Science.gov

Sample records for leakage test evaluation

  1. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  2. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  3. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  4. EVALUATION OF LEAKAGE FROM FUME HOODS USING TRACER GAS, TRACER NANOPARTICLES AND NANOPOWDER HANDLING TEST METHODOLOGIES

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R.; Bennett, James S.; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 feet/minute) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust air flows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  5. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  6. LEAKAGE TESTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.

    1958-08-12

    A method of testing containers for leaks is described, particularly the testing of containers or cans in which the uranium slugs for nuelear reactors are jacketed. This method involves the immersion of the can in water under l50 pounds of pressure, then removing, drying, and coating the can with anhydrous copper sulfate. Amy water absorbed by the can under pressure will exude and discolor the copper sulfate in the area about the leak.

  7. Transport analysis of measured neutron leakage spectra from spheres as tests of evaluated high energy cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, D. D.; Shook, D. F.; Fieno, D.

    1973-01-01

    Integral tests of evaluated ENDF/B high-energy cross sections have been made by comparing measured and calculated neutron leakage flux spectra from spheres of various materials. An Am-Be (alpha,n) source was used to provide fast neutrons at the center of the test spheres of Be, CH2, Pb, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W. The absolute leakage flux spectra were measured in the energy range 0.5 to 12 MeV using a calibrated NE213 liquid scintillator neutron spectrometer. Absolute calculations of the spectra were made using version 3 ENDF/B cross sections and an S sub n discrete ordinates multigroup transport code. Generally excellent agreement was obtained for Be, CH2, Pb, and Mo, and good agreement was observed for Nb although discrepancies were observed for some energy ranges. Poor comparative results, obtained for Ta and W, are attributed to unsatisfactory nonelastic cross sections. The experimental sphere leakage flux spectra are tabulated and serve as possible benchmarks for these elements against which reevaluated cross sections may be tested.

  8. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  9. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section and §§ 178.346-5,...

  11. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section...

  12. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section and §§ 178.346-5,...

  13. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section and §§ 178.346-5,...

  14. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section and §§ 178.346-5,...

  15. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  16. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  17. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  18. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  19. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  20. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  1. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  2. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  3. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  4. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  5. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.348-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  6. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is equipped with vapor recovery equipment may be leakage tested in accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR...

  7. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.347-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  8. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... is equipped with vapor recovery equipment may be leakage tested in accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR...

  9. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.348-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  10. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.348-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  11. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... is equipped with vapor recovery equipment may be leakage tested in accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR...

  12. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.347-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  13. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.347-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  14. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.347-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  15. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.348-5 Section 178... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test....

  16. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is equipped with vapor recovery equipment may be leakage tested in accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR...

  17. Magnetic mechanisms of magnetic flux leakage nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanhua; Kang, Yihua

    2013-10-01

    The widely applied magnetic flux leakage (MFL) nondestructive testing for ferrous materials has been simply explained by "MFL escaping from defects and being induced is exactly the MFL testing principle," with a rough application for evaluation. Hence, we analyze the "escape" course of MFL generation using magnetic refraction and explain the reason why the MFL technology really exists in practice. Furthermore, we also point out that the presently so-called MFL testing technique essentially hides a different signal component arising from bump-shaped defects features unlike the MFL caused by concave-shaped ones, explained by another forming mechanism.

  18. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.348-5 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b)...

  19. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure and leakage test. 178.347-5 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b)...

  20. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  1. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  2. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  3. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  4. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  5. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those found in

  6. Expedient methods of respiratory protection. II. Leakage tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.W.; Hinds, W.C.; Price, J.M.; Weker, R.; Yee, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The following readily-available materials were tested on a manikin connected to a breathing simulator to determine the fraction of an approximately 2-..mu..m-diameter aerosol that would leak around the seal of the materials to the manikin's face: cotton/polyester shirt material, cotton handkerchief material, toweling (a wash cloth), a surgical mask (Johnson and Johnson Co., model HRI 8137), and a NIOSH-approved disposable face mask (3M, model number 8710). The leakage tests were performed to supplement the measurements of penetration through the materials, conducted as the first phase of this investigation. The leakage tests were performed with the materials held on to the face by three methods, leakage fractions being determined from comparisons with the penetration of the same aerosol for the materials fully taped to the face. At a breathing rate of 37 liters per minute, mean leakages ranged from 0.0 percent to 63 percent. Mean penetrations exclusive of leakage ranged from 0.6 percent to 39 percent. Use of nylon hosiery material (panty hose) to hold the handkerchief material or the disposable face mask to the face was found to be very effective in preventing leakage. Such a combination could be expected to reduce leakage around the handkerchief to about ten percent or less in practice, and around the mask to less than one percent, offering substantial protection from accidentally generated aerosols. The reduction in leakage around the mask provided by the hosiery material suggests the adaptation and use of such an approach in regular industrial hygiene practice. The third and final phase of this investigation is underway, in which the penetration of the materials by particles with diameters between 0.05 and 0.5 ..mu..m is being measured and the effectiveness of the methods for dose reduction in the presence of radioactive aerosols is being modeled.

  7. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR Part 60 (“Method 27—Determination of Vapor Tightness of Gasoline Delivery Tank...

  8. Evaluation through column leaching tests of metal release from contaminated estuarine sediment subject to CO₂ leakages from Carbon Capture and Storage sites.

    PubMed

    Payán, M Cruz; Galan, Berta; Coz, Alberto; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Viguri, Javier R

    2012-12-01

    The pH change and the release of organic matter and metals from sediment, due to the potential CO(2) acidified seawater leakages from a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) site are presented. Column leaching test is used to simulate a scenario where a flow of acidified seawater is in contact with recent contaminated sediment. The behavior of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, with liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and pH is analyzed. A stepwise strategy using empirical expressions and a geochemical model was conducted to fit experimental release concentrations. Despite the neutralization capacity of the seawater-carbonate rich sediment system, important acidification and releases are expected at local scale at lower pH. The obtained results would be relevant as a line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment, in an International context where strategies to mitigate the climate change would be applied.

  9. Method and apparatus for container leakage testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-02-14

    An apparatus is described for use in one-hundred percent leak testing of food containers used in conjunction with a tracer gas. The apparatus includes a shell with entrance and exit air locks to create a controlled atmosphere through which a series of containers is conveyed by a conveyor belt. The pressure in the shell is kept lower than the pressure in the containers and the atmosphere is made to flow with the containers so that a tracer gas placed in the packages before sealing them will leak more readily, but the leaked tracer gas will remain associated with the leaking package as it moves through the shell. The leaks are detected with a sniffer probe in fluid communication with a gas chromatograph. The gas chromatograph issues a signal when it detects a leak to an ejector that will eject the leaking container from the conveyor. The system is timed so that the series of containers can move continuously into and out of the shell, past the probe and the ejector, without stopping, yet each package is tested for leaks and removed if leaking. 3 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for container leakage testing

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for use in one-hundred percent leak testing of food containers used in conjunction with a tracer gas. The apparatus includes a shell with entrance and exit air locks to create a controlled atmosphere through which a series of containers is conveyed by a conveyor belt. The pressure in the shell is kept lower than the pressure in the containers and the atmosphere is made to flow with the containers so that a tracer gas placed in the packages before sealing them will leak more readily, but the leaked tracer gas will remain associated with the leaking package as it moves through the shell. The leaks are detected with a sniffer probe in fluid communication with a gas chromatograph. The gas chromatograph issues a signal when it detects a leak to an ejector that will eject the leaking container from the conveyor. The system is timed so that the series of containers can move continuously into and out of the shell, past the probe and the ejector, without stopping, yet each package is tested for leaks and removed if leaking.

  11. The SSME seal test program: Leakage tests for helically-grooved seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Helically grooved annular seal configurations were tested in highly turbulent flow to determine if reduced leakage and enhanced stability would result from the pumping action of the seal. It was found that: (1) leakage of a helically grooved seals decreases with running speed; (2) leakage reduction due to increased running speed is greater at lower values of R sub a; (3) an asymptote for leakage reduction is indicated with increasing running speed; (4) leakage is reduced by reducing the ridge (minimum) and average clearances; (5) leakage increases with increasing pitch angles and with increasing groove depth. Plain seals with smooth rotors and stators will leak more than a helically grooved seal. It was also found that plain seals with a rough rotor and a rough stator leak less than a properly designed helically grooved seal. A properly designed helically grooved seal consumes at least twice as much power as a conventional annular seal.

  12. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  13. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  14. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  16. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  18. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  20. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  1. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  2. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  3. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  4. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  6. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  7. Leakage testing of packagings with three-O-ring closure seals

    SciTech Connect

    Oras, J.J.; Towell, R.H.; Wangler, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    Both the American National Standard for Radioactive Materials--Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment (ANSI N14.5) and the ISO 12807:1996 Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials--Leakage Testing on Packages provide guidance for leakage rate testing to show that a particular packaging complies with regulatory requirements; both also provide guidance for determining appropriate acceptance criteria. Recent radioactive packaging designs have incorporated three-O-ring closure seals, the middle O-ring being the containment seal. These designs have the potential for false positive results in leakage rate tests. The volume between the containment O-ring and the inner O-ring is used for the helium gas required for the leakage rate tests, in order to reduce both the amount of helium used and the time required to conduct the tests. A leak detector samples the evacuated volume between the outer O-ring and the containment O-ring. False positive results can have two causes: a large leakage in the containment seal or leakage in the inner seal. This paper describes the problem, together with possible solutions and areas that should be addressed in a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) before a particular packaging design can be certified for transport. Ultimately, the SARP should provide justification that the requirements for leakage rate testing procedures, including the length of time needed to conduct the tests, will ensure that the containment closure seal is properly tested.

  8. 77 FR 14445 - Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... in the Federal Register on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11288) for a 60 days public comment period. The... COMMISSION Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide 7.4, ``Leakage Tests on Packages for...

  9. Solid oxidized fuel cells seals leakage setup and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.

    2004-01-01

    As the world s reserves of fossil fuels are depleted, the U.S. Government, as well as other countries and private industries, is researching solutions for obtaining power, answers that would be more efficient and environmentally friendly. For a long time engineers have been trying to obtain the benefits of clean electric power without heavy batteries or pollution-producing engines. While some of the inventions proved to be effective (i.e. solar panels or windmills) their applications are limited due to dependency on the energy source (i.e. sun or wind). Currently, as energy concerns increase, research is being carried out on the development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The United States government is taking a proactive role in expanding the technology through the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, which is coordinated by the Department of Energy. into an electrical energy. This occurs by the means of natural tendency of oxygen and hydrogen to chemically react. While controlling the process, it is possible to harvest the energy given off by the reaction. SOFCs use currently available fossil fuels and convert a variety of those fuels with very high efficiency (about 40% more efficient than modem thermal power plants). At the same time they are almost entirely nonpolluting and due to their size they can be placed in remote areas. The main fields where the application of the fuel cells appears to be the most useful for are stationary energy sources, transportation, and military applications. structure and materials must be resolved. All the components must be operational in harsh environments including temperatures reaching 800 C and cyclic thermal- mechanical loading. Under these conditions, the main concern is the requirement for hermetic seals to: (1) prevent mixing of the fuel and oxidant within the stack, (2) prevent parasitic leakage of the fuel from the stack, (3) prevent contamination of the anode by air leaking into the stack, (4

  10. Sensitivity of the house pressure test for duct leakage to variations in the distribution of air leakage in the house envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1998-12-01

    The house pressure test for air leakage in ducts calculates the signed difference between the supply and return leakage from the response of the air pressure in the house to operation of the system fan. The currently accepted version of this calculation was based on particular assumptions about how the house envelope leakage is distributed between the walls, ceiling, and floor. This report generalizes the equation to account for an arbitrary distribution of envelope leakage. It concludes that the currently accepted equation is usually accurate to within {+-}5%, but in a small proportion of cases the results may diverge by 50% or more.

  11. FIELD EVALUATION OF IMPROVED METHODS FOR MEASURING THE AIR LEAKAGE OF DUCT SYSTEMS UNDER NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS IN 51 HOMES

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Francisco; Larry Palmiter; Erin Kruse; Bob Davis

    2003-10-18

    Duct leakage in forced-air distribution systems has been recognized for years as a major source of energy losses in residential buildings. Unfortunately, the distribution of leakage across homes is far from uniform, and measuring duct leakage under normal operating conditions has proven to be difficult. Recently, two new methods for estimating duct leakage at normal operating conditions have been devised. These are called the nulling test and the Delta-Q test. Small exploratory studies have been done to evaluate these tests, but previously no large-scale study on a broad variety of homes has been performed to determine the accuracy of these new methods in the field against an independent benchmark of leakage. This sort of study is important because it is difficult in a laboratory setting to replicate the range of leakage types found in real homes. This report presents the results of a study on 51 homes to evaluate these new methods relative to an independent benchmark and a method that is currently used. An evaluation of the benchmark procedure found that it worked very well for supply-side leakage measurements, but not as well on the return side. The nulling test was found to perform well, as long as wind effects were minimal. Unfortunately, the time and difficulty of setup can be prohibitive, and it is likely that this method will not be practical for general use by contractors except in homes with no return ducts. The Delta-Q test was found to have a bias resulting in overprediction of the leakage, which qualitatively confirms the results of previous laboratory, simulation, and small-scale field studies. On average the bias was only a few percent of the air handler flow, but in about 20% of the homes the bias was large. A primary flaw with the Delta-Q test is the assumption that the pressure between the ducts and the house remain constant during the test, as this assumption does not hold true. Various modifications to the Delta-Q method were evaluated as

  12. Leakage test concerns for packagings with three-O-ring closure seals

    SciTech Connect

    Oras, J.J.; Towell, R.H.; Wangler, M.E.

    1997-07-01

    Recent radioactive packagings with three-O-ring closure seals, the middle O-ring being the containment seal, have the potential for false positive results from leakage rate tests. The volume between the containment O-ring and the inner O-ring is used for the helium gas required for the leakage rate tests, to reduce both the amount of helium used and the time for the tests. False positive results can be caused by either a large leakage in the containment sea/l or a leakage in the inner seal. This paper describes the problem, together with possible solutions/areas that need to be addressed in a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging.

  13. Continued Investigation of Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2007-01-01

    Seal leakage decreases with increasing surface speed due to reduced clearances from disk centrifugal growth. Annular and labyrinth seal leakage are 2-3 times greater than brush and finger seal leakage. Seal leakage rates increase with increasing temperature because of seal clearance growth due to different coefficients of thermal expansion between the seal and test disk. Seal power loss is not strongly affected by inlet temperature. Seal power loss increases with increasing surface speed, seal pressure differential, mass flow rate or flow factor, and radial clearance. The brush and finger seals had nearly the same power loss. Annular and labyrinth seal power loss were higher than finger or brush seal power loss. The brush seal power loss was the lowest and 15-30% lower than annular and labyrinth seal power loss.

  14. Numerical and experimental evaluation of a new low-leakage labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, D. L.; Ko, S. H.; Morrison, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a recently developed leakage model for evaluating new design features of most seals is demonstrated. A preliminary assessment of the present stator groove feature shows that it gives approximately a 20 percent leakage reduction with no shaft speed effects. Also, detailed distributions of predicted streamlines, axial velocity, relative pressure and turbulence energy enhance one's physical insight. In addition, the interesting measured effect of axial position of the rotor/stator pair on leakage rate and stator wall axial pressure distribution is examined.

  15. Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced brush and finger seal technologies offer reduced leakage rates over conventional labyrinth seals used in gas turbine engines. To address engine manufacturers concerns about the heat generation and power loss from these contacting seals, brush, finger, and labyrinth seals were tested in the NASA High Speed, High Temperature Turbine Seal Test Rig. Leakage and power loss test results are compared for these competing seals for operating conditions up to 922 K (1200 F) inlet air temperature, 517 KPa (75 psid) across the seal, and surface velocities up to 366 m/s (1200 ft/s).

  16. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America-funded research by teams and national laboratories that resulted in the development of an ASHRAE standard and a standardized testing method for testing the air leakage of HVAC air handlers and furnace cabinets and has spurred equipment manufacturers to tighten the cabinets they use for residential HVAC systems.

  17. Design and development of a helium injection system to improve external leakage detection during liquid nitrogen immersion tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Andrew; Mishra, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    The testing of assemblies for use in cryogenic systems commonly includes evaluation at or near operating (therefore cryogenic) temperature. Typical assemblies include valves and pumps for use in liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen rocket engines. One frequently specified method of cryogenic external leakage testing requires the assembly, pressurized with gaseous helium (GHe), be immersed in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and allowed to thermally stabilize. Component interfaces are then visually inspected for leakage (bubbles). Unfortunately the liquid nitrogen will be boiling under normal, bench-top, test conditions. This boiling tends to mask even significant leakage. One little known and perhaps under-utilized property of helium is the seemingly counter-intuitive thermodynamic property that when ambient temperature helium is bubbled through boiling LN2 at a temperature of -195.8 °C, the temperature of the liquid nitrogen will reduce. This paper reports on the design and testing of a novel proof-of-concept helium injection control system confirming that it is possible to reduce the temperature of an LN2 bath below boiling point through the controlled injection of ambient temperature gaseous helium and then to efficiently maintain a reduced helium flow rate to maintain a stabilized liquid temperature, enabling clear visual observation of components immersed within the LN2. Helium saturation testing is performed and injection system sizing is discussed.

  18. On the Fluid Leakage Rate and Pressure Evaluation of Abandoned Non-Penetrating Wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, J.; Zhan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding flow leakage through abandoned wells that are potential pathways of contamination due to injecting unwanted fluids in geologically deep storage aquifers have become an intensively investigated subject in the subsurface hydrology and petroleum engineering. This study represents a semi-analytical transient solution for estimating leakage rate by pressure change evaluation through an abandoned non-penetrating well (ANW) coupled with an injection well. The leakage rate can be estimated using the Darcy's law by evaluating pressure change between the upper and the lower aquifers through ANW. The analysis was conducted by solving the diffusivity equations of fluid flow in the aquifer coupled with the pipe flow through ANW. The single-phase flow is considered in this study that is capable of explaining both fluid and CO2 plume flow in an aquifer system by neglecting the variable density effect. The result is compared with that of Avci's (1994) which dealt with an abandoned fully penetrating well. The result indicates the similar type of curve trend, which is observed by applying a range of aquifer properties as well as distance between the injection and leakage pathway. The important finding is that the leakage rate through ANW is about 50% compared to the fully penetrating well of Avci's (1994). The sensitivity analyses indicate that parameter leakage coefficient (A), transmissivity ratio (TD) and radial distance (R) between injection and ANW are the most sensitive to the leakage rate and the rest of the parameters are less sensitive. Because of availability of limited analytical and complex numerical solution, this simple new approach is going to provide a simple means to estimate leakage flow for realistic field condition.

  19. Comparison of fluid filtration and bacterial leakage techniques for evaluation of microleakage in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saeed; Lomee, Mahdi; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apical leakage assessment is a way to compare the efficiency of a filling material to seal the apical region of the tooth. Many microleakage testing techniques have been introduced through the years, but there has been no agreement as to which technique gives the most accurate results. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of fluid filtration and bacterial leakage techniques in the assessment of the apical sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM). Materials and Methods: A sample of 34 extracted single-rooted human teeth were selected and prepared. The samples were divided in to 2 experimental groups. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected at 90° to its long axis and root end preparation was done with ultrasonic tips to a depth of 3 mm and filled with MTA and CEM, respectively. Assessment of apical sealing ability was done with fluid filtration technique and bacterial leakage technique along 90 days with Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. Mann-Whitney U-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). P less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was no significant difference in apical sealing ability between MTA and CEM in bacterial leakage and fluid filtration techniques. Samples which had bacterial leakage showed higher leakage values by fluid filtration technique. Conclusion: Both techniques showed same results and there was no significant difference between fluid filtration and bacterial leakage techniques in assessment of apical microleakage. PMID:25878674

  20. A harmonic pulse testing method for leakage detection in deep subsurface storage formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Alexander Y.; Lu, Jiemin; Hovorka, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Detection of leakage in deep geologic storage formations (e.g., carbon sequestration sites) is a challenging problem. This study investigates an easy-to-implement frequency domain leakage detection technology based on harmonic pulse testing (HPT). Unlike conventional constant-rate pressure interference tests, HPT stimulates a reservoir using periodic injection rates. The fundamental principle underlying HPT-based leakage detection is that leakage modifies a storage system's frequency response function, thus providing clues of system malfunction. During operations, routine HPTs can be conducted at multiple pulsing frequencies to obtain experimental frequency response functions, using which the possible time-lapse changes are examined. In this work, a set of analytical frequency response solutions is derived for predicting system responses with and without leaks for single-phase flow systems. Sensitivity studies show that HPT can effectively reveal the presence of leaks. A search procedure is then prescribed for locating the actual leaks using amplitude and phase information obtained from HPT, and the resulting optimization problem is solved using the genetic algorithm. For multiphase flows, the applicability of HPT-based leakage detection procedure is exemplified numerically using a carbon sequestration problem. Results show that the detection procedure is applicable if the average reservoir conditions in the testing zone stay relatively constant during the tests, which is a working assumption under many other interpretation methods for pressure interference tests. HPT is a cost-effective tool that only requires periodic modification of the nominal injection rate. Thus it can be incorporated into existing monitoring plans with little additional investment.

  1. Continued Investigation of Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2006-01-01

    Secondary seal leakage in jet engine applications results in power losses to the engine cycle. Likewise, seal power loss in jet engines not only result in efficiency loss but also increase the heat input into the engine resulting in reduced component lives. Experimental work on labyrinth and annular seals was performed at NASA Glenn Research Center to quantify seal leakage and power loss at various temperatures, seal pressure differentials, and surface speeds. Data from annular and labyrinth seals are compared with previous brush and finger seal test results. Data are also compared to literature. Annular and labyrinth seal leakage rates are 2 to 3 times greater than brush and finger seal rates. Seal leakage decreases with increasing speed but increases with increasing test temperature due to thermal expansion mismatch. Also seal power loss increases with surface speed, seal pressure differential, mass flow rate, and radial clearance. Annular and labyrinth seal power losses were higher than those of brush or finger seal data. The brush seal power loss was 15 to 30 percent lower than annular and labyrinth seal power loss.

  2. Space Station Freedom delta pressure leakage rate comparison test data analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, E. B.

    1992-01-01

    Results are provided of a series of tests performed to identify the relationship between gas leakage rates across a seal at various internal to external pressure ratios. The results complement and provide insight into the analysis technique used to obtain the results presented in MSFC SSF/DEV/EL91-008, 'Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) Seal Flaw Study with Delta Pressure Leak Rate Comparison Test Report.'

  3. Application of Harmonic Pulse Testing for Leakage Detection in Carbon Storage Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Lu, J.; Hovorka, S. D.; Kianinejad, A.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to enable a deep reduction in global CO2 emissions. Unintended migration of fluids from carbon storage formations not only compromises the goal of long-term carbon storage efficiency, but also leads to increased risks and liabilities. To fully characterize all attributes of leakage events (e.g., leak location and onset time), a leak detection tool must possess sufficient sensitivity and reliability. In this study, we demonstrate a novel leakage detection method based on harmonic pulse testing (HPT), in which a sinusoidal injection pattern is applied to probe potential leaks in carbon storage formations. Although HPT has been used for reservoir characterization, its efficacy for leakage detection requires further theoretical, numerical, and experimental validation. Our theoretical analysis and single- and multiphase modeling show that HPT is a viable and cost-effective method for pressure-based leakage diagnosis. Mega-scale laboratory experiments are being conducted using a 1-m diameter and 0.77m tall stainless tank to validate theoretical and numerical models. The results from numerical modeling, as well as from early experiments, will be presented.

  4. Comparison of Two Techniques for Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Along of a Glass Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Sadighpour, L.; Rezaei, S.; Geramipanah, F.; Mohammadi, M.; Choubchian, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contradictory results have been reported over microleakage studies of restorative materials and methods. Despite the number of publications on leakage there are few evidences comparing the different microleakage evaluation methods. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clearing technique and longitudinal sectioning in the evaluation of dye penetration along a glass fiber post. Materials and Methods: Fifteen single-rooted human teeth were endontically prepared and obturated with gutta percha points and a resin based sealer (AH26). A glass fiber post (Glassix) was cemented into each post space with a dual polymerizing resin cement (Varilink II) and the composite core (Tetric Ceram) was fabricated. Specimens were immersed in Indian ink solution for 72 hours after completion of 1500 cycles of thermal cycling. Then demineralized, cleared and evaluated for the deepest length of dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. Specimens were then cut longitudinally and the length of penetration was measured again by the same instrument. The mean difference of the penetrated length was analyzed by two methods using the paired t test and an analysis of correlation (α = 0.05). Results: No significant difference was found in the mean microleakage measured by the two methods (P= 0.07). Significant correlation was found between them (P=0.0001, r= 0.9) Conclusion: The clearing technique and longitudinal sectioning showed the same results in microleakage of Glassix post and composite core within the limitation of the present study. PMID:21998786

  5. Annular honeycomb seals: Test results for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients; comparisons to labyrinth and smooth configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Dara W.; Elrod, David; Hale, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Test results are presented for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients for seven honeycomb seals. All seals have the same radius, length, and clearance; however, the cell depths and diameters are varied. Rotordynamic data, which are presented, consist of the direct and cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and the direct damping coefficients. The rotordynamic-coefficient data show a considerable sensitivity to changes in cell dimensions; however, no clear trends are identifiable. Comparisons of test data for the honeycomb seals with labyrinth and smooth annular seals show the honeycomb seal had the best sealing (minimum leakage) performance, followed in order by the labyrinth and smooth seals. For prerotated fluid entering the seal, in the direction of shaft rotation, the honeycomb seal has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the labyrinth and smooth. For no prerotation, or fluid prerotation against shaft rotation, the labyrinth seal has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the smooth and honeycomb seals.

  6. Annular honeycomb seals: Test results for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients - Comparisons to labyrinth and smooth configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D.; Elrod, D.; Hale, K.

    1989-01-01

    Test results are presented for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients for seven honeycomb seals. All seals have the same radius, length, and clearance; however, the cell depths and diameters are varied. Rotordynamic data, which are presented, consist of the direct and cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and the direct damping coefficients. The rotordynamic-coefficient data show a considerable sensitivity to changes in cell dimensions; however, no clear trends are identifiable. Comparisons of test data for the honeycomb seals with labyrinth and smooth annular seals shows the honeycomb seal had the best sealing (minimum leakage) performance, followed in order by the labyrinth and smooth seals. For prerotated fluids entering the seal, in the direction of shaft rotation, the honeycomb seal has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the labyrinth and smooth. For no prerotation, or fluid prerotation against shaft rotation, the labyrinth seal has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the smooth and honeycomb seals.

  7. Thermal-hydraulic analysis for changing feedwater check valve leakage rate testing methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.; Harrell, J.

    1996-12-01

    The current design and testing requirements for the feedwater check valves (FWCVs) at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station are established from original licensing requirements that necessitate extremely restrictive air testing with tight allowable leakage limits. As a direct result of these requirements, the original high endurance hard seats in the FWCVs were modified with elastomeric seals to provide a sealing surface capable of meeting the stringent air leakage limits. However, due to the relatively short functional life of the elastomeric seals compared to the hard seats, the overall reliability of the sealing function actually decreased. This degraded performance was exhibited by frequent seal failures and subsequent valve repairs. The original requirements were based on limited analysis and the belief that all of the high energy feedwater vaporized during the LOCA blowdown. These phenomena would have resulted in completely voided feedwater lines and thus a steam environment within the feedwater leak pathway. To challenge these criteria, a comprehensive design basis accident analysis was developed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 thermal-hydraulic code. Realistic assumptions were used to more accurately model the post-accident fluid conditions within the feedwater system. The results of this analysis demonstrated that no leak path exists through the feedwater lines during the reactor blowdown phase and that sufficient subcooled water remains in various portions of the feedwater piping to form liquid water loop seals that effectively isolate this leak path. These results provided the bases for changing the leak testing requirements of the FWCVs from air to water. The analysis results also established more accurate allowable leakage limits, determined the real effective margins associated with the FWCV safety functions, and led to design changes that improved the overall functional performance of the valves.

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 180 - Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases B Appendix B to Part 180... Pt. 180, App. B Appendix B to Part 180—Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases For internal self-closing stop valve leakage...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 180 - Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases B Appendix B to Part 180... Pt. 180, App. B Appendix B to Part 180—Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases For internal self-closing stop valve leakage...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 180 - Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases B Appendix B to Part 180... Pt. 180, App. B Appendix B to Part 180—Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied Compressed Gases For internal self-closing stop valve leakage...

  11. Evaluation of Information Leakage via Electromagnetic Emanation and Effectiveness of Tempest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    It is well known that there is relationship between electromagnetic emanation and processing information in IT devices such as personal computers and smart cards. By analyzing such electromagnetic emanation, eavesdropper will be able to get some information, so it becomes a real threat of information security. In this paper, we show how to estimate amount of information that is leaked as electromagnetic emanation. We assume the space between the IT device and the receiver is a communication channel, and we define the amount of information leakage via electromagnetic emanations by its channel capacity. By some experimental results of Tempest, we show example estimations of amount of information leakage. Using the value of channel capacity, we can calculate the amount of information per pixel in the reconstructed image. And we evaluate the effectiveness of Tempest fonts generated by Gaussian method and its threshold of security.

  12. Biogeochemical Reactions in Response to CO2 Leakage in a Test Well in Newark Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Goldberg, D.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Takahashi, T.; Masterson, W.; Zakharova, N. V.; Clauson, K.; Umemoto, K.; Goddard, J.; Ai, S.

    2011-12-01

    Potential leakage of CO2 from deep intervals used for geological sequestration to shallow aquifers can have important negative impacts on drinking water resources, thus it is very important to understand the biogeochemical response to elevated CO2 plumes and develop diagnostic monitoring systems. An experimental injection, composed of one atmosphere partial pressure CO2, was conducted in fracture zones in a sand and clay aquifer in the Newark Basin and incubated for three weeks. The geophysical logging of the borehole and tracer tests using bromide and SF6 indicated a weak background ambient flow in the aquifer. Monitoring of groundwater parameters showed a decrease of pH from 8.2 to 6.1, in addition to silicate and carbonate dissolution, and the release of 16 trace metals, including iron, manganese, cobalt, zinc, nickel, and uranium. Changes in bacterial abundance and community diversity were also tracked in parallel with geochemical transitions. A bench incubation experiment in the laboratory has been designed to compare the mineral dissolution and trace metal release rates, as well as the microbial community' response to 1 and 5 bars of pCO2 under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. This research will provide criteria for site selection for geological CO2 sequestration, investigate the vulnerability of shallow aquifers to CO2 leakage, and develop the diagnostic testing techniques to assess risk.

  13. Accelerating Universe from Gravitational Leakage into Extra Dimensions: Testing with Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zong-Hong; Alcaniz, Jailson S.

    2005-02-01

    There is mounting observational evidence that the expansion of our universe is undergoing an acceleration. A dark energy component has usually been invoked as the most feasible mechanism for the acceleration. However, it is desirable to explore alternative possibilities motivated by particle physics before adopting such an untested entity. In this work, we focus our attention on an acceleration mechanism arising from gravitational leakage into extra dimensions. We test this scenario with high-z Type Ia supernovae compiled by Tonry and coworkers and recent measurements of the X-ray gas mass fractions in clusters of galaxies published by Allen and coworkers. A combination of the two databases gives, at a 99% confidence level, Ωm=0.29+0.04-0.02, Ωrc=0.21+/-0.08, and Ωk=-0.36+0.31-0.35, indicating a closed universe. We then constrain the model using the test of the turnaround redshift, zq=0, at which the universe switches from deceleration to acceleration. We show that, in order to explain that acceleration happened earlier than zq=0=0.6 within the framework of gravitational leakage into extra dimensions, a low matter density, Ωm<0.27, or a closed universe is necessary.

  14. Evaluating the Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, A.; Baldwin, M.; Burckle, L.; Anderson, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis (SALH; Matsumoto et al., 2002; Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 10.1029/2001GB001442) posits that lower atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during glacial times resulted from a net transfer of dissolved silicic acid from the Southern Ocean to the tropics, coupled with a corresponding shift in phytoplankton taxa in tropical waters toward a greater dominance by diatoms (relative to today). If valid, then the SALH requires that opal burial rates in the Southern Ocean were lower than today during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), while contemporary opal burial rates in tropical regions were greater than today. Previous studies in the Indian and Atlantic sectors of the Southern Ocean have shown little to no net change between the LGM and the Holocene when opal burial rates are integrated across Subantarctic and Antarctic zones. This study aims to test a sub-hypothesis suggested by Chase et al. (Deep-Sea Research-II, v.50, 2003, 799-832) that silicic acid was exported only out of the Pacific sector. Piston cores from the SW Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean were analyzed to determine opal burial fluxes. Magnetic susceptibility and Eucampia antarctica abundances were used to determine glacial cycles and identify cores containing both LGM and Holocene sediment. Fluxes of opal, calcium carbonate, and lithogenic material were evaluated by normalizing to 230Th to correct for sediment focusing. Our results show opal flux at, and to the south of, the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) to have been lower during the LGM compared to the Holocene, consistent with previous results from throughout the Southern Ocean. North of the APF, two cores show higher opal fluxes during the LGM. However, due to a possible hiatus in one of the cores, the degree to which opal flux during the LGM was greater than during the Holocene has a large uncertainty. Additional analyses are planned to help reduce this uncertainty.

  15. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Leakage in Multiple Enteric Inflammation Models in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Vicuña, Eduardo A.; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Téllez, Guillermo I.; Hargis, Billy M.; Bielke, Lisa R.

    2015-01-01

    Enteric inflammation models can help researchers’ study methods to improve health and performance and evaluate various growth promoters and dietary formulations targeted to improve performance in poultry. Oral administration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d; 3–5 kDa) and its pericellular mucosal epithelial leakage are an established marker to evaluate enteric inflammation in multiple species. The present study evaluated different methods to induce gut inflammation in poultry based on FITC-d leakage. Four independent experiments were completed with different inflammation treatment groups, and serum FITC-d and/or retention of FITC-d in GI tract were determined. In experiment 1 (n = 10 birds/treatment, broilers, processed at 14 days), groups included control (CON), dextran sodium sulfate (DSS; drinking water at 0.75%) and feed restriction (FRS; 24 h before processing). Experiment 2 (n = 14 birds/treatment, leghorns, processed at 7 days) included CON, DSS, FRS, and rye-based diet (RBD). In experiments 3 and 4 (n = 15 birds/treatment, broilers, processed at 7 days), groups were CON, DSS, high fat diet (HFD), FRS, and RBD. In all experiments, FRS and RBD treatments showed significantly higher serum FITC-d levels compared to the respective CON. This indicates that FRS and RBD results in disruption of the intact barrier of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), resulting in increased gut permeability. DSS and HFD groups showed elevation of serum FITC-d levels although the magnitude of difference from respective CON was inconsistent between experiments. FRS was the only treatment which consistently showed elevated retention of FITC-d in GIT in all experiments. The results from present studies showed that FRS and RBD, based on serum FITC-d levels, can be robust models to induce gut leakage in birds in different age and species/strains. PMID:26697435

  16. Evaluation of microgap size and microbial leakage in the connection area of 4 abutments with Straumann (ITI) implant.

    PubMed

    Rismanchian, Mansoor; Hatami, Mahnaz; Badrian, Hamid; Khalighinejad, Navid; Goroohi, Hossein

    2012-12-01

    A microgap between implant and abutment can lead to mechanical and biological problems such as abutment screw fracture and peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate microgap size and microbial leakage in the connection area of 4 different abutments to ITI implants. In this experimental study, 36 abutments in 4 groups (including Cast On, Castable, Solid, and Synocta abutments) connected to Straumann fixtures (with their inner part inoculated with bacterial suspension) and microbial leakage were assessed at different times. The size of the microgap in 4 randomized locations was then measured by scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and by 1-way variance statistical test, Kruskal-Wallis, and their supplementary tests (Mann-Whitney HSD and Tukey's; α = .05) at the next step. The effect of using different types of abutments was significant on the mean microgap size (P < .001) and on the mean number of leaked colonies (CFU/mL) through the connection area of the implant and abutment within the first 5 hours of the experiment (P = .012); however, it did not significantly influence microleakage at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 14 days (P = .145). Using Synocta abutments compared with Solid abutments will not provide us with more accommodation, and vice versa. Using Solid and Synocta abutments can significantly decrease the microgap size; however, Cast On abutments do not show a significant difference in terms of microgap compared with Castable abutments. Microleakage in the connection area is comparable for these 4 abutments.

  17. Application of Buckmaster Electrolyte Ion Leakage Test to Woody Biofuel Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Thomas F; Dooley, James H

    2014-08-28

    In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring the change in electrical conductivity over time. We adapted the Buckmaster method to a range of woody biomass and other cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. Our experimental results suggest differences of electrolyte leakage between differently processed woody biomass particles may be an indicator of their utility for conversion in bioenergy processes. This simple assay appears to be particularly useful to compare different biomass comminution techniques and particle sizes for biochemical preprocessing.

  18. Space Station Freedom seal leakage rate analysis and testing summary: Air leaks in ambient versus vacuum exit conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P. I.; Markovitch, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report is intended to reveal the apparent relationship of air seal leakage rates between 2 atmospheres (atm) to 1 atm and 1 atm to vacuum conditions. Gas dynamics analysis is provided as well as data summarizing the MSFC test report, 'Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) Seal Flaw Study With Delta Pressure Leak Rate Comparison Test Report'.

  19. Microbial Stimulation and Succession following a Test Well Injection Simulating CO₂ Leakage into a Shallow Newark Basin Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    O’Mullan, Gregory; Dueker, M. Elias; Clauson, Kale; Yang, Qiang; Umemoto, Kelsey; Zakharova, Natalia; Matter, Juerg; Stute, Martin; Takahashi, Taro; Goldberg, David

    2015-01-01

    In addition to efforts aimed at reducing anthropogenic production of greenhouse gases, geological storage of CO2 is being explored as a strategy to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas emission and mitigate climate change. Previous studies of the deep subsurface in North America have not fully considered the potential negative effects of CO2 leakage into shallow drinking water aquifers, especially from a microbiological perspective. A test well in the Newark Rift Basin was utilized in two field experiments to investigate patterns of microbial succession following injection of CO2-saturated water into an isolated aquifer interval, simulating a CO2 leakage scenario. A decrease in pH following injection of CO2 saturated aquifer water was accompanied by mobilization of trace elements (e.g. Fe and Mn), and increased bacterial cell concentrations in the recovered water. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence libraries from samples collected before and after the test well injection were compared to link variability in geochemistry to changes in aquifer microbiology. Significant changes in microbial composition, compared to background conditions, were found following the test well injections, including a decrease in Proteobacteria, and an increased presence of Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and microbial taxa often noted to be associated with iron and sulfate reduction. The concurrence of increased microbial cell concentrations and rapid microbial community succession indicate significant changes in aquifer microbial communities immediately following the experimental CO2 leakage event. Samples collected one year post-injection were similar in cell number to the original background condition and community composition, although not identical, began to revert toward the pre-injection condition, indicating microbial resilience following a leakage disturbance. This study provides a first glimpse into the in situ successional response of microbial communities to CO2 leakage after subsurface

  20. Evaluation and Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... University of Utah Research News Make a Difference Evaluation + Tests Print This Page Before diagnosing peripheral neuropathy, ... from any type of neuropathy or neurological disorder. Evaluation A neurological evaluation consists of a physical exam ...

  1. Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Following Different Obturation Techniques and in-vitro Evalution Using Methylene Blue Dye Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rachit; Sharma, Medhavi; Sharma, Deepak; Raisingani, Deepak; Vishnoi, Suchita; Singhal, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronal and apical leakage still remains one of the most important cause for endodontic failure in spite of the presence of advanced endodontic materials. The cause may attribute to different filling techniques, physical and chemical properties of sealers and presence or absence of smear layer assessment of coronal or apical leakage is used as a research method to compare the sealing ability of different techniques and endodontic materials. Aim To compare the coronal bacterial leakage using methylene blue in four different obturation techniques after protaper hand instrumentation. Materials and Methods Ninety extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented to an apical preparation size F3 Protaper hand files. Twenty teeth were randomly obturated with lateral compaction, 20 with vertical compaction, 20 with combination of vertical and lateral compaction and 20 with Thermafil. Ten teeth were used for positive and negative controls (five teeth in each group). Teeth were kept in 100% humidity for 90 days, and then subjected coronally to Proteus vulgaris for 21 days to assess bacterial leakage. After bacterial challenge, methylene blue was placed coronally for another 21 days, and then scoring was done according to depth of dye leakage. Chi-square test was done for statistical analysis. Results Leakage as observed with combination of vertical and lateral compaction was significantly less than vertical compaction, lateral compaction and thermafil carriers during bacterial challenge. However, when dye was used it also showed statistically significant results with thermafil carriers showing the least leakage in comparison to vertical condensation, lateral condensation and combined groups. Conclusion The study concludes that two different methods i.e. bacterial and dye leakage revealed considerable variation on the same substrate Thus, due to the presence of variability among the results obtained by two different analytical methods used in the present study

  2. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix includes two options, A and B, either of..., and systems and components which penetrate containment of water-cooled power reactors, and establish... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix includes two options, A and B, either of..., and systems and components which penetrate containment of water-cooled power reactors, and establish... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix includes two options, A and B, either of..., and systems and components which penetrate containment of water-cooled power reactors, and establish... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix includes two options, A and B, either of..., and systems and components which penetrate containment of water-cooled power reactors, and establish... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix includes two options, A and B, either of..., and systems and components which penetrate containment of water-cooled power reactors, and establish... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water...

  7. Laboratory faceseal leakage evaluation of n95 filtering facepiece respirators against nanoparticles and "all size" particles.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Bergman, Michael S; Eimer, Benjamin C; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are used for respiratory protection in some workplaces handling engineered nanomaterials. Previous NIOSH research has focused on filtration performance against nanoparticles. This article is the first NIOSH study using human test subjects to compare N95 FFR faceseal leakage (FSL) performance against nanoparticles and "all size" particles. In this study, estimates of FSL were obtained from fit factor (FF) measurements from nine test subjects who participated in previous fit-test studies. These data were analyzed to compare values obtained by: 1) using the PortaCount Plus (8020A, TSI, Inc., MN, USA) alone (measureable particle size range 20 nm to > 1,000 nm, hereby referred to as the "all size particles test"), and 2) using the PortaCount Plus with N95-Companion(TM) accessory (8095, TSI, Inc., Minn.) accessory (negatively charged particles, size range ∼40 to 60 nm, hereby referred to as the "nanoparticles test"). Log-transformed FF values were compared for the "all size particles test" and "nanoparticles test" using one-way analysis of variance tests (significant at P < 0.05). For individual FFR models, geometric mean (GM) FF using the "nanoparticles test" was the same or higher than the GM FFs using "all size particles test." For all three FFR models combined, GM FF using the "nanoparticles test" was significantly higher than the GM FF using "all size particles test" (P < 0.05). These data suggest that FSL for negatively charged ∼40-60 nm nanoparticles is not greater than the FSL for the larger distribution of charged and uncharged 20 to > 1,000 nm particles. PMID:23927376

  8. Evaluation of Apical Micro-leakage of Different Endodontic Sealers in the Presence and Absence of Moisture

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Maryam; Dehghani, Atena; Abesi, Farida; Khafri, Soraya; Ghadiri Dehkordi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. With availability of hydrophilic sealers, drying of the canals before endodontic obturation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the apical micro-leakage of AH26, Excite DSC, MTA Fillapex, and ZOE sealers in dry and moist root canals. Materials and methods. This experimental study was performed on 90 extracted maxillary central incisors. Rotary files were used for preparation of the canals. Root canals were filled with a single gutta percha cone, using one of the four sealers, under dry and moist root canal conditions (10 teeth in each group). Orifices were sealed with glue wax and all root surfaces were covered with nail polish except the positive control group. After ten days in 100% humidity, teeth were placed in methylene blue, and then were cut in longitudinal axis. Blue color permeability was measured by stereomicroscope in micrometers. Data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test using SPSS V.18 software at P < 0.05. Results. Mean apical micro-leakage was significantly lower in the dry groups (P < 0.001). Minimum and maximum micro-leakage was seen in AH26 and ZOE, respectively. MTA Fillapex did not exhibit a significant difference in apical micro-leakage between dry and moist conditions (P > 0.05). Apical micro-leakage was significantly higher in the Excite DSC groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion. AH26 provided the least apical micro-leakage under dry conditions while ZOE had the highest micro-leakage under moist conditions. MTA Fillapex provided acceptable apical seal regardless of moisture. PMID:25346829

  9. Evaluation of Apical Micro-leakage of Different Endodontic Sealers in the Presence and Absence of Moisture.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Dehghani, Atena; Abesi, Farida; Khafri, Soraya; Ghadiri Dehkordi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. With availability of hydrophilic sealers, drying of the canals before endodontic obturation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the apical micro-leakage of AH26, Excite DSC, MTA Fillapex, and ZOE sealers in dry and moist root canals. Materials and methods. This experimental study was performed on 90 extracted maxillary central incisors. Rotary files were used for preparation of the canals. Root canals were filled with a single gutta percha cone, using one of the four sealers, under dry and moist root canal conditions (10 teeth in each group). Orifices were sealed with glue wax and all root surfaces were covered with nail polish except the positive control group. After ten days in 100% humidity, teeth were placed in methylene blue, and then were cut in longitudinal axis. Blue color permeability was measured by stereomicroscope in micrometers. Data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test using SPSS V.18 software at P < 0.05. Results. Mean apical micro-leakage was significantly lower in the dry groups (P < 0.001). Minimum and maximum micro-leakage was seen in AH26 and ZOE, respectively. MTA Fillapex did not exhibit a significant difference in apical micro-leakage between dry and moist conditions (P > 0.05). Apical micro-leakage was significantly higher in the Excite DSC groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion. AH26 provided the least apical micro-leakage under dry conditions while ZOE had the highest micro-leakage under moist conditions. MTA Fillapex provided acceptable apical seal regardless of moisture. PMID:25346829

  10. Evaluation of Apical Micro-leakage of Different Endodontic Sealers in the Presence and Absence of Moisture.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Dehghani, Atena; Abesi, Farida; Khafri, Soraya; Ghadiri Dehkordi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. With availability of hydrophilic sealers, drying of the canals before endodontic obturation is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to compare the apical micro-leakage of AH26, Excite DSC, MTA Fillapex, and ZOE sealers in dry and moist root canals. Materials and methods. This experimental study was performed on 90 extracted maxillary central incisors. Rotary files were used for preparation of the canals. Root canals were filled with a single gutta percha cone, using one of the four sealers, under dry and moist root canal conditions (10 teeth in each group). Orifices were sealed with glue wax and all root surfaces were covered with nail polish except the positive control group. After ten days in 100% humidity, teeth were placed in methylene blue, and then were cut in longitudinal axis. Blue color permeability was measured by stereomicroscope in micrometers. Data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test using SPSS V.18 software at P < 0.05. Results. Mean apical micro-leakage was significantly lower in the dry groups (P < 0.001). Minimum and maximum micro-leakage was seen in AH26 and ZOE, respectively. MTA Fillapex did not exhibit a significant difference in apical micro-leakage between dry and moist conditions (P > 0.05). Apical micro-leakage was significantly higher in the Excite DSC groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion. AH26 provided the least apical micro-leakage under dry conditions while ZOE had the highest micro-leakage under moist conditions. MTA Fillapex provided acceptable apical seal regardless of moisture.

  11. Novel designed magnetic leakage testing sensor with GMR for image reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasamoto, Akira; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2012-04-01

    Authors had developed an image reconstruction algorithm that can accurately reconstruct images of flaws from data obtained using conventional ECT sensors few years ago. The developed reconstruction algorithm is designed for data which is assumed to be obtained with spatial uniform magnetic field on the target surface. On the other hand, the conventional ECT sensor author used is designed in such a manner that when the magnetic field is imposed on the target surface, the strength of the magnetic field is maximized. This violation of the assumption ruins the algorithm simplicity because it needs to employ complemental response functions called"LSF"for long line flaw which is not along original algorithm design.In order to obtain an experimental result which proves the validity of original algorithm with only one response function, the authors have developed a prototype sensor for magnetic flux leakage testing that satisfy the requirement of original algorithm last year. The developed sensor comprises a GMR magnetic field sensor to detect a static magnetic field and two magnets adjacent to the GMR sensor to magnetize the target specimen. However, obtained data had insufficient accuracy due to weakness of the strength of the magnet. Therefore author redesigned it with much stronger magnet this year. Obtained data with this new sensor shows that the algorithm is most likely to work well with only one response function for this type probe.

  12. Inward Leakage Variability between Respirator Fit Test Panels – Part I. Deterministic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Liu, Yuewei; Coffey, Christopher C.; Miller, Colleen; Szalajda, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Inter-panel variability has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the variability between different anthropometric panels used to determine the inward leakage (IL) of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs). A total of 144 subjects, who were both experienced and non-experienced N95 FFR users, were recruited. Five N95 FFRs and five N95 EHRs were randomly selected from among those models tested previously in our laboratory. The PortaCount Pro+ (without N95-Companion) was used to measure IL of the ambient particles with a detectable size range of 0.02 to 1 μm. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard fit test exercises were used for this study. IL test were performed for each subject using each of the 10 respirators. Each respirator/subject combination was tested in duplicate, resulting in a total 20 IL tests for each subject. Three 35-member panels were randomly selected without replacement from the 144 study subjects stratified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health bivariate panel cell for conducting statistical analyses. The geometric mean (GM) IL values for all 10 studied respirators were not significantly different among the three randomly selected 35-member panels. Passing rate was not significantly different among the three panels for all respirators combined or by each model. This was true for all IL pass/fail levels of 1%, 2%, and 5%. Using 26 or more subjects to pass the IL test, all three panels had consistent passing/failing results for pass/fail levels of 1% and 5%. Some disagreement was observed for the 2% pass/fail level. Inter-panel variability exists, but it is small relative to the other sources of variation in fit testing data. The concern about inter-panel variability and other types of variability can be alleviated by properly selecting: pass/fail level (IL 1–5%); panel size (e.g., 25 or 35); and minimum number of subjects

  13. Inward Leakage Variability between Respirator Fit Test Panels - Part I. Deterministic Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Liu, Yuewei; Coffey, Christopher C; Miller, Colleen; Szalajda, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Inter-panel variability has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the variability between different anthropometric panels used to determine the inward leakage (IL) of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs). A total of 144 subjects, who were both experienced and non-experienced N95 FFR users, were recruited. Five N95 FFRs and five N95 EHRs were randomly selected from among those models tested previously in our laboratory. The PortaCount Pro+ (without N95-Companion) was used to measure IL of the ambient particles with a detectable size range of 0.02 to 1 μm. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard fit test exercises were used for this study. IL test were performed for each subject using each of the 10 respirators. Each respirator/subject combination was tested in duplicate, resulting in a total 20 IL tests for each subject. Three 35-member panels were randomly selected without replacement from the 144 study subjects stratified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health bivariate panel cell for conducting statistical analyses. The geometric mean (GM) IL values for all 10 studied respirators were not significantly different among the three randomly selected 35-member panels. Passing rate was not significantly different among the three panels for all respirators combined or by each model. This was true for all IL pass/fail levels of 1%, 2%, and 5%. Using 26 or more subjects to pass the IL test, all three panels had consistent passing/failing results for pass/fail levels of 1% and 5%. Some disagreement was observed for the 2% pass/fail level. Inter-panel variability exists, but it is small relative to the other sources of variation in fit testing data. The concern about inter-panel variability and other types of variability can be alleviated by properly selecting: pass/fail level (IL 1-5%); panel size (e.g., 25 or 35); and minimum number of subjects

  14. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  15. Inward leakage variability between respirator fit test panels - Part II. Probabilistic approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuewei; Zhuang, Ziqing; Coffey, Christopher C; Rengasamy, Samy; Niezgoda, George

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the variability between different anthropometric panels in determining the inward leakage (IL) of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs). We enrolled 144 experienced and non-experienced users as subjects in this study. Each subject was assigned five randomly selected FFRs and five EHRs, and performed quantitative fit tests to measure IL. Based on the NIOSH bivariate fit test panel, we randomly sampled 10,000 pairs of anthropometric 35 and 25 member panels without replacement from the 144 study subjects. For each pair of the sampled panels, a Chi-Square test was used to test the hypothesis that the passing rates for the two panels were not different. The probability of passing the IL test for each respirator was also determined from the 20,000 panels and by using binomial calculation. We also randomly sampled 500,000 panels with replacement to estimate the coefficient of variation (CV) for inter-panel variability. For both 35 and 25 member panels, the probability that passing rates were not significantly different between two randomly sampled pairs of panels was higher than 95% for all respirators. All efficient (passing rate ≥80%) and inefficient (passing rate ≤60%) respirators yielded consistent results (probability >90%) for two randomly sampled panels. Somewhat efficient respirators (passing rate between 60% and 80%) yielded inconsistent results. The passing probabilities and error rates were found to be significantly different between the simulation and binomial calculation. The CV for the 35-member panel was 16.7%, which was slightly lower than that for the 25-member panel (19.8%). Our results suggested that IL inter-panel variability exists, but is relatively small. The variability may be affected by passing level and passing rate. Facial dimension-based fit test panel stratification was also found to have significant impact on inter-panel variability, i.e., it can reduce alpha

  16. Groundwater modeling to evaluate interaquifer leakage in the Floridan aquifer system near Hunter Army Airfield and Fort Stewart

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations using a modified regional groundwater- flow model were used to determine the amount of leakage from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) through the Lower Floridan confining unit (LFC) into the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) resulting from pumping about 1 million gallons per day at newly constructed LFA production wells at Hunter Army Airfield and Fort Stewart in coastal Georgia. Simulated steadystate drawdown at each of the LFA production wells closely matched observed drawdown during a 72-hour aquifer test with the observed water levels reaching steady-state by the end of the test period. However, simulated drawdown was greater than observed drawdown in the UFA because of the short duration of the aquifer test and the time required for groundwater movement through the LFC into the LFA. Steadystate simulations provide an estimate of leakage based on the long-term continuous operation of each production well. Results of model simulations indicate that interaquifer leakage accounts for 48 percent of the flow to the well at Hunter Army Airfield, and 98 percent of the flow to the well at Fort Stewart. Simulated results near the Hunter Army Airfield production well indicated that 65 percent of the leakage from the UFA to the LFA occurs within a 1-mile radius, whereas simulated results near the Fort Stewart production well indicated 80-percent leakage from the UFA to the LFA within the same radius. The greater amount of leakage to the production well near Fort Stewart can be attributed to the higher transmissivity of the UFA and higher vertical hydraulic conductivity in the LFC near the well.

  17. Blood flow speed of the gastric conduit assessed by indocyanine green fluorescence: New predictive evaluation of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Kazuo; Ozawa, Soji; Oguma, Junya; Kazuno, Akihito; Yamazaki, Yasushi; Ninomiya, Yamato; Ochiai, Hiroki; Tachimori, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Anastomotic leakage is considered as an independent risk factor for postoperative mortality after esophagectomy, and an insufficient blood flow in the reconstructed conduit may be a risk factor of anastomotic leakage. We investigated the clinical significance of blood flow visualization by indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence in the gastric conduit as a means of predicting the leakage of esophagogastric anastomosis after esophagectomy.Forty patients who underwent an esophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction were prospectively investigated. ICG fluorescence imaging of the gastric conduit was detected by a near-infrared camera system during esophagectomy and correlated with clinical parameters or surgical outcomes.In 25 patients, the flow speed of ICG fluorescence in the gastric conduit wall was simultaneous with that of the greater curvature vessels (simultaneous group), whereas in 15 patients this was slower than that of the greater curvature vessels (delayed group). The reduced speed of ICG fluorescence stream in the gastric conduit wall was associated with intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.008). Although anastomotic leakage was not found in the simultaneous group, it occurred in 7 patients of the delayed group (P < 0.001). A flow speed of ICG fluorescence in the gastric conduit wall of 1.76 cm/s or less was determined by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, identified as a significant independent predictor of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy (P = 0.004).This preliminary study demonstrates that intraoperative evaluation of blood flow speed by ICG fluorescence in the gastric conduit wall is a useful means to predict the risk of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy. PMID:27472732

  18. Leakage evaluation of original and compatible implant–abutment connections: In vitro study using Rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    Tehini, George; Rifai, Khaldoun; Bou Nasser Eddine, Farah; Badran, Bassam; Akl, Haidar

    2014-01-01

    Leakage has been addressed as a major contributing factor to inflammatory reactions at the implant–abutment connection, leading to problems such as oral malodor, inflammation, and marginal bone loss. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the leakage at implant–abutment interface of OsseoSpeed™ implants connected to original and compatible abutments. A total of 28 OsseoSpeed implants were divided into four groups (n = 7). Each group was connected to four different abutments according to manufacturers’ recommendations: group A (TiDesign™); group B (Natea™); group C (Dual™); and group D (Implanet™) abutments. The inner volume of each implant–abutment combination was calculated and leakage was detected for each group with spectrophotometric analysis at 1 h (D0) and 48 h (D1) of incubation time using Rhodamine B. At 1 h, leakage volume was significantly lower in TiDesign and Dual than in Natea and Implanet (P < 0.001). At 48 h, however, leakage was significantly lower between TiDesign and all other systems (P < 0.005). Compatible abutments do not fit internal connection of OsseoSpeed implants perfectly, which increases the leakage of the final assembly. PMID:25342984

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Leakage at Implant-Abutment Connection of Three Implant Systems Having the Same Prosthetic Interface Using Rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    Tehini, Georges; Rifai, Khaldoun; Bou Nasser Eddine, Farah; El Zein, Nabil; Badran, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Hollow space between implant and abutment may act as reservoir for commensal and/or pathogenic bacteria representing a potential source of tissue inflammation. Microbial colonization of the interfacial gap may ultimately lead to infection and bone resorption. Using Rhodamine B, a sensitive fluorescent tracer dye, we aim in this study to investigate leakage at implant-abutment connection of three implant systems having the same prosthetic interface. Materials and Methods. Twenty-one implants (seven Astra Tech, seven Euroteknika, and seven Dentium) with the same prosthetic interface were connected to their original abutments, according to the manufacturers' recommendation. After determination of the inner volume of each implant systems, the kinetic quantification of leakage was evaluated for each group using Rhodamine B (10−2 M). For each group, spectrophotometric analysis was performed to detect leakage with a fluorescence spectrophotometer at 1 h (T0) and 48 h (T1) of incubation time at room temperature. Results. Astra Tech had the highest inner volume (6.8 μL), compared to Dentium (4 μL) and Euroteknika (2.9 μL). At T0 and T1, respectively, the leakage volume and percentage of each system were as follows: Astra Tech 0.043 μL or 1.48% (SD 0.0022), 0.08 μL or 5.56% (SD 0.0074), Euroteknika 0.09 μL or 6.93% (SD 0.0913), 0.21 μL or 20.55% (SD 0.0035), and Dentium 0.07 μL or 4.6% (SD 0.0029), 0.12 μL or 10.47% (SD 0.0072). Conclusion. The tested internal conical implant-abutment connections appear to be unable to prevent leakage. In average, Astra Tech implants showed the highest inner volume and the least leakage. PMID:24899896

  20. Evaluating the impact of caprock and reservoir properties on potential risk of CO2 leakage after injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Rockhold, Mark L.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2012-01-05

    Numerical models are essential tools for CO2 sequestration projects and should be included in the life cycle of a project. Common practice involves modeling the behavior of CO2 during and after injection using site-specific reservoir and caprock properties. Little has been done to systematically evaluate and compare the effects of a broad but realistic range of reservoir and caprock properties on potential CO2 leakage through caprock. Broad-based research addressing the impacts of caprock properties and their heterogeneity on seal permeation is absent. Efforts along this direction require obtaining information about the physically reasonable range of caprock and reservoir properties, effectively sampling the parameter space to fully explore the range of these properties, and performing flow and transport calculations using reliable numerical simulators. In this study, we identify the most important factors affecting CO2 leakage through intact caprock and try to understand the underlying mechanisms. We use caprock and reservoir properties from various field sites and literature data to identify the range of caprock thickness, permeability, and porosity that might occur. We use a quasi Monte Carlo sampling approach to ensure that the full range of caprock and seal properties is evaluated without bias. For each set of sampled properties, the migration of injected CO2 is simulated for up to 200 years using the water-salt-CO2 operational mode of the STOMP simulator. Preliminary results show that critical factors determining CO2 leakage rate through intact caprock are, in decreasing order of significance, the caprock thickness, caprock permeability, reservoir permeability, caprock porosity, and reservoir porosity. This study provides a function for prediction of potential CO2 leakage risk due to permeation of intact caprock, and identifies a range of acceptable seal thicknesses and permeability for sequestration projects. As a byproduct, the dependence of CO2 injectivity

  1. Decision Analysis and Its Application to the Frequency of Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolakis, George E.; Koser, John P.; Sato, Gaku

    2004-05-15

    For nuclear utilities to become competitive in a deregulated electricity market, costs must be reduced, safety must be maintained, and interested stakeholders must remain content with the decisions being made. One way to reduce costs is to reduce the frequency of preventive maintenance and testing. However, these changes must be weighed against their impact on safety and stakeholder relations. We present a methodology that allows the evaluation of decision options using a number of objectives that include safety, economics, and stakeholder relations. First, the candidate decision options are screened to make sure that they satisfy the relevant regulatory requirements. The remaining options are evaluated using multiattribute utility theory. The results of the formal analysis include a ranking of the options according to their desirability as well as the major reasons that explain this ranking. These results are submitted to a deliberative process in which the decision makers scrutinize the results to ensure that they are meaningful. During the deliberation, new decision options may be formulated based on the insights that the formal analysis provides, as happened in the case study of this paper. This case study deals with the reduction in frequency of the containment integrated leak rate test of a boiling water reactor.

  2. Nanoparticle-based evaluation of blood-brain barrier leakage during the foreign body response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Andrew J.; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2013-02-01

    Objective. The brain foreign body response (FBR) is an important process that limits the functionality of electrodes that comprise the brain-machine interface. Associated events in this process include leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reactive astrogliosis, recruitment and activation of microglia, and neuronal degeneration. Proper BBB function is also integral to maintaining neuronal health and function. Previous attempts to characterize BBB integrity have shown homogeneous leakage of macromolecules up to 10 nm in size. In this study, we describe a new method of measuring BBB permeability during the foreign body response in a mouse model. Approach. Fluorescent nanoparticles were delivered via the tail vein into implant-bearing mice. Tissue sections were then analyzed using fluorescence microscopy to observe nanoparticles in the tissue. Gold nanoparticles were also used in conjunction with TEM to confirm the presence of nanoparticles in the brain parenchyma. Main results. By using polymer nanoparticle tracers, which are significantly larger than conventional macromolecular tracers, we show near-implant BBB gaps of up to 500 nm in size that persist for at least 4 weeks after implantation. Further characterization of the BBB illustrates that leakage during the brain FBR is heterogeneous with gaps between at least 10 and 500 nm. Moreover, electron microscopy was used to confirm that the nanoparticle tracers enter into the brain parenchyma near chronic brain implants. Significance. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the FBR-induced BBB leakage is characterized by larger gaps and is of longer duration than previously thought. This technique can be applied to examine the BBB in other disease states as well as during induced, transient, BBB opening.

  3. Numerical simulation approaches to evaluate nitrate contamination of groundwater through leakage well in layered aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, E.; Lee, E.; Lee, K.

    2013-12-01

    The layered aquifer system (i.e. perched and regional aquifers) is locally observed in Gosan area of Jeju Island, Korea due to scattered distributions of an impermeable clay layer. In the Gosan area, farming is actively performed and nitrate contamination has been frequently reported in groundwater of regional aquifer which is sole water resource in the island. Water quality of the regional groundwater is impacted by inflows of the nitrate-rich perched groundwater, which is located above the impermeable layer and directly affected by surface contaminants. A poorly grouted well penetrating the impermeable layer provides a passage of contaminated groundwater through the impermeable layer. Such a hydrogeological characteristic consequently induces nitrate contamination of the regional aquifer in this region. To quantify the inflows of the perched groundwater via leakage wells, a numerical model was developed to calculate leakage amounts of the perched groundwater into the regional groundwater. This perched groundwater leakages were applied as point and time-variable contamination sources during the solute transport simulation process for the regional aquifer. This work will provide useful information to suggest effective ways to control nitrate contamination of groundwater in the agricultural field.

  4. Evaluation of gastrointestinal leakage using serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan in a Clostridium difficile murine model.

    PubMed

    Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Panpetch, Wimonrat; Worasilchai, Navaporn; Somparn, Poorichaya; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Nilgate, Sumanee; Finkelman, Malcolm; Chindamporn, Ariya; Tumwasorn, Somying

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) leakage in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is well known but is not routinely assessed in clinical practice. Serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG), a fungal cell wall component used as a biomarker for invasive fungal disease, was tested in a CDAD mouse model with and without probiotics. Higher serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran) and spontaneous gram-negative bacteremia, GI leakage indicators, were frequently found in CDAD mice, which died compared with those which survived. BG, serum macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and FITC-dextran but not quantitative blood bacterial count differentiated the clinical severity. Interestingly, a specific dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 attenuated CDAD and decreased serum BG and FITC-dextran, but not other parameters. BG also showed a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for 7-day mortality than FITC-dextran. Fifty-five percent of CDAD mice with BG ≥ 60 pg/ml (the human negative cut-off value for invasive fungal disease) at 1 day after C. difficile gavage died within 7 days. In conclusion, S: erum BG was elevated in mice with severe CDAD, an established model of GI leakage with a strong association with mortality rate. BG monitoring in patients with CDAD is of interest as both a potential prognostic tool and a therapeutic efficacy indicator. PMID:27573235

  5. Hydrogeology from 10,000 ft below: lessons learned in applying pulse testing for leakage detection in a carbon sequestration formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Lu, J.; Hovorka, S. D.; Freifeld, B. M.; Islam, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring techniques capable of deep subsurface detection are desirable for early warning and leakage pathway identification in geologic carbon storage formations. This work investigates the feasibility of a leakage detection technique based on pulse testing, which is a traditional hydrogeological characterization tool. In pulse testing, the monitoring reservoir is stimulated at a fixed frequency and the acquired pressure perturbation signals are analyzed in the frequency domain to detect potential deviations in the reservoir's frequency domain response function. Unlike traditional time-domain analyses, the frequency-domain analysis aims to minimize the interference of reservoir noise by imposing coded injection patterns such that the reservoir responses to injection can be uniquely determined. We have established the theoretical basis of the approach in previous work. Recently, field validation of this pressure-based, leakage detection technique was conducted at a CO2-EOR site located in Mississippi, USA. During the demonstration, two sets of experiments were performed using 90-min and 150-min pulsing periods, for both with and without leak scenarios. Because of the lack of pre-existing leakage pathways, artificial leakage CO2 was simulated by rate-controlled venting from one of the monitoring wells. Our results show that leakage events caused a significant deviation in the amplitude of the frequency response function, indicating that pulse testing may be used as a cost-effective monitoring technique with a strong potential for automation.

  6. Human subject testing of leakage in a loose-fitting PAPR.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur T; Koh, Frank C; Jamshidi, Shaya; Rehak, Timothy E

    2008-05-01

    Leakage from loose-fitting PAPRs (powered air-purifying respirators) can compromise the safety of wearers. The Martindale Centurion MAX multifunction PAPR is a loose-fitting PAPR that also incorporates head, eye, and ear protection. This respirator is used in mines where coal dust usually is controlled by ventilation systems. Should the respirator be depended on for significant respiratory protection? Ten human volunteers were asked to wear the Centurion MAX inside a fog-filled chamber. Their inhalation flow rates were measured with small pitot-tube flowmeters held inside their mouths. They were video imaged while they breathed deeply, and the points at which the fog reached their mouths were determined. Results showed that an average of 1.1 L could be inhaled before contaminated air reached the mouth. As long as the blower purges contamination from inside the face piece during exhalation, the 1.1 L acts as a buffer against contaminants leaked due to overbreathing of blower flow rate.

  7. Human subject testing of leakage in a loose-fitting PAPR

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.T.; Koh, F.C.; Jamshidi, S.; Rehak, T.E.

    2008-07-01

    Leakage from loose-fitting PAPRs (powered air-purifying respirators) can compromise the safety of wearers. The Martindale Centurion MAX multifunction PAPR is a loose-fitting PAPR that also incorporates head, eye, and ear protection. This respirator is used in mines where coal dust usually is controlled by ventilation systems. Should the respirator be depended on for significant respiratory protection? Ten human volunteers were asked to wear the Centurion MAX inside a fog-filled chamber. Their inhalation flow rates were measured with small pitot-tube flowmeters held inside their mouths. They were video imaged while they breathed deeply, and the points at which the fog reached their mouths were determined. Results showed that an average of 1.1 L could be inhaled before contaminated air reached the mouth. As long as the blower purges contamination from inside the face piece during exhalation, the 1.1 L acts as a buffer against contaminants leaked due to overbreathing of blower flow rate.

  8. Evaluation of Marginal Leakage and Shear Bond Strength of Bonded Restorations in Primary Teeth after Caries Removal by Conventional and Chemomechanical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pravin Maru, Viral; Shakuntala, Bethur Siddaiah; Dharma, Nagarathna

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose. To evaluate and compare the marginal leakage and shear bond strength between conventional and Papacarie techniques of caries removal in primary molars. Materials and Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human carious primary molars were randomly divided into two groups: group I—caries removal by conventional method and group II—caries removal using Papacarie. After bonded restorations, both groups were further randomly subdivided into four subgroups for marginal leakage and shear bond strength evaluation. Results. Papacarie treated teeth (46.70%) showed less marginal leakage when compared to conventionally treated teeth (86.70%) for caries removal. The mean shear bond strength was found more in Papacarie treated teeth (12.91 MPa) than in those treated conventionally (9.64 MPa) for caries removal. Conclusion. Papacarie showed less marginal leakage and more shear bond strength when compared to those treated conventionally for caries removal. PMID:27437487

  9. Sealing ability of MTA and amalgam in different root-end preparations and resection bevel angles: an in vitro evaluation using marginal dye leakage.

    PubMed

    Post, Letícia Kirst; Lima, Fábio Garcia; Xavier, Cristina Braga; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Gerhardt-Oliveira, Marília

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of different apicoectomy angles, instruments used in root-end preparation, and dental materials used in retrofilling on apical sealing. Root ends were resected at 45 or 90 degrees in 80 single-rooted teeth. For each type of apicoectomy, root-end cavities were prepared with either a round carbide #2 bur or an S12/90D ultrasonic tip. The root-end cavities in each subgroup (apicoectomy + root-end preparation) were filled with silver amalgam without zinc (Am) or with gray mineral trioxide aggregate -Angelus (MTA), and the specimens were immediately immersed in 0.2% rhodamine B for 24 h. Sealing was evaluated based on the dyed cross-sectional dentin area. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level. No group showed complete sealing of root-end areas. The only significant factor affecting microleakage was dental material, with MTA exhibiting less leakage.

  10. Psychological Testing in Vocational Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botterbusch, Karl F.

    This publication is designed to help vocational evaluators wisely select and use tests within the context of the referral questions and the individualized evaluation plan. The first of two parts contains information on why tests are used in evaluation, problems with tests, and how to select tests. Part 2 contains a review of specific tests that…

  11. Remote sensing and hydrogeological methodologies for irrigation canal leakage detection: the Osasco and Fossano test sites (NorthWestern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Luigi; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Seventy percent of global fresh water is usually used for irrigation. This rate is three times the amount of water used by industry and ten times the amount used in domestic and urban environment (Hotchkiss et al., 2001). However, the average efficiency of the water transport for agricultural purposes in different contexts (at world scale) is variable between 30% and 80%. Studies conducted in Italy confirms that rates are similar from the case studies abroad. In this research, satellite image analysis and hydrological-hydrogeological methods were used in two pilot sites (Osasco channel and Fossano channel, in the Noth-Western Italy) to identify the areas most prone to this problem and to quantify the losses. The aim of the study is to define a multidisciplinary approach in order to identify the critical situations of irrigation channels for a sustainable water resource use and management. The use of remote sensing techniques can identify, on a regional scale and at relative low cost, the channels section potentially critical upon which focus the attention and perform in-situ investigation. The presence of leakage from the irrigation canals, indeed, tends to induce variations of moisture on the surface ground. These variations affect the vegetation (e.g. vegetation state), and certain physical characteristics of the soil (e.g. the capacity and thermal conductivity). The analysis of these anomalies, conducted with digital image processing techniques (with infrared spectrum bands particularly sensitive to the above indicators) help to identify those areas with anomalies related to increased losses (Huang and Fipps, 2002). The use of satellite imagery in the proposed approach is an innovative application of Earth Observation for land and water monitoring (Huang et al., 2005). After the identification of anomalies, hydrological-hydrogeological methods were applied to evaluate the losses. At fist an hydrogeological characterisation of the study area and the bottom of the

  12. Methodology of full-core Monte Carlo calculations with leakage parameter evaluations for benchmark critical experiment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sboev, A. G.; Ilyashenko, A. S.; Vetrova, O. A.

    1997-02-01

    The method of bucking evaluation, realized in the MOnte Carlo code MCS, is described. This method was applied for calculational analysis of well known light water experiments TRX-1 and TRX-2. The analysis of this comparison shows, that there is no coincidence between Monte Carlo calculations, obtained by different ways: the MCS calculations with given experimental bucklings; the MCS calculations with given bucklings evaluated on base of full core MCS direct simulations; the full core MCNP and MCS direct simulations; the MCNP and MCS calculations, where the results of cell calculations are corrected by the coefficients taking into the account the leakage from the core. Also the buckling values evaluated by full core MCS calculations have differed from experimental ones, especially in the case of TRX-1, when this difference has corresponded to 0.5 percent increase of Keff value.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacterial Leakage at Implant-Abutment Connection: An 11-Degree Morse Taper Compared to a Butt Joint Connection

    PubMed Central

    Khorshidi, Hooman; Raoofi, Saeed; Moattari, Afagh; Bagheri, Atoosa; Kalantari, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The geometry of implant-abutment interface (IAI) affects the risk of bacterial leakage and invasion into the internal parts of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of an 11-degree Morse taper IAI with that of a butt joint connection. Materials and Methods. Two implants systems were tested (n = 10 per group): CSM (submerged) and TBR (connect). The deepest inner parts of the implants were inoculated with 2 μL of Streptococcus mutans suspension with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL. The abutments were tightened on the implants. The specimens were stored in the incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 14 days and the penetration of the bacterium in the surrounding area was determined by the observation of the solution turbidity and comparison with control specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was traced for the estimation of bacterial leakage and the results between two groups of implants were statistically analyzed by chi-square test. Results. No case of the implant system with the internal conical connection design revealed bacterial leakage in 14 days and no turbidity of the solution was reported for it. In the system with butt joint implant-abutment connection, 1 case showed leakage on the third day, 1 case on the eighth day, and 5 cases on the 13th day. In total, 7 (70%) cases showed bacterial leakage in this system. Significant differences were found between the two groups of implants based on the incidence of bacterial leakage (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The 11-degree Morse taper demonstrated better resistance to microbial leakage than butt joint connection. PMID:27242903

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacterial Leakage at Implant-Abutment Connection: An 11-Degree Morse Taper Compared to a Butt Joint Connection.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Hooman; Raoofi, Saeed; Moattari, Afagh; Bagheri, Atoosa; Kalantari, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The geometry of implant-abutment interface (IAI) affects the risk of bacterial leakage and invasion into the internal parts of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of an 11-degree Morse taper IAI with that of a butt joint connection. Materials and Methods. Two implants systems were tested (n = 10 per group): CSM (submerged) and TBR (connect). The deepest inner parts of the implants were inoculated with 2 μL of Streptococcus mutans suspension with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL. The abutments were tightened on the implants. The specimens were stored in the incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 14 days and the penetration of the bacterium in the surrounding area was determined by the observation of the solution turbidity and comparison with control specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was traced for the estimation of bacterial leakage and the results between two groups of implants were statistically analyzed by chi-square test. Results. No case of the implant system with the internal conical connection design revealed bacterial leakage in 14 days and no turbidity of the solution was reported for it. In the system with butt joint implant-abutment connection, 1 case showed leakage on the third day, 1 case on the eighth day, and 5 cases on the 13th day. In total, 7 (70%) cases showed bacterial leakage in this system. Significant differences were found between the two groups of implants based on the incidence of bacterial leakage (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The 11-degree Morse taper demonstrated better resistance to microbial leakage than butt joint connection.

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacterial Leakage at Implant-Abutment Connection: An 11-Degree Morse Taper Compared to a Butt Joint Connection.

    PubMed

    Khorshidi, Hooman; Raoofi, Saeed; Moattari, Afagh; Bagheri, Atoosa; Kalantari, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The geometry of implant-abutment interface (IAI) affects the risk of bacterial leakage and invasion into the internal parts of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of an 11-degree Morse taper IAI with that of a butt joint connection. Materials and Methods. Two implants systems were tested (n = 10 per group): CSM (submerged) and TBR (connect). The deepest inner parts of the implants were inoculated with 2 μL of Streptococcus mutans suspension with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL. The abutments were tightened on the implants. The specimens were stored in the incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 14 days and the penetration of the bacterium in the surrounding area was determined by the observation of the solution turbidity and comparison with control specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was traced for the estimation of bacterial leakage and the results between two groups of implants were statistically analyzed by chi-square test. Results. No case of the implant system with the internal conical connection design revealed bacterial leakage in 14 days and no turbidity of the solution was reported for it. In the system with butt joint implant-abutment connection, 1 case showed leakage on the third day, 1 case on the eighth day, and 5 cases on the 13th day. In total, 7 (70%) cases showed bacterial leakage in this system. Significant differences were found between the two groups of implants based on the incidence of bacterial leakage (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The 11-degree Morse taper demonstrated better resistance to microbial leakage than butt joint connection. PMID:27242903

  16. Chamber leakage effects on measured gas concentrations during contained demilitarization tests at NTS X-Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher R. Shadix; Joel Lipkin

    1999-11-01

    A series of contained explosive detonation and propellant burn experiments was conducted during 1996 and 1997 using a specially constructed, large, underground chamber located in the X-tunnel complex at Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  17. Application of Pressure Pulse Test Analysis in CO2 Leakage Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakiba, M.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, numerous research and industrial projects have been devoted to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of carbon dioxide capture, storage, and utilization. Besides the studies over the characteristics of candidate formations for CO2 injection, much attention has been paid to answer the environmental concerns regarding the CO2 leak to overlying formations. To first detect and then track a possible CO2 leak, different techniques have been proposed in the literature; however, most of them examine only a small portion of the formation and have a low resolution for early leak detection. To further increase the extent of the investigation zone and to monitor a large section of the formation in more detail, multi-well testing techniques have received a significant attention. Pressure pulse testing is a multi-well test technique in which a pressure signal generated by periods of injection and shut-in from a pulser well is propagated inside the formation, and the corresponding response is recorded at the observer wells. The recorded pressure response is then analyzed to measure the rock and fluid properties and to monitor the possible changes over the time. In this research study, we have applied frequency methods as well as superposition principle to interpret the pressure pulse test data and monitor the changes in transmissibility and storativity of the formation between the well pairs. We have used synthetic reservoir models and numerical reservoir simulations to produce the pressure pulse test data. The analysis of the simulation results indicated that even a small amount of CO2 leak in the investigation zone can have a measurable effect on the calculated storativity and transmissibility factors. This can be of a great importance when an early leak detection is of interest. Moreover, when multiple wells are available in the formation, the distribution of the calculated parameters can visualize the extent of CO2 leak, which has a great

  18. Test results for sawtooth-pattern damper seals - Leakage and rotordynamic coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D.; Garcia, F.

    1986-01-01

    Test results consisting of direct and transverse force coefficients are presented for eleven sawtooth-pattern damper-seal configurations. The designation 'damper' seal refers to a seal which uses a deliberately roughened stator and smooth rotor to increase the net seal damping force. The designation 'sawtooth-pattern' refers to a stator-roughness pattern whose cross section normal to the axis of the seal resembles saw teeth with the teeth direction opposing fluid motion in the direction of shaft rotation. The sawtooth pattern yields axial grooves in the stator which are interrupted by spacer elements which act as flow constrictions or 'dams'. Sawtooth-pattern seals had more damping than smooth seals but less than the round-hole-pattern seals tested previously. If damping is sacrificed, sawtooth-pattern seals can be designed to leak less than round-hole-pattern seals.

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 180 - Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests for Cargo Tanks Transporting Liquefied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established, the operator closes the internal self-closing stop valve and monitors the meter flow. The meter... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve... Pt. 180, App. B Appendix B to Part 180—Acceptable Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Leakage Tests...

  20. Estimation of Ground-Level Radioisotope Distributions for Underground Nuclear Test Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, James H.; Fast, James E.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2009-06-19

    On-site inspections (OSI) will be an important process to deter and help verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An important tool in narrowing the possible locations to collect evidence of a nuclear test during an on-site inspection may be over-flights of the general area using aerial gamma spectroscopy which can measure the energy and intensity of gamma radiation and help identify areas that may warrant further investigation of areas of high concentrations of radioactivity. This paper will investigate the capabilities of gamma ray detectors that are typically used in aerial searches. Modeling and simulation results of the detector response for radionuclide species for an OSI will be presented for a variety of assumed releases, depositions on the ground, and times after a suspected Treaty violation for typical over flight heights and speeds. This data will provide information on the possible applicability for airborne spectroscopy and the challenges and limitations of this tool for OSI. Of particular interest will be analysis of the data for gross count, regions of interest, and isotope identification types of algorithms and the characteristics of each.

  1. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  2. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  3. Integrated Tests and Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bixby, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has developed a project plan to address issues related to UAS access to the NAS The plan is being formulated with inputs from our stakeholders. NASA will work with our stakeholders to develop ConOps and a national roadmap to determine key research technologies and policy issues to enable UAS access to the NAS. NASA will use ConOps and roadmap to either validate current NASA research investment areas and make any necessary changes to proposed UAS research portfolio. NASA will conduct integration and testing of key research areas to enable UAS access to the NAS. Use phase I to do detailed test planning for phase II Assist subelements with test planning Assist with documenting test objectives, data and facilities/infrastructure requirements, and detailed test planning Provide facilities/infrastructure to meet test requirements Provide interfaces between tools Develop, document, and execute data handling and dissemination plans Provide a test engineer to facilitate scheduling of facilities, support specific equipment and software needs, track schedule progress, and monitor changes to schedule Provide guidance for alternative facilities or equipment to mitigate risk associated with loss of availability Provide opportunities for subelements to gather data in relevant and increasingly complex environments

  4. Evaluating software testing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, R. W., Jr.; Basili, V. R.; Page, J.; Mcgarry, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The strategies of code reading, functional testing, and structural testing are compared in three aspects of software testing: fault detection effectiveness, fault detection cost, and classes of faults detected. The major results are the following: (1) Code readers detected more faults than did those using the other techniques, while functional tester detected more faults than did structural testers; (2) Code readers had a higher fault detection rate than did those using the other methods, while there was no difference between functional testers and structural testers; (3) Subjects testing the abstract data type detected the most faults and had the highest fault detection rate, while individuals testing the database maintainer found the fewest faults and spent the most effort testing; (4) Subjects of intermediate and junior expertise were not different in number or percentage of faults found, fault detection rate, or fault detection effort; (5) subjects of advanced expertise found a greater number of faults than did the others, found a greater percentage of faults than did just those of junior expertise, and were not different from the others in either fault detection rate or effort; and (6) Code readers and functional testers both detected more omission faults and more control faults than did structural testers, while code readers detected more interface faults than did those using the other methods.

  5. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-03-20

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AX-B Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the transfer line addition. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  6. Effect of flow leakage on the benchmarking of FLOWTRAN with Mark-22 mockup flow excursion test data from Babcock and Wilcox

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kuo-Fu.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents a revised analysis of the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) downflow flow excursion tests that accounts for leakage between flow channels in the test assembly. Leak rates were estimated by comparing results from the downflow tests with those for upflow tests conducted using an identical assembly with some minor modifications. The upflow test assembly did not contain leaks. This revised analyses shows that FLOWTRAN with the SRS working criterion conservatively predicts onset of flow instability without using a local peaking factor to model heat transfer variations near the ribs.

  7. Energy Efficient High-Pressure Turbine Leakage Technology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    The leakage test program was one of such supporting technology programs structured to provide guidance to the Energy Efficient Engine High Pressure Turbine Component Design Effort. Leakage reduction techniques were identified and evaluated. Test models were used to simulate component leak paths and to evaluate leakage reduction techniques. These models simulated the blade/disk attachment, the vane inner platform attachment, and the vane outer platform attachment combined with the blade outer airseal. Disk blade attachment testing indicated that leakage in this area could be reduced to very low levels by paying careful attention to the tolerances along the contact surface between the blade vibration damper and the blade platform contact surface. The aim of feather seal testing was to achieve a goal for an effective leakage gap of one mil (.001 inch) per inch of feather seal length. Results indicated that effective gaps even below the goal level were achievable by (1) maintaining close tolerances between feather seals and their slots to minimize end gaps and limit seal rotation, (2) avoiding feather seal overlap, and (3) minimizing feather seal intersections. W seals were shown to be effective leakage control devices. Wire rope, in its present state of development, was shown not to be an effective sealing concept for application to the component design.

  8. Test, evaluate and assess the Bagby stopping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, J.

    1981-06-08

    The Bagby stoppings test at Eagle No. 2 Mine so far is showing promising results. The recent change in the ventilation system at Eagle No. 2 makes it difficult to establish any meaningful figure for energy savings. Theoretically, the fan has to supply more air to compensate for any air leakage through stoppings. Bagby stoppings, however, can reduce air leakage under converging conditions (such as the case at Eagle No. 2), therefore, saving energy. In comparison with more commonly used concrete block stoppings, they are cheaper (the major savings are labor costs; overall, Bagby stoppings are approximately 13% lower in total costs), easier to transport, performing much better under converging roof conditions, and maintenance is minimum. However, due to limited observation time since the installation, several time related characteristics are yet to be evaluated, such as material deterioration.

  9. a Real-Time GIS Platform for High Sour Gas Leakage Simulation, Evaluation and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Liu, H.; Yang, C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of high-sulfur gas fields, also known as sour gas field, is faced with a series of safety control and emergency management problems. The GIS-based emergency response system is placed high expectations under the consideration of high pressure, high content, complex terrain and highly density population in Sichuan Basin, southwest China. The most researches on high hydrogen sulphide gas dispersion simulation and evaluation are used for environmental impact assessment (EIA) or emergency preparedness planning. This paper introduces a real-time GIS platform for high-sulfur gas emergency response. Combining with real-time data from the leak detection systems and the meteorological monitoring stations, GIS platform provides the functions of simulating, evaluating and displaying of the different spatial-temporal toxic gas distribution patterns and evaluation results. This paper firstly proposes the architecture of Emergency Response/Management System, secondly explains EPA's Gaussian dispersion model CALPUFF simulation workflow under high complex terrain and real-time data, thirdly explains the emergency workflow and spatial analysis functions of computing the accident influencing areas, population and the optimal evacuation routes. Finally, a well blow scenarios is used for verify the system. The study shows that GIS platform which integrates the real-time data and CALPUFF models will be one of the essential operational platforms for high-sulfur gas fields emergency management.

  10. Damage evaluation for crops exposed to a simulated leakage of geologically stored CO2 using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burud, Ingunn; Moni, Christophe; Flø, Andreas; Rolstad Denby, Cecilie; Rasse, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, even though the risk is of low probability, the precautionary principle requires that near surface environments that might be at risk be thoroughly monitored to detect a leak, were it to happen. Among all currently proposed monitoring methods, only hyperspectral imaging of vegetation stress response allows one to scan large areas rapidly and in detail. Until now, however, only a handful of studies have been carried out on using this novel technology. The aim of the present communication was to characterize the impacts that a simulated CO2 leak might have on the hyperspectral signature of a Norwegian oats crop. In order to test the effects of different intensity of leakage, a CO2 exposure field experiment was designed to create a longitudinal CO2 gradient. For this purpose a gas supply pipe was inserted at one end of a 6m by 3m experimental plot at the base of a 45 cm thick layer of sand buried 40 cm below the surface under a silt loam plough layer. CO2 was then injected at a rate of 2l.min-1 just after the oats had germinated at the end of June, and Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, even though the risk is of low probability, the precautionary principle requires that near surface environments that might be at risk be thoroughly monitored to detect a leak, were it to happen. Among all currently proposed monitoring methods, only hyperspectral imaging of vegetation stress response allows one to scan large areas rapidly and in detail. Until now, however, only a handful of studies have been carried out on using this novel technology. The aim of the present communication was to characterize the impacts that a

  11. Damage evaluation for crops exposed to a simulated leakage of geologically stored CO2 using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burud, Ingunn; Moni, Christophe; Flø, Andreas; Rolstad Denby, Cecilie; Rasse, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, even though the risk is of low probability, the precautionary principle requires that near surface environments that might be at risk be thoroughly monitored to detect a leak, were it to happen. Among all currently proposed monitoring methods, only hyperspectral imaging of vegetation stress response allows one to scan large areas rapidly and in detail. Until now, however, only a handful of studies have been carried out on using this novel technology. The aim of the present communication was to characterize the impacts that a simulated CO2 leak might have on the hyperspectral signature of a Norwegian oats crop. In order to test the effects of different intensity of leakage, a CO2 exposure field experiment was designed to create a longitudinal CO2 gradient. For this purpose a gas supply pipe was inserted at one end of a 6m by 3m experimental plot at the base of a 45 cm thick layer of sand buried 40 cm below the surface under a silt loam plough layer. CO2 was then injected at a rate of 2l.min-1 just after the oats had germinated at the end of June, and Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, even though the risk is of low probability, the precautionary principle requires that near surface environments that might be at risk be thoroughly monitored to detect a leak, were it to happen. Among all currently proposed monitoring methods, only hyperspectral imaging of vegetation stress response allows one to scan large areas rapidly and in detail. Until now, however, only a handful of studies have been carried out on using this novel technology. The aim of the present communication was to characterize the impacts that a

  12. Assessing Potential Impacts of CO2 Leakage on Shallow Groundwater Quality in the SECARB Phase III Early Test site Using Single-well Push-Pull Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Mickler, P. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    A single-well push-pull test was conducted in the Cranfield shallow aquifer, the SECARB Phase III early test site, for assessing potential impacts of CO2 leakage on groundwater quality. A total of 3800 liter of groundwater equilibrated with CO2 gas at a partial pressure of 1.105 Pa was injected into a confined sand interval at ~ 70 m depth. NaBr solution was added to the injected solution as tracer. The injected groundwater incubated within the interval for about two days. Chemical parameters (pH, temperature, alkalinity, and electric conductivity) were measured on-site and water samples were collected for chemical (major ions, trace elements, and dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC) as well as for stable carbon isotopic analyses. Mineralogical analyses using XR-D and SEM techniques indicate that aquifer sediments are dominated by silicates. Concentrations of the Br tracer in the recovered samples show mixing of background water with the injected solution. Major ions, especially, Ca, Mg, K, and Si show obvious enrichment, indicating that mobilization of these ions occurred from aquifer sediments to groundwater and may be dominated by dissolution of silicates and possible carbonate minerals. δ13C of DIC of the recovered samples may also suggest potential dissolution of carbonates. Concentrations of trace elements show mobilization after injection of CO2 enriched groundwater. Mobilization of trace elements could be due to co-dissolution of silicates and carbonates and desorption from the surface of aquifer sediments. However, mass balance calculations suggest that ion mobilization is limited and; therefore, potential risks of CO2 are low, especially for arsenic and lead with concentrations in the recovered samples ~30 times less than the EPA maximum contamination level. Results of the single-well push-pull test were also compared to a laboratory batch experiment of water-rock-CO2 interactions. Overall reaction rates of most ions estimated are higher in the batch

  13. Measurement of leakage neutron spectra from graphite cylinders irradiated with D-T neutrons for validation of evaluated nuclear data.

    PubMed

    Luo, F; Han, R; Chen, Z; Nie, Y; Shi, F; Zhang, S; Lin, W; Ren, P; Tian, G; Sun, Q; Gou, B; Ruan, X; Ren, J; Ye, M

    2016-10-01

    A benchmark experiment for validation of graphite data evaluated from nuclear data libraries was conducted for 14MeV neutrons irradiated on graphite cylinder samples. The experiments were performed using the benchmark experimental facility at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The leakage neutron spectra from the surface of graphite (Φ13cm×20cm) at 60° and 120° and graphite (Φ13cm×2cm) at 60° were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. The obtained results were compared with the measurements made by the Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP-4C with the ENDF/B-VII.1, CENDL-3.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries. The results obtained from a 20cm-thick sample revealed that the calculation results with CENDL-3.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries showed good agreements with the experiments conducted in the whole energy region. However, a large discrepancy of approximately 40% was observed below the 3MeV energy region with the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. For the 2cm-thick sample, the calculated results obtained from the abovementioned three libraries could not reproduce the experimental data in the energy range of 5-7MeV. The graphite data in CENDL-3.1 were verified for the first time and were proved to be reliable. PMID:27620063

  14. Measurement of leakage neutron spectra from graphite cylinders irradiated with D-T neutrons for validation of evaluated nuclear data.

    PubMed

    Luo, F; Han, R; Chen, Z; Nie, Y; Shi, F; Zhang, S; Lin, W; Ren, P; Tian, G; Sun, Q; Gou, B; Ruan, X; Ren, J; Ye, M

    2016-10-01

    A benchmark experiment for validation of graphite data evaluated from nuclear data libraries was conducted for 14MeV neutrons irradiated on graphite cylinder samples. The experiments were performed using the benchmark experimental facility at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The leakage neutron spectra from the surface of graphite (Φ13cm×20cm) at 60° and 120° and graphite (Φ13cm×2cm) at 60° were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. The obtained results were compared with the measurements made by the Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP-4C with the ENDF/B-VII.1, CENDL-3.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries. The results obtained from a 20cm-thick sample revealed that the calculation results with CENDL-3.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries showed good agreements with the experiments conducted in the whole energy region. However, a large discrepancy of approximately 40% was observed below the 3MeV energy region with the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. For the 2cm-thick sample, the calculated results obtained from the abovementioned three libraries could not reproduce the experimental data in the energy range of 5-7MeV. The graphite data in CENDL-3.1 were verified for the first time and were proved to be reliable.

  15. ALIS evaluation tests in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Kido, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2009-05-01

    Tohoku University, Japan is developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. The Migration processing drastically increases the quality of the imaging of the buried objects.Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted several test sites. Tests in real mine fields in Croatia has been conducted between December 2007 and April 2008. Under different soil and environment conditions, ALIS worked well. Then ALIS evaluation test started in Cambodia in February 2009 and we could find discrimination capability of ALIS in test lanes, and we are planning to start evaluation test in real mine fields in Cambodia.

  16. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1997-12-09

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ``lower tier`` document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the modifications of the AN-A valve pit. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the modifications to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  17. Seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance of needles of Pinus nigra and Pinus resinosa: evaluation of the electrolyte leakage method.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, M L; Palta, J P; Reich, P B

    1992-10-01

    Seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance of needles of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees were measured by an electrolyte leakage method and by visual observation. During most of the year, freezing stress resistance determined by the two methods gave similar results. The electrolyte leakage method provided a good estimate of seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance except for red pine needles in their most winter-hardy state. To obtain a reliable estimate of freezing stress resistance in winter-hardy red pine needles it was necessary to combine the electrolyte leakage method with visual observations. When red pine needles survived exposure to -80 degrees C or lower, electrolyte leakage was never more than 30% even when the needles were exposed to a slow freeze-thaw stress of -196 degrees C. However, rapid freezing of red pine needles to -196 degrees C resulted in electrolyte leakage of over 80%. Red pine needles attained a much higher freezing stress resistance during the winter than Austrian pine. Red pine needles also acclimated and deacclimated faster than Austrian pine needles. An index of injury was developed based on the electrolyte leakage method ((R(2) + R(1))/2, where R(1) is the minimum % electrolyte leakage from noninjured tissue and R(2) is the maximum % electrolyte leakage at the highest injury) that reliably predicted freezing stress resistance of pine needles for most of the year. Important aspects for developing a successful index of injury for pine needles are: use of cut needles, vacuum infiltration and shaking during incubation in water.We conclude that: (1) during cold acclimation the cell wall properties of the pine needles changed and these changes, which appeared to differ in the two species, might explain the very low leakage of electrolytes from winter-hardy needles of red pine; (2) pine needles survive winter by developing the ability to tolerate extracellular ice formation, because

  18. Report of Field Test Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Regional Instructional Materials Center for Handicapped Children and Youth.

    Reported by the Great Lakes Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center are field test evaluation of 18 auditory instructional materials for use with handicapped children who learn best through the auditory modality. Among materials evaluated are a taped program on use of the abacus and a cassette audiotape on bird habits and sounds.…

  19. Language Test Construction and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, J. Charles; And Others

    The guide is intended for teachers who must construct language tests and for other professionals who may need to construct, evaluate, or use the results of language tests. Most examples are drawn from the field of English-as-a-Second-Language instruction in the United Kingdom, but the principles and practices described may be applied to the…

  20. Modelling of illuminated current–voltage characteristics to evaluate leakage currents in long wavelength infrared mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, Vishnu E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Qiu, WeiCheng; Hu, Weida E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn

    2014-11-14

    The current–voltage characteristics of long wavelength mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors have been studied using a recently suggested method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. Diodes fabricated on in-house grown arsenic and vacancy doped epitaxial layers were evaluated for their leakage currents. The thermal diffusion, generation–recombination (g-r), and ohmic currents were found as principal components of diode current besides a component of photocurrent due to illumination. In addition, both types of diodes exhibited an excess current component whose growth with the applied bias voltage did not match the expected growth of trap-assisted-tunnelling current. Instead, it was found to be the best described by an exponential function of the type, I{sub excess} = I{sub r0} + K{sub 1} exp (K{sub 2} V), where I{sub r0}, K{sub 1}, and K{sub 2} are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. A study of the temperature dependence of the diode current components and the excess current provided the useful clues about the source of origin of excess current. It was found that the excess current in diodes fabricated on arsenic doped epitaxial layers has its origin in the source of ohmic shunt currents. Whereas, the source of excess current in diodes fabricated on vacancy doped epitaxial layers appeared to be the avalanche multiplication of photocurrent. The difference in the behaviour of two types of diodes has been attributed to the difference in the quality of epitaxial layers.

  1. Testing of the structural evaluation test unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    In the evaluation of the safety of radioactive material transportation it is important to consider the response of Type B packages to environments more severe than that prescribed by the hypothetical accident sequence in Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (NRC 1995). The impact event in this sequence is a 9-meter drop onto an essentially unyielding target, resulting in an impact velocity of 13.4 m/s. The behavior of 9 packages when subjected to impacts more severe than this is not well known. It is the purpose of this program to evaluate the structural response of a test package to these environments. Several types of structural response are considered. Of primary importance is the behavior of the package containment boundary, including the bolted closure and 0-rings. Other areas of concern are loss of shielding capability due to lead slump and the deceleration loading of package contents, that may cause damage to them. This type of information is essential for conducting accurate risk assessments on the transportation of radioactive materials. Currently very conservative estimates of the loss of package protection are used in these assessments. This paper will summarize the results of a regulatory impact test and three extra-regulatory impact tests on a sample package.

  2. Analyzing Leakage Through Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, William D.

    1993-01-01

    Two related computer programs written for use in analyzing leakage through cracks. Leakage flow laminar or turbulent. One program used to determine dimensions of crack under given flow conditions and given measured rate of leakage. Other used to determine rate of leakage of gas through crack of given dimensions under given flow conditions. Programs, written in BASIC language, accelerate and facilitate iterative calculations and parametric analyses. Solve equations of Fanno flow. Enables rapid solution of leakage problem.

  3. Evaluation of Groundwater Leakage into a Drainage Tunnel in Jinping-I Arch Dam Foundation in Southwestern China: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Feng; Hong, Jia-Min; Zheng, Hua-Kang; Li, Yi; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2016-03-01

    The Jinping-I double-curvature arch dam, located in the middle reach of Yalong River and with a maximum height of 305 m, is the world's highest dam of this type that has been completed. Since the second stage of reservoir impounding, after which the reservoir water level was gradually raised by about 232 m, a significant amount of leakage was observed from the drainage holes drilled in the lowest drainage tunnel at the left bank abutment at an elevation of 1595 m a.s.l. (above sea level), with an observed maximum pressure of about 0.3 MPa. A number of investigations, including water quality analysis, digital borehole imaging, tunnel geological mapping, and in situ groundwater monitoring, were performed to examine the source of leaking, the groundwater flow paths, and the performance of the grouting curtains. By defining two objective functions using the in situ time series measurements of flow rate and hydraulic head, respectively, a multiobjective inverse modeling procedure was proposed to evaluate the permeability of the foundation rocks that was underestimated in the design stage. This procedure takes advantage of the orthogonal design, finite element forward modeling of the transient groundwater flow, artificial neural network, and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, hence significantly reducing the computational cost and improving the reliability of the inversed results. The geological structures that lead to the leakage were identified and the seepage flow behaviors in the dam foundation and the left bank abutment were assessed. Based on the field measurements and the inverse modeling results, the effects of the engineering treatments of the leakage event on the dam safety were analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the seepage control system is effective in lowering the groundwater level and limiting the amount of seepage in the dam foundation, and the leakage event does not pose a threat to the safety of the dam.

  4. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  5. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  6. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, Omari; Griffiths, Dianne

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  7. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, O.; Arena, L.; Griffiths, D.

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  8. 40 CFR 91.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the...

  9. 40 CFR 91.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the...

  10. 40 CFR 91.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the...

  11. 40 CFR 91.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the...

  12. 40 CFR 91.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the...

  13. Improving stopping construction to minimize leakage

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Roy H.; Mazzella, Andrew L.; Martikainen, Anu L.

    2015-01-01

    The proper sealing of stoppings is an important step in reducing leakage from the intake to the return airways. Leakage and the subsequent loss of ventilation resulting from improperly sealed stoppings can lead to unhealthy and unsafe working conditions. The research presented in this paper investigates the total leakage of a stopping, including air leakage through the stopping, at the stopping perimeter, and through the coalbed. The study also examines sealing considerations for stoppings that are constructed under roof control screen, the effects that wooden wedges had on inhibiting efficient application of polyurethane foam sealant, and airflow leakage through the surrounding coal. The work involved building a stopping in a dead end room of the NIOSH Safety Research Coal Mine and then pressurising the room using compressed air. Stopping leakage was evaluated by measuring air pressure loss in the enclosed room due to the air leakage. Part of the research utilises a diluted soap solution that was applied to the stopping and the surrounding coal to detect air leakage signified by bubble formations. The results show that stopping leakage can be minimised with proper sealing PMID:26379366

  14. Radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens.

    PubMed

    Lahham, Adnan; Sharabati, Afifeh

    2013-12-01

    This work presents data on the amount of radiation leakage from 117 microwave ovens in domestic and restaurant use in the West Bank, Palestine. The study of leakage is based on the measurements of radiation emissions from the oven in real-life conditions by using a frequency selective field strength measuring system. The power density from individual ovens was measured at a distance of 1 m and at the height of centre of door screen. The tested ovens were of different types, models with operating powers between 1000 and 1600 W and ages ranging from 1 month to >20 y, including 16 ovens with unknown ages. The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 μW cm(-2) with an average value equalling 3.64 μW cm(-2). Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (∼6 % of the total) were below 10 μW cm(-2). The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ∼16.4 μW cm(-2), and found in two cases only. In no case did the leakage exceed the limit of 1 mW cm(-2) recommended by the ICNIRP for 2.45-GHz radiofrequency. This study confirms a linear correlation between the amount of leakage and both oven age and operating power, with a stronger dependence of leakage on age.

  15. Blower-door techniques for measuring interzonal leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The standard blower door test methods, such as ASTM E779, describe how to use a single blower door to determine the total leakage of a single-zone structure such as a detached single-family home. There are no standard test methods for measuring interzonal leakage in a two-zone or multi-zone building envelope such as might be encountered in with an attached garage or in a multifamily building. Some practitioners have been using techniques that involve making multiple measurements with a single blower door as well as combined measurements using multiple blower doors. Even for just two zones there are dozens of combinations of one-door and two-door test protocols that could conceivably be used to determine the interzonal air tightness. We examined many of these two-zone configurations using both simulation and measured data to estimate the accuracy and precision of each technique for realistic measurement scenarios. We also considered the impact of taking measurements at a single pressure versus over multiple pressures. We compared the various techniques and evaluated them for specific uses. Some techniques work better in one leakage regime; some are more sensitive to wind and other noise; some are more suited to determining only a subset of the leakage values. This paper makes recommendations on which techniques to use or not use for various cases and provides data that could be used to develop future test methods.

  16. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  17. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of Gulton Industries, Incorporated, 9.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the small astronomy Satellite (SAS-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation test program was conducted to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. Tests and results are described.

  18. Shroud leakage flow discouragers

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, Jeremy Clyde; Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2002-01-01

    A turbine assembly includes a plurality of rotor blades comprising a root portion, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, and a top portion having a cap. An outer shroud is concentrically disposed about said rotor blades, said shroud in combination with said tip portions defining a clearance gap. At least one circumferential shroud leakage discourager is disposed within the shroud. The leakage discourager(s) increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the clearance gap to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  19. Leakage Currents and Gas Generation in Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Currently, military grade, established reliability wet tantalum capacitors are among the most reliable parts used for space applications. This has been achieved over the years by extensive testing and improvements in design and materials. However, a rapid insertion of new types of advanced, high volumetric efficiency capacitors in space systems without proper testing and analysis of degradation mechanisms might increase risks of failures. The specifics of leakage currents in wet electrolytic capacitors is that the conduction process is associated with electrolysis of electrolyte and gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure in the parts. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. In this work, in Part I, leakages currents in various types of tantalum capacitors have been analyzed in a wide range of voltages, temperatures, and time under bias. Gas generation and the level of internal pressure have been calculated in Part II for different case sizes and different hermeticity leak rates to assess maximal allowable leakage currents. Effects related to electrolyte penetration to the glass seal area have been studied and the possibility of failures analyzed in Part III. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  20. Air leakage of newly instaled residential windows

    SciTech Connect

    Weidt, J.; Weidt, J.

    1980-06-01

    The air-leakage characteristics of five major window designs were measured in a field survey conducted in Twin Cities, Minnesota. A total of 192 windows (16 manufacturers) were tested at 58 sites representing a cross-section of single-family homes, townhouses, low- and high-rise apartments, and condominiums. Air-leakage measurements of the installed windows were compared with the current standard used by industry and government of 0.50 ft/sup 3//min/linear ft of crack. Other parameters studied were: effect of sash and frame material, effect of leakage between window frame and wall, differences among the product lines of a single manufacturer and between manufacturers, effect of installation practices, effect of cold weather on performance, change in performance over time for older windows, and performance of fixed glazing. Based on industry and government standards, 40% of all windows tested showed air-leakage characteristics higher than the 0.50 cfm/lfc standard, and 60% exceeded manufacturers' specifications for performance which in some cases were lower than the general industry standard. Analysis of the impact of various parameters on air-leakage performance showed that the operational design of the window was the most critical determinant although the ranking changes if performance is expressed in cfm/unit area or cfm/opening area. Air leakage was measured using a portable pressurization chamber. Smoke pencils, thermographic techniques and extensive photographic documentation provided additional data as to the location and cause of air leakage problems.

  1. Universal leakage elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Wu, L.-A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2005-05-15

    'Leakage' errors are particularly serious errors which couple states within a code subspace to states outside of that subspace, thus destroying the error protection benefit afforded by an encoded state. We generalize an earlier method for producing leakage elimination decoupling operations and examine the effects of the leakage eliminating operations on decoherence-free or noiseless subsystems which encode one logical, or protected qubit into three or four qubits. We find that by eliminating a large class of leakage errors, under some circumstances, we can create the conditions for a decoherence-free evolution. In other cases we identify a combined decoherence-free and quantum error correcting code which could eliminate errors in solid-state qubits with anisotropic exchange interaction Hamiltonians and enable universal quantum computing with only these interactions.

  2. Evaluating Content Alignment in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Webb, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do…

  3. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  4. Test and evaluation of the tactical missile

    SciTech Connect

    Eichblatt, E.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Practical test and evaluation (T E) methods for tactical missiles are described in chapters contributed by experts. Topics addressed include missile performance criteria; flight tests; laboratory and field tests; simulations; launchers; T E of insensitive munitions; T E of reliability; testing for EM-environment effects; logistics, missile tests, and suitability evaluation; and the evaluation of weapon-system integration. To demonstrate effective T E planning strategies, the phases of a typical missile program are outlined. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  5. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The most common method of measuring air leakage is to perform single (or solo) blower door pressurization and/or depressurization test. In detached housing, the single blower door test measures leakage to the outside. In attached housing, however, this "solo" test method measures both air leakage to the outside and air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces. Although minimizing leakage to neighboring units is highly recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly overpredicted if the solo air leakage number is used in the energy analysis. Guarded blower door testing is more appropriate for isolating and measuring leakage to the outside in attached housing. This method uses multiple blower doors to depressurize adjacent spaces to the same level as the unit being tested. Maintaining a neutral pressure across common walls, ceilings, and floors acts as a "guard" against air leakage between units. The resulting measured air leakage in the test unit is only air leakage to the outside. Although preferred for assessing energy impacts, the challenges of performing guarded testing can be daunting.

  6. Leakage of fluid in different types of tracheal tubes.

    PubMed

    Winklmaier, U; Wüst, K; Schiller, S; Wallner, F

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate leakage of liquids, i.e., water and saliva, past low-pressure cuffs of tracheostomy tubes. Three different types of tracheostomy tubes, TRACOE vario (TRACOE Medical GmbH, Germany), Rüsch Ultra-Tracheoflex (Rüsch GmbH, Germany), and Portex Blue Line Ultra (Smiths Medical, UK) were tested in isolated pig tracheas. Sixty samples (10 tubes each of 7- and 8-mm inner diameter of each type) were used. Four different experiments were devised: type 1 (water and artificial ventilation), type 2 (water and no artificial ventilation), type 3 (saliva and artificial ventilation), and type 4 (saliva and no artificial ventilation). Six milliliters of water or artificial saliva were infused over the cuff and the volume of fluid that leaked past the cuff was measured after 5, 10, and 15 min. Intracuff pressure was also measured three times. The saliva experiments resulted in less leakage than the water experiments. Leakage after treatment with water or artificial saliva is higher without artificial ventilation than with ventilation. The amount of leakage among the tubes with respect to manufacturer showed statistically significant results. However, there were no differences among tracheostomy tubes with respect to internal diameter.

  7. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  8. Evaluation Parameters for Computer-Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiadou, Elisabeth; Triantafillou, Evangelos; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2006-01-01

    With the proliferation of computers in test delivery today, adaptive testing has become quite popular, especially when examinees must be classified into two categories (passfail, master nonmaster). Several well-established organisations have provided standards and guidelines for the design and evaluation of educational and psychological testing.…

  9. Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex - NPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-10

    The Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex, or NPTEC, is the world's largest facility for open air testing of hazardous toxic materials and biological simulants. NPTEC is used for testing, experimentation, and training for technologies that require the release of toxic chemicals or biological simulants into the environment.

  10. Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex - NPTEC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex, or NPTEC, is the world's largest facility for open air testing of hazardous toxic materials and biological simulants. NPTEC is used for testing, experimentation, and training for technologies that require the release of toxic chemicals or biological simulants into the environment.

  11. Evaluation of the threat of marine CO2 leakage-associated acidification on the toxicity of sediment metals to juvenile bivalves.

    PubMed

    Basallote, M Dolores; Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; De Orte, Manoela R; Del Valls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the acidification associated with CO2 leakage from sub-seabed geological storage was studied by the evaluation of the short-term effects of CO2-induced acidification on juveniles of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum. Laboratory scale experiments were performed using a CO2-bubbling system designed to conduct ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were exposed for 10 days to elutriates of sediments collected in different littoral areas that were subjected to various pH treatments (pH 7.1, 6.6, 6.1). The acute pH-associated effects on the bivalves were observed, and the dissolved metals in the elutriates were measured. The median toxic effect pH was calculated, which ranged from 6.33 to 6.45. The amount of dissolved Zn in the sediment elutriates increased in parallel with the pH reductions and was correlated with the proton concentrations. The pH, the pCO2 and the dissolved metal concentrations (Zn and Fe) were linked with the mortality of the exposed bivalves.

  12. Evaluation of the use of reach transmissivity to quantify leakage beneath Levee 31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemeth, Mark S.; Wilcox, Walter M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2000-01-01

    A coupled ground- and surface-water model (MODBRANCH) was developed to estimate ground-water flow beneath Levee 31N in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and to simulate hydrologic conditions in the surrounding area. The study included compilation of data from monitoring stations, measurement of vertical seepage rates in wetlands, and analysis of the hydrogeologic properties of the ground-water aquifer within the study area. In addition, the MODBRANCH code was modified to calculate the exchange between surface-water channels and ground water using a relation based on the concept of reach transmissivity. The modified reach-transmissivity version of the MODBRANCH code was successfully tested on three simple problems with known analytical solutions. It was also tested and determined to function adequately on one field problem that had previously been solved using the unmodified version of the software. The modified version of MODBRANCH was judged to have performed satisfactorily, and it required about 60 percent as many iterations to reach a solution. Additionally, its input parameters are more physically-based and less dependent on model-grid spacing. A model of the Levee 31N area was developed and used with the original and modified versions of MODBRANCH, which produced similar output. The mean annual modeled ground-water heads differed by only 0.02 foot, and the mean annual canal discharge differed by less than 1.0 cubic foot per second. Seepage meters were used to quantify vertical seepage rates in the Everglades wetlands area west of Levee 31N. A comparison between results from the seepage meters and from the computer model indicated substantial differences that seemed to be a result of local variations in the hydraulic properties in the topmost part of the Biscayne aquifer. The transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer was estimated to be 1,400,000 square feet per day in the study area. The computer model was employed to simulate seepage of ground water beneath Levee 31N

  13. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

    2011-10-01

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  14. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Arthur W; Diehl, J Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C

    2012-05-01

    Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 × 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 20–30% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

  15. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Martorell, S.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-07-20

    In nuclear power plants surveillance tests are required to detect failures in standby safety system components as a means of assuring their availability in case of an accident. However, the performance of surveillance tests at power may have adverse impact on safety as evidenced by the operating experience of the plants. The risk associated with a test includes two different aspects: (1) a positive aspect, i.e., risk contribution detected by the test, that results from the detection of failures which occur between tests and are detected by the test, and (2) a negative aspect, i.e., risk contribution caused by the test, that includes failures and degradations which are caused by the test or are related to the performance of the test. In terms of the two different risk contributions, the risk effectiveness of a test can be simply defined as follows: a test is risk effective if the risk contribution detected by the test is greater than the risk contribution caused by the test; otherwise it is risk ineffective. The methodology presentation will focus on two important kinds of negative test risk impacts, that is, the risk impacts of test-caused transients and equipment wear-out. The evaluation results of the risk effectiveness of the test will be presented in the full paper along with the risk assessment methodology and the insights from the sensitivity analysis. These constitute the core of the NUREG/CR-5775.

  16. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

  17. A test battery for the ecotoxicological evaluation of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Repetto, G; Jos, A; Hazen, M J; Molero, M L; del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Castillo, P D; Rodríguez-Vicente, M C; Repetto, M

    2001-01-01

    Experimental bioassays are currently used in ecotoxicology and environmental toxicology to provide information for risk assessment evaluation of new chemicals and to investigate their effects and mechanisms of action; in addition, ecotoxicological models are used for the detection, control and monitoring of the presence of pollutants in the environment. As a single bioassay will never provide a full picture of the quality of the environment, a representative, cost-effective and quantitative test battery should be developed. The effects of pentachlorophenol were studied using a battery of ecotoxicological model systems, including immobilization of Daphnia magna, bioluminiscence inhibition in the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition of the alga Chlorella vulgaris, and micronuclei induction in the plant Allium cepa. The inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction were investigated in Vero cells. Neutral red uptake, cell growth, MTT reduction, lactate dehydrogenase leakage and activity were studied in the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2, derived from the gonad of rainbow trout. Pentachlorophenol was very toxic for all biota and cells. The system most sensitive to pentachlorophenol, was micronuclei induction in A. cepa, followed by D. magna immobilization, bioluminescence inhibition in V. fischeri bacteria at 60 min and cell proliferation inhibition of RTG-2 cells at 72 h. Inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction on Vero monkey cells showed intermediate sensitivity. PMID:11566584

  18. A test battery for the ecotoxicological evaluation of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Repetto, G; Jos, A; Hazen, M J; Molero, M L; del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Castillo, P D; Rodríguez-Vicente, M C; Repetto, M

    2001-01-01

    Experimental bioassays are currently used in ecotoxicology and environmental toxicology to provide information for risk assessment evaluation of new chemicals and to investigate their effects and mechanisms of action; in addition, ecotoxicological models are used for the detection, control and monitoring of the presence of pollutants in the environment. As a single bioassay will never provide a full picture of the quality of the environment, a representative, cost-effective and quantitative test battery should be developed. The effects of pentachlorophenol were studied using a battery of ecotoxicological model systems, including immobilization of Daphnia magna, bioluminiscence inhibition in the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition of the alga Chlorella vulgaris, and micronuclei induction in the plant Allium cepa. The inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction were investigated in Vero cells. Neutral red uptake, cell growth, MTT reduction, lactate dehydrogenase leakage and activity were studied in the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2, derived from the gonad of rainbow trout. Pentachlorophenol was very toxic for all biota and cells. The system most sensitive to pentachlorophenol, was micronuclei induction in A. cepa, followed by D. magna immobilization, bioluminescence inhibition in V. fischeri bacteria at 60 min and cell proliferation inhibition of RTG-2 cells at 72 h. Inhibition of cell proliferation and MTT reduction on Vero monkey cells showed intermediate sensitivity.

  19. SEC sensor parametric test and evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This system provides the necessary automated hardware required to carry out, in conjunction with the existing 70 mm SEC television camera, the sensor evaluation tests which are described in detail. The Parametric Test Set (PTS) was completed and is used in a semiautomatic data acquisition and control mode to test the development of the 70 mm SEC sensor, WX 32193. Data analysis of raw data is performed on the Princeton IBM 360-91 computer.

  20. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, E.

    1997-04-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakage areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack.

  1. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  2. AMTEC RC-10 Performance Evaluation Test Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuller, Michael; Reiners, Elinor; Lemire, Robert; Sievers, Robert

    1994-07-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Power and Thermal Management Division (PL/VTP), in conjunction with ORION International Technologies, initiated the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Conversion (AMTEC), Remote Condensed-10% efficient (RC-10) Performance Evaluation Test Program to investigate cell design variations intended to increase efficiency in AMTEC cells. The RC-10 cell, fabricated by Advanced Modular Power Systems, uses a remote condensing region to reduce radiative heat losses from the electrode. The cell has operated at 10% efficiency. PL/VTP tested the RC-10 to evaluate its performance and efficiency. The impact of temperature variations along the length of the cell wall on performance were evaluated. Testing was performed in air, with a `` guard heater'' surrounding the cell to simulate the system environment of the cell.

  3. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of Eagel-Picher Industries, Incorporated, 20.0 amphere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation test of the 20.0 ampere-hour cells was conducted to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality. This is accomplished by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. The results obtained in the test are given, as well as the recommendations based on these findings.

  4. Proficiency Testing for Evaluating Aerospace Materials Test Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, D.; Motto, S.; Peyton, S.; Beeson, H.

    2006-01-01

    ASTM G 86 and ASTM G 74 are commonly used to evaluate materials susceptibility to ignition in liquid and gaseous oxygen systems. However, the methods have been known for their lack of repeatability. The inherent problems identified with the test logic would either not allow precise identification or the magnitude of problems related to running the tests, such as lack of consistency of systems performance, lack of adherence to procedures, etc. Excessive variability leads to increasing instances of accepting the null hypothesis erroneously, and so to the false logical deduction that problems are nonexistent when they really do exist. This paper attempts to develop and recommend an approach that could lead to increased accuracy in problem diagnostics by using the 50% reactivity point, which has been shown to be more repeatable. The initial tests conducted indicate that PTFE and Viton A (for pneumatic impact) and Buna S (for mechanical impact) would be good choices for additional testing and consideration for inter-laboratory evaluations. The approach presented could also be used to evaluate variable effects with increased confidence and tolerance optimization.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    The most common method of measuring air leakage is to perform single (or solo) blower door pressurization and/or depressurization test. In detached housing, the single blower door test measures leakage to the outside. In attached housing, however, this “solo” test method measures both air leakage to the outside and air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces. In an attempt to create a simplified tool for predicting leakage to the outside, Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) performed a preliminary statistical analysis on blower door test results from 112 attached dwelling units in four apartment complexes. Although the subject data set is limited in size and variety, the preliminary analyses suggest significant predictors are present and support the development of a predictive model. Further data collection is underway to create a more robust prediction tool for use across different construction types, climate zones, and unit configurations.

  6. Optical imaging to map blood-brain barrier leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffer, Hayder; Adjei, Isaac M.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2013-11-01

    Vascular leakage in the brain is a major complication associated with brain injuries and certain pathological conditions due to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have developed an optical imaging method, based on excitation and emission spectra of Evans Blue dye, that is >1000-fold more sensitive than conventional ultraviolet spectrophotometry. We used a rat thromboembolic stroke model to validate the usefulness of our method for vascular leakage. Optical imaging data show that vascular leakage varies in different areas of the post-stroke brain and that administering tissue plasminogen activator causes further leakage. The new method is quantitative, simple to use, requires no tissue processing, and can map the degree of vascular leakage in different brain locations. The high sensitivity of our method could potentially provide new opportunities to study BBB leakage in different pathological conditions and to test the efficacy of various therapeutic strategies to protect the BBB.

  7. Testing and Evaluation of Multifunctional Smart Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    A smart coating system, based on pH sensitive microcontainers (microparticles and microcapsules) has been developed. Various corrosion inhibitors have been encapsulated and incorporated into commercial and formulated coatings to test the functionality imparted on the coating by the incorporation of the inhibitor microcontainers. Coated carbon steel and aluminum alloy panels were tested using salt immersion, salt fog, and coastal atmospheric exposure conditions. This paper provides the details on coating sample preparation, evaluation methods, as well as test results of the inhibiting function of smart coatings.

  8. The Role of Testing and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Eric; And Others

    A group of seven conference papers, all dealing with the role of testing and evaluation in the schools, is presented in this document. The papers are as follows: (1) "Framework for Effective Schools" (Eric Cooper), which identifies indicators of efficacy, quality, and equity; (2) "Quality Indicators for Monitoring Equity" (Ramsay Selden), which…

  9. Interbull validation test for genomic evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations (GEBV) can be validated by comparing GEBVs of bulls in the youngest age classes to the daughter yield deviations (DYD) that the bulls will receive later. The GEBV are calculated from truncated data where the last four years of phenotypic data are removed. The test consists of w...

  10. The Test and Evaluation Facility, Cincinnati, Ohio

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Test and Evaluation Facility (T&E) is located on the grounds of Cincinnati’s Mill Creek wastewater treatment plant. There, studies are conducted on new treatment technologies for contaminants in water and wastewater for EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NR...

  11. Electrical leakage detection circuit

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Arthur

    2006-09-05

    A method is provided for detecting electrical leakage between a power supply and a frame of a vehicle or machine. The disclosed method includes coupling a first capacitor between a frame and a first terminal of a power supply for a predetermined period of time. The current flowing between the frame and the first capacitor is limited to a predetermined current limit. It is determined whether the voltage across the first capacitor exceeds a threshold voltage. A first output signal is provided when the voltage across the capacitor exceeds the threshold voltage.

  12. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  13. 40 CFR 90.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.324 Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being...

  14. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  15. 40 CFR 90.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.324 Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being...

  16. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  17. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  18. 40 CFR 90.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.324 Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being...

  19. 40 CFR 89.316 - Analyzer leakage and response time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Provisions § 89.316 Analyzer leakage and response time. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results must be checked. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for...

  20. 40 CFR 90.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.324 Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being...

  1. 40 CFR 90.324 - Analyzer leakage check.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.324 Analyzer leakage check. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Check any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could affect the test results. (2) The maximum allowable leakage rate on the vacuum side is 0.5 percent of the in-use flow rate for the portion of the system being...

  2. Improved Steam Turbine Leakage Control with a Brush Seal Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Raymond E.; Pastrana, Ryan; Wolfe, Chris; Burnett, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents an improved steam turbine leakage control system with a brush seal design. The contents include: 1) Typical Design Characteristics; 2) Typical Brush Seal Locations; 3) Reduced Leakage Rates; 4) Performance Benefits; 5) System Considerations; 6) Rotor Dynamics; 7) Laboratory Tests and 8) Field Experience.

  3. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  4. Airborne seeker evaluation and test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollie, William B.

    1991-08-01

    The Airborne Seeker Evaluation Test System (ASETS) is an airborne platform for development, test, and evaluation of air-to-ground seekers and sensors. ASETS consists of approximately 10,000 pounds of equipment, including sixteen racks of control, display, and recording electronics, and a very large stabilized airborne turret, all carried by a modified C- 130A aircraft. The turret measures 50 in. in diameter and extends over 50 in. below the aircraft. Because of the low ground clearance of the C-130, a unique retractor mechanism was designed to raise the turret inside the aircraft for take-offs and landings, and deploy the turret outside the aircraft for testing. The turret has over 7 cubic feet of payload space and can accommodate up to 300 pounds of instrumentation, including missile seekers, thermal imagers, infrared mapping systems, laser systems, millimeter wave radar units, television cameras, and laser rangers. It contains a 5-axis gyro-stabilized gimbal system that will maintain a line of sight in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes to an accuracy better than +/- 125 (mu) rad. The rack-mounted electronics in the aircraft cargo bay can be interchanged to operate any type of sensor and record the data. Six microcomputer subsystems operate and maintain all of the system components during a test mission. ASETS is capable of flying at altitudes between 200 and 20,000 feet, and at airspeeds ranging from 100 to 250 knots. Mission scenarios can include air-to-surface seeker testing, terrain mapping, surface target measurement, air-to-air testing, atmospheric transmission studies, weather data collection, aircraft or missile tracking, background signature measurements, and surveillance. ASETS is fully developed and available to support test programs.

  5. Leakage Sign for Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hirohata, Masaru; Nakamura, Yukihiko; Takeshige, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takachika; Hattori, Gousuke; Sakata, Kiyohiko; Abe, Toshi; Uchiyama, Yuusuke; Sakamoto, Teruo; Morioka, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Recent studies of intracerebral hemorrhage treatments have highlighted the need to identify reliable predictors of hematoma expansion. Several studies have suggested that the spot sign on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a sensitive radiological predictor of hematoma expansion in the acute phase. However, the spot sign has low sensitivity for hematoma expansion. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a novel predictive method, called the leakage sign. Methods— We performed CTA for 80 consecutive patients presenting with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Two scans were completed: CTA phase and delayed phase (5 minutes after the CTA phase). By comparing the CTA phase images, we set a region of interest with a 10-mm diameter and calculated the Hounsfield units. We defined a positive leakage sign as a >10% increase in Hounsfield units in the region of interest. Additionally, hematoma expansion was determined on plain computed tomography at 24 hours in patients who did not undergo emergent surgery. Results— Positive spot signs and leakage signs were present in 18 (22%) patients and 35 (43%) patients, respectively. The leakage sign had higher sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (88.9%) for hematoma expansion than the spot sign. The leakage sign, but not the spot sign, was significantly related with poor outcomes (severely disabled, vegetative state, and death) in all of the patients (P=0.03) and in patients with a hemorrhage in the putamen (P=0.0016). Conclusions— The results indicate that the leakage sign is a useful and sensitive method to predict hematoma expansion. PMID:26931155

  6. Effects of flow separation and cove leakage on pressure and heat-transfer distributions along a wing-cove-elevon configuration at Mach 6.9. [Langley 8-ft high temperature tunnel test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveikis, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    External and internal pressure and cold-wall heating-rate distributions were obtained in hypersonic flow on a full-scale heat-sink representation of the space shuttle orbiter wing-elevon-cove configuration in an effort to define effects of flow separation on cove aerothermal environment as a function of cove seal leak area, ramp angle, and free-stream unit Reynolds number. Average free-stream Mach number from all tests was 6.9; average total temperature from all tests was 3360 R; free-stream dynamic pressure ranged from about 2 to 9 psi; and wing angle of attack was 5 deg (flow compression). For transitional and turbulent flow separation, increasing cove leakage progressively increased heating rates in the cove. When ingested mass flow was sufficient to force large reductions in extent of separation, increasing cove leakage reduced heating rates in the cove to those for laminar attached flow. Cove heating-rate distributions calculated with a method that assumed laminar developing channel flow agreed with experimentally obtained distributions within root-mean-square differences that varied between 11 and 36 percent where cove walls were parallel for leak areas of 50 and 100 percent.

  7. Is intervertebral cement leakage a risk factor for new adjacent vertebral collapse?

    PubMed

    Churojana, Anchalee; Songsaeng, Dittapong; Khumtong, Rujimas; Suwanbundit, Anek; Saliou, Guillaume

    2014-10-31

    This retrospective study evaluated the relationship between intervertebral cement leakage and new adjacent vertebral fracture and describes the different characteristics of cement leakage. Increased risk of new adjacent vertebral fracture (NF) has been reported to be a complication of cement leakage in vertebroplasty. In our observation, an incidental intervertebral cement leakage may occur during vertebroplasty but is commonly asymptomatic. The study focused on osteoporotic collapse patients who had percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) between 2005 and 2007. We divided patients into leakage and non-leakage groups and compared the incidence of NF. Leakage characteristics were divided into three types: Type I intervertebral-extradiscal leakage, Type II intradiscal leakage and Type III combined leakage. Visual analog scale for pain and the Karnofsky Performance Status at 24 h, three months, six months and one year were compared between groups and types of leakages. Among 148 PVs (102 patients) there were 30 leakages (20.27%) and 21(14.19%) NFs. The incidence of NF did not significantly differ between leakage and non-leakage groups (P<0.05). Type II was the most common type of leakage (15/30). Reduction of average pain and improvement of Karnofsky Performance Status score did not differ between groups (P< 0.05). Type II had decreased pain score < type I and III at 24 h (P < 0.01), three months and six months (P < 0.1) but not at one year (P<0.10). Type II also had decreased pain score < non-leakage group only at 24 h (P<0.05). Intervertebral cement leakage is not an increased risk for NF, influenced outcomes of pain relief or improvement of physical function. Intradiscal leakage (Type II) is the most common characteristic of cement leakage and probably related to delayed pain relief.

  8. The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1986-11-01

    The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

  9. The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1986-01-01

    The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

  10. Evaluation of test authorization #2-1102

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, N.

    1985-11-15

    The original Test Authorization (TA) is evaluated. A new silver mordenite (Ag Z) cartridge design has been developed and presented to Separations personnel. The future direction for this TA, mutually agreed to by SRP and SRL personnel, is to; document current program status; continue the sampling program to refine the method and gather baseline DF data; finalize new cartridge design and obtain cost and timing estimates for its procurement; complete cost, benefit analysis for silver mordenite; conduct literature search on available technology to divert more iodine to the dissolver off-gas and thus to the iodine reactor.

  11. Benchmark testing of {sup 233}U evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.Q.; Leal, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the adequacy of available {sup 233}U cross-section data (ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3) for calculation of critical experiments. An ad hoc revised {sup 233}U evaluation is also tested and appears to give results which are improved relative to those obtained with either ENDF/B-VI or JENDL-3 cross sections. Calculations of k{sub eff} were performed for ten fast benchmarks and six thermal benchmarks using the three cross-section sets. Central reaction-rate-ratio calculations were also performed.

  12. Capillary leakage in travelers with dengue infection: implications for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eyal; Heyman, Zahava; Bin, Hanna; Schwartz, Eli

    2012-03-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is characterized by the presence of a capillary leak syndrome. Its pathogenesis is presumed to differ from that of classical dengue fever (DF) and to be associated with secondary dengue infection. Returning travelers given a diagnosis of DF were evaluated for capillary leakage with abdominal sonography. Data were compared between travelers with primary/secondary infection defined by epidemiologic and serologic parameters. A total of 12 (34.3%) of 35 patients had sonographic signs of capillary leakage. Most (85%) patients with capillary leakage had classical DF. Capillary leak was diagnosed in 32% of primary dengue cases and in 40% of secondary dengue cases (P = 0.69). The two patients given a diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever had primary infections. The high prevalence of capillary leakage among travelers, most of them with primary exposure to dengue, calls into question the importance of secondary infection in causing capillary leakage in dengue infection.

  13. Seasonal variation in effective leakage area

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, J.B.; Feustel, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Previous research on the seasonal changes in airtightness has been conducted by other researchers on one or two houses in one location. This paper describes air leakage rate measurements using the fan pressurization technique performed monthly over a period of one year in ten occupied houses in three different climates. The purpose of this study is to determine the seasonal variation in effective leakage area in houses in different climates. The three sets of houses included in this study are located in Reno, Nevada (semi-arid, high desert), Truckee, California (alpine, mountainous), and the San Francisco Bay Area (temperate, coastal). The houses are all wood-frame construction and range from one year to seventy years in age. Indoor and outdoor air temperatures, wind speed, and the moisture content of wood framing and other building components were measured at the time of each fan pressurization test. Indoor moisture levels were monitored by measuring the moisture content of a reference block of wood that was located indoors at each site. The results indicate a seasonal variation in effective leakage area in some but not all of the houses; the largest variations are seen in the Truckee houses with effective leakage areas up to 45% higher in the summer as compared to those measured in midwinter.

  14. Criteria evaluation for cleanliness testing phase 0

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, Michael; Koester, Carolyn; Stefanni, Chris

    1999-02-04

    The Boeing Company (Boeing) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop criteria for evaluating the efficacy of its parts cleaning processes. In particular, LLNL and Boeing are attempting to identify levels of contamination that lead to parts failures. Sufficient contamination to cause impairment of anodizing, alodining, painting, or welding operations is considered a "part failure." In the "Phase 0" part of the project that was recently completed, preliminary analyses of aluminum substrates were performed as a first step in determining suitable cleanliness criteria for actual Boeing parts made from this material. A wide spread of contamination levels was specified for the Phase 0 test coupons, in the hopes of finding a range in which an appropriate cleanliness specification might lie. It was planned that, based on the results of the Phase 0 testing, further more detailed analyses ("Phase 1 testing") would be performed in order to more accurately identify the most appropriate criteria. For the Phase 0 testing, Boeing supplied LLNL with 3" x 6" and 3" x 10" aluminum test panels which LLNL contaminated with measured amounts of typical hydrocarbon substances encountered in Boeing' s fabrication operations. The panels were then subjected by Boeing to normal cleaning procedures, after which they went through one of the following sets of operations: l anodizing and primer painting . alodining (chromating) and primer painting l welding The coatings or welds were then examined by both Boeing and LLNL to determine whether any of the operations were impaired, and whether there was a correlation between contamination level and damage to the parts. The experimental approach and results are described in detail.

  15. Spacecraft Fire Suppression: Testing and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Wu, Ming-Shin

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project is the testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of a variety of fire suppressants and fire-response techniques that will be used in the next generation of spacecraft (Crew Exploration Vehicle, CEV) and planetary habitats. From the many lessons learned in the last 40 years of space travel, there is common agreement in the spacecraft fire safety community that a new fire suppression system will be needed for the various types of fire threats anticipated in new space vehicles and habitats. To date, there is no single fire extinguishing system that can address all possible fire situations in a spacecraft in an effective, reliable, clean, and safe way. The testing conducted under this investigation will not only validate the various numerical models that are currently being developed, but it will provide new design standards on fire suppression that can then be applied to the next generation of spacecraft extinguishment systems. The test program will provide validation of scaling methods by conducting small, medium, and large scale fires. A variety of suppression methods will be tested, such as water mist, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen with single and multiple injection points and direct or distributed agent deployment. These injection methods cover the current ISS fire suppression method of a portable hand-held fire extinguisher spraying through a port in a rack and also next generation spacecraft units that may have a multi-point suppression delivery system built into the design. Consideration will be given to the need of a crew to clean-up the agent and recharge the extinguishers in flight in a long-duration mission. The fire suppression methods mentioned above will be used to extinguish several fire scenarios that have been identified as the most relevant to spaceflight, such as overheated wires, cable bundles, and circuit boards, as well as burning cloth and paper. Further testing will be conducted in which obstructions and

  16. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  17. Theory and Application of Magnetic Flux Leakage Pipeline Detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Jia, Guanwei

    2015-12-10

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection is one of the most popular methods of pipeline inspection. It is a nondestructive testing technique which uses magnetic sensitive sensors to detect the magnetic leakage field of defects on both the internal and external surfaces of pipelines. This paper introduces the main principles, measurement and processing of MFL data. As the key point of a quantitative analysis of MFL detection, the identification of the leakage magnetic signal is also discussed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different identification methods are analyzed. Then the paper briefly introduces the expert systems used. At the end of this paper, future developments in pipeline MFL detection are predicted.

  18. Theory and Application of Magnetic Flux Leakage Pipeline Detection

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Jia, Guanwei

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection is one of the most popular methods of pipeline inspection. It is a nondestructive testing technique which uses magnetic sensitive sensors to detect the magnetic leakage field of defects on both the internal and external surfaces of pipelines. This paper introduces the main principles, measurement and processing of MFL data. As the key point of a quantitative analysis of MFL detection, the identification of the leakage magnetic signal is also discussed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different identification methods are analyzed. Then the paper briefly introduces the expert systems used. At the end of this paper, future developments in pipeline MFL detection are predicted. PMID:26690435

  19. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  20. Simple leakage flow model for brush seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Dowler, Constance A.; Holle, Glenn F.

    1991-06-01

    Brush seals are potential replacements for some or most of the air-to-air labyrinth seals in gas turbine engines. A simple flow model is presented to generalize brush seal leakage performance throughout the range of test and application environments. The model uses a single parameter, effective brush thickness, to correlate flow through the seal. This effective brush thickness is a measure of the compactness of the bristle bed. Initial model results have been obtained using leakage flow data from two investigators. The results indicate that this simple single parameter model gives insight into the active nature of a brush seal and approximately accounts for the effect of fluid temperature, especially at the higher pressure ratios, where brush seals are commonly applied.

  1. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Seal Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, John R.; Underwood, Steve D.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1999-01-01

    Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM provides the structural interface between separate International Space Station (ISS) elements, such as the Laboratory and Node modules. The CBM consists of an active and a passive half that join together with structural bolts. The seal at this interface is the CBM-to-CBM molded seal. The CBM-to-CBM interface is assembled on orbit, thus the seals can be exposed to the space environment for up to 65 hours. Atomic Oxygen/Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation (AO/VUV) in space is a potential hazard to the seals. Testing was conducted to determine the effect on leakage of the CBM-to-CBM seal material exposed to AO/VUV. The sealing materials were S383 silicone and V835 fluorocarbon material. Control samples, which were not exposed to the AO/VUV environment, were used to ensure that ff any changes in leakage occurred, they could be attributed to the AO/VUV exposure. After exposure to the AO/VUV environment the leakage increase was dramatic for the fluorocarbon. This testing was a major contributing factor in selecting silicone as the CBM-to-CBM seal material.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Seal Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, John R.; Underwood, Steve D.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1998-01-01

    Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) provides the structural interface between separate International Space Station (ISS) elements, such as the Laboratory and Node modules. The CBM consists of an active and a passive half that join together with structural bolts. The seal at this interface is the CBM-to-CBM molded seal. The CBM-to-CBM interface is assembled on orbit, thus the seals can be exposed to the space environment for up to 65 hours. Atomic Oxygen/Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation (AO/VUV) in space is a potential hazard to the seals. Testing was conducted to determine the effect on leakage of the CBM-to-CBM seal material exposed to AO/VUV. The sealing materials were S383 silicone and V835 fluorocarbon material. Control samples, which were not exposed to the AO/VUV environment, were used to ensure that if any changes in leakage occurred, they could be attributed to the AO/VUV exposure. After exposure to the AO/VUV environment the leakage increase was dramatic for the fluorocarbon. This testing was a major contributing factor in selecting silicone as the CBM-to-CBM seal material.

  3. Test and evaluation capabilities at NAVELEXCEN Charleston

    SciTech Connect

    Stalvey, T.W.; Anderson, G.B.; Hinson, T.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Systems and Instrumentation Engineering Department is located within the Special Programs Directorate of the Naval Electronic Systems Engineering Center (NAVELEXCEN Charleston). This Center is an echelon 4 Command under the Naval Command Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, San Diego (NCCOSC). NCCOSC is an echelon 3 Command under the Space and Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) which is located in Washington DC. Radiation Detection, Indication and Computation (RDIAC) equipment life-cycle management for the entire Navy falls under the auspices of the Naval Sea Systems Command (SEA 04R). The RADIAC Program provides centralized management for the execution of research, development, test, evaluation, maintenance, procurement, allowance, and equipment support for all Navy RADIAC instrumentation and assigned special monitoring equipments. RADIAC equipment is used throughout the Navy to support various functions associated with radioactivity, potential contamination, and personnel exposure to sources of ionizing radiation. Common sources in today`s Navy include nuclear reactors, nuclear weapons, industrial radiography, and nuclear medicine. Types of radiation includes gamma, x-ray, alpha, and beta.

  4. Evaluation of a quantitative fit testing method for N95 filtering facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Larry; Luinenburg, Michael D; Mullins, Haskell E; Danisch, Susan G; Nelson, Thomas J

    2003-01-01

    A method for performing quantitative fit tests (QNFT) with N95 filtering facepiece respirators was developed by earlier investigators. The method employs a simple clamping device to allow the penetration of submicron aerosols through N95 filter media to be measured. The measured value is subtracted from total penetration, with the assumption that the remaining penetration represents faceseal leakage. The developers have used the clamp to assess respirator performance. This study evaluated the clamp's ability to measure filter penetration and determine fit factors. In Phase 1, subjects were quantitatively fit-tested with elastomeric half-facepiece respirators using both generated and ambient aerosols. QNFT were done with each aerosol with both P100 and N95 filters without disturbing the facepiece. In Phase 2 of the study elastomeric half facepieces were sealed to subjects' faces to eliminate faceseal leakage. Ambient aerosol QNFT were performed with P100 and N95 filters without disturbing the facepiece. In both phases the clamp was used to measure N95 filter penetration, which was then subtracted from total penetration for the N95 QNFT. It was hypothesized that N95 fit factors corrected for filter penetration would equal the P100 fit factors. Mean corrected N95 fit factors were significantly different from the P100 fit factors in each phase of the study. In addition, there was essentially no correlation between corrected N95 fit factors and P100 fit factors. It was concluded that the clamp method should not be used to fit-test N95 filtering facepieces or otherwise assess respirator performance. PMID:12908863

  5. 40 CFR 610.25 - Evaluation of test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... base; (d) Definition of claims which can be made based on the available data; and (e) Substantiation of... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evaluation of test data. 610.25... Analysis § 610.25 Evaluation of test data. Valid manufacturer-furnished test data will be evaluated...

  6. 40 CFR 610.25 - Evaluation of test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... base; (d) Definition of claims which can be made based on the available data; and (e) Substantiation of... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of test data. 610.25... Analysis § 610.25 Evaluation of test data. Valid manufacturer-furnished test data will be evaluated...

  7. A MODEL FOR THE EVALUATION OF A TESTING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COX, RICHARD C.; UNKS, NANCY J.

    THE EVALUATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM TYPICALLY IMPLIES MEASUREMENT. MEASUREMENT, IN TURN, IMPLIES TESTING IN ONE FORM OR ANOTHER. IN ORDER TO CARRY OUT THE TESTING NECESSARY FOR THE EVALUATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, RESEARCHERS OFTEN DEVELOP A COMPLETE TESTING SUB-PROGRAM. THE EVALUATION OF THE TOTAL PROJECT MAY DEPEND UPON THE TESTING…

  8. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    2002-01-25

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  9. Sweat testing to evaluate autonomic function

    PubMed Central

    Illigens, Ben M.W.; Gibbons, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Sudomotor dysfunction is one of the earliest detectable neurophysiologic abnormalities in distal small fiber neuropathy. Traditional neurophysiologic measurements of sudomotor function include thermoregulatory sweat testing (TST), quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART), silicone impressions, the sympathetic skin response (SSR), and the recent addition of quantitative direct and indirect axon reflex testing (QDIRT). These testing techniques, when used in combination, can detect and localized pre- and postganglionic lesions, can provide early diagnosis of sudomotor dysfunction and can monitor disease progression or disease recovery. In this article, we review the common tests available for assessment of sudomotor function, detail the testing methodology, review the limitations and provide examples of test results. PMID:18989618

  10. Test techniques for evaluating flight displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Newman, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid development of graphics technology allows for greater flexibility in aircraft displays, but display evaluation techniques have not kept pace. Historically, display evaluation has been based on subjective opinion and not on the actual aircraft/pilot performance. Existing electronic display specifications and evaluation techniques are reviewed. A display rating technique analogous to handling qualities ratings was developed and is recommended for future evaluations. The choice of evaluation pilots is also discussed and the use of a limited number of trained evaluators is recommended over the use of a large number of operational pilots.

  11. 49 CFR 230.78 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leakage. 230.78 Section 230.78 Transportation... Signal Equipment § 230.78 Leakage. (a) Main reservoirs and related piping. Leakage from main reservoir... to 60 percent of the maximum operating pressure. (b) Brake cylinders. Leakage from brake...

  12. 49 CFR 230.78 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leakage. 230.78 Section 230.78 Transportation... Signal Equipment § 230.78 Leakage. (a) Main reservoirs and related piping. Leakage from main reservoir... to 60 percent of the maximum operating pressure. (b) Brake cylinders. Leakage from brake...

  13. 49 CFR 230.78 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leakage. 230.78 Section 230.78 Transportation... Signal Equipment § 230.78 Leakage. (a) Main reservoirs and related piping. Leakage from main reservoir... to 60 percent of the maximum operating pressure. (b) Brake cylinders. Leakage from brake...

  14. 49 CFR 230.78 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leakage. 230.78 Section 230.78 Transportation... Signal Equipment § 230.78 Leakage. (a) Main reservoirs and related piping. Leakage from main reservoir... to 60 percent of the maximum operating pressure. (b) Brake cylinders. Leakage from brake...

  15. 49 CFR 230.78 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leakage. 230.78 Section 230.78 Transportation... Signal Equipment § 230.78 Leakage. (a) Main reservoirs and related piping. Leakage from main reservoir... to 60 percent of the maximum operating pressure. (b) Brake cylinders. Leakage from brake...

  16. Evaluating effective reaction rates of kinetically driven solutes in large-scale, anisotropic media: human health risk implications in CO2 leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirila, E. R.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The role of high and low hydraulic conductivity (K) regions in heterogeneous, stratified and non-stratified flow fields and the subsequent effect of rate dependent geochemical reactions are investigated with regards to mobilized arsenic from CO2 leakage at a Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) site. Following the methodology of previous work, human health risk is used as an endpoint for comparison via a two-stage or nested Monte Carlo scheme, explicitly considering joint uncertainty and variability for a hypothetical population of individuals. This study identifies geo-hydrologic conditions where solute reactions are either rate limited (non-reactive), in equilibrium (linear equilibrium assumption, LEA, is appropriate), or are sensitive to time-dependent kinetic reaction rates. Potential interplay between multiple parameters (i.e. positive or negative feedbacks) is shown utilizing stochastic ensembles. In particular, the effect of preferential flow pathways and solute mixing on the field-scale (macrodispersion) and sub-grid (local dispersion) is examined for varying degrees of stratification and regional groundwater velocities. Results show effective reaction rates of kinetic ensembles are dissimilar from LEA ensembles with the inclusion of local dispersion, resulting in an additive tailing effect of the solute plume, a retarded peak time, and an increased cancer risk. This discrepancy between kinetic and LEA ensembles is augmented in highly anisotropic media, especially at intermediate regional groundwater velocities. The distribution, magnitude, and associated uncertainty of cancer risk are controlled by these factors, but are also strongly dependent on the regional groundwater velocity. We demonstrate a higher associated uncertainty of cancer risk in stratified domains is linked to higher aquifer connectivity and less macrodispersion in the flow field. This study has implications in CCS site selection and groundwater driven risk assessment modeling.

  17. Ex vivo study of bacterial coronal leakage in indirect pulp treatment

    PubMed Central

    Baca, Pilar; Pardo-Ridao, Maria M.; Arias-Moliz, Maria T.; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, ex vivo, bacterial coronal leakage with different antimicrobial agents applied to the dentine for indirect pulp treatment (IPT). Study Design: Sixty extracted teeth were prepared and randomly distributed into 5 groups (n=10): Group 1: no antimicrobial dentine treatment; group 2: 1% chlorhexidine (CHX)+1% thymol varnish (Cervitec®); group 3: 2 % CHX solution; group 4: 40% CHX varnish (EC40™) and group 5: Clearfil™ Protect Bond (CPB). Ten teeth served as controls. The teeth were restored using a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC) and then mounted in a two-chamber device. The coronal access was exposed to Streptococcus mutans for 45 days. The appearance of turbidity in the BHI broth of the lower chamber was considered as specimen leakage. Results: Survival analysis, determined by non parametric Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests, showed that the best results were for groups EC40™+GIC and GIC alone; yet there were not statistically significant differences between them. All specimens of CPB+GIC and 2% CHX+GIC, leaked at 45 days. Conclusions: In IPT the use of GIC without pretreatment of the dentine and pretreatment with 40% CHX varnish resulted in a significant delay of bacterial coronal leakage. Key words:Streptococcus mutans, bacterial leakage, resin-modified glass ionomer cement, indirect pulp treatment. PMID:23229261

  18. 76 FR 27016 - Evaluating Test Procedures for Voting Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Evaluating Test Procedures for Voting Systems AGENCY... assess NIST's test procedures for voting equipment. Manufacturers interested in participating in this... for certification) by the Election Assistance Commission to develop and assess NIST test protocols...

  19. Influence of the length of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation on the coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Mozini, Alexandra Conca Alves; Vansan, Luis P.; Sousa Neto, Manoel D.; Pietro, Rosimeire

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of different lengths of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation against coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis. Forty-one roots of maxillary incisors were biomechanically prepared, maintaining standardized canal diameter at the middle and coronal thirds. The roots were autoclaved and all subsequent steps were undertaken in a laminar flow chamber. The canals of 33 roots were obturated with AH Plus sealer and gutta-percha. The root canal fillings were reduced to 3 predetermined lengths (n=11): G1=6 mm, G2=4 mm and G3=2 mm. The remaining roots served as positive and negative controls. Bacterial leakage test apparatuses were fabricated with the roots attached to Eppendorf tubes keeping 2 mm of apex submerged in BHI in glass flasks. The specimens received an E. faecalis inoculum of 1 x 107 cfu/mL every 3 days and were observed for bacterial leakage daily during 60 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey’s test and Fisher’s test. At 60 days, G1 (6 mm) and G2 (4 mm) presented statistically similar results (p>0.05) (54.4% of specimens with bacterial leakage) and both groups differed significantly (p<0.01) from G3 (2 mm), which presented 100% of specimens with E. faecalis leakage. It may be concluded that the shortest endodontic obturation remnant leaked considerably more than the other lengths, although none of the tested conditions avoids coronal leakage of E. faecalis. PMID:24031339

  20. Detection of gas leakage

    DOEpatents

    Thornberg, Steven; Brown, Jason

    2012-06-19

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as an apparatus, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), that is a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement, where the invention is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr), perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  1. Detection of gas leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, Steven M; Brown, Jason

    2015-02-17

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as a device, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), provides a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement. The PPM is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr) using a venturi pump, perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  2. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, O.; Griffiths, D.

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the 2013 research project was to develop the model for predicting fully guarded test results (FGT), using unguarded test data and specific building features of apartment units. The model developed has a coefficient of determination R2 value of 0.53 with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13. Both statistical metrics indicate that the model is relatively strong. When tested against data that was not included in the development of the model, prediction accuracy was within 19%, which is reasonable given that seasonal differences in blower door measurements can vary by as much as 25%.

  3. Field size dependent mapping of medical linear accelerator radiation leakage.

    PubMed

    Bezin, Jérémi Vũ; Veres, Attila; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Deutsch, Eric; de Vathaire, Florent; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a graphics library based model for the assessment of linear accelerator radiation leakage. Transmission through the shielding elements was evaluated using the build-up factor corrected exponential attenuation law and the contribution from the electron guide was estimated using the approximation of a linear isotropic radioactive source. Model parameters were estimated by a fitting series of thermoluminescent dosimeter leakage measurements, achieved up to 100 cm from the beam central axis along three directions. The distribution of leakage data at the patient plane reflected the architecture of the shielding elements. Thus, the maximum leakage dose was found under the collimator when only one jaw shielded the primary beam and was about 0.08% of the dose at isocentre. Overall, we observe that the main contributor to leakage dose according to our model was the electron beam guide. Concerning the discrepancies between the measurements used to calibrate the model and the calculations from the model, the average difference was about 7%. Finally, graphics library modelling is a readily and suitable way to estimate leakage dose distribution on a personal computer. Such data could be useful for dosimetric evaluations in late effect studies.

  4. Test definitions for the evaluation of infrasound sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, Richard Paul; Hart, Darren M.; Harris, James Mark

    2007-07-01

    Most test methodologies referenced in this Test Definition and Test Procedures were designed by Sandia specifically for geophysical instrumentation evaluation. When appropriate, test instrumentation calibration is traceable to the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST). The objectives are to evaluate the overall technical performance of the infrasound sensor. The results of these evaluations can be compared to the manufacturer's specifications and any relevant application requirements or specifications.

  5. Sealing ability of MTA, CPM, and MBPc as root-end filling materials: a bacterial leakage study

    PubMed Central

    MEDEIROS, Paulo Leal; BERNARDINELI, Norberti; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; TORRES, Sérgio Aparecido; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; MARCIANO, Marina Angélica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the sealing ability of three root-end filling materials (white MTA, CPM, and MBPc) using an Enterococcus faecalis leakage model. Material and Methods Seventy single-root extracted human teeth were instrumented and root-ends were resected to prepare 3 mm depth cavities. Root-end preparations were filled with white MTA, CPM, and MBPc cements. Enterococcus faecalis was coronally introduced and the apical portion was immersed in BHI culture medium with phenol red indicator. The bacterial leakage was monitored every 24 h for 4 weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-Gehan test (p<0.05). Results All cements showed bacterial leakage after 24 hours, except for the negative control group. The MBPc showed significantly less bacterial leakage compared with the MTA group (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between the CPM and the other groups. Conclusions The epoxy resin-based cement MBPc had lower bacterial leakage compared with the calcium silicate-based cements MTA and CPM. PMID:27119763

  6. Robust characterization of leakage errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallman, Joel J.; Barnhill, Marie; Emerson, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Leakage errors arise when the quantum state leaks out of some subspace of interest, for example, the two-level subspace of a multi-level system defining a computational ‘qubit’, the logical code space of a quantum error-correcting code, or a decoherence-free subspace. Leakage errors pose a distinct challenge to quantum control relative to the more well-studied decoherence errors and can be a limiting factor to achieving fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we present a scalable and robust randomized benchmarking protocol for quickly estimating the leakage rate due to an arbitrary Markovian noise process on a larger system. We illustrate the reliability of the protocol through numerical simulations.

  7. Evaluation of sampling probes for fit testing n95 filtering facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael S; Viscusi, Dennis J; Zhuang, Ziqing; Newcomb, William E

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a sampling probe bias for measuring fit factors (FFs) in respirator facepieces. This study was conducted to evaluate three sampling probes for fit testing NIOSH-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Two phases of fit test experiments were conducted incorporating 'side-by-side' probe mounting: (i) flush probe versus deep probe and (ii) flush probe versus disc probe. Seven test subjects in Phase 1 and six subjects in Phase 2 were fit tested with one to three N95 FFR models for a total of 10 subject/FFR model combinations for each phase. For each experimental condition, induced faceseal leakage (IFSL) through an induced leak was measured using a PORTACOUNT® Plus model 8020A Respirator Fit Tester with a model 8095 N95-Companion™ accessory. For Phase 1, the mean IFSL of all flush probe measurements (3.6%) was significantly greater than (P < 0.05) the mean IFSL of all deep probe measurements (3.3%). For Phase 2, the mean IFSL of all flush probe measurements (8.5%) was not significantly greater than (P > 0.05) the mean IFSL of all disc probe measurements (8.3%). Results indicate that some leak site and subject/FFR model/leak site combination comparisons (flush probe versus deep probe or flush probe versus disc probe) were statistically different (P < 0.05). The overall mean IFSL for subject/FFR model/leak site combinations differed by 14 and 4% for the flush probe versus deep probe and the flush probe versus disc probe, respectively; however, from a practical standpoint, there is little difference between the flush probe tests compared with the deep probe or disc probe tests. Overall, IFSL measured using the flush probe is higher (resulting in a more conservative measure of faceseal leakage) compared with either the deep probe or disc probe. The more conservative results obtained using the flush probe provide support for its common usage for fit testing cup-shaped FFRs in the USA and potential use for fit testing FFRs in

  8. Evaluating Metal Probe Meters for Soil Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Inexpensive metal probe meters that are sold by garden stores can be evaluated by students for their accuracy in measuring soil pH, moisture, fertility, and salinity. The author concludes that the meters are inaccurate and cannot be calibrated in standard units. However, the student evaluations are useful in learning the methods of soil analysis…

  9. Detailed Test Plan Redundant Sensor Strapdown IMU Evaluation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwell, T.; Miyatake, Y.; Wedekind, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    The test plan for a redundant sensor strapdown inertial measuring unit evaluation program is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) test philosophy and limitations, (2) test sequence, (3) equipment specifications, (4) general operating procedures, (5) calibration procedures, (6) alignment test phase, and (7) navigation test phase. The data and analysis requirements are analyzed.

  10. Empirical Evaluation of Directional-Dependence Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoemmes, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Testing of directional dependence is a method to infer causal direction that recently has attracted some attention. Previous examples by e.g. von Eye and DeShon (2012a) and extensive simulation studies by Pornprasertmanit and Little (2012) have demonstrated that under specific assumptions, directional-dependence tests can recover the true causal…

  11. Evaluating Test Validity: Reprise and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie A.

    2016-01-01

    The AERA, APA, NCME Standards define validity as "the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores for proposed uses of tests". A century of disagreement about validity does not mean that there has not been substantial progress. This consensus definition brings together interpretations and use so that it…

  12. Clinical laboratory evaluation of the thermonuclease test.

    PubMed

    Shanholtzer, C J; Peterson, L R

    1982-05-01

    Simultaneous testing for clumping factor, coagulase, deoxyribonuclease, and thermonuclease was performed on 189 clinical isolates of gram-positive cocci with strong catalase activity to determine the suitability of the thermonuclease test as a routine procedure for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus. Positive reactions to all four tests were exhibited by 72 of the strains while 88 of the isolates gave uniformly negative results. Although discrepancies were found between the reactions of 29 organisms, differences were found between the reactions of 29 organisms, differences between tube coagulase ant thermonuclease results were rare. Greater than 90% of positive reactions for both tube coagulase and thermonuclease tests were detected within a four-hour incubation period. The thermonuclease test was found to be simple, reliable, inexpensive and rapid. This test gave easily interpretable reactions within an eight-hour workday, even when only one or two isolated colonies were used for testing. The thermonuclease test is well suited for use as a primary clinical laboratory procedure for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

  13. 40 CFR 610.25 - Evaluation of test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evaluation of test data. 610.25 Section 610.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Evaluation Criteria for the...

  14. 40 CFR 610.25 - Evaluation of test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evaluation of test data. 610.25 Section 610.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Evaluation Criteria for the...

  15. A magnetic flux leakage NDE system for CANDU feeder pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Thomas Don

    This work examines the application of different magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection concepts to the non destructive evaluation (NDE) of residual (elastic) stresses in CANDURTM reactor feeder pipes. The stress sensitivity of three MFL inspection techniques was examined with flat plate samples, with stress-induced magnetic anisotropy (SMA) demonstrating the greatest stress sensitivity. A prototype SMA testing system was developed to apply magnetic NDE to feeders. The system consists of a flux controller that incorporates feedback from a wire coil and a Hall sensor (FCV2), and a magnetic anisotropy prototype (MAP) probe. The combination of FCV2 and the MAP probe was shown to provide SMA measurements on feeder pipe samples and predict stresses from SMA measurements with a mean accuracy of +/-38MPa.

  16. Strip cell test and evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The performance characteristics of alkaline fuel cells to be used for space power systems were tested. Endurance tests were conducted on the cells during energy conversion operations. A feature of the cells fabricated and tested was the capability to evaporate the product water formed during the energy conversion reaction directly to space vacuum. A fuel cell powerplant incorporating these cells does not require a condenser and a hydrogen recirculating pump water separator to remove the product water. This simplified the fuel cell powerplant system, reduced the systems weight, and reduced the systems parasite power.

  17. Intermediate load modules for test and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic modules were tested for qualification. Tests involved the following: (1) delivery of 20 solar cells for use as reference cells; (2) module documentation and inspection plans specifying the 10 Group I modules; (3) design review of module documentation from Group I modules; (4) revise module documentation to overcome any problems of deficiencies associated with the Group I modules; (5) delivery of 10 Group II modules built to revised specifications; (6) testing of Group II modules to the criteria as outlined in qualification specification. It is found that the solarvolt MSP43E40B satisfies the design criteria of qualification specification for intermediate load modules. Design changes were made in the Group I modules to overcome the deficiencies which allowed Group II modules to pass the qualification tests.

  18. Tests evaluate equipment to locate subsea lines

    SciTech Connect

    Bickham, K.L.

    1988-06-06

    Field tests of four pipe-locating sensors in the Gulf of Mexico indicate that a magnetic gradiometer array (GA) positioned by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) can locate either buried or exposed pipelines in water as deep at 900 m (2,952 ft). The tests further led to recommendations for improvements in deploying equipment and operational procedures, especially for use in seas up to 2 m.

  19. A collimated detection system for assessing leakage dose from medical linear accelerators at the patient plane.

    PubMed

    Lonski, P; Taylor, M L; Franich, R D; Kron, T

    2014-03-01

    Leakage radiation from linear accelerators can make a significant contribution to healthy tissue dose in patients undergoing radiotherapy. In this work thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD chips) were used in a focused lead cone loaded with TLD chips for the purpose of evaluating leakage dose at the patient plane. By placing the TLDs at one end of a stereotactic cone, a focused measurement device is created; this was tested both in and out of the primary beam of a Varian 21-iX linac using 6 MV photons. Acrylic build up material of 1.2 cm thickness was used inside the cone and measurements made with either one or three TLD chips at a given distance from the target. Comparing the readings of three dosimeters in one plane inside the cone offered information regarding the orientation of the cone relative to a radiation source. Measurements in the patient plane with the linac gantry at various angles demonstrated that leakage dose was approximately 0.01% of the primary beam out of field when the cone was pointed directly towards the target and 0.0025% elsewhere (due to scatter within the gantry). No specific 'hot spots' (e.g., insufficient shielding or gaps at abutments) were observed. Focused cone measurements facilitate leakage dose measurements from the linac head directly at the patient plane and allow one to infer the fraction of leakage due to 'direct' photons (along the ray-path from the bremsstrahlung target) and that due to scattered photons.

  20. Air-leakage control manual

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, J.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the ``how and why`` of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the ``Simple Caulk and Seal`` (SIMPLE{center_dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center_dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  1. Air-Leakage Control Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Jim; Washington State Energy Office; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the how and why'' of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the Simple Caulk and Seal'' (SIMPLE{center dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  2. Comparison of bacterial leakage resistance of various root canal filling materials and methods: Confocal laser-scanning microscope study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji Hee; Chung, Jin; Na, Hee-Sam; Park, Eunjoo; Kwak, Sangwon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the bacterial leakage resistance and root canal lining efficacy of various root canal filling materials and methods by using confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM). Sixty extracted human premolars with mature apex and single root canal were randomly divided into 2 control groups and 4 experimental groups. Group CW was filled with continuous wave technique using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Group GC was coated with AH-Plus sealer and then obturated with soften GuttaCore. Group GF was obturated using GuttaFlow and gutta-percha. Group EM was filled with EndoSeal MTA and gutta-percha using ultrasonic vibration. The AH-Plus, GuttaFlow, and EndoSeal were labeled with Hoechst 33342 to facilitate fluorescence. The obturated root tip was incubated with Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-stained E. faecalis for 14 days. CLSM was performed to evaluate the sealer distribution and bacterial leakage for the apical 1-, 2-, 3-mm specimens. Statistically significant differences were determined by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation analysis. Group EM showed the better sealer distribution score than the other groups (p < 0.05). Group CW and group GC exhibited the less bacterial leakage than the group GF, while group EM showed the similar bacterial leakage score with the groups CW and GC. There was no significant correlation between the sealer distribution and bacterial leakage (p > 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, different root canal filling materials and methods showed different efficacy for canal distribution and bacterial leakage resistance.

  3. Evaluation of Cermet Fuels Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Anghaie, Samim; Harris, Paul

    2004-07-01

    Test results characterizing ceramic-metallic (cermet) fuels are available from fuel development programs conducted for the ANP project, the 710 reactor program and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) nuclear rocket program. There is some overlap in the materials candidates tested in these programs. Test conditions were however significantly different due to wide variation in intended applications of these high temperature cermet fuels. This paper provides an overview of these development efforts, define (where possible) the damage mechanisms thought to be responsible for fuel operating limitations, and identify the fundamental physical mechanisms thought to be responsible. In more recent years, a new form of cermet fuels based on uranium-zirconium carbonitride (U,Zr)CN was developed and tested by the Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute, University of Florida, and the Scientific Research Associates 'LUTCH' of Russia. The most significant outcome of the joint INSPILUTCH program was the establishment of the high temperature characteristics of the uranium-zirconium carbonitride, (U,Zr)CN and its long term compatibility with the metallic matrix. The improved features of uranium-zirconium carbonitride include chemical compatibility with tungsten matrix and stability at temperatures as high as 3300 K, high uranium density, and high thermal conductivity. The paper also presents a brief summary of the (U,Zr)CN base cermet fuel test results. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of MUREX SUDS Toxo test.

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, N P; Hudson, J D; Hausler, W J

    1987-01-01

    The SUDS Toxo test (MUREX Corp., Norcross, Ga.) was compared with the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) and the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFA) by examining 404 serum specimens, including 64 (15.8%) specimens with IFA titers of greater than or equal to 1:2. When SUDS was compared with IHA, sensitivity (96.4%), specificity (97.9%), and negative predictive value (99.4%) indicated that there were similar reactivities between the two tests. When an IFA titer of greater than or equal to 1:16 was considered significant and IHA and SUDS were compared with IFA, IHA was slightly less sensitive but had a higher positive predictive value than did SUDS; however, there was no statistical difference between the tests. When SUDS was compared with IFA, in which a titer of greater than or equal to 1:16 was considered significant, the high negative predictive value (100%), excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.3%), and ease of performance made SUDS an attractive alternative to IHA for screening single serum specimens for toxoplasmosis. PMID:3320079

  5. Here are considerations in evaluating Russian flow tests, reservoir performance

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, J.A. ); Connelly, W. )

    1992-12-28

    Flow test data contain some of the most important information for evaluation of a field. As part of the Russian evaluation process, research wells are extensively tested. Three types of well tests are conducted: drillstem tests, production flow test (if the well flows to the surface), and rising head test (if the well will not flow to the surface). Drillstem tests are run in the open hole across potential pay zones. After casing is run, wells are flow tested with multiple-rate tests, and the bottom hole pressures are recorded during the build-up periods. Results of the tests are summarized in test reports, on net pay maps, and on logs. The results from these tests include reservoir pressure, reservoir temperature, formation permeability, productivity index, and damage ratio. This paper reports that this information provides the basis for estimating production capacities and future reservoirs.

  6. Explosive materials equivalency, test methods and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koger, D. M.; Mcintyre, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to concepts of explosive equivalency of energetic materials based on specific airblast parameters. A description is provided of a wide bandwidth high accuracy instrumentation system which has been used extensively in obtaining pressure time profiles of energetic materials. The object of the considered test method is to determine the maximum output from the detonation of explosive materials in terms of airblast overpressure and positive impulse. The measured pressure and impulse values are compared with known characteristics of hemispherical TNT data to determine the equivalency of the test material in relation to TNT. An investigation shows that meaningful comparisons between various explosives and a standard reference material such as TNT should be based upon the same parameters. The tests should be conducted under the same conditions.

  7. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  8. Toxicity testing in chemical safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S

    2007-02-01

    The modern era of chemistry has resulted in dramatic improvements in the overall human condition. In addition to new pharmaceuticals, modern chemistry has brought with it enormous health and social benefits Introduction of chemistry-based technologies, however, has also been clearly associated with potential human health risks. The dramatic increase in pharmaceutical and chemical technologies in the post World War II era, coupled with associated examples of demonstrated human toxicity, led to development and application of an expanded and standardized battery of animal and other toxicity tests designed to characterize the potential hazards and risks associated with chemical exposures. This unit discusses the current approach to industrial chemical and pesticide toxicity testing.

  9. OCOD-CTTP Test Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorey, Leonard

    Tests in social studies and integrated science given in Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica were analyzed by the Organization for Co-operation in Overseas Development (OCOD) Comprehensive Teacher Training Program (CTTP) for discrimination, difficulty, and reliability, as well as other characteristics. There were 767 examinees for the…

  10. Evaluation of SSME test data reduction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Accurate prediction of hardware and flow characteristics within the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during transient and main-stage operation requires a significant integration of ground test data, flight experience, and computational models. The process of integrating SSME test measurements with physical model predictions is commonly referred to as data reduction. Uncertainties within both test measurements and simplified models of the SSME flow environment compound the data integration problem. The first objective of this effort was to establish an acceptability criterion for data reduction solutions. The second objective of this effort was to investigate the data reduction potential of the ROCETS (Rocket Engine Transient Simulation) simulation platform. A simplified ROCETS model of the SSME was obtained from the MSFC Performance Analysis Branch . This model was examined and tested for physical consistency. Two modules were constructed and added to the ROCETS library to independently check the mass and energy balances of selected engine subsystems including the low pressure fuel turbopump, the high pressure fuel turbopump, the low pressure oxidizer turbopump, the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, the fuel preburner, the oxidizer preburner, the main combustion chamber coolant circuit, and the nozzle coolant circuit. A sensitivity study was then conducted to determine the individual influences of forty-two hardware characteristics on fourteen high pressure region prediction variables as returned by the SSME ROCETS model.

  11. Interactive Test Analysis: Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipe, Gary

    An interactive test analysis system was developed which interfaces a 3M DATRONICS system with a XEROX Sigma 9 computer. The computer programs were written in A Programming Language (APL). The current implementation of the program is characterized by its capability to: read responses from a DATRONIC answer sheet; allow the faculty member the option…

  12. Testing and evaluation of eight decontamination chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report covers experimental work comparing eight different decontamination chemicals. Seven of these chemicals have some novelty, or are not currently in use at the ICPP. The eighth is a common ICPP decontamination reagent used as a baseline for effective comparison. Decontamination factors, waste generation values, and corrosion rates are tabulated for these chemicals. Recommendations are given for effective methods of non-sodium or low-sodium decontamination chemicals. The two most effective chemical for decontamination found in these test were a dilute hydrofluoric and nitric acid (HF/HNO{sub 3}) mixture and a fluoroboric acid solution. The fluoroboric acid solution (1 molar) was by far the most effective decontamination reagent, but suffered the problem of generating significant final calcine volume. The HF/HNO{sub 3} solution performed a very good decontamination of the SIMCON coupons while generating only small amounts of calcine volume. Concentration variables were also tested, and optimized for these two solutions. Several oxidation/reduction decon chemical systems were also tested. These systems were similar to the TURCO 4502 and TURCO 4521 solutions used for general decontamination at the ICPP. A low sodium alternative, nitric acid/potassium permanganate, to the ``high sodium`` TURCO 4502 was tested extensively, optimized and recommended for general ICPP use. A reductive chemical solution, oxalic acid/nitric acid was also shown to have significant advantages.

  13. Foucault test: a quantitative evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gustavo; Villa, Jesús; Ivanov, Rumen; González, Efrén; Martínez, Geminiano

    2016-08-01

    Reliable and accurate testing methods are essential to guiding the polishing process during the figuring of optical telescope mirrors. With the natural advancement of technology, the procedures and instruments used to carry out this delicate task have consistently increased in sensitivity, but also in complexity and cost. Fortunately, throughout history, the Foucault knife-edge test has shown the potential to measure transverse aberrations in the order of the wavelength, mainly when described in terms of physical theory, which allows a quantitative interpretation of its characteristic shadowmaps. Our previous publication on this topic derived a closed mathematical formulation that directly relates the knife-edge position with the observed irradiance pattern. The present work addresses the quite unexplored problem of the wavefront's gradient estimation from experimental captures of the test, which is achieved by means of an optimization algorithm featuring a proposed ad hoc cost function. The partial derivatives thereby calculated are then integrated by means of a Fourier-based algorithm to retrieve the mirror's actual surface profile. To date and to the best of our knowledge, this is the very first time that a complete mathematical-grounded treatment of this optical phenomenon is presented, complemented by an image-processing algorithm which allows a quantitative calculation of the corresponding slope at any given point of the mirror's surface, so that it becomes possible to accurately estimate the aberrations present in the analyzed concave device just through its associated foucaultgrams. PMID:27505659

  14. Pumping test evaluation of stream depletion parameters.

    PubMed

    Lough, Hilary K; Hunt, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions are given of a pumping test and a corresponding analysis that permit calculation of all five hydrogeological parameters appearing in the Hunt (2003) solution for stream depletion caused by ground water abstraction from a well beside a stream. This solution assumes that flow in the pumped aquifer is horizontal, flow in the overlying aquitard or system of aquitards is vertical, and the free surface in the top aquitard is allowed to draw down. The definition of an aquitard in this paper is any layer with a vertical hydraulic conductivity much lower than the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the pumped aquifer. These "aquitards" may be reasonably permeable layers but are distinguished from the pumped aquifer by their hydraulic conductivity contrast. The pumping test requires a complete set of drawdown measurements from at least one observation well. This well must be deep enough to penetrate the pumped aquifer, and pumping must continue for a sufficient time to ensure that depleted streamflow becomes a significant portion of the well abstraction rate. Furthermore, two of the five parameters characterize an aquitard that overlies the pumped aquifer, and values for these parameters are seen to be dependent upon the initial water table elevation in the aquitard. The field test analyzed herein used a total of eight observation wells screened in the pumped aquifer, and measurements from these wells gave eight sets of parameters that are used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the relative importance of each parameter in the stream depletion calculations. PMID:16857031

  15. Foucault test: a quantitative evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gustavo; Villa, Jesús; Ivanov, Rumen; González, Efrén; Martínez, Geminiano

    2016-08-01

    Reliable and accurate testing methods are essential to guiding the polishing process during the figuring of optical telescope mirrors. With the natural advancement of technology, the procedures and instruments used to carry out this delicate task have consistently increased in sensitivity, but also in complexity and cost. Fortunately, throughout history, the Foucault knife-edge test has shown the potential to measure transverse aberrations in the order of the wavelength, mainly when described in terms of physical theory, which allows a quantitative interpretation of its characteristic shadowmaps. Our previous publication on this topic derived a closed mathematical formulation that directly relates the knife-edge position with the observed irradiance pattern. The present work addresses the quite unexplored problem of the wavefront's gradient estimation from experimental captures of the test, which is achieved by means of an optimization algorithm featuring a proposed ad hoc cost function. The partial derivatives thereby calculated are then integrated by means of a Fourier-based algorithm to retrieve the mirror's actual surface profile. To date and to the best of our knowledge, this is the very first time that a complete mathematical-grounded treatment of this optical phenomenon is presented, complemented by an image-processing algorithm which allows a quantitative calculation of the corresponding slope at any given point of the mirror's surface, so that it becomes possible to accurately estimate the aberrations present in the analyzed concave device just through its associated foucaultgrams.

  16. Qualitative evaluation of the reagin screen test.

    PubMed Central

    Black, D A; Ray, P E; Therrell, B L

    1976-01-01

    After a preliminary study of 557 sera used as a procedural training exercise, the Reagin screen test (RST) for the macroscopic detection of reagin (as an aid to detecting syphilis) was qualitatively compared to the rapid plasma Reagin (RPR) (circle) card test and Veneral Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test on 435 random portions of sera using fluorescent treponemal antibody adsorption (FTA-ABS) results as a comparative base. A comparison of total agreement (positive and negative) with the FTA-ABS results led to the following order. RPRCT (I5.5%), VDRL (79.8%), and RST (74.5%). Of the total samples shown to be reactive by the FTA-ABS procedure, the percentage of these interpreted as nonreactive (i.e., "false negative") by the procedures compared was considerably higher with the RST procedure (29.3%) than with either the RPRCT (10.9%) or the VDRL (7.1%) procedures. Minor problems encountered with procedural techniques are also mentioned. PMID:783187

  17. "Authenticity" in Language Testing: Evaluating Spoken Language Tests for International Teaching Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekje, Barbara; Linnell, Kimberly

    1994-01-01

    Bachman's framework of language testing and standard of authenticity for language testing instruments were used to evaluate three instruments--the SPEAK (Spoken Proficiency English Assessment Kit) test, OPI (Oral Proficiency Interview), and a performance test--as language tests for nonnative-English-speaking teaching assistants. (Contains 53…

  18. ENGINE COMPRESSION AND CYLINDER LEAKAGE TESTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Vocational Agriculture Service.

    DESIGNED FOR USE BY HIGH SCHOOL OR ADULT STUDENTS AS TEXT OR REFERENCE MATERIAL, THIS DOCUMENT PRESENTS TECHNICAL INFORMATION NEEDED IN THE FARM POWER AREA OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE OF TEACHERS. MAJOR SECTIONS ARE (1) WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPLES…

  19. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: evaluation of the water siphon test.

    PubMed

    Blumhagen, J D; Christie, D L

    1979-05-01

    Fifty-nine symptomatic children were radiologically evaluated for gastroesophageal reflux with the water siphon test and also with the acid reflux test and esophageal manometry. Of those with reflux on pH testing, 95% had positive water siphon tests, and 38% also had spontaneous barium reflux. Of those with negative acid reflux tests, 29% had positive water siphon tests. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure did not correlate with either test unless the pressure was less than 10 mm Hg. Barium esophagography with the water siphon test is the appropriate initial examination in symptomatic patients, but the false-positive rate is high.

  20. 30 CFR 14.3 - Observers at tests and evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluations. 14.3 Section 14.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR...

  1. 30 CFR 14.3 - Observers at tests and evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluations. 14.3 Section 14.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR...

  2. 30 CFR 14.3 - Observers at tests and evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluations. 14.3 Section 14.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR...

  3. 30 CFR 14.3 - Observers at tests and evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluations. 14.3 Section 14.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR...

  4. 30 CFR 14.3 - Observers at tests and evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Observers at tests and evaluations. 14.3 Section 14.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR...

  5. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be sealed in a manner that prevents leakage of the pyrotechnic composition during shipping, handling,...

  6. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leakage. 229.59 Section 229.59 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.59 Leakage. (a) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per...

  7. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be sealed in a manner that prevents leakage of the pyrotechnic composition during shipping, handling,...

  8. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be sealed in a manner that prevents leakage of the pyrotechnic composition during shipping, handling,...

  9. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leakage. 229.59 Section 229.59 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.59 Leakage. (a) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per...

  10. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leakage. 229.59 Section 229.59 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.59 Leakage. (a) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per...

  11. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leakage. 229.59 Section 229.59 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.59 Leakage. (a) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per...

  12. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leakage. 229.59 Section 229.59 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.59 Leakage. (a) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per...

  13. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be sealed in a manner that prevents leakage of the pyrotechnic composition during shipping, handling,...

  14. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be sealed in a manner that prevents leakage of the pyrotechnic composition during shipping, handling,...

  15. Extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnan, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits was twofold: (1) To ascertain the long life capability of complementary MOS devices. (2) To assess the objectivity and reliability of various accelerated life test methods as an indication or prediction tool. In addition, the determination of a suitable life test sequence for these devices was of importance. Conclusions reached based on the parts tested and the test results obtained was that the devices were not acceptable.

  16. "Geyser" leakage on fluorescein angiography.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jaime; Fagan, Xavier J; Lifshitz, Tova; Schneck, Marina

    2013-11-22

    An 82-year-old patient with diabetes was followed up due to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema in the right eye. Visual acuity was 6/36. Focal macular laser was conducted (A). Three years later, the patient presented with blurry vision in the right eye. Visual acuity was 3/60. Vitreous hemorrhage was observed (B), and neovascularization of the disc was suspected (C). Fluorescein angiography (D, mid venous phase; E-F, recirculation phase) confirmed neovascularization of the disc and depicted a striking vertical leakage. Panretinal photocoagulation was started. Possible explanations for the "geyser" leakage may be either a partial posterior vitreous detachment allowing the fluorescein to track upwards but not elsewhere or a pocket of syneretic vitreous allowing the fluorescein passage in which to diffuse, much like the passage the blood would have taken.

  17. "Geyser" leakage on fluorescein angiography.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jaime; Fagan, Xavier J; Lifshitz, Tova; Schneck, Marina

    2013-01-01

    An 82-year-old patient with diabetes was followed up due to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema in the right eye. Visual acuity was 6/36. Focal macular laser was conducted (A). Three years later, the patient presented with blurry vision in the right eye. Visual acuity was 3/60. Vitreous hemorrhage was observed (B), and neovascularization of the disc was suspected (C). Fluorescein angiography (D, mid venous phase; E-F, recirculation phase) confirmed neovascularization of the disc and depicted a striking vertical leakage. Panretinal photocoagulation was started. Possible explanations for the "geyser" leakage may be either a partial posterior vitreous detachment allowing the fluorescein to track upwards but not elsewhere or a pocket of syneretic vitreous allowing the fluorescein passage in which to diffuse, much like the passage the blood would have taken. PMID:24548789

  18. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  19. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C. ); Todosow, M. )

    1992-09-22

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized.

  20. An autonomous vehicle: Constrained test and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Norman C.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an autonomous vehicle which utilizes stereo camera sensors (using ambient light) to follow complex paths at speeds up to 35 mph with consideration of moving vehicles within the path. The task is intended to demonstrate the contribution to safety of a vehicle under automatic control. All of the long-term scenarios investigating future reduction in congestion involve an automatic system taking control, or partial control, of the vehicle. A vehicle which includes a collision avoidance system is a prerequisite to an automatic control system. The report outlines the results of a constrained test of a vision controlled vehicle. In order to demonstrate its ability to perform on the current street system the vehicle was constrained to recognize, approach, and stop at an ordinary roadside stop sign.

  1. Photochemically crosslinked collagen annulus plug: a potential solution solving the leakage problem of cell-based therapies for disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chik, T K; Ma, X Y; Choy, T H; Li, Y Y; Diao, H J; Teng, W K; Han, S J; Cheung, K M C; Chan, B P

    2013-09-01

    Intra-disc injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat disc degeneration may lead to unfavorable complications, particularly osteophyte formation. Development of an effective method to block the injection portal, prevent the leakage of injected cells and materials and, hence, prevent osteophyte formation is of the utmost importance before MSC-based therapies can be applied in a clinical setting. Here we seek to alleviate the cell leakage problem and the associated complication osteophyte formation by developing an injectable annulus plug to block the injection portal during intra-disc delivery. Specifically, we fabricated a needle-shaped collagen plug by photochemical crosslinking and successfully delivered it intra-discally, in association with MSCs in collagen microsphere carriers, using a custom-made delivery device. The mechanical performance of the plug and its effectiveness in reducing cell leakage were evaluated ex vivo under compression and in torsion push-out tests. The results demonstrate that the plug survived physiologically relevant loadings and significantly reduced leakage and enhanced retention of the injected materials. Finally, a pilot in vivo study in rabbits was conducted to evaluate the performance of the plug. Microcomputed tomography imaging and histology revealed that the plug significantly reduced osteophyte formation. This work suggests the potential of the annulus plug as an adjunct or annulus closure device for intra-disc delivery of cells and materials.

  2. Use of Soil-Gas, Gas Flux, and Ground-Water Monitoring to Evaluate Potential Leakage to Underground Sources of Drinking Water, the Atmosphere, and Buildings during Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is widely acknowledged that leakage through transmissive faults (and associated fractures) and well penetrations (operational, non-operational, and abandoned wells) are the most likely pathways for migration out of a storage formation at sites selected for geological sequestra...

  3. An Investigation of Tendon Corrosion-Inhibitor Leakage into Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.F.; Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1999-07-05

    During inspections performed at US nuclear power plants several years ago, some of the prestressed concrete containment had experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler. A study was conducted to indicate the extent of the leakage into the concrete and its potential effects on concrete properties. Concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant. Examination and testing of the core samples indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the surface was due to leakage of the filler from the conduits and its subsequent migration to the concrete surface through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks with no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength tests indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased relative to the strength at 28 days age.

  4. Test definitions for the evaluation of digital waveform recorders.

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, Richard Paul; Hart, Darren M.; Harris, James Mark

    2007-07-01

    This Test Definition for the Evaluation of Digitizing Waveform Recorders (DWR) defines the process that can be performed as part of the evaluation and testing of geophysical sensors, digitizers, sensor subsystems and geophysical station/array systems. The objectives are to (1) evaluate the overall technical performance of the DWR, measure the distortions introduced by the high resolution digitizers and provide a performance check of the internal calibrator if provided and (2) evaluate the technical performance of the DWR for a specific sensor application. The results of these evaluations can be compared to the manufacturer's specifications and any relevant application requirements or specifications.

  5. A novel method to determine air leakage in heat pump clothes dryers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bansal, Pradeep; Mohabir, Amar; Miller, William

    2016-01-06

    A heat pump clothes dryer offers the potential to save a significant amount of energy as compared with conventional vented electric dryers. Although heat pump clothes dryers (HPCD) offer higher energy efficiency; it has been observed that they are prone to air leakages, which inhibits the HPCD's gain in efficiency. This study serves to develop a novel method of quantifying leakage, and to determine specific leakage locations in the dryer drum and air circulation system. The basis of this method is the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard E779 10, which is used to determine air leakage areamore » in a household ventilation system through fan pressurization. This ASTM method is adapted to the dryer system, and the leakage area is determined by an analysis of the leakage volumetric flow - pressure relationship. Easily accessible leakage points were quantified: the front and back crease (in the dryer drum), the leakage in the dryer duct, the air filter, and the remaining leakage in the drum. The procedure allows investigators to determine major components contributing to leakage in HPCDs, thus improving component design features that result in more efficient HPCD systems.« less

  6. A NOVEL METHOD TO DETERMINE AIR LEAKAGE IN HEAT PUMP CLOTHES DRYERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Miller, William A

    2016-01-01

    A heat pump clothes dryer offers the potential to save a significant amount of energy as compared with conventional vented electric dryers. Although heat pump clothes dryers (HPCD) offer higher energy efficiency; it has been observed that they are prone to air leakages, which inhibits the HPCD's gain in efficiency. This study serves to develop a novel method of quantifying leakage, and to determine specific leakage locations in the dryer drum and air circulation system. The basis of this method is the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard E779 10, which is used to determine air leakage area in a household ventilation system through fan pressurization. This ASTM method is adapted to the dryer system, and the leakage area is determined by an analysis of the leakage volumetric flow - pressure relationship. Easily accessible leakage points were quantified: the front and back crease (in the dryer drum), the leakage in the dryer duct, the air filter, and the remaining leakage in the drum. The procedure allows investigators to determine major components contributing to leakage in HPCDs, thus improving component design features that result in more efficient HPCD systems.

  7. Evaluation of 2D multiband EPI imaging for high-resolution, whole-brain, task-based fMRI studies at 3T: Sensitivity and slice leakage artifacts.

    PubMed

    Todd, Nick; Moeller, Steen; Auerbach, Edward J; Yacoub, Essa; Flandin, Guillaume; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that require high-resolution whole-brain coverage have long scan times that are primarily driven by the large number of thin slices acquired. Two-dimensional multiband echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences accelerate the data acquisition along the slice direction and therefore represent an attractive approach to such studies by improving the temporal resolution without sacrificing spatial resolution. In this work, a 2D multiband EPI sequence was optimized for 1.5mm isotropic whole-brain acquisitions at 3T with 10 healthy volunteers imaged while performing simultaneous visual and motor tasks. The performance of the sequence was evaluated in terms of BOLD sensitivity and false-positive activation at multiband (MB) factors of 1, 2, 4, and 6, combined with in-plane GRAPPA acceleration of 2× (GRAPPA 2), and the two reconstruction approaches of Slice-GRAPPA and Split Slice-GRAPPA. Sensitivity results demonstrate significant gains in temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) and t-score statistics for MB 2, 4, and 6 compared to MB 1. The MB factor for optimal sensitivity varied depending on anatomical location and reconstruction method. When using Slice-GRAPPA reconstruction, evidence of false-positive activation due to signal leakage between simultaneously excited slices was seen in one instance, 35 instances, and 70 instances over the ten volunteers for the respective accelerations of MB 2×GRAPPA 2, MB 4×GRAPPA 2, and MB 6×GRAPPA 2. The use of Split Slice-GRAPPA reconstruction suppressed the prevalence of false positives significantly, to 1 instance, 5 instances, and 5 instances for the same respective acceleration factors. Imaging protocols using an acceleration factor of MB 2×GRAPPA 2 can be confidently used for high-resolution whole-brain imaging to improve BOLD sensitivity with very low probability for false-positive activation due to slice leakage. Imaging protocols using higher acceleration factors (MB 3 or MB 4

  8. Test methods for evaluating reformulated fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Croudace, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced regulations in the 1989 Clean Air Act Amendment governing the reformulation of gasoline and diesel fuels to improve air quality. These statutes drove the need for a fast and accurate method for analyzing product composition, especially aromatic and oxygenate content. The current method, gas chromatography, is slow, expensive, non portable, and requires a trained chemist to perform the analysis. The new mid-infrared spectroscopic method uses light to identify and quantify the different components in fuels. Each individual fuel component absorbs a specific wavelength of light depending on the molecule`s unique chemical structure. The quantity of light absorbed is proportional to the concentration of that fuel component in the mixture. The mid-infrared instrument has significant advantages; it is easy to use, rugged, portable, fully automated and cost effective. It can be used to measure multiple oxygenate or aromatic components in unknown fuel mixtures. Regulatory agencies have begun using this method in field compliance testing; petroleum refiners and marketers use it to monitor compliance, product quality and blending accuracy.

  9. Handbook of test methods for evaluating chemical deicers

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelow, C.C.; McElroy, A.D.; Blackburn, R.R.; Darwin, D.; de Noyelles, F.G.

    1992-11-01

    The handbook contains a structured selection of specific test methods for complete characterization of deicing chemicals. Sixty-two specific test methods are defined for the evaluation of chemical deicers in eight principal property performance areas: (1) physicochemical characteristics; (2) deicing performance; (3) compatibility with bare and coated metals; (4) compatibility with metals in concrete; (5) compatibility with concrete and nonmetals; (6) engineering parameters; (7) ecological effects; and (8) health and safety aspects. The 62 specific chemical deicer test methods are composed of 12 primary and 50 supplementary test methods. The primary test methods, which were developed for conducting the more important evaluations, are identified in the report.

  10. Evaluation of offshore penetration tests at El Palito refinery, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.I.; Simone, A.; Tichatscheck, C.; Boggess, R.

    1995-12-01

    Data from an offshore study in the western part of Venezuela are presented in terms of the penetration test data and liquefaction evaluation. Two types of penetration test were performed (SPT and DCPT) and the results of each are compared. This was made possible by the comparison testing performed at two different locations where the separation between boreholes with different penetration tests was small enough to allow direct comparison of the results. To the authors` knowledge, this is the first time that dynamic cone measurements have been made in an offshore environment. Comments in relation to the evaluation of liquefaction resistance based on the results of the offshore penetration testing are made.

  11. Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambeck, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

  12. Test and evaluation of a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents results of evaluation tests performed on components of commerical solar heating and hot water system. Subsystems tested include flat plate solar collector, energy transport module, and control panel. Tests conducted include snow and wind loads, flame spread, and smoke classification as well as solar heating operation.

  13. Marking Strategies in Metacognition-Evaluated Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Ju; Ho, Rong-Guey; Yen, Yung-Chin

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of marking and metacognition-evaluated feedback (MEF) in computer-based testing (CBT) on student performance and review behavior. Marking is a strategy, in which students place a question mark next to a test item to indicate an uncertain answer. The MEF provided students with feedback on test results…

  14. Extensive CO2 Leakage From Extinct and Modern CO2 Reservoirs in New Mexico and Arizona: Evaluating the Role of Seal Bypass and Large-Volume Travertine Deposition With Implications For CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priewisch, A.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Mozley, P.

    2014-12-01

    Quaternary large-volume travertine deposits in New Mexico and Arizona occur along the Rio Grande rift and on the southeastern Colorado Plateau. Travertines are natural analogues for CO2 leakage along fault systems because they form due to the degassing of CO2 from carbonic groundwater that migrates up fault systems. Travertine volumes can be used to infer integrated CO2 leakage along faults, which includes: (1) CO2 that becomes fixed in CaCO3/travertine (tons of carbon converted into tons of carbonate), (2) the amount of CO2 that degassed into the atmosphere (twice the amount of (1), based on reaction stoichiometry), (3) dissolved CO2 that is carried away with the water discharging from a spring (based on modern spring discharge and dissolved carbon content), and (4) CO2 that escapes through the soil (based on modern soil flux measurements). The total CO2 leakage (1 and 2) calculated in this study is estimated as ~6 Gt (gigatons) whereas the integrated CO2 leakage (1-4) is estimated as ~128 Gt over ~450,000 years of travertine accumulation. U-series dating of the travertines shows that the deposits formed episodically which implies that CO2 leakage occurred episodically. Better understanding of integrated CO2 leakage along fault systems is needed to better constrain global estimates of natural CO2 fluxes, and to help in risk assessment of CO2 sequestration sites designed to effectively store anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface.

  15. Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Benney

    2009-11-30

    The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be done to

  16. Evaluation of reliability of traditional and computerized neurobehavioral tests.

    PubMed

    Sakong, Joon; Kang, Pock-Soo; Kim, Chang-Yoon; Hwang, Tae-Yoon; Jeon, Man-Joong; Park, Si-Young; Lee, Se-Jin; Won, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Sam-Beom; Chung, Jong-Hak

    2007-03-01

    Most Korean blue-collar workers are taking government-mandated medical screening periodically. The periodic neurobehavioral test provides a great chance to evaluate the functional change of the central nervous system. To utilize periodic neurobehavioral tests effectively, the reliability of currently used neurobehavioral tests needs to be evaluated. Test-retest of neurobehavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the reliability of neurobehavioral tests that are commonly used for Korean workers. The test-retest of five computerized tests, simple reaction time, additions, symbol digit, digit span, and finger tapping speed, and five traditional tests, Benton visual retention, digit symbol, digit span, pursuit aiming, and pegboard, were administered to 85 college students and 35 hospital workers over a 1 month interval. Computerized additions was found to have the highest test-retest reliability coefficient (r=0.90), followed by finger tapping speed (nondominant hand, r=0.89; dominant hand, r=0.85), symbol digit (r=0.82), and digit span (r=0.74). However, only two traditional tests, digit symbol (r=0.86) and pursuit aiming (r=0.72), showed a reliability coefficient greater than 0.70. These results suggest that the computerized additions, symbol digit, finger tapping speed, and traditional digit symbol are more satisfactory for periodical evaluation of the central nervous system of workers exposed to neurotoxic substances in Korea.

  17. Leakage current monitoring of insulators exposed to marine and industrial pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kanashiro, A.G.; Burani, G.F.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a research project considering 13.8 kV distribution lines and 88 kV transmission lines, exposed to marine and industrial pollution, respectively. Leakage current measurements were performed in the field. Tests were performed at the laboratory and registration instruments were developed to enable measurements of the leakage current values in the field and at the laboratory. Various correlations were performed with the measurements of: leakage current, climatic conditions and the amount of the pollutants on the insulators surface. Suitable insulators were selected for distribution lines and permissible levels of the leakage current were analyzed for transmission lines.

  18. Evaluation of three oil spill laboratory dispersant effectiveness tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.; Farlow, J.; Sahatjian, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    EPA evaluated three laboratory methods: the Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test currently used (and currently required by regulation) in the United States, the Swirling Flask Test (developed by Environment Canada), and the IFP-Dilution Test (used in France and other European countries). Six test oils and three dispersants were evaluated; dispersants were applied to the oil at an average 1:10 ratio (dispersant to oil) for each of the three laboratory methods. A screening criterion was established that required a combination that gave at least 20 percent effectiveness results. The selected combination turned out to be Prudhoe Bay crude oil (an EPA-American Petroleum Institute Standard Reference Oil) and the dispersant Corexit 9527. EPA's evaluation concluded that the three tests give similar precision results, but that the Swirling Flask Test was fastest, cheapest, simplest, and required least operator skill.

  19. Design, testing and evaluation of latching end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B.; Vandersluis, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Latching End Effector (LEE) forms part of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) for which Spar Aerospace Ltd, Space Systems Division is the prime contractor. The design, testing and performance evaluation of the Latching End Effector mechanisms is the subject of this paper focusing on: (1) ambient, thermal and vibration testing; (2) snare/rigidize performance testing and interaction during payload acquisition; and (3) latch/umbilical test results and performance.

  20. Equipment qualification testing evaluation experiences at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Wyant, F.J.; Bonzon, L.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    The USNRC has sponsored a number of programs at Sandia National Laboratories specifically addressing safety-related equipment qualification. The most visible of these programs has been the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program. Other relevant programs have included the Equipment Qualification Methodology Research Test program (CAP). Over a ten year period these programs have collectively tested numerous types of safety-related equipment. Some insights and conclusions extracted from these testing experiences are summarized in this report.

  1. Leakage neutron radiation in a medical electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, Lydia; Balcazar, Miguel; Genis, Roberto; Ortiz, Raúl

    2001-10-01

    A simple method was used for the calculation of neutron yield produced by main components of medical electron accelerator head, using a simplified geometric model with spherical-shell for the head shielding made of different materials. The leakage neutron radiation on the patient plane and outside the patient plane at one meter from the x-ray target for a Varian accelerator model Clinac 2100C was evaluated experimentally, using Panasonic UD-802 and UD-809 thermoluminescent dosimeters and CR-39 nuclear track dosimeters. The measured values of leakage neutron radiation were lower than the limits specified in the NCRP-102 and IEC 60601-2-1-Ed.2.0 reports.

  2. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jung Suk Lee, Hae Giu Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

  3. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Imasaki, K.

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  4. Radio frequency leakage current from unipolar laparoscopic electrocoagulators.

    PubMed

    DiNovo, J A

    1983-09-01

    Radio frequency (RF) leakage current has been suspected of causing accidental tissue burns associated with laparoscopic electrocoagulation used for tubal sterilization. A study was done to determine the levels of capacitively coupled RF leakage current from six unipolar laparoscopes manufactured by five companies. Leakage current values ranging from less than 100 mA to over 550 mA were measured at electrosurgical unit power settings of up to 150 w into 1,000 ohms. These levels represent 24-62% of the total electrosurgical current generated by the electrosurgical units. Using a criterion for tissue injury of 100 mA/sq cm applied for ten seconds, leakage current levels exceeding 400 mA are capable of producing burns either at the abdominal wall or to internal organs that accidentally come into contact with the body of the laparoscope. One of the six devices tested had leakage current levels higher than 400 mA at power settings lower than 100 w. Capacitance measurements between the unipolar laparoscope body and the forceps ranged from 53 to 140 picofarads.

  5. Leakage Flow Characteristics in Expander for CO2 Refrigeration Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuta, Mitsuhiro; Adachi, Masaaki; Yanagisawa, Tadashi; Ogi, Yasuhiro

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered to be an alternative to HFC refrigerants due to its non-flammability, non-toxicity and small global warming potential. To improve the performance of the CO2 refrigeration cycle, using an expander as an expansion device to recover a throttling loss has been examined. Since an inlet condition of the expander is supercritical and an exit is subcritical, leakage through a narrow clearance in the expander becomes a transcritical flow where the condition changes from the supercritical to the subcritical. It is necessary to clarify the characteristics of the transcritical leakage flow through the narrow clearance, because the leakage flow has serious influence on the expander performance. In this study, the transcritical leakage flow is modeled analytically and the flow characteristic is examined by the model. The calculated mass flow rate agrees with the experimental one. It is found that frictional loss accounts for a half of pressure drop both in the supercritical and two phase region at any inlet temperature tested in this study. In addition, the sealing effect of oil on the transcritical leakage flow rate is shown to be little.

  6. Radio frequency leakage current from unipolar laparoscopic electrocoagulators.

    PubMed

    DiNovo, J A

    1983-09-01

    Radio frequency (RF) leakage current has been suspected of causing accidental tissue burns associated with laparoscopic electrocoagulation used for tubal sterilization. A study was done to determine the levels of capacitively coupled RF leakage current from six unipolar laparoscopes manufactured by five companies. Leakage current values ranging from less than 100 mA to over 550 mA were measured at electrosurgical unit power settings of up to 150 w into 1,000 ohms. These levels represent 24-62% of the total electrosurgical current generated by the electrosurgical units. Using a criterion for tissue injury of 100 mA/sq cm applied for ten seconds, leakage current levels exceeding 400 mA are capable of producing burns either at the abdominal wall or to internal organs that accidentally come into contact with the body of the laparoscope. One of the six devices tested had leakage current levels higher than 400 mA at power settings lower than 100 w. Capacitance measurements between the unipolar laparoscope body and the forceps ranged from 53 to 140 picofarads. PMID:6226780

  7. Measured effect of step axial location on labyrinth seal leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Rhode, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    An advanced, finite volume code has been extensively used in a parametric design study of simple stepped seals, in order to ascertain a leakage-minimizing optimal design and test it, in conjunction with the baseline case of the wear-ring seal of a high pressure pump. It is found that a significant leakage effect arises from this shifting of the rotor and stator sealing surfaces; at extremely low rpm, a significant shaft speed effect occurs for the optimized design in some shaft locations.

  8. BOBCAT Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Hodge

    2008-03-01

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as “Pagers.” This test, “Bobcat,” was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  9. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

    2007-07-09

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  10. Calculating the GONG Leakage Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F.; Howe, R.

    Since spherical harmonics do not form a complete orthonormal basis set over a portion of a sphere, helioseismic spectra computed for a specific target mode with degree ellt and azimuthal degree mt also contain modes with nearby ell'' and m''. These spatial leaks greatly increase the complexity of the observed spectrum, complicating the spectral fitting and degrading the resulting mode parameter estimates. This is particularly true where the target mode and the leaks have similar frequencies. Some strategies for fitting helioseismic spectra explicitly include the leakage matrix which estimates the relative strength of a mode (ell'' and m'') in the spectrum at (ellt,mt). Since the fitting methods assume that the matrix is correct and apply it as a constraint, an inaccurate matrix introduces systematic errors in the estimated mode parameters. It is thus important to have as accurate a matrix as possible. Here we report on the calculation of the leakage matrix for the GONG observations. The matrix elements are essentially the integrals (over the observed portion of the solar surface) of the crossproducts of the two spherical harmonics. However, several effects have been included to increase the accuracy of the matrix. These include the projection factor of the observable (velocity, intensity, modulation), the spatial apodization applied to the data, the finite rectangular pixel dimensions of the observations, and possible errors in the estimated image geometry. Other factors to be incorporated are the observed MTF, the merging of the GONG images, and the horizontal components of the oscillatory velocity field. We will compare the latest calculation with the observed spectrum and assess the relative importance of the input factors. We will also compare the leakage matrices for velocity and intensity to estimate their contribution to the large apparent differences in the helioseismic spectra obtained from these observables.

  11. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W. ); Lampert, C.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Albumin leakage in online hemodiafiltration, more convective transport, more losses?

    PubMed

    Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Abad, Soraya; Aragoncillo, Inés; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; López-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) has now demonstrated some benefits in reducing mortality. It seems that rising convective volumes improve the outcomes, but the risks of it, such as albumin leakage, are not well defined yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the albumin leakage using two different filters with 20 and 30 L of post-dilution OL-HDF. In this cross-sectional study, 20 prevalent patients receiving post-dilution OL-HDL were included. We analyzed two dialyzers: FX1000, FMC and Polyflux 210H, Gambro. During four consecutive dialysis sessions, monitors were programmed using control-volume to obtain 20 or 30 L with both dialyzers. We collected albumin samples of the effluent at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and performed area under the curve (AUC) determinations for evaluating the losses. Mean patient age was 60 ± 9 years, and 70% were men. Albumin leakage was significant higher with Polyflux 210H when compared to FX 1000 FMC. A convective volume of 30 L produced greater albumin leakage than 20 L with both filters, though only with the FX 1000 FMC was it significant (minimum albumin leakage during first hour with FX 1000 FMC 20 L: 79.2 [0.0-175.7] mg; 30 liters: 403.3 [63.5-960.7] mg; with PF 210 Gambro 20 L: 869.1 [420.0-3214.7] mg; 30 L: 1841.7 [443.8-3417.5] mg). During OL-HDF, convective transport causes albumin leakage at least during the first hour. The albumin concentration in the effluent differs according to the type of filter used and the convective volume.

  13. Simulating CO₂ leakages from CCS to determine Zn toxicity using the marine microalgae Pleurochrysis roscoffensis.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Chamizo, Esther; De Orte, Manoela Romanó; DelValls, Tomás Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    Due to the current climate change and ocean acidification, a new technology for CO2 mitigation has been proposed, the Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS). However, there is an ecological risk associated with potential CO2 leakages from the sub-seabed storages sites. To evaluate the effects related to CO2 leakages, laboratory-scales experiments were performed using the marine microalgae Pleurochrysis roscoffensis. Five Zn concentrations were tested at different pHs to study Zn toxicity under acidified conditions. Seawater was collected and submitted to acidification by means of CO2 injection and by HCl addition. Results showed differences between both acidification techniques: while microalgae growth was enhanced by CO2 supply, reaching the optimal growth at pH 6.5 and full inhibition at pH 5.5, HCl acidification growth was inhibited at pH 6.5. Although small concentrations of Zn were positive for P. roscoffensis growth, Zn toxicity increased at lower pHs, and more severely on samples acidified with HCl. The conclusions obtained in this work are useful to address the potential effects on the marine ecosystem related to changes in metal bioavailability during CO2 leakages scenarios.

  14. Leakage and performance characteristics of large stoppings for room-and-pillar mining

    SciTech Connect

    Thimons, E.D.; Brechtel, C.E.; Adam, M.E.; Agrapito, J.F.T.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents a Bureau of Mines study comparing the construction costs, leakage measurements, and predicted performance of different types of large stoppings built and tested in a room-and-pillar oil share mine. The six full-sized structures (30 ft high by 55 ft wide) included both permanent and temporary stoppings and were fabricated using materials ranging from structural steel to coated brattice cloth. Leakage across each stopping was measured at differential pressures ranging up to 1.0 in w.g., using both the brattice window method and sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) tracer gas. Blast air pressures resulting from a full-scale face blast of approximately 1,800 lab of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) explosives were measured across two of the stoppings, and the pre- and post-leakage rates were compared for all the stoppings. Overall performance of the stoppings for production applications was evaluated using an operational model of a two-panel oil shale mine.

  15. Evaluation of the Netherlands' International Test Facility for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Palmintier, Bryan; Pratt, Annabelle

    2015-06-01

    The Netherlands Enterprise Agency (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland, or RVO) engaged the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for two primary purposes: to evaluate the International Test Facility for Smart Grids (ITF) sponsored by RVO and to learn best practices for integrated test facilities from NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). This report covers the ITF evaluation and is largely based on a one-week visit to the Netherlands in November 2014.

  16. Evaluation of new aquatic toxicity test methods for oil dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, C.B.; Clark, J.R.; Bragin, G.E.

    1994-12-31

    Current aquatic toxicity test methods used for dispersant registration do not address real world exposure scenarios. Current test methods require 48 or 96 hour constant exposure conditions. In contrast, environmentally realistic exposures can be described as a pulse in which the initial concentration declines over time. Recent research using a specially designed testing apparatus (the California system) has demonstrated that exposure to Corexit 9527{reg_sign} under pulsed exposure conditions may be 3 to 22 times less toxic compared to continuous exposure scenarios. The objectives of this study were to compare results of toxicity tests using the California test system to results from standardized tests, evaluate sensitivity of regional (Holmesimysis cast and Atherinops affinis) vs. standard test species (Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina) and determine if tests using the California test system and method are reproducible. All tests were conducted using Corexit 9527{reg_sign} as the test material. Standard toxicity tests conducted with M. bahia and H. cast resulted in LC50s similar to those from tests using the California apparatus. LC50s from tests conducted in the authors` laboratory with the California system and standard test species were within a factor of 2 to 6 of data previously reported for west coast species. Results of tests conducted with H. cast in the laboratory compared favorably to data reported by Singer et al. 1991.

  17. Evaluation of an Interactive Tutorial for Teaching Hypothesis Testing Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aberson, Christopher L.; Berger, Dale E.; Healy, Michael R.; Romero, Victoria L.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we describe and evaluate a Web-based interactive tutorial used to present hypothesis testing concepts. The tutorial includes multiple-choice questions with feedback, an interactive applet that allows students to draw samples and evaluate null hypotheses, and follow-up questions suitable for grading. Students either used the…

  18. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  19. A Graphical Approach to Evaluating Equating Using Test Characteristic Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Reckase, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    An essential concern in the application of any equating procedure is determining whether tests can be considered equated after the tests have been placed onto a common scale. This article clarifies one equating criterion, the first-order equity property of equating, and develops a new method for evaluating equating that is linked to this…

  20. Evaluation of a direct, rapid immunohistochemical test for rabies diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Tiziana; Niezgoda, Michael; Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ernest, Eblate; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-02-01

    A direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) was evaluated under field and laboratory conditions to detect rabies virus antigen in frozen and glycerol-preserved field brain samples from northwestern Tanzania. Compared to the direct fluorescent antibody test, the traditional standard in rabies diagnosis, the dRIT was 100% sensitive and specific.

  1. Evaluation of a Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for Rabies Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, Tiziana; Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ernest, Eblate; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    A direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) was evaluated under field and laboratory conditions to detect rabies virus antigen in frozen and glycerol-preserved field brain samples from northwestern Tanzania. Compared to the direct fluorescent antibody test, the traditional standard in rabies diagnosis, the dRIT was 100% sensitive and specific. PMID:16494761

  2. Evaluation of verification and testing tools for FORTRAN programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two automated software verification and testing systems were developed for use in the analysis of computer programs. An evaluation of the static analyzer DAVE and the dynamic analyzer PET, which are used in the analysis of FORTRAN programs on Control Data (CDC) computers, are described. Both systems were found to be effective and complementary, and are recommended for use in testing FORTRAN programs.

  3. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  4. Using Non-Normed Tests in Title I Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    Research evidence relating to the utility of the RMC evaluation models of compensatory education employing non-normed tests is examined. The history and evolution of five early models into the current norm-referenced model utilizing a non-normed test (Model A2), non-normed versions of a comparison model (Model B2), and the regression model (Model…

  5. Enhancing the Informatics Evaluation Toolkit with Remote Usability Testing

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brian E.

    2009-01-01

    Developing functional clinical informatics products that are also usable remains a challenge. Despite evidence that usability testing should be incorporated into the lifecycle of health information technologies, rarely does this occur. Challenges include poor standards, a lack of knowledge around usability practices, and the expense involved in rigorous testing with a large number of users. Remote usability testing may be a solution for many of these challenges. Remotely testing an application can greatly enhance the number of users who can iteratively interact with a product, and it can reduce the costs associated with usability testing. A case study presents the experiences with remote usability testing when evaluating a Web site designed for health informatics knowledge dissemination. The lessons can inform others seeking to enhance their evaluation toolkits for clinical informatics products. PMID:20351839

  6. 500-kW DCHX pilot-plant evaluation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hlinak, A.; Lee, T.; Loback, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S.; Roberts, G.; Werner, D.

    1981-10-01

    Field tests with the 500 kW Direct Contact Pilot Plant were conducted utilizing brine from well Mesa 6-2. The tests were intended to develop comprehensive performance data, design criteria, and economic factors for the direct contact power plant. The tests were conducted in two phases. The first test phase was to determine specific component performance of the DCHX, turbine, condensers and pumps, and to evaluate chemical mass balances of non-condensible gases in the IC/sub 4/ loop and IC/sub 4/ in the brine stream. The second test phase was to provide a longer term run at nearly fixed operating conditions in order to evaluate plant performance and identify operating cost data for the pilot plant. During these tests the total accumulated run time on major system components exceeded 1180 hours with 777 hours on the turbine prime mover. Direct contact heat exchanger performance exceeded the design prediction.

  7. Visual Inspection of Water Leakage from Ground Penetrating Radar Radargram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimshah, N. N.; Yusup, A.; Mat Amin, Z.; Ghazalli, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD) of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  8. A linear model of the effects of disturbance on dissolved nitrogen leakage from forested watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, Keith N.

    2000-11-01

    The leakage of dissolved nitrogen (N), primarily in the form of nitrate, from forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region has important water quality ramifications for small acid-sensitive streams and for downstream receiving waters such as Chesapeake Bay. Dissolved N leakage is a common, well-documented response of forested watersheds to forest management practices such as clear-cutting. Patterns of N leakage from mid-Appalachian watersheds during the late 1980s and early 1990s have also been shown to display considerable temporal and spatial synchrony with outbreaks of defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larva (a nonnative forest insect pest). This evidence suggests that forest disturbance may be an important contributor to N leakage in the mid-Appalachian region. A logical first step in testing this hypothesis is evaluating the ability of a simple, unit nitrogen export response function (UNERF) model to explain temporal changes in annual N export from gaged forested watersheds in the years following disturbance. Annual N export data from seven such watersheds were analyzed as part of the study: two small (<0.5 km2) watersheds subjected to deforestation and five larger (1.6-12.6 km2) watersheds subjected to repetitive defoliation by the gypsy moth larva. Several forms of linear UNERF models, parameterized by deconvolution of annual time series of N export using linear programming or by a least squares method, were generally found to be minimally biased and to explain high percentages (38-98%) of the total variation in annual N export. Despite their neglect of spatial and temporal ecosystem nonlinearities these linear models appear reasonably robust, making them at least as useful as their more complex nonlinear brethren for purposes of regionalization.

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  10. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Blower-Door-Directed Infiltration Reduction Procedure, Field Test Implementation and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.B.

    2001-05-21

    A blower-door-directed infiltration retrofit procedure was field tested on 18 homes in south central Wisconsin. The procedure, developed by the Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation, includes recommended retrofit techniques as well as criteria for estimating the amount of cost-effective work to be performed on a house. A recommended expenditure level and target air leakage reduction, in air changes per hour at 50 Pascal (ACH50), are determined from the initial leakage rate measured. The procedure produced an average 16% reduction in air leakage rate. For the 7 houses recommended for retrofit, 89% of the targeted reductions were accomplished with 76% of the recommended expenditures. The average cost of retrofits per house was reduced by a factor of four compared with previous programs. The average payback period for recommended retrofits was 4.4 years, based on predicted energy savings computed from achieved air leakage reductions. Although exceptions occurred, the procedure's 8 ACH50 minimum initial leakage rate for advising retrofits to be performed appeared a good choice, based on cost-effective air leakage reduction. Houses with initial rates of 7 ACH50 or below consistently required substantially higher costs to achieve significant air leakage reductions. No statistically significant average annual energy savings was detected as a result of the infiltration retrofits. Average measured savings were -27 therm per year, indicating an increase in energy use, with a 90% confidence interval of 36 therm. Measured savings for individual houses varied widely in both positive and negative directions, indicating that factors not considered affected the results. Large individual confidence intervals indicate a need to increase the accuracy of such measurements as well as understand the factors which may cause such disparity. Recommendations for the procedure include more extensive training of retrofit crews, checks for minimum air exchange rates to insure air quality

  11. The Evaluation of Flammability Properties Regarding Testing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osvaldová, Linda Makovická; Gašpercová, Stanislava

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we address the historical comparison methods with current methods for the assessment of flammability characteristics for materials an especially for wood, wood components and wooden buildings. Nowadays in European Union brings harmonization in evaluated of standards into each European country and try to make one concept of evaluated the flammability properties. In each European country to the one standard level which will be used by evaluation of materials regarding flammability. In our article we focused mainly on improving the evaluation methods in terms of flammability characteristics of using materials at building industry. In the article we present examples of different assessment methods at their own test methods in terms of fire prevention. On the base of old compared of materials by STN, BS and DIN methods for testing materials on fire and new methods of evaluating the flammability properties regarding EU standards before and after starting the flash over.

  12. Leakage-current properties of encapsulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical modeling of leakage current in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) modules is being developed and is described. The modeling effort derives mathematical relationships for the bulk and surface conductivites of EVA and PVB, the surface conductivities of glass and polymeric films, and the EVA and PVB pottants, all as functions of environmental parameters. Results from the modeling indicate that for glass/EVA, the glass surface controls the interfacial conductivity, although EVA bulk conductivity controls total leakage current. For PVB/glass, the interface conductivity controls leakage currents for relative humidity (RH) less than 40 to 50%, but PVB bulk conductivity controls leakage current above 50% RH.

  13. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.5850... performance test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  14. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.5850 How do I... test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to you... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  15. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.5850... performance test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  16. Measuring Agulhas Current strength and leakage from satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bars, Dewi; De Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2013-04-01

    The Agulhas leakage is a flux of relatively warm and salty water from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic Ocean. It occurs south of the African continent where the Agulhas Current retroflects and sheds large anticyclonic eddies that quickly break up and mix with the surrounding water. This is one of the most energetic regions of the world ocean and the Agulhas leakage is therefore very difficult to quantify. In recent years two independent studies (Biastoch et al. 2009, Rouault et al. 2009) using different ocean models pointed out the possibility that the strength of the Agulhas leakage could have increased over the last decades. Unfortunately several discrepancies exist between these two studies on the magnitude and the causes of this increase showing the limitations of numerical modelling in this area. In this work we use a combination of along-track and mapped satellite geostrophic velocities to compute the strength of the Agulhas Current and to follow Lagrangian particles released in its core. The results confirm a positive trend of the volume of Agulhas leakage over the last two decades. This allows us to investigate the dependence of the leakage to upstream conditions like the Agulhas Current transport, the pattern and strength of the westerly winds and to test previous theories on the relations between these factors. Biastoch, A., Böning, C. W., Schwarzkopf, F. U. and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: Increase in Agulhas leakage due to poleward shift of Southern Hemisphere westerlies, Nature, 462(7272), 495-498, doi:10.1038/nature08519, 2009. Rouault, M., Penven, P. and Pohl, B.: Warming in the Agulhas Current system since the 1980's, Geophys. Res. Lett, 36(L12602), doi:10.1029/2009GL037987, 2009.

  17. Evaluation of a steady state MPD thruster test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.; Doss, E.D.; Kilgore, O.

    1985-01-01

    The successful development of multimegawatt MPD thrusters depends, to a great extent, on testing them under steady state high altitude space conditions. Steady state testing is required to provide thermal characteristics, life cycle, erosion, and other essential data. the major technical obstacle for ground testing of MPD thrusters in a space simulation facility is the inability of state-of-the-art vacuum systems to handle the tremendous pumping speeds required for multimegawatt MPD thrusters. This is true for other types of electric propulsion devices as well. This paper discusses the results of the first phase of an evaluation of steady state MPD thruster test facilities. The first phase addresses the conceptual design of vacuum systems required to support multimegawatt MPD thruster testing. Three advanced pumping system concepts were evaluated and are presented here.

  18. Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt; Whalen, Michael W.; Heindahl, Mats P. E.; Rajan, Ajitha

    2010-01-01

    In black-box testing, the tester creates a set of tests to exercise a system under test without regard to the internal structure of the system. Generally, no objective metric is used to measure the adequacy of black-box tests. In recent work, we have proposed three requirements coverage metrics, allowing testers to objectively measure the adequacy of a black-box test suite with respect to a set of requirements formalized as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) properties. In this report, we evaluate the effectiveness of these coverage metrics with respect to fault finding. Specifically, we conduct an empirical study to investigate two questions: (1) do test suites satisfying a requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than randomly generated test suites of approximately the same size?, and (2) do test suites satisfying a more rigorous requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying a less rigorous requirements coverage metric? Our results indicate (1) only one coverage metric proposed -- Unique First Cause (UFC) coverage -- is sufficiently rigorous to ensure test suites satisfying the metric outperform randomly generated test suites of similar size and (2) that test suites satisfying more rigorous coverage metrics provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying less rigorous coverage metrics.

  19. Evaluating genomic tests from bench to bedside: a practical framework.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jennifer S; Thompson, Matthew; Goddard, Katrina A B; Piper, Margaret A; Heneghan, Carl; Whitlock, Evelyn P

    2012-01-01

    The development of genomic tests is one of the most significant technological advances in medical testing in recent decades. As these tests become increasingly available, so does the need for a pragmatic framework to evaluate the evidence base and evidence gaps in order to facilitate informed decision-making. In this article we describe such a framework that can provide a common language and benchmarks for different stakeholders of genomic testing. Each stakeholder can use this framework to specify their respective thresholds for decision-making, depending on their perspective and particular needs. This framework is applicable across a broad range of test applications and can be helpful in the application and communication of a regulatory science for genomic testing. Our framework builds upon existing work and incorporates principles familiar to researchers involved in medical testing (both diagnostic and prognostic) generally, as well as those involved in genomic testing. This framework is organized around six phases in the development of genomic tests beginning with marker identification and ending with population impact, and highlights the important knowledge gaps that need to be filled in establishing the clinical relevance of a test. Our framework focuses on the clinical appropriateness of the four main dimensions of test research questions (population/setting, intervention/index test, comparators/reference test, and outcomes) rather than prescribing a hierarchy of study designs that should be used to address each phase. PMID:23078403

  20. A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fellenstein, J.A.; DellaCorte, C.

    1994-10-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  1. A New Tribological Test for Candidate Brush Seal Materials Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700 C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  2. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  3. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCNO device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  4. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of the each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  5. Feedback-Based Coverage Directed Test Generation: An Industrial Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannides, Charalambos; Barrett, Geoff; Eder, Kerstin

    Although there are quite a few approaches to Coverage Directed test Generation aided by Machine Learning which have been applied successfully to small and medium size digital designs, it is not clear how they would scale on more elaborate industrial-level designs. This paper evaluates one of these techniques, called MicroGP, on a fully fledged industrial design. The results indicate relative success evidenced by a good level of code coverage achieved with reasonably compact tests when compared to traditional test generation approaches. However, there is scope for improvement especially with respect to the diversity of the tests evolved.

  6. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  7. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 26.5 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the TIROS-N and NOAA-A satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    This evaluation test program had the purpose to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. Test limits specify those values at which a cell is to be terminated from charge or discharge. Requirements are referenced to as normally expected values based on past performance of aerospace nickel-cadmium cells with demonstrated life characteristics. A requirement does not constitute a limit for discontinuance from test.

  8. Evaluation and testing of semiconductor laser reliability in optic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenyan; Fan, Xianguang; Sun, Heyi

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of an optic system, a new evaluation and testing methodology for the light source which uses semiconductor laser is presented. A new system, combining high accuracy source and measure capabilities for pulsed testing, is developed to achieve the aim of automatic measurement of Light-Current-Power (LIV) for semiconductor laser. The test can provide customer with L-I, V-I curves and other correlative parameters, such as the threshold current and slope efficiency, and so on. Meanwhile, the change of environment temperature versus lasing wavelength under pulse injection is discussed, and the relationship between the lasing wavelength and the width and cycle of injection pulse is obtained. The temperature character of packaged laser unit is measured conveniently. Making use of the above examined curves and parameters, the reliability of semiconductor laser and quality of device can be compared directly and evaluated accurately. The technique is successfully applied for the evaluation of semiconductor laser reliability.

  9. Statistical Evaluation of Small-scale Explosives Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guymon, Clint

    2013-06-01

    Small-scale explosives sensitivity testing is used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate risk. Both relative comparison and characterization of the transition from no reaction to reaction is used to estimate that risk. Statistical comparisons and use of statistically efficient methods are critical to accurately and efficiently make risk related decisions. Many public and private entities are not making accurate decisions based on the test data because of the lack of properly applying basic statistical principles. We present methods and examples showing how to use statistics to accurately and efficiently evaluate the risk for relative comparison and in-process risk evaluation. Some of the methods presented include the Significance Chart Method and adaptive step-size techniques like the Neyer D-Optimal method. These methods are compared to the more traditional approaches like Bruceton and Probit. Use of statistical methods can significantly improve the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of small-scale explosives sensitivity testing.

  10. Leak testing of bubble-tight dampers using tracer gas techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lagus, P.L.; DuBois, L.J.; Fleming, K.M.

    1995-02-01

    Recently tracer gas techniques have been applied to the problem of measuring the leakage across an installed bubble-tight damper. A significant advantage of using a tracer gas technique is that quantitative leakage data are obtained under actual operating differential pressure conditions. Another advantage is that leakage data can be obtained using relatively simple test setups that utilize inexpensive materials without the need to tear ducts apart, fabricate expensive blank-off plates, and install test connections. Also, a tracer gas technique can be used to provide an accurate field evaluation of the performance of installed bubble-tight dampers on a periodic basis. Actual leakage flowrates were obtained at Zion Generating Station on four installed bubble-tight dampers using a tracer gas technique. Measured leakage rates ranged from 0.01 CFM to 21 CFM. After adjustment and subsequent retesting, the 21 CFM damper leakage was reduced to a leakage of 3.8 CFM. In light of the current regulatory climate and the interest in Control Room Habitability issues, imprecise estimates of critical air boundary leakage rates--such as through bubble-tight dampers--are not acceptable. These imprecise estimates can skew radioactive dose assessments as well as chemical contaminant exposure calculations. Using a tracer gas technique, the actual leakage rate can be determined. This knowledge eliminates a significant source of uncertainty in both radioactive dose and/or chemical exposure assessments.

  11. Evaluation of Test/Analysis Correlation Methods for Crash Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Bark, Lindley W.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    A project has been initiated to improve crash test and analysis correlation. The work in this paper concentrated on the test and simulation results for a fuselage section. Two drop tests of the section were conducted. The first test was designed to excite the linear structural response for comparison with finite element modal analysis results. The second test was designed to provide data for correlation with crash simulations. An MSC.Dytran model was developed to generate nonlinear transient dynamic results. Following minor modifications, the same model was executed in MSC.Nastran to generate modal analysis results. The results presented in this paper concentrate on evaluation of correlation methodologies for crash test data and finite element simulation results.

  12. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-02-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  13. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  14. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  15. An evaluation of the liquid oxygen mechanical impact test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, Gary E.; Schmidt, Naomi E.; Pedley, Michael D.; Linley, Larry J.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the repeatability of the ambient LO2 mechanical impact test used by NASA to screen materials for oxygen service (NHB 8060.1B Test 12 Part 1, which is based on the ASTM method). Four materials were tested: Teflon, Vespel SP-21, Viton A, and nylon 6/6. Each test material was subjected to several series of tests that were conducted at different impact energy levels. The results show that the variability from series to series in the reaction threshold energy level is within the precision statement of the ASTM method. However, this precision is considerably broader than the reaction threshold implied by the NHB 8060.1B test criteria.

  16. General test plan redundant sensor strapdown IMU evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwell, T.; Irwin, H. A.; Miyatake, Y.; Wedekind, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    The general test plan for a redundant sensor strapdown inertial measuring unit evaluation program is presented. The inertial unit contains six gyros and three orthogonal accelerometers. The software incorporates failure detection and correction logic and a land vehicle navigation program. The principal objective of the test is a demonstration of the practicability, reliability, and performance of the inertial measuring unit with failure detection and correction in operational environments.

  17. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across the... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  18. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across the... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  19. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across the... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  20. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across the... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  1. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across the... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...

  2. Analysis of Leakage Flows in Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindir, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Navier-Stokes calculations predict leakage flow in high-pressure fuel pump. Accurate calculation of internal turbomachinery flow dynamics helps spot possible failure modes and establishes coupling between cyclic loading and structural dynamics. Approach also useful in analyzing two-and quasi-three-dimensional leakage flows in other turbomachinery components.

  3. Calculating Leakage Around Turbopump Inducer Shrouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Sen Yih; Sindir, Munir M.

    1987-01-01

    New mathematical model for leakage flow around shrouded turbopump inducers yields more realistic analyses from which designers determine best geometry for leakage-flow-reinjection ports. Also, designers use calculated velocity profile at inducer leading edge to determine blade-angle distribution of inducer leading edge.

  4. (De)Grading the Standardized Test: Can Standardized Testing Evaluate Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola E.

    2004-01-01

    Standardized testing is an assessment strategy that evaluates all students and all schools on the same basic skills and, therefore, might reasonably indicate which schools are high performers and which are not. Standardized testing is not a new strategy for providing this proof. The United States has produced reams of articles criticizing…

  5. Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders.

    PubMed

    Naureen, Abeera; Saqib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulan; Hussain, Muhammad H; Asi, Muhammad N

    2007-07-01

    The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally infected culture-positive, 96 potentially exposed cohorts, and 110 healthy equines were tested. All tests but mCIET showed 100% specificity when testing the sera from glanders-negative equines. The calculated sensitivities of RBT, IHAT, CFT, mCIET, and mallein test when testing culture-positive equines were 90.0, 97.1, 91.4, 81.4, and 75.7%, respectively. The RBT was significantly (P < 0.05) more sensitive than the mallein test and mCIET. The positive and negative predictive values of each test (RBT, IHAT, CFT, mallein test, and mCIET) were as follows: 100 and 94, 100 and 98.2, 100 and 96.7, 100 and 86.6, and 90.5 and 88.6, respectively. On comparing glandered and nonglandered animals, the highest agreement (0.987) was found between RBT and CFT followed by RBT and IHAT (0.940), RBT and mallein test (0.871), and RBT and mCIET (0.852). Because the RBT is simpler and rapid to perform, the inclusion of the test as a supplementary test for the diagnosis of glanders in field conditions is recommended.

  6. Three dimensional hemispherical test development to evaluate detonation wave breakout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, E. G.; Morris, J. S.; Lieber, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Onionskin test has been the standard test to evaluate detonation wave breakout over a hemispherical surface for decades. It has been an effective test used in a variety of applications to qualify main charge materials, evaluate different boosters, and compare different detonators. It is not without its shortfalls however. It only images a small portion of the explosive and requires very precise alignment and camera requirements to make sense of the results. Asymmetry in explosive behavior cannot be pinpointed or evaluated effectively. We have developed a new diagnostic using fiber optics covering the surface of the explosive to yield a 3D representation of the detonation wave behavior. Precise timing mapping of the detonation over the hemispherical surface is generated which can be converted to detonation wave breakout behavior using Huygens' wave reconstruction. This report will include the results of a recent suite of tests on PBX 9501, and discussion of how the test was developed for this explosive and contrasting previous work on PBX 9502. The results of these tests will describe the effects on detonation wave breakout symmetry when Sylgard 184 is placed between the detonator and booster. The effects on symmetry and timing when the Sylgard gap thickness is increased and the detonator is canted will be shown.

  7. Evaluation of irradiated fuel during RIA simulation tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, R.O.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1996-08-01

    A critical assessment of the RIA-simulation experiments performed to date on previously irradiated test rods is presented. Included in this assessment are the SPERT-CDC, the NSRR, and the CABRI REP Na experimental programs. Information was collected describing the base irradiation, test rod characterization, and test procedures and conditions. The representativeness of the test rods and test conditions to anticipated LWR RIA accident conditions was evaluated using analysis results from fuel behavior and three-dimensional spatial kinetics simulations. It was shown that the pulse characteristics and coolant conditions are significantly different from those anticipated in an LWR-Furthermore, the unrepresentative test conditions were found to exaggerate the mechanisms that caused cladding failure. The data review identified several test rods which contained unusual cladding damage incurred prior to the RIA-simulation test that produced the observed failures. The mechanisms responsible for the observed test rod failures have been shown to result from processes that have a second order effect of burnup. A correlation with burnup could not be appropriately established for the fuel enthalpy at failure. However, the successful test rods can be used to construct a conservative region of success for fuel rod behavior during an RIA event.

  8. Investigative techniques used to locate the liquid hydrogen leakage on the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammock, William R., Jr.; Cota, Phillip E., Jr.; Rosenbaum, Bernard J.; Barrett, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Standard leak detection methods at ambient temperature have been developed in order to prevent excessive leakage from the Space Shuttle liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen Main Propulsion System. Unacceptable hydrogen leakage was encountered on the Columbia and Atlantis flight vehicles in the summer of 1990 after the standard leak check requirements had been satisfied. The leakage was only detectable when the fuel system was exposed to subcooled liquid hydrogen during External Tank loading operations. Special instrumentation and analytical tools were utilized during a series of propellant tanking tests in order to identify the sources of the hydrogen leakage. After the leaks were located and corrected, the physical characteristics of the leak sources were analyzed in an effort to understand how the discrepancies were introduced and why the leakage had evaded the standard leak detection methods. As a result of the post-leak analysis, corrective actions and leak detection improvements have been implemented in order to preclude a similar incident.

  9. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  10. Evaluation of the fluorescent gonococcal test-heated.

    PubMed Central

    Gaafar, H A

    1976-01-01

    In a 1-year evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for gonorrhea, 16,127 specimens from low-and high-risk groups were examined, and the results were compared with culture, history of exposure to a known patient, and clinical signs and symptoms. The results confirmed the usefulness of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for gonorrhea as a screening procedure, especially for women in the low-risk group. The test is more economic and probably more sensitive than culture for mass screening of asymptomatic women. PMID:791965

  11. Test and evaluation plan for the composite bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.G.; Dumlao, C.; Ciolko, A.T.; Pfister, T.J.; Schmeckpeper, E.R.

    1997-04-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMC) are entering the nation`s infrastructure as alternatives to conventional materials. Working with the Federal Highway Administration and Department of Energy, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is testing and evaluating a PMC structure for use in bridge rehabilitation and replacement. A 30-foot PMC bridge, designed and built by Lockheed Martin Missile and Space, will be field tested in Idaho. The design of this bridge represents simple support bridges in the 120-foot span category. This report describes the construction, transportation, installation, testing, and material properties for this PMC structure.

  12. Product evaluation of in situ vitrification engineering, Test 4

    SciTech Connect

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Bates, S.O.

    1991-09-01

    This report is one of several that evaluates the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Engineering-Scale Test 4 (ES-4). This document describes the chemical and physical composition, microstructure, and leaching characteristics of ES-4 product samples; these data provide insight into the expected performance of a vitrified product in an ISV buried waste application similar to that studied in ES-4.

  13. Students' Ways of Testing: Transforming the Structures of Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Rhonda Hustedt

    Fifteen college classes were identified via standardized student ratings as having had superior testing procedures. Instructors in those classes were asked to describe their evaluation procedures, and interviews were conducted with 27 students randomly selected from the classes. Interviewed students stressed the "communicative" dimension of…

  14. Evaluating the Initial Version of a New Cognitive Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marcia S.; Deuel, Lois-Lynn Stoyko; Urbano, Richard C.; Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Torres, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    The performance on a cognitive screening test of 37 children (ages 4-6) with mild mental retardation or learning disabilities was compared to their peers. The tasks constituting the initial version of the battery were evaluated in terms of their classification accuracy and yielded a set of five different cognitive tasks. (CR)

  15. Test-Site Evaluation of ICU/PLANIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Terry J.

    Test-site evaluation of the Instructor's Computer Utility/Programing Language of Interactive Teaching (ICU/PLANIT) was conducted. Goals included: 1) analysis of the operation of ICU/PLANIT; 2) development of two PLANIT. Modifications were made in a distrubuted version, cost analyses were in man hours and quantities of machine resources consumed,…

  16. Test-Based Teacher Evaluations: Accountability vs. Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolyard, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    Gert Biesta contends that managerial accountability, which focuses on efficiency and competition, dominates the current political arena in education. Such accountability has influenced states' developments of test-based teacher evaluations in an attempt to quantify teachers' efficacy on student learning. With numerous state policies requiring the…

  17. ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING TEST REPORTS FOR EVALUATING VOC CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report outlines the approach taken by EPA to review existing test reports for evaluating volatile organic compound (VOC) control device effectiveness and identifying missing control device effectiveness information. A format is presented to provide guidance and serve as the b...

  18. Evaluating the Instructional Sensitivity of Four States' Student Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2016-01-01

    As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…

  19. 21 CFR 890.1925 - Isokinetic testing and evaluation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isokinetic testing and evaluation system. 890.1925 Section 890.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  20. 21 CFR 890.1925 - Isokinetic testing and evaluation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isokinetic testing and evaluation system. 890.1925 Section 890.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  1. 21 CFR 890.1925 - Isokinetic testing and evaluation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isokinetic testing and evaluation system. 890.1925 Section 890.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  2. 21 CFR 890.1925 - Isokinetic testing and evaluation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isokinetic testing and evaluation system. 890.1925 Section 890.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  3. 21 CFR 890.1925 - Isokinetic testing and evaluation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isokinetic testing and evaluation system. 890.1925 Section 890.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  4. Toxicity testing and instream biological monitoring in evaluating municipal effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, K.; Pontasch, K.

    1995-12-31

    Twelve streams receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents were evaluated in riffle areas above and below the outfall using the Environmental Protection Agency`s Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs) for benthic macroinvertebrates. Eight of the sites evaluated using RBP 1 exhibited stream health in the downstream riffles equaling or exceeding the upstream riffles. RBP 1 results suggested possible impacts at the remaining four sites, and these sites were more intensely evaluated using RBPs 2 and 3, acute effluent toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, and quantification of periphytic chlorophyll a and ash free dry weight (AFDW). Results from RBP 2 indicated three of the four sites evaluated have similar taxonomic richness above and below the outfall, while one site is heavily impacted by organic pollutants. Toxicity tests with 100% effluent resulted in no mortality with any of the four effluents tested. Relative to the respective upstream sites, chlorophyll a was significantly increased at one downstream site and significantly reduced at another. AFDW was similar above and below the outfalls in all streams. These results suggest that laboratory toxicity tests may not always be adequate predictors of instream biological effects.

  5. Performance evaluation of infrared imaging system in field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chensheng; Guo, Xiaodong; Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Zhi-jie

    2014-11-01

    Infrared imaging system has been applied widely in both military and civilian fields. Since the infrared imager has various types and different parameters, for system manufacturers and customers, there is great demand for evaluating the performance of IR imaging systems with a standard tool or platform. Since the first generation IR imager was developed, the standard method to assess the performance has been the MRTD or related improved methods which are not perfect adaptable for current linear scanning imager or 2D staring imager based on FPA detector. For this problem, this paper describes an evaluation method based on the triangular orientation discrimination metric which is considered as the effective and emerging method to evaluate the synthesis performance of EO system. To realize the evaluation in field test, an experiment instrument is developed. And considering the importance of operational environment, the field test is carried in practical atmospheric environment. The test imagers include panoramic imaging system and staring imaging systems with different optics and detectors parameters (both cooled and uncooled). After showing the instrument and experiment setup, the experiment results are shown. The target range performance is analyzed and discussed. In data analysis part, the article gives the range prediction values obtained from TOD method, MRTD method and practical experiment, and shows the analysis and results discussion. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of this evaluation tool, and it can be taken as a platform to give the uniform performance prediction reference.

  6. Leakage Characteristics of Dual-Cannula Fenestrated Tracheostomy Tubes during Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Bench Study.

    PubMed

    Berlet, Thomas; Marchon, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the leakage characteristics of different types of dual-cannula fenestrated tracheostomy tubes during positive pressure ventilation. Fenestrated Portex® Blue Line Ultra®, TRACOE® twist, or Rüsch® Traceofix® tracheostomy tubes equipped with nonfenestrated inner cannulas were tested in a tracheostomy-lung simulator. Transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates were measured during positive pressure ventilation. The impact of different ventilation modes, airway pressures, temperatures, and simulated static lung compliance settings on leakage characteristics was assessed. We observed substantial differences in transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates. The leakage rates of the best performing tubes were <3.5% of the delivered minute volume. At body temperature, the leakage rates of these tracheostomy tubes were <1%. The tracheal tube design was the main factor that determined the leakage characteristics. Careful tracheostomy tube selection permits the use of fenestrated tracheostomy tubes in patients receiving positive pressure ventilation immediately after stoma formation and minimises the risk of complications caused by transfenestration gas leakage, for example, subcutaneous emphysema. PMID:27073395

  7. Leakage Characteristics of Dual-Cannula Fenestrated Tracheostomy Tubes during Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Bench Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the leakage characteristics of different types of dual-cannula fenestrated tracheostomy tubes during positive pressure ventilation. Fenestrated Portex® Blue Line Ultra®, TRACOE® twist, or Rüsch® Traceofix® tracheostomy tubes equipped with nonfenestrated inner cannulas were tested in a tracheostomy-lung simulator. Transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates were measured during positive pressure ventilation. The impact of different ventilation modes, airway pressures, temperatures, and simulated static lung compliance settings on leakage characteristics was assessed. We observed substantial differences in transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates. The leakage rates of the best performing tubes were <3.5% of the delivered minute volume. At body temperature, the leakage rates of these tracheostomy tubes were <1%. The tracheal tube design was the main factor that determined the leakage characteristics. Careful tracheostomy tube selection permits the use of fenestrated tracheostomy tubes in patients receiving positive pressure ventilation immediately after stoma formation and minimises the risk of complications caused by transfenestration gas leakage, for example, subcutaneous emphysema. PMID:27073395

  8. Leakage Characteristics of Dual-Cannula Fenestrated Tracheostomy Tubes during Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Bench Study.

    PubMed

    Berlet, Thomas; Marchon, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the leakage characteristics of different types of dual-cannula fenestrated tracheostomy tubes during positive pressure ventilation. Fenestrated Portex® Blue Line Ultra®, TRACOE® twist, or Rüsch® Traceofix® tracheostomy tubes equipped with nonfenestrated inner cannulas were tested in a tracheostomy-lung simulator. Transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates were measured during positive pressure ventilation. The impact of different ventilation modes, airway pressures, temperatures, and simulated static lung compliance settings on leakage characteristics was assessed. We observed substantial differences in transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates. The leakage rates of the best performing tubes were <3.5% of the delivered minute volume. At body temperature, the leakage rates of these tracheostomy tubes were <1%. The tracheal tube design was the main factor that determined the leakage characteristics. Careful tracheostomy tube selection permits the use of fenestrated tracheostomy tubes in patients receiving positive pressure ventilation immediately after stoma formation and minimises the risk of complications caused by transfenestration gas leakage, for example, subcutaneous emphysema.

  9. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, J.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of thermographic phosphor technology for aerodynamic model testing

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.R.; Tobin, K.W.; Smith, D.B.

    1990-08-01

    The goal for this project was to perform technology evaluations applicable to the development of higher-precision, higher-temperature aerodynamic model testing at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Tullahmoa, Tennessee. With the advent of new programs for design of aerospace craft that fly at higher speeds and altitudes, requirements for detailed understanding of high-temperature materials become very important. Model testing is a natural and critical part of the development of these new initiatives. The well-established thermographic phosphor techniques of the Applied Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are highly desirable for diagnostic evaluation of materials and aerodynamic shapes as studied in model tests. Combining this state-of-the-art thermographic technique with modern, higher-temperature models will greatly improve the practicability of tests for the advanced aerospace vehicles and will provide higher precision diagnostic information for quantitative evaluation of these tests. The wavelength ratio method for measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models was demonstrated in measurements made for this project. In particular, it was shown that the appropriate phosphors could be selected for the temperature range up to {approximately}700 {degree}F or higher and emission line ratios of sufficient sensitivity to measure temperature with 1% precision or better. Further, it was demonstrated that two-dimensional image- processing methods, using standard hardware, can be successfully applied to surface thermography of aerodynamic models for AEDC applications.

  11. Dynamic testing in the evaluation of male gonadal function.

    PubMed

    De Martino, M U; Pastore, R; Caprio, M; Frajese, G; Fabbri, A

    2003-01-01

    The maturation and physiologic functions of male sexual apparatus are under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The determination of gonadotropins and testosterone as secretory products of pituitary and gonads, respectively, represents the first step in the evaluation of male sexual function and the diagnosis of disorders in male reproductive axis. However, there are several clinical situations that require a dynamic evaluation of this system and the measurement of basal gonadotropins and testosterone must be combined with specific dynamic tests. These mainly consist in GnRH stimulation, which evaluates the endocrine reserve capacity of the pituitary, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation, which is used in the assessment of Leydig cells activity. The paper illustrates the technical aspects, the normal/pathological responses and the role of these two tests in assessing the male HPG axis in respect to different clinical diagnostic queries.

  12. Evaluation of a virucidal quantitative carrier test for surface disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Rabenau, Holger F; Steinmann, Jochen; Rapp, Ingrid; Schwebke, Ingeborg; Eggers, Maren

    2014-01-01

    Surface disinfectants are part of broader preventive strategies preventing the transmission of bacteria, fungi and viruses in medical institutions. To evaluate their virucidal efficacy, these products must be tested with appropriate model viruses with different physico-chemical properties under conditions representing practical application in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a quantitative carrier assay. Furthermore, different putative model viruses like adenovirus type 5 (AdV-5) and different animal parvoviruses were evaluated with respect to their tenacity and practicability in laboratory handling. To evaluate the robustness of the method, some of the viruses were tested in parallel in different laboratories in a multi-center study. Different biocides, which are common active ingredients of surface disinfectants, were used in the test. After drying on stainless steel discs as the carrier, model viruses were exposed to different concentrations of three alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA) or glutaraldehyde (GDA), with a fixed exposure time of 5 minutes. Residual virus was determined after treatment by endpoint titration. All parvoviruses exhibited a similar stability with respect to GDA, while AdV-5 was more susceptible. For PAA, the porcine parvovirus was more sensitive than the other parvoviruses, and again, AdV-5 presented a higher susceptibility than the parvoviruses. All parvoviruses were resistant to alcohols, while AdV-5 was only stable when treated with 2-propanol. The analysis of the results of the multi-center study showed a high reproducibility of this test system. In conclusion, two viruses with different physico-chemical properties can be recommended as appropriate model viruses for the evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of surface disinfectants: AdV-5, which has a high clinical impact, and murine parvovirus (MVM) with the highest practicability among the parvoviruses tested.

  13. Evaluation of a virucidal quantitative carrier test for surface disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Rabenau, Holger F; Steinmann, Jochen; Rapp, Ingrid; Schwebke, Ingeborg; Eggers, Maren

    2014-01-01

    Surface disinfectants are part of broader preventive strategies preventing the transmission of bacteria, fungi and viruses in medical institutions. To evaluate their virucidal efficacy, these products must be tested with appropriate model viruses with different physico-chemical properties under conditions representing practical application in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a quantitative carrier assay. Furthermore, different putative model viruses like adenovirus type 5 (AdV-5) and different animal parvoviruses were evaluated with respect to their tenacity and practicability in laboratory handling. To evaluate the robustness of the method, some of the viruses were tested in parallel in different laboratories in a multi-center study. Different biocides, which are common active ingredients of surface disinfectants, were used in the test. After drying on stainless steel discs as the carrier, model viruses were exposed to different concentrations of three alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA) or glutaraldehyde (GDA), with a fixed exposure time of 5 minutes. Residual virus was determined after treatment by endpoint titration. All parvoviruses exhibited a similar stability with respect to GDA, while AdV-5 was more susceptible. For PAA, the porcine parvovirus was more sensitive than the other parvoviruses, and again, AdV-5 presented a higher susceptibility than the parvoviruses. All parvoviruses were resistant to alcohols, while AdV-5 was only stable when treated with 2-propanol. The analysis of the results of the multi-center study showed a high reproducibility of this test system. In conclusion, two viruses with different physico-chemical properties can be recommended as appropriate model viruses for the evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of surface disinfectants: AdV-5, which has a high clinical impact, and murine parvovirus (MVM) with the highest practicability among the parvoviruses tested. PMID:24475079

  14. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36

  15. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  16. Evaluation of Fecal Immunochemical Tests for CRC Screening

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Jeanette M.; Bay, Camden P.; Levy, Barcey T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces the mortality due to CRC. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the variation in the products available for CRC screening. Purpose The purpose of this study was to summarize the accuracy of results of individual FIT products across pathology proficiency testing programs. Methods Secondary data analysis of proficiency testing programs’ FIT results. Results Four of seven proficiency testing program’s FIT evaluations were obtained for a two-year period. Fourteen unique FIT brands were evaluated by at least one of the four proficiency testing programs. Five of the products performed similarly with sensitivities ranging from 98.1% to 98.8% and specificities from 98.1% to 99.6%. Ninety-three percent of the FIT tests completed were manual CLIA-waived FITs. Conclusions About two-thirds of the commonly used FIT products performed acceptably on spiked samples of human hemoglobin. However, some had low sensitivity and specificity and probably should not be used for population-based or other screening. Further investigation to determine appropriate, reliable products for fecal occult blood testing is warranted. PMID:23799674

  17. Simulation of magnetic flux leakage: Application to tube inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prémel, Denis; Fnaeich, E. A.; Djafa, S.; Pichon, L.; Trillon, A.; Bisiaux, B.

    2012-05-01

    The detection of flaws in steel pipes using Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) consists in detecting magnetic flux leaks outside the pipe, either with a magnetic sensor or with an induction coil, while the pipe is rotating. In the Vallourec group, many NDT units use MFL for testing ferromagnetic pipes. In order to improve the performances of flaw detection, CEA LIST and the Vallourec Research Aulnoye (VRA) group are collaborating on MFL modelling. The aim is to be able to perform parametric studies thanks to a fast 3D numerical model dedicated to MFL systems. A simplified 2D geometry has already been derived for the development of first simulation tools. When considering the B-H curve of ferromagnetic materials, the non-linear magnetostatic problem can be solved with the generalized boundary element method (BEMG), which comes to the evaluation of two equivalent scalar potentials: the surface charge density and the volume charge density. When applying the Galerkin method for the discretization of integral equations, the particularity of this numerical model lies in the implementation of high order basis functions for the interpolation of the scalar unknowns. This paper presents some first numerical results for the numerical validation of the semi-analytical model.

  18. Parking and routing information system phase 1 evaluation -- Individual evaluation test plans

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    A parking and routing information system (PARIS) is being designed and deployed at a test site on the Mountain Home Veterans Administration campus in Johnson City, Tennessee using three sensor technologies. The purpose of the PARIS project is to demonstrate innovative integration of vehicle sensing technologies with parking management strategies to improve mobility and relieve congestion associated with a growing medical/technology complex. This technical memorandum presents the four individual evaluation test plans, System Performance Individual Evaluation Test Plan, User Acceptance Individual Evaluation Test Plan, Institutional and Business Issues Individual Evaluation Test Plan, and Transportation Systems Individual Evaluation Test Plan, which were developed to support ORNL`s responsibilities and functions during the four studies. The plans define the level of effort required to satisfy the data collection, processing, and analysis requirements for the assessment of the system performance, user acceptance, institutional and business issues, and transportation systems components of the PARIS phase 1 evaluation. Each plan is divided into three subsections: executive summary, detailed study design, and study management.

  19. Novel speed test for evaluation of badminton-specific movements.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Christian M; Karlsen, Anders; Nybo, Lars

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we developed a novel badminton-specific speed test (BST). The test was designed to mimic match play. The test starts in the center of the court and consists of 5 maximal actions to sensors located in each of the 4 corners of the court. The 20 actions are performed in randomized order as dictated by computer screen shots displayed 1 second after completion of the previous action. We assessed day-to-day variation in elite players, and specificity of the test was evaluated by comparing 30-m sprint performance and time to complete the BST in 20 elite players, 21 skilled players, and 20 age-matched physical active subjects (non-badminton players). Sprint performance was similar across groups, whereas the elite players were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) faster in the BST (total test time: 32.3 ± 1.1 seconds; average: 1.6 seconds per action) than the skilled (34.1 ± 2.0 seconds) and non-badminton players (35.7 ± 1.7 seconds). Day-to-day coefficient of variation (CV) of the BST was 0.7% for the elite players, whereas CV for repeated tests on the same day was 1.7% for elite, 2.6% for skilled, and 2.5% for non-badminton players. On this basis, we suggest that the BST may be valuable for evaluation of short-term maximal movement speed in badminton players. Thus, the BST seems to be sport specific, as it may discriminate between groups (elite, less trained players, and non-badminton players) with similar sprinting performance, and the low test-retest variation may allow for using the BST to evaluate longitudinal changes, for example, training effects or seasonal variations.

  20. SHEAR STRENGTH MEASURING EQUIPMENT EVALUATION AT THE COLD TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-09-09

    Retrievals under current criteria require that approximately 2,000,000 gallons of double-shell tank (DST) waste storage space not be used to prevent creating new tanks that might be susceptible to buoyant displacement gas release events (BDGRE). New criteria are being evaluated, based on actual sludge properties, to potentially show that sludge wastes do not exhibit the same BDGRE risk. Implementation of the new criteria requires measurement of in situ waste shear strength. Cone penetrometers were judged the best equipment for measuring in situ shear strength and an A.P. van den berg Hyson 100 kN Light Weight Cone Penetrometer (CPT) was selected for evaluation. The CPT was procured and then evaluated at the Hanford Site Cold Test Facility. Evaluation demonstrated that the equipment with minor modification was suitable for use in Tank Farms.

  1. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies. (c... and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies. (d) You may not...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to you... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies. (c... and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies. (d) You may not...

  3. Materials Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04, 05, and 06

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Ingram, C; Simmons, L; Arganbright, R; Lyle, J; Wong, K

    2006-03-23

    The purpose of this work is to examine the environmental, safety, health and operational aspects of detonating a confined explosive test apparatus that has been designed to maximize the dynamics of impact on beryllium metal components for Contained Firing Facility (CFF) applications. A combination of experimental collection and evaluation methods were designed and implemented to provide an evaluation of immediately postdetonation by-products reflecting a potential worst-case scenario beryllium aerosolization explosive event. The collective Material Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04 - 06 provided explosive devices designed to scale for the dedicated METS firing tank that would provide a post-detonation internal environment comparable to the CFF. The experimental results provided appropriate information to develop operational parameters to be considered for conducting full-scale beryllium-containing experimental tests with similar designs within CFF and B801A. These operational procedures include the inclusion of chelating agents in pre-shot CFF cardboard containers with a minimum of 600 gallons content, an extended time period post-test before purging the CFF chamber, and an adaptation of approaches toward applications of the scrubber and HEPA systems during the post-shot sequence for an integrated environmental, safety, and health approach. In addition, re-entry and film retrieval procedures will be adapted, in line with abatement techniques for cleaning the chamber, that will be required for work inside a CFF that will contain an elevated concentration of spherical and highly aerosolizable beryllium particulate.

  4. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-12-17

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site

  5. Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = -0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = -0.82) and bench press (rs = -0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.83) and bench press (rs = -0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = -0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = -0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  6. Determination of canal leakage potential using continuous resistivity profiling techniques, Interstate and Tri-State Canals, western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Kress, Wade H.; Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    In the North Platte River Basin, a ground-water model is being developed to evaluate the effectiveness of using water leakage from selected irrigation canal systems to enhance ground-water recharge. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, used land-based capacitively coupled and water-borne direct-current continuous resistivity profiling techniques to map the lithology of the upper 8 meters and to interpret the relative canal leakage potential of 110 kilometers of the Interstate and Tri-State Canals in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming. Lithologic descriptions from 25 test holes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of both techniques for indicating relative grain size. An interpretive color scale was developed that symbolizes contrasting resistivity features indicative of different grain-size categories. The color scale was applied to the vertically averaged resistivity and used to classify areas of the canals as having either high, moderate, or low canal leakage potential. When results were compared with the lithologic descriptions, both land-based and water-borne continuous resistivity profiling techniques were determined to be effective at differentiating coarse-grained from fine-grained sediment. Both techniques were useful for producing independent, similar interpretations of canal leakage potential.

  7. Determining corrosion defect geometry from magnetic flux leakage pig data

    SciTech Connect

    Nestleroth, J.B.; Rust, S.W.; Burgoon, D.A.; Haines, H.

    1996-08-01

    Accurate determination of the size of corrosion defects is important for determining defect severity. Many magnetic flux leakage pigs employ strong magnetizers and a large number of sensors for improved defect geometry determination methods. Analysis of data from 128 metal loss defects examined repeatedly under different test conditions is used to illustrate pig performance capabilities. An assessment of two inspection variables that can degrade performance is also presented.

  8. Alternative magnetic flux leakage modalities for pipeline inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Katragadda, G.; Lord, W.; Sun, Y.S.; Udpa, S.; Udpa, L.

    1996-05-01

    Increasing quality consciousness is placing higher demands on the accuracy and reliability of inspection systems used in defect detection and characterization. Nondestructive testing techniques often rely on using multi-transducer approaches to obtain greater defect sensitivity. This paper investigates the possibility of taking advantage of alternative modalities associated with the standard magnetic flux leakage tool to obtain additional defect information, while still using a single excitation source.

  9. Television Microwave Link (TML) Operational Test and Evaluation (OT/E)/integration test report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Wayne E.; Tran, Tuan A.

    1992-03-01

    Given here are the results of the Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E)/Integration test on the 15 GHz Television Microwave Link (TML) system. The TML is commercial off the shelf equipment. It provides the capability for air traffic control information to be relayed to a remote display from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Digital Bright Radar Indicator Tower (DBRITE) system located at the terminal facility. The TML system was integrated and tested with the DBRITE system. Testing was successfully completed and met all of the T&E/Integration requirements. The acceptability of the remote DBRITE display was evaluated by the air traffic controllers and the data displayed on the remote DBRITE display provided the necessary information for air traffic control services. Therefore, the TML system is recommended for deployment.

  10. Development of a Test Facility for Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Sao-Dung; Lin, Amy; Campbell, Melissa; Smith, Frederick; Curley, Su

    2007-01-01

    Development of new air revitalization system (ARS) technology can initially be performed in a subscale laboratory environment, but in order to advance the maturity level, the technology must be tested in an end-to-end integrated environment. The Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation Facility (ARTEF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center serves as a ground test bed for evaluating emerging ARS technologies in an environment representative of spacecraft atmospheres. At the center of the ARTEF is a hypobaric chamber which serves as a sealed atmospheric chamber for closed loop testing. A Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) was custom-built to simulate the consumption of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide, moisture and heat of up to eight persons. A multitude of gas analyzers and dew point sensors are used to monitor the chamber atmosphere upstream and downstream of a test article. A robust vacuum system is needed to simulate the vacuum of space. A reliable data acquisition and control system is required to connect all the subsystems together. This paper presents the capabilities of the integrated test facility and some of the issues encountered during the integration.

  11. Testing and evaluation of a Hybrid III load sensing face.

    PubMed

    Planath, I; Nilsson, S

    1989-10-01

    To detect localized facial forces in laboratory car crash conditions, a load sensing face (LSF) was developed. Piezoelectric sensors provide pressure time histories. Design properties and characteristics of the LSF are described, as well as the sensor technique used. Sled tests with a LSF equipped dummy are presented. The purpose was to evaluate the efficiency of the method in registering facial impact magnitude and location with different restraint and seat position combinations. The LSF was also used in drop testing of steering wheels. Various impact velocities and impact points as well as the reapeatability were studied. PMID:2619857

  12. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  13. Quality Evaluation By Acousto-Ultrasonic Testing Of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1989-01-01

    Promising nondestructive-testing method based on ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. Report reviews acousto-ultrasonic technology for nondestructive testing. Discusses principles, suggests advanced signal-analysis schemes for development, and presents potential applications. Acousto-ultrasonics applied principally to assess defects in laminated and filament-wound fiber-reinforced composite materials. Technique used to determine variations in such properties as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and reductions in strength and toughness caused by defects. Also used to evaluate states of cure, porosities, orientation of fibers, volume fractions of fibers, bonding between fibers and matrices, and qualities of interlaminar bonds.

  14. ANOLE Portable Radiation Detection System Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris A. Hodge

    2007-07-12

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named “Anole,” it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign.

  15. INEL test plan for evaluating waste assay systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mandler, J.W.; Becker, G.K.; Harker, Y.D.; Menkhaus, D.E.; Clements, T.L. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    A test bed is being established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These tests are currently focused on mobile or portable radioassay systems. Prior to disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), radioassay measurements must meet the quality assurance objectives of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. This test plan provides technology holders with the opportunity to assess radioassay system performance through a three-tiered test program that consists of: (a) evaluations using non-interfering matrices, (b) surrogate drums with contents that resemble the attributes of INEL-specific waste forms, and (c) real waste tests. Qualified sources containing a known mixture and range of radionuclides will be used for the non-interfering and surrogate waste tests. The results of these tests will provide technology holders with information concerning radioassay system performance and provide the INEL with data useful for making decisions concerning alternative or improved radioassay systems that could support disposal of waste at WIPP.

  16. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

    2007-08-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign.

  17. Forecasting in foodservice: model development, testing, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miller, J L; Thompson, P A; Orabella, M M

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to develop, test, and evaluate mathematical models appropriate for forecasting menu-item production demand in foodservice. Data were collected from residence and dining hall foodservices at Ohio State University. Objectives of the study were to collect, code, and analyze the data; develop and test models using actual operation data; and compare forecasting results with current methods in use. Customer count was forecast using deseasonalized simple exponential smoothing. Menu-item demand was forecast by multiplying the count forecast by a predicted preference statistic. Forecasting models were evaluated using mean squared error, mean absolute deviation, and mean absolute percentage error techniques. All models were more accurate than current methods. A broad spectrum of forecasting techniques could be used by foodservice managers with access to a personal computer and spread-sheet and database-management software. The findings indicate that mathematical forecasting techniques may be effective in foodservice operations to control costs, increase productivity, and maximize profits.

  18. Summary of the Solar Two Test and Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    PACHECO,JAMES E.; REILLY,HUGH E.; KOLB,GREGORY J.; TYNER,CRAIG E.

    2000-02-08

    Solar Two was a collaborative, cost-shared project between eleven US industry and utility partners and the U. S. Department of Energy to validate molten-salt power tower technology. The Solar Two plant, located east of Barstow, CA, was comprised of 1926 heliostats, a receiver, a thermal storage system and a steam generation system. Molten nitrate salt was used as the heat transfer fluid and storage media. The steam generator powered a 10 MWe, conventional Rankine cycle turbine. Solar Two operated from June 1996 to April 1999. The major objective of the test and evaluation phase of the project was to validate the technical characteristics of a molten salt power tower. This paper describes the significant results from the test and evaluation activities.

  19. Forecasting in foodservice: model development, testing, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miller, J L; Thompson, P A; Orabella, M M

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to develop, test, and evaluate mathematical models appropriate for forecasting menu-item production demand in foodservice. Data were collected from residence and dining hall foodservices at Ohio State University. Objectives of the study were to collect, code, and analyze the data; develop and test models using actual operation data; and compare forecasting results with current methods in use. Customer count was forecast using deseasonalized simple exponential smoothing. Menu-item demand was forecast by multiplying the count forecast by a predicted preference statistic. Forecasting models were evaluated using mean squared error, mean absolute deviation, and mean absolute percentage error techniques. All models were more accurate than current methods. A broad spectrum of forecasting techniques could be used by foodservice managers with access to a personal computer and spread-sheet and database-management software. The findings indicate that mathematical forecasting techniques may be effective in foodservice operations to control costs, increase productivity, and maximize profits. PMID:2019699

  20. LSP Composite Susbtrate Destructive Evaluation Test Assessment Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, Daniel J.; Erickson, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    This document specifies the processes to perform post-strike destructive damage evaluation of tested CFRP panels.It is recognized that many factors besides lightning damage protection are involved in the selection of an appropriate Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) for a particular system (e.g., cost, weight, corrosion resistance, shielding effectiveness, etc.). This document strives primarily to address the standardized generation of damage protection performance data.

  1. SIRU utilization. Volume 1: Theory, development and test evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musoff, H.

    1974-01-01

    The theory, development, and test evaluations of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) are discussed. The statistical failure detection and isolation, single position calibration, and self alignment techniques are emphasized. Circuit diagrams of the system components are provided. Mathematical models are developed to show the performance characteristics of the subsystems. Specific areas of the utilization program are identified as: (1) error source propagation characteristics and (2) local level navigation performance demonstrations.

  2. ARTEMIS; A VMS based FASTBUS module testing and evaluation system

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbics, M.S.; Crawley, H.B.; McKay, R.; Meyer, W.T.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Skeens, J.D. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors describe a flexible FASTBUS module testing and evaluation system that has been developed in conjunction with the Ames waveform digitizer being used in the DELPHI experiment at LEP. The system hardware includes a DEC MicroVAX II (or equivalent) running micro VMS with FASTBUS and GPIB instrumentation buses. The software is menu driven, makes extensive use of the screen management routines (SMG) of the VAX/VMS system, and is designed for easy modification.

  3. Composite seal reduces alkaline battery leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Plitt, K. F.

    1965-01-01

    Composite seal consisting of rubber or plastic washers and a metal washer reduces alkaline battery leakage. Adhesive is applied to each washer interface, and the washers are held together mechanically.

  4. Temperature effects on soybean imbibition and leakage.

    PubMed

    Leopold, A C

    1980-06-01

    As a part of an analysis of the nature of chilling injury to seeds, measurements were made of the initial linear rates of water entry into and solute leakage out of cotyledons of soybean at various temperatures. Arrhenius plots were approximately linear for water entry into both living and dead cotyledons, with the slope (and activation energy) for entry into living cells being insignificantly higher than for dead cells, suggesting little effect of membrane barriers on water entry. The plots for solute leakage showed 10-fold lower leakage rates from living than from dead tissues; a reversal of slope in the Arrhenius plot at temperatures below 15 C reflected increasing leakage rates, interpreted as a quantitative disruption of membrane reorganization at the temperatures associated with chilling injury.

  5. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  6. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  7. Initial DAB Argon Storage Dewar Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

    1990-05-30

    Any detectable leakage emanating from the argon storage dewar is undesirable; not only from a safety standpoint (eg, cryogenic burns, asphyxiation, etc.), but also small amounts of air back diffusing through leaks can render the argon unsuitable for the future physics experiments to take place within the cryostats. Whereas leakage through some of the control and manually operated valves on the dewar does not necessarily infroduce any of the above hazards directly, it could be high enough to be an economical, and perhaps an operational nuisance. Contained in the following is a compilation of the final leakage rates associated with the dewar during the period of January through May of 1990 and the raw data from which they were derived from. Also contained is a calculation of the total maximum allowable leakage rate int%ut of the dewar. The general strategy employed while leak checking the dewar was to eliminate all leaks found which could be relatively easily stopped and to reduce the more difficult ones to an acceptable level. Leakage past the seats/plugs of control and main relief valves in addition to leakage past the ball seals in the diverter valve fell into the latter category. Helium mass spectrometer leak detector (HMSLD), rate of rise (ROR) method, and throughput calculations based on effective pumping speeds were the means used to determine leakage rates. Usually the HMSLD method was used to detect the numerous smaller leaks (1 OE-S to 1 OE-1 0 std eels) which were eventually stopped by thread tightening, gasket replacement. redesign, etc. The ROR method helped measure the leakage past valve plugs and establish outgassing rates for volumes deemed as being tight; ie, no detectable leakage using the HMSLD. The throughput calculation was used only to determine the relatively large leak past the plug/seat of the vaporizer valve. A sample calculation of each leakage rate determining method is attached to this note. All leakage rates are given for helium gas at

  8. [Bile leakage in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Authors' experience].

    PubMed

    Sperlongano, P; Pisaniello, D; Corsale, I; Cozza, G

    1999-01-01

    The Authors report their experience of two patients with bile leakage following videocholecystectomy (VLC) among a series of 163 cases. Reviewing the Literature, they analyze possible causes and mechanisms of bile spillage occurring after VCL. They also suggest some guidelines for a safe VLC, stressing the importance of the routinary placement of the sub-hepatic drainage to remove 48 hours to early detect possible bile leakages after surgery.

  9. Gate leakage mechanisms in strained Si devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Olsen, S. H.; Kanoun, M.; Agaiby, R.; O'Neill, A. G.

    2006-11-01

    This work investigates gate leakage mechanisms in advanced strained Si /SiGe metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) devices. The impact of virtual substrate Ge content, epitaxial material quality, epitaxial layer structure, and device processing on gate oxide leakage characteristics are analyzed in detail. In state of the art MOSFETs, gate oxides are only a few nanometers thick. In order to minimize power consumption, leakage currents through the gate must be controlled. However, modifications to the energy band structure, Ge diffusion due to high temperature processing, and Si /SiGe material quality may all affect gate oxide leakage in strained Si devices. We show that at high oxide electric fields where gate leakage is dominated by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, tensile strained Si MOSFETs exhibit lower leakage levels compared with bulk Si devices. This is a direct result of strain-induced splitting of the conduction band states. However, for device operating regimes at lower oxide electric fields Poole-Frenkel emissions contribute to strained Si gate leakage and increase with increasing virtual substrate Ge content. The emissions are shown to predominantly originate from surface roughness generating bulk oxide traps, opposed to Ge diffusion, and can be improved by introducing a high temperature anneal. Gate oxide interface trap density exhibits a dissimilar behavior and is highly sensitive to Ge atoms at the oxidizing surface, degrading with increasing thermal budget. Consequently advanced strained Si /SiGe devices are inadvertently subject to a potential tradeoff between power consumption (gate leakage current) and device reliability (gate oxide interface quality).

  10. Measuring Heat-Exchanger Water Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zampiceni, J.

    1986-01-01

    Water leakage in heat exchanger measured directly with help of electroytic hygrometer. In new technique, flow of nitrogen gas set up in one loop of heat exchanger. Other loop filled with water under pressure. Water concentration produced by leakage of water into nitrogen flow measured by hygrometer. New measurement method determines water concentrations up to 2,000 parts per million with accuracy of +/- 5 percent.

  11. Oil/water separator test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, M.A.; Bitting, K.R.; Nordvik, A.

    1995-11-01

    Four oil/water separators were tested in 1992 in a project jointly sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard RD Center and the Marine Spill Response Corporation. The objective of the test program was to evaluate the performance of oil/water separators under a variety of conditions that replicated operating conditions expected during an offshore oil spill recovery operation. The separators tested were the Alfa-Laval OFPX 413 disk-stack centrifuge. Conoco Specialty Products` Vortoil Oilspill Separation System, International Separation Technology`s Intr-Septor 250 and a simple gravity tank. Separation performance was documented for a range of influent oil/water ratios, using crude and a water-in-oil emulsion. Simulated sea motion, the addition of emulsion breaker, and debris in the influent were other variables included in the test program. Observations on separator operability, reliability, maintenance requirements, safety and transportability also were documented. Complete test results and analysis are included in the report. Recommended system improvements, based on manufacturers` input and performance analysis also are included. Test methods and parameters are fully documented in the report.

  12. Endurance Test and Evaluation of Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, Andrew J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Chang, B. J.; Larkins, Jim T.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to assess the state of alkaline water electrolysis cell technology and its potential as part of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) of a multikilowatt orbiting powerplant. The program evaluates the endurance capabilities of alkaline electrolyte water electrolysis cells under various operating conditions, including constant condition testing, cyclic testing and high pressure testing. The RFCS demanded the scale-up of existing cell hardware from 0.1 sq ft active electrode area to 1.0 sq ft active electrode area. A single water electrolysis cell and two six-cell modules of 1.0 sq ft active electrode area were designed and fabricated. The two six-cell 1.0 sq ft modules incorporate 1.0 sq ft utilized cores, which allow for minimization of module assembly complexity and increased tolerance to pressure differential. A water electrolysis subsystem was designed and fabricated to allow testing of the six-cell modules. After completing checkout, shakedown, design verification and parametric testing, a module was incorporated into the Regenerative Fuel Cell System Breadboard (RFCSB) for testing at Life Systems, Inc., and at NASA JSC.

  13. Evaluation of lightweight wheelchairs using ANSI/RESNA testing standards.

    PubMed

    Gebrosky, Benjamin; Pearlman, Jonathan; Cooper, Rory A; Cooper, Rosemarie; Kelleher, Annmarie

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight wheelchairs are characterized by their low cost and limited range of adjustment. Our study evaluated three different folding lightweight wheelchair models using the American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America (ANSI/RESNA) standards to see whether quality had improved since the previous data were reported. On the basis of reports of increasing breakdown rates in the community, we hypothesized that the quality of these wheelchairs had declined. Seven of the nine wheelchairs tested failed to pass the multidrum test durability requirements. An average of 194,502 +/- 172,668 equivalent cycles was completed, which is similar to the previous test results and far below the 400,000 minimum required to pass the ANSI/RESNA requirements. This was also significantly worse than the test results for aluminum ultralight folding wheelchairs. Overall, our results uncovered some disturbing issues with these wheelchairs and suggest that manufacturers should put more effort into this category to improve quality. To improve the durability of lightweight wheelchairs, we suggested that stronger regulations be developed that require wheelchairs to be tested by independent and certified test laboratories. We also proposed a wheelchair rating system based on the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration vehicle crash ratings to assist clinicians and end users when comparing the durability of different wheelchairs.

  14. Preliminary data evaluation for thermal insulation characterization testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeClue, J F; Moses, S D; Tollefson, D A

    1991-01-04

    The purpose of Thermal Insulation Characterization Testing is to provide physical data to support certain assumptions and calculational techniques used in the criticality safety calculations in Section 6 of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) for drum-type packaging for Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Results of preliminary data evaluation regarding the fire-test condition reveal that realistic weight loss consideration and residual material characterization in developing calculational models for the hypothetical accident condition is necessary in order to prevent placement of unduly conservative restrictions on shipping requirements as a result of overly conservative modeling. This is particularly important for fast systems. Determination of the geometric arrangement of residual material is of secondary importance. Both the methodology used to determine the minimum thermal insulation mass remaining after the fire test and the treatment of the thermal insulation in the criticality safety calculational models requires additional evaluation. Specific testing to be conducted will provide experimental data with which to validate the mass estimates and calculational modeling techniques for extrapolation to generic drum-type containers.

  15. Evaluation of Betulin Mutagenicity by Salmonella/Microsome Test

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Edson Hideaki; Tribuiani, Natália; Sabadim, Giovana; Neto Moreno, Débora Antunes; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Betulin is a pentacyclic triterpene found in the outer barks of innumerous plants. This secondary metabolite is easily isolated from plants with the major interest in converting it to betulinic acid, which pharmacological properties were much more exploited than betulin. But, investments in the own betulin have been grown since no chemical step is necessary. In this study we focused the precursor betulin in order to evaluate its mutagenicity by Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test). Methods: The Ames test was carried out using a commercial betulin exposed to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA97a, in experiments with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Results: Betulin was unable to increase the number of revertants (+S9 and -S9 metabolic activation) showing the absence of any mutagenic effect by Ames test. Conclusion: This study allowed attribute safety to betulin being important for exploiting its pharmacological uses. PMID:27766229

  16. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  17. Colorimetric evaluation of iPhone apps for colour vision tests based on the Ishihara test.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; AlMerdef, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Given the versatility of smart phone displays, it was inevitable that applications (apps) providing colour vision testing would appear as an option. In this study, the colorimetric characteristics of five available iPhone apps for colour vision testing are assessed as a prequel to possible clinical evaluation. The colours of the displays produced by the apps are assessed with reference to the colours of a printed Ishihara test. The visual task is assessed on the basis of the colour differences and the alignment to the dichromatic confusion lines. The apps vary in quality and while some are colorimetrically acceptable, there are also some problems with their construction in making them a clinically useful app rather than curiosity driven self-testing. There is no reason why, in principle, a suitable test cannot be designed for smart phones.

  18. Colorimetric evaluation of iPhone apps for colour vision tests based on the Ishihara test.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; AlMerdef, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Given the versatility of smart phone displays, it was inevitable that applications (apps) providing colour vision testing would appear as an option. In this study, the colorimetric characteristics of five available iPhone apps for colour vision testing are assessed as a prequel to possible clinical evaluation. The colours of the displays produced by the apps are assessed with reference to the colours of a printed Ishihara test. The visual task is assessed on the basis of the colour differences and the alignment to the dichromatic confusion lines. The apps vary in quality and while some are colorimetrically acceptable, there are also some problems with their construction in making them a clinically useful app rather than curiosity driven self-testing. There is no reason why, in principle, a suitable test cannot be designed for smart phones. PMID:27146711

  19. Leakage Suppression in the Toric Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchara, Martin; Cross, Andrew; Gambetta, Jay

    2015-03-01

    Quantum codes excel at correcting local noise but fail to correct leakage faults that excite qubits to states outside the computational space. Aliferis and Terhal have shown that an accuracy threshold exists for leakage faults using gadgets called leakage reduction units (LRUs). However, these gadgets reduce the threshold and increase experimental complexity, and the costs have not been thoroughly understood. We explore a variety of techniques for leakage resilience in topological codes. Our contributions are threefold. First, we develop a leakage model that differs in critical details from earlier models. Second, we use Monte-Carlo simulations to survey several syndrome extraction circuits. Third, given the capability to perform 3-outcome measurements, we present a dramatically improved syndrome processing algorithm. Our simulations show that simple circuits with one extra CNOT per qubit reduce the accuracy threshold by less than a factor of 4 when leakage and depolarizing noise rates are comparable. This becomes a factor of 2 when the decoder uses 3-outcome measurements. Finally, when the physical error rate is less than 2 ×10-4 , placing LRUs after every gate may achieve the lowest logical error rate. We expect that the ideas may generalize to other topological codes.

  20. EFFECTS OF LEAKAGE NEUTRAL PARTICLES ON SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2012-10-20

    In this paper, we investigate effects of neutral particles on shocks propagating into the partially ionized medium. We find that for 120 km s{sup -1} < u {sub sh} < 3000 km s{sup -1} (u {sub sh} is the shock velocity), about 10% of upstream neutral particles leak into the upstream region from the downstream region. Moreover, we investigate how the leakage neutral particles affect the upstream structure of the shock and particle accelerations. Using four-fluid approximations (upstream ions, upstream neutral particles, leakage neutral particles, and pickup ions), we provide analytical solutions of the precursor structure due to leakage neutral particles. It is shown that the upstream flow is decelerated in the precursor region and the shock compression ratio becomes smaller than without leakage neutral particles, but the total compression ratio does not change. Even if leakage of neutral particles is small (a few percent of total upstream particles), this smaller compression ratio of the shock can explain steep gamma-ray spectra from young supernova remnants. Furthermore, leakage neutral particles could amplify the magnetic field and heat the upstream region.

  1. Impact of Dynamic Loading on the Implant-abutment Interface Using a Gas-enhanced Permeation Test In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jadaa, Anas; Attin, Thomas; Peltomäki, Timo; Heumann, Christian; Schmidlin, Patrick Roger

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To assess implant leakage under static conditions as well as during and after dynamic loading. Materials and methods : Implants (Astra Tech (A), Biomet 3i (B) and Nobel Biocare (C)) were evaluated for leakage (n=8/group). Testing to assess the gas pressure change over time (hPa/min) and infiltrated fluid volume, was performed in a Gas Enhanced Permeation Test (GEPT) to qualify embedding. Implant apexes were then drilled, abutments were mounted and resin build-ups were fabricated. GEPT was reassessed. Samples were afterward mounted in a computer-controlled masticator while tested to bacterial leakage, they were daily observed for turbidity. Samples were then reassessed using GEPT. Dunnett's and Fisher's exact tests were utilized to compare implant and to analyze bacterial leakage. Results : Significant differences in GEPT values were shown after loading (p=0.034). Leakage resistance was best for B when compared to C (p=0.023). Samples with higher GEPT values demonstrated earlier bacterial leakage, occurring after 1 or 2 days (A=4, B=0, C=6) and showing favorability for implant system B (p=0.009). Conclusion : Implants leaking under static conditions had increased potential for bacterial leakage under dynamic conditions. As strongly correlating to sophisticated analytical methods, GEPT is a promising technique for assessing the overall implant system leakage resistance. PMID:25870719

  2. Evaluation of adult aphasics with the Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test.

    PubMed

    Jerger, S; Oliver, T A; Martin, R C

    1990-04-01

    Results of conventional adult speech audiometry may be compromised by the presence of speech/language disorders, such as aphasia. The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy of the speech intelligibility materials and techniques developed for young children in evaluating central auditory function in aphasic adults. Eight adult aphasics were evaluated with the Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (PSI) test, a picture-pointing approach that was carefully developed to be relatively insensitive to linguistic-cognitive skills and relatively sensitive to auditory-perceptual function. Results on message-to-competition ratio (MCR) functions or performance-intensity (PI) functions were abnormal in all subjects. Most subjects served as their own controls, showing normal performance on one ear coupled with abnormal performance on the other ear. The patterns of abnormalities were consistent with the patterns seen (1) on conventional speech audiometry in brain-lesioned adults without aphasia and (2) on the PSI test in brain-lesioned children without aphasia. An exception to this general observation was an atypical pattern of abnormality on PI-function testing in the subgroup of nonfluent aphasics. The nonfluent subjects showed substantially poorer word-max scores than sentence-max scores, a pattern seen previously in only one other patient group, namely young children with recurrent otitis media. The unusually depressed word-max abnormality was not meaningfully related to clinical diagnostic data regarding the degree of hearing loss and the location and severity of the lesions or to experimental data regarding the integrity of phonologic processing abilities. The observations of ear-specific and condition-specific abnormalities suggest that the linguistically- and cognitively-simplified PSI test may be useful in the evaluation of auditory-specific deficits in the aphasic adult. PMID:2132591

  3. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Wet-chemical fabrication of a single leakage-channel grating coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenbach, Lori; Zelinski, Brian J. J.; Roncone, Ronald L.; Burke, James J.

    1995-04-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a unique optical device, the single leakage-channel grating coupler, using sol-gel techniques. Design specifications are outlined to establish the material criteria for the sol-gel compositions. Material choice and preparation are described. We evaluate the characteristics and performance of the single leakage-channel grating coupler by comparing the predicted and the measured branching ratios. The branching ratio of the solution-derived device is within 3% of the theoretically predicted value.

  5. Macromolecular leakage benath full cast crowns. Part II: The diffusion of lipopolysaccharide and dextran.

    PubMed

    Coleman, A J

    1996-01-01

    Fifteen extracted molars were prepared for crowns. Crowns with access ports (one facial, one lingual) were cast in gold. Teeth and crowns luted with provisional cement with filters inserted into the ports were immersed in a solution of labeled macromolecules (FITC-dextran, TRITC-LPS) and evaluated for leakage. Filters were retrieved and analyzed by use of fluorescent microscopy. Leakage of LPS and dextran occurred as early as 2 weeks beneath crowns luted with a provisional cement (NoGenol). PMID:8850458

  6. The energy impact of air leakage through insulated walls

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Claridge, D.E.

    1995-08-01

    Infiltration is customarily assumed to increase the heating and cooling load of a building by an amount equal to the mass flow rate of the infiltration times the enthalpy difference between the inside and outside air--with the latent portion of the enthalpy difference sometimes neglected. An experimental and analytical investigation has been conducted on the actual energy impact of air leakage on a well-characterized insulated stud-cavity wall specimen. Calorimetric measurements conducted on the specimen with measured amounts of air leakage introduced under a variety of controlled conditions and configurations verify earlier test cell measurements showing that infiltration heat exchange can lead to a much smaller change in the energy load due to infiltration than is customarily calculated and show the dependence of infiltration heat exchange on flow rate and path length. A analytical model based on fundamental heat and mass transfer principles has been developed and the predicted values of Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness, {var_epsilon}, as a function of air flow rates and effective path length for five study-cavity wall specimen test configurations were consistent with the experimental results. Significant experimental results include: (i) {epsilon} values in the 0.16--0.7 range in the stud-cavity and (ii) {epsilon} values of 0.16 to 0.34 for air exiting the stud-cavity directly across from the entry. These results indicate that significant heat recovery is probable for most leakage occurring through insulated stud cavities.

  7. CO2 leakage risk in 3D heterogeneous formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Z.; Murray, C. J.; Rockhold, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we use a stochastic sensitivity analysis framework to evaluate the impact of 3D spatial heterogeneity in permeability on CO2 leakage risk. The leakage is defined as the total mass of CO2 moving into the overburden through the caprock-overburden interface, in both gaseous and liquid (dissolved) phases. The entropy-based framework has the ability to quantify the uncertainty associated with the input parameters/factors in the form of prior pdfs (probability density functions). Effective sampling of the prior pdfs enables us to explore the parameter space and systematically evaluate the individual and combined effects of the factors/parameters of interest on CO2 leakage risk. The parameters that are considered in the study include: mean, variance, and horizontal to vertical spatial anisotropy ratio for caprock permeability, and those same parameters for reservoir permeability. Given the sampled spatial variogram parameters, multiple realizations of permeability fields were generated using GSLIB subroutines. For each permeability field, a numerical simulator STOMP (water-salt-CO2-energy operational mode) is used to simulate the CO2 migration within the reservoir and caprock up to 50 years after injection. Due to intensive computational demand, a scalable version simulator, eSTOMP, is run on the Jaguar supercomputer. We then perform statistical analyses and summarize the relationships between the parameters of interest (mean/variance/anisotropy ratio of caprock/reservoir permeability) and CO2 leakage ratio. We will also present the effects of those parameters on CO2 plume radius and reservoir injectivity.

  8. Evaluation of genotoxicity testing of FDA approved large molecule therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Satin G; Fielden, Mark R; Black, Kurt A

    2014-10-01

    Large molecule therapeutics (MW>1000daltons) are not expected to enter the cell and thus have reduced potential to interact directly with DNA or related physiological processes. Genotoxicity studies are therefore not relevant and typically not required for large molecule therapeutic candidates. Regulatory guidance supports this approach; however there are examples of marketed large molecule therapeutics where sponsors have conducted genotoxicity studies. A retrospective analysis was performed on genotoxicity studies of United States FDA approved large molecule therapeutics since 1998 identified through the Drugs@FDA website. This information was used to provide a data-driven rationale for genotoxicity evaluations of large molecule therapeutics. Fifty-three of the 99 therapeutics identified were tested for genotoxic potential. None of the therapeutics tested showed a positive outcome in any study except the peptide glucagon (GlucaGen®) showing equivocal in vitro results, as stated in the product labeling. Scientific rationale and data from this review indicate that testing of a majority of large molecule modalities do not add value to risk assessment and support current regulatory guidance. Similarly, the data do not support testing of peptides containing only natural amino acids. Peptides containing non-natural amino acids and small molecules in conjugated products may need to be tested.

  9. Jogging in place. Evaluation of a simplified exercise test

    SciTech Connect

    Papazoglou, N.; Kolokouri-Dervou, E.; Fanourakis, I.; Natsis, P.; Koutsiouba, P. )

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate jogging in place as an electrocardiographic exercise test. Jogging in place continuously recorded via an ordinary single-channel electrocardiograph was compared with the Bruce treadmill protocol with a three-channel monitor and recorder in 141 cases with a wide spectrum of chest complaints. Agreement for the presence or absence of electrocardiographic ischemia (ST-segment displacement greater than or equal to 1 mm at 80 ms from the J point, or U-wave inversion) for the two tests was observed in 91 percent of the cases (95 percent confidence intervals: 86 percent to 95.5 percent). One hundred of the previous cases with paired electrocardiographic exercise tests were compared with the presence of reversible defects on exercise myocardial thallium-201 scintigraphy. The electrocardiographic ischemia had a similar correct classification rate in both methods (83 percent with jogging in place and 85 percent with Bruce treadmill protocol; not significant) against the finding of scintigraphic ischemia. This was also true for 52 cases having selective coronary arteriography. The correct classification rate was 54 percent (28/52) with jogging in place and 48 percent (25/52) with Bruce treadmill protocol (not significant). Given the safety and the easy applicability, even in older persons, this simplified test can be recommended as a valid alternative to the established multistage exercise tests.

  10. [Evaluation of hearing aid rehabilitation using the Freiburg Monosyllabic Test].

    PubMed

    Hoppe, U

    2016-08-01

    The benefit of hearing aids is not always directly subjectively perceivable. Therefore, objective and quantifiable speech audiometric measurements are required. Beside acoustic gain measurements and structured interviews, speech audiometry in quiet and in noise is one of the three pillars of hearing aid evaluation.The Freiburg monosyllabic test has been used for decades for hearing aid prescription and evaluation in German speaking countries. Relative and absolute targets can be individually defined for the rehabilitation of speech perception by hearing aids as assessed by the Freiburg monosyllabic test in quiet and at conversational levels.The general applicability of speech audiometric measurements in noise is limited. Alternative ("modern") methods and the definitions of noise situations relevant to everyday life have been discussed for years. However, the introduction of these methods into everyday use has proven difficult. On one hand, there is comparatively little practical experience; on the other, it has not yet been demonstrated what additional benefits these more complicated measurements might have for standard hearing aid evaluations and hearing aid users.

  11. Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = −0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = −0.82) and bench press (rs = −0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.83) and bench press (rs = −0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = −0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = −0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  12. Radiation leakage dose from Elekta electron collimation system.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Garrett M; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Carver, Robert L

    2016-09-08

    This study provided baseline data required for a greater project, whose objective was to design a new Elekta electron collimation system having significantly lighter electron applicators with equally low out-of field leakage dose. Specifically, off-axis dose profiles for the electron collimation system of our uniquely configured Elekta Infinity accelerator with the MLCi2 treatment head were measured and calculated for two primary purposes: 1) to evaluate and document the out-of-field leakage dose in the patient plane and 2) to validate the dose distributions calculated using a BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) model for out-of-field dose profiles. Off-axis dose profiles were measured in a water phantom at 100 cm SSD for 1 and 2 cm depths along the in-plane, cross-plane, and both diagonal axes using a cylindrical ionization chamber with the 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators and 7, 13, and 20 MeV beams. Dose distributions were calculated using a previously developed BEAMnrc MC model of the Elekta Infinity accelerator for the same beam energies and applicator sizes and compared with measurements. Measured results showed that the in-field beam flatness met our acceptance criteria (± 3% on major and ±4% on diagonal axes) and that out-of-field mean and maximum percent leakage doses in the patient plane met acceptance criteria as specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Cross-plane out-of-field dose profiles showed greater leakage dose than in-plane profiles, attributed to the curved edges of the upper X-ray jaws and multileaf collimator. Mean leakage doses increased with beam energy, being 0.93% and 0.85% of maximum central axis dose for the 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators, respectively, at 20 MeV. MC calculations predicted the measured dose to within 0.1% in most profiles outside the radiation field; however, excluding model-ing of nontrimmer applicator components led to calculations exceeding measured data by as much as 0.2% for some regions

  13. Radiation leakage dose from Elekta electron collimation system.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Garrett M; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Carver, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    This study provided baseline data required for a greater project, whose objective was to design a new Elekta electron collimation system having significantly lighter electron applicators with equally low out-of field leakage dose. Specifically, off-axis dose profiles for the electron collimation system of our uniquely configured Elekta Infinity accelerator with the MLCi2 treatment head were measured and calculated for two primary purposes: 1) to evaluate and document the out-of-field leakage dose in the patient plane and 2) to validate the dose distributions calculated using a BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) model for out-of-field dose profiles. Off-axis dose profiles were measured in a water phantom at 100 cm SSD for 1 and 2 cm depths along the in-plane, cross-plane, and both diagonal axes using a cylindrical ionization chamber with the 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators and 7, 13, and 20 MeV beams. Dose distributions were calculated using a previously developed BEAMnrc MC model of the Elekta Infinity accelerator for the same beam energies and applicator sizes and compared with measurements. Measured results showed that the in-field beam flatness met our acceptance criteria (± 3% on major and ±4% on diagonal axes) and that out-of-field mean and maximum percent leakage doses in the patient plane met acceptance criteria as specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Cross-plane out-of-field dose profiles showed greater leakage dose than in-plane profiles, attributed to the curved edges of the upper X-ray jaws and multileaf collimator. Mean leakage doses increased with beam energy, being 0.93% and 0.85% of maximum central axis dose for the 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators, respectively, at 20 MeV. MC calculations predicted the measured dose to within 0.1% in most profiles outside the radiation field; however, excluding model-ing of nontrimmer applicator components led to calculations exceeding measured data by as much as 0.2% for some regions

  14. Bacterial coronal leakage after obturation with three root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Timpawat, S; Amornchat, C; Trisuwan, W R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of root canals obturated with three root canal sealers, using Endodontalis faecalis as a microbial tracer to determine the length of time for bacteria to penetrate through the obturated root canal to the root apex. Seventy-five, single-rooted teeth with straight root canals had the crown cut off at the cementoenamel junction. Root canals were instrumented by a step-back technique. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 19 teeth each and another 2 groups as positive and negative controls (9 teeth each). The experimental groups were dependent on the sealer used: AH-Plus, Apexit, and Ketac-Endo. The root canals were obturated using a lateral condensation technique. After 24 h the teeth were attached to microcentrifuge tubes with 2 mm of the root apex submerged in Brain Heart Infusion broth in glass test tubes. The coronal portions of the root canal filling materials were placed in contact with E. faecalis. The teeth were observed for bacterial leakage daily for 30 and 60 days. With the chi2 test for comparing pairs of groups at the 0.05 level (p < 0.05), there was no statistical difference between Ketac-Endo and AH-Plus (p > 0.06), but Apexit had significantly higher leakage (p < 0.05) at 30 days. After 60 days there was no statistical difference between Ketac-Endo and Apexit (p > 0.05), but Apexit leaked more than AH-Plus. The conclusion drawn from this experiment was that epoxy resin root canal sealer was found to be more adaptable to the root canal wall and filling material than a calcium hydroxide sealer when bacterial coronal leakage was studied.

  15. Bacterial Leakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Calcium-Enriched Mixture and Biodentine as Furcation Perforation Repair Materials in Primary Molars

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Nahid; Sadeghi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adequate seal of iatrogenically perforated area within the root canal system can improve the long term treatment prognosis. This in vitro study evaluated the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and Biodentine in repair of furcation perforation in primary molars. Methods and Materials: A total of 61 freshly extracted primary mandibular second molars were randomly divided into three groups (n=17) and 10 teeth were put in negative (without perforation, n=5) and positive (perforated without repair, n=5) control groups. Turbidity was used as the criteria of bacterial leakage, when detected in the model of dual-chamber leakage. Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in SPSS software. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: All positive samples showed turbidity, whereas none of the negative samples allowed bacterial leakage. There was no significant difference between the number of turbidity samples in repaired teeth with all test materials (P=0.13). No significant difference was also detected in the mean survival time (P>0.05). Conclusion: CEM cement and Biodentine showed promising results as perforation repair materials and can be recommended as suitable alternatives of MTA for repair of furcation perforation of primary molars. PMID:27471534

  16. Internal Thermal Control System Hose Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Expansion Evaluation Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.; Hawk, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    During assembly of the International Space Station, the Internal Thermal Control Systems in adjacent modules are connected by jumper hoses referred to as integrated hose assemblies (IHAs). A test of an IHA has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine whether the pressure in an IHA filled with heat transfer fluid would exceed the maximum design pressure when subjected to elevated temperatures (up to 60 C (140 F)) that may be experienced during storage or transportation. The results of the test show that the pressure in the IHA remains below 227 kPa (33 psia) (well below the 689 kPa (100 psia) maximum design pressure) even at a temperature of 71 C (160 F), with no indication of leakage or damage to the hose. Therefore, based on the results of this test, the IHA can safely be filled with coolant prior to launch. The test and results are documented in this Technical Memorandum.

  17. 40 CFR 264.252 - Action leakage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action leakage rate. 264.252 Section... Piles § 264.252 Action leakage rate. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for waste pile units subject to § 264.251(c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum...

  18. 40 CFR 264.252 - Action leakage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Action leakage rate. 264.252 Section... Piles § 264.252 Action leakage rate. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for waste pile units subject to § 264.251(c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum...

  19. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  20. 40 CFR 264.222 - Action leakage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Action leakage rate. 264.222 Section... Impoundments § 264.222 Action leakage rate. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for surface impoundment units subject to § 264.221 (c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the...