W; Fuller, Donnie; Rowley, David M; Giveans, M Russell; Stone, Rebecca M; Bedi, Asheesh

    2017-06-01

    Hip disorders in athletes have been increasingly recognized. To characterize radiographic hip anatomy for National Hockey League (NHL) players and correlate it with hip range of motion and hip symptoms and/or surgery. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-nine professional hockey players (118 hips) with 1 NHL organization (mean age, 24.2 years; range, 18-36) prospectively underwent history and physician examination by 2 independent orthopaedic surgeons. Current or previous groin and/or hip pain or surgery was noted. Anteroposterior (AP) pelvis and bilateral Dunn lateral radiographs were obtained for all players with assessment of hip morphology by 2 blinded independent orthopaedic surgeons. Good to very good reliability of radiographic assessments was noted (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.749-0.958). Sixty-four percent of athletes had a positive crossover sign, while 86% and 60% had a positive posterior wall sign and a prominent ischial spine sign, respectively. Twenty-one percent of hips demonstrated dysplastic acetabular features (lateral center edge angle <25°). Eighty-five percent and 89% of hips demonstrated cam-type morphology based on alpha angle (>50° Dunn lateral) and head-neck offset, respectively. Good to very good reliability was noted for ROM assessments (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.69). Mean hip flexion was 107.4º ± 6.7º, and mean hip internal rotation was 26.1º ± 6.6º. Thirty-one percent of hips had a history of hip-related pain and/or surgery. Higher AP, Dunn lateral, and maximal alpha angles correlated with decreased hip internal rotation ( P = .004). Greater AP alpha angle correlated with decreased hip extension/abduction ( P = .025), and greater Dunn lateral and maximal alpha angle correlated with decreased hip flexion/abduction ( P = .001). A positive posterior wall sign correlated with increased straight hip abduction, while other radiographic acetabular parameters were not predictive of range of motion

  6. Relation between playing position and coronary artery calcium scores in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Basra, Sukhdeep Singh; Pokharel, Yashashwi; Hira, Ravi S; Bandeali, Salman J; Nambi, Vijay; Deswal, Anita; Nasir, Khurram; Martin, Seth S; Vogel, Robert A; Roberts, Arthur J; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2014-12-15

    Retired National Football League (NFL) linemen have an increased prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis and have an increased risk of cardiovascular death compared with nonlinemen and the general population. We evaluated whether playing in lineman position is independently associated with an increased risk of the presence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis. Players were categorized as linemen if they reported playing on the offensive or defensive line during their careers. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed using coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores in 931 retired NFL players (310 linemen, 621 nonlinemen). CAC scores were evaluated for absence of subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC = 0), presence of mild subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC 1 to 100), and moderate to severe subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC ≥100). We performed multivariate logistic regression to determine whether the lineman position is independently associated with the presence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis. Linemen were noted to have a lesser likelihood of absence of subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC = 0, 33.8% vs 41.7%, p = 0.02), a similar likelihood of mild subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC 1 to 100, 33.2% vs 31.8%, p = 0.7), and a greater likelihood of moderate to severe subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC >100, 32.9% vs 26.4%, p = 0.04) compared with nonlinemen. Adjusting for demographic and metabolic covariates, lineman status remained independently associated with mild subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC 1 to 100, odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 2.2, p = 0.04) and moderate to severe subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC ≥100, OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.2). The association was attenuated after adjustment for race (CAC 1 to 100, OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.8; CAC >100, OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.49). In conclusion, lineman status in retired NFL players is associated with presence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis, which is partly

  7. Comparison of lower body strength, power, acceleration, speed, agility, and sprint momentum to describe and compare playing rank among professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2008-01-01

    Success in rugby league football seems heavily reliant on players possessing an adequate degree of various physical fitness qualities, such as strength, power, speed, agility, and endurance, as well as the individual skills and team tactical abilities. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the lower body strength, power, acceleration, maximal speed, agility, and sprint momentum of elite first-division national rugby league (NRL) players (n = 20) to second-division state league (SRL) players (n = 20) players from the same club. Strength and maximal power were the best discriminators of which players were in the NRL or SRL squads. None of the sprinting tests, such as acceleration (10-m sprint), maximal speed (40-m sprint), or a unique 40-m agility test, could distinguish between the NRL or SRL squads. However, sprint momentum, which was a product of 10-m velocity and body mass, was better for discriminating between NRL and SRL players as heavier, faster players would possess better drive forward and conversely be better able to repel their opponents' drive forward. Strength and conditioning specialists should therefore pay particular attention to increasing lower body strength and power and total body mass through appropriate resistance training while maintaining or improving 10-m sprint speed to provide their players with the underlying performance characteristics of play at the elite level in rugby leagues.

  8. Variable Resistance Training Promotes Greater Strength and Power Adaptations Than Traditional Resistance Training in Elite Youth Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Maxence; Louit, Loic; Strokosch, Alasdair; Seitz, Laurent B

    2017-04-01

    Rivière, M, Louit, L, Strokosch, A, and Seitz, LB. Variable resistance training promotes greater strength and power adaptations than traditional resistance training in elite youth rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 947-955, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, velocity, and power adaptations in youth rugby league players in response to a variable resistance training (VRT) or traditional free-weight resistance training (TRAD) intervention. Sixteen elite youth players were assigned to a VRT or TRAD group and completed 2 weekly upper- and lower-body strength and power sessions for 6 weeks. Training programs were identical except that the VRT group trained the bench press exercise with 20% of the prescribed load coming from elastic bands. Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and bench press mean velocity and power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM were measured before and after the training intervention, and the magnitude of the changes was determined using effect sizes (ESs). The VRT group experienced larger increases in both absolute (ES = 0.46 vs. 0.20) and relative (ES = 0.41 vs. 0.19) bench press 1RM. Similar results were observed for mean velocity as well as both absolute and relative mean power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM. Furthermore, both groups experienced large gains in both velocity and power in the heavier loads but small improvements in the lighter loads. The improvements in both velocity and power against the heavier loads were larger for the VRT group, whereas smaller differences existed between the 2 groups in the lighter loads. Variable resistance training using elastic bands may offer a greater training stimulus than traditional free-weight resistance training to improve upper-body strength, velocity, and power in elite youth rugby league players.

  9. Fluid consumption and sweating in National Football League and collegiate football players with different access to fluids during practice.

    PubMed

    Godek, Sandra Fowkes; Bartolozzi, Arthur R; Peduzzi, Chris; Heinerichs, Scott; Garvin, Eugene; Sugarman, Eric; Burkholder, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Considerable controversy regarding fluid replacement during exercise currently exists. To compare fluid turnover between National Football League (NFL) players who have constant fluid access and collegiate football players who replace fluids during water breaks in practices. Observational study. Respective preseason training camps of 1 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II (DII) football team and 1 NFL football team. Both morning and afternoon practices for DII players were 2.25 hours in length, and NFL players practiced for 2.25 hours in the morning and 1 hour in the afternoon. Environmental conditions did not differ. Eight NFL players (4 linemen, 4 backs) and 8 physically matched DII players (4 linemen, 4 backs) participated. All players drank fluids only from their predetermined individual containers. The NFL players could consume both water and sports drinks, and the DII players could only consume water. We measured fluid consumption, sweat rate, total sweat loss, and percentage of sweat loss replaced. Sweat rate was calculated as change in mass adjusted for fluids consumed and urine produced. Mean sweat rate was not different between NFL (2.1 +/- 0.25 L/h) and DII (1.8 +/- 0.15 L/h) players (F(1,12) = 2, P = .18) but was different between linemen (2.3 +/- 0.2 L/h) and backs (1.6 +/- 0.2 L/h) (t(14) = 3.14, P = .007). We found no differences between NFL and DII players in terms of percentage of weight loss (t(7) = -0.03, P = .98) or rate of fluid consumption (t(7) = -0.76, P = .47). Daily sweat loss was greater in DII (8.0 +/- 2.0 L) than in NFL (6.4 +/- 2.1 L) players (t(7) = -3, P = .02), and fluid consumed was also greater in DII (5.0 +/- 1.5 L) than in NFL (4.0 +/- 1.1 L) players (t(7) = -2.8, P = .026). We found a correlation between sweat loss and fluids consumed (r = 0.79, P < .001). During preseason practices, the DII players drinking water at water breaks replaced the same volume of fluid (66% of weight lost) as NFL players with constant

  10. Positional physical characteristics of players drafted into the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the positional physical requirements necessary to be drafted into the National Football League (NFL), data from the annual NFL combine over the years 2005-2009 were examined. Only those players invited to the combine and subsequently drafted in the same year (n = 1,136) were included in the study. Data from 8 combine physical performance tests were examined for 15 positions. Combine measures evaluated for the center, cornerback, defensive end, defensive tackle, free safety, fullback, inside linebacker, offensive guard, offensive tackle, outside linebacker, quarterback, running back, strong safety, tight end, and wide receiver positions were the 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprints, the vertical and broad jumps, the 18.3-m shuttle run, the 3-cone drill, and the 102.1-kg bench press for maximum repetitions and, from this, a predicted measure of 1 repetition maximum. A 1-way analysis of variance detected differences in all 9 performance measures (p < 0.01). Post hoc independent t-tests indicated that over most tests many positions exhibited outcomes significantly different from most other positions. Generally, lineman positions performed inferiorly in sprint, jump and change-of-direction ability measures and superiorly in the upper body strength measures. Conversely, defensive back positions were the worst performers in the upper body strength test, and wide receivers and defensive backs were the best performers in all other measures. In general, offensive and defensive positions that commonly compete directly against one another display similar physical characteristics. Any advantages (statistically significant and not) between positions in direct competition were consistently in favor of defensive positions. The results of the present research present position-specific profiles for each of 15 positions. Coaches and practitioners will be able to use the findings of this research to better prepare athletes for entry into the NFL.

  11. Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired National Football League players: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Womack, Kyle B; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess cognitive impairment and depression in aging former professional football (National Football League [NFL]) players and to identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. DESIGN We compared former NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression, cognitively normal retired players who were not depressed, and matched healthy control subjects. SETTING Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. PATIENTS Cross-sectional sample of former NFL players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region and age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. Thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age, 61.8 years) underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. A subset of 26 players also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared with imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging mea-sures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow. RESULTS Of the 34 former NFL players, 20 were cognitively normal. Four were diagnosed as having a fixed cognitive deficit; 8, mild cognitive impairment; 2, dementia; and 8, depression. Of the subgroup in whom neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired participants showed the greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in cognitively impaired and depressed retired players compared with their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the cognitively impaired group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming, and word finding). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging former NFL players compared with healthy

  12. Season-long increases in perceived muscle soreness in professional rugby league players: role of player position, match characteristics and playing surface.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ben D; Twist, Craig; Haigh, Julian D; Brewer, Clive; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2016-01-01

    Rugby League (RL) is a high-impact collision sport characterised by repeated sprints and numerous high-speed impacts and consequently players often report immediate and prolonged muscle soreness in the days after a match. We examined muscle soreness after matches during a full season to understand the extent to which match characteristics influence soreness. Thirty-one elite Super League players provided daily measures of muscle soreness after each of the 26 competitive fixtures of the 2012 season. Playing position, phase of the season, playing surface and match characteristics were recorded from each match. Muscle soreness peaked at day 1 and was still apparent at day 4 post-game with no attenuation in the magnitude of muscle soreness over the course of the season. Neither playing position, phase of season or playing surface had any effects on the extent of muscle soreness. Playing time and total number of collisions were significantly correlated with higher ratings of muscle soreness, especially in the forwards. These data indicate the absence "contact adaptations" in elite rugby players with soreness present throughout the entire season. Strategies must now be implemented to deal with the physical and psychological consequences of prolonged feeling of pain.

  13. Sleep-apnea risk and subclinical atherosclerosis in early-middle-aged retired National Football League players

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S; Dunn, Reginald E; Lauderdale, Diane S; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Tucker, Andrew M; Vogel, Robert A; Lincoln, Andrew E; Knutson, Kristen L; Pellman, Elliot J; Strollo, Patrick J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Limited data from former National Football League (NFL) players suggest that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be highly prevalent after retirement. It remains unclear whether the high prevalence of OSA in retired players is comparable to nonathletes. This retrospective analysis compared sleep apnea (SA) risk in retired NFL players to a community cohort (CARDIA Sleep study), and examined associations between SA risk and cardiovascular risk factors, including subclinical atherosclerosis. Materials and methods Retired NFL players (n=122) were matched to CARDIA Sleep participants by age ±2 years (range 37–55 years), body mass index ±2 kg/m2, race, and male sex. Participants underwent electron-beam computed tomography to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC) and completed the Berlin Questionnaire to determine SA risk. The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score >0. Results Retired NFL players had a greater prevalence of high SA risk than the matched CARDIA Sleep participants (27% vs 11.5%, P=0.002). Compared to the CARDIA Sleep participants, retired players were less likely to smoke, and had higher blood pressure, lower fasting glucose levels, and higher cholesterol levels. However, there was no difference in the prevalence of detectable CAC (30% vs 30%, P=1). In both players and the community cohort, SA risk was not significantly associated with CAC after controlling for age, race, and body mass index. Conclusion Retired NFL players have a greater prevalence of high SA risk but similar prevalence of CAC compared with a well-matched community cohort. PMID:28260958

  14. The National Football League Combine: performance differences between drafted and nondrafted players entering the 2004 and 2005 drafts.

    PubMed

    Sierer, S Patrick; Battaglini, Claudio L; Mihalik, Jason P; Shields, Edgar W; Tomasini, Nathan T

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine performance differences between drafted and nondrafted athletes (N = 321) during the 2004 and 2005 National Football League (NFL) Combines. We categorized players into one of 3 groups: Skill, Big skill, and Linemen. Skill players (SP) consisted of wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs. Big skill players (BSP) included fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends. Linemen (LM) consisted of centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. We analyzed player height and mass, as well as performance on the following combine drills: 40-yard dash, 225-lb bench press test, vertical jump, broad jump, pro-agility shuttle, and the 3-cone drill. Student t-tests compared performance on each of these measures between drafted and nondrafted players. Statistical significance was found between drafted and nondrafted SP for the 40-yard dash (P < 0.001), vertical jump (P = 0.003), pro-agility shuttle (P < 0.001), and 3-cone drill (P < 0.001). Drafted and nondrafted BSP performed differently on the 40-yard dash (P = 0.002) and 3-cone drill (P = 0.005). Finally, drafted LM performed significantly better than nondrafted LM on the 40-yard dash (P = 0.016), 225-lb bench press (P = 0.003), and 3-cone drill (P = 0.005). Certified strength and conditioning specialists will be able to utilize the significant findings to help better prepare athletes as they ready themselves for the NFL Combine.

  15. Comparison of somatotype values of football players in two professional league football teams according to the positions.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic.

  16. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  17. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  18. Seasonal change in bone, muscle and fat in professional rugby league players and its relationship to injury: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Georgeson, Erin C; Weeks, Benjamin K; McLellan, Chris; Beck, Belinda R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the anthropometric characteristics of an Australian National Rugby League team and identify the relationship to type and incidence of injuries sustained during a professional season. It was hypothesised that body composition would not change discernibly across a season and that injury would be negatively related to preseason bone and muscle mass. Design A repeated measure, prospective, observational, cohort study. Setting Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia. Participants 37 professional male Australian National Rugby League players, 24.3 (3.8) years of age were recruited for preseason 1 testing, of whom 25 were retested preseason 2. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome measures included biometrics; body composition (bone, muscle and fat mass; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; XR800, Norland Medical Systems, Inc); bone geometry and strength (peripheral quantitative CT; XCT 3000, Stratec); calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA; QUS-2, Quidel); diet and physical activity history. Secondary outcome measures included player injuries across a single playing season. Results Lean mass decreased progressively throughout the season (pre=81.45(7.76) kg; post=79.89(6.72) kg; p≤0.05), while whole body (WB) bone mineral density (BMD) increased until mid-season (pre=1.235(0.087) g/cm2; mid=1.296(0.093) g/cm2; p≤0.001) then decreased thereafter (post=1.256(0.100); p≤0.001). Start-of-season WB BMD, fat and lean mass, weight and tibial mass measured at the 38% site predicted bone injury incidence, but no other relationship was observed between body composition and injury. Conclusions Significant anthropometric changes were observed in players across a professional rugby league season, including an overall loss of muscle and an initial increase, followed by a decrease in bone mass. Strong relationships between anthropometry and incidence of injury were not observed. Long-term tracking of large rugby league cohorts is

  19. Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    McLean, Blake D; Coutts, Aaron J; Kelly, Vince; McGuigan, Michael R; Cormack, Stuart J

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in neuromuscular, perceptual and hormonal measures following professional rugby league matches during different length between-match microcycles. Twelve professional rugby league players from the same team were assessed for changes in countermovement jump (CMJ) performance (flight time and relative power), perceptual responses (fatigue, well-being and muscle soreness) and salivary hormone (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) levels during 5, 7 and 9 d between-match training microcycles. All training was prescribed by the club coaches and was monitored using the session-RPE method. Lower mean daily training load was completed on the 5 d compared with the 7 and 9 d microcycles. CMJ flight time and relative power, perception of fatigue, overall well-being and muscle soreness were significantly reduced in the 48 h following the match in each microcycle (P < .05). Most CMJ variables returned to near baseline values following 4 d in each microcycle. Countermovement jump relative power was lower in the 7 d microcycle in comparison with the 9 d microcycle (P < .05). There was increased fatigue at 48 h in the 7 and 9 d microcycles (P < .05) but had returned to baseline in the 5 d microcycle. Salivary T and C did not change in response to the match. Neuromuscular performance and perception of fatigue are reduced for at least 48 h following a rugby league match but can be recovered to baseline levels within 4 d. These findings show that with appropriate training, it is possible to recover neuromuscular and perceptual measures within 4 d after a rugby league match.

  20. Historical Patterns and Variation in Treatment of Injuries in NFL (National Football League) Players and NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Players.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Langner, Paula; Cook, Shane; Ellis, Byron; Godfrey, Jenna M

    We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians. Although patellar tendon autograft was the preferred graft choice for both groups of team physicians, the percentage of NCAA physicians who allowed return to football 6 months or less after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was significantly (P = .03) higher than that of NFL physicians. Prophylactic knee bracing, which may prevent medial collateral ligament injuries, was used at a significantly (P < .0001) higher rate by NCAA teams (89%) than by NFL teams (28%). Ketorolac injections were given by a significantly (P < .01) higher percentage of NFL teams (93%) than of NCAA teams (62%). Understanding the current trends in the management of these injuries is beneficial in designing studies that may help improve the treatment and prevention of injuries in football players.

  1. Repetitive head impact exposure and later-life plasma total tau in former National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Alosco, Michael L; Tripodis, Yorghos; Jarnagin, Johnny; Baugh, Christine M; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Estochen, Nate; Song, Linan; Cantu, Robert C; Jeromin, Andreas; Stern, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Blood protein analysis of total tau (t-tau) may be a practical screening biomarker for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repetitive head impact (RHI) exposure. We examined plasma t-tau in symptomatic former National Football League (NFL) players compared with controls and the relationship between RHI exposure and later-life plasma t-tau. Ninety-six former NFL players (age 40-69) and 25 same-age controls underwent blood draw to determine plasma t-tau levels. The cumulative head impact index (CHII) quantified RHI exposure. Subjects completed measures of clinical function. A higher CHII predicted greater plasma t-tau in the former NFL players (P = .0137). No group differences in plasma t-tau emerged, but a concentration ≥3.56 pg/mL was 100% specific to former NFL players. Plasma t-tau did not predict clinical function. Greater RHI exposure predicted higher later-life plasma t-tau concentrations, and further study on plasma t-tau as a candidate screening biomarker for CTE is warranted.

  2. Positional group significantly influences the offensive and defensive skill involvements of junior representative rugby league players during match play.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kyle J M; Fransen, Job; Scott, Brendan R; Sanctuary, Colin E; Gabbett, Tim J; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the skill involvements of three positional groups across a junior representative rugby league season. Data were collected from 45 rugby league players (mean ± SD; age = 16.5 ± 1.0 years) currently participating in the Harold Matthews and SG Ball Cup. Players were subdivided into hit-up forwards, adjustables and outside backs. The frequency (n · min(-1)) of offensive, defensive and overall involvements was coded for each group using a notation system and a practical coach skill analysis tool. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed a significant effect of playing position on skill involvements (F = 9.06; P < 0.001; ES = 0.41). Hit-up forwards performed a significantly greater frequency of offensive (0.31 ± 0.10), defensive (0.42 ± 0.15) and overall involvements (0.74 ± 0.19) when compared to adjustables (0.20 ± 0.08, 0.28 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.15, respectively) and outside backs (0.20 ± 0.12, 0.11 ± 0.07 and ± 0.31 ± 0.17, respectively). Further, adjustables performed a significantly greater number of defensive (0.28 ± 0.08) and overall involvements (0.52 ± 0.15) when compared to outside backs (0.11 ± 0.07 and 0.31 ± 0.17, respectively). The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider a junior player's positional group when analysing their skill involvements. Information gained from this study could assist in the design of specific training methodologies for junior rugby league players in high-level talent development programmes.

  3. Association between lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 mass and subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in Retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Nambi, Vijay; Martin, Seth S; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Nasir, Khurram; Khera, Amit; Wong, Nathan D; Jones, Peter H; Boone, Jeffrey; Roberts, Arthur J; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2014-10-01

    Retired National Football League (NFL) players were reported to have high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Lipoprotein Associated Phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) has shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease in the general population, but it is unknown whether such an association exists in retired NFL players. Our objective was to assess whether LpPLA2 mass was associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid artery plaque (CAP) in retired NFL players. LpPLA2 mass was assessed using a dual monoclonal antibody immunoassay. CAC presence was defined as CAC score>0. CAP was defined as focal thickening ≥50% than that of the surrounding vessel wall with a minimal thickness of 1.2 mm on carotid ultrasound. In 832 NFL players, the median (IQR) age and LpPLA2 levels were 54 (45-63) years and 142 (109-181) ng/mL respectively. LpPLA2 mass was positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; negatively correlated with LDL particle concentration and body mass index; and not correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. CAC was present in 659 (79%) and CAP in 544 (65%) players. In a fully adjusted model, LpPLA2 was not associated with CAC (OR per 1-SD increase, 0.85; 95% CI 0.71-1.02) or CAP (0.90, 0.75-1.08). LpPLA2 was also not associated with CAC burden in those with CAC>0. Results were similar when highest and lowest LpPLA2 tertiles were compared, and also in various subgroups. LpPLA2 mass was not associated with coronary or carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in retired NFL players. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between traditional cholesterol parameters, lipoprotein particle concentration, novel biomarkers and carotid plaques in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Virani, Salim S; Pompeii, Lisa; Lincoln, Andrew E; Dunn, Reginald E; Tucker, Andrew M; Nambi, Vijay; Nasir, Khurram; Vogel, Robert A; Boone, Jeffrey L; Roberts, Arthur J; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-06-01

    We assessed whether low-density lipoprotein particle concentration (LDL-P) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] can identify subclinical atherosclerosis better than traditional cholesterol parameters in retired National Football League (NFL) players. It is not known whether LDL-P and the biomarker hs-CRP can identify subclinical atherosclerosis better than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in retired NFL players, given high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these players. Carotid artery plaque screening was performed with traditional lipids, LDL-P, and hs-CRP in 996 retired players. Logistic regression analyses comparing highest with the lowest quartile were performed. Carotid artery plaques were seen in 41%. LDL-C (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.59), non-HDL-C (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.67), and LDL-P (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.62) were associated with plaques in adjusted models. Among 187 retired players with metabolic syndrome, LDL-C (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.53-3.72) was not associated with carotid plaques, whereas LDL-P (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.16-11.84) and non-HDL-C (OR 2.63, 95% CI 0.91-7.63, p=0.07; borderline significant) were associated with carotid plaques. hs-CRP (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.71-1.79) was not associated with carotid plaques. Carotid artery plaques were common in retired NFL players and were strongly associated with LDL-P, especially among those with metabolic syndrome. hs-CRP was not associated with carotid plaques in this cohort. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Influence of Fatigue on Tackling Ability in Rugby League Players: Role of Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Aerobic Qualities

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of repeated high-intensity effort exercise on tackling ability in rugby league players, and determined the relationship between physical qualities and tackling ability under fatigued conditions in these athletes. Eleven semi-professional rugby league players underwent measurements of speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), upper-body strength (4 repetition maximum [RM] bench press and weighted chin-up), upper-body muscular endurance (body mass maximum repetition chin-up, body mass maximum repetition dips), lower-body strength (4RM squat), and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test). Tackling ability was assessed using a standardized one-on-one tackling test, before, during, and following four bouts of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) exercise. The relationship between physical qualities and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability were determined using Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Each cycle of the RHIE protocol induced progressive reductions in tackling ability. A moderate reduction (Effect Size = ~-1.17 ± 0.60, -34.1 ± 24.3%) in tackling ability occurred after the fourth cycle of the RHIE protocol. Players with greater relative lower-body strength (i.e. 4RM squat/kg) had the best tackling ability under fatigued conditions (r = 0.72, p = 0.013). There were no significant relationships between tackling ability under fatigued conditions and any other physical quality. These findings suggest that lower-body strength protects against fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability. The development of lower-body strength should be a priority to facilitate the development of robust tackling skills that are maintained under fatigue. PMID:27798634

  6. Influence of Fatigue on Tackling Ability in Rugby League Players: Role of Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Aerobic Qualities.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of repeated high-intensity effort exercise on tackling ability in rugby league players, and determined the relationship between physical qualities and tackling ability under fatigued conditions in these athletes. Eleven semi-professional rugby league players underwent measurements of speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), upper-body strength (4 repetition maximum [RM] bench press and weighted chin-up), upper-body muscular endurance (body mass maximum repetition chin-up, body mass maximum repetition dips), lower-body strength (4RM squat), and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test). Tackling ability was assessed using a standardized one-on-one tackling test, before, during, and following four bouts of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) exercise. The relationship between physical qualities and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability were determined using Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Each cycle of the RHIE protocol induced progressive reductions in tackling ability. A moderate reduction (Effect Size = ~-1.17 ± 0.60, -34.1 ± 24.3%) in tackling ability occurred after the fourth cycle of the RHIE protocol. Players with greater relative lower-body strength (i.e. 4RM squat/kg) had the best tackling ability under fatigued conditions (r = 0.72, p = 0.013). There were no significant relationships between tackling ability under fatigued conditions and any other physical quality. These findings suggest that lower-body strength protects against fatigue-induced decrements in tackling ability. The development of lower-body strength should be a priority to facilitate the development of robust tackling skills that are maintained under fatigue.

  7. Influence of field size on the physiological and skill demands of small-sided games in junior and senior rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Abernethy, Bruce; Jenkins, David G

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in field size on the physiological and skill demands of small-sided games in elite junior and senior rugby league players. Sixteen elite senior rugby league players ([mean ± SE] age, 23.6 ± 0.5 years) and 16 elite junior rugby league players ([mean ± SE] age, 17.3 ± 0.3 years) participated in this study. On day 1, 2 teams played an 8-minute small-sided game on a small field (10-m width × 40-m length), whereas the remaining 2 teams played the small-sided game on a larger sized field (40-m width × 70-m length). On day 2, the groups were crossed over. Movement was recorded by a global positioning system unit sampling at 5 Hz. Games were filmed to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals. The games played on a larger field resulted in a greater (p < 0.05) total distance covered, and distances covered in moderate, high, and very-high velocity movement intensities. Senior players covered more distance at moderate, high, and very-high intensities, and less distance at low and very-low intensities during small-sided games than junior players. Although increasing field size had no significant influence (p > 0.05) over the duration of recovery periods for junior players, larger field size significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the amount of short-, moderate-, and long-duration recovery periods in senior players. No significant between-group differences (p > 0.05) were detected for games played on a small or large field for the number or quality of skill involvements. These results suggest that increases in field size serve to increase the physiological demands of small-sided games but have minimal influence over the volume or quality of skill executions in elite rugby league players.

  8. Fluid Consumption and Sweating in National Football League and Collegiate Football Players With Different Access to Fluids During Practice

    PubMed Central

    Godek, Sandra Fowkes; Bartolozzi, Arthur R.; Peduzzi, Chris; Heinerichs, Scott; Garvin, Eugene; Sugarman, Eric; Burkholder, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Considerable controversy regarding fluid replacement during exercise currently exists. Objective: To compare fluid turnover between National Football League (NFL) players who have constant fluid access and collegiate football players who replace fluids during water breaks in practices. Design: Observational study. Setting: Respective preseason training camps of 1 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II (DII) football team and 1 NFL football team. Both morning and afternoon practices for DII players were 2.25 hours in length, and NFL players practiced for 2.25 hours in the morning and 1 hour in the afternoon. Environmental conditions did not differ. Patients or Other Participants: Eight NFL players (4 linemen, 4 backs) and 8 physically matched DII players (4 linemen, 4 backs) participated. Intervention(s): All players drank fluids only from their predetermined individual containers. The NFL players could consume both water and sports drinks, and the DII players could only consume water. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured fluid consumption, sweat rate, total sweat loss, and percentage of sweat loss replaced. Sweat rate was calculated as change in mass adjusted for fluids consumed and urine produced. Results: Mean sweat rate was not different between NFL (2.1 ± 0.25 L/h) and DII (1.8 ± 0.15 L/h) players (F1,12  =  2, P  =  .18) but was different between linemen (2.3 ± 0.2 L/h) and backs (1.6 ± 0.2 L/h) (t14  =  3.14, P  =  .007). We found no differences between NFL and DII players in terms of percentage of weight loss (t7  =  −0.03, P  =  .98) or rate of fluid consumption (t7  =  −0.76, P  =  .47). Daily sweat loss was greater in DII (8.0 ± 2.0 L) than in NFL (6.4 ± 2.1 L) players (t7  =  −3, P  =  .02), and fluid consumed was also greater in DII (5.0 ± 1.5 L) than in NFL (4.0 ± 1.1 L) players (t7  =  −2.8, P  =  .026). We found a correlation between sweat loss

  9. Association between post-game recovery protocols, physical and perceived recovery, and performance in elite Australian Football League players.

    PubMed

    Bahnert, Andrew; Norton, Kevin; Lock, Phillip

    2013-03-01

    To determine the associations between post-game recovery protocols and physical and perceptual recovery, and game performance in Australian Football League players. A longitudinal quasi-experimental study design was used across a season. A full squad of 44 footballers was monitored weekly across a 23-game season. Players were required to choose from a number of recovery modalities available immediately post-game. These included floor stretching, pool stretching, bike active recovery, pool active recovery, cold-water immersion, contrast therapy and use of a compression garment. Perceptual measures of recovery were recorded throughout the week and a test of physical performance was conducted two days post-game. Game performance ratings were also recorded. The associations between the post-game recovery protocols chosen and players' perceived recovery, and physical and game performances were determined by the association rule data-mining strategy. Statistically significant associations were found between a number of post-game recovery protocols and perceptual recovery. In general, players who chose cold-water immersion, floor stretching, no active recovery (neither bike or pool) and the use of a compression garment post-game, had an increased probability of reporting greater perceptual recovery across the following week, relative to all other permutations of recovery protocols chosen. There were no associations found between post-game recovery protocol combinations and physical recovery. No associations were found between the post-game recovery methods and the next game performance. Perceptual recovery among players was enhanced through the selection of specific combinations of recovery protocols post game. However, no links were found between recovery protocols and physical or game performance measures. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of player physical and technical skill match activity profiles to predict position in the Australian Football League draft.

    PubMed

    Woods, Carl T; Veale, James P; Collier, Neil; Robertson, Sam

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the extent to which position in the Australian Football League (AFL) national draft is associated with individual game performance metrics. Physical/technical skill performance metrics were collated from all participants in the 2014 national under 18 (U18) championships (18 games) drafted into the AFL (n = 65; 17.8 ± 0.5 y); 232 observations. Players were subdivided into draft position (ranked 1-65) and then draft round (1-4). Here, earlier draft selection (i.e., closer to 1) reflects a more desirable player. Microtechnology and a commercial provider facilitated the quantification of individual game performance metrics (n = 16). Linear mixed models were fitted to data, modelling the extent to which draft position was associated with these metrics. Draft position in the first/second round was negatively associated with "contested possessions" and "contested marks", respectively. Physical performance metrics were positively associated with draft position in these rounds. Correlations weakened for the third/fourth rounds. Contested possessions/marks were associated with an earlier draft selection. Physical performance metrics were associated with a later draft selection. Recruiters change the type of U18 player they draft as the selection pool reduces. juniors with contested skill appear prioritised.

  11. Precision Error in Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Measurements in Elite Male Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Matthew J; Oldroyd, Brian; Smith, Debbie; Lees, Matthew J; Brightmore, Amy; Till, Kevin; Jones, Benjamin; Hind, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is becoming increasingly popular in both clinical and sports science settings. Obesity, characterized by high fat mass (FM), is associated with larger precision errors; however, precision error for athletic groups with high levels of lean mass (LM) are unclear. Total (TB) and regional (limbs and trunk) body composition were determined from 2 consecutive total body scans (GE Lunar iDXA) with re-positioning in 45 elite male rugby league players (age: 21.8 ± 5.4 yr; body mass index: 27.8 ± 2.5 kg m(-1)). The root mean squared standard deviation (percentage co-efficient of variation) were TB bone mineral content: 24g (1.7%), TB LM: 321 g (1.6%), and TB FM: 280 g (2.3%). Regional precision values were superior for measurements of bone mineral content: 4.7-16.3 g (1.7-2.1%) and LM: 137-402 g (2.0-2.4%), than for FM: 63-299 g (3.1-4.1%). Precision error of DXA body composition measurements in elite male rugby players is higher than those reported elsewhere for normal adult populations and similar to those reported in those who are obese. It is advised that caution is applied when interpreting longitudinal DXA-derived body composition measurements in male rugby players and population-specific least significant change should be adopted.

  12. The type, amount, frequency and timing of dietary supplement use by elite players in the First Spanish Basketball League.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H; Navarro, E; Mora, J; Seco, J; Torregrosa, J M; Tramullas, A

    2002-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the type, frequency and amount of dietary supplement consumption among a group of professional basketball players. The type, amount and specific timing of supplement use were recorded by 55 professional basketball players from seven different teams of the First Spanish Basketball League. Most participants (58%) consumed dietary supplements. Multivitamins and vitamins were the most frequently used supplements among the athletes (50.9%), followed by sport drinks (21.8%), miscellaneous supplements (21.8%), amino acids (14.5%), proteins (12.7%) and carbohydrates (12.7%). The average daily dietary supplement was one capsule of multivitamins, one capsule of antioxidant vitamins, 0.2-1.0 g vitamin C, 10.3 g protein, 1.9 g amino acids, 16.2 g carbohydrates and 377 ml of a commercial sport drink. Although the proportion of participants who consumed dietary supplements before, during and immediately after exercise was 25.4%, 16.3% and 7.3% respectively, only a few consumed a potentially ergogenic supplement at these times. It would appear unlikely that the type or amount of dietary supplements consumed had a beneficial effect on the physical performance of these professional basketball players, with the possible exception of antioxidant vitamins and the commercial sport drinks.

  13. Historical trends in height, weight, and body mass: Data from U.S. Major League Baseball players, 1869–1983

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Rogers, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique dataset of Major League Baseball (MLB) players – a select, healthy population – to examine trends in height, weight, and body mass in birth cohorts from 1869 to 1983. Over that 115-year time period, U.S. born MLB players have gained, on average, approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) in height and 27.0 lb (12.2 kg) in weight, which has contributed a 1.6-unit increase in the body mass index. Where comparable data are available, U.S. born MLB players are about 2.0 in. (5.1 cm) taller and 20.0 lb (9.1 kg) heavier but substantially less obese than males in the general U.S. population. But both groups exhibit similar height and weight trends; the majority of height and weight gains take place in cohorts that were born prior to World War II, followed by slower gains and occasional declines in height and weight for cohorts born in 1939 and later. PMID:18753017

  14. Historical trends in height, weight, and body mass: data from U.S. Major League Baseball players, 1869-1983.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Krueger, Patrick M; Rogers, Richard G

    2008-12-01

    We employ a unique dataset of Major League Baseball (MLB) players - a select, healthy population - to examine trends in height, weight, and body mass in birth cohorts from 1869 to 1983. Over that 115-year time period, U.S. born MLB players have gained, on average, approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) in height and 27.0 lb (12.2 kg) in weight, which has contributed a 1.6-unit increase in the body mass index. Where comparable data are available, U.S. born MLB players are about 2.0 in. (5.1cm) taller and 20.0 lb (9.1 kg) heavier but substantially less obese than males in the general U.S. population. But both groups exhibit similar height and weight trends; the majority of height and weight gains take place in cohorts that were born prior to World War II, followed by slower gains and occasional declines in height and weight for cohorts born in 1939 and later.

  15. The Negro Leagues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tygiel, Jules

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of the black baseball experience. Describes formation of the black leagues, the players, and the discrimination they faced in baseball in the United States. Explains how the early black players introduced new aspects to the major leagues that transformed and improved the quality of play. (DK)

  16. Changes in selected biochemical, muscular strength, power, and endurance measures during deliberate overreaching and tapering in rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Coutts, A; Reaburn, P; Piva, T J; Murphy, A

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of overreaching on muscle strength, power, endurance and selected biochemical responses in rugby league players. Seven semi-professional rugby league players (.VO(2max) = 56.1 +/- 1.7 mL . kg (-1) . min (-1); age = 25.7 +/- 2.6 yr; BMI = 27.6 +/- 2.0) completed 6 weeks of progressive overload training with limited recovery periods. A short 7-day stepwise reduction taper immediately followed the overload period. Measures of muscular strength, power and endurance and selected biochemical parameters were taken before and after overload training and taper. Multistage fitness test running performance was significantly reduced (12.3 %) following the overload period. Although most other performance measures tended to decrease following the overload period, only peak hamstring torque at 1.05 rad . s (-1) was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Following the taper, a significant increase in peak hamstring torque and isokinetic work at both slow (1.05 rad . s (-1)) and fast (5.25 rad . s (-1)) movement velocities were observed. Minimum clinically important performance decreases were measured in a multistage fitness test, vertical jump, 3-RM squat and 3-RM bench press and chin-up (max) following the overload period. Following the taper, minimum clinically important increases in the multistage fitness test, vertical jump, 3-RM squat and 3-RM bench press and chin-up (max) and 10-m sprint performance were observed. Compared to resting measures, the plasma testosterone to cortisol ratio, plasma glutamate, plasma glutamine to glutamate ratio and plasma creatine kinase activity demonstrated significant changes at the end of the overload training period (p < 0.05). These results suggest that muscular strength, power and endurance were reduced following the overload training, indicating a state of overreaching. The most likely explanation for the decreased performance is increased muscle damage via a decrease in the anabolic

  17. Changes in anthropometry and performance, and their interrelationships, across three seasons in elite youth rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the changes in anthropometry and performance, and their interrelationships, across 3 consecutive seasons (under-15 to under-17 age groups) in elite youth rugby league players. Each player participated in annual anthropometrical and performance assessments, comprising measurements of stature; body mass; limb lengths and circumference; skinfolds; predicted muscle cross-sectional area (CSA); 20-m speed, countermovement jump height, vertical power, and aerobic power. Lean body mass percentage changed (p ≤ 0.05) between the under-15 (70.9 ± 5.9%), under-16 (72.0 ± 5.8%), and the under-17 age groups (74.1 ± 5.7%). Likewise, predicted quadriceps muscle CSA also changed (p ≤ 0.05) between each age group (under-15 = 120.9 ± 37.8 cm; under-16 = 133.2 ± 36.0 cm; under-17 = 154.8 ± 28.3 cm). Concomitant changes between the under-15 and under-16 groups were found for 20-m speed (3.5 ± 0.1 cf. 3.4 ± 0.2 seconds; p = 0.008) and predicted jumping power (3,611.3 ± 327.3 W cf. 4,081.5 ± 453.9 W; p = 0.003). Both lean body mass and quadriceps muscle CSA consistently, related to both 20-m sprint time and jumping power, with r values ranging between -0.39 and -0.63 (20-m sprint time) and 0.55 to 0.75 (jumping power). Our findings demonstrate the importance of gains in lean body mass across later adolescence that support the ability to generate horizontal speed and predicted vertical power. This information informs the expectations and subsequent training programs of elite rugby league practitioners.

  18. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and unwarranted

  19. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9’s-U18’s), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio’s (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08–6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4’s, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45–6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53–0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62–0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31–0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36–0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid

  20. Effectiveness of an educational video on concussion knowledge in minor league hockey players: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Chipman, Mary; Donnelly, Peter; Hutchison, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    With the heightened awareness of concussions in all sports, the development and implementation of effective prevention strategies are necessary. Education has been advocated as an effective injury prevention intervention. To examine the effectiveness of the 'Smart Hockey: More Safety, More Fun' video on knowledge transfer among minor league hockey players. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. A total of 267 participants from two age divisions and competitive levels were assigned to either a video or no-video group. The video was shown (or not shown) to the entire team as a result of random assignment. To evaluate the effectiveness of the educational video, questionnaires specific to concussion knowledge and players' attitudes and behaviours were completed. There was a significant increase in the players' concussion knowledge scores immediately following exposure to the video (F(1,103)=27.00, p<0.001). However, concussion knowledge at 2 months was not significantly different between the video and no-video groups, after controlling for prior knowledge level, age and competitive level (F(1,115)=0.41, p=0.523). Similarly, players' attitudes and behaviour scores at 2 months did not differ between groups (F(1,115)=0.41, p=0.507). We were able to show that a single viewing of an educational video in hockey could immediately improve knowledge about concussion but that this effect was transient and lost at 2-month follow-up. Future prevention endeavours in hockey and other sports should attempt to incorporate strategies and modalities to enhance knowledge retention.

  1. The role of anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes in predicting selection into an elite development programme in older adolescent rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Tredrea, Matthew; Dascombe, Ben; Sanctuary, Colin E; Scanlan, Aaron Terrence

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify attributes that discriminate selected from non-selected players and predict selection into a rugby league development programme in older adolescent players. Anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes were measured in under-16 (N = 100) and under-18 (N = 60) rugby league players trialling for selection into a development programme with a professional Australian club. Sprint times (P < 0.001), predicted VO2max (P = 0.002) and push-ups1 min (P = 0.004) were superior in selected under-16 players, and sprint times (P ≤ 0.045), push-ups1 min (P < 0.001) and chin-ups1 min (P = 0.013) were superior in selected under-18 players. Further, 10-m sprint (β = -7.706, standard error [SE] = 2.412), VO2max (β = 0.168, SE = 0.052) and body mass (β = 0.071, SE = 0.023) significantly predicted selection (R(2) = 0.339) in under-16 players, while push-ups1 min (β = 0.564, SE = 0.250), 10-m sprint (β = -68.477, SE = 28.107), body mass (β = 0.360, SE = 0.155) and chronological age (β = -3.577, SE = 1.720) significantly predicted selection (R(2) = 0.894) in under-18 players. These findings emphasise the importance of performance attributes in junior rugby league and indicate talent identification test batteries should be age-specific in older adolescent players.

  2. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Biopsychosocial characteristics and neurocognitive test performance in National Football League players: an initial assessment.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Haase, Richard F

    2008-09-01

    The use of neurocognitive testing in the assessment of professional athletes sustaining sports-related concussions has become widespread over the past decade. Baseline neurocognitive testing is now a requirement for athletes in the National Football League (NFL). We present preliminary normative data on a computer based neurocognitive test (Immediate Post Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing; ImPACT) for 159 NFL athletes. Also included are summary data on basic biopsychosocial characteristics, including medical, psychiatric, chemical dependency, concussion, learning disability/attention deficit disorder, and symptom variables, and the relevance of each to baseline neurocognitive test scores.

  4. Body weight and tympanic temperature change in professional rugby league players during night and day games: a study in the field.

    PubMed

    Meir, Rudi; Brooks, Lyndon; Shield, Tony

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of day and night games in the professional rugby league on body weight and tympanic temperature change in participants. Twenty-five players contracted to an English Super League club had their pre- and postgame body weight and tympanic temperatures recorded during 10 games played during the official professional rugby league season, representing a total of 165 player appearances. The mean (+/-SD) ambient temperature and relative humidity was 12.3 degrees C (+/-6.0) and 83.3% (+/-11.4), respectively. Body weight was recorded using a set of calibrated Soehnle digital scales with players wearing underwear only and towel-dried of all sweat (postmatch). Tympanic temperature was recorded using a Braun ThermoScan Pro LT instant thermometer. Players were allowed to ingest fluid ad libitum throughout each match. Wet and dry bulb temperatures were recorded at the commencement and completion of each match. Significant changes in pregame to postgame body weight and tympanic temperature were found, but these were not influenced by the time of day that the game was played. The mean decrease in body weight was 0.86 kg (SE 0.085, p < 0.000), and the mean increase in tympanic temperature was 0.34 degrees C (SE 0.070, p < 0.000). No significant differences in body weight or tympanic temperature change were found between forwards and backs. Participation in the English professional rugby league can produce significant decreases in body weight and increases in body temperature that may lead to impaired performance. It is important for participants, coaches, and administrators to introduce strategies that will minimize the impact of environmental conditions on thermoregulation and ultimately player performance.

  5. Acute, avulsion fractures of the medial epicondyle while throwing in youth baseball players: a variant of Little League elbow.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Chalmers, Peter N; Frank, Jeremy S; Williams, Riley J; Widmann, Roger F; Green, Daniel W

    2010-10-01

    The young throwing athlete is susceptible to medial elbow injury due to valgus overload. We hypothesized that this injury can occur during the throwing motion with an acute episode of medial elbow pain resulting in an inability to effectively participate in throwing activities. In addition, appropriate treatment of acute, medial epicondyle avulsion fractures in baseball players can result in an asymptomatic elbow with subsequent return to play within a year of injury. A case series of all youth baseball players with medial epicondyle avulsion fractures that occurred while throwing were identified. We studied several variables, including demographics, adherence to USA Baseball youth pitching recommendations, clinical history, radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome. Eight skeletally immature baseball players, who were a mean age of 13 years (range, 11-15 years), presented with medial epicondyle fractures that occurred while throwing. All 8 players experienced sudden pain during throwing, and all 5 players with appropriate age and position qualifications did not conform to the USA Baseball youth pitching recommendations. Anteroposterior radiographs documented average fracture displacement of 5.1 mm (range, 2.5-10 mm). Five of 8 players had 5 mm or less of displacement and were selected for nonoperative treatment. Three of 8 players had more than 5 mm of displacement and underwent open reduction and internal fixation. All players were able to return to play at an average of 7.6 months (range, 4-10 months). Medial epicondyle avulsion fractures can occur with a characteristic acute presentation while throwing in youth baseball players. Prevention may be possible when conforming to established USA Baseball youth pitching recommendations. Once an acute medial epicondyle avulsion fracture occurs, these injuries may be managed using published treatment algorithms, with successful return to play in less than 1 year. Copyright © 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow

  6. The Effect of Three Different (-135°C) Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure Durations on Elite Rugby League Players

    PubMed Central

    Selfe, James; Alexander, Jill; Costello, Joseph T.; May, Karen; Garratt, Nigel; Atkins, Stephen; Dillon, Stephanie; Hurst, Howard; Davison, Matthew; Przybyla, Daria; Coley, Andrew; Bitcon, Mark; Littler, Greg; Richards, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining optimal exposure time. Purpose To explore whether the length of WBC exposure induces differential changes in inflammatory markers, tissue oxygenation, skin and core temperature, thermal sensation and comfort. Method This study was a randomised cross over design with participants acting as their own control. Fourteen male professional first team super league rugby players were exposed to 1, 2, and 3 minutes of WBC at −135°C. Testing took place the day after a competitive league fixture, each exposure separated by seven days. Results No significant changes were found in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin six. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in deoxyhaemoglobin for gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis were found. In vastus lateralis significant reductions (p<0.05) in oxyhaemoglobin and tissue oxygenation index (p<0.05) were demonstrated. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in skin temperature were recorded. No significant changes were recorded in core temperature. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in thermal sensation and comfort were recorded. Conclusion Three brief exposures to WBC separated by 1 week are not sufficient to induce physiological changes in IL-6 or core temperature. There are however significant changes in tissue oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index, skin temperature and thermal sensation. We conclude that a 2 minute WBC exposure was the optimum exposure length at temperatures of −135°C and could be applied as the basis for future studies. PMID:24489726

  7. A survey examining the correlations between Japanese little league baseball coaches' knowledge of and compliance with pitch count recommendations and player elbow pain.

    PubMed

    Yukutake, Taiki; Yamada, Minoru; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2013-05-01

    With the incidence of Little League elbow increasing, pitch limit recommendations for preventing throwing injuries have been developed in both the United States and Japan. However, levels of knowledge of and compliance with these recommendations among coaches of young baseball teams in Japan remain unknown. The relationship between these levels and elbow pain among players has not been adequately studied. Knowledge of and compliance with these recommendations is similar in the United States and Japan. Greater knowledge and higher levels of compliance have a significant correlation with reduced elbow pain in Little League baseball players. Cross-sectional study. Coaches of youth baseball teams in Kyoto, Japan, completed a questionnaire assessing knowledge of and compliance with recommendations. Team variables and coach-related factors concerning elbow pain among young baseball players were surveyed, and the questionnaire investigated demographic data and elbow pain history in the previous 12 months. In total, 123 baseball coaches and 654 baseball players aged 6 to 12 years participated in this study; data were analyzed for 113 coaches and 339 players. Among coaches, 39.8% had accurate knowledge of the recommendations (similar to the US data) and 28.3% complied with them (lower than the US data). There was no correlation between elbow pain and knowledge of and compliance with the recommendations, but coaches' opinions on the number of games were indicated as a significant risk factor for elbow pain; the more coaches considered the number of games played, the fewer the number of players who experienced elbow pain. The level of knowledge of recommendations in Japan was similar to that in the United States, but compliance levels were far lower. There was no correlation between elbow pain and knowledge and compliance. The Little League elbow problem should be addressed at global and national levels.

  8. Shorter time to first injury in first year professional football players: A cross-club comparison in the Australian Football League.

    PubMed

    Fortington, Lauren V; Berry, Jason; Buttifant, David; Ullah, Shahid; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Australian Football League (AFL) players have a high risk of injury. Anecdotally, this injury risk is greater in emerging players (i.e. those in their first year), compared with established players (with 3+ years of experience). This study aimed to conduct the first comparison of injury risk and playing experience in these two player groups across a large number of AFL clubs. Prospective, cohort. Injuries, game participation and training participation were collected weekly by 8 AFL clubs for 61 emerging and 64 established players. Injury incidence rates (IIR) and Cox proportional hazard models for time to first injury, separately for games and training, were computed. The game IIR was significantly higher for emerging than established players: 45.6 (95% CI: 35.7, 57.6) versus 18.3 (95% CI: 13.1, 24.9) per 1000 game-hours. Emerging players also had a higher training IIR than did the established players: 9.6 (95% CI: 7.6, 11.9) versus 8.9 (95% CI: 7.0, 11.1) per 1000 training-hours. Emerging players were significantly less likely to remain injury free in games than established players (HR=3.46, 95% CI: 1.27, 9.45). A similar outcome was seen in training sessions, although to a lesser degree (HR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.69). Despite efforts to modify the playing/training program of emerging players, this group remain at greater risk of injury in games and training sessions, compared with established players. Continued efforts should be made toward understanding reasons for this increased risk to better prevent injury during the early years of a professional football career. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Overweight and obesity among Major League Baseball players: 1871-2015.

    PubMed

    Conroy, David E; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    Professional athletes provide high-profile role models of health and human performance. Increased body mass can be adaptive for human performance but also presents a health threat. This paper examines 145 years of data on body mass in 17,918 male professional baseball players in the United States at the time of their professional debut. Both height and weight at debut have increased over time. Controlling for age at debut, players debuting in the current decade were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese than at any time in history. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased to approximately 70% and 10%, respectively, while normal weight prevalence decreased from approximately 60% to 20% during that time. The causes of these changes over the past 25 years are not clear although they coincide with the steroid era. These trends warrant further attention because of the potential for adverse long-term health consequences in this population and those who perceive them as role models for health and human performance.

  10. The Effects of Cervical Muscle Fatigue on Balance – A Study with Elite Amateur Rugby League Players

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Guy; Fagan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Neck muscle fatigue has been shown to alter an individual’s balance in a similar way to that reported in subjects suffering from neck pain or subjects that have suffered a neck injury. The main purpose of the present study was to quantify the effects of neck fatigue on neck muscle electromyography (EMG) activity, balance, perceived fatigue and perceived stability. Forty four elite amateur rugby league players resisted with their neck muscles approximately 35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force for 15 minutes in eight different directions. Sway velocity and surface electromyography were measured. Questionnaires were used to record perceived effort and stability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that after 15 minutes isometric contraction, significant changes were seen in sway velocity, perceived sway and EMG median frequency. There were no differences in perceived efforts. The changes in sway velocity and median frequency were more pronounced after extension and right and left posterior oblique contractions but there was no significant difference in sway velocity after contraction in the right lateral flexion, right anterior oblique and left anterior oblique direction of contraction. All the subjects showed oriented whole-body leaning in the plane of the contraction. The experiment produced significantly altered and perceived altered balance in this group of physically fit individuals. The results may contribute to our understanding of normal functional capacities of athletes and will provide a basis for further investigation in healthy non-athletes and participants that have suffered neck injuries. This may ultimately help develop accurate and valid rehabilitation outcome measures. Key points Using a percentage of MVIC permits to proportionally fatigue various neck muscle groups evenly Fatigue of different neck muscle groups will alter balance differently Fatigue of muscles producing extension and posterior oblique will alter balance the most

  11. Sweat Rates and Fluid Turnover in Professional Football Players: A Comparison of National Football League Linemen and Backs

    PubMed Central

    Godek, Sandra Fowkes; Bartolozzi, Arthur R; Burkholder, Richard; Sugarman, Eric; Peduzzi, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Context: Many National Football League (NFL) teams practice 2 times per day over consecutive days in a hot and humid environment. Large body surface area (BSA) and use of protective equipment result in high sweat rates and total sweat loss in these football players. Objective: To compare sweat rate, sweat loss, fluid consumption, and weight loss between NFL linemen and backs during preseason practices. Design: Between-groups design. Setting: Preseason training camp with wet bulb globe temperature between 19°C and 25°C. Patients or Other Participants: Eight linemen and 4 backs and receivers participated. Main Outcome Measure(s): Data were collected during both practice sessions on 2 separate days during the first week of August. Sweat rate was calculated as change in mass adjusted for all fluids consumed between prepractice and postpractice body mass measurements and the urine produced during practice divided by the length of the practice session. Gross daily sweat losses also were calculated. Results: Height, mass, and BSA were higher in linemen than in backs. Sweat rate was also higher in linemen (2385 ± 520 mL/h) than in backs (1410 ± 660 mL/h, P < .001), as was the total volume of sweat lost during both practices in 1 day (6870 ± 1034 mL/d versus 4110 ± 2287 mL/d, P  =  .014). Compared with backs, linemen consumed more fluids during practice (2030 ± 849 mL versus 1179 ± 753 mL, P  =  .025) but produced less urine (53 ± 73 mL versus 163 ± 141 mL, P  =  .018). There was no difference in postpractice weight loss (linemen  =  −1.15 ± 0.83%, backs  =  −1.06 ± 0.76%). Conclusions: Linemen sweated at higher rates, lost larger volumes of sweat, consumed more fluids, and produced less urine during practice compared with the physically smaller backs, but they did not lose a greater percentage of body weight. Sodium losses could be considerable in NFL players during the preseason because of high daily sweat losses in

  12. Training load--injury paradox: is greater preseason participation associated with lower in-season injury risk in elite rugby league players?

    PubMed

    Windt, Johann; Gabbett, Tim J; Ferris, Daniel; Khan, Karim M

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether players who completed a greater number of planned preseason training sessions were more or less likely to be injured during the competitive season. A cohort of 30 elite rugby league players was prospectively studied during their 17-week preseason and 26-round competitive season. Injuries were recorded using a match time loss definition. Preseason participation was quantified as the number of 'full' training sessions that players completed, excluding modified, rehabilitation or missed sessions. In-season training load variables, collected using global positioning system (GPS) data, included distance covered (m), high-speed distance covered (m) and the percentage of distance covered at high speeds (%). Multilevel logistic regression models were used to determine injury likelihood in the current and subsequent week, with random intercepts for each player. Odds ratios (OR) were used as effect size measures to determine the changes in injury likelihood with (1) a 10-session increase in preseason training participation or (2) standardised changes in training load variables. Controlling for training load in a given week, completing 10 additional preseason sessions was associated with a 17% reduction in the odds of injury in the subsequent week (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.70 to 0.99). Increased preseason participation was associated with a lower percentage of games missed due to injury (r=-0.40, p<0.05), with 10 preseason sessions predicting a 5% reduction in the percentage of games missed. Maximising participation in preseason training may protect elite rugby league players against in-season injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament injury in an English Premier League football player with return to play in less than 8 weeks: applying common sense in the absence of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Richard; Monte-Colombo, Mathew; Mitchell, Adam; Haddad, Fares

    2015-01-01

    This case report illustrates and discusses the non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in an English Premier League football player, his return to play within 8 weeks and problem-free follow-up at 18 months post injury. When non-operative verses surgical ACL reconstruction is considered there are many fundamental gaps in our knowledge and currently, at elite level, there are no cases in cutting sports within the literature to guide these decisions. When the norm is for all professional footballers to be recommended surgery, it will be very challenging when circumstances and patient autonomy dictate a conservative approach, where prognosis, end points and risk are unclear and assumed to be high. This case challenges current dogma and provides a starting point for much needed debate about best practice, treatment options, research direction and not just at the elite level of sport. PMID:25917066

  14. Non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament injury in an English Premier League football player with return to play in less than 8 weeks: applying common sense in the absence of evidence.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Richard; Monte-Colombo, Mathew; Mitchell, Adam; Haddad, Fares

    2015-04-26

    This case report illustrates and discusses the non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in an English Premier League football player, his return to play within 8 weeks and problem-free follow-up at 18 months post injury. When non-operative verses surgical ACL reconstruction is considered there are many fundamental gaps in our knowledge and currently, at elite level, there are no cases in cutting sports within the literature to guide these decisions. When the norm is for all professional footballers to be recommended surgery, it will be very challenging when circumstances and patient autonomy dictate a conservative approach, where prognosis, end points and risk are unclear and assumed to be high. This case challenges current dogma and provides a starting point for much needed debate about best practice, treatment options, research direction and not just at the elite level of sport. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Internal- and External-Rotation Peak Toque in Little League Baseball Players With Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: Improved by Closed Kinetic Chain Shoulder Training.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Rour; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have explored closed kinetic chain (CKC) shoulder exercises (SEs) with a sling because they are safer and more effective than open-chain exercises, especially in early stages of treatment. However, the application of CKC SE in youth baseball players has rarely been attempted, although teenage baseball players also experience shoulder pain. To investigate the effects of CKC SE on the peak torque of shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) in youth baseball players. Single-group pretest, posttest. Biomechanics laboratory. 23 Little League Baseball players with subacromial impingement syndrome. The CKC SE with a sling was CKC shoulder-flexion exercise, extension exercise, IR exercise, and ER exercise. This exercise regimen was conducted 2 or 3 times/wk for 8 wk. The peak torque of shoulder IR and ER was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Concentric shoulder rotation was performed, with 5 repetitions at an angular velocity of 60°/s and 15 at 180°/s. The IR and ER peak torque significantly increased at each angular velocity after the exercise program. In particular, the increase in IR and ER peak torque values was statistically significant at an angular velocity of 180°/s. CKC SE was effective in increasing shoulder IR and ER strength, demonstrating its potential benefits in the prevention and treatment of shoulder injury. In addition, increased IR peak torque appears to improve throwing velocity in baseball players.

  16. Comment on 'Match Analysis of U9 and U10 English Premier League Academy Soccer Players using a Global Positioning System: Relevance for Talent Identification and Development'

    PubMed

    Carling, Christopher; Collins, Dave

    2014-08-21

    We read with interest the recent article written by Goto, Morris & Nevill: 'Match Analysis of U9 and U10 English Premier League Academy Soccer Players using a Global Positioning System: Relevance for Talent Identification and Development'. In summary, the authors reported time motion analysis data from match-play showing that players who were retained by their Academy covered a significantly greater distance overall and in low-speed running in comparison to peers who were released. Consequently, the authors discussed their results in the context of talent identification and development processes. In light of their findings and discussion, it is of our opinion that further debate in the context of the current body of literature is necessary.

  17. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p < 0.02). Short-term heavy resistance training may alter the association between muscular strength and muscular endurance in college football players and render the NFL-225 test less effective in predicting the change in 1RM bench press strength after short-term training.

  18. Match analysis of U9 and U10 english premier league academy soccer players using a global positioning system: relevance for talent identification and development.

    PubMed

    Goto, Heita; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the match activity profile of U9 and U10 elite soccer players and to establish if there were any differences between players who were subsequently retained or released by their clubs. Such information should prove valuable in the design of training programs for these very young players and in the talent identification and development process. A Global Positioning System was used to analyze 2-4 interacademy 6-a-side matches of English Premier League Academy players (U9: N = 22 and U10: N = 12) who trained 3 times a week (4.5 hours). Speed zones were created based on 5 and 10-m sprint times, and an independent sample t-test was employed for a statistical analysis. Both squads covered ∼4,000 m in total or ∼4,700 m·h during a match (p = NS between squads), with the U10 squad tending to cover a greater distance at moderate (p = 0.10) and high speeds (p = 0.08) than the U9 squad. Retained group covered a greater distance than released group (retained vs. released: 4,478 ± 513 m vs. 4,091 ± 462 m, p < 0.05) during a match and covered a greater distance during low-speed running in absolute (1,226 ± 259 m vs. 1,005 ± 221 m, p < 0.05) and relative (1,325 ± 235 m·h vs. 1,132 ± 210 m·h, p < 0.05) terms. Thus, U9 and U10 players cover over 4000 m in match play, and those players who are retained by academies cover a greater distance in total and at low speeds (2.1-3.1 m·s). This information may support the preparation of squad training programs and the talent identification and development process.

  19. Body composition assessment of English Premier League soccer players: a comparative DXA analysis of first team, U21 and U18 squads.

    PubMed

    Milsom, Jordan; Naughton, Robert; O'Boyle, Andy; Iqbal, Zafar; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2015-01-01

    Professional soccer players from the first team (1st team, n = 27), under twenty-one (U21, n = 21) and under eighteen (U18, n = 35) squads of an English Premier League soccer team were assessed for whole body and regional estimates of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Per cent body fat was lower in 1st team (10.0 ± 1.6) compared with both U21 (11.6 ± 2.5, P = 0.02) and U18 (11.4 ± 2.6, P = 0.01) players. However, this difference was not due to variations (P = 0.23) in fat mass between squads (7.8 ± 1.6 v. 8.8 ± 2.1 v. 8.2 ± 2.4 kg, respectively) but rather the presence of more lean mass in 1st team (66.9 ± 7.1 kg, P < 0.01) and U21 (64.6 ± 6.5 kg, P = 0.02) compared with U18 (60.6 ± 6.3 kg) players. Accordingly, fat mass index was not different (P = 0.138) between squads, whereas lean mass index was greater (P < 0.01) in 1st team players (20.0 ± 1.1 kg · m(-2)) compared with U18 players (18.8 ± 1.4 kg · m(-2)). Differences in lean mass were also reflective of higher lean tissue mass in all regions, for example, upper limbs/lower limbs and trunk. Data suggest that training and nutritional interventions for younger players should therefore be targeted to lean mass growth as opposed to body fat loss.

  20. The Assessment of Total Energy Expenditure During a 14-Day In-Season Period of Professional Rugby League Players Using the Doubly Labelled Water Method.

    PubMed

    Morehen, James Cameron; Bradley, Warren Jeremy; Clarke, Jon; Twist, Craig; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morton, James Peter; Close, Graeme Leonard

    2016-10-01

    Rugby League is a high-intensity collision sport competed over 80 min. Training loads are monitored to maximize recovery and assist in the design of nutritional strategies although no data are available on the total energy expenditure (TEE) of players. We therefore assessed resting metabolic rate (RMR) and TEE in six Super League players over 2 consecutive weeks in-season including one game per week. Fasted RMR was assessed followed by a baseline urine sample before oral administration of a bolus dose of hydrogen (deuterium (2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotopes in the form of water ((2)H2(18)O). Every 24 hr thereafter, players provided urine for analysis of TEE via DLW method. Individual training load was quantified using session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. There were unclear differences in RMR between forwards and backs (7.7 ± 0.5 cf. 8.0 ± 0.3 MJ, respectively). Indirect calorimetry produced RMR values most likely lower than predictive equations (7.9 ± 0.4 cf. 9.2 ± 0.4 MJ, respectively). A most likely increase in TEE from Week 1 to 2 was observed (17.9 ± 2.1 cf. 24.2 ± 3.4 MJ) explained by a most likelyincrease in weekly sRPE (432 ± 19 cf. 555 ± 22 AU), respectively. The difference in TEE between forward and backs was unclear (21.6 ± 4.2 cf. 20.5 ± 4.9 MJ, respectively). We report greater TEE than previously reported in rugby that could be explained by the ability of DLW to account for all match and training-related activities that contributes to TEE.

  1. Participation in Pre-High School Football and Neurological, Neuroradiological, and Neuropsychological Findings in Later Life: A Study of 45 Retired National Football League Players.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew W; Zuckerman, Scott L; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Lovell, Mark R; Sills, Allen K

    2016-05-01

    A recent study found that an earlier age of first exposure (AFE) to tackle football was associated with long-term neurocognitive impairment in retired National Football League (NFL) players. To assess the association between years of exposure to pre-high school football (PreYOE) and neuroradiological, neurological, and neuropsychological outcome measures in a different sample of retired NFL players. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-five former NFL players were included in this study. All participants prospectively completed extensive history taking, a neurological examination, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. To measure the associations between PreYOE and these outcome measures, multiple regression models were utilized while controlling for several covariates. After applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, none of the neurological, neuroradiological, or neuropsychological outcome measures yielded a significant relationship with PreYOE. A second Bonferroni-corrected analysis of a subset of these athletes with self-reported learning disability yielded no significant relationships on paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests but did result in a significant association between learning disability and computerized indices of visual motor speed and reaction time. The current study failed to replicate the results of a prior study, which concluded that an earlier AFE to tackle football might result in long-term neurocognitive deficits. In 45 retired NFL athletes, there were no associations between PreYOE and neuroradiological, neurological, and neuropsychological outcome measures. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Comparison of Strength Levels Between Players From Within the Same Club Who Were Selected vs. Not Selected to Play in the Grand Final of the National Rugby League Competition.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel G

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies have established that higher levels of strength and power, tested at the end of the preseason, distinguish between playing level in professional rugby league. How this may impact the ability of players to get selected for final payoff games some 30 weeks later has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare measures of upper- and lower-body strength between players from the same professional club, designated as those 17 players who attained selection and played in the team that won the Grand Final of the National Rugby League competition (GF) and those who did not attain selection (NSGF). Players were tested and compared for 1 repetition maximum bench press and full squat strength levels at the end of the preparation period, 30 weeks before the GF, using traditional significance analysis of variance and effect size (ES) statistics. Furthermore, the players were analyzed according to the 2 broad positional playing groups of forwards (FWD) and backs (BL). The results demonstrated that overall, the GF players were stronger than NSGF players by approximately 10 and 15%, respectively, for the upper and lower body. When analyzed according to positional groupings, there were significant differences and large ES for GF forwards, who were significantly stronger, heavier, and older than NSGF FWD players. For the BL groups, the differences between the groups were not significant. Because of the intense physical collisions inherent in rugby league, it would appear that higher levels of strength afford players greater performance benefits, resiliency against injury, and greater likelihood of being selected in the most important games at the end of the season.

  3. Comparison of strength levels between players from within the same club that were selected versus not-selected to play in the Grand Final of the National Rugby League competition.

    PubMed

    2016-08-18

    A number of studies have established that higher levels of strength and power, tested at the end of the pre-season, distinguish between playing level in professional rugby league. How this may impact the ability of players to get selected for final pay-off games some 30-wks later has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare measures of upper and lower body strength between players from the same professional club, designated as those seventeen players who attained selection and played in the team that won the Grand Final of the National Rugby League (NRL) competition (GF) and those who did not attain selection (NSGF). Players were tested and compared for One Repetition Maximum (1RM) Bench Press (BP) and Full Squat (SQ) strength levels at the end of the Preparation period, 30-weeks prior to the GF, using traditional significance ANOVA and Effect Size (ES) statistics. Furthermore, the players were analyzed according to the two broad positional playing groups of Forwards (FWD) and Backs (BL). The results demonstrated that overall, the GF players were stronger than NSGF players by about 10% and 15%, respectively for the upper and lower body. When analyzed according to positional groupings there were significant differences and Large ES for GF forwards, who were significantly stronger, heavier and older than NSGF FWD players. For the BL groups, the differences between the groups were not significant. Due to the intense physical collisions inherent in rugby league, it would appear that higher levels of strength afford players greater performance benefits, resiliency against injury and greater likelihood of being selected in the most important games at the end of the season.

  4. The Reliability of Functional Movement Screening and In-Season Changes in Physical Function and Performance Among Elite Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Mark; Gray, Adrian; Worsfold, Paul; Twist, Craig

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the reliability of the functional movement screening (FMS) protocol and (b) to establish changes in both FMS and tests of physical performance throughout a season. The reliability of the FMS components (12 in total) was assessed through a nonparametric statistical approach, based on 2 trials, separated by 1 week. Score on the FMS, strength (3 repetition maximum full squat, 1 repetition maximum [1 RM] bench press), running speed (10 and 40 m), and jump height of 12 elite male under-19 rugby league players was monitored at pre-, mid-, and late-season periods. There was no bias (p > 0.05) found between trials for the FMS, with the majority of components reaching 100% "perfect agreement," reflecting the good reliability of the FMS tool. There were no effects (p > 0.05) of season stage on any of the FMS components; however, an improvement (p ≤ 0.05) between the pre- and both mid- and late-season periods was apparent in every component of fitness, such as 1 RM bench press (112.92 ± 24.54 kg; 125.83 ± 21.41 kg; 125.98 ± 24.48 kg) and 40-m sprint time (5.69 ± 0.35 seconds; 5.62 ± 0.31 seconds; 5.64 ± 0.27 seconds). Our findings demonstrate that the FMS can be reliably administered to elite rugby league players but will not change in accordance with physical performance across a competitive season. Our findings should not necessarily deter practitioners from using the FMS but begin to question the specific qualities that are being assessed through its administration.

  5. Effects of Long-Haul Transmeridian Travel on Subjective Jet-Lag and Self-Reported Sleep and Upper Respiratory Symptoms in Professional Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P < .05, d > 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P < .05, d > 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P < .05, d ˃ 0.90), no incidence of injury and negligible changes in wellness and muscle strength and range of motion (P > .05, d < 0.90) were evident after travel. Results suggest that westward long-haul travel between Australia and the UK exacerbates subjective jet-lag and sleep responses, along with upper respiratory symptoms, in professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.

  6. Does player unavailability affect football teams' match physical outputs? A two-season study of the UEFA champions league.

    PubMed

    Windt, Johann; Ekstrand, Jan; Khan, Karim M; McCall, Alan; Zumbo, Bruno D

    2017-08-24

    Player unavailability negatively affects team performance in elite football. However, whether player unavailability and its concomitant performance decrement is mediated by any changes in teams' match physical outputs is unknown. We examined whether the number of players injured (i.e. unavailable for match selection) was associated with any changes in teams' physical outputs. Prospective cohort study. Between-team variation was calculated by correlating average team availability with average physical outputs. Within-team variation was quantified using linear mixed modelling, using physical outputs - total distance, sprint count (efforts over 20km/h), and percent of distance covered at high speeds (>14km/h) - as outcome variables, and player unavailability as the independent variable of interest. To control for other factors that may influence match physical outputs, stage (group stage/knockout), venue (home/away), score differential, ball possession (%), team ranking (UEFA Club Coefficient), and average team age were all included as covariates. Teams' average player unavailability was positively associated with the average number of sprints they performed in matches across two seasons. Multilevel models similarly demonstrated that having 4 unavailable players was associated with 20.8 more sprints during matches in 2015/2016, and with an estimated 0.60-0.77% increase in the proportion of total distance run above 14km/h in both seasons. Player unavailability had a possibly positive and likely positive association with total match distances in the two respective seasons. Having more players injured and unavailable for match selection was associated with an increase in teams' match physical outputs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major and Minor League Baseball Pitchers: Comprehensive Report on 1,313 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Christopher L.; Conte, Stan; D’Angelo, John; Fealy, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Although much as been done to better understand and characterize the epidemic of UCL reconstruction in pitchers, a comprehensive review of all UCL reconstructions performed in professional baseball pitchers is surprisingly lacking. Accordingly, the purpose of this work was to provide an epidemiologic report on every UCL reconstruction ever performed in professional baseball with a special focus on outcomes (return to play rates and time) and overall survivorship. Methods: Three resources (including the Major League Baseball [MLB] injury tracking system) were combined and cross-referenced to identify all professional baseball players who had ever undergone primary UCL reconstruction (1974 to 2015). Variables analyzed included the date of injury, date of surgery, time out of play, geographical region, and revision status. Trends over time were analyzed collectively and based on level of play at the time of surgery. A minimum of 2 years of follow up was required to determine return to play status. Revision free Kaplan-Meier survivor analysis was performed. Results: A total of 1,313 UCL reconstructions were identified. The annual rate of primary and revision UCL reconstructions rose significantly for all levels of play from 1974 to 2015 and from (p<0.001). The overall mean time to return to play (RTP) was 436 days (range 98 to 1,643). The rate of RTP to any level was 93.9% for MLB pitchers vs. 76.3% for MiLB pitchers (p<0.001), and MLB pitchers RTP at the MLB level in 73.1% of cases. The time to RTP was longer (by 54 days) for revisions (p=0.025) compared to primaries, and MLB pitchers RTP from primary surgery 95.6% of the time but only 81.8% for revision surgery (p=0.008). The revision rate was 10.7%, and the percentage of players free of revision and still playing professional baseball was 92% at 2 years, 53% at 5 years, and 17% at 10 years. Survivorship was improved for players undergoing UCL reconstruction before age 25 opposed to after 25. Conclusion

  8. Perceptions of the Coach–Athlete Relationship Predict the Attainment of Mastery Achievement Goals Six Months Later: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study among F. A. Premier League Academy Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Adam R.; Earle, Keith; Earle, Fiona; Madigan, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104) and longitudinal (n = 52) assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports. PMID:28572775

  9. Performance, Return to Competition, and Reinjury After Tommy John Surgery in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Review of 147 Cases.

    PubMed

    Makhni, Eric C; Lee, Randall W; Morrow, Zachary S; Gualtieri, Anthony P; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2014-06-01

    Pitching performance metrics, durability, and reinjury after Tommy John surgery in professional baseball players have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to determine the likelihood of return to professional competition, reinjury rate, and change in performance after Tommy John surgery in Major League Baseball pitchers. The hypothesis was that performance metrics and durability will decline after surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Publicly available records were accessed to generate a list of all Major League Baseball pitchers from 1999 to 2011 who had undergone ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction at any point in their careers; those with multiple reconstructive procedures were excluded. Return to active (≥1 game) or established (≥10 games) competition and/or placement on the disabled list was documented for each player. Among established players, pitching performance was compared pre- and postoperatively, as well as with age-matched control pitchers. Of 147 pitchers included, 80% returned to pitch in at least 1 Major League Baseball game. Only 67% of established pitchers returned to the same level of competition postoperatively, and 57% of established players returned to the disabled list because of injuries to the throwing arm. Finally, performance declined across several metrics after surgery compared with preinjury levels, such as earned run average, batting average against, walks plus hits per inning pitched, percentage of pitches thrown in the strike zone, innings pitched, percentage fastballs thrown, and average fastball velocity (P < .05 for all). However, these declines were not statistically different from similar declines found in age-matched controls who did not undergo Tommy John surgery. Return to the disabled list after Tommy John surgery is common among professional pitchers (>50%), and performance declines across several major metrics after surgery. Patients undergoing Tommy John surgery should be counseled

  10. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach Jr, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  11. Does the way concussion is portrayed affect public awareness of appropriate concussion management: the case of rugby league.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tracey L; McKinlay, Audrey

    2011-09-01

    It is important to identify factors that might adversely affect appropriate medical consultation and management of concussion. One factor that might present a barrier to timely intervention is media portrayal of concussion in sporting events, such as professional rugby league. Accordingly, the current study employed a surveillance method of publicly available broadcast information to establish the incidence rate of probable concussion in the National Rugby League's Telstra Premiership 2010 season and examined how these injury events were shown to be managed with respect to return-to-play procedures. The incident rate for probable concussion was higher than previously reported: 11.10\\1000 player hours (95% CI 5.78 to 16.40) and was likely underestimated. Importantly, most injured players were shown to continue playing or return to play despite being visibly concussed and described as such by the commentary team. Although 'return-to-play decisions' for professional players are guided by medical assessment, the authors discuss whether the way concussion is portrayed might affect public awareness of appropriate concussion management.

  12. Safety of third-generation artificial turf in male elite professional soccer players in Italian major league.

    PubMed

    Lanzetti, R M; Ciompi, A; Lupariello, D; Guzzini, M; De Carli, A; Ferretti, A

    2017-04-01

    Our hypothesis is that there are no difference in the injury incidence on artificial turf and natural grass. During the 2011/2012 season, we recorded injuries which occurred to two Italian stadiums equipped with third-generation artificial turf during 36 games (391 players). Data were compared with the injuries which occurred in the same season in two stadiums equipped with natural grass (372 players). We recorded 43 injuries during the playing time (16.7 per 1000 h). About 23 (18.1 per 1000 h) injuries occurred on artificial turf, while 20 (15.2 per 1000 h) on the natural grass with no statistical differences P > 0.05. We recorded 10 (7.87 per 1000 h) contact and 13 (10.23 per 1000 h) non-contact injuries on artificial turf, while 5 (3.8 per 1000 h) contact and 15 (11.4 per 1000 h) non-contact injuries on natural grass P > 0.05. The overall relative risk was 1.15; 95% CI: 0.64-2.07). Our study demonstrates a substantial equivalence in injury risk on natural grass and artificial turf in elite professional soccer athletes during official matches.

  13. Football fans and food: a case study of a football club in the English premier league.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine

    2010-05-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.

  14. Promoting heart health: an HBCU collaboration with the Living Heart Foundation and the National Football League Retired Players Association.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Peggy; Duren-Winfield, Vanessa; Onsomu, Elijah O; Hoover, Eddie L; Cammock, Cheryl E; Roberts, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the United States and African Americans are disproportionately affected. Cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, family history of heart disease, and physical inactivity are often higher in African American young adults. The aim of the current study was to assess cardiovascular disease risk factors at a historically black college and university (HBCU) in North Carolina. A collaborative partnership was established that included Living Heart Foundation, the NFL Retired Players Association and a HBCU. Ninety-one students (77 females and 14 males) aged 18 to 55 years (mean, 24 y, SD = 9 y) were recruited via dissemination of flyers, brochures, mass e-mailing, and announcements. Demographic and medical history data were collected. Stata version 10.1 was used for all analyses. Fifty-three percent of the participants reported having experienced a chronic health condition, 32% were overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25-29.9 kg/m2) and 31% obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). Five percent of females and 23% of males had high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 mg/dL or less, indicative of a risk for developing heart disease. There is an urgent need to intervene among African American college students and address behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Such interventions may have a major impact on their overall and future health outcomes. Strategies to be employed need to focus on the integration of culturally appropriate healthy lifestyle programs into the curriculum and university health centers. Consultations with stakeholders for ideas and resources should be encouraged.

  15. The League of Women Voters of the United States: A Case Study in Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman-Everett, Ileen N.

    The paper analyzes structure and organizational communication within the League of Women Voters. The document is presented in three major sections. The first section traces the history of the League of Women Voters from its origins in the women's suffrage movement to its current involvement with international relations, human rights, and…

  16. Applied sport science of rugby league.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G

    2014-08-01

    Rugby league is a team sport in which players engage in repeated high-intensity exercise involving frequent collisions. Recent research, much of which has involved global positioning system (GPS) technology, has provided coaches and sport scientists with a deeper understanding of match demands, particularly at the elite level. This has allowed for the development of training programmes that prepare players for the most intense contact and running demands likely to be experienced in competition. At the elite level, rugby league players have well-developed aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscular strength and power, reactive agility, and speed. Upper- and lower-body strength and aerobic power are associated with a broad range of technical and sport-specific skills, in addition to a lower risk of injury. Significant muscle damage (as estimated from creatine kinase concentrations) and fatigue occurs as a result of match-play; while muscle function and perceptual fatigue generally return to baseline 48 h following competition, increases in plasma concentrations of creatine kinase can last for up to 5 days post-match. Well-developed physical qualities may minimise post-match fatigue and facilitate recovery. Ultimately, the literature highlights that players require a broad range of physical and technical skills developed through specific training. This review evaluates the demands of the modern game, drawing on research that has used GPS technology. These findings highlight that preparing players based on the average demands of competition is likely to leave them underprepared for the most demanding passages of play. As such, coaches should incorporate drills that replicate the most intense repeated high-intensity demands of competition in order to prepare players for the worst-case scenarios expected during match-play.

  17. Success of nonoperative management of adductor longus tendon ruptures in National Football League athletes.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Theodore F; Bushnell, Brandon D; Godfrey, Jenna; Boublik, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Acute complete ruptures of the proximal adductor longus tendon are rare but challenging injuries to treat. The limited literature supports operative treatment, but data from management of chronic groin pain in athletes indicate that anatomical attachment of the tendon to the pubis may not be required for high-level function. Nonoperative management of complete adductor rupture can provide equal results to surgical repair in terms of return to play in the National Football League. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Using the National Football League Injury Surveillance System, adductor tendon ruptures documented by magnetic resonance imaging were identified in 19 National Football League players from 1992 to 2004. The team physician for each respective player completed a survey with information about history, physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging findings, treatment, and outcomes. Statistics were analyzed with a Student unpaired t test. Fourteen players were treated nonoperatively, and 5 players were treated with surgical repair using suture anchors. In both groups, all players eventually returned to play in the National Football League. Mean time for return to play was 6.1 +/- 3.1 weeks (range, 3-12 weeks) for the nonoperative group and 12.0 +/- 2.5 weeks (range, 10-16 weeks) for the operative group (P = .001). One player in the operative group suffered the complication of a draining wound and heterotopic ossification. Players represented a variety of positions, and 12 of 19 (63%) had experienced prior symptoms or events. Nonoperative treatment of proximal adductor tendon rupture results in a statistically significantly faster return to play than does operative treatment in athletes competing in the National Football League and avoids the risks associated with surgery while providing an equal likelihood of return to play at the professional level.

  18. LIPOSARCOMA OF THE KNEE IN A TENNIS PLAYER: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Filho, Jorge Sayum; Sayum, Jorge; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Garms, Emerson; Ramos, Leonardo Addeo; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsura; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés

    2012-01-01

    Liposarcoma is an uncommon malignant tumor. It originates in the mesenchymal cells, and is the most common of the soft tissue sarcomas. The authors report a case of a 40 year-old male tennis player with liposarcoma in the posterior right knee and distal thigh region.

  19. LIPOSARCOMA OF THE KNEE IN A TENNIS PLAYER: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Jorge Sayum; Sayum, Jorge; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Garms, Emerson; Ramos, Leonardo Addeo; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsura; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    Liposarcoma is an uncommon malignant tumor. It originates in the mesenchymal cells, and is the most common of the soft tissue sarcomas. The authors report a case of a 40 year-old male tennis player with liposarcoma in the posterior right knee and distal thigh region. PMID:27047841

  20. Are Habitual Hydration Strategies of Female Rugby League Players Sufficient to Maintain Fluid Balance and Blood Sodium Concentration During Training and Match-Play? A Research Note From the Field.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; King, Roderick; Gray, Michael; OʼHara, John

    2016-03-01

    Limited data exist on the hydration status of female athletes, with no data available on female rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the habitual hydration status on arrival, sweat loss, fluid intake, sweat Na loss, and blood [Na+] during field training and match-play in 10 international female rugby league players. Urine osmolality on arrival to match-play (382 ± 302 mOsmol·kg(-1)) and training (667 ± 260 mOsmol·kg(-1)) was indicative of euhydration. Players experienced a body mass loss of 0.50 ± 0.45 and 0.56 ± 0.53% during match-play and training, respectively. During match-play, players consumed 1.21 ± 0.43 kg of fluid and had a sweat loss of 1.54 ± 0.48 kg. During training, players consumed 1.07 ± 0.90 kg of fluid, in comparison with 1.25 ± 0.83 kg of sweat loss. Blood [Na+] was well regulated (Δ-0.7 ± 3.4 and Δ-0.4 ± 2.6 mmol·L(-1)), despite sweat [Na+] of 47.8 ± 5.7 and 47.2 ± 6.3 mmol·L(-1) during match-play and training. The findings of this study show mean blood [Na+] that seems to be well regulated despite losses of Na in sweat and electrolyte-free fluid consumption. For the duration of the study, players did not experience a body mass loss (dehydration >2%) indicative of a reduction in exercise performance, thus habitual hydration strategies seem adequate. Practitioners should evaluate the habitual hydration status of athletes to determine whether interventions above habitual strategies are warranted.

  1. Science of rugby league football: a review.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning

  2. Repeated high-intensity exercise in a professional rugby league.

    PubMed

    Austin, Damien J; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David J

    2011-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe the frequency and duration of repeated high-intensity exercise (RHIE) bouts in Australian professional rugby league (National Rugby League) and whether these occurred at critical times during a game. Time motion analysis was used during 5 competition matches; 1 player from 3 positional groups (hit-up forward, adjustable, and outside back) was analyzed in each match. The ranges of RHIE bouts for the 3 positional groups were hit-up forwards 9-17, adjustables 2-8, and outside backs 3-7. Hit-up forwards were involved in a significantly greater number of RHIE bouts (p < 0.05) and had the shortest average recovery (376 ± 205 seconds) between RHIE bouts. The single overall maximum durations of RHIE bouts for the hit-up forwards, the adjustables, and the outside backs were 64, 64, and 49 seconds. For all groups, 70% of the total RHIE bouts occurred within 5 minutes prior of a try being scored. The present data show that the nature of RHIE bouts was specific to playing position and occurred frequently at critical times during the game. These results can be used to develop training programs that mimic the 'worst case scenarios' that elite rugby league players are likely to encounter.

  3. Women's rugby league injury claims and costs in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Hume, P A; Milburn, P; Gianotti, S

    2010-11-01

    There is scarce information on rugby league injuries in female players. This paper provides an overview of the epidemiology of women's rugby league injuries requiring medical treatment and associated costs in New Zealand. New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation injury data for the period 1999-2007 were searched for rugby league injury cases occurring in females. Data were analysed by demographics, body region, nature/severity of injury, and medical procedure and costs. There were 320 moderate to serious injury claims recorded for females participating in rugby league activities over the study period. There was a mean (SD) of 37.9 (9.5) injury claims per year. The mean cost per year for the study period was $196 514 ($99,133) (£76,066 (£38,374)) with half of the injury claims occurring in New Zealand Maori. Concussion/brain injuries accounted for 3.8% of total female moderate to serious injury claims but accounted for 5.4% of female injury costs ($84,399 (£32,688)) with the highest mean cost per claim ($7033 (£2724)). The lower limb accounted for 65% of the total female injury claims and 58.7% of total injury costs ($922,296 (£356,968)). The mean cost per claim was higher for the lower limb ($4434 (£1714)) than the upper ($3331 (£1288)) limb. Clerks recorded 16.3% of the total injury claims, 20.3% of total injury costs ($319,474 (£123,211)) and had the highest mean cost per claim ($6144 (£2370)). The 25-29 age group recorded 31.9% of injury claims and 33.8% of injury costs. The 35-39 age group recorded the highest mean cost per claim ($6200 (£2392)) but only 10.9% of total claims and 13.8% of total costs. When compared with other studies in rugby league injuries, it appears that females incur substantially fewer injuries (5.7%) than males (94.3%). Although no participation data by sex are available, it is likely that participation percentages are reflected in the injury percentages. The high frequency (65%) and cost proportion (58.7%) for lower limb

  4. Making intelligent systems team players: Additional case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.

    1993-01-01

    Observations from a case study of intelligent systems are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management systems in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent systems for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.

  5. Concussion among Swedish elite ice hockey players.

    PubMed Central

    Tegner, Y; Lorentzon, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of concussion in Swedish ice hockey and to establish a uniform grading and treatment model for concussions of different severity. METHODS: Frequency of concussion was investigated in two studies, one retrospective and one prospective. In the retrospective study, all Swedish elite ice hockey players (n = 265) were asked to answer a questionnaire on the number and treatment of previous concussions. Only concussions diagnosed by a doctor were recorded. The questionnaire was completed by 227 players (86%). In the prospective study, all injuries including concussions occurring during game and practice in the Swedish Elite League (n = 12 teams) were recorded during four years. The causes of injury, referees judgements, diagnosis, treatment, and time absent from ice hockey were registered on special cards. RESULTS: In the retrospective study, 51 out of 227 players (22%) in the Swedish Elite League reported at least one concussion. In the prospective study, 52 concussions were reported. The incidence of a concussion is at least one concussion every year/team or a yearly risk of about 5% for a player to sustain a concussion. Most concussions occurred during league play (81%). Body contact (checking or boarding) was the most common cause of concussions. The players were absent from full training and play on a mean of 6 d. CONCLUSIONS: As this injury is potentially dangerous it must be treated seriously according to a simple treatment model presented. In cases of repeated concussions during the same season, a longer period of time away from play is suggested. In players who have sustained several concussions over the years a thorough medical examination including EEG, CT/MRI, and neuropsychological tests should be performed. If any of these is pathological the player should be advised to give up ice hockey. PMID:8889123

  6. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  7. League tables for orthodontists

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Stephen; Phillips, Ceri; Durning, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the complexities in constructing league tables purporting to measure orthodontic clinical outcomes. Eighteen orthodontists were invited to participate in a cost-effectiveness study. Each orthodontist was asked to provide information on 100 consecutively treated patients. The Index of Complexity, Outcome, and Need (ICON) was used to assess treatment need, complexity, and outcome prior to, and on completion of, orthodontic treatment. The 18 orthodontists were ranked based on achieving a successful orthodontic outcome (ICON score less than or equal to 30) and the uncertainty in both the success rates and rankings was also quantified using confidence intervals. Successful outcomes were achieved in 62 per cent of the sample (range 19–94 per cent); four of the 18 orthodontists failed to achieve more than a 50 per cent success rate. In developing league tables, it is imperative that factors such as case mix are identified and accounted for in producing rankings. Bayesian hierarchical modelling was used to achieve this and to quantify uncertainty in the rankings produced. When case mix was taken into account, the four with low success rates were clearly not as good as the top four performing orthodontists. League tables can be valuable for the individual orthodontist, groups of orthodontists, payment/insurance agencies, and the public to enable informed choice for orthodontic provision but must be correctly constructed so that users can have confidence in them. PMID:18687990

  8. Ivy League Football: Hard-Core Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iman, Raymond S.

    1971-01-01

    Decries the discrimination accorded to Ivy League football players by Pro Football owners and suggests corrective measures including a Head Start program involving preseason coaching for Ivy Leaguers, formation of a Department of Recreational Studies headed by Ara Parseghian or Darrell Royal, and a remedial course for punters during Christmas…

  9. Frostbite in an Adolescent Football Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rivlin, Michael; King, Marnie; Kruse, Richard; Ilyas, Asif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of vascular compromise of a finger from a confluent circumferential blister due to an inappropriately applied commercial cold pack in a high school athlete and to describe the mechanism of iatrogenic injury, acute surgical management, rehabilitation, and pathophysiology of frostbite and constriction injuries. Background: A 17-year-old male football player presented with a frostbite and constriction injury to the index finger secondary to prolonged use of a cooling pack after a mild traumatic injury to the digit. He developed a prolonged sensory deficit from thermal injury, as well as acute vascular compromise requiring urgent operative intervention. Differential Diagnosis: Frostbite and constriction injury to the index finger. Treatment: Emergency surgical decompression and occupational therapy. Uniqueness: Frostbite injuries can occur iatrogenically because of inappropriate use of cooling devices or gel packs. Fingers are commonly injured extremities that are particularly susceptible to frostbite and compression injuries. To our knowledge, no case of vascular compromise from the blister constriction of digits has been reported. Conclusions: Patients and their caregivers must be educated about how to properly use cooling devices. Clinicians need to fully evaluate patients with iatrogenic frostbite injuries, giving particular attention to neurovascular status, and must recognize the need for surgical release of constriction syndrome to prevent substantial morbidity. PMID:24143903

  10. Isolated tears of pectoralis minor muscle in professional football players: a case series.

    PubMed

    Zvijac, John E; Zikria, Bashir; Botto-van Bemden, Angie

    2009-03-01

    Our objective is to include pectoralis minor injuries in the comprehensive assessment of differential diagnoses for anterior chest wall pain or medial anterior shoulder pain sustained during blocking activities, which may present in football players. In this article, we report 2 cases of isolated pectoralis minor tears in professional football players and present mechanisms of injury, clinical presentations, appropriate diagnostic studies, and treatments.

  11. The Prevalence of Injuries in Professional Turkish Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…

  12. Challenger Little League.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, Victoria

    1992-01-01

    A parent describes her son's participation in Challenger Little League, a special division which allows children with disabilities to play competitive baseball. The division now has 560 leagues with an estimated 20,000 participants. (DB)

  13. Presentation and mechanisms of concussion in professional Rugby League Football.

    PubMed

    Hinton-Bayre, A D; Geffen, G; Friis, P

    2004-09-01

    The present study prospectively recorded the circumstances, incidence, mechanisms, injury detection and presentation of concussion in Rugby League. Forty-three consecutive concussions were recorded over three competitive seasons in 175 professional Rugby League players. Data showed (i) the incidence of concussion ranged from 5.9 to 9.8 injuries/1000 player hours across grades - except when age-group players were mismatched (18.4): (ii) 'head-high tackles' accounted for a significant number of concussions; (iii) concussion rarely involved a loss of consciousness with the most common indicators of concussion being amnesia, headache and unsteadiness, with the mechanism of injury often missed: and (iv) concussion often occurs concurrently with other injuries. Concussion (including repeated episodes) is a common injury in Rugby League. Systematic mental status questioning is warranted whenever concussion is suspected. Coaches, trainers and players need more education in the recognition and management of concussion. Stricter penalties for illegal 'head-high' tackling are strongly recommended.

  14. [State of nutrition and diet habits versus estradiol level and its changes in the pre-season preparatory period for the league contest match in female handball and basketball players].

    PubMed

    Plinta, Ryszard; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Chudek, Jerzy; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2012-09-01

    Intense exercise is known to induce menstrual disturbances--irregular menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in female athletes. Menstrual disturbances, followed by hypoestrogenism, are associated with infertility decreased bone mineral density high prevalence of stress fractures, and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of nutrition and diet habits on the estradiol level and its changes in the pre-season preparatory period for the league contest match in female handball and basketball players. Fifty healthy young female handball and basketball players were enrolled into the study before the opening of the season, after a 2-month holiday period, without regular physical activity and diet restrictions. Serum estradiol was determined at the beginning and after 3 months of moderate aerobic training. Each woman was studied between the 3rd and 5th day of her menstrual cycle. In all subjects, medical history was obtained, together with the anthropometric measurements (body mass and height). The body mass index was calculated according to the standard formula. The use of hormonal contraception in the last 3 months, low-caloric diet in the last 6 months, body mass changes of more than 3 kilograms in the last 6 months, secondary amenorrhea and stress fractures in medical history constituted the exclusion criteria. Informed consent was obtained from each participant and the study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical University of Silesia. Venous blood samples (2 ml) for estradiol levels measurements were taken twice: at the beginning of the preparatory period and after three months of moderate aerobic exercise training (20 hours per week). Blood samples were collected according to the kit manufacturer's recommendations. Serum and plasma samples were stored frozen at -80 degrees C. Serum estradiol was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (DRG Instruments GmbH, Marburg, Germany) with a lower

  15. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players: Lessons from a case series.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Possin, Katherine L; Hess, Christopher P; Huang, Eric J; Grinberg, Lea T; Nolan, Amber L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Ghosh, Pia M; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Miller, Bruce L; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-08-01

    In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players.

  16. Comparison of Lateral Abdominal Muscle Thickness and Cross Sectional Area of Multifidus in Adolescent Soccer Players with and without Low Back Pain: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Hosseini Khezri, Alireza; Linek, Paweł; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Hassannejad, Alireza; Younesian, Ali; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Kordi, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint amongst adolescent athletes. While different studies have shown association between LBP and trunk muscle thickness in the general population, few articles have studied it in adolescent athletes. Objectives The aim of this study is to compare lateral abdominal muscle thickness and function, and cross sectional area (CSA) of lumbar multifidus (LM) in adolescent soccer players with and without LBP. Methods In total, 28 adolescent soccer players with and without LBP, from the premier league participated in this study. The thickness of external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis and the CSA of the LM muscles at L4 level on both sides were measured at rest and contraction via ultrasound imaging (USI). In addition, leg length discrepancy, hamstring flexibility, active lumbar forward flexion, and isometric muscle endurance of trunk extensors were measured in both groups. (study design/setting: case control study). Results The mean (SD) age in LBP group and non-LBP group were 14.0 (1.1) and 14.1 (0.9) years, respectively. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics of participants between groups. Findings showed no significant difference between LBP and non-LBP groups comparing all measured variables. Conclusions The data obtained support that there is not a correlation between abdominal muscle thickness and CSA of the lumbar multifidi and LBP in adolescent soccer players. These findings suggest that other factors rather than the thickness of deep trunk muscles may play a more significant role in the etiology of LBP in adolescent soccer players. PMID:28144414

  17. Repeat Concussions in the National Football League

    PubMed Central

    Casson, Ira R.; Viano, David C.; Powell, John W.; Pellman, Elliot J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). Hypothesis: The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Study Design: Case control. Methods: From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. Results: In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. Conclusions: The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods. PMID:23015986

  18. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  19. Return-to-play rates in National Football League linemen after treatment for lumbar disk herniation.

    PubMed

    Weistroffer, Joseph K; Hsu, Wellington K

    2011-03-01

    There is a paucity of evidence demonstrating clinical outcomes of high-end athletes sustaining a treatment for lumbar disk herniation. To evaluate the ability of a National Football League lineman to return to play after lumbar diskectomy. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. National Football League offensive and defensive linemen diagnosed with a lumbar disk herniation were identified by previously published protocols using multiple sources of the public record. Demographic and statistical performance data were compiled for each player both before and after treatment. A total of 66 linemen (36 offensive and 30 defensive) met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-two were treated surgically, and 14 were treated nonsurgically. On average, this group had a body mass index of 35.4 and was 27.6 years old. Of those players treated surgically, 80.8% (42/52) successfully returned to play an average of 33 games over 3.0 years, with 63.5% (33/52) becoming starters after treatment. Conversely, only 28.6% (4/14) of linemen successfully returned to play after nonoperative intervention, which was significantly lower than those treated with a diskectomy (P < .05). Of the linemen in the surgical cohort, 13.5% (7/52) required revision decompression, and 85.7% (6/7) of these players successfully returned to play. National Football League linemen have high return-to-play rates after lumbar diskectomy. Furthermore, because those linemen requiring revision decompression successfully returned to play 85.7% of the time, this cohort should not be denied surgical treatment after recurrent problems. Although the data in our study suggest that National Football League linemen who are treated surgically have superior outcomes to those treated nonoperatively, because of the limitations with the methodology used in this study, further prospective studies are necessary to accurately compare treatment effects and to determine the long-term prognosis for these athletes after retirement.

  20. Urban Debate and High School Educational Outcomes for African American Males: The Case of the Chicago Debate League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezuk, Briana

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether participating in competitive policy debate influences high school completion, academic achievement, and college readiness for African American male students. The analysis examines data from the Chicago Debate League from 1997 to 2006. Debate participants were 70% more likely to graduate and three times less likely to…

  1. Predictors of calf cramping in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Summers, Katherine M; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Callister, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) in the calf are common in rugby league. To date, the etiology and predictors of calf cramping are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to undertake a prospective investigation to identify predictors of calf cramping in rugby league players. Demographic and anthropometric data and calf cramp and injury history were collected in the preseason. Hydration status, number of games played, and calf cramps were recorded on game days. Male rugby league players (n = 103, mean age 18.8 ± 4.1 years) were classified as either EAMC (experienced at least 1 incident of calf cramps in the season) or no EAMC (no calf cramps). The following were investigated as possible predictors of EAMC using logistic regression modeling: competition level, age, ethnicity, playing position, history of cramping, precramping, low back pain, foot orthotic usage, foot posture, foot strike, muscle flexibility, calf girth, hydration status, and number of games played. Half the players, n = 52, experienced at least 1 incidence of calf cramping. Playing in a senior competition level (odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.75; p = 0.016), a history of calf cramping (10.85; 2.16-54.44; p = 0.004), and a history of low back pain resulting in missed field minutes (4.50, 1.37-14.79; p = 0.013) were found to predict EAMC. This study suggests that there is a high incidence of calf cramping in rugby league, especially at senior competition levels, and supports preseason screening in senior players to idetify those at risk of calf cramping and the development of possible preventative strategies.

  2. Injuries in Little League Baseball from 1987 through 1996: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kirby, Daniel P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined injury patterns in Little League baseball players over time, using insurance data from 17,221,210 players. Ball-related injuries were the most common. Batters had the greatest number of such injuries. One-quarter of the injuries were considered severe, and 13 players died. Though youth baseball appears to be very safe, there are areas…

  3. Injuries in Little League Baseball from 1987 through 1996: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kirby, Daniel P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined injury patterns in Little League baseball players over time, using insurance data from 17,221,210 players. Ball-related injuries were the most common. Batters had the greatest number of such injuries. One-quarter of the injuries were considered severe, and 13 players died. Though youth baseball appears to be very safe, there are areas…

  4. Spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby and rugby league--a twenty year survey.

    PubMed

    Armour, K S; Clatworthy, B J; Bean, A R; Wells, J E; Clarke, A M

    1997-12-12

    To establish trends in frequency of serious spinal cord injuries in rugby and rugby league over a 20 year period and to elucidate patterns of injury from retrospective analysis of cases admitted to New Zealand's two spinal injuries units. A detailed survey of unit records with follow-up of selected patients; statistical analysis of data. During the 20 years 1976 to 1995, 119 rugby and 22 rugby league players (total 141) were admitted to New Zealand's two spinal injuries units suffering serious spinal injuries and 47 of these became permanently confined to wheelchairs. There was a steady increase in frequency throughout the period studied. Of the injuries 83% occurred in forwards and 17% in backs. In rugby it was the scrum which produced most injuries, and in rugby league it was the tackle. The early season month of April produced most spinal injuries. In the eighteen months since intense compulsory educational programmes on safety were introduced by the New Zealand Rugby Union there have been no serious spinal cord injuries from rugby scrums. Contrary to widespread belief, there has not been a decrease in spinal cord injuries in rugby following rule changes in the mid 1980s. The information produced by this retrospective study has been an effective educational platform to make rugby and rugby league safer.

  5. Outcomes of Lisfranc Injuries in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    McHale, Kevin J; Rozell, Joshua C; Milby, Andrew H; Carey, James L; Sennett, Brian J

    2016-07-01

    Tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joint injuries commonly occur in National Football League (NFL) competition; however, the career effect of these injuries is unknown. To define the time to return to competition for NFL players who sustained Lisfranc injuries and to quantify the effect on athletic performance. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data on NFL players who sustained a Lisfranc injury between 2000 and 2010 were collected for analysis. Outcomes data included time to return to competition, total games played after season of injury, yearly total yards and touchdowns for offensive players, and yearly total tackles, sacks, and interceptions for defensive players. Offensive power ratings (OPR = [total yards/10] + [total touchdowns × 6]) and defensive power ratings (DPR = total tackles + [total sacks × 2] + [total interceptions × 2]) were calculated for the injury season and for 3 seasons before and after the injury season. Offensive and defensive control groups consisted of all players without an identified Lisfranc injury who competed in the 2005 season. The study group was composed of 28 NFL athletes who sustained Lisfranc injuries during the study period, including 11 offensive and 17 defensive players. While 2 of 28 (7.1%) players never returned to the NFL, 26 (92.9%) athletes returned to competition at a median of 11.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 10.3-12.5) months from time of injury and missed a median of 8.5 (IQR, 6.3-13.0) regular-season games. Analysis of pre- and postinjury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after Lisfranc injury. The magnitude of change in median OPR and DPR observed in offensive and defensive Lisfranc-injured study groups, -34.8 (IQR, -64.4 to 1.4) and -13.5 (-30.9 to 4.3), respectively, was greater than that observed in offensive and defensive control groups, -18.8 (-52.9 to 31.5) and -5.0 (-22.0 to 14.0), respectively; however, these differences did not reach statistical

  6. Return to sports for professional baseball players after surgery of the shoulder or elbow.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Steven B; Sheridan, Scott; Ciccotti, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess major and minor league baseball players' return to professional baseball at a preinjury level or higher after surgery of the shoulder or elbow. The majority of athletes will be able to return to their preinjury level after surgery. Case series. Over a 4-season period, prospective injury and surgery records were reviewed for one professional baseball club. Forty-four players underwent 51 procedures (28 shoulder and 23 elbow) by multiple experienced surgeons; 7 players underwent more than 1 procedure. Twenty-eight shoulder surgeries were performed on 27 players: 19 pitchers and 8 position players. The majority of the procedures were labral repairs (n = 21). Nine players returned to their preoperative level; 2 advanced to a higher level; 5 returned to a lower level; and 11 retired from professional baseball. Only 2 of the 12 players at the high professional level (Major League Baseball, triple-A, double-A) returned to the same level. Twenty-three elbow surgeries were performed on 21 players (20 pitchers). The majority of the procedures were ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions (n = 12). Seven players returned to their preoperative level; 4 advanced to a higher level; 4 returned to a lower level; and 6 retired from professional baseball. Of the 12 players at the high professional level, 3 returned to the same or higher level. Following surgery, 21 of 44 players (48%) returned to the same or higher level of professional baseball. For those players performing at a high professional level, 5 of 22 (23%) returned to the same or higher level. Return to the same or higher level was more likely with elbow surgery than with shoulder surgery. Elite throwing athletes may not return to the same level at a high rate following shoulder or elbow surgery.

  7. Anthropometric Characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, Youth Baseball Players and Dixie Youth World Series Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Karen E.; Spurgeon, John H.; Nevett, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight…

  8. Anthropometric Characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, Youth Baseball Players and Dixie Youth World Series Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Karen E.; Spurgeon, John H.; Nevett, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight…

  9. The League of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rallis, Sharon F.; Militello, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Effective leadership does not depend on a set of attributes that a single individual possesses. Instead, the search for one best heroic leader should be replaced with the search for and investment in a number of superheroes: a League of Leadership. Those who create a leadership league don't explore individual skills, but collective practices, such…

  10. A systematic review of concussion in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Levi, Christopher R; Schofield, Peter W; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Kohler, Ryan M N; Stanwell, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Concussion remains one of the inherent risks of participation in rugby league. While other injuries incurred by rugby league players have been well studied, less focus and attention has been directed towards concussion. The current review examined all articles published in English from 1900 up to June 2013 pertaining to concussion in rugby league players. Publications were retrieved via six databases using the key search terms: rugby league, league, football; in combination with injury terms: athletic injuries, concussion, sports concussion, sports-related concussion, brain concussion, brain injury, brain injuries, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, TBI, craniocerebral trauma, head injury and brain damage. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were all included. 199 rugby league injury publications were identified. 39 (20%) were related in some way to concussion. Of the 39 identified articles, 6 (15%) had the main aim of evaluating concussion, while the other 33 reported on concussion incidence as part of overall injury data analyses. Rugby league concussion incidence rates vary widely from 0.0 to 40.0/1000 playing hours, depending on the definition of injury (time loss vs no time loss). The incidence rates vary across match play versus training session, seasons (winter vs summer) and playing position (forwards vs backs). The ball carrier has been found to be at greater risk for injury than tacklers. Concussion accounts for 29% of all injuries associated with illegal play, but only 9% of injuries sustained in legal play. In comparison with other collision sports, research evaluating concussion in rugby league is limited. With such limited published rugby league data, there are many aspects of concussion that require attention, and future research may be directed towards these unanswered questions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  11. Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S

    2015-08-01

    To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P < .001). Players returned to baseball after 42 of 44 procedures (95%) at a mean of 4.3 months (range, 3 to 8 months), with 90% regaining the ability to participate at their previous level of competition. There were no complications. Three players (1 bilateral) underwent repeat arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Major and Minor League Baseball Hamstring Injuries: Epidemiologic Findings From the Major League Baseball Injury Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Dick, Randall W; Snell, Edward; Kenney, Nick D; Curriero, Frank C; Pollack, Keshia; Albright, John P; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2014-06-01

    Hamstring strains are a recognized cause of disability for athletes in many sports, but no study exists that reports the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in professional baseball. Professional baseball players have a high incidence of hamstring strains, and these injuries are influenced by multiple factors including history of hamstring injury, time period within the season, and activity of base running. Descriptive epidemiologic study. For the 2011 season, injury data were prospectively collected for every Major League Baseball (MLB) major and minor league team and recorded in the MLB's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected for this study included date of injury, activity in which the player was engaged at the time of injury, and time loss. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). Athlete-exposures were defined as the average number of players on a team who were participating in a game multiplied by the number of games. In the major leagues, 50 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 24 days missed. In the minor leagues, 218 hamstring strains were reported for an IR of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 27 days missed. Base running, specifically running to first base, was the top activity for sustaining a hamstring strain in both major and minor leagues, associated with almost two-thirds of hamstring strains. Approximately two-thirds of these injuries in both the major and minor leagues resulted in more than 7 days of time loss. Approximately 25% of these injuries kept the player out for 1 month or longer. History of a previous hamstring strain in the prior year, 2010, was found in 20% of the major league players and 8% of the minor league players. In the major leagues, the month of May had a statistically significant higher frequency of hamstring injuries than any other month in the season (P = .0153). Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in

  13. Developing Talented Soccer Players: An Analysis of Socio-Spatial Factors as Possible Key Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Vicedo, Juan C.; González-Víllora, Sixto; Teoldo da Costa, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Most studies on the identification and development of soccer talent have been one-dimensional in nature. Although some multi-dimensional analyses have been conducted, few research studies have assessed in any depth the socio-spatial factors influencing talent development. The aim of this particular study was to analyse variations in the international representation of clubs (n = 821) and countries (n = 59) in the development of players who took part in the 2014 FIFA Soccer World Cup. Clubs and countries were ranked and divided into quartiles according to the number of players developed between the ages of 15 and 21 (clubs and countries that developed players for at least three years between these ages) and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23. Significant variations were observed between clubs in terms of the number of developed players who took part in the World Cup and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23 (p < .05), and also between countries (p < .05). The findings reveal the need to carry out more in-depth studies into the type of training and competition engaged in by elite players in the period of development between the ages of 15 and 21. It may be the case that these factors are potentially decisive socio-spatial constraints in the development of soccer talent. PMID:28031773

  14. Developing Talented Soccer Players: An Analysis of Socio-Spatial Factors as Possible Key Constraints.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Pastor-Vicedo, Juan C; González-Víllora, Sixto; Teoldo da Costa, Israel

    2016-12-01

    Most studies on the identification and development of soccer talent have been one-dimensional in nature. Although some multi-dimensional analyses have been conducted, few research studies have assessed in any depth the socio-spatial factors influencing talent development. The aim of this particular study was to analyse variations in the international representation of clubs (n = 821) and countries (n = 59) in the development of players who took part in the 2014 FIFA Soccer World Cup. Clubs and countries were ranked and divided into quartiles according to the number of players developed between the ages of 15 and 21 (clubs and countries that developed players for at least three years between these ages) and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23. Significant variations were observed between clubs in terms of the number of developed players who took part in the World Cup and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23 (p < .05), and also between countries (p < .05). The findings reveal the need to carry out more in-depth studies into the type of training and competition engaged in by elite players in the period of development between the ages of 15 and 21. It may be the case that these factors are potentially decisive socio-spatial constraints in the development of soccer talent.

  15. Pectoralis major ruptures in professional American football players.

    PubMed

    Tarity, T David; Garrigues, Grant E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Zooker, Chad C; Cohen, Steven B; Frederick, Robert W; Williams, Gerald R; DeLuca, Peter F; Dodson, Christopher C

    2014-09-01

    Pectoralis major injuries are an infrequent shoulder injury that can result in pain, weakness, and deformity. These injuries may occur during the course of an athletic competition, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pectoralis major ruptures in professional football players and time lost from the sport following injury. We hypothesized that ruptures most frequently occur during bench-press strength training. The National Football League Injury Surveillance System was reviewed for all pectoralis major injuries in all players from 2000 to 2010. Details regarding injury setting, player demographics, method of treatment, and time lost were recorded. A total of 10 injuries-complete ruptures-were identified during this period. Five of the 10 were sustained in defensive players, generally while tackling. Nine occurred during game situations, and 1 occurred during practice. Specific data pertinent to the practice injury was not available. No rupture occurred during weight lifting. Eight ruptures were treated operatively, and 2 cases did not report the method of definitive treatment. The average days lost was 111 days (range, 42-189). The incidence was 0.004 pectoralis major ruptures during the 11-year study period. Pectoralis major injuries are uncommon while playing football. In the National Football League, these injuries primarily occur not during practice or while bench pressing but rather during games. When pectoralis major ruptures do occur, they are successfully treated operatively. Surgery may allow for return to full sports participation. IV, case series.

  16. 2012 FIRST LEGO League

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-01

    Mississippi students monitor performance of their robots during the 2012 FIRST LEGO League Mississippi Championship Tournament in Hattiesburg, Miss., on Dec. 1. The tournament is an annual high-energy robotics competition for children 9-14.

  17. A cognitive-behavioural analysis of mental toughness in national rugby league football teams.

    PubMed

    Golby, Jim; Sheard, Michael; Lavallee, David

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the relations between demographic characteristics of rugby players and selected aspects of psychological performance in rugby league football. Mental toughness was assessed using Psychological Performance Inventory and Hardiness on the Personal Views Survey III-R. Participants (N=70) were international rugby league footballers representing four teams (Wales, France, Ireland, England) in the 2000 Rugby League World Cup. Participants completed the questionnaires in training camp. Welsh-nationality players had a significantly higher mean score on two of the hardiness subscales. Hardiness measures displayed the greatest and most frequently statistically significant differences. The findings concur with previous work indicating superior hardiness is related to improved performance in sports.

  18. SILENT DELTOID ATROPHY IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS: A REPORT OF TWO CASES AND LITERATURE REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Giovanni; Gismant, Marco; Stevanato, Giorgio; Tiloca, Alessandra

    2015-06-01

    While examining the shoulders of 91 professional and semi-professional beach volleyball players, the authors observed two cases of grave atrophy of the deltoid muscle following painless axillary neuropathy, not resulting from any trauma. The causes, the clinical history and the untreated history of the entrapment of the axillary nerve in the quadrilateral space in sportsmen, are discussed on the basis of the presentation of the two cases illustrated and from existing literature. 4.

  19. 2011 FIRST LEGO League

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-04

    Matthew Myles (left) and Agrippa Kellum from Armstrong Middle School in Starkville, watch as their LEGO robot competes during a Dec. 4 tournament. Elementary and middle school students from across Mississippi gathered in Hattiesburg to participate in the Mississippi Championship FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) LEGO League Tournament. Stennis supports FIRST LEGO League each year by providing mentors, training and tournament volunteers.

  20. 2011 FIRST LEGO League

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Myles (left) and Agrippa Kellum from Armstrong Middle School in Starkville, watch as their LEGO robot competes during a Dec. 4 tournament. Elementary and middle school students from across Mississippi gathered in Hattiesburg to participate in the Mississippi Championship FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) LEGO League Tournament. Stennis supports FIRST LEGO League each year by providing mentors, training and tournament volunteers.

  1. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE REHABILITATION OF A COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYER FOLLOWING ANKLE FRACTURE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Lee D.; Musto, Tony; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A.; Gailey, Robert S.; Kelley, William P.; Alemi, Timothy J.; Espinosa, Braulio; Mandler, Eli; Scavo, Vincent A.; West, Dustin C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and Purpose Multiple rehabilitation factors including overall wellness need to be considered when an athlete returns to sport after an injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe a multidisciplinary approach for return to sport of a Division I collegiate football player following a traumatic ankle fracture requiring surgical repair. The assessment and treatment approach included the use of a performance-based physical therapy outcome measure, self-reported functional abilities, body composition assessments, and nutritional counseling. Case Description A 21 year-old running back fractured his lateral malleolus due to a mechanism of injury of excessive eversion with external rotation of the ankle. Surgical intervention included an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of the fibula and syndesmosis. In addition to six months of rehabilitation, the patient received consultations from the team sports nutritionist specialist to provide dietary counseling and body composition testing. The Comprehensive High-level Activity Mobility Predictor-Sport (CHAMP-S), a performance-based outcome measure, self-report on the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI-ADL, FADI-S), and body composition testing using whole body densitometry (BOD POD®), were administered throughout rehabilitation. Outcomes The subject was successfully rehabilitated, returned to his starting role, and subsequently was drafted by a National Football League (NFL) franchise. High-level mobility returned to above pre-injury values, achieving 105% of his preseason CHAMP-S score at discharge. Self-reported function on the FADI-ADL and FADI-Sport improved to 100% at discharge. Body fat percentages decreased (13.3% to 11.9%) and fat mass decreased (12.0 kg to 11.0kg). Lean body mass (78.1 kg to 81.5 kg) and lbm/in increased (1.14 kg/in to 1.19 kg/in). His BMI changed from 29.8 kg/m2 to 30.6 kg/m2. Discussion This case report illustrates the positive effects of a

  2. The Incidence of Concussion in a Professional Australian Rugby League Team, 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P = 0.0217). Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches. PMID:26464875

  3. The Latarjet Procedure at the National Football League Scouting Combine: An Imaging and Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    LeBus, George F.; Chahla, Jorge; Sanchez, George; Akamefula, Ramesses; Moatshe, Gilbert; Phocas, Alexandra; Price, Mark D.; Whalen, James M.; LaPrade, Robert F.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Latarjet procedure is commonly performed in the setting of glenoid bone loss for treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability; however, little is known regarding the outcomes of this procedure in elite American football players. Purpose: (1) Determine the prevalence, clinical features, and imaging findings of elite college football athletes who present to the National Football League (NFL) Combine with a previous Latarjet procedure and (2) describe these athletes’ performance in the NFL in terms of draft status and initial playing time. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: After review of all football players who participated in the NFL Combine from 2009 to 2016, any player with a previous Latarjet procedure was included in this study. Medical records, position on the field, and draft position were recorded for each player. In addition, imaging studies were reviewed to determine fixation type, hardware complications, and status of the bone block. For those players who were ultimately drafted, performance was assessed based on games played and started, total snaps, and percentage of eligible snaps in which the player participated during his rookie season. Results: Overall, 13 of 2617 (<1%) players at the combine were identified with a previous Latarjet procedure. Radiographically, 8 of 13 (61%) showed 2-screw fixation, while 5 of 13 (39%) had 1 screw. Of the 13 players, 6 (46%) players demonstrated hardware complications. All players had evidence of degenerative changes on plain radiographs, with 10 (77%) graded as mild, 1 (8%) as moderate, and 2 (15%) as severe according to the Samilson Prieto classification. Six of the 13 (46%) players went undrafted, while the remaining 7 (54%) were drafted; however, no player participated in more than half of the plays for which he was eligible during his rookie season. Conclusion: Only a small percentage of players at the NFL Combine (<1%) had undergone a Latarjet procedure. High

  4. The Latarjet Procedure at the National Football League Scouting Combine: An Imaging and Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    LeBus, George F; Chahla, Jorge; Sanchez, George; Akamefula, Ramesses; Moatshe, Gilbert; Phocas, Alexandra; Price, Mark D; Whalen, James M; LaPrade, Robert F; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-09-01

    The Latarjet procedure is commonly performed in the setting of glenoid bone loss for treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability; however, little is known regarding the outcomes of this procedure in elite American football players. (1) Determine the prevalence, clinical features, and imaging findings of elite college football athletes who present to the National Football League (NFL) Combine with a previous Latarjet procedure and (2) describe these athletes' performance in the NFL in terms of draft status and initial playing time. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. After review of all football players who participated in the NFL Combine from 2009 to 2016, any player with a previous Latarjet procedure was included in this study. Medical records, position on the field, and draft position were recorded for each player. In addition, imaging studies were reviewed to determine fixation type, hardware complications, and status of the bone block. For those players who were ultimately drafted, performance was assessed based on games played and started, total snaps, and percentage of eligible snaps in which the player participated during his rookie season. Overall, 13 of 2617 (<1%) players at the combine were identified with a previous Latarjet procedure. Radiographically, 8 of 13 (61%) showed 2-screw fixation, while 5 of 13 (39%) had 1 screw. Of the 13 players, 6 (46%) players demonstrated hardware complications. All players had evidence of degenerative changes on plain radiographs, with 10 (77%) graded as mild, 1 (8%) as moderate, and 2 (15%) as severe according to the Samilson Prieto classification. Six of the 13 (46%) players went undrafted, while the remaining 7 (54%) were drafted; however, no player participated in more than half of the plays for which he was eligible during his rookie season. Only a small percentage of players at the NFL Combine (<1%) had undergone a Latarjet procedure. High rates of postoperative complications and radiographically confirmed

  5. Usefulness of Video Review of Possible Concussions in National Youth Rugby League.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A J; Kohler, R M N; Levi, C R; Iverson, G L

    2017-01-01

    A new concussion interchange rule (CIR) was introduced in 2014 for the National Rugby League and National Youth Competition (NYC). The CIR allows a player suspected of having sustained a concussion to be removed from play and assessed without an interchange being tallied against the player's team. Participants included all NYC players who used the CIR during the 2014 season. 2 raters completed video analysis of 131 (of a total of 156 reported) uses of the CIR, describing injury characteristics, situational factors, and concussion signs. The incidence rate was 44.9 (95% CI: 38.5-52.3) uses of the CIR per 1 000 NYC player match hours, or approximately one CIR use every 1.3 games. Apparent loss of consciousness/unresponsiveness was observed in 13% of cases, clutching the head in 65%, unsteadiness of gait in 60%, and a vacant stare in 23%. Most incidences occurred from a hit-up (82%). There appeared to be some instances of video evidence of injury but the athlete was cleared to return to play in the same game. Video review appears to be a useful adjunct for identifying players suffering possible concussion. Further research is required on the usefulness of video review for identifying signs of concussive injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Training injuries in rugby league: an evaluation of skill-based conditioning games.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2002-05-01

    This study investigated the site and nature of rugby league training injuries, and identified the training activities that were most likely to result in injury in rugby league players. The incidence of training injuries was prospectively studied in 60 semiprofessional rugby league players over 1 season. Injury data was collected from 72 training sessions, which included all preseason and in-season training sessions. Injuries were described according to site, type, and the training activity performed at the time of injury. The majority of injuries (90.9 per 1000 training hours, 37.5%) were sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involved no skill component (i.e., running without the ball). In contrast, the incidence of injuries sustained while participating in skill-based conditioning games (26.0 per 1000 training hours, 10.7%) was low. These results suggest that skill-based conditioning games offer a safe, effective method of conditioning for rugby league players.

  7. Modifying Rules of a Regular Girls Softball League to Facilitate the Inclusion of a Child with Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernabe, Elaine A.; Block, Martin E.

    1994-01-01

    Coaches and players were assisted in modifying select rules of a girls' fast-pitch softball league so as to accommodate the skill limitations of a player with moderate to severe disabilities. The girl's batting average and on-base average indicated that modifications were effective. The player was well received by her teammates and other teams.…

  8. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE REHABILITATION OF A COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYER FOLLOWING ANKLE FRACTURE: A CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Luis A; Kaplan, Lee D; Musto, Tony; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; Gailey, Robert S; Kelley, William P; Alemi, Timothy J; Espinosa, Braulio; Mandler, Eli; Scavo, Vincent A; West, Dustin C

    2016-06-01

    Multiple rehabilitation factors including overall wellness need to be considered when an athlete returns to sport after an injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe a multidisciplinary approach for return to sport of a Division I collegiate football player following a traumatic ankle fracture requiring surgical repair. The assessment and treatment approach included the use of a performance-based physical therapy outcome measure, self-reported functional abilities, body composition assessments, and nutritional counseling. A 21 year-old running back fractured his lateral malleolus due to a mechanism of injury of excessive eversion with external rotation of the ankle. Surgical intervention included an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of the fibula and syndesmosis. In addition to six months of rehabilitation, the patient received consultations from the team sports nutritionist specialist to provide dietary counseling and body composition testing. The Comprehensive High-level Activity Mobility Predictor-Sport (CHAMP-S), a performance-based outcome measure, self-report on the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI-ADL, FADI-S), and body composition testing using whole body densitometry (BOD POD®), were administered throughout rehabilitation. The subject was successfully rehabilitated, returned to his starting role, and subsequently was drafted by a National Football League (NFL) franchise. High-level mobility returned to above pre-injury values, achieving 105% of his preseason CHAMP-S score at discharge. Self-reported function on the FADI-ADL and FADI-Sport improved to 100% at discharge. Body fat percentages decreased (13.3% to 11.9%) and fat mass decreased (12.0 kg to 11.0kg). Lean body mass (78.1 kg to 81.5 kg) and lbm/in increased (1.14 kg/in to 1.19 kg/in). His BMI changed from 29.8 kg/m(2) to 30.6 kg/m(2). This case report illustrates the positive effects of a multidisciplinary approach where combining physical therapy and

  9. Prevalence of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Surgery in Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Conte, Stan A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Dines, Joshua S; Wilk, Kevin E; Aune, Kyle T; Patterson-Flynn, Nancy; ElAttrache, Neal

    2015-07-01

    While the high rate of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in professional baseball is widely discussed in the media and medical literature, the actual prevalence of UCL reconstruction has not been documented. The prevalence of UCL reconstruction will be higher among pitchers than nonpitchers, and Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers will have a higher prevalence than will minor league pitchers. Descriptive epidemiology study. An online questionnaire was distributed to all 30 MLB organizations. Certified athletic trainers from each team administered the questionnaire to all players in the organization, including major league players and 6 levels of minor league players. Demographic data were compared between major and minor league players. Continuous variables (age, years of professional baseball, country of origin, etc) were compared with Student t tests (P < .05). Categorical variables (level, position, etc) were compared using chi-square analysis (P < .05). A total of 5088 professional baseball players (722 major league and 4366 minor league) participated in the survey. Pitchers represented 53% of all players, and 497 players reported at least 1 UCL reconstruction, demonstrating a prevalence rate of 10% (497 of 5088). Pitchers reported a significantly higher prevalence of UCL reconstruction (16%; 437 of 2706) than nonpitchers (3%; 60 of 2382; P < .001). Among major league pitchers, 25% (96 of 382) had a history of UCL reconstruction, while minor league pitchers showed a 15% (341 of 2324) prevalence (P < .001). Major league pitchers were also significantly older (28.8 ± 3.9 years) than minor league pitchers (22.8 ± 3.0; P < .001). The majority of major leaguers (86%) had their UCL reconstruction as professional pitchers, whereas the majority of minor league pitchers (61%) underwent their UCL reconstruction during high school and college (P < .001). The rates of UCL revision, prior elbow surgery, prior shoulder surgery, and types of UCL graft were similar

  10. Smokeless tobacco use among professional baseball players: survey results, 1998 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Severson, H H; Klein, K; Lichtensein, E; Kaufman, N; Orleans, C T

    2005-02-01

    The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (snuff and chewing tobacco) has long been associated with baseball in the USA. This article reviews six years of survey data from major and minor league baseball players to evaluate trends in tobacco use and quitting patterns over time in order to gain insight into the effects of past interventions and to document continued intervention needs. Surveys were distributed by athletic trainers to major and minor league professional baseball players during spring training session in the six years from 1998 to 2003. The surveys were anonymous and identified only by team, level of league, and other self reported demographic data. ST use among professional baseball players remains much higher than among young males in the general population, and use is most prevalent among white non-Hispanic players. There was a significant decrease in ST use among minor league players from 1998 to 2003, with seven day self reported use declining from 31.7% in 1998 to 24.8% in 2003. No significant year to year changes were observed for major league players. Major league players' self reported past week use rates, estimated at 35.9% in 1998 and at 36% in 2003, were consistently higher than those of minor league players. Self reported prevalence of past month cigarette and cigar smoking was much lower than ST use for both major and minor league players. Six years of survey data confirm a continuing high use of ST among professional baseball players. Results suggest that the effects of the broad spectrum ST control efforts launched over the past decade may have been stronger among minor than major league players. Stronger policy interventions at the major league level and multi-level efforts, including programmes to increase the use of effective quitting aids and assistance, at both levels of play are needed. Future research is needed to further clarify changes in ST practices among professional players and set policy intervention directions.

  11. Smokeless tobacco use among professional baseball players: survey results, 1998 to 2003

    PubMed Central

    Severson, H; Klein, K; Lichtensein, E; Kaufman, N; Orleans, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (snuff and chewing tobacco) has long been associated with baseball in the USA. This article reviews six years of survey data from major and minor league baseball players to evaluate trends in tobacco use and quitting patterns over time in order to gain insight into the effects of past interventions and to document continued intervention needs. Method: Surveys were distributed by athletic trainers to major and minor league professional baseball players during spring training session in the six years from 1998 to 2003. The surveys were anonymous and identified only by team, level of league, and other self reported demographic data. Results: ST use among professional baseball players remains much higher than among young males in the general population, and use is most prevalent among white non-Hispanic players. There was a significant decrease in ST use among minor league players from 1998 to 2003, with seven day self reported use declining from 31.7% in 1998 to 24.8% in 2003. No significant year to year changes were observed for major league players. Major league players' self reported past week use rates, estimated at 35.9% in 1998 and at 36% in 2003, were consistently higher than those of minor league players. Self reported prevalence of past month cigarette and cigar smoking was much lower than ST use for both major and minor league players. Conclusions: Six years of survey data confirm a continuing high use of ST among professional baseball players. Results suggest that the effects of the broad spectrum ST control efforts launched over the past decade may have been stronger among minor than major league players. Stronger policy interventions at the major league level and multi-level efforts, including programmes to increase the use of effective quitting aids and assistance, at both levels of play are needed. Future research is needed to further clarify changes in ST practices among professional players and set policy

  12. Training injuries in professional rugby league.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Godbolt, Rob J B

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the incidence of training injuries in professional rugby league players and identified the training activities that were associated with the highest rates of injury in these athletes. The incidence of training injuries was prospectively studied in 35 professional rugby league players (mean +/- SD age 23.7 +/- 3.8 years) over an entire season. Injury data were collected from 216 training sessions, which included all strength, conditioning, and game-based training sessions. During the season, a total of 126 training injuries were recorded, giving an overall incidence of injury of 20.7 per 1,000 training hours. The thigh was the most common site of injury, with twice as many posterior thigh injuries (19.8%) as anterior thigh injuries (9.5%). Hematomas (31.8%) and muscular strains (22.2%) were the most common types of injury. The majority of injuries (35.7%) were sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involved no skill component (i.e., running without the ball). In contrast, the incidence of injuries sustained while participating in strength (7.1%) and game-based training activities (14.3%) was low. Of the injuries that resulted in lost training time, one-third were sustained in traditional conditioning activities. Given the low incidence of injury in game-based activities, and the added skill and physical benefits associated with this form of training, strength and conditioning coaches should consider using appropriately designed game-based training activities as a physical conditioning tool in professional rugby league players.

  13. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  14. Little league shoulder.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Kim, Han Jo; Dugas, Jeffrey R

    2010-02-01

    The present review aims to provide a synopsis of the current literature on little league shoulder, including etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. As management involving little league shoulder has not drastically changed over recent years, most current research evaluating youth throwing athletes with shoulder pain relates to biomechanics and prevention. Current literature on biomechanics indicates that the maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release phases of throwing provide the highest rotational torque and distraction forces, respectively, with the maximum external rotation phase being most likely related to the development of little league shoulder. In addition, targets for prevention have also been identified in youth throwing athletes, including current or prior history of shoulder pain, variability in mechanics, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, and accordance with throwing guidelines, especially in at-risk baseball pitchers. Little league shoulder is most commonly seen in youth throwing athletes between 11 and 16 years of age. Clinical evaluation and radiographic imaging typically confirms the diagnosis. Management is most effectively performed through prevention. With the onset of little league shoulder, nonoperative treatment is typically successful, with a 3-month period of rest followed by a progressive throwing program with subsequent return to play.

  15. Statistical evaluation of conditioning for an elite collegiate tennis player using a single-case design.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Taisuke; Miyanaga, Yutaka; Shimojo, Hitoshi; Nishijima, Takahiko

    2002-08-01

    In an individualized athlete's conditioning program, it is desirable to use techniques of single-case research. However, it remains an unsettled question whether statistical analyses are possible in a single-case design. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the conditioning of a tennis player by statistical analyses over a season using a single-case design. Two male collegiate tennis players (subjects A and B) were observed independently and monitored by self-monitoring sheets during a 6-month tennis season (off-season, preseason, and in-season) using parameters such as performance readiness and performance. Factor analysis was used to extract the fluctuation components of performance readiness. A randomization test was used to examine the difference between means of performance readiness between Deltaoff-pre, Deltapre-in, and Deltaoff-in seasons. The performance readiness increased significantly (p < 0.05) toward a peak date in subject B (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a randomization test was an effective coaching tool to evaluate the conditioning of a tennis player over a training season.

  16. The Astronomical League

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. A.; Stevens, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    Founded over fifty years ago, the League is the largest general astronomy society in the world. It is a recognized non-profit, educational organization, promoting the science of astronomy. This includes astronomical education, research, individual observing of the heavens and coordination between the amateur and professional astronomy communities. The Astronomical League publishes a quarterly newsletter, the "Reflector", which details amateur activities and amateur collaboration with professional astronomers. The League's Observing Clubs hone the skills of the amateur astronomer in using their telescopes. These clubs provide awards to encourge observing and learning the sky. More general awards are presented to encourage amateur astronomy and the science of astronomy. These include the National Young Astronomer Award, amd the Horkheimer Planetary Imaging Award. They also sponsor conventions on both the National and Regional levels. This year's national is in Ventura, California, next year, near Washington, D.C.

  17. A Video Analysis of Use of the New 'Concussion Interchange Rule' in the National Rugby League.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A J; Iverson, G L; Stanwell, P; Moore, T; Ellis, J; Levi, C R

    2016-04-01

    The National Rugby League (NRL) in Australia introduced a new 'concussion interchange rule' (CIR) in 2014, whereby a player suspected of having sustained a concussion can be removed from play, and assessed, without an interchange being tallied against the player's team. We conducted a video analysis, describing player and injury characteristics, situational factors, concussion signs, and return to play for each "CIR" event for the 2014 season. There were 167 reported uses of the CIR. Apparent loss of consciousness/unresponsiveness was observed in 32% of cases, loss of muscle tone in 54%, clutching the head in 70%, unsteadiness of gait in 66%, and a vacant stare in 66%. More than half of the players who were removed under the CIR returned to play later in the same match (57%). Most incidences occurred from a hit up (62%) and occurred during a tackle where the initial contact was with the upper body (80%). The new concussion interchange rule has been used frequently during the first season of its implementation. In many cases, there appeared to be video evidence of injury but the athlete was cleared to return to play. More research is needed on the usefulness of video review for identifying signs of concussive injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Minnesota State High School League.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    The Minnesota State High School League administers a program of competitive athletic, musical, speech, and dramatics activities at district, region, and state levels. The league is a voluntary association of 433 public and 49 private schools. This monograph reports on a study of the league in regard to two questions: (1) Are policy-making and…

  19. Atypical presentation of axillary web syndrome (AWS) in a male squash player: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Patrick; Gryfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Axillary Web Syndrome (AWS), also known as lymphatic cording, refers to a condition in which a rope-like soft-tissue density develops in the axilla. It usually appears in the 5 to 8 week period following breast cancer surgery and can lead to shoulder pain and restricted motion. We present a case of AWS in a male squash player with no history of breast cancer or surgery following a period of intense exercise. This case highlights the rare presentation of AWS in a male patient and raises awareness for the health care practitioner who may not suspect this condition in this population. PMID:28065989

  20. Major league baseball career length in the twentieth century*

    PubMed Central

    Witnauer, William D.; Rogers, Richard G.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2011-01-01

    Although baseball is considered “the” American pastime, little is known about the career prospects of the individuals who play the game. This study fills that void by examining the careers of baseball players over the last century. Between 1902 and 1993, 5,989 position players started their careers and played 33,272 person years of major league baseball. A rookie position player can expect to play 5.6 years; one in five position players will have only a single-year career, and at every point of a player’s career, the chance of exiting is at least 11%. Position players who start younger and begin their career in more recent decades all have longer and more stable careers; nevertheless, baseball careers are not compressed versions of normal careers, but are substantially skewed toward early exit. PMID:21976782

  1. Injury in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, W; Pollard, H; Hough, K; Tully, C

    2006-05-01

    It was the purpose of this review to document the range, incidence, location and mechanism of injury occurring in the sport of rugby league. Rugby league is a collision sport played in Europe and the Pacific regions including Australia. The sport is well established and has competitions ranging from junior to elite professional. Due to the contact nature of the game, injury is relatively common. The most common injuries are musculotendinous in nature and afflict the lower limb more frequently than elsewhere. Despite the high incidence of minor (sprains/strains) to moderate musculoskeletal injury (fracture, ligament and joint injury) and minor head injuries such as lacerations, nasal fractures and concussions, rare more serious spinal cord and other injuries causing death have also been recorded. The literature on rugby league injury is small but growing and suffers from a lack of consistent definition of what an injury is, thereby causing variability in the nature and incidence/prevalence of injury. Information is lacking on the injury profiles of different age groups. Importantly, there has been little attempt to establish a coordinated injury surveillance program in rugby league in the junior or professional levels. The implementation of such programs would require a universal definition of injury and a focus on important events and competitions. The implementation could provide important information in the identification and prevention of risk factors for injury.

  2. Ivy League Trailblazer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Ruth Simmons made a big news splash a decade ago when she was named president of Brown University, making her the first Black president of an Ivy League institution. She made another splash three years later by naming a committee to investigate Brown's role in the slave trade and make recommendations on possible reparations. Reflecting on her…

  3. Ivy League Trailblazer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Ruth Simmons made a big news splash a decade ago when she was named president of Brown University, making her the first Black president of an Ivy League institution. She made another splash three years later by naming a committee to investigate Brown's role in the slave trade and make recommendations on possible reparations. Reflecting on her…

  4. 2012 FIRST LEGO League

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-01

    Two students anxiously watch their robot during the 2012 FIRST LEGO League Mississippi Championship Tournament in Hattiesburg, Miss., on Dec. 1. In addition to competing with robots, students presented research on this year's 'Senior Solutions' theme, which focused on addressing problems faced by senior adults.

  5. 2011 FIRST LEGO League

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-03

    The 2011 Mississippi FIRST LEGO League Championship Tournament attracted more than 1,000 participants and guests to the Lake Terrace Convention Center in Hattiesburg. In partnership with the LEGO Group, registered participants use the MINDSTORMSTM NXT system to build robots prior to each year's annual competition.

  6. 2011 FIRST LEGO League

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-03

    Two 2011 Mississippi FIRST LEGO League competitors from Stokes-Beard Magnet Elementary School in Columbus urge their robots on during the annual tournament Dec. 3. The competition attracted more than 1,000 participants and guests to the Lake Terrace Convention Center in Hattiesburg.

  7. Return to Play and Player Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Elite Australian Rules Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Liptak, Matthew G.; Angel, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Australian Rules football is a highly aerobic and anaerobic game that at times requires players to perform cutting or pivoting maneuvers, potentially exposing them to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. At present, there are limited data available addressing the impact of ACL injury on return to play and preinjury form after ACL reconstruction. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of ACL injury and the incidence of further ACL injury, and to consider player return to play and return to preinjury form after ACL reconstruction. It was hypothesized that elite-level Australian Football League (AFL) players do not return to preinjury form until, at minimum, 2 years after returning to play. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A retrospective analysis was undertaken on a cohort of elite AFL players who injured their ACL between 1990 and 2000. Return to play after ACL reconstruction was determined by the mean number of ball disposals, or release of the ball by the hand or foot, at 1, 2, and 3 years after return to play and compared with preinjury form. Associations between player and injury characteristics, method of reconstruction, and outcomes (return to play, preinjury form, and further ACL injury) were examined. Results: During the included seasons, a total of 2723 AFL players were listed. Of these, 131 (4.8%) sustained an ACL injury, with 115 players eligible for inclusion. Of 115 players, 26% did not return to elite competition, while 28% of those who did return experienced further ACL injury. The adjusted mean number of disposals (± standard error of the mean) was significantly lower at 1 year (12.21 ± 0.63; P = .003), 2 years (12.09 ± 0.65; P = .008), and 3 years (11.78 ± 0.77; P = .01) after return to play compared with preinjury (14.23 ± 0.67). On average, players did not return to preinjury form by 3 years (P < .01). Players aged 30 years or older were less likely to return to play compared with younger players (P

  8. Clinical recovery of two hip adductor longus ruptures: a case-report of a soccer player

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-operative treatment of acute hip adductor longus ruptures in athletes has been described in the literature. However, very limited information concerning the recovery of this type of injury exists. This case represented a unique possibility to study the recovery of two acute adductor longus ruptures, using novel, reliable and validated assessment methods. Case presentation A 22-year old male soccer player (Caucasian) sustained two subsequent acute adductor longus ruptures, one in each leg. The injuries occurred 10 months apart, and were treated non-surgically in both situations. He was evaluated using hip-strength assessments, self-report and ultrasonography until complete muscle-strength recovery of the hip adductors had occurred. The player was able to participate in a full soccer training session without experiencing pain 15 weeks after the first rupture, and 12 weeks after the second rupture. Full hip adductor muscle-strength recovery was obtained 52 weeks after the first rupture and 10 weeks after the second rupture. The adductor longus injuries, as verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), showed evidence of a complete tendon rupture in both cases, with an almost identical imaging appearance. It was only at 6 and 10 weeks ultrasonographic follow-up that the first rupture was found to include a larger anatomical area than the second rupture. Conclusion From this case we can conclude that two apparently similar hip adductor longus ruptures, verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), can have very different hip adductor strength recovery times. Assessment of adductor strength recovery may therefore in the future be a useful and important additional measure for determining when soccer players with hip adductor longus ruptures can return safely to play. PMID:23693119

  9. Relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P < 0.05) to the discriminant analysis of selected and non-selected players. These findings suggest that selected physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities may influence team selection in professional rugby league.

  10. Developing and Implementing Major League Baseball's Health and Injury Tracking System.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Green, Gary; Conte, Stan; Fealy, Stephen; Marinak, Chris; McFarland, Edward; Curriero, Frank C

    2016-03-01

    In 2010, Major League Baseball and the Major League Baseball Players Association reached an agreement regarding the development and implementation of an electronic medical record system and a new league-wide injury surveillance system. The systems were developed to create a more efficient method to track medical histories of players longitudinally as they move across Major and Minor league affiliates, as well as to identify and monitor injury trends in the sport, identify areas of specific concern, and conduct epidemiologic research to better optimize player health and safety. The resulting injury surveillance system, the Health and Injury Tracking System (HITS), is a robust system that includes all players from the both the Major and Minor Leagues. HITS also allows for data linkage with other player- and game-level data to inform the development of injury prevention policies and programs. In the present article, we document the development and implementation of HITS; describe its utility for epidemiologic research; illustrate the potential analytic strength of the surveillance system and its ability to inform policy change; and note the potential for this new surveillance system to advance the field of sports injury epidemiology.

  11. Case report: absent C6 cervical pedicle in a collegiate football player.

    PubMed

    Fowler, John R; Moyer, Ray A

    2010-06-01

    Congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a rare clinical finding with only 70 reported cases in the literature from 1946 until present. The congenitally absent pedicle has clinical importance owing to the frequency of misdiagnosis and inappropriate invasive treatments. We present the case of a 21-year-old college football player who experienced neck and shoulder pain after violent twisting of his neck by the face mask. The player walked off the field under his own power. He was sent to the locker room, where he underwent right shoulder and cervical spine radiographs. Initial review of the radiographs raised concern for a jumped right C6 facet. The patient then underwent CT and MRI of the cervical spine, confirming the diagnosis of an absent cervical pedicle. He was treated nonoperatively for a short time and completed the season. He had no symptoms at last followup at 8 months. The most frequent location of the absent cervical pedicle is at the C6 level, and the next most common is at the C5 level. Neural compression or instability is uncommon and nonsurgical treatment is the mainstay of treatment. Misdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate treatment such as halo or tong application with traction, which occurred in seven of 57 cases in one series, and exploratory surgery, which occurred in four of 57 cases.

  12. Clinical recovery of two hip adductor longus ruptures: a case-report of a soccer player.

    PubMed

    Thorborg, Kristian; Petersen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2013-05-22

    Non-operative treatment of acute hip adductor longus ruptures in athletes has been described in the literature. However, very limited information concerning the recovery of this type of injury exists. This case represented a unique possibility to study the recovery of two acute adductor longus ruptures, using novel, reliable and validated assessment methods. A 22-year old male soccer player (Caucasian) sustained two subsequent acute adductor longus ruptures, one in each leg. The injuries occurred 10 months apart, and were treated non-surgically in both situations. He was evaluated using hip-strength assessments, self-report and ultrasonography until complete muscle-strength recovery of the hip adductors had occurred. The player was able to participate in a full soccer training session without experiencing pain 15 weeks after the first rupture, and 12 weeks after the second rupture. Full hip adductor muscle-strength recovery was obtained 52 weeks after the first rupture and 10 weeks after the second rupture. The adductor longus injuries, as verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), showed evidence of a complete tendon rupture in both cases, with an almost identical imaging appearance. It was only at 6 and 10 weeks ultrasonographic follow-up that the first rupture was found to include a larger anatomical area than the second rupture. From this case we can conclude that two apparently similar hip adductor longus ruptures, verified by initial ultrasonography (10 days post-injury), can have very different hip adductor strength recovery times. Assessment of adductor strength recovery may therefore in the future be a useful and important additional measure for determining when soccer players with hip adductor longus ruptures can return safely to play.

  13. Hamstring Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Zachazewski, James; Silvers, Holly J.; Li, Bernard; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Insler, Stephanie; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Mandelbaum, Bert R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of a hamstring injury prevention program designed to address the high incidence of acute and chronic hamstring injuries and re-injuries that occur in the sport of professional baseball. Methods: This was a prospective cluster cohort study assessing the efficacy of an injury prevention intervention designed to address hamstring injury in rookie and professional baseball players participating in Minor and Major League Baseball (N = 213). Each athlete was asked to participate and consented (Johns Hopkins Internal Review Board, Baltimore, Maryland). Those athletes who agreed to participate completed a questionnaire detailing their hamstring injury history. The hamstring injury prevention program was disseminated to each medical staff (team physician, certified athletic trainer and strength and conditioning coach) and they were instructed on how to implement the program. Weekly individual compliance with the program and injury data was collected. At the end of the season, the data were analyzed for program compliance and hamstring (HS) injury rates (both acute and reoccurrence) compared to the control data in the MLB HITS database. All data were stripped of individual and team identifiers prior to analysis. Results: For the major and minor league intervention study, one Major and Minor League organization served as the intervention (INT) team, which encompassed Rookie League, Fall Ball, Class A, AA, AAA and major league rosters (6 total teams). A total of 213 athletes consented to participate: Minor League: N = 173 players and Majors League: N = 40. Weekly compliance, injury incidence and time loss due to injury was compared to the HITS database (age, skill matched control group). The average weighted utilization of the injury prevention program was 25.30 utilizations for the uninjured group compared to 13.53 in the injured group (p=0.09). In the majors, there were 2 HS injuries in the INT vs. 79 in the CON

  14. Septic olecranon and prepatellar bursitis in hockey players: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Tuff, Taylor; Chrobak, Karen

    2016-12-01

    Septic bursitis (SB) is an important differential diagnosis in athletes presenting with an acute subcutaneous swelling of the elbow or knee. Prompt recognition is essential to minimize recovery time and prevent the spread of infection. Due to the significant overlap in clinical features, it is often difficult to differentiate SB from non-septic bursitis (NSB) without bursal aspirate analysis. SB is commonly not considered unless the bursitis is accompanied by a local skin lesion or fever. This study describes two cases of septic olecranon bursitis and one case of septic prepatellar bursitis in adult hockey players presenting to a sports medicine clinic. None of the cases presented with an observable skin lesion and only one case developed a fever. It is therefore essential that clinicians maintain a high index of suspicion and monitor for signs of progression when presented with an acute bursitis even in the absence of these features.

  15. Septic olecranon and prepatellar bursitis in hockey players: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Tuff, Taylor; Chrobak, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Septic bursitis (SB) is an important differential diagnosis in athletes presenting with an acute subcutaneous swelling of the elbow or knee. Prompt recognition is essential to minimize recovery time and prevent the spread of infection. Due to the significant overlap in clinical features, it is often difficult to differentiate SB from non-septic bursitis (NSB) without bursal aspirate analysis. SB is commonly not considered unless the bursitis is accompanied by a local skin lesion or fever. This study describes two cases of septic olecranon bursitis and one case of septic prepatellar bursitis in adult hockey players presenting to a sports medicine clinic. None of the cases presented with an observable skin lesion and only one case developed a fever. It is therefore essential that clinicians maintain a high index of suspicion and monitor for signs of progression when presented with an acute bursitis even in the absence of these features. PMID:28065991

  16. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a collegiate soccer player: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Farr, Derek; Selesnick, Harlan

    2008-07-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition among running athletes. In those who engage in repetitive activity, it can cause severe, debilitating leg pain. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough workup that includes history and physical examination, radiologic studies (x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan), and compartment pressure monitoring. Most patients do not respond well to nonoperative intervention. Fasciotomy provides satisfactory relief of symptoms and helps patients return to their sports. We present the case of a high-level collegiate soccer player with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

  17. NASA Alumni League Dialogue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    Former NASA Administrator James Beggs smiles during a dialogue on the future of the space program, Friday, March 4, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Beggs was NASA's sixth administrator serving from July 1981 to December 1985. The dialogue was part of the program “The State of the Agency: NASA Future Programs Presentation” sponsored by the NASA Alumni League with support from the AAS, AIAA, CSE and WIA.Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  18. Disc herniations in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin L; Buchowski, Jacob M; Bumpass, David B; Lehman, Ronald A; Mall, Nathan A; Matava, Matthew J

    2013-10-15

    Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database. To determine the overall incidence, location, and type of disc herniations in professional football players to target treatment issues and prevention. Disc herniations represent a common and debilitating injury to the professional athlete. The NFL's (National Football League's) Sports Injury Monitoring System is a surveillance database created to monitor the league for all injuries, including injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. A retrospective analysis was performed on all disc herniations to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine during a 12-season period (2000–2012) using the NFL's surveillance database. The primary data points included the location of the injury, player position, activity at time of injury, and playing time lost due to injury. During the 12 seasons, 275 disc herniations occurred in the spine. In regard to location, 76% occurred in the lumbar spine and most frequently affected the L5–S1 disc. The offensive linemen were most frequently injured. As expected, blocking was the activity that caused most injuries. Lumbar disc herniations rose in prevalence and had a mean loss of playing time of more than half the season (11 games). Thoracic disc herniations led to the largest mean number of days lost overall, whereas players with cervical disc herniations missed the most practices. Disc herniations represent a significant cause of morbidity in the NFL. Although much attention is placed on spinal cord injuries, preventive measures targeting the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine may help to reduce the overall incidence of these debilitating injuries. N/A

  19. A systematic video analysis of National Hockey League (NHL) concussions, part I: who, when, where and what?

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Michael G; Comper, Paul; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Echemendia, Ruben J

    2015-04-01

    Although there is a growing understanding of the consequences of concussions in hockey, very little is known about the precipitating factors associated with this type of injury. To describe player characteristics and situational factors associated with concussions in the National Hockey League (NHL). Case series of medically diagnosed concussions for regular season games over a 3.5-year period during the 2006-2010 seasons using an inclusive cohort of professional hockey players. Digital video records were coded and analysed using the Heads Up Checklist. Of 197 medically diagnosed concussions, 88% involved contact with an opponent. Forwards accounted for more concussions than expected compared with on-ice proportional representation (95% CI 60 to 73; p=0.04). Significantly more concussions occurred in the first period (47%) compared with the second and third periods (p=0.047), with the majority of concussions occurring in the defensive zone (45%). Approximately 47% of the concussions occurred in open ice, 53% occurred in the perimeter. Finally, 37% of the concussions involved injured players' heads contacting the boards or glass. This study describes several specific factors associated with concussions in the NHL, including period of the game, player position, body size, and specific locations on the ice and particular situations based on a player's position. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Bilateral Tarsal Coalition in a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Basketball Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Suits, Julie M.; Oliver, Gretchen D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To present a case of bilateral subtalar joint coalition in a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I basketball player and the treatment plan that was used to manage the coalition from the beginning of conference play through the postseason. Background A 20-year-old male basketball athlete (height = 182.8 cm, mass = 83.4 kg) presented with bilateral subtalar joint tarsal coalition that became symptomatic in 2006 and resulted in constant pain with any form of activity. Differential Diagnosis Traumatic injury of the talocalcaneal joint. Treatment Nonsurgical intervention of conservative therapy was elected. Uniqueness Less than 13% of the overall population is affected with tarsal coalition, so it is safe to assume that very few athletes competing at the collegiate or elite level suffer from this condition. This is the first report in the literature to document conservative manual therapies used to manage the symptoms of subtalar joint tarsal coalition in a Division I basketball player. Conclusions After the intensive treatment program for tarsal coalition was implemented, the patient experienced pain relief and was able to continue to compete at a competitive level. This case represents the need to further explore and document a conservative treatment protocol for tarsal coalition. PMID:23182021

  1. An Examination of Coach and Player Relationships According to the Adapted LMX 7 Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX 7) scale with regard to coach--player relationships in sports settings. A total of 330 professional soccer players from the Turkish Super League as well as from the First and Second Leagues participated in this study. Factor analyses were performed to…

  2. An Examination of Coach and Player Relationships According to the Adapted LMX 7 Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX 7) scale with regard to coach--player relationships in sports settings. A total of 330 professional soccer players from the Turkish Super League as well as from the First and Second Leagues participated in this study. Factor analyses were performed to…

  3. Influence of playing standard on the physical demands of professional rugby league.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report on two studies that investigated the physical demands of professional rugby league match-play. Instudy one, National Rugby League (NRL) and National Youth Competition (NYC) players underwent global positioning system (GPS) analysis during competitive matches. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between playing standards for minutes played, total distance covered, or the distances covered at low and high speeds. However, NRL players engaged in significantly more repeated high-intensity effort bouts than NYC players (13.1 ± 0.8 bouts vs. 9.7 ± 1.1 bouts). Reductions in physical performance occurred from the first to second half for both NRL and NYC players. In study two, we investigated, in the same players, the physical demands of professional rugby league match-play when players were competing in trial and regular fixture matches. The locomotor demands of trial matches were lower than fixture matches, with players covering less distance per minute of match-play, including less distance at low and high speeds. Players were also less likely to engage in repeated high-intensity effort bouts in trial matches than fixtures. These findings demonstrate that neither NYC matches nor NRL trial matches adequately reflect the intense physical demands of NRL fixture matches.

  4. The Financial and Professional Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes.

    PubMed

    Secrist, Eric S; Bhat, Suneel B; Dodson, Christopher C

    2016-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search. A database of NFL player salaries was used to conduct a matched cohort analysis comparing ACL-injured players with the rest of the NFL. The main outcomes were the percentage of players remaining in the NFL and mean salary at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after injury. Cohorts were subdivided based on initial salary: group A, <$500,000; group B, ≤$500,000 to $2,000,000; and group C, >$2,000,000. Mean cumulative earnings were calculated by multiplying the percentage of players remaining in the league by their mean salaries and compounding this each season. NFL athletes suffered 219 ACL injuries from 2010 to 2013. The 7504 other player seasons in the NFL during this time were used as controls. Significantly fewer ACL-injured players than controls remained in the NFL at each time point (P < .05). In group A, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 to 3 seasons after injury (P < .05), and in group B, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 and 2 seasons after injury (P < .05). There was no significant decrease in group C. Players in groups A and B remaining in the NFL also had a lower mean salary than controls (P < .05 in season 1). The mean cumulative earnings over 4 years for ACL-injured players was $2,070,521 less per player than uninjured controls. On average, ACL-injured players earned $2,070,521 less than salary-matched controls over the 4 years after injury. Players initially earning less than $2 million per year have lower mean salaries and are less likely to remain in

  5. Etiology and Biomechanics of Tarsometatarsal Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Richard W.; Lievers, W. Brent; Riley, Patrick O.; Frimenko, Rebecca E.; Crandall, Jeff R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tarsometatarsal (TMT) dislocations are uncommon yet debilitating athletic injuries, particularly in American football. To date, the mechanisms of athletic TMT dislocation have been described only anecdotally. This lack of information confounds the development of preventative countermeasures. Purpose: To use video analysis to provide direct, independent identification of the etiologic and mechanistic variables responsible for TMT dislocations in professional football players. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Sixteen professional National Football League players who sustained publicly reported TMT dislocations were identified. Publicly broadcast game footage of the plays in which injury occurred was reviewed by a panel of 5 biomechanists. Consensus was reached regarding the details surrounding injury, and a weighting was assigned to each detail based on the panel’s confidence. Results: Roughly 90% of injuries occurred while the injured player was engaged with or by another player, a detail that has heretofore been undocumented. Few injuries resulted from direct loading of either the foot or the ipsilateral limb; however, the injured foot was frequently subjected to axial loading from ground engagement with the foot in plantar flexion and the toes dorsiflexed. Injurious loading was often due to external rotation of the midfoot (86%). Fifteen of 16 injuries were season ending. Conclusion: TMT dislocations are frequently associated with engagement by or with a second player but infrequently caused by a direct blow to the foot. Axial loading of the foot, external rotation, and pronation/supination are the most common conditions during injurious loading. PMID:26535306

  6. Injuries of the obturator muscles in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Wong-On, Manuel; Turmo-Garuz, Antonio; Arriaza, Rafael; Gonzalez de Suso, Jose Manuel; Til-Perez, Luis; Yanguas-Leite, Xavier; Diaz-Cueli, David; Gasol-Santa, Xavier

    2017-02-10

    Obturator externus and internus muscular tears are uncommon injuries. Only a few case reports exist, mainly in high-level athletes. Our aim is to describe a series of obturator externus and internus muscular tears in professional soccer players. Injury data from four teams from the First Division of the Spanish Soccer League were collected over a total of four seasons. Any soccer player who sustained an injury to either the obturator externus or internus identified on magnetic resonance (MRI) was included. All injured players were treated non-operatively with a goal of returning to play as fast as possible. Sixteen players sustained injuries to the obturator externus and internus during matches or training sessions. The main complaint was anterior hip pain with a physical examination showing pain during internal rotation or external rotation of the flexed hip. The MRI documented 12 muscular tears of the obturator externus, and 4 muscular tears of the obturator internus. All injuries were treated conservatively based on physical therapy, analgesic medications, and underwent a symptoms-based rehabilitation protocol. Mean return to play was 11.5  ±  8.8 days. Although uncommon, tears of the obturator externus and internus occur in professional soccer players. The MRI scan was essential to the location, classification, and evaluation of the injury size. The clinical relevance of our investigation is based on the relatively benign prognosis of these injuries. IV.

  7. Lower-extremity isokinetic strength profiling in professional rugby league and rugby union.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott R; Brughelli, Matt; Griffiths, Peter C; Cronin, John B

    2014-03-01

    While several studies have documented isokinetic knee strength in junior and senior rugby league players, investigations of isokinetic knee and hip strength in professional rugby union players are limited. The purpose of this study was to provide lower-extremity strength profiles and compare isokinetic knee and hip strength of professional rugby league and rugby union players. 32 professional rugby league and 25 professional rugby union players. Cross-sectional analysis. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque and strength ratios of the dominant and nondominant legs during seated knee-extension/ flexion and supine hip-extension/flexion actions at 60°/s. Forwards from both codes were taller and heavier and had a higher body-mass index than the backs of each code. Rugby union forwards produced significantly (P < .05) greater peak torque during knee flexion in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.81 and 2.02) compared with rugby league forwards. Rugby league backs produced significantly greater hip-extension peak torque in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 0.83 and 0.77) compared with rugby union backs. There were no significant differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps ratios between code, position, or leg. Rugby union forwards and backs produced significantly greater knee-flexion-to-hip-extension ratios in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.49-2.26) than rugby union players. It seems that the joint torque profiles of players from rugby league and union codes differ, which may be attributed to the different demands of each code.

  8. A Case of Posterior Sternoclavicular Dislocation in a Professional American Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Justin S.; Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Brophy, Robert H.; Wright, Rick W.; Scott, Reggie; Matava, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Sternoclavicular (SC) dislocation is a rare injury of the upper extremity. Treatment of posterior SC dislocation ranges from conservative (closed reduction) to operative (open reduction with or without surgical reconstruction of the SC joint). To date, we are unaware of any literature that exists pertaining to this injury or its treatment in elite athletes. The purpose of this case report is to describe a posterior SC joint dislocation in a professional American football player and to illustrate the issues associated with its diagnosis and treatment and the athlete’s return to sports. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported in a professional athlete. He was treated successfully with closed reduction and returned to play within 5 weeks of injury. PMID:26137177

  9. Sprinting patterns of National Rugby League competition.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sprinting demands of National Rugby League (NRL) competition and characterize the sprinting patterns of different rugby league playing positions. Thirty-seven elite rugby league players (mean ± SE age: 23.6 ± 0.5 years) underwent global positioning satellite analysis during 104 NRL appearances. The majority (67.5%) of sprint efforts were across distances of <20 m. The most common sprint distance for hit-up forwards was 6-10 m (46.3%). Outside backs had a greater proportion (33.7%) of sprint efforts over distances of ≥21 m. The proportion of sprint efforts over 40 m or greater for hit-up forwards, wide running forwards, adjustables, and outside backs was 5.0, 7.4, 5.0, and 9.7%, respectively. Of the sprints performed, approximately 48.0% involved contact, approximately 58.0% were preceded by forward locomotion (forward walking, jogging, or striding), whereas over 24.0% occurred from a standing start. Hit-up forwards more commonly sprinted from a standing start, or after lateral movement, whereas forward striding activities more commonly preceded sprint efforts for the adjustables and outside backs. The majority of sprint efforts were performed without the ball (78.7 vs. 21.3%). Most sprint efforts (67.5%) were followed by a long recovery (i.e., ≥5 minutes). Outside backs had the greatest proportion (76.1%) of long duration recovery periods and the smallest proportion (1.8%) of short duration recovery periods (i.e., <60 seconds) between sprints. The results of this study demonstrate differences among rugby league playing positions for the nature of sprint efforts and the typical distances covered during these efforts. Furthermore, the activities preceding and the recovery periods after sprint efforts were different among playing positions. These findings suggest that rugby league sprint training should be tailored to meet the individual demands of specific playing positions.

  10. Splenic Artery Avulsion in a High School Football Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ralston, David J.; Scherm, Michael J.

    2004-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a high school football player who sustained avulsion of 2 branches of the splenic artery from his spleen as he was tackled and landed on the football. BACKGROUND: A high school football player was tackled and fell onto the football, left side first. He was examined by a certified athletic trainer and an internist. On evaluation, he had a positive Kehr sign, exquisite left upper abdominal quadrant tenderness, and complaint of nausea. He also exhibited signs of the onset of shock, including diaphoresis, a rapid pulse, and hypotension. He was immediately transported by ambulance to the local emergency facility. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: Splenic rupture, splenic laceration, splenic artery avulsion, or ruptured viscus. TREATMENT: Emergency surgery was performed, with removal of 2800 mL of blood and ligation of the 2 arterial branches avulsed from the spleen. The patient fully recovered within 6 weeks and was cleared to resume all sports activities. UNIQUENESS: Injury to the spleen in football is a known yet very uncommon injury. Even more unusual is the avulsion of splenic artery branches from the spleen. CONCLUSIONS: It is critical that athletic trainers and team physicians have an understanding of the mechanisms, signs, and symptoms of splenic injury. Because the spleen is a highly vascular organ, severe hemorrhage can be fatal in just minutes if not recognized and appropriately treated.

  11. An Abnormal Bone Lesion of the Scapula in a Collegiate Basketball Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Matthew S.; Donnell, Allison; Miller, Jason; Iven, Val Gene; Pascale, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of a bone lesion of the scapula in a collegiate basketball player. Background: A 19-year-old National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I male basketball player presented with pain in the posterior region of the right shoulder. During practice, he was performing a layup when his arm was forced into hyperflexion by a defender. Evaluation revealed a bone lesion involving the scapular spine and base of the acromion. Differential Diagnosis: Acromioclavicular joint sprain, subacromial bursitis, subscapular bursitis, humeral head contusion, acromial fracture. Treatment: The patient was treated for 2 months with therapeutic modalities and rehabilitation exercises. Because of persistent pain and the risk of a pathologic fracture, open surgical biopsy and bone grafting were then undertaken. Uniqueness: Most simple bone cysts affect the proximal humerus and femur, whereas our patient's lesion was in the acromial complex. Conclusions: Athletic trainers should be alert to the unusual possibility of bone cysts, which are usually identified incidentally when radiographs are obtained for other reasons. Most simple bone cysts are asymptomatic, but a pathologic fracture can occur with trauma. PMID:23725460

  12. Recalcitrant Infrapatellar Tendinitis and Surgical Outcome in a Collegiate Basketball Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To present the history, surgery, rehabilitation management, and eventual functional and surgical outcomes of a collegiate basketball player with recalcitrant jumper's knee. Background: A 21-year-old, male collegiate basketball player had a 2-year history of anterior knee pain. Differential Diagnosis: Injuries that often mimic symptoms of infrapatellar tendinitis include infrapatellar fat pad irritation, Hoffa fat pad disease, patellofemoral joint dysfunction, mucoid degeneration of the infrapatellar tendon, and, in preadolescents and adolescents, Sinding-Larsen-Johannsson disease. Treatment: After conservative treatment failed to improve his symptoms, the athlete underwent surgical excision of infrapatellar fibrous scar tissue and repair of the infrapatellar tendon. Uniqueness: This patient's case was unique in 3 distinct ways: (1) outcome surveys helped me to understand how this injury affected various aspects of this patient's life and how he viewed himself as he progressed through rehabilitation; (2) a modified functional test was used to help determine whether the athlete was ready to return to sport; and (3) the athlete progressed rapidly through rehabilitation and returned to competitive athletics in 3 months. Conclusions: This patient was able to return to sport without functional limitations. The surgical outcome was also considered excellent. PMID:12937459

  13. A rare cause of chronic elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wasylynko, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of chronic elbow pain as a result of a hidden underlying osteochondral defect. Clinical Features: A 17-year old baseball player presented with chronic lateral elbow pain. Examination revealed swelling of the elbow with signs of possible ligament, muscle, and tendon injury. Diagnosis and Treatment: Although there was apparent soft-tissue injury, the elbow swelling created immediate suspicion of a more serious underlying condition. Examination revealed a swollen and tender elbow, with plain x-ray confirming a subchondral bone disorder (osteochondral defect) of the capitellum. Surgical repair was performed by an orthopedic surgeon using DeNovo NT Natural Tissue Grafts: the implantation of small pieces of juvenile joint cartilage into the affected area, using glue-like fibrin. Rehabilitation of the elbow began immediately following surgery. Summary: Examination and imaging indicated that elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player could be from multiple sources, however, the chronic swelling raised suspicion of a condition requiring immediate and further investigation. PMID:27713578

  14. The Financial and Professional Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Dodson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. Purpose: To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search. A database of NFL player salaries was used to conduct a matched cohort analysis comparing ACL-injured players with the rest of the NFL. The main outcomes were the percentage of players remaining in the NFL and mean salary at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after injury. Cohorts were subdivided based on initial salary: group A, <$500,000; group B, ≤$500,000 to $2,000,000; and group C, >$2,000,000. Mean cumulative earnings were calculated by multiplying the percentage of players remaining in the league by their mean salaries and compounding this each season. Results: NFL athletes suffered 219 ACL injuries from 2010 to 2013. The 7504 other player seasons in the NFL during this time were used as controls. Significantly fewer ACL-injured players than controls remained in the NFL at each time point (P < .05). In group A, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 to 3 seasons after injury (P < .05), and in group B, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 and 2 seasons after injury (P < .05). There was no significant decrease in group C. Players in groups A and B remaining in the NFL also had a lower mean salary than controls (P < .05 in season 1). The mean cumulative earnings over 4 years for ACL-injured players was $2,070,521 less per player than uninjured controls. Conclusion: On average, ACL-injured players earned $2,070,521 less than salary-matched controls over the 4 years after injury. Players initially earning less than $2 million

  15. Variables Affecting Return to Play After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in the National Football League

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Emmanuel D.; Rawicki, Nathaniel L.; Rensing, Nicholas J.; Kusnezov, Nicholas A.; Lanzi, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in the National Football League (NFL). Limited literature exists regarding return to play (RTP) and the factors affecting RTP after ACL reconstruction in NFL players. Purpose/Hypothesis: To determine RTP rates after ACL reconstruction in NFL players and to ascertain which variables affect RTP in these players. We hypothesized that RTP in this population will be less than in the general population and similar to the limited studies published previously. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 92 NFL athletes who sustained ACL injuries requiring ACL reconstruction from 2013 to 2015 were retrospectively studied to determine rate of RTP and the variables affecting RTP. Results: Sixty-two percent (57/92) of NFL athletes returned to NFL game play prior to the end of the 2015-2016 postseason. ACL injuries were noted in 10 different player positions, with 81.5% of all injuries as isolated ACL injuries (75/92) and 18.5% with concomitant knee injuries. A significant difference in ability to RTP was found for players who sustained in-season injuries compared with those who sustained off-season/preseason injuries (P = .02). No significant differences in RTP were found for players who played less than 4 years in the NFL compared with those who played longer. The mean draft round of players who returned was 3.96, with the odds ratio favoring RTP at 4.44 (P = .003) for players drafted in the first 3 rounds of the NFL draft compared with those drafted in the fourth round or later. No significant differences were found with regard to playing surface, laterality, concomitant injury, previous ipsilateral or contralateral ACL reconstruction, final outcome of the game, or contact compared with noncontact injuries. Conclusion: The RTP rates we reported after ACL reconstruction in NFL players are similar to prior studies; however, running backs and wide receivers had lower rates of RTP

  16. FIRST LEGO League Kickoff

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-23

    FIRST LEGO League participants listen to Aerospace Education Specialist Chris Copelan explain the playing field for 'Nano Quest' during a recent FLL kickoff event at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center. The kickoff began the 2006 FLL competition season. Eighty-five teachers, mentors, parents and 9- to 14-year-old students from southern and central Mississippi came to SSC to hear the rules for Nano Quest. The challenge requires teams to spend eight weeks building and programming robots from LEGO Mindstorms kits. They'll battle their creations in local and regional competitions. The Dec. 2 competition at Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College will involve about 200 students. FIRST LEGO League, considered the 'little league' of the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition, partners FIRST and the LEGO Group. Competitions aim to inspire and celebrate science and technology using real-world context and hands-on experimentation, and to promote the principles of team play and gracious professionalism. Because NASA advocates robotics and science-technology education, the agency and SSC support FIRST by providing team coaches, mentors and training, as well as competition event judges, referees, audio-visual and other volunteer staff personnel. Two of Mississippi's NASA Explorer Schools, Bay-Waveland Middle and Hattiesburg's Lillie Burney Elementary, were in attendance. The following schools were also represented: Ocean Springs Middle, Pearl Upper Elementary, Long Beach Middle, Jackson Preparatory Academy, North Woolmarket Middle, D'Iberville Middle, West Wortham Middle, Picayune's Roseland Park Baptist Academy and Nicholson Elementary, as well as two home-school groups from McComb and Brandon. Gulfport and Picayune Memorial-Pearl River high schools' FIRST Robotics teams conducted robotics demonstrations for the FLL crowd.

  17. FIRST LEGO League Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    FIRST LEGO League participants listen to Aerospace Education Specialist Chris Copelan explain the playing field for 'Nano Quest' during a recent FLL kickoff event at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center. The kickoff began the 2006 FLL competition season. Eighty-five teachers, mentors, parents and 9- to 14-year-old students from southern and central Mississippi came to SSC to hear the rules for Nano Quest. The challenge requires teams to spend eight weeks building and programming robots from LEGO Mindstorms kits. They'll battle their creations in local and regional competitions. The Dec. 2 competition at Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College will involve about 200 students. FIRST LEGO League, considered the 'little league' of the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition, partners FIRST and the LEGO Group. Competitions aim to inspire and celebrate science and technology using real-world context and hands-on experimentation, and to promote the principles of team play and gracious professionalism. Because NASA advocates robotics and science-technology education, the agency and SSC support FIRST by providing team coaches, mentors and training, as well as competition event judges, referees, audio-visual and other volunteer staff personnel. Two of Mississippi's NASA Explorer Schools, Bay-Waveland Middle and Hattiesburg's Lillie Burney Elementary, were in attendance. The following schools were also represented: Ocean Springs Middle, Pearl Upper Elementary, Long Beach Middle, Jackson Preparatory Academy, North Woolmarket Middle, D'Iberville Middle, West Wortham Middle, Picayune's Roseland Park Baptist Academy and Nicholson Elementary, as well as two home-school groups from McComb and Brandon. Gulfport and Picayune Memorial-Pearl River high schools' FIRST Robotics teams conducted robotics demonstrations for the FLL crowd.

  18. Influence of playing standard on the physical demands of junior rugby league tournament match-play.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the physical demands on junior rugby league players competing at three different standards of tournament match-play. Cross-sectional study. Sixty junior rugby league players (mean ± SD age, 16.7 ± 0.7 years) participated in this study. Players were either competing in Division 1, Division 2, or Division 3 teams of the Confraternity carnival. Global positioning system (GPS) analysis was completed during 17 matches (totalling 139 appearances). Division 1 and 2 players covered significantly (p=0.001) greater distance per minute of match play than Division 3 players (83.0 ± 12.3m/min and 81.5 ± 6.9 m/min vs. 73.3 ± 9.8m/min). The greater total distance at the higher competitive standard was achieved through greater (p=0.001) distances at low speeds, with Division 1 players also covering more (p=0.038) high speed running than Division 3 players. Expressed relative to playing time, the number of total collisions was lower (p=0.001) in Division 3 players. Division 2 players engaged in more (p=0.034) repeated high-intensity effort bouts than Division 3 players. Significant decrements in total (p=0.005) and low speed distances (p=0.006) were found, with Division 3 players showing the largest reductions in performance. These findings demonstrate that both the average intensity and the repeated high-intensity effort demands of junior rugby league tournament match-play are greater at higher playing standards. Sport scientists and conditioning staff can use these data to plan appropriate training sessions to allow players to tolerate match-play demands, and recover from the demands of competition. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NASA Alumni League Dialogue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    Former NASA Administrator James Beggs is seen during a dialogue with present NASA Administrator Charles Bolden on the future of the space program, Friday, March 4, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Beggs was NASA's sixth administrator serving from July 1981 to December 1985. The dialogue was part of the program “The State of the Agency: NASA Future Programs Presentation” sponsored by the NASA Alumni League with support from the AAS, AIAA, CSE and WIA.Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  20. NASA Alumni League Dialogue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    Former NASA Administrator James Beggs, left, and present NASA Administrator Charles Bolden conduct a dialogue on the future of the space program, Friday, March 4, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Beggs was NASA's sixth administrator serving from July 1981 to December 1985. Bolden took over the post as NASA's 12th administrator in July 2009. The dialogue is part of the program “The State of the Agency: NASA Future Programs Presentation” sponsored by the NASA Alumni League with support from the AAS, AIAA, CSE and WIA.Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  1. Unusual fracture of the humerus in a volleyball player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hakozaki, M; Iwabuchi, M; Otani, K; Konno, S; Kikuchi, S

    2007-11-01

    We describe a case of a female high school volleyball player who suffered a humeral shaft fracture while executing a floater serve. Based on the patient's history, a stress fracture was initially suspected. However, plain radiographs showed no periosteal reactions, callus formation or osteosclerosis, and thus we could not make a definite diagnosis of "stress fracture". It is suggested that an instantaneous muscle force in addition to rotational forces applied by impact with the ball caused the fracture. Her fracture healed without any subsequent disabilities based on a conservative medical management with a plaster splint, and she returned to the volleyball team. The inaccuracy of her serve form in addition to her own muscular force might be involved in the mechanism of injury. Instruction on achieving appropriate serve form might help prevent such fractures.

  2. Isolated A1 Pulley Rupture of Left Fourth Finger in Kendo Players: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hyung; Joo, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Annular pulley injury of fingers is usually observed in rock climbers who support their entire body weight with flexed fingers during climbing. But these lesions can also follow trivial trauma, such as lifting heavy objects with the fingertips, or during sports and recreational activities. The A2 and A4 pulleys are most usually involved and reported most frequently. However, traumatic A1 pulley rupture has not been reported yet, to the best of our knowledge. Kendo is a very vigorous martial art with frequent physical contact. Therefore, we reported two cases of repetitive microtraumatic left fourth finger A1 pulley rupture in Kendo players with results from physical examination and imaging studies, such as ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, together with related literature. PMID:26605184

  3. Stress fracture of the radial styloid process in a judo player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Hiroshi; Iwashita, Satoshi; Ohkubo, Atsushi; Sawaizumi, Takuya; Takai, Shinro

    2015-01-01

    Stress fractures of the upper limbs are uncommon, and are most often reported as individual cases or small series. In particularly, stress fractures around the wrist are even less common. A stress fracture of the radial styloid process in a judo player was surgically treated, and a favorable treatment outcome was obtained. A 16-year-old adolescent boy experienced pain in the right wrist, with no apparent trigger, while playing judo. Stress fracture of the radial styloid process was diagnosed with plain radiographs and was treated conservatively with cast immobilization. Although bone union was achieved, the fracture recurred after he resumed paying judo. Thus, surgical treatment was performed. The procedure was resection of the distal bone fragment. He resumed practicing 2 months postoperatively and returned to judo matches after 1 more month. As of 1 year after distal bone fragment resection, he was able to participate in judo without pain, limited range of motion, or instability of the wrist.

  4. The National Football League: cerebral concussion, peer-review, and the oath of Hippocrates: keynote address--NFL concussion summit, Chicago 2007.

    PubMed

    Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2008-01-01

    The following comments convey the assembled keynote points made at a summit called by Commissioner Roger Goodell involving all leading medical personnel in the National Football League, outside experts and players union representatives.

  5. Trends in the Presentation, Management, and Outcomes of Little League Shoulder.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, Benton E; Kramer, Dennis E; Martin, Daniel J; Micheli, Lyle J; Kocher, Mininder S; Bae, Donald S

    2016-06-01

    With rising participation in youth sports such as baseball, proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, or Little League shoulder (LLS), is being seen with increasing frequency. However, there remains a paucity of literature regarding the causes, natural history, or treatment outcomes of LLS. To analyze the demographic, clinical, and diagnostic features of a population of LLS patients, with an emphasis on identifying underlying risk factors for the development and recurrence of LLS after nonoperative treatment. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A departmental database at a high-volume regional children's hospital was queried to identify cases of LLS between 1999 and 2013. Medical records were reviewed to allow for analysis of age, sex, athletic information, physical examination and radiologic findings, treatment details, clinical course, and rates of recurrence. Ninety-five patients (93 males, 2 females; mean age, 13.1 years; range, 8-16 years) were diagnosed with LLS. The number of diagnosed cases increased annually over the study period. All patients had shoulder pain with overhead athletics; secondary symptoms included elbow pain in 13%, shoulder fatigue or weakness in 10%, and mechanical symptoms in 8%. While the majority of patients (97%) were baseball players (86% pitchers, 8% catchers, 7% other positions), a small subset (3%) were tennis players. On physical examination, 30% were reported to have glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD), defined as a decreased arc of rotational range of motion of the shoulder. Treatment recommendations included rest in 99% of cases, physical therapy in 79% (including 100% of patients with GIRD), and position change upon return to play in 26%. Average time to full resolution of symptoms was 2.6 months, while average time to return to competition was 4.2 months. Recurrent symptoms were reported in 7% of the overall cohort at a mean of 7.6 months after initial diagnosis. The odds of recurrence in the group with diagnosed GIRD (14

  6. Management of concussion in the professional football player.

    PubMed

    Pieroth, Elizabeth M; Hanks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is no other sport that has come under greater scrutiny surrounding the incidence and treatment of concussion than football, and there is no other professional sports league that has experienced more intense focus of its handling of concussions than the National Football League (NFL). The NFL has received significant criticism of their management of concussion in players from both the popular press and the medical community. However, those working with active NFL players have changed their assessment and treatment of these injuries as the knowledge of concussions has evolved over time. We review the current approach to the management of concussions in the professional football player. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Intra-articular plica causing ankle impingement in a young handball player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Somorjai, Nicolaas; Jong, Bob; Draijer, W F

    2013-01-01

    Ankle sprains are common injuries that respond well to rehabilitation. In the case of persisting symptoms, the differential diagnosis should include osteochondral defects, tendon injury, mechanical instability, and ankle impingement. In the present case report, we describe a 16-year-old male handball player who presented with persisting pain and locking in the right ankle 3 years after having sustained multiple minor inversion trauma. The clinical examination and conventional radiography showed no abnormalities. On magnetic resonance imaging, a flake fracture at the anteromedial talar dome and/or loose body was assumed. Arthroscopic examination revealed an intra-articular plica originating from an osteochondral fossa at the anteromedial tibial plafond. The plica was debrided. Retrospectively, the arthroscopic findings matched the radiographs and magnetic resonance images. The postoperative protocol consisted of early mobilization. At 6 weeks of follow-up, the patient had no pain and had returned to his sports activities. The present case report illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of ankle impingement due to a, most likely congenital, intra-articular plica arising from an osteochondral fossa at the anteromedial tibial plafond. This rare clinical condition can be diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. Arthroscopic debridement will effectively relieve the symptoms. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Case Study: Hydration Intervention Improves Pre-game Hydration Status in Female Collegiate Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Hoerner, Neele R; Domnik, Kirsten; Koehler, Karsten; Schaenzer, Wilhelm; Braun, Hans

    2017-04-07

    Little is known about whether athletes follow hydration guidelines. The objective of the present study was to assess fluid status in female soccer players in a hot and humid environment, and to assess the effect of an intervention aimed at preventing players from exercising in a dehydrated state. We hypothesized that following the intervention, players would exhibit improved hydration status, as indicated by greater voluntary fluid intake and improved hydration markers. Ten female collegiate soccer players (20±1yrs., 64±9kg) participated in this seven-week study. Changes in body weight (BW), fluid intake, urine color (UC), and urine specific gravity (USG) were measured periodically over three days. Dehydration was classified as USG ≥1.020g/ml and UC >3. Following a 7- week intervention (to individualize hydration strategies), BW, fluid intake, UC, and USG were again measured on two game days to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Pre-test: five players started exercising dehydrated (USG 1.029g/ml; UC 6). Seven players were dehydrated before the next morning practice session (USG 1.029g/ml; UC 5). Five players had a mean BW loss of 2.5%.Post-test: four players were dehydrated before game 1. Despite hydration guidelines, two players experienced tiredness and cramps during the second half. Six players were dehydrated 4h before game 2 and subsequently received individual rehydration instructions. 2h before game 2, none of the players were dehydrated. No symptoms of tiredness or cramps were reported. Hydration status assessment coupled with an intervention of individualized drinking strategies, can prevent female soccer players from exercising in a dehydrated state.

  9. Injury in rugby league: a four year prospective survey.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, S; Gissane, C; Jennings, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of injury in English professional rugby league over a period of four playing seasons. METHODS: All injuries that were received by players during match play were recorded. Each injury was classified according to site, type, player position, team playing for, activity at the time of injury, and time off as a result of injury. RESULTS: The overall injury rate was 114 (95% confidence interval 105 to 124) per 1000 playing hours, the most frequent type of injury were muscular injuries [34 (29 to 40) per 1000 playing hours], while the most frequently injured site was the head and neck region [38 (16 to 25) per 1000 playing hours]. Players received the largest percentage of injuries when being tackled [46.3% (41.9 to 50.7)], most injuries required less than one week away from playing and training [70.1% (66.1 to 74.2)], and forwards had a higher injury rate than backs (139 v 93 injuries per 1000 hours). CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of injury in rugby league are undoubtedly due to the high amount of bodily contact in the game. Being tackled has the highest risk of injury, because of being hit forcibly by other players. Forwards suffer higher injury rates than backs, probably because they are involved in a larger number of physical collisions. PMID:9015597

  10. Epidemiology of Major League Baseball injuries.

    PubMed

    Posner, Matthew; Cameron, Kenneth L; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Belmont, Philip J; Owens, Brett D

    2011-08-01

    Little is known about the injury rates in Major League Baseball (MLB) players, as a formal injury surveillance system does not exist. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of MLB injuries over a 7-year period. Injuries in MLB would be common. Descriptive epidemiologic study. The authors analyzed the MLB disabled list data from 2002 through 2008. Injuries were analyzed for differences between seasons, as well as during seasons on a monthly basis. The injuries were categorized by major anatomic zones and then further stratified based on injury type. Position-specific subanalyses for pitcher and position players were performed. From the 2002 season through the 2008 season, an average of 438.9 players per year were placed on the disabled list, for a rate of 3.61 per 1000 athlete-exposures. There was a significant 37% increase in injuries between 2005 and 2008. The highest injury rate during the season was during the month of April (5.73/1000 exposures) and the lowest in September (0.54/1000 exposures). No differences were noted in the injury rates between the National League and the American League (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98, 1.15). Pitchers experienced 34% higher incidence rates for injury compared with fielders during the study period (IRR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.25, 1.44). Among all player injuries, upper extremity injuries accounted for 51.4% while lower extremity injuries accounted for 30.6%. Injuries to the spine and core musculature accounted for 11.7% while other injuries and illnesses were 6.3% of the total disabled list entries. There was a significant association between position played and anatomic region injured (P < .001), with pitchers experiencing a significantly greater proportion of injuries to the upper extremity (67.0%; 95% CI = 63.1%, 70.9%) compared with fielders (32.1%; 95% CI = 29.1%, 35.1%). Conversely, fielders experienced a significantly greater proportion of injuries to the lower

  11. FIRST LEGO League Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Randall Hicks (right), Jacobs Technology's Education Services manager at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center, answers questions about the playing field for FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) LEGO League's 2007 Challenge, `Power Puzzle.' More than 140 teachers, mentors, parents and students from 15 schools attended the Sept. 15 FLL season kickoff at StenniSphere, the visitor center at SSC. The teams from southern and central Mississippi and Mobile, Ala., who came to SSC heard rules for and asked questions about `Power Puzzle,' and saw robot demonstrations by Gulfport and Picayune high schools' past FIRST Robotics competitions. Using LEGO Mindstorms NXT kits, FLL teams of children ages 9-14 will spend the next three months building and programming robots to perform 'Power Puzzle's' challenge tasks, then pit them in competitions. They also will submit a research project about how energy choices impact the environment and the economy. The season will culminate at the Mississippi Championship Tournament on Dec. 8 at the Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College. FLL, considered the `little league' of the FIRST Robotics Competition, partners FIRST and the LEGO Group. Competitions aim to inspire and celebrate science and technology using real-world context and hands-on experimentation. NASA recognizes FIRST activities as an excellent hands-on method to increase student knowledge of science, engineering, technology and mathematics. Schools represented in this year's kickoff were: Madison Avenue Upper Elementary, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians' Conehatta Elementary, Hattiesburg's Lillie Burney Elementary, Pearl Upper Elementary, Long Beach Middle, Oktibehha Elementary, d'Iberville Middle, Saucier's West Wortham Middle, Picayune's Nicholson Elementary and Roseland Park Baptist Church Academy, Bay St. Louis' St. Stanislaus College and Mobile's Davidson High, as well as two home-school groups from the Jackson area.

  12. FIRST LEGO League Kickoff

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-15

    Randall Hicks (right), Jacobs Technology's Education Services manager at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center, answers questions about the playing field for FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) LEGO League's 2007 Challenge, `Power Puzzle.' More than 140 teachers, mentors, parents and students from 15 schools attended the Sept. 15 FLL season kickoff at StenniSphere, the visitor center at SSC. The teams from southern and central Mississippi and Mobile, Ala., who came to SSC heard rules for and asked questions about `Power Puzzle,' and saw robot demonstrations by Gulfport and Picayune high schools' past FIRST Robotics competitions. Using LEGO Mindstorms NXT kits, FLL teams of children ages 9-14 will spend the next three months building and programming robots to perform 'Power Puzzle's' challenge tasks, then pit them in competitions. They also will submit a research project about how energy choices impact the environment and the economy. The season will culminate at the Mississippi Championship Tournament on Dec. 8 at the Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College. FLL, considered the `little league' of the FIRST Robotics Competition, partners FIRST and the LEGO Group. Competitions aim to inspire and celebrate science and technology using real-world context and hands-on experimentation. NASA recognizes FIRST activities as an excellent hands-on method to increase student knowledge of science, engineering, technology and mathematics. Schools represented in this year's kickoff were: Madison Avenue Upper Elementary, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians' Conehatta Elementary, Hattiesburg's Lillie Burney Elementary, Pearl Upper Elementary, Long Beach Middle, Oktibehha Elementary, d'Iberville Middle, Saucier's West Wortham Middle, Picayune's Nicholson Elementary and Roseland Park Baptist Church Academy, Bay St. Louis' St. Stanislaus College and Mobile's Davidson High, as well as two home-school groups from the Jackson area.

  13. The League of Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nancy H.; Brandel, A.; Paat, A. M.; Schmitz, D.; Sharma, R.; Trujillo, J.; Laws, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The League of Astronomers is committed to engaging the University of Washington (UW) and the greater Seattle communities through outreach, research, and events. Since its re-founding two years ago, the LOA has provided a clear connection between the UW Astronomy Department, undergraduate students, and members of the public. Weekly outreach activities such as public star parties and planetarium talks in both the UW Planetarium and the Mobile Planetarium have connected enthusiastic LOA volunteers with hundreds of public observers. In addition, collaboration with organizations like the Seattle Astronomical Society and the UW Society of Physics Students has allowed the LOA to reach an even greater audience. The club also provides opportunities for undergraduate students to participate in research projects. The UW Student Radio Telescope (SRT) and the Manastash Ridge Observatory (MRO) both allow students to practice collecting their own data and turning it into a completed project. Students have presented many of these research projects at venues like the UW Undergraduate Research Symposium and meetings of the American Astronomical Society. For example, the LOA will be observing newly discovered globular clusters at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, B.C. and constructing color-magnitude diagrams. The LOA also helps engage students with the Astronomy major through a variety of events. Bimonthly seminars led by graduate students on their research and personal experiences in the field showcase the variety of options available for students in astronomy. Social events hosted by the club encourage peer mentoring and a sense of community among the Astronomy Department’s undergraduate and graduate students. As a part of one of the nation’s largest undergraduate astronomy programs, members of the League of Astronomers have a unique opportunity to connect and interact with not only the Seattle public but also the greater astronomical community.

  14. Knee movement patterns of injured and uninjured adolescent basketball players when landing from a jump: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Quinette; Grimmer, Karen; Vaughan, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background A common knee injury mechanism sustained during basketball is landing badly from a jump. Landing is a complex task and requires good coordination, dynamic muscle control and flexibility. For adolescents whose coordination and motor control has not fully matured, landing badly from a jump can present a significant risk for injury. There is currently limited biomechanical information regarding the lower limb kinetics of adolescents when jumping, specifically regarding jump kinematics comparing injured with uninjured adolescents. This study reports on an investigation of biomechanical differences in landing patterns of uninjured and injured adolescent basketball players. Methods A matched case-control study design was employed. Twenty-two basketball players aged 14–16 years participated in the study: eleven previously knee-injured and eleven uninjured players matched with cases for age, gender, weight, height and years of play, and playing for the same club. Six high-speed, three-dimensional Vicon 370 cameras (120 Hz), Vicon biomechanical software and SAS Version 8 software were employed to analyse landing patterns when subjects performed a "jump shot". Linear correlations determined functional relationships between the biomechanical performance of lower limb joints, and paired t-tests determined differences between the normalised peak biomechanical parameters. Results The average peak vertical ground reaction forces between the cases and controls were similar. The average peak ground reaction forces between the cases and controls were moderately correlated (r = -0.47). The control (uninjured) players had significantly greater hip and knee flexion angles and significantly greater eccentric activity on landing than the uninjured cases (p < 0.01). Conclusion The findings of the study indicate that players with a history of knee injuries had biomechanically compromised landing techniques when compared with uninjured players matched for gender, age and club

  15. Concussion in the national football league: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2008-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area.

  16. Concussion in the National Football League: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2009-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area.

  17. Epidemiology and Impact of Abdominal Oblique Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Christopher L.; Conte, Stan; Cohen, Steven B.; Thompson, Matthew; D’ Angelo, John; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Dines, Joshua S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oblique injuries are known to be a common cause of time out of play for professional baseball players, and prior work has suggested that injury rates may be on the rise in Major League Baseball (MLB). Purpose: To better understand the current incidence of oblique injuries, determine their impact based on time out of play, and to identify common injury patterns that may guide future injury prevention programs. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Using the MLB Health and Injury Tracking System, all oblique injuries that resulted in time out of play in MLB and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) during the 2011 to 2015 seasons were identified. Player demographics such as age, position/role, and handedness were included. Injury-specific factors analyzed included the following: date of injury, timing during season, days missed, mechanism, side, treatment, and reinjury status. Results: A total of 996 oblique injuries occurred in 259 (26%) MLB and 737 (74%) MiLB players. Although the injury rate was steady in MiLB, the MLB injury rate declined (P = .037). A total of 22,064 days were missed at a mean rate of 4413 days per season and 22.2 days per injury. The majority of these occurred during batting (n = 455, 46%) or pitching (n = 348, 35%), with pitchers losing 5 days more per injury than batters (P < .001). The leading side was injured in 77% of cases and took 5 days longer to recover from than trailing side injuries (P = .009). Seventy-nine (7.9%) players received either a corticosteroid or platelet-rich plasma injection, and the mean recovery time was 11 days longer compared with those who did not receive an injection (P < .001). Conclusion: Although the rate of abdominal oblique injuries is on the decline in MLB, this is not the case for MiLB, and these injuries continue to represent a significant source of time out of play in professional baseball. The vast majority of injuries occur on the lead side, and these injuries result in the

  18. ACUTE TEARING OF THE OBLIQUE ABDOMINAL WALL INSERTION ONTO THE ILIAC CREST IN AN AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL PLAYER: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Stockden, Marshall; Breidahl, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Background Tears of the abdominal obliques have previously been reported in the vicinity of the lower ribs but they have not been reported in the vicinity of the iliac crest. The purpose of this case report is to describe the mechanism of injury and diagnosis of a distal abdominal oblique tear and subsequent rehabilitation programming. Case Description A 21-year-old male Australian football player experienced acute right-sided abdominal pain during a game while performing a commonly executed rotation skill. He was assessed clinically before being further examined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging which revealed a rupture of the abdominal oblique wall at its insertion onto the iliac crest. The player then underwent a structured and graduated rehabilitation program with clear key performance indicators to optimize return to play and prevent recurrence. Outcomes The player was able to return to play at 35 days post injury and had no recurrence or complications at 12 month follow up post injury. Discussion This is the first time an abdominal oblique wall rupture at its insertion onto the iliac crest has been reported. In players with acute abdominal pain following twisting an insertional oblique tear should be considered as a differential diagnosis. A structured rehabilitation program may also help optimize an athlete's return to play after distal abdominal oblique rupture. PMID:27999726

  19. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in the National Football League

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas B.; Dunn, Reginald E.; Lincoln, Andrew E.; Tucker, Andrew M.; Vogel, Robert A.; Heyer, Robert A.; Yates, Anthony P.; Wilson, Peter W. F.; Pellmen, Elliot J.; Allen, Thomas W.; Newman, Anne B.; Strollo, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prior studies have suggested that the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) among players in the National Football League (NFL) is disproportionately high. SDB can increase cardiovascular disease risk and is correlated with hypertension. NFL players have a higher prevalence of hypertension, and we sought to determine the prevalence of SDB among players the NFL and the associations of SDB with anthropometric measures and cardiovascular risk factors. Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: NFL athletic training facilities from April to July 2007. Participants: A total of 137 active veteran players from 6 NFL teams. Measurements: This evaluation of SDB among players in the NFL used a single-channel, home-based, unattended, portable, sleep apnea monitor. Multiple domains of self-reported sleep were assessed. Weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, neck circumference, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as blood pressure, cholesterol, and fasting glucose concentrations were measured. Results: The mean respiratory disturbance index was 4.7 (± 12), with a median (interquartile range) of 2 (1,4). The prevalence of at least mild SDB (RDI ≥ 5) was 19% (95% confidence interval, 12.8%-26.6%). Only 4.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.6%-9.2%) of participants had respiratory disturbance index of 15 or greater. Linemen and non-linemen were not different in their prevalence or severity of SDB. No single anthropometric measure was highly associated with SDB, and SDB was not well correlated with cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: The prevalence of SDB in active NFL players was modest, predominately mild, and positively associated with several measures of adiposity. SDB did not account for excess cardiovascular risk factors. Citation: Rice TB; Dunn RE; Lincoln AE; Tucker AM; Vogel RA; Heyer RA; Yates AP; Wilson PWF; Pellmen EJ; Allen TW; Newman AB; Strollo PJ. Sleep-disordered breathing in the National Football League

  20. Retrospective analysis of anthropometric and fitness characteristics associated with long-term career progression in Rugby League.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Morley, David; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2015-05-01

    The current study retrospectively investigated the differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics of junior rugby league players selected onto a talent identification and development (TID) programme between long-term career progression levels (i.e., amateur, academy, professional). Retrospective design. Former junior rugby league players (N=580) selected to a TID programme were grouped according to their career progression level. Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds), maturational and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed and estimated V̇O2max) assessments were conducted at 13-15 years. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) analyzed differences between career progression levels controlling for chronological age. 57.1% and 12.1% of players selected to the TID programme progressed to academy and professional levels in rugby league, respectively. Sum of four skinfolds (η(2)=0.03), vertical jump (η(2)=0.02), 10 m (η(2)=0.02), 20 m (η(2)=0.02), 30 m (η(2)=0.02), and 60 m (η(2)=0.03) speed, agility 505 left (η(2)=0.06), agility 505 right (η(2)=0.05) and estimated V̇O2max (η(2)=0.03) were superior within junior players who progressed to professional compared to amateur levels. No significant differences were identified between future academy and professional players for any measure. Findings suggest that lower sum of four skinfolds and advanced fitness characteristics within junior (13-15 years) rugby league players may partially contribute to long-term career progression. Therefore, TID programmes within rugby league should aim to assess and develop body composition and fitness characteristics, especially change of direction speed. However, TID programmes should also consider technical, tactical and psycho-social characteristics of junior rugby league players that may be important for long-term career progression. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Injury in summer rugby league football: the experiences of one club

    PubMed Central

    Gissane, C.; Jennings, D.; White, J.; Cumine, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the movement of the playing season from winter to summer would alter the risk of injury to players taking part in first team European professional rugby league. METHODS: The study design was a historical cohort design comparing winter and summer seasons in first team European rugby league, which recorded injuries received by players during match play. Each injury was classified according to site, type, player position, activity at the time of injury, and time off as a result of injury. RESULTS: The risk of injury when playing summer rugby league was higher than when playing winter rugby league (relative risk = 1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.17)). Both forwards (1.08 (0.28 to 1.88)) and backs (2.36 (2.03 to 2.69)) experienced an increased risk of injury. CONCLUSIONS: Summer rugby may have resulted in a shift of injury risk factors as exhibited by a change in injury patterns. This may be due to playing conditions, but there were also some law changes. Changes in playing style, team tactics, player equipment, fitness preparation, and the reduced preseason break may also have had confounding effects on injury risk. 


 PMID:9631223

  2. New York Newspaper Coverage of Jackie Robinson in His First Major League Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Pat

    Sports articles appearing in three New York City newspapers in Jackie Robinson's first season as a major league baseball player were examined to determine if there was biased reporting based on racial prejudice. The sports pages of the New York "Times," the "Herald Tribune," and the "Daily News" for 44 days in 1947…

  3. Trends in aggressive play and refereeing among the top five European soccer leagues.

    PubMed

    Sapp, Ryan M; Spangenburg, Espen E; Hagberg, James M

    2017-09-12

    Current trends suggest professional soccer is becoming less aggressive, with England often argued to have the most aggressive of the top European leagues. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in fouls and cards as indicators of aggressive play in the first divisions of England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain over the past decade. Number of fouls per match and per yellow card has decreased in all leagues since 2007/08, though attempted tackles per foul has not changed or has increased. A lack of substantial rule changes suggests players have become less aggressive in tackling as opposed to referees becoming more lenient. Total number of fouls and cards per match were consistently lower in the English Premier League, however attempted tackles per foul was higher. The data also demonstrate the notions of home advantage and potentially referee bias, since referees tended to call more fouls and award more cards to away teams. Lastly, number of attempted tackles per foul and yellow cards received exhibited the strongest correlations with final league position across the leagues. In conclusion, our data support that elite European soccer has become less aggressive and the English Premier League is the most aggressive league.

  4. Avulsion of the L4 spinous process: an unusual injury in a professional rugby player: case report.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alwyn; Andrews, John; Shoaib, Amer; Lyons, Kath; Ahuja, Sashin; Howes, John; Davies, Paul

    2005-06-01

    A case of L4 spinous process avulsion following a hyperflexion injury treated with surgical excision. To show that single photon emission computerized tomography is essential for the diagnosis and that excision can provide a successful outcome. The avulsion resulted from a forced hyperflexion injury at the L4/5 area, where the interspinous ligament provides a high resistance to flexion. A 29-year-old international rugby football player injured his low back during a match. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal the injury. Single photon emission computerized tomography and computerized tomography showed the lesion. Initial conservative therapy failed to control the symptoms, and, therefore, late excision was performed with pain-free return to contact sports at 3 months. Few cases of interspinous process avulsions have been described, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rugby football player who had a successful outcome with late surgical excision.

  5. Return to Play After Partial Lateral Meniscectomy in National Football League Athletes.

    PubMed

    Aune, Kyle T; Andrews, James R; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Cain, E Lyle

    2014-08-01

    Lateral meniscal injury is a common and possibly career-threatening injury among players in the National Football League (NFL). The rate of return to play (RTP) and factors that affect RTP after lateral meniscal injury in NFL players are currently not defined. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of RTP to regular-season NFL game play of NFL players after arthroscopic partial lateral meniscectomy and to identify factors that can predict the ability to return to play. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Seventy-two patients undergoing 77 arthroscopic lateral partial meniscectomies were followed to determine the rate of RTP (defined as successful RTP in at least 1 regular-season NFL game after meniscectomy) and factors predicting players' ability to return to play. Perioperative variables were recorded using retrospective chart review. Players' heights and weights, dates of return, draft rounds, and counts of games, starts, and seasons both before and after meniscectomy were all collected from statistical databases maintained by the NFL. Chi-square and Student t tests were performed to assess differences among covariates with respect to an athlete's ability to return to play, and odds ratios were calculated as appropriate. All percentages were calculated as percent of total procedures performed (n = 77). Of the 77 partial lateral meniscectomies performed, 61% (n = 47) resulted in the athlete returning to play at his previous level of competition with an average length of time to RTP of 8.5 months; 19 (40%) of those who returned were still active in the NFL at the time of follow-up. Age at time of surgery, games and seasons played before surgery, and individual position were not significantly different between those who did and did not return to play. Undergoing a concomitant procedure did not affect an athlete's ability to return to play, nor did concurrent arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction affect a player's likelihood to return to

  6. Increasing alpha angle is predictive of athletic-related "hip" and "groin" pain in collegiate National Football League prospects.

    PubMed

    Larson, Christopher M; Sikka, Robby S; Sardelli, Matthew C; Byrd, J W Thomas; Kelly, Bryan T; Jain, Rahul K; Giveans, M Russell

    2013-03-01

    The first purpose was to evaluate radiographic pathomorphology/abnormalities in a cohort of high-level collegiate football players screened with hip radiographs. The second purpose was to define the radiographic predictors of athletic-related "hip" and "groin" symptoms in this cohort of high-level athletes. The study population included all male collegiate football players undergoing evaluation and hip radiography at the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine in 2009 and 2010. All radiographs were evaluated with a detailed evaluation for hip pathomorphology. Symptoms were recorded as symptomatic or asymptomatic with respect to athletic-related groin/hip pain for comparative purposes. There were 125 players (239 hips) who had hip radiographs and were included in the final cohort. Ninety percent of players (87% of hips) in this cohort had at least 1 finding consistent with cam-type and/or pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). There were 75 hips in the symptomatic group and 164 hips in the asymptomatic group. Although the symptomatic group had a greater prevalence of cam-type FAI (P = .009), combined-type FAI (P < .001), and osteitis pubis (P = .014), increasing alpha angle (larger cam deformities) was the only independent predictor of athletic-related groin pain (P = .01). There was no correlation, however, between FAI and body mass index (P = .659), player position (P = .166), or whether a player was drafted by an NFL team (P = .430). Radiographic signs of FAI were frequently seen in collegiate NFL prospects who were screened with hip radiographs. Although patients with radiographic evidence of osteitis pubis, cam- and combined-type FAI, and larger cam deformities showed a statistically higher prevalence of symptoms, increasing alpha angle (larger cam deformity) was the only independent predictor of athletic-related hip/groin pain. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by

  7. Relative age effects in Australian Football League National Draftees.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Aaron J; Kempton, Thomas; Vaeyens, Roel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the birth distribution for adolescent (i.e. <20 years) and mature age players (i.e. ≥20 years) selected in the Australian Football League (AFL) National Draft between 2001 and 2012. Birth-date information was accessed for all first time AFL national draftees and players were then classified as either adolescent (N = 736) or mature age (N = 70) draftees. Chi-squared analysis showed a clear bias in the birth distribution of adolescent draftees towards players born in the first part of the classification period for both quartile (P < 0.001) and half-year (P < 0.001) compared to the Australian national population. There was a reverse relative age effect (RAE) for mature age draftees, with a significant bias towards players born in the latter part of the selection period for both quartile (P = 0.047) and half-year (P = 0.028) compared to the Australian national population. The selection bias towards relatively older players in adolescent AFL draftees may be related to advanced physical and psychological maturity, and exposure to higher-level coaching compared to their younger counterparts. The reverse RAE in mature age draftees is a novel finding and supports the need for strategies to encourage continued participation pathways for talented Australian football players born later in the selection year.

  8. Stress injury of the lunate in tennis players: a case series and related biomechanical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical and imaging differential diagnosis and tennis stroke biomechanics potentially involved in lunate stress injury pathogenesis. Methods The present report describes five competitive tennis players with overuse‐related dorsal wrist pain assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Results Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of lunate stress injury. All players were treated conservatively, with symptom resolution and complete functional recovery achieved at 14 weeks. Conclusions Lunate stress injuries should be considered in the differential diagnosis of overuse‐related dorsal wrist pain in tennis players. PMID:17957020

  9. A profile of a National Football League team.

    PubMed

    Pryor, J Luke; Huggins, Robert A; Casa, Douglas J; Palmieri, Gerard A; Kraemer, William J; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physical profiles of players on the 2011 New York Giants (NYG) team and to make comparisons with the historical literature on previous National Football League (NFL) player profiles. In this study, height, body mass (BM), body fat percentage (BF%) using skinfold measurements, and several predicted 1 repetition maximal strength and power measures in 30 returning players from the 2011 NYG team, who recently won the Super Bowl, were collected. Players were grouped by position: running back, quarterback (QB), wide receiver (WR), tight end, offensive lineman (OL), defensive lineman (DL), linebacker (LB), and defensive back (DB). Pooled and weighted mean differences (NYG - NFL) and effect sizes were used to evaluate height, BM, and BF% comparisons of NYG to previous NFL studies from 1998 to 2009. The characteristics of the players as a group were: age, height, BM, BF%: 26 ± 2 years, 183.8 ± 9.0 cm, 144.9 ± 20.8 kg, 14.3 ± 5.5%, respectively. Comparisons highlight distinct position-specific dissimilarity in strength measures, BM, and BF%, which reflect current strength training, conditioning, and team play strategy. As expected, NYG positional differences were found for height (p ≤ 0.05), BM (p ≤ 0.037), BF% (p ≤ 0.048), bench press (p ≤ 0.048), inclined bench press (p ≤ 0.013), and squat (p ≤ 0.026). Anthropometrics profiles did not significantly differ from previously published trends in NFL players indicating equity in physical characteristics over the past 13 years. However, NYG LBs, DLs, OLs, QBs, and WRs trended toward less BF% but generally similar BM compared with NFL players, suggesting greater lean BM in these positions. This study adds new players' data to prototypical position-specific databases that may be used as templates for comparison of players for draft selection or physical training.

  10. MRI Abnormalities Are Common In Little League Player’s Elbows

    PubMed Central

    Pennock, Andrew T.; Roocroft, Joanna Helena; Bastrom, Tracey P.; Kruk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Youth baseball is extremely popular, but it has been associated with elbow pain and pathology. The purpose of this study was to examine pre- and post-season Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) changes in Little League baseball players and correlate these findings with the players’ throwing history and physical exams. Methods: A prospective study of Little League players age 10 -13 years was performed. Players were recruited prior to the start of the season and underwent bilateral elbow MRI. All players underwent a physical exam and responded to a questionnaire addressing their playing history and arm pain. At the end of the season, the players underwent repeat physical exam and MRI of their throwing arm. MRIs were read by two blinded radiologists. During the season, player statistics including innings played and pitch counts were recorded. Physical exam findings and players statistics were compared between subjects with and without MRI changes utilizing chi-square and ANOVA techniques. Results: Twenty-six players were enrolled. On pre-season MRI, nine players (35%) had 12 positive MRI findings; edema of the medial epicondyle (ME) apophysis (7), fragmentation of ME (2), and edema of the sublime tubercle (3). The two factors associated with a positive MRI were year round play (47% vs 11%, p<0.01) and working with a private coach (71% vs 21%, p=0.02). A history of pain was also associated with year round play and a private coach (p<0.05). Loss of internal rotation was associated with an abnormal MRI (p = 0.04). Post-season, 25 players returned for follow-up. Ten players (40%) had an abnormal MRI of which 8 (32%) had new/worsening findings. There was a significant difference in distal humeral physeal width measured pre- to post-season (1.54 mm vs 2.31 mm p<0.001). There was a significant decrease in internal rotation measured pre- to post-season of the shoulder in all patients regardless of MRI findings (62° vs 43°, p=0.001). Pitch counts, player position

  11. Atraumatic Subclavian Vein Thrombosis in a Collegiate Baseball Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Wendy L; Comins, Sonya A; Green, Richard M; Canizzaro, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the case of a collegiate baseball player who suffered an atraumatic subclavian vein thrombosis. This case presents an opportunity to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of a 22-year-old male with a thrombosis of his right subclavian vein. Background: Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis is an uncommon vascular problem, occurring primarily in young, healthy, active people. Although the history and symptoms are often unremarkable, the condition can lead to complications if not correctly recognized and appropriately treated. In this case, the athlete reported tightness in his right biceps muscle and upper back after sleeping on his shoulder. The patient denied substance abuse or illegal anabolic steroid use, and these possibilities were ruled out as factors in the diagnosis and treatment. Differential Diagnosis: Shoulder tendinitis, thoracic outlet syndrome, primary upper extremity thrombosis of the right subclavian vein. Treatment: After diagnosis, the patient was placed on blood thinners to dissolve the clot and referred to a vascular surgeon. The patient underwent a balloon angioplasty and later had the first rib removed. A second clot formed, and a stent was placed in the vein after the clot was removed by medication and another angioplasty procedure. He developed a pulmonary embolism during the stent procedure and was sent postoperatively to the intensive care unit, where he underwent therapeutic anticoagulation. After 10 weeks of therapy, the patient stopped all anticoagulant medication and returned to school to play baseball. Uniqueness: We present the atraumatic pathogenesis of a subclavian venous thrombosis in a young, active, and otherwise healthy college athlete with unremarkable predisposing factors. Within 24 hours after rib resection, the subclavian vein rethrombosed. The patient was thought to have experienced a small pulmonary embolus. Conclusions: Individuals who participate in athletics can develop atraumatic upper extremity

  12. Operative and nonoperative treatment of cervical disc herniation in National Football League athletes.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Dennis S; Jones, Kristofer J; Barnes, Ronnie; Rodeo, Scott A; Cammisa, Frank P; Warren, Russell F

    2013-09-01

    Limited evidence exists to guide clinical decision making regarding cervical disc herniations in professional athletes playing for the National Football League (NFL) in the United States. To describe the presentation and treatment outcomes of cervical disc herniations in NFL athletes with a focus on safety and return to sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The records of a single NFL team and its consulting physicians were reviewed from 2000 to 2011. Only athletes with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-proven disc herniation concordant with the reported symptoms were included. A total of 16 athletes met inclusion criteria. Linemen, linebackers, and defensive backs were the most represented positions (13/16 athletes; 81%). The most common presentation was radiculopathy after a single traumatic event (9/16 athletes; 56%). Three players had transient paresis. Three players underwent one-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. These 3 players had failed nonoperative therapy and had evidence of spinal cord compression with signal change on MRI, but only 1 returned to sport. Three players received epidural steroid injections, which provided transient symptomatic relief. Five players were treated nonoperatively and did not return to sport. Two of these 5 athletes had cord compression with signal change and retired rather than undergo surgery. The other 3 were cleared but were released by the team. Eight players were treated nonoperatively and returned to sport. Three of these 8 athletes had evidence of disc material abutting the cord without cord signal change but had a normal examination finding and returned to sport after resolution of their symptoms and repeat MRI that demonstrated no cord compression. Five of the 8 players had evidence of root compression and were treated symptomatically. There were no subsequent traumatic spinal cord injuries at a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Data regarding the treatment of this unique population are limited but suggest

  13. Celiac Disease Symptoms in a Female Collegiate Tennis Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Leone, James E; Gray, Kimberly A; Massie, John E; Rossi, Jennifer M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of a collegiate tennis player with celiac disease symptoms. Background: Celiac disease is a common intestinal disorder that is often confused with other conditions. It causes severe intestinal damage manifested by several uncomfortable signs and symptoms. Failure by the sports medicine staff to recognize symptoms consistent with celiac disease and treat them appropriately can have deleterious consequences for the athlete. Differential Diagnosis: Irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn disease, Addison disease, lupus erythematosus, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, lactose intolerance, herpes zoster, psychogenic disorder (depression), fibromyalgia, complex regional pain syndrome, hyperthyroidism, anemia, type I diabetes. Treatment: The athlete underwent a series of blood and allergen tests to confirm or refute a diagnosis of celiac disease. When celiac disease was suspected, dietary modifications were made to eliminate all wheat-based and gluten-based products from the athlete's diet. Uniqueness: The athlete was able to fully compete in a competitive National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I tennis program while experiencing the debilitating effects associated with celiac disease. The immediacy of symptom onset was notable because the athlete had no history of similar complaints. Conclusions: Celiac disease is a potentially life-threatening condition that affects more people than reported. A properly educated sports medicine staff can help to identify symptoms consistent with celiac disease early, so damage to the intestine is minimized. Prompt recognition and appropriate management allow the athlete to adjust the diet accordingly, compete at a high-caliber level, and enjoy a healthier quality of life. PMID:16404460

  14. Pneumomediastinum and Pneumopericardium in an 11-Year-Old Rugby Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vanzo, Valentina; Bugin, Samuela; Snijders, Deborah; Bottecchia, Laura; Storer, Veronica; Barbato, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium are rare occurrences in young athletes, but they can result in potentially life-threatening consequences. Background: While involved in a rugby match, an 11-year-old boy received a chest compression by 3 players during a tackle. He continued to play, but 2 hours later, he developed sharp retrosternal chest pain. A chest radiograph and an echocardiograph at the nearest emergency department showed pneumopericardium and pneumomediastinum. Differential Diagnosis: Sternal and rib contusions, rib fractures, heartburn, acute asthma exacerbation, pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumothorax, traumatic tracheal rupture, myocardial infarction, and costochondritis (Tietze syndrome). Treatment: Acetaminophen for pain control. Uniqueness: To our knowledge, this is the only case in the international literature of the simultaneous occurrence of pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium in a child as a consequence of blunt chest trauma during a rugby match. Conclusions: Pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium may be consequences of rugby blunt chest trauma. Symptoms can appear 1 to 2 hours later, and the conditions may result in serious complications. Immediate admission to the emergency department is required. PMID:23672393

  15. Fracture of the first cervical vertebra in a high school football player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Trupiano, T P; Sampson, M L; Weise, M W

    1997-04-01

    To present the case of a high school football player with a burst fracture of the ring of C1 resulting from a "spearing" tackle. Cervical spine fractures are rare in collision sports, but their potentially grave consequences mean that they must be given special attention. Spearing was banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the National Federation of High School Athletic Associations in 1976, and the number of cervical spine fractures in high school and college football players has fallen dramatically. However, cervical spine fractures do still occur, and they present a diagnostic challenge to sports medicine professionals. Cervical sprain. Treatment consists of halo-vest immobilization. Surgical fusion may be necessary for unstable C1-C2 fractures, although initial halo-vest treatment is usually attempted. A 17-year-old defensive back attempted to make a tackle with his head lowered. He was struck on the superolateral aspect of the helmet by the opposing running back. He remained in the game for another play, but then left the field under his own power, complaining of neck stiffness and headache. Physical examination revealed upper trapezius and occiput tenderness, bilateral cervical muscle spasm, and pain at all extremes of voluntary cervical movement. He was alert and oriented, with a normal neurologic examination. Treatment with ice was attempted but was discontinued due to increased pain and stiffness. Heat resulted in decreased pain and stiffness, but his symptoms persisted, and he was trans- ported to the emergency room. Plain radiographs were read as negative, but a CT scan demonstrated a burst fracture of Cl. He was treated with halo-vest immobilization for 8 weeks and a rigid cervical collar for 8 additional weeks. Physical therapy was then initiated, and normal cervical range of motion and strength were restored within 6 weeks. The athlete competed in track 6 months after the injury and continues to play recreational sports without

  16. Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Players of American Football.

    PubMed

    Mez, Jesse; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Kiernan, Patrick T; Abdolmohammadi, Bobak; Alvarez, Victor E; Huber, Bertrand R; Alosco, Michael L; Solomon, Todd M; Nowinski, Christopher J; McHale, Lisa; Cormier, Kerry A; Kubilus, Caroline A; Martin, Brett M; Murphy, Lauren; Baugh, Christine M; Montenigro, Phillip H; Chaisson, Christine E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Kowall, Neil W; Weuve, Jennifer; McClean, Michael D; Cantu, Robert C; Goldstein, Lee E; Katz, Douglas I; Stern, Robert A; Stein, Thor D; McKee, Ann C

    2017-07-25

    Players of American football may be at increased risk of long-term neurological conditions, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To determine the neuropathological and clinical features of deceased football players with CTE. Case series of 202 football players whose brains were donated for research. Neuropathological evaluations and retrospective telephone clinical assessments (including head trauma history) with informants were performed blinded. Online questionnaires ascertained athletic and military history. Participation in American football at any level of play. Neuropathological diagnoses of neurodegenerative diseases, including CTE, based on defined diagnostic criteria; CTE neuropathological severity (stages I to IV or dichotomized into mild [stages I and II] and severe [stages III and IV]); informant-reported athletic history and, for players who died in 2014 or later, clinical presentation, including behavior, mood, and cognitive symptoms and dementia. Among 202 deceased former football players (median age at death, 66 years [interquartile range, 47-76 years]), CTE was neuropathologically diagnosed in 177 players (87%; median age at death, 67 years [interquartile range, 52-77 years]; mean years of football participation, 15.1 [SD, 5.2]), including 0 of 2 pre-high school, 3 of 14 high school (21%), 48 of 53 college (91%), 9 of 14 semiprofessional (64%), 7 of 8 Canadian Football League (88%), and 110 of 111 National Football League (99%) players. Neuropathological severity of CTE was distributed across the highest level of play, with all 3 former high school players having mild pathology and the majority of former college (27 [56%]), semiprofessional (5 [56%]), and professional (101 [86%]) players having severe pathology. Among 27 participants with mild CTE pathology, 26 (96%) had behavioral or mood symptoms or both, 23 (85%) had cognitive symptoms, and 9 (33%) had signs of dementia. Among 84 participants with severe CTE pathology, 75 (89

  17. Use of the King-Devick test for sideline concussion screening in junior rugby league.

    PubMed

    King, D; Hume, P; Gissane, C; Clark, T

    2015-10-15

    To determine whether the King-Devick (K-D) test used as a sideline test in junior rugby league players over 12 matches in a domestic competition season could identify witnessed and incidentally identified episodes of concussion. A prospective observational cohort study of a club level junior rugby league team (n=19) during the 2014 New Zealand competition season involved every player completing two pre-competition season baseline trials of the K-D test. Players removed from match participation, or who reported any signs or symptoms of concussion were assessed on the sideline with the K-D test and referred for further medical assessment. Players with a pre- to post-match K-D test difference >3s were referred for physician evaluation. The baseline test-retest reliability of the K-D test was high (rs=0.86; p<0.0001). Seven concussions were medically identified in six players who recorded pre- to post-match K-D test times greater than 3s (mean change of 7.4s). Post-season testing of players demonstrated improvement of K-D time scores consistent with learning effects of using the K-D test (67.7s vs. 62.2s). Although no witnessed concussions occurred during rugby play, six players recorded pre- to post-match changes with a mean delay of 4s resulting in seven concussions being subsequently confirmed post-match by health practitioners. All players were medically managed for a return to sports participation. The K-D test was quickly and easily administered making it a practical sideline tool as part of the continuum of concussion assessment tools for junior rugby league players. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Head impacts in a junior rugby league team measured with a wireless head impact sensor: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by players in a junior rugby league over a season of matches. METHODS The authors performed a prospective cohort analysis of impact magnitude, frequency, and distribution on data collected with instrumented XPatches worn behind the ear of players in an "under-11" junior rugby league team (players under 11 years old). RESULTS A total of 1977 impacts were recorded. Over the course of the study, players sustained an average of 116 impacts (average of 13 impacts per player per match). The measured linear acceleration ranged from 10g to 123g (mean 22g, median 16g, and 95th percentile 57g). The rotational acceleration ranged from 89 rad/sec(2) to 22,928 rad/sec(2) (mean 4041 rad/sec(2), median 2773 rad/sec(2), and 95th percentile 11,384 rad/sec(2)). CONCLUSIONS The level of impact severity based on the magnitude of impacts for linear and rotational accelerations recorded was similar to the impacts reported in studies of American junior and high school football, collegiate football, and youth ice hockey players, but the players in the rugby league cohort were younger, had less body mass, and played at a slower speed than the American players. Junior rugby league players are required to tackle the player to the ground and use a different tackle technique than that used in American football, likely increasing the rotational accelerations recorded at the head.

  19. The Irish brawn drain: English League clubs and Irish footballers, 1946-1995.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P

    2000-09-01

    This paper draws on world systems and resource dependency theories to show how the changing recruitment practices of English League clubs have deepened the brawn drain from Irish football, thereby compounding its underdevelopment. An analysis of the origins, method of recruitment and destinations of Irish players (North and South) who appeared in the English League between 1946 and 1995 shows that English clubs imported large numbers of Irish players throughout the second half of the twentieth century. However, it was the inclusion of Irish teenagers within the youth policies of the largest clubs in the period after the 1970s that marked a break from the traditional pattern of buyer-supplier relations. Instead of continuing to purchase players who had established reputations within the Irish leagues, English clubs began to hire the most promising schoolboys before they joined Irish sides. As this practice spread, it eventually eliminated a valuable source of income: the selling of players to English clubs. Despite this development it would, however, be inappropriate to view the relationship between the Irish and English football industries as a simple zero sum game as Irish clubs benefit from employing highly trained young players who return home after failing to establish careers in England.

  20. Return to Sport and Performance After Microfracture in the Knees of National Basketball Association Players

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Walton, David M.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of microfracture in the knees of National Basketball Association (NBA) players is controversial. Hypotheses: (1) There would be a high rate of return to sport (RTS) in NBA players following microfracture, (2) players would RTS the season following surgery, (3) preoperative player performance would not be significantly different on RTS, and (4) there would be no significant difference in RTS rate or postoperative performance in players undergoing microfracture in comparison with an age-, position-, NBA experience–, and performance-matched control group. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: NBA players undergoing microfracture were evaluated. Age-, body mass index–, position-, NBA experience–, and performance-matched controls were selected from the NBA during the same years as those undergoing microfracture. An index year was selected (controls) to match the number of seasons of NBA experience in microfracture cases. RTS and performance were analyzed and compared between cases and controls. Student t tests were performed for analysis of within- and between-group variables. Results: A total of 41 NBA players underwent microfracture and were compared with 41 demographic- and performance-matched controls. Rate of RTS after microfracture was 73% in the NBA and 83% in professional basketball (NBA, D-league, and International Basketball Federation [FIBA]). Time to RTS in NBA was 9.20 ± 4.88 months. Seventy-one percent (29/41) of players RTS the season following microfracture. Length of NBA career following microfracture (4.10 ± 3.91 years) was not significantly different from controls. After microfracture, case athletes played fewer games per season and with fewer points and steals per game (relative to premicrofracture; P < .05). Performance was better in control (after index year) versus case players (after microfracture) with regard to points per game, games played per season, and field goal and free throw percentage (P

  1. Return to Sport and Performance After Microfracture in the Knees of National Basketball Association Players.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Walton, David M; Erickson, Brandon J; Verma, Nikhil N; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Bach, Bernard R; Cole, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Use of microfracture in the knees of National Basketball Association (NBA) players is controversial. (1) There would be a high rate of return to sport (RTS) in NBA players following microfracture, (2) players would RTS the season following surgery, (3) preoperative player performance would not be significantly different on RTS, and (4) there would be no significant difference in RTS rate or postoperative performance in players undergoing microfracture in comparison with an age-, position-, NBA experience-, and performance-matched control group. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. NBA players undergoing microfracture were evaluated. Age-, body mass index-, position-, NBA experience-, and performance-matched controls were selected from the NBA during the same years as those undergoing microfracture. An index year was selected (controls) to match the number of seasons of NBA experience in microfracture cases. RTS and performance were analyzed and compared between cases and controls. Student t tests were performed for analysis of within- and between-group variables. A total of 41 NBA players underwent microfracture and were compared with 41 demographic- and performance-matched controls. Rate of RTS after microfracture was 73% in the NBA and 83% in professional basketball (NBA, D-league, and International Basketball Federation [FIBA]). Time to RTS in NBA was 9.20 ± 4.88 months. Seventy-one percent (29/41) of players RTS the season following microfracture. Length of NBA career following microfracture (4.10 ± 3.91 years) was not significantly different from controls. After microfracture, case athletes played fewer games per season and with fewer points and steals per game (relative to premicrofracture; P < .05). Performance was better in control (after index year) versus case players (after microfracture) with regard to points per game, games played per season, and field goal and free throw percentage (P < .05). Eighty-three percent of NBA players undergoing

  2. Comparison of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in professional baseball players versus professional football players.

    PubMed

    Helzberg, John H; Waeckerle, Joseph F; Camilo, Joel; Selden, Michael A; Tang, Fengming; Joyce, Steven A; Browne, Jon E; O'Keefe, James H

    2010-09-01

    In 2006, a newspaper report indicated an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and early mortality in retired professional football players compared to professional baseball players. This study included 69 professional football players from a 2008 National Football League training camp and 155 professional baseball players from an American League 2009 spring training site who volunteered to participate in a study of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of body mass index > or =30 kg/m(2), waist circumference > or =100 cm, waist/height ratio >0.5, blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, triglycerides > or =150 mg/dl, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio >3.5, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol < or =40 mg/dl, and alanine aminotransferase > or =40 IU/L was determined in baseball players and compared to measurements obtained in a matched cohort from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), professional football players, and linemen and nonlinemen subsets. In conclusion, professional baseball players had favorable cardiovascular parameters, with the exception of an increased prevalence of hypertension, compared to the reference population, and professional baseball players had decreased measures of obesity, hyperglycemia, and the cardiometabolic syndrome compared to professional football lineman. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The biomechanics of concussion in unhelmeted football players in Australia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A; Fréchède, Bertrand; Pierré, Paul-André; Ferry, Edouard; Barthels, Tobias

    2014-05-20

    Concussion is a prevalent brain injury in sport and the wider community. Despite this, little research has been conducted investigating the dynamics of impacts to the unprotected human head and injury causation in vivo, in particular the roles of linear and angular head acceleration. Professional contact football in Australia. Adult male professional Australian rules football players participating in 30 games randomly selected from 103 games. Cases selected based on an observable head impact, no observable symptoms (eg, loss-of-consciousness and convulsions), no on-field medical management and no injury recorded at the time. A data set for no-injury head impact cases comprising head impact locations and head impact dynamic parameters estimated through rigid body simulations using the MAthematical DYnamic MOdels (MADYMO) human facet model. This data set was compared to previously reported concussion case data. Qualitative analysis showed that the head was more vulnerable to lateral impacts. Logistic regression analyses of head acceleration and velocity components revealed that angular acceleration of the head in the coronal plane had the strongest association with concussion; tentative tolerance levels of 1747 rad/s(2) and 2296 rad/s(2) were reported for a 50% and 75% likelihood of concussion, respectively. The mean maximum resultant angular accelerations for the concussion and no-injury cases were 7951 rad/s(2) (SD 3562 rad/s(2)) and 4300 rad/s(2) (SD 3657 rad/s(2)), respectively. Linear acceleration is currently used in the assessment of helmets and padded headgear. The 50% and 75% likelihood of concussion values for resultant linear head acceleration in this study were 65.1 and 88.5 g, respectively. As hypothesised by Holbourn over 70 years ago, angular acceleration plays an important role in the pathomechanics of concussion, which has major ramifications in terms of helmet design and other efforts to prevent and manage concussion. Published by

  4. Concussions in the National Football League: A Current Concepts Review.

    PubMed

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Johnson, Daniel J; Zuckerman, Scott L; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-03-01

    Significant attention has been directed toward the immediate and long-term effects of sport-related concussions on athletes participating in contact sports, particularly football. The highest level of football, the National Football League (NFL), has received significant attention and criticism regarding player management and safety after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several review articles have reported data related to concussion in the NFL, but a succinct review and synthesis of data regarding NFL concussions is currently lacking. To (1) review systematically the published data regarding concussion in the NFL and assess limitations of the studies, (2) elucidate areas where further research is needed, and (3) identify methods to improve future investigations of concussion in the NFL. Systematic review of literature. English-language titles and abstracts published between 1900 and September 2014 were searched systematically across electronic databases, and a review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included if they contained NFL concussion data with or without additional associated long-term effects. Reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, and comments were not included. Of the 344 records screened for review, 88 articles were assessed for eligibility. There were 31 studies that met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the evidence synthesis. Included in the current review were 8 case-control studies (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine evidence level 3b), 6 descriptive epidemiological studies (level 4), 6 cross-sectional studies (level 4), 6 cohort studies (level 2b), and 5 case series (level 4). The study of concussions in the NFL has been limited by lack of recent empirical data, reliance on self-reported concussion history, and ascertainment bias of brains donated for autopsy studies. The scientific community

  5. The National Football League and chronic traumatic encephalopathy: legal implications.

    PubMed

    Korngold, Caleb; Farrell, Helen M; Fozdar, Manish

    2013-01-01

    The growing awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has the potential to change the public perception and on-field rules of the National Football League (NFL). More than 3,000 ex-NFL players or their relatives are engaged in litigation alleging that the NFL failed to acknowledge and address the neuropsychiatric risks associated with brain injuries that result from playing in the NFL. This article explores the intersection between the medical and legal aspects of CTE in the NFL from a forensic psychiatry perspective.

  6. Cervical Fracture With Transient Tetraplegia in a Youth Football Player: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Robert; Molinari, William J

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: Serious cervical spinal injuries in organized youth football are rare. Cervical fracture with neurologic injury is rarely reported in organized youth football players with no pre-existing risk fractures for transient tetraplegia. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: After being improperly tackled by an opponent of significantly larger body size, a player sustained a C7 posterior cervical fracture with transient tetraplegia. He was immobilized in a cervical collar and sent to a level 1 trauma center for evaluation. Initial examination showed bilateral paresthesia of the limbs with normal motor function (ASIA D). Initial radiographs of the cervical spine showed a displaced extension-compression fracture of the C7 spinous process. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed edema in the spinal cord in the region of the injury along with significant posterior injury. Imaging studies showed normal volumetric measurements of the spinal canal and no pre-existing risk factors for spinal stenosis or spinal cord injury. Radiographs showed that cervical fracture was healed at 9-month follow-up examination. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic. Radiographs showed healed fracture with no residual instability and full range of cervical spine motion on flexion–extension views. Conclusions: This case underscores the potential for serious cervical spinal injuries in organized youth sports when players are physically overmatched, and improper tackling technique is used. PMID:20486536

  7. The influence of age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on career attainment outcomes in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; Morley, David; O'hara, John; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of annual-age category, relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on the career attainment outcomes of junior rugby league players originally selected for a talent identification and development (TID) programme. Junior rugby league players (N = 580) were grouped retrospectively according to their career attainment level (i.e., amateur, academy and professional). Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass, sum of four skinfolds), maturational (age at peak height velocity; PHV) and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed, estimated[Formula: see text]) characteristics were assessed at the Under 13s, 14s and 15s annual-age categories. Relative age (Q2 = 8.5% vs. Q4 = 25.5%) and playing position (Pivots = 19.5% vs. Props = 5.8%) influenced the percentage of players attaining professional status. Anthropometry and fitness had a significant effect on career attainment at the Under 14 (P = 0.002, η(2) = 0.16) and 15 (P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.12) annual-age categories. Findings at the Under 14s showed future professional players were significantly later maturing compared to academy and amateur players. Findings suggest that relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness can influence the career attainment of junior rugby league players. TID programmes within rugby league, and other related team sports, should be aware and acknowledge the factors influencing long-term career attainment, and not delimit development opportunities during early adolescence.

  8. Neuromuscular, biochemical and perceptual post-match fatigue in professional rugby league forwards and backs.

    PubMed

    Twist, Craig; Waldron, Mark; Highton, Jamie; Burt, Dean; Daniels, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated changes in creatine kinase, perceptual and neuromuscular fatigue of professional rugby league players after match-play. Twenty-three male rugby league players (10 backs, 13 forwards) had their creatine kinase, perceptual ratings of fatigue, attitude to training, muscle soreness, and flight time in a countermovement jump measured before and 1 and 2 days after (day 1 and day 2 respectively) league matches. Total playing time, offensive and defensive contacts were also recorded for each player. Creatine kinase was higher both 1 and 2 days after than before matches (P < 0.05) in forwards and backs. Similarly, perceived fatigue and muscle soreness were higher than pre-match on both days 1 and 2 (P < 0.05), but did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Jump performance was lower on day 1 but not day 2 for both groups (P < 0.05). While total playing time was longer in backs (P < 0.05), relative frequencies for all contacts were greater in forwards (P < 0.05). Contacts for forwards were correlated with all markers of fatigue (P < 0.05), but only flight time was correlated with offensive contacts in backs (P < 0.05). Despite the mechanisms of fatigue being different between forwards and backs, our results highlight the multidimensional nature of fatigue after a rugby league match and that these markers do not differ between positions.

  9. Performance-based outcomes following lumbar discectomy in professional athletes in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wellington K

    2010-05-20

    Retrospective cohort study. To determine the performance-based outcomes in National Football League (NFL) athletes after discectomy for a lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Long-term outcomes following surgical treatment in elite athletes in the NFL are unknown. Postoperative outcomes may be significantly different from the general population due to the exceptional physical demands imposed by the sport. National Football League players diagnosed with a lumbar disc herniation were identified using information from press releases, team injury reports, and newspaper archives. Demographic, treatment, and performance data based on vital statistics to each position were recorded for each player over the length of his career. Using a modification of a previously published scoring system (Carey et al, Am J Sports Med 2006;34:1911-7) based on game statistics, a "Performance Score" was calculated for each player both before and after diagnosis of LDH. A total of 137 National Football League players were identified as having an LDH necessitating treatment. Ninety-six players underwent surgical treatment with a lumbar discectomy, and 34 athletes were treated nonoperatively. Seventy-eight percent of athletes treated surgically for an LDH returned to play in at least 1 NFL game. Players treated surgically played in statistically more games post-treatment (36) than those treated nonoperatively (20) (P < 0.002). There was no significant difference between the Performance Score preoperatively and postoperatively over the length of the players' careers. Age at diagnosis, body mass index, Pro Bowl appearances, and position played did not significantly affect outcome. The data in this study suggests that even though a lumbar discectomy has career-threatening implications, a large percentage of NFL athletes return to play at competitive levels. Despite the general opinion of many NFL general managers, players who are able to complete the rigorous rehabilitation required to return to play

  10. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Potter, Hollis G; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and any correlation between imaging findings and prolonged return to play. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all acute calf muscle injuries on a single NFL team from 2003 to 2015 was performed. Player demographics and return-to-play data were obtained from the medical records. All available magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist for specific imaging findings that correlated with return to play. A total of 27 calf injuries in 24 NFL players were reviewed, yielding an incidence of 2.3 acute calf injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these 27 injuries, 20 (74%) were isolated injuries to the gastrocnemius muscle, 4 (15%) were isolated injuries to the soleus muscle, and the remaining 3 injuries (11%) involved both. Defensive players were more likely to sustain injuries (P = .043). The mean time to return to play for all 27 players was 17.4 ± 14.6 days (range, 3-62 days). MRIs were available in 14 of the 27 injuries. The average size of the fascial defect (P = .032) and the presence of a fluid collection (P = .031) both correlated with return to play of longer than 2 weeks. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps muscle injuries, calf muscle injuries occur with relative frequency in the NFL, and more so in defensive players. The majority of these injuries occur in the gastrocnemius and result in significant disability, with at least 2 weeks of missed playing time on average. MRI may have an important role in the evaluation of

  11. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Brian C.; Belkin, Nicole S.; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P.; Potter, Hollis G.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. Purpose: To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and any correlation between imaging findings and prolonged return to play. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A retrospective review of all acute calf muscle injuries on a single NFL team from 2003 to 2015 was performed. Player demographics and return-to-play data were obtained from the medical records. All available magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist for specific imaging findings that correlated with return to play. Results: A total of 27 calf injuries in 24 NFL players were reviewed, yielding an incidence of 2.3 acute calf injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these 27 injuries, 20 (74%) were isolated injuries to the gastrocnemius muscle, 4 (15%) were isolated injuries to the soleus muscle, and the remaining 3 injuries (11%) involved both. Defensive players were more likely to sustain injuries (P = .043). The mean time to return to play for all 27 players was 17.4 ± 14.6 days (range, 3-62 days). MRIs were available in 14 of the 27 injuries. The average size of the fascial defect (P = .032) and the presence of a fluid collection (P = .031) both correlated with return to play of longer than 2 weeks. Conclusion: Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps muscle injuries, calf muscle injuries occur with relative frequency in the NFL, and more so in defensive players. The majority of these injuries occur in the gastrocnemius and result in significant disability, with at least 2 weeks of missed playing

  12. Screening for smokeless tobacco use and presence of oral lesions in major league baseball athletes.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Amy K; Hutton, Stephen B; Munnelly, Maureen; Bay, R Curtis

    2015-01-01

    The historically disproportionate use of smokeless tobacco (ST) by baseball players is well documented. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) are associated with ST use. Prevalence of ST use and OMLs was assessed among a sample of Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) athletes, while also assessing behavioral and demographic risk factors. ST-use prevalence and OML developmental risk was higher than natiornal averages. MLB policy intervention has not changed ST-use rates, and increased prevalence of ST use remains.

  13. Midfoot sprains in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Drakos, Mark C; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2014-12-01

    Midfoot sprains in the National Football League (NFL) are uncommon. There are few studies on midfoot sprains in professional athletes, as most studies focus on severe traumatic injuries resulting in Lisfranc fracture-dislocations. We conducted a study to evaluate midfoot sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. All midfoot sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from participation. Fifteen NFL players sustained midfoot sprains. Most injuries occurred during games as opposed to practice, and the injury typically resulted from direct impact rather than torsion. Twelve players had nonoperative treatment, and 3 had operative treatment. Nonoperative management resulted in a mean of 11.7 days of time lost from participation. However, there was a significant (P=.047) difference in mean (SD) time lost between the grade 1 sprain group, 3.1 (1.9) days, and the grade 2 sprain group, 36 (26.1) days. Of the 3 operative grade 3 patients, 1 returned in 73 days, and 2 were injured late in the season and returned the next season. Eleven (92%) of the 12 players who had nonoperative treatment had a successful return to play, and 10 (83%) of the 12 played more games and seasons after their midfoot injury. Depending on the diastasis category, NFL team physicians vary treatment: no diastasis (84% cam walker), latent diastasis (47% surgery, 34% cam walker), and frank diastasis (94% surgery). In the NFL, midfoot sprains can be a source of significant disability. Successful return to play can be achieved with nonoperative management for grade 1 injuries within 1 week and grade 2 injuries within 5 weeks. However, severe injuries with frank diastasis that require operative management will

  14. Return to Training and Playing After Acute Lisfranc Injuries in Elite Professional Soccer and Rugby Players.

    PubMed

    Deol, Rupinderbir Singh; Roche, Andrew; Calder, James D F

    2016-01-01

    Lisfranc joint injuries are increasingly recognized in elite soccer and rugby players. Currently, no evidence-based guidelines exist on time frames for return to training and competition after surgical treatment. To assess the time to return to training and playing after Lisfranc joint injuries. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A consecutive series of 17 professional soccer and rugby players in the English Premier/Championship leagues was assessed using prospectively collected data. All were isolated injuries sustained during training or competitive matches. Each player had clinical and radiological evidence of an unstable Lisfranc injury and required surgical treatment. A standardized postoperative regimen was used. The minimum follow-up time was 2 years. Clinical and radiological follow-up was obtained in all 17 players. Seven players had primarily ligamentous injuries, and 10 had bony injuries. The time from injury to fixation ranged from 8 to 31 days, and hardware was removed at 16 weeks postoperatively. One athlete retired after a ligamentous injury; the remaining 16 players returned to training and full competition. Excluding the retired player, the mean time to return to training was 20.1 weeks (range, 18-24 weeks) and to full competition was 25.3 weeks (range, 21-31 weeks). There was a significant difference between the mean time to return to competition for rugby (27.8 weeks) and soccer players (24.1 weeks; P = .02) and for ligamentous (22.5 weeks) compared with bony injuries (26.9 weeks; P = .003). Three patients suffered deep peroneal nerve sensation loss, from which 1 patient did not fully recover. Return to competitive elite-level soccer and rugby is possible after surgically treated Lisfranc injuries. Return to training can take up to 24 weeks and return to playing up to 31 weeks, with bony injuries taking longer. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Urban Games: Four Case Studies in Urban Development (Operator's Manual and Player's Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Margaret Warne

    A series of role-playing, operational games based on the Policy Negotiations model developed by Dr. Fred Goodman, Michigan, is presented in this set of books, an Operator's and a Player's Manual. Policy Negotiations is a game process that involves playing a priming game in order to learn the procedures and rules of the game so one can design and…

  16. Partial peroneus longus tendon rupture in professional basketball players: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Mitchell E; Selesnick, F Harlan; Murphy, Brian J

    2002-12-01

    Partial tears of the peroneal tendons are rare. Partial longitudinal tears of the peroneus longus tendon are even more rare. We report on 2 professional basketball players who had partial peroneus longus tendon tears beneath the cuboid. A literature review and discussion of treatment is included.

  17. Use of the RSA/RCOD Index to Identify Training Priority in Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Hjelde, Geir H; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Ngo, Jake K

    2015-10-01

    The use of RSA/RCOD index indicates the repeated change-of-direction (RCOD) performance relative to the repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and provides a standardized approach to prioritize training needs for RSA and RCOD. To compare the RSA/RCOD index among different age groups, RSA and RCOD were measured from 20 under-16 players (U16), 20 under-19 players (U19), and 17 first-team professional players (PRO) from a football (soccer) club that has regular participation in the UEFA Champions League. Each player performed the RSA and RCOD tests, during which the fastest time (FT), average time (AT), total time (TT), and percentage decrement score (%Dec) were recorded. No significant differences were found in RSA/RCOD index-FT, AT, TT, and %Dec among the 3 groups (p > 0.05) and between U19 and PRO in all RSA and RCOD measures (p > 0.05). Most values of RSA/RCOD index were 0.51 among the U16, U19, and PRO groups. Moreover, we concluded that the RSA/RCOD index might not be further changed after 16 years of age unless specific training programs for RSA and RCOD are prescribed. Therefore, this study provides an empirical case, and coaches can establish the RSA/RCOD index value relevant to their training system and monitor players' training needs of RSA and RCOD in a longer term.

  18. Etiology and Biomechanics of Tarsometatarsal Injuries in Professional Football Players: A Video Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard W; Lievers, W Brent; Riley, Patrick O; Frimenko, Rebecca E; Crandall, Jeff R

    2014-03-01

    Tarsometatarsal (TMT) dislocations are uncommon yet debilitating athletic injuries, particularly in American football. To date, the mechanisms of athletic TMT dislocation have been described only anecdotally. This lack of information confounds the development of preventative countermeasures. To use video analysis to provide direct, independent identification of the etiologic and mechanistic variables responsible for TMT dislocations in professional football players. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Sixteen professional National Football League players who sustained publicly reported TMT dislocations were identified. Publicly broadcast game footage of the plays in which injury occurred was reviewed by a panel of 5 biomechanists. Consensus was reached regarding the details surrounding injury, and a weighting was assigned to each detail based on the panel's confidence. Roughly 90% of injuries occurred while the injured player was engaged with or by another player, a detail that has heretofore been undocumented. Few injuries resulted from direct loading of either the foot or the ipsilateral limb; however, the injured foot was frequently subjected to axial loading from ground engagement with the foot in plantar flexion and the toes dorsiflexed. Injurious loading was often due to external rotation of the midfoot (86%). Fifteen of 16 injuries were season ending. TMT dislocations are frequently associated with engagement by or with a second player but infrequently caused by a direct blow to the foot. Axial loading of the foot, external rotation, and pronation/supination are the most common conditions during injurious loading.

  19. Injury risk due to collisions in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, D A; Davis, S W

    2014-07-01

    Purpose is to determine if Major League Baseball plays at risk for collisions have higher injury rates than typical base running plays. 2002-2011 Major League Baseball play data was obtained: non-force putouts by catcher at home plate (Catcher Tag Out), groundball force outs at 2(nd) base with less than 2 outs (Double Play Attempt), and the control play, outfield assisted non-force putouts of runners attempting to advance to 2(nd) or 3(rd) base (Outfield Assist 2(nd)/3(rd)). This list was cross-referenced with 2002-2011 disabled lists to see if an involved player went on the disabled list the day of or day after the play. An on-line search for each match determined if the injury was attributable to that play. Rate calculated per 1 000 plays, severity in days on disabled list. Injury rate and severity for Catcher Tag Out was 6.98 and 45.6 respectively, Double Play Attempt 0.42 and 41.3, Outfield Assist 2(nd/)3(rd) 1.56 and 47.0. Injury rate for Catcher Tag Out was higher (P = 0.03) than the control while Double Play Attempt trended lower (P = 0.05). There was no difference in severity. Catcher Tag Outs carry greater injury risk than typical base running plays. Major League Baseball should consider prohibiting base path collisions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Physical size associations to offensive performance among major league leaders.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam

    2014-09-01

    Minimal work has studied physical size effects on statistical performance among Major League players. In this study, longitudinal, bivariate, and regression analyses studied the impact of physical size on offensive baseball statistics within a homogeneous talent sample of Major League batting leaders. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from heights and weights that were publicly available to form a statistical database of 4,360 offense leaders from 1950 to 2010. Repeated-measures analysis of variances examined differences in anthropometrics and baseball statistics between each decade from 1950 to 2010. Bivariate correlation and linear regression analyses evaluated BMI as an independent variable of influence, where all tests applied an a priori significance level (p ≤ 0.05). After 1980, offensive performance increased (p ≤ 0.05) concurrent to body mass and BMI growth (p < 0.001). During the 1960s, only batting average and on-base plus slugging percentages were found statistically decreased (p ≤ 0.05). All baseball statistics were positively correlated and predicted by BMI (p < 0.001). Consideration to covariant factors is required in data interpretation, yet nonetheless, our results showed physical size (BMI) to positively influence Major League offensive statistics. Over the 60-year period, greater body weight-to-height proportions owed to improved competitive performance, which suggests greater emphasis on hypertrophic stimuli in training and nutrition, as well as selection of larger professional baseball prospects.

  1. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  2. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content. PMID:25114739

  3. Concerns on Little League Elbow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    Little league elbow is a common overuse injury resulting from repetitive valgus stress on the elbow during overhead throwing. Prevention and treatment should emphasize education of athletes, parents, and coaches about its etiology. The paper examines bone development, noting that the condition is highly treatable if diagnosed in early development.…

  4. NFL Physicians: Committed to Excellence in Patient-Player Care.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The National Football League Physicians Society read with disappointment the article "A Proposal to Address NFL Club Doctors' Conflicts of Interest and to Promote Player Trust." In spite of the authors' suggestions, NFL physicians are accomplished medical professionals who abide by the highest ethical standards in providing treatment to all of their patients, including those who play in the NFL. It defies logic for the authors not to have engaged experienced and active NFL physicians from the very start of their effort to explore, challenge, and recommend significant alterations to the delivery of health care to NFL players. As troubling as this article is from so many perspectives, it does represent an opportunity for the NFLPS to set the record straight and call attention to the excellent quality of care NFL players receive. In addition, it represents an opportunity to expose the extraordinarily weak evidence presented in the article and to refute the baseless allegations that challenge the high ethical standards of NFL physicians. Contrary to solid scientific research that starts with a hypothesis based on theory, in this case, it seems quite apparent that the authors started with a predetermined conclusion and set out to justify it. Their premise was flawed, and they failed in their execution. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  5. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  6. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  7. Factors affecting exercise intensity in professional rugby league match-play.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Thomas; Coutts, Aaron J

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of match-related and individual player characteristics on running performance in professional rugby league matches. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system (GPS) and technical performance measures (attacking involvements and tackles made) were collected from 23 players competing in the National Rugby League (NRL) over 24 matches during a season. The GPS data were categorised into relative total distance (mmin(-1)) and relative high-speed running distance (HSR mmin(-1), >14.4kmh(-1)). Each match was classified according to season phase, location, recovery length, opposition strength and result. Individual player fitness status was obtained from a 1.2-km shuttle run test conducted prior to the start of the season. Two separate linear mixed models were constructed to examine the influence of match-related and individual player characteristics on relative total and HSR distances. Matches played away from home, early in the season and following short recovery cycles were associated with reduced relative total and HSR distances. Matches won contained less relative total and HSR distance; whereas only HSR distance was higher against weaker opposition. The total time the ball was out of play reduced relative total but not HSR distances. The number of defensive but not attacking involvements influenced both physical performance measures. Finally, player fitness was positively related to both relative total and HSR distances. There appears to be a complex interplay of factors affecting match-running performance in rugby league. The results underline the importance of considering contextual factors when analysing rugby league match-activity profiles. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An unusual mechanism of ocular trauma in badminton players: two incidental cases

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Rekha; Majumdar, Mohana Raja; Gupta, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Badminton is a famous sport usually played without any protective eyewear. Ocular injury from one's own partner in a doubles game, with the shuttlecock, is rare. Two untrained badminton players presented with severe ocular trauma during a smash shot from the partner in a ‘doubles’ game. Both the players developed blind eye (vision <3/60) in spite of immediate treatment. This article describes an unusual mode of severe blunt trauma with a shuttlecock while playing a ‘doubles’ game, leading to coup-countercoup injury. In addition, the article highlights the need for awareness of the fatal ocular complications and life-long visual disability, especially in untrained badminton enthusiasts. PMID:22878990

  9. NON-SURGICAL TREATMENT OF A PROFESSIONAL HOCKEY PLAYER WITH THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SPORTS HERNIA: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, J. Scott; Parker, Andrew; MacDonald, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report Background: Injury or weakness of lower abdominal attachments and the posterior inguinal wall can be symptoms of a “sports hernia” and an underlying source of groin pain. Although several authors note conservative treatment as the initial step in the management of this condition, very little has been written on the specific description of non-surgical measures. Most published articles favoring operative care describe poor results related to conservative management; however they fail to report what treatment techniques comprise non-operative management. Case Presentation: The subject of this case report is a professional ice hockey player who sustained an abdominal injury in a game, which was diagnosed as a sports hernia. Following the injury, structured conservative treatment emphasized core control and stability with progressive peripheral demand challenges. Intrinsic core control emphasis continued throughout the treatment progression and during the functional training prior to return to sport. Outcome: The player completed his recovery with return to full competition seven weeks post injury, and continues to compete in the NHL seven years later. Discussion: Surgical intervention has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the “sports hernia.” However it is the authors' opinion that conservative care emphasizing evaluation of intrinsic core muscular deficits and rehabilitation directed at addressing these deficits is an appropriate option, and should be considered prior to surgical intervention. PMID:22319682

  10. A systematic video analysis of National Hockey League (NHL) concussions, part II: how concussions occur in the NHL.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Michael G; Comper, Paul; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Echemendia, Ruben J

    2015-04-01

    Concussions in sports are a growing cause of concern, as these injuries can have debilitating short-term effects and little is known about the potential long-term consequences. This work aims to describe how concussions occur in the National Hockey League. Case series of medically diagnosed concussions for regular season games over a 3.5-year period during the 2006-2010 seasons. Digital video records were coded and analysed using a standardised protocol. 88% (n=174/197) of concussions involved player-to-opponent contact. 16 diagnosed concussions were a result of fighting. Of the 158 concussions that involved player-to-opponent body contact, the most common mechanisms were direct contact to the head initiated by the shoulder 42% of the time (n=66/158), by the elbow 15% (n=24/158) and by gloves in 5% of cases (n=8/158). When the results of anatomical location are combined with initial contact, almost half of these events (n=74/158) were classified as direct contact to the lateral aspect of the head. The predominant mechanism of concussion was consistently characterised by player-to-opponent contact, typically directed to the head by the shoulder, elbow or gloves. Also, several important characteristics were apparent: (1) contact was often to the lateral aspect of the head; (2) the player who suffered a concussion was often not in possession of the puck and (3) no penalty was called on the play. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  12. Black Players and Baseball Cards: Exploring Racial Integration with Popular Culture Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Donald E.; Cooper, B. Lee

    1991-01-01

    Illustrates the use of baseball cards as cultural artifacts and how to make sociological inferences and historical generalizations from them. Focuses on Black players and the issue of racial integration in major league baseball. Includes chronologies of racial integration on teams and inductions of Black players into the Baseball Hall of Fame. (NL)

  13. Groin Pain and Muscular Imbalance of Quadriceps and Hamstrings in an Elite Soccer Player - A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, O; Kelm, J

    2016-08-01

    Soccer and football players are exposed to a high risk of groin pain. In some cases, the pubic symphysis is the origin of the problems.This article presents a case report of a young elite soccer player who, over a period of two years, suffered from pain in the groin and symphysis area. The right leg was the kicking leg. Imaging techniques did not reveal pathological findings. Sports hernia, osteomyelitis, enthesopathy, adductor tendonitis, and muscle sprains, as well as rheumatic or urogenital disorders were excluded.A 3 D posture analysis was performed to examine the statics of the body and pelvis. The maximum isometric strength of the left and right leg adductors and abductors, as well as the knee flexors and extensors were measured.We found a muscular imbalance resulting from the type of sport the athlete engaged in with an unfavourable ratio between the right knee extensor and flexor muscles. Comparing sides, an imbalance was also identified between the right and left knee extensor. This imbalance resulted in a one-sided forward tilt of the right hemi-pelvis. This pelvic torsion may lead to an increase in shear forces in the pubic symphysis, which we suspected to be the reason for the recurring problems.After three months of specific training exercises, the pelvic position was harmonised and the muscular imbalances were significantly reduced. Even 6 months after completion of the specific training exercises, the player remained without complaints despite his unvaried soccer training intensity.Causal treatment of functional pain in the groin or symphysis area should take into account the ipsilateral and contralateral strength ratios of the knee extensors and flexors as well as the three-dimensional position of the pelvis.

  14. A rare complication of a unilateral vertebral artery occlusion, which resulted in a basilar emboli after a C5-C6 bifacet dislocation in a professional rugby player: case study.

    PubMed

    Davies, Simon R

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral artery damage after cervical fracture and especially cervical dislocations is a recognized phenomenon. The incidence of significant intracranial neurology after unilateral vertebral damage is extremely rare, and to our knowledge, no such injury has been sustained while playing sport. To describe a rare vascular complication of a bifacet C5-C6 dislocation. Case report and clinical discussion. We present a 28-year old white man who was a professional rugby player. He sustained a hyperflexion injury while playing scrum half in a recent league match, which resulted in a C5-C6 dislocation, diagnosed clinically and with a plain radiograph. The patient on admission had complete neurologic loss below C6. The patient underwent immediate computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that revealed a 50% displacement of C5 on C6 with a complete unifacet dislocation and the other facet partially dislocated. The MRI revealed signal changes in the cord at the C5-C6 level and an intimal tear in the left vertebral artery. The decision was taken to reduce the dislocation when medically stable. A few hours after injury, after an episode of vomiting, the patient sustained a respiratory arrest owing to the embolization of a clot from the left vertebral artery into the basilar artery. Despite rapid embolectomy and subsequent permanent left vertebral artery occlusion, the patient sustained multiple infarcts in the cerebellar, thalamic, occipital, and pontine regions of the brain that eventually proved fatal. This case shows a rare complication of unilateral vertebral artery occlusion. Despite early identification of a basilar infarct and a successful embolectomy, intracranial infarction occurred. Although there is no guideline for the treatment of vertebral artery damage, early reduction and anticoagulation may reduce the risk of cerebral infarction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Return-to-Sport and Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Basketball Association Players.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Forsythe, Brian; McCormick, Frank M; Gupta, Anil K; Cole, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in National Basketball Association (NBA) players. NBA players undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) have high rates of return to sport (RTS), with RTS the season following surgery, no difference in performance between pre- and postsurgery, and no difference in RTS rate or performance between cases (ACLR) and controls (no ACL tear). Case-control. NBA players undergoing ACLR were evaluated. Matched controls for age, body mass index (BMI), position, and NBA experience were selected during the same years as those undergoing ACLR. RTS and performance were compared between cases and controls. Paired-sample Student t tests, chi-square, and linear regression analyses were performed for comparison of within- and between-group variables. Fifty-eight NBA players underwent ACLR while in the NBA. Mean player age was 25.7 ± 3.5 years. Forty percent of ACL tears occurred in the fourth quarter. Fifty players (86%) RTS in the NBA, and 7 players (12%) RTS in the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) or D-league. Ninety-eight percent of players RTS in the NBA the season following ACLR (11.6 ± 4.1 months from injury). Two players (3.1%) required revision ACLR. Career length following ACLR was 4.3 ± 3.4 years. Performance upon RTS following surgery declined significantly (P < 0.05) regarding games per season; minutes, points, and rebounds per game; and field goal percentage. However, following the index year, controls' performances declined significantly in games per season; points, rebounds, assists, blocks, and steals per game; and field goal and free throw percentage. Other than games per season, there was no significant difference between cases and controls. There is a high RTS rate in the NBA following ACLR. Nearly all players RTS the season following surgery. Performance significantly declined from preinjury level; however, this was not significantly different from controls. ACL re-tear rate was low. There is

  16. Return-to-Sport and Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Basketball Association Players

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Forsythe, Brian; McCormick, Frank M.; Gupta, Anil K.; Cole, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in National Basketball Association (NBA) players. Hypotheses: NBA players undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) have high rates of return to sport (RTS), with RTS the season following surgery, no difference in performance between pre- and postsurgery, and no difference in RTS rate or performance between cases (ACLR) and controls (no ACL tear). Study Design: Case-control. Methods: NBA players undergoing ACLR were evaluated. Matched controls for age, body mass index (BMI), position, and NBA experience were selected during the same years as those undergoing ACLR. RTS and performance were compared between cases and controls. Paired-sample Student t tests, chi-square, and linear regression analyses were performed for comparison of within- and between-group variables. Results: Fifty-eight NBA players underwent ACLR while in the NBA. Mean player age was 25.7 ± 3.5 years. Forty percent of ACL tears occurred in the fourth quarter. Fifty players (86%) RTS in the NBA, and 7 players (12%) RTS in the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) or D-league. Ninety-eight percent of players RTS in the NBA the season following ACLR (11.6 ± 4.1 months from injury). Two players (3.1%) required revision ACLR. Career length following ACLR was 4.3 ± 3.4 years. Performance upon RTS following surgery declined significantly (P < 0.05) regarding games per season; minutes, points, and rebounds per game; and field goal percentage. However, following the index year, controls’ performances declined significantly in games per season; points, rebounds, assists, blocks, and steals per game; and field goal and free throw percentage. Other than games per season, there was no significant difference between cases and controls. Conclusion: There is a high RTS rate in the NBA following ACLR. Nearly all players RTS the season following surgery. Performance significantly declined from preinjury level; however, this was not

  17. Influence of the opposing team on the physical demands of elite rugby league match play.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of playing standard, and winning and losing on the physical demands of elite rugby league match play. Twenty-two elite rugby league players participated in this study. Global positioning system data were collected during 16 rugby league matches. Players covered significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) absolute and relative distance at high speeds when playing against Bottom 4 teams than when competing against Top 4 teams. The total distance per minute of match play and relative distance at low speeds were greater when matches were won. In addition, a greater absolute and relative number of maximal accelerations and repeated high-intensity effort bouts were performed when players were competing in winning teams than in losing teams. The mean and maximum number of efforts in a repeated high-intensity effort bout was also higher in winning teams, although the recovery between efforts was shorter in losing teams. Moderate (7-17 points) and large (≥18 points) winning margins were associated with greater relative distances covered and distances covered at low speeds than small winning margins. No meaningful differences were found in the physical demands between small, moderate, and large losing margins. The results of this study demonstrate that the physical demands of rugby league are greater when winning than losing, and when competing against lower ranked teams. Furthermore, larger winning margins are associated with greater physical demands than small and moderate winning margins, with these physical demands, in turn, greater than losing margins of any magnitude. These findings suggest that the competitive advantage of successful elite rugby league teams is closely linked to their ability to maintain a higher playing intensity than their less successful counterparts.

  18. Wearable microtechnology can accurately identify collision events during professional rugby league match-play.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Billy T; Gabbett, Tim J; Johnston, Rich D; Jenkins, David G

    2017-07-01

    Collision frequency during rugby league matches is associated with team success, greater and longer lasting fatigue and increased injury risk. This study researched the sensitivity and specificity of microtechnology to count collision events during rugby league matches. Diagnostic accuracy study. While wearing a microtechnology device (Catapult, S5), eight professional rugby league players were subjected to a total of 380 collision events during matches. Video footage of each match was synchronised with microtechnology data. The occurrence of each collision event was coded in comparison with whether that event was or was not detected by microtechnology. Microtechnology detected 371 true-positive collision events (sensitivity=97.6±1.5%). When low-intensity (<1 PlayerLoad AU), short duration (<1s) events were excluded from the analysis, specificity was 91.7±2.5%, accuracy was 92.7±1.3%, positive likelihood ratio was 11.4×/÷1.4 and the typical error of estimate was 7.8%×/÷1.9 (d=0.29×/÷1.9, small). Microtechnology collisions were strongly and positively correlated with video coded collision events (r=0.96). The ability of microtechnology to detect collision events improved as the intensity and duration of the collision increased. Microtechnology can identify 97.6% of collision events during rugby league match-play. The typical error associated with measuring contact events can be reduced to 7.8%, with accuracy (92.7%) and specificity (91.7%) improving, when low-intensity (<1 PlayerLoad AU) and short duration (<1s) collision reports are excluded. This provides practitioners with a measurement of contact workload during professional rugby league matches. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Physical Collisions in Elite National Rugby League Match Play.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Cloe; Orr, Rhonda

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the impact forces of collision events during both attack and defense in elite rugby league match play and to compare the collision profiles between playing positions. 26 elite rugby league players. Player collisions were recorded using an integrated accelerometer in global positioning system units (SPI-Pro X, GPSports). Impact forces of collisions in attack (hit-ups) and defense (tackles) were analyzed from 359 files from outside backs (n = 78), adjustables (n = 97), wide-running forwards (n = 136), and hit-up forwards (n = 48) over 1 National Rugby League season. Hit-up forwards were involved in 0.8 collisions/min, significantly more than all other positional groups (wide-running forwards P = .050, adjustables P = .042, and outside backs P = .000). Outside backs experienced 25% fewer collisions per minute than hit-up forwards. Hit-up forwards experienced a collision within the 2 highest classifications of force (≥ 10 g) every 2.5 min of match play compared with 1 every 5 and 9 min for adjustables and outside backs, respectively. Hit-up forwards performed 0.5 tackles per minute of match play, 5 times that of outside backs (ES = 1.90; 95% CI [0.26,3.16]), and 0.2 hit-ups per minute of match play, twice as many as adjustables. During a rugby league match, players are exposed to a significant number of collision events. Positional differences exist, with hit-up and wide-running forwards experiencing greater collision events than adjustables and outside backs. Although these results may be unique to the individual team's defensive- and attacking-play strategies, they are indicative of the significant collision profiles in professional rugby league.

  20. Physical demands of professional rugby league training and competition using microtechnology.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the physical demands of professional rugby league match-play using microtechnology, and to compare these demands with typical training activities used to prepare players for competition. Prospective cohort study. Thirty elite rugby league players participated in this study. Seven hundred and eighty-six. training data sets and 104 data sets from National Rugby League matches were collected over one playing season. Movement was recorded using a commercially available microtechnology unit (minimaxX, Catapult Innovations), which provided information on speeds, distances, accelerations, physical collisions and repeated high-intensity efforts. Mean distances covered during match-play by the hit-up forwards, wide-running forwards, adjustables, and outside backs were 3,569 m, 5,561 m, 6,411 m, and 6,819 m, respectively. Hit-up forwards and wide-running forwards were engaged in a greater number of moderate and heavy collisions than the adjustables and outside backs, and more repeated high-intensity effort bouts per minute of play (1 bout every 4.8-6.3 min). The physical demands of traditional conditioning, repeated high-intensity effort exercise, and skill training activities were all lower than the physical demands of competition. These results demonstrate that absolute distances covered during professional rugby league matches are greater for outside backs, while the collision and repeated high-intensity effort demands are higher for hit-up forwards and wide-running forwards. The specific physical demands of competitive play, especially those demands associated with collisions and repeated high-intensity efforts, were not well matched by those observed in traditional conditioning, repeated high-intensity effort exercise, and skills training activities. Further research is required to investigate whether modifications need to be made to these training activities to better prepare players for the demands of National Rugby League competition. Copyright © 2011

  1. Professional rugby league positional match-play analysis through the use of global positioning system.

    PubMed

    Austin, Damien J; Kelly, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the movement demands of all 9 individual playing positions in professional rugby league. The movement demands of 135 professional rugby league players were recorded during 28 National Rugby League games in 2011, using a nondifferential 5 Hz global positioning system. The mean total distances covered in a game for fullback, wing, center, five-eight, halfback, hooker, lock, back row, and prop players were 7,760, 7,457, 7,301, 8,402, 8,500, 6,988, 5,481, 6,936, and 4,597 m, respectively. The average occurrence of high-intensity runs per match was 42, 35, 34, 86, 120, 74, 52, 26, and 18 for fullback, wing, center, five-eight, halfback, hooker, lock, back row, and prop players, respectively. The average distance traveled greater than 18 km·h-1 for fullback were 17 ± 2 m, wing 18 ± 2 m, center 18 ± 3 m, five-eight 16 ± 3 m, and halfback 17 ± 4 m. The average distance and range traveled greater than 18 km·h for hooker were 14 ± 3 m, lock 16 ± 2 m, back row 18 ± 3 m, and prop 16 ± 2 m. The use of global positioning systems has demonstrated plausibility to eliminate the use of grouping of positions in rugby league and for coaches to make specific training protocols for each position. Given the differences in movement demands of all 9 positions in rugby league, some positions would lack specificity to their positional requirements if using collective grouping for planning of training regimens.

  2. Match performance and physical capacity of players in the top three competitive standards of English professional soccer.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Christopher; Gomez Diaz, Antonio; Hood, Peter; Barnes, Chris; Ade, Jack; Boddy, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the match performance and physical capacity of players in the top three competitive standards of English soccer. Match performance data were collected from players in the FA Premier League (n=190), Championship (n=155) and League 1 (n=366) using a multiple-camera system. In addition, a selection of players from the Premier League (n=56), Championship (n=61) and League 1 (n=32) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to determine physical capacity. Players in League 1 and the Championship performed more (p<.01) high-intensity running than those in the Premier League (Effect Size [ES]: 0.4-1.0). Technical indicators such as pass completion, frequency of forward and total passes, balls received and average touches per possession were 4-39% higher (p<.01) in the Premier League compared to lower standards (ES: 0.3-0.6). Players also covered more (p<.05) high-intensity running when moving down (n=20) from the Premier League to the Championship (ES: 0.4) but not when players moved up (n=18) standards (ES: 0.2). Similar Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were observed in Premier League, Championship and League 1 players (ES: 0.2-0.3). Large magnitude relationships (p<.05) were observed between Yo-Yo IE2 test performances and the total and high-intensity running distance covered in both Championship (r=.56 and .64) and Premier League matches (r=.61 and .54). The data demonstrate that high-intensity running distance was greater in players at lower compared to higher competitive standards despite a similar physical capacity in a subsample of players in each standard. These findings could be associated with technical characteristics inherent to lower standards that require players to tax their physical capacity to a greater extent but additional research is still required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enthesitis of the direct tendon of the rectus femoris muscle in a professional volleyball player: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotto, C.; Coscia, D.R.; Ferrozzi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Enthesitis of the direct tendon of the rectus femoris muscle is a rare pathology which mainly affects professional athletes, and it is caused by overuse and repetitive microtrauma. Athletic jumping and kicking exert a great stress on the direct tendon of the rectus femoris muscle, and volleyball and football players are therefore most frequently affected. Enthesitis may occur suddenly causing pain and functional impairment possibly associated with partial or complete tendon injuries, or it may be a chronic condition causing non-specific clinical symptoms. We present the case of a professional volleyball player who felt a sudden pain in the left side of the groin area during a training session although she had suffered no accidental injury. The pain was associated with impaired ipsilateral limb function. Tendon rupture was suspected, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. MRI showed a lesion at the myotendinous junction associated with marked inhomogeneity of the direct tendon. Ultrasound (US) examination confirmed the presence of both lesions and allowed a more detailed study of the pathology. This is a typical case of enthesitis which confirms that MRI should be considered the examination of choice in hip pain, particularly when the patient is a professional athlete, thanks to its panoramic visualization. However, also US is an ideal imaging technique for evaluating tendon injuries thanks to its high spatial resolution, and it can therefore be used effectively as a second line of investigation. PMID:23396666

  4. Enthesitis of the direct tendon of the rectus femoris muscle in a professional volleyball player: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, C; Coscia, D R; Ferrozzi, G

    2011-06-01

    Enthesitis of the direct tendon of the rectus femoris muscle is a rare pathology which mainly affects professional athletes, and it is caused by overuse and repetitive microtrauma. Athletic jumping and kicking exert a great stress on the direct tendon of the rectus femoris muscle, and volleyball and football players are therefore most frequently affected. Enthesitis may occur suddenly causing pain and functional impairment possibly associated with partial or complete tendon injuries, or it may be a chronic condition causing non-specific clinical symptoms.We present the case of a professional volleyball player who felt a sudden pain in the left side of the groin area during a training session although she had suffered no accidental injury. The pain was associated with impaired ipsilateral limb function. Tendon rupture was suspected, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. MRI showed a lesion at the myotendinous junction associated with marked inhomogeneity of the direct tendon. Ultrasound (US) examination confirmed the presence of both lesions and allowed a more detailed study of the pathology.This is a typical case of enthesitis which confirms that MRI should be considered the examination of choice in hip pain, particularly when the patient is a professional athlete, thanks to its panoramic visualization. However, also US is an ideal imaging technique for evaluating tendon injuries thanks to its high spatial resolution, and it can therefore be used effectively as a second line of investigation.

  5. [Impact of the Beijing and Tianjin Sand Source Control Project on the grassland soil organic carbon storage: a case study of Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang-Xia; Fan, Jiang-Wen; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tang, Feng-Pei

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the impacts of eco-construction project on grassland soil carbon storage is crucial to assess the effectiveness of the project and its role in carbon cycling of the grassland ecosystems. Using IPCC carbon budget inventory method, this paper analyzed the influence of Beijing and Tianjin Sand Source Control Project (BTSSCP) on the grassland soil carbon storage between 2000 and 2006 in Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia, and evaluated the time needed to reach the maximal soil carbon density for three management practices (i. e. , sown pasture, aerial sowing pasture, and grazing exclosure). Results showed that the BTSSCP significantly increased soil carbon storage, with a carbon sequestration of 59.26 x 10(4) t C from 2000 to 2006. The rate and effectiveness of soil carbon sequestration varied significantly with management practices, with the highest rate in sown pasture (0.25 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1)) while a greater benefit of soil carbon sequestration in the grazing exclosure (63 million yuan). Compared with other grassland vegetations, lowland meadow and temperate meadow steppe both had higher carbon sequestration rates of 0.14 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1). Long time would be needed to reach the maximum soil carbon density in grassland under the three practices, yet shorter for sown pasture with average of 57.75 years.

  6. Effect of training intensity distribution on aerobic fitness variables in elite soccer players: a case study.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Bordon, Claudio; Manzi, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was to quantify the distribution of training intensities and its effect on aerobic fitness in professional elite soccer players. Fourteen professional soccer players were observed during the prechampionship training period (6 weeks). Treadmill running speed and heart rates (HRs) at 2 and 4 mmol · L(-1) blood-lactate concentrations were assessed pre and posttraining. Training intensities were categorized using 3 HR zones: low intensity (


    HR 4 mmol · L(-1)). Analysis of the 504 individual training sessions showed that 73 ± 2.5, 19 ± 2.8, and 8 ± 1.4% of the total training time was spent at low, moderate, and high intensity, respectively (p < 0.001). Speed at 2 and 4 mmol · L(-1) significantly improved posttraining (5 and 7%, respectively, p < 0.01). Training spent at high intensity was significantly related to relative speed improvements at 2 mmol · L(-1) (r = 0.84, p < 0.001;) and 4 mmol · L(-1) (r = 0.65, p = 0.001). Players spent almost two-thirds of their training time at low intensities. However, only the time spent at high intensity (>90% of maximal HR) was related to changes in aerobic fitness. These results support the usefulness of the quantification of aerobic training load using HR. Furthermore, it stresses the effectiveness of the high-intensity training in soccer.

  7. A cross-national analysis of mental toughness and hardiness in elite university rugby league teams.

    PubMed

    Sheard, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The relation between nationality and selected indicators of psychological performance in rugby league football was examined. Mental toughness was assessed using the alternative Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI-A) and hardiness using the Personal Views Survey III-R (PVS III-R). Participants (N = 49, M age = 21.7 yr., SD = 2.3) were male elite-level university rugby league footballers representing Australia and Great Britain. Participants completed the questionnaires in training camp in Sydney, Australia, one week prior to the commencement of an international tournament there in 2006. Multivariate analyses revealed that the Australian Universities players had significantly higher mean scores on Positive Cognition, Visualization, Total Mental Toughness, and Challenge than their opponents from Great Britain. The Australian Universities players were also the tournament winners. The findings concur with previous research indicating superior mental toughness and hardiness are related to successful sport performance. Practical implications focus on the potentiality of ameliorative cultural environments.

  8. Triceps tendon ruptures in professional football players.

    PubMed

    Mair, Scott D; Isbell, William M; Gill, Thomas J; Schlegel, Theodore F; Hawkins, Richard J

    2004-03-01

    Distal rupture of the triceps tendon is a rare injury, and treatment guidelines are not well established. Football players with triceps tendon ruptures will be able to return to their sport with minimal functional deficits. Uncontrolled retrospective review. Twenty-one partial and complete ruptures of the triceps tendon were identified in 19 National Football League players over a period of 6 years. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room, clinical, and operative notes for each of these players. Most of the injured players were linemen. The most common mechanism of injury was an eccentric load to a contracting triceps. Seven players had prodromal symptoms prior to injury, and 5 had received a cortisone injection. Eleven elbows with complete tears underwent surgical repair. Of 10 players with partial tears, 6 healed without surgery. One player suffered a subsequent complete tear requiring surgery, and 3 with residual pain and weakness underwent surgical repair following the season. Two surgical complications occurred, both requiring a second operation. All of the players but 1 returned to play at least one season of professional football after their injury. Partial triceps tendon ruptures can heal without functional deficit. Surgical repair for complete ruptures generally produces good functional results and allows return to play.

  9. The impact of a cervical spine diagnosis on the careers of National Football League athletes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Lynch, T Sean; Gibbs, Daniel B; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark W; Patel, Alpesh A; Savage, Jason W; Nuber, Gordon W; Hsu, Wellington K

    2014-05-20

    Cohort study. To determine the effect of cervical spine pathology on athletes entering the National Football League. The association of symptomatic cervical spine pathology with American football athletes has been described; however, it is unknown how preexisting cervical spine pathology affects career performance of a National Football League player. The medical evaluations and imaging reports of American football athletes from 2003 to 2011 during the combine were evaluated. Athletes with a cervical spine diagnosis were matched to controls and career statistics were compiled. Of a total of 2965 evaluated athletes, 143 players met the inclusion criteria. Athletes who attended the National Football League combine without a cervical spine diagnosis were more likely to be drafted than those with a diagnosis (P = 0.001). Players with a cervical spine diagnosis had a decreased total games played (P = 0.01). There was no difference in the number of games started (P = 0.08) or performance score (P = 0.38). In 10 athletes with a sagittal canal diameter of less than 10 mm, there was no difference in years, games played, games started, or performance score (P > 0.24). No neurological injury occurred during their careers. In 7 players who were drafted with a history of cervical spine surgery (4 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, 2 foraminotomy, and 1 suboccipital craniectomy with a C1 laminectomy), there was no difference in career longevity or performance when compared with matched controls. This study suggests that athletes with preexisting cervical spine pathology were less likely to be drafted than controls. Players with preexisting cervical spine pathology demonstrated a shorter career than those without; however, statistically based performance and numbers of games started were not different. Players with cervical spinal stenosis and those with a history of previous surgery demonstrated no difference in performance-based outcomes and no reports of neurological

  10. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Drakos, Mark C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2013-11-01

    Syndesmosis sprains in the National Football League (NFL) can be a persistent source of disability, especially compared with lateral ankle injuries. This study evaluated syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from sports participation. Thirty-six syndesmosis and 53 lateral ankle sprains occurred in the cohort of NFL players. The injury mechanism typically resulted from direct impact in the syndesmosis and torsion in the lateral ankle sprain group (P=.034). All players were managed nonoperatively. The mean time lost from participation was 15.4 days in the syndesmosis and 6.5 days in the lateral ankle sprain groups (P⩽.001). National Football League team physicians varied treatment for syndesmosis sprains depending on the category of diastasis but recommended nonoperative management for lateral ankle sprains. Syndesmosis sprains in the NFL can be a source of significant disability compared with lateral ankle sprains. Successful return to play with nonoperative management is frequently achieved for syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains depending on injury severity. With modern treatment algorithms for syndesmosis sprains, more aggressive nonoperative treatment is advocated. Although the current study shows that syndesmosis injuries require longer rehabilitation periods when compared with lateral ankle sprains, the time lost from participation may not be as prolonged as previously reported. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Retrospective study of concussive convulsions in elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers: phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome.

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P. R.; Bladin, P. F.; Berkovic, S. F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the ictal phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome of convulsions occurring within seconds of impact in violent collision sport. DESIGN: Retrospective identification of convulsions associated with concussive brain injury from case records from medical officers of football clubs over a 15 year period. SUBJECTS: Elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuroimaging studies, electroencephalography, neuropsychological test data, and statistics on performance in matches to determine presence of structural or functional brain injury. Clinical follow up and electroencephalography for evidence of epilepsy. RESULTS: Twenty two cases of concussive convulsions were identified with four events documented on television videotape. Convulsions began within 2 seconds of impact and comprised an initial period of tonic stiffening followed by myoclonic jerks of all limbs lasting up to 150 seconds. Some asymmetry in the convulsive manifestations was common, and recovery of consciousness was rapid. No structural or permanent brain injury was present on clinical assessment, neuropsychological testing, or neuroimaging studies. All players returned to elite competition within two weeks of the incident. Epilepsy did not develop in any player over a mean (range) follow up of 3.5 (1-13) years. CONCLUSIONS: These concussive or impact convulsions are probably a non-epileptic phenomenon, somewhat akin to convulsive syncope. The mechanism may be a transient traumatic functional decerebration. In concussive convulsions the outcome is universally good, antiepileptic treatment is not indicated, and prolonged absence from sport is unwarranted. PMID:9022428

  12. Comparison of home advantage in men's and women's football leagues in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Most research into home advantage is based on men's sports. This article analyses home advantage in the women's domestic football leagues of Europe and makes a comparison with the corresponding men's football leagues. A total of 47,042 games were included. From 2004 to 2010, home advantage existed in the domestic women's soccer leagues of all 26 European countries analysed, ranging from 51.0% to 58.8% and averaging 54.2%. In every country, this was less than the corresponding men's home advantage which averaged 60.0%. Crowd effects, both on players and referees, and different gender perceptions of territorial protection are plausible reasons for the differences found. Using a regression model that controlled for the competitive balance of each league, as well as for crowd size, the Gender Gap Index, which quantifies the status of women in each country, was a significant predictor of the difference between men's and women's home advantage. As the status of women becomes closer to that of men within a country, the difference in home advantage is less between the men's and women's football leagues.

  13. Performance of older versus younger brothers: data from major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2007-12-01

    Batting and pitching records and career lengths of 312 sets of brothers who became major league baseball players were compared. Older brothers at non-pitching positions (N = 262) had significantly higher batting averages and longer careers than their younger siblings. Differences for pitchers were not statistically significant. The results corroborate other studies that firstborns are more likely than later born siblings to be higher achievers, but different factors may be operative for pitchers.

  14. Improved top-down control reduces oculomotor capture: the case of action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Action video game players (AVGPs) have been demonstrated to outperform non-video-game players(NVGPs) on a range of cognitive tasks. Evidence to date suggests that AVGPs’ enhanced performance in attention based tasks can be accounted for by improved top-down control over the allocation of visuospatial attention. Thus,we propose that AVGPs provide a population that can be used to investigate the role of top-down factors in key models of attention. Previous work using AVGPs has indicated that they experience less interfering effects from a salient but task-irrelevant distractor in an attentional capture paradigm (Chisholm, Hickey, Theeuwes, & Kingstone,2010). Two fundamentally different bottom-up and top-down models of attention can account for this result. In the present study, we compared AVGP and NVGP performance in an oculomotor capture paradigm to address when and how top-down control modulates capture. In tracking eye movements, we acquired an explicit measurement of attention allocation and replicated the covert attention effect that AVGPs are quicker than NVGPs to attend to a target in the presence of a task-irrelevant distractor. Critically, our study reveals that this top-down gain is the result of fewer shifts of attention to the salient distractor, rather than faster disengagement after bottom-up capture has occurred. This supports the theory that top-down control can modulate the involuntary capture of attention [added].

  15. Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: the case of action video game players.

    PubMed

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2006-08-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects' ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop in performance once a critical number of squares was reached. Importantly, this critical number was higher by about two items in video game players (VGPs) than in non-video game players (NVGPs). A following control study indicated that this improvement was not due to an enhanced ability to instantly apprehend the numerosity of the display, a process known as subitizing, but rather due to an enhancement in the slower more serial process of counting. To confirm that video game play facilitates the processing of multiple objects at once, we compared VGPs and NVGPs on the multiple object tracking task (MOT), which requires the allocation of attention to several items over time. VGPs were able to successfully track approximately two more items than NVGPs. Furthermore, NVGPs trained on an action video game established the causal effect of game playing in the enhanced performance on the two tasks. Together, these studies confirm the view that playing action video games enhances the number of objects that can be apprehended and suggest that this enhancement is mediated by changes in visual short-term memory skills.

  16. Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: the case of action video game players

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects’ ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop in performance once a critical number of squares was reached. Importantly, this critical number was higher by about two items in video game players (VGPs) than in non-video game players (NVGPs). A following control study indicated that this improvement was not due to an enhanced ability to instantly apprehend the numerosity of the display, a process known as subitizing, but rather due to an enhancement in the slower more serial process of counting. To confirm that video game play facilitates the processing of multiple objects at once, we compared VGPs and NVGPs on the multiple object tracking task (MOT), which requires the allocation of attention to several items over time. VGPs were able to successfully track approximately two more items than NVGPs. Furthermore, NVGPs trained on an action video game established the causal effect of game playing in the enhanced performance on the two tasks. Together, these studies confirm the view that playing action video games enhances the number of objects that can be apprehended and suggest that this enhancement is mediated by changes in visual short-term memory skills. PMID:16359652

  17. Elbow Injuries in Professional Baseball: Epidemiological Findings From the Major League Baseball Injury Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Ciccotti, Michael G; Pollack, Keisha M; Ciccotti, Michael C; D'Angelo, John; Ahmad, Christopher S; Altchek, David; Andrews, James; Curriero, Frank C

    2017-08-01

    Elbow injuries cause significant disability for the throwing athlete. Scant data are available on the distribution and characteristics of these injuries in elite baseball players. No study exists that focuses solely on the epidemiological characteristics of elbow injuries in professional baseball players using a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Professional baseball players have a high occurrence of elbow injuries influenced by factors including length of time playing, time period within the annual baseball season, and specific position played. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data on elbow injuries occurring during the 2011-2014 seasons were collected from Major League Baseball's Health Injury and Tracking System, a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Each specific type of elbow injury was evaluated with respect to overall injury rate, years as a professional player, mechanism of injury, treatment, average time lost, and return to play. During the study period, 3185 elbow injuries (n = 430 Major League; n = 2755 Minor League) occurred. The mean number of days missed and percentage requiring surgery were similar between Major and Minor League players. Overall, 20.0% (650/3185) of the injuries required surgical treatment. Pitchers were the most likely to incur an elbow injury (40.0% of injured athletes were pitchers), were the most likely to require surgery (34.2% of injured pitchers required surgery), and had the greatest mean number of days missed when treated nonsurgically (33.2 days). Medial injuries composed 42.1% (1342/3185) of all elbow injuries. Of all elbow surgeries performed during the study period, the highest percentage involved ligaments (372/650; 57.2%). Elbow injuries are a considerable source of disability in professional baseball players. Pitchers are most likely to incur these injuries, are most likely to require surgery, and have the highest mean number of days missed when treated nonsurgically. The most common injuries involve

  18. Rehabilitation following an acute traumatic first rib fracture in a collegiate football player: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Michael P; Amin, Nirav H; Delehanty, Elizabeth; Figler, Richard; Williams, James

    2014-12-01

    Isolated fractures involving the first rib are rare and often difficult to diagnose. There is a paucity of literature regarding isolated fractures and even fewer reported cases involving those due to contact. The purpose of this case report is to describe the mechanism of injury, differential diagnosis, rehabilitation, and return to sport decision making for an isolated first rib fracture secondary to acute trauma in a collegiate football player. An 18 year-old right-hand dominant male collegiate football player was involved in a facemask-to-facemask collision during a football game while playing defensive back. His chief complaint during the sideline evaluation was left-sided neck and shoulder pain with concomitant clicking reported with active movement of his left shoulder. A musculoskeletal ultrasound performed in the training room suggested a possible scapular spine fracture. However, a subsequent magnetic resonance image revealed an acute isolated anterolateral fracture of the first rib. The subject was treated conservatively with extensive rehabilitation and was able to return to full participation for summer training camp as well as the fall football season at the same level of play as prior to injury. An isolated first rib fracture is extremely rare due to the unique anatomical location of the first rib posterior to the clavicle, as well as the surrounding shoulder girdle and associated layer of musculature. Identifying this injury can be challenging due to vaguely reported symptoms and the paucity of reported incidences. In the setting of an isolated injury, conservative management including structured rehabilitation can lead to successful outcomes and return to play. This is the first published rehabilitation guideline for an acute isolated first-rib fracture secondary to trauma. 4 - Single case report.

  19. Predicting and Preventing Injury in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented.

  20. Kienbock’s disease in a varsity football player: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Laframboise, Michelle A.; Gringmuth, Robert; Greenwood, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present the diagnostic, clinical features, and management of Kienbock’s disease and create awareness of the differential diagnosis of this condition in patients presenting with insidious, progressive dorsal wrist pain. Clinical Features: A 23-year old male varsity football player presented with insidious progressive dorsal sided wrist pain with reduced wrist flexion and extension. A diagnosis of Kienbock’s disease was made based on radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Intervention and Outcome: A 3mm ulnar-minus variance was found and a joint leveling procedure to shorten the radius was performed. Conservative therapy was provided pre and post surgical management. Summary: This case report demonstrates the importance of findings on radiographs, MRI, and clinical examination in the accurate diagnosis and management of a patient with wrist pain. PMID:23204571

  1. Monitoring anthropometry and fitness using maturity groups within youth rugby league.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2015-03-01

    -The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometry and fitness, and change in these characteristics over time, of youth rugby league players by using maturity status to determine annual categories instead of traditional chronological annual-age grouping. One hundred and twenty-one male rugby league players were assessed using anthropometric (i.e., height, sitting height, body mass, and sum of 4 skinfolds) and fitness (i.e., vertical jump, medicine ball chest throw, 10- and 20-m sprint, and multistage fitness test [MSFT]) measures over a 5-year period. Each player was classified into 1 of 6 maturity groups based on their maturity offset (years from peak height velocity, i.e., 1.5 YPHV). Multivariate analysis of variance analyses identified significant (p < 0.001) main effects for maturity group for cross-sectional characteristics and longitudinal change in performance over time. Analyses demonstrated that more mature groups had greater anthropometric and fitness characteristics, except for endurance performance (MSFT: -2.5 YPHV = 1,872 ± 18 m vs. 2.5 YPHV = 1,675 ± 275 m). For longitudinal changes in characteristics over time, a significant effect was only identified for height and sitting height (p ≤ 0.05). These findings provide comparative data for anthropometric and fitness characteristics and change in performance over time in accordance with the maturity status within youth rugby league players. Classifying players into annual maturity groups may be an additional or alternative assessment method for evaluating anthropometry and fitness performance in adolescent populations. Furthermore, tracking performance changes over time, especially in relation to maturation, may reduce the limitations associated with chronological annual-age grouping.

  2. Benchmarking in Universities: League Tables Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the practice of benchmarking universities using a "league table" approach. Taking the example of the "Sunday Times University League Table", the author reanalyses the descriptive data on UK universities. Using a linear programming technique, data envelope analysis (DEA), the author uses the re-analysis to…

  3. Teaching Competition in Professional Sports Leagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been some dispute over the appropriate way to model decision making in professional sports leagues. In particular, Szymanski and Kesenne (2004) argue that formulating the decision-making problem in a noncooperative game leads to radically different conclusions about the nature of competition in sports leagues. The author…

  4. The Influence of Game Design on the Collaborative Problem Solving Process: A Cross-Case Study of Multi-Player Collaborative Gameplay Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Nilay

    2013-01-01

    This cross-case study examines the relationships between game design attributes and collaborative problem solving process in the context of multi-player video games. The following game design attributes: sensory stimuli elements, level of challenge, and presentation of game goals and rules were examined to determine their influence on game…

  5. The Influence of Game Design on the Collaborative Problem Solving Process: A Cross-Case Study of Multi-Player Collaborative Gameplay Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Nilay

    2013-01-01

    This cross-case study examines the relationships between game design attributes and collaborative problem solving process in the context of multi-player video games. The following game design attributes: sensory stimuli elements, level of challenge, and presentation of game goals and rules were examined to determine their influence on game…

  6. Incidence, site, and nature of injuries in amateur rugby league over three consecutive seasons

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, T.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To report the incidence, site, and nature of injuries in amateur rugby league over three consecutive seasons. Methods—Six hundred players registered with an amateur rugby league organisation were studied over three consecutive seasons. All injuries sustained during the amateur rugby league matches were recorded. Information recorded included the date and time of injury, name of injured player, anatomical site and nature of injury, and position of the player. Results—The incidence of injury was 160.6 per 1000 player-position game hours, with forwards having a significantly higher incidence of injury than backs (182.3 per 1000 v 142.0 per 1000, χ2 = 14.60, df = 1, p<0.001). Over 25% of the total injuries (40.6 per 1000) sustained during the three year period were to the head and neck, while injuries to the face (21.3 per 1000, 13.3%), abdomen and thorax (21.3 per 1000, 13.3%), and knee (17.8 per 1000, 11.1%) were less common (χ2 = 21.83, df = 8, p<0.01). Muscular injuries (haematomas and strains) were the most common type of injury (45.7 per 1000, 28.5%, χ2 = 17.98, df = 7, p<0.05). Significantly more injuries occurred in the latter stages of the season (χ2 = 22.94, df = 1, p<0.001), with most injuries (70.8%, χ2 = 162.29, df = 1, p<0.001) sustained in the second half of matches. Conclusions—The results show that muscular injuries and injuries to the head and neck are the most commonly sustained injuries in amateur rugby league. Furthermore, injuries are more often sustained in the latter stages of the season and during the second half of matches. These findings suggest that fatigue or accumulative microtrauma, or both, may contribute to injuries in amateur rugby league players. Key Words: rugby; injury; amateur; football PMID:10786864

  7. A game of two discs: a case of non-contiguous and occult cervical spine injury in a rugby player

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Michael D.; Piggot, Robert; Jaddan, Mutaz; McCabe, John P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to highlight the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elucidating serious and occult injuries in a single case of hyperflextion injury of a patient cervical spine (C-Spine). A chart and radiology review was performed to establish the sequence of care and how the results of imaging studies influenced the clinical management in this trauma case. Plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities of the C-Spine revealed bilateral C4/C5 facetal subluxation with no obvious fractures; however, the MR imaging of the C-Spine revealed a non-contiguous and occult injury to C6/C7 disc with a posterior annular tear and associated disc extrusion. This altered the operative intervention that was initially planned. MR imaging proved an invaluable diagnostic addition in this particular case of cervical trauma in a rugby player following a hyperflextion injury, by revealing a serious non-contiguous and occult injury of the C-Spine. PMID:26980714

  8. Arthrodesis of the Subtalar Joint in a High School Football Player With a Talocalcaneal Coalition: Case Report With Functional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Winslow, John; Norland, Ryan; Storb, Nathan; Cannella, Sam; King, Deborah

    2016-02-08

    Tarsal coalition is a bony or fibrous bridge between 2 tarsal bones. The condition is typically congenital and presents in early to mid-adolescence. Common symptoms include ankle pain, stiffness, and limited range of motion. Conservative treatment of tarsal coalition consists of immobilization, short leg walking cast, steroid injections, physical therapy, ankle braces, and orthotics. When conservative care fails, surgical intervention for tarsal coalition includes excision of the coalition or joint arthrodesis. We present a case of a high school football player with a 5-year history of left ankle pain secondary to a talocalcaneal coalition. The athlete did not respond favorably to conservative treatment and underwent a subtalar joint arthrodesis. Prior to surgery, the athlete consented to self-reported functional outcome measures, range of motion measures, and 3D video gait analysis to evaluate the effects of surgery. Measurements were taken prior to surgery and 1½ years after surgery. Clinically significant improvements were seen in subjective outcome measures and functional ankle range of motion in this case. There is limited research available to validate long-term outcomes for current conservative and surgical treatments of tarsal coalition. In this case, joint arthrodesis resulted in a good long-term outcome for this athlete. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case study. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Prospective study of injury in volleyball players: 6 year results.

    PubMed

    Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O

    2015-01-01

    The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.

  10. Recreational ice hockey injuries in adult non-checking leagues: a United States perspective.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Pasqualino; Mattson, Douglas J

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze injuries among adult recreational ice hockey players. This was an observational prospective cohort study with data collected on injuries sustained during one season in the adult recreational ice hockey leagues of Oneida County, NY. The injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures. The most common anatomic region injured was the head/neck/face (35%). Collisions were most often reported as the mechanism of injury (44%). Fracture was the most common diagnosis. Of players wearing face protection (full cage or shield, or partial visor/half shield), none suffered facial injuries, while all facial injuries reported were to players not wearing facial protection. The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures. A lack of protective equipment was associated with 38% of injuries and 24% of injuries involved penalties. A history of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players with 28% re-injuring the same body part. This study's findings suggested various strategies to address player injuries such as mandatory full facial protection and shoulder pads, strict enforcement of game rules, and game rule modifications (no body checking). Further research is needed on the role of preventive rehabilitation in players with previous injury history. Key PointsThe injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures, similar to previous Canadian literature.The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures.38% of injuries involved a lack of protective equipment and 24% of injuries involved penalties.Full facial protection and shoulder pads should be compulsory.Strict enforcement of game rules is necessary.History of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players.

  11. Posterior tibialis tendonopathy in an adolescent soccer player: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yuill, Erik A.; MacIntyre, Ian G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Detail the progress of an adolescent soccer player with right-sided chronic medial foot pain due to striking an opponent’s leg while kicking the ball. The patient underwent diagnostic ultrasound and a conservative treatment plan. Clinical Features The most important features were hindfoot varus, forefoot abduction, flatfoot deformity, and inability to single leg heel raise due to pain. Conventional treatment was aimed at decreasing hypertonicity and improving function of the posterior tibialis muscle and tendon. Intervention and Outcome Conservative treatment approach utilized soft tissue therapy in the form of Active Release Technique®, and eccentric exercises designed to focus on the posterior tibial muscle and lower limb stability. Outcome measures included subjective pain ratings, and resisted muscle testing. Conclusion A patient with posterior tibialis tendonopathy due to injury while playing soccer was relieved of his pain after 4 treatments over 4 weeks of soft tissue therapy and rehabilitative exercises focusing on the lower limb, specifically the posterior tibialis muscle. PMID:21120022

  12. The effect of ocular dominance on the performance of professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Laby, D M; Kirschen, D G; Rosenbaum, A L; Mellman, M F

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a performance difference exists between baseball players with "same" (right-right) and "crossed" (right-left) hand-ocular dominance. A cohort study design was used. Four hundred and ten major and minor league members of the Los Angeles Dodgers professional baseball team. Measurement of ocular dominance. Batting average and earned run average (ERA). Same/crossed dominance (with P values in parentheses) are as follows: Batting averages: major league-0.271/0.251 (0.20); minor league-0.274/0.270 (0.57); ERA: major league-3.34/3.56 (0.66); minor league-4.00/4.20 (0.54). Hand-ocular dominance patterns do not have an effect on batting average or ERA.

  13. Whole-Person Impairment in Younger Retired NFL Players: The Orthopaedic Toll of a Professional Football Career.

    PubMed

    Domb, Benjamin G; Carter, Chris; Finch, Nathan A; Hammarstedt, Jon E; Dunne, Kevin F; Stake, Christine E

    2014-05-01

    Professional American football is a physically demanding, high-impact sport with an elevated risk of injury. Orthopaedic injuries may impose acute, short-term or cumulative consequences throughout a player's lifetime. Several studies have addressed health and psychosocial concerns of an older, retired population of players in the National Football League (NFL); however, minimal research has examined the orthopaedic toll on younger, retired players. This study reports total whole-person impairment (WPI) percentages in a cohort of younger, retired NFL players who presented for disability evaluations based on the use of standardized American Medical Association (AMA) impairment guidelines. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. During the study period of February 2011 to August 2013, 65 younger retired NFL players presented for impairment evaluations. The mean time between retirement and impairment evaluation was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-16.4 years). A complete history and physical examination was performed on all symptomatic joints. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 100% of presenting players to assess orthopaedic burden. Body-part impairment (BPI) percentage for each affected joint was generated. The impairment data for each extremity were then combined with spine impairment data to create WPI percentage. Player demographics, including age, position, and playing time, were also recorded. The average WPI percentage was 37% (range, 19%-53%). Players participating in >30 games (n = 54) had a higher mean WPI percentage (38%) than those playing in <30 games (31%; n = 11) (P = .004). Players competing in >5 seasons (n = 46) were 2.4 times more likely to have a WPI of at least 37% (P = .007). The most common joints players reported as symptomatic were lumbar (n = 63; 97%) and cervical spine (n = 58; 89%). The mean age at evaluation was 33.5 years (range, 27-42 years), and the mean number of seasons played was 7.5 (range, 3-14 seasons). The mean number of games played

  14. Personal predictors of spectator aggression at little league baseball games.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Dwight A; Schwartz, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Parents from two baseball leagues completed questionnaires regarding their likelihood of engaging in various aggressive behaviors (yelling, swearing, shoving, fighting, humiliating) toward targets at youth baseball games (other spectators, umpires, coaches, other players, their child). Overall, the likelihood of all forms of aggression was very low, particularly physical aggression and swearing. Hierarchical entry stepwise regressions were calculated to determine predictors of yelling and humiliating using demographics, trait aggression, anger, hostility, and vengeance as predictors. Parents with greater hostility reported a greater likelihood of humiliating a child's teammate, while those with elevated trait anger reported a greater likelihood of yelling at other spectators. Finally, parents with a more vengeful attitude reported a greater likelihood of humiliating umpires.

  15. Manual laterality and hitting performance in major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Grondin, S; Guiard, Y; Ivry, R B; Koren, S

    1999-06-01

    Asymmetrical hand function was examined in the context of expert sports performance: hitting in professional baseball. An archival study was conducted to examine the batting performance of all Major League Baseball players from 1871 to 1992, focusing on those who batted left (n = 1,059) to neutralize the game asymmetry. Among them, left-handers (n = 421) were more likely to hit with power and to strike out than right-handers (n = 638). One possible account, based on the idea of hand dominance and an analogy to tennis, is that batting left involves a double-handed forehand for left-handers and a weaker and more reliable double-handed backhand for right-handers. The results are also interpretable in the light of Y. Guiard's (1987) kinematic chain model of a between-hands asymmetrical division of labor, which provides a detailed account of why left batting is optimal for left-handers.

  16. Aggression, Violence and Injury in Minor League Ice Hockey: Avenues for Prevention of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Ilie, Gabriela; Mullen, Sarah J.; Pauley, Christopher R.; Stulberg, Jennifer R.; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Background In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13–15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey. Results Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player’s social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players’ need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the players’ motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules. PMID:27258426

  17. Incidence and characteristics of injuries during the 2010 FELDA/FAM National Futsal League in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Mohamad Shariff A; Jaafar, Zulkarnain; Mohd Ali, Azril Syazwan

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, futsal is a popular sport played by individuals across all ages and genders. Despite its popularity, information on futsal related injury in Malaysia is not available. The purpose of this study is to examine the injury incidence and injury patterns among amateur men and women futsal players in Malaysia. Players reported injury to the tournament medical team during the FELDA/FAM National Futsal League 2010 were interviewed and assessed by a Sports Medicine registrar. Player's socio-demographic profiles and information about the injury were documented in the injury report form adapted from medical report form used by FIFA: Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-Marc). A total of 86 injuries were reported from 141 matches, equivalent to an incidence of 91.5 injuries per 1000 player hours (95% CI 72.2 to 110.8), or 61.0 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% CI 48.1 to 73.9). Most were minor injuries resulted from contact with another player. Injuries often involved the lower extremity (44%) followed by the trunk (14%) and the upper limb (13%). Ankle (n = 7; 39%) and knee (n = 6; 33%) sprains were the most prevalent diagnoses of time-loss injuries. A significant association between time-loss and type of injury was found χ2 (1,N = 86) = 3.99, p = 0.04. In addition, time-loss injury was significantly associated with playing surface χ2 (1,N = 86) = 10.11, p = 0.018. The injury rate during the FELDA/FAM National Amateur Futsal Men's League in Malaysia was lower compared with previous Futsal World Cups competition. Most injuries resulted from contact with another player were minor and did not lead to time-loss from participation. Time-loss injury was significantly associated with type of injury and playing surface.

  18. Functional outcomes following revision ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kristofer J; Conte, Stan; Patterson, Nancy; ElAttrache, Neal S; Dines, Joshua S

    2013-05-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding outcomes following revision ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. A single case series comprised of 4 MLB pitchers has reviewed outcomes in this cohort and reported a 75% rate of return to pitching. We hypothesize that MLB pitchers demonstrate a low rate of return to their pre-injury pitch workload following revision surgery. Clinical outcomes were reviewed with an emphasis on return to pre-injury pitch workload. Utilizing MLB player performance statistics, the postoperative pitch workload (appearances for relief pitchers and games started/innings pitched for starting pitchers) was calculated to determine if players were able to resume pre-injury throwing activity. Position-specific analyses for pitchers (starter vs relief) were also performed utilizing objective pitching statistics. Overall, 78% (14/18) of pitchers were able to return to MLB play within 2 full seasons. Relief pitchers were able to resume 50% of their pre-injury pitch workload, while starting pitchers only reached 35% of their prior workload (P = .52). Relievers demonstrated better pitching statistics (ERA [earned run average], K/9 [strikeouts per 9 innings], and BB/9 [walks per 9 innings]) when compared to starters. Two starting pitchers were reassigned to relief roles by their teams, resulting in improvement in their postoperative pitch workload (mean 94%). The overall rate of return to pre-injury pitch workload following revision UCL reconstruction is low among professional pitchers. Starting pitchers may be at higher risk for treatment failure in the revision setting, given the increased demands of the position, and may benefit from reassignment to a relief role. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A posterior ring apophyseal fracture and disc herniation in a 21-year-old competitive basketball player: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Deleo, Trevor; Merotto, Samuel; Smith, Colyn; D’Angelo, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the diagnosis and management of a competitive male basketball player with discogenic low back pain and presence of an old posterior ring apophyseal fracture (PRAF). This case will highlight the importance of early recognition and considerations regarding patient management for this differential of radiating low back pain. Clinical Features: A 21-year-old provincial basketball player presented with recurrent radiating low back pain into the left groin and lower limb. After several weeks of persistent symptoms including pain, muscle weakness, and changes in the Achilles deep tendon reflex, imaging was obtained that revealed a large disc extrusion with an old posterior ring apophyseal fracture. In collaboration with a spine surgeon and family physician, the patient was treated using a conservative, multimodal approach. Treatment consisted of graded mobilizations, spinal manipulative therapy, interferential current, and soft tissue therapy to the lumbar spine. Rehabilitation exercises focused on centralizing symptoms and improving strength, proprioception and function of the lower limb. After a period of 8 weeks, the patient was able to complete all activities of daily living without pain in addition to returning to basketball practice. Summary: PRAF is a unique condition in the immature spine and recent evidence suggests that those involved in sports requiring repetitive motion of the lumbar spine may be at increased risk. The astute clinician must consider this differential in young populations presenting with discogenic low back pain, as a timely diagnosis and necessary referral may allow for effective conservative management to reduce symptoms. Equally as important, one must be aware of the complications from PRAF as a contributing source of low back pain and dysfunction into adulthood. Knowing when to refer for advanced imaging and/or a surgical consult given the variable clinical presentation and prognosis is an essential component to care

  20. Scapular Resting Position and Gleno-Humeral Movement Dysfunction in Asymptomatic Racquet Players: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shimpi, Apurv P.; Bhakti, Shah; Roshni, Karnik; Rairikar, Savita A.; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Racquet sports, especially lawn tennis and badminton have been gaining popularity in Asian countries like India. With this increase in popularity, the injury rate in the sport has also increased. Objectives: The study will help detect the presence of gleno-humeral movement dysfunction and scapular resting position abnormality in asymptomatic racquet players, thus providing basis for screening the players and allow the clinician to determine if the asymmetry is a normal adaptation in the player or an abnormal change associated with injury. Materials and Methods: 46 asymptomatic professional players were divided into a study group of 23 players (16 tennis and 7 badminton) and control group of 23 football players. Assessment of passive gleno-humeral range of motion and distance of spine and inferior angle of scapula from corresponding spinous process were measured bilaterally and between groups. Results: There was statistically significant reduction in range of internal rotation (62.17 ± 8.09), extension (39.78 ± 4.12) and an increase in the external rotation (106.95 ± 7.49) of dominant compared to non-dominant arm of racquet players and a statistically significant decrease in internal rotation (78.69 ± 10.24), extension (44.78 ± 3.19), adduction (37.39 ± 6.54) and an increase in external rotation (102.6 ± 5.19) of dominant arm of racquet players compared to football players. Study also showed statistically significant increase in the spino-scapular distance at the level of inferior angle of scapula (10.23 ± 1.43) on dominant side compared to non-dominant. Conclusions: The dominant side scapula of asymptomatic racquet players showed increased external rotation and elevation as compared to the non-dominant side. Also, reduced shoulder internal rotation, extension and adduction and gain in shoulder external rotation was observed on the dominant side of racquet players when compared to the control group. PMID:26715968

  1. Rugby league injuries in New Zealand: a review of 8 years of Accident Compensation Corporation injury entitlement claims and costs.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Hume, P A; Milburn, P; Gianotti, S

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the epidemiology of rugby league injuries and associated costs in New Zealand requiring medical treatment. New Zealand national Accident Compensation Corporation injury data for the period 1999 to 2007 were searched for rugby league injury cases. Data were analysed by demographics, body region, nature/severity of injury, and medical procedure and costs. A total of 5941 injury entitlement claims were recorded over the study period with a significant decrease observed in the injury rate between the 1999-2000 and 2002-2003 reporting years. The total cost of the injuries for the study period was $42,822,048 (equivalent to pound15,916,072). The mean (SD) number of injury entitlement claims per year was 743 (271) and yearly cost was $5,352,760 (pound1,989,880) ($2,485,535 (pound923,994)). The knee was the most commonly reported injury site (225 per 1000 entitlement claims; $8,750,147 (pound3,252,020)) and soft tissue injuries were the most common injury types (474 per 1000 entitlement claims; $17,324,214 (pound6,438,599)). Accounting for only 1.8% of total injury entitlement claims, concussion/brain injuries accounted for 6.3% of injury entitlement costs and had the highest mean cost per claim ($25 347 (pound9420)). The upper and lower arm recorded the highest mean injury site claim cost of $43,096 (pound16,016) per claim. The 25-29 age group recorded 27.7% of total injury entitlement claims and 29.6% of total injury entitlement costs, which was slightly more than the 20-24 age group (27.3% claims; 24.7% costs). Nearly 15% of total moderate to serious injury entitlement claims and 20% of total costs were recorded from participants 35 years or older. This study identified that the knee was the most common injury site and soft tissue injuries were the most common injury type requiring medical treatment, which is consistent with other international studies on rugby league epidemiology. This study also highlights that the rate of injury and

  2. Failure of Internal Fixation for Painful Bipartite Navicular in Two Adolescent Soccer Players: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Niki, Hisateru; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Yamamoto, Yohei; Sasho, Takahisa

    Bipartite navicular bone is an uncommon condition that can cause midfoot pain in children and adolescents. No treatment methods, other than conservative management, have been reported. We report the cases of 2 adolescent soccer players who underwent internal fixation of the painful bipartite fragments, resulting in nonunion. After failure of conservative management, the patients underwent surgery. Curettage of the junction between the 2 bone fragments was performed, and autologous cancellous bone was grafted. Next, the fragments were fixed with variable-threaded screws. Bone union of the bipartite fragments was once achieved on computed tomography in both cases at 3 and 5 months after surgery, respectively. However, separation of the fragment occurred in both cases after the patients had returned to sports. Although the patients were able to return to sports activities, they still had mild midfoot pain 3 and 2 years after surgery, respectively. Internal fixation using screws and an autologous bone graft for painful bipartite navicular bone in adolescent athletes is not recommended, and other surgeries should be considered to achieve bony union. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.

  4. Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League soccer.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, V; Gregson, W; Atkinson, G; Tordoff, P; Drust, B

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to provide a detailed analysis of the high intensity running activity completed by elite soccer players during match-play. A further aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of high intensity running activity to overall team success. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on 563 outfield players (median of 8 games per player; range=1-57) competing in the English Premier League from 2003/2004 to 2005/2006 using a computerised tracking system (Prozone, Leeds, England). High intensity activities selected for analysis included total high intensity running distance (THIR), total sprint distance (TSD) and the number and type of sprints undertaken. Total high intensity running distance in possession and without possession of the ball was also analysed. The THIR was dependant upon playing position with wide midfield (1,049+/-106 m) and central defenders (681+/-128 m) completing the highest and lowest distance respectively (p<0.001). High intensity activity was also related to team success with teams finishing in the bottom five (919+/-128 m) and middle ten (917+/-143 m) league positions completing significantly more THIR compared with teams in the top five (885+/-113 m) (p=0.003). The THIR and TSD also significantly declined during the 2nd half with the greatest decrements observed in wide midfield and attacking players (p<0.05). Both positional differences in high intensity activity and the observed change in activity throughout the game were also influenced by team success (p<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that high intensity activity in elite soccer match-play is influenced by both playing position and previous activity in the game. These activity patterns are also dependant upon success of the team. This may indicate that overall technical and tactical effectiveness of the team rather than high levels of physical performance per se are more important in determining success

  5. Traumatic deep vein thrombosis in a soccer player: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Echlin, Paul S; Upshur, Ross EG; McKeag, Douglas B; Jayatilake, Harsha P

    2004-01-01

    A 42 year-old male former semi-professional soccer player sustained a right lower extremity popliteal contusion during a soccer game. He was clinically diagnosed with a possible traumatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and sent for confirmatory tests. A duplex doppler ultrasound was positive for DVT, and the patient was admitted to hospital for anticoagulation (unfractionated heparin, warfarin). Upon discharge from hospital the patient continued oral warfarin anticoagulation (six months), and the use of compression stockings (nine months). He followed up with his family doctor at regular intervals for serial coagulation measurements, and ultrasound examinations. The patient's only identified major thrombotic risk factor was the traumatic injury. One year after the initial deep vein thrombosis (DVT) the patient returned to contact sport, however he continued to have intermittent symptoms of right lower leg pain and right knee effusion. Athletes can develop vascular injuries in a variety of contact and non-contact sports. Trauma is one of the most common causes of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT), however athletic injuries involving lower extremity traumatic DVT are seldom reported. This diagnosis and the associated risk factors must be considered during the initial physical examination. The primary method of radiological diagnosis of lower extremity DVT is a complete bilateral duplex sonography, which can be augmented by other methods such as evidence-based risk factor analysis. Antithrombotic medication is the current standard of treatment for DVT. Acute thrombolytic treatment has demonstrated an improved therapeutic efficacy, and a decrease in post-DVT symptoms. There is a lack of scientific literature concerning the return to sport protocol following a DVT event. Athletic individuals who desire to return to sport after a DVT need to be fully informed about their treatment and risk of reoccurrence, so that appropriate decisions can be made. PMID:15485571

  6. Rehabilitation After Posterolateral Dislocation of the Elbow in a Collegiate Football Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Tim L.; Gould, Michelle; Gieck, Joe H.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe a functional rehabilitation program for a football player with a grade 2 posterolateral elbow dislocation to facilitate early return to competition. Background: Conservative management of a posterior dislocation of the elbow is common. The elbow is the second most frequently dislocated large joint in adults. Two common mechanisms of dislocation are hyperextension and posterolateral rotation. Prolonged immobilization can be detrimental to regaining full range of motion and function of the elbow, whereas early directed rehabilitation may lead to early return to normal function. Differential Diagnosis: Elbow dislocation with medial collateral ligament rupture, elbow subluxation, elbow dislocation with neurovascular compromise, or supracondylar fracture. Treatment: The athlete received immediate care of reduction and immobilization in a 90° posterior splint followed by a radiologic evaluation. Postreduction treatment included a short immobilization period and early initiation of protected active and resistive range-of-motion exercises. The athlete was able to return to full football activities in 3 weeks. He competed for the rest of the season with the elbow braced and taped, with no recurring incidents of instability. Uniqueness: The time to return to full participation was rapid. The medial collateral ligament was intact, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The athlete has since been followed for 2 football seasons and has not demonstrated any detrimental effects due to his early return. Conclusions: Early determination of the status of the medial collateral ligament through physical examination or imaging combined with early directed rehabilitation of a posterolateral elbow instability enabled this athlete to respond well. He regained pain-free full range of motion, strength, and function, allowing full participation in football at the Division I level with no recurring incidence of dislocation. Imagesp109-a PMID:16558601

  7. A Physiological Case Study of a Paralympic Wheelchair Tennis Player: Reflective Practise

    PubMed Central

    Diaper, Nicholas J.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the physiological changes caused by long-term training in a world class female tennis player in preparation for a major championship. Additionally, we aim to describe the training interventions and determine a suitable cooling strategy that was to be used at the 2004 Paralympic Games. The athlete underwent regular physiological assessment during 2003-2004. Physiological measures involved body composition, submaximal and peak oxygen uptake and key variables associated with maximal sprinting. In addition, a suitable match-play cooling intervention and hydration strategy was also explored. Body composition improved over the course of the study. Aerobic capacity fell by 21%, yet the submaximal physiological variables such as lactate profile and pushing economy improved. The trade off of aerobic capacity was perhaps noticeably counter-balanced with the maintenance of the peak sprinting speed and improvement found in the fatigue profile across ten repeated sprints. The extensive training programme was responsible for these changes and these adaptations resulted in a more confident athlete, in peak physical condition leading into the Paralympic Games. It is difficult to appreciate the extent to which this work had an impact on tennis performance given the skill requirements of wheelchair tennis and this warrants future attention. Key points Physiological adaptations were apparent over the two-year training period. The training emphasis resulted in a reduction in aerobic capacity, yet an improvement in repetitive sprint performance was seen leading into the Major competition. An effective cooling technique was identified that could be used during wheelchair tennis performance. The athlete and coaches were complimentary to the physiological support provided, which resulted in a more confident athlete at the Paralympic Games. PMID:24149542

  8. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Presenting in a High School Football Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, James C.; Rieger, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To alert athletic trainers to the signs and symptoms of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and its clinical presentation in order to facilitate immediate intervention. Background: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), also known as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, is a hemorrhagic disorder that is primarily immunologic in origin but is sometimes triggered by viral infection in children. It has also been associated with heroin and quinine drug use. A reduced platelet count can result in mucosal or deep tissue bleeding, or both, and most importantly, intracranial bleeding. Because football is a collision sport, it is imperative that any player presenting with ITP-type symptoms be removed immediately from all contact and referred to a physician. Differential Diagnosis: Leukemia, aplastic anemia, drug side effects, vitamin deficiency, kidney failure, infection, multiple contusions. Treatment: The traditional first-line treatment consists of corticosteroid medication and time and removal from all physical activities until the blood platelet count is normal and controlled. In quinine-induced ITP, discontinuation of the drug and bedrest are recommended to reduce the risk of major hemorrhage for a 12-to 14-hour period in order to allow the quinine to clear the system and the platelet count to return to normal. Uniqueness: ITP's presentation needs to be differentiated from other disorders. Incorrect diagnosis could seriously jeopardize the athlete, who could develop intracranial and internal bleeding. Conclusions: Recognition of the signs and symptoms associated with ITP is essential to prevent further participation by the athlete. Immediate intervention is needed to determine the severity and to institute appropriate treatment. PMID:16558523

  9. Return to play after chondroplasty of the knee in National Football League athletes.

    PubMed

    Scillia, Anthony J; Aune, Kyle T; Andrachuk, John S; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Fleisig, Glenn S; Andrews, James R

    2015-03-01

    Knee injuries, including articular cartilage damage, are common in football players and are potentially career threatening. The rate of return to play (RTP) as well as the factors affecting return after arthroscopic chondroplasty of the knee is performed in National Football League (NFL) athletes are not known. To determine the rate of return to regular season NFL competition after arthroscopic knee surgery including chondroplasty of articular cartilage lesions. In addition, identification of factors that influence successful return was investigated. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Athletes in the NFL who underwent arthroscopic chondroplasty at a single institution were identified. Retrospective chart review and review of the NFL online database were utilized to determine the rate of RTP and factors affecting an athlete's ability to return. Chi-square and Student t tests were used to assess differences among players who were and were not able to RTP, and logistic regression was employed to determine a player's odds of return. There were 52 patients (54 procedures) identified from the surgical database who met the inclusion criteria for the study operated on between August 1, 2001, and March 31, 2011. Of these players, 36 (67%) were able to return to regular season NFL game play at an average of 8.2 months, including 13 (24%) who were still active in the NFL. The average time to follow-up was 5.9 years, and all players were allowed at least 2 years of follow-up. There was no significant correlation of RTP to athlete age, lesion size, lesion location, position played, or round selected in the NFL draft. Players who underwent concomitant microfracture were 4.4 times less likely to return to the NFL than were those who did not undergo this procedure (95% CI, 1.3-15.5). Athletes who played more than 11.6 games per season were 4.7 times more likely to RTP than were those who played fewer games per season (95% CI, 1.4-16.6). Athletes who returned to play competed in 56

  10. Positional match demands of professional rugby league competition.

    PubMed

    Sirotic, Anita C; Knowles, Hayden; Catterick, Craig; Coutts, Aaron J

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in physical performance and game-specific skill demands between 5 positional groups in a professional rugby league team. Positional groups consisted of the backs (n = 8), forwards (n = 8), fullback (n = 7), hooker (n = 8), and service players (n = 8). Time-motion analysis was used to determine physical performance measures (exercise intensity, distance travelled, time, frequency, and speed measures) and game-specific skill measures (ball carries, supports, ball touches, play the balls, and tackling indices) per minute of playing time. The main finding was that the fullback completed more very high-intensity running (VHIR) because of more support runs when compared to all other positional groups (p = 0.017). THe VHIR (p = 0.004) and sprinting indices (p < 0.002) were also greater in the second half of a match for the fullback than in any other positional group. The hooker spent more time jogging than the backs and forwards (p < 0.001) and touched the ball on more occasions than any other positional group (p < 0.001). The backs spent more time walking than the forwards, hooker, and service players (p < 0.001). The forwards, hooker, and service players completed more tackles per minute during a match than the backs and fullback (p < 0.001). The fullback and forwards also ran the ball on more occasions than the backs, hooker, and service players did (p < 0.001). These results show that positional roles play an important part in determining the amount of physical and game-specific skill involvement during match play.

  11. Changes in rugby league tackling ability during a competitive season: the relationship with strength and power qualities.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Michael; Gabbett, Tim J; Greene, David A; Johnston, Rich D; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-06-29

    This study examined the relationship between changes in tackling ability, and muscular strength and power, during a semi-professional rugby league competitive season. Twelve semi-professional rugby league players (mean ± SD age, 23.3 ± 2.0 yr) underwent tests of upper- and lower-body strength and power during the preseason period. Tackling ability was tested using video analysis of a standardized one-on-one tackling drill. Players repeated these tests after round 15 of a 25 match competitive season. Changes in 1RM squat (rs = 0.70; p<0.02) and squat relative to body mass (rs = 0.73; p<0.01) were significantly related to changes in tackling ability. Players with the greatest improvements in tackling ability (i.e. "responders") retained 1RM squat (effect size, ES = 0.85, p=0.09) and squat relative to body mass (ES = 0.82, p=0.15) to a greater extent than the "non-responders". The results of this study suggest that players who retained lower-body strength were able to improve tackling ability during the competitive season, while reductions in lower-body strength were associated with decrements in tackling ability. This study highlights the importance of the development and maintenance of lower-body muscular strength for effective tackling performance throughout the rugby league season.

  12. The All-American Girls' Baseball League, 1943-1954.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Merrie A.

    This presentation provides an historical sketch of the All-American Girls' Baseball League (AAGBBL). The League was created in 1942 as the All-American Girls' Softball League, by Philip K. Wrigley. He initiated the League as a non-profit organization governed by a board of three trustees. Mr. Wrigley's basic motivation for creating the AAGSBL was…

  13. Activity and recovery profiles of state-of-origin and national rugby league match-play.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-03-01

    State-of-Origin is the highest standard of rugby league competition played anywhere in the world. This study investigated the activity profiles of State-of-Origin and compared them against regular National Rugby League (NRL) fixture matches. Video footage from State-of-Origin and NRL matches were coded for activity and recovery cycles. Time when the ball was continuously in play was considered activity, whereas any stoppages during matches were considered recovery. Ball-in-play periods in matches of different playing standards were analyzed by comparing State-of-Origin matches, NRL matches (with representative players available), and NRL matches (with representative players unavailable).