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Sample records for lean lake trout

  1. Historic and modern abundance of wild lean lake trout in Michigan waters of Lake Superior: Implications for restoration goals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilberg, Michael J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior collapsed in the late 1950s due to overfishing and predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. A binational effort to restore the lean morphotype of lake trout began with the stocking of hatchery-reared fish followed by the chemical control of sea lampreys and closure of the commercial fishery. Previous comparisons of the contemporary abundance of wild lean lake trout with that from historic commercial fishery statistics indicate that abundance was higher historically. However, this conclusion may be biased because several factors—the inclusion of siscowet (the “fat” morphotype of lake trout) in the catch statistics, the soak time of nets, seasonal effects on catch per effort, and the confounding effects of effort targeted at lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis—were not accounted for. We developed new indices of historic lean lake trout abundance that correct for these biases and compared them with the assessment data from 1984 to 1998 in Michigan waters of Lake Superior. The modern (1984–1998) abundance of wild lean lake trout is at least as high as that during 1929–1943 in six of eight management areas but lower in one area. Measures to promote and protect naturally reproducing populations have been more successful than previously realized.

  2. Examining indirect effects of lake trout recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the recovery of lake trout populations in Lake Superior, there are indications of decreased forage fish abundance and density-dependence in lake trout. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 60 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 60 m...

  3. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  4. Delineation of sympatric morphotypes of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Seth A.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Three morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush are recognized in Lake Superior: lean, siscowet, and humper. Absolute morphotype assignment can be difficult. We used a size-free, whole-body morphometric analysis (truss protocol) to determine whether differences in body shape existed among lake trout morphotypes. Our results showed discrimination where traditional morphometric characters and meristic measurements failed to detect differences. Principal components analysis revealed some separation of all three morphotypes based on head and caudal peduncle shape, but it also indicated considerable overlap in score values. Humper lake trout have smaller caudal peduncle widths to head length and depth characters than do lean or siscowet lake trout. Lean lake trout had larger head measures to caudal widths, whereas siscowet had higher caudal peduncle to head measures. Backward stepwise discriminant function analysis retained two head measures, three midbody measures, and four caudal peduncle measures; correct classification rates when using these variables were 83% for leans, 80% for siscowets, and 83% for humpers, which suggests the measures we used for initial classification were consistent. Although clear ecological reasons for these differences are not readily apparent, patterns in misclassification rates may be consistent with evolutionary hypotheses for lake trout within the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  5. Fat content of the flesh of siscowets and lake trout from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Phillips, Arthur M.

    1965-01-01

    Samples of flesh were excised from the middorsal region of 67 siscowets (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) and 46 lake trout (Salvelinus n. namaycush) collected from Lake Superior. Chemical analysis of the samples revealed a range in fat content (dry weight) of 32.5 to 88.8 per cent in siscowets and 6.6 to 52.3 per cent in lake trout. Percentage fat increased progressively with increase in length of fish in both forms, but the average rate of increase was far greater for siscowets than for lake trout at lengths between 12 and 20 inches. Despite substantial individual variation, the percentage fat in the two forms was widely different and without overlap at all comparable lengths. The range in iodine number of the fat was 100 to 160 for siscowets and 103 to 161 for lake trout; average values were generally lower for siscowets than for lake trout among fish of comparable length. Percentage fat and relative weight were not correlated significantly in either subspecies. The fat content of flesh samples from a distinctive subpopulation of Lake Superior lake trout known as 'humpers' was more closely similar to that of typical lean lake trout than to siscowets, but the rate of increase in fat with increasing length was greater than for lean lake trout. Flesh samples from hatchery-reared stocks of lake trout, hybrid lake trout X siscowets, and siscowets tended to support the view that the wide difference in fat content between siscowets and lake trout is genetically determined.

  6. Diet and prey selection by Lake Superior lake trout during springs 1986-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, B.A.; Hrabik, T.R.; Ebener, M.P.; Gorman, O.T.; Schreiner, D.R.; Schram, S.T.; Sitar, S.P.; Mattes, W.P.; Bronte, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the diet and prey selectivity of lean (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) and siscowet lake trout (S. n. siscowet) collected during spring (April–June) from Lake Superior during 1986–2001. We estimated prey selectivity by comparing prey numerical abundance estimates from spring bottom trawl surveys and lake trout diet information in similar areas from spring gill net surveys conducted annually in Lake Superior. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) was the most common prey and was positively selected by both lean and siscowet lake trout throughout the study. Selection by lean lake trout for coregonine (Coregonus spp.) prey increased after 1991 and corresponded with a slight decrease in selection for rainbow smelt. Siscowet positively selected for rainbow smelt after 1998, a change that was coincident with the decrease in selection for this prey item by lean lake trout. However, diet overlap between lean and siscowet lake trout was not strong and did not change significantly over the study period. Rainbow smelt remains an important prey species for lake trout in Lake Superior despite declines in abundance.

  7. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  8. Patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Masnado, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes, we examined laboratory contaminant analysis data of muscle tissue samples from Lake Michigan (n=317) and Lake Superior (n=53) fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and dieldrin, reported as mg/kg wet weight in 620 mm to 640 mm mean length Lake Michigan lake trout, decreased over time. Mean total PCB concentration declined exponentially from 9.7 in 1975 to 1.9 in 1990. Total chlordane concentration declined 63 percent from 0.48 in 1983 to 0.18 in 1990, and dieldrin declined 52 percent during this same period, from 0.21 to 0.10. The bioaccumulation rate of PCBs is significantly lower for lake trout inhabiting Lake Michigan's midlake reef complex, compared to lake trout from the nearshore waters of western Lake Michigan. Organochlorine compound concentrations were greater in Lake Michigan lake trout than Lake Superior fish. Lake Superior lean lake trout and siscowet exhibited similar rates of PCB bioaccumulation despite major differneces in muscle tissue lipid content between the two subspecies. The lack of a significant difference in the PCB bioaccumulation rates of lean trout and siscowet suggests that lipid content may not be an important factor influencing PCB bioaccumulation in lake trout, within the range of lipid concentrations observed. Relative concentrations of the various organochlorine contaminants found in lake trout were highly correlated, suggesting similar mass balance processes for these compounds. Evidence presented revealing spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination may be of value in reestablishing self-sustaining populations of lake trout in Lake Michigan.

  9. Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

  10. Food of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Erkkila, Leo F.; Tetzloff, Clifford L.

    1965-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout. Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of food in the annual samples. Ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) were most common (52.2 to 87.5 per cent of the volume) in 1950 to 1953 and American smelt ranked first (65.6 per cent of the volume) in 1963. Cottids were in 8.9 to 12.3 per cent of the stomachs in 1950 to 1953 but in only 4.3 per cent in 1963. Insects ranked second to fish in occurrence (9.6 per cent for the combined samples) and crustaceans followed at 3.9 per cent. The greatest seasonal changes in the food of lake trout were among fish caught at 35 fathoms and shallower. The occurrence of Coregonus increased from 34.6 per cent in February-March to 71.1 per cent in October-December. Smelt were in 76.9 per cent of the stomachs in February-March but in only 2.2 per cent in October-December. Cottids, Mysis relicta, and insects were most common in the July-September collections. Lake trout taken at depths greater than 35 fathoms had eaten a higher percentage of Cottidae and Coregonus than had those captured in shallower water. Smelt, ninespine sticklebacks, Mysis, and insects were more frequent in stomachs of lake trout from less than 35 fathoms. Crustaceans comprised more than 70 per cent of the total volume of food for 4.0- to 7.9-inch lake trout but their importance decreased as the lake trout grew larger. Pontoporeia affinis was the most common in the stomachs of 4.0- to 6.9-inch lake trout and Mysis held first rank at 7.0 to 12.9 inches. Ostracods were important only to 4.0- to 4.9-inch lake trout. As the lake trout became larger, the importance of fish grew from 4.4-per cent occurrence at 5.0 to 5.9 inches to 93.9 per cent at 16.0 to 16.9 inches. Smelt were most commonly eaten by

  11. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles; Ebener, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

  12. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  13. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  14. Comparative bioenergetics modeling of two Lake Trout morphotypes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kepler, Megan V.; Wagner, Tyler; Sweka, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to restore Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes have been hampered for decades by several factors, including overfishing and invasive species (e.g., parasitism by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus and reproductive deficiencies associated with consumption of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus). Restoration efforts are complicated by the presence of multiple body forms (i.e., morphotypes) of Lake Trout that differ in habitat utilization, prey consumption, lipid storage, and spawning preferences. Bioenergetics models constitute one tool that is used to help inform management and restoration decisions; however, bioenergetic differences among morphotypes have not been evaluated. The goal of this research was to investigate bioenergetic differences between two actively stocked morphotypes: lean and humper Lake Trout. We measured consumption and respiration rates across a wide range of temperatures (4–22°C) and size-classes (5–100 g) to develop bioenergetics models for juvenile Lake Trout. Bayesian estimation was used so that uncertainty could be propagated through final growth predictions. Differences between morphotypes were minimal, but when present, the differences were temperature and weight dependent. Basal respiration did not differ between morphotypes at any temperature or size-class. When growth and consumption differed between morphotypes, the differences were not consistent across the size ranges tested. Management scenarios utilizing the temperatures presently found in the Great Lakes (e.g., predicted growth at an average temperature of 11.7°C and 14.4°C during a 30-d period) demonstrated no difference in growth between the two morphotypes. Due to a lack of consistent differences between lean and humper Lake Trout, we developed a model that combined data from both morphotypes. The combined model yielded results similar to those of the morphotype-specific models, suggesting that accounting for morphotype differences may

  15. Spatial patterns in PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994–1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs than Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.

  16. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  17. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  18. Movements of adult lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahrer, Jerold F.

    1968-01-01

    Returns from mature lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) tagged in western Lake Superior in 1959 and 1962-65 described here suggest that trout disperse widely from the spawning grounds after spawning and return in subsequent years. Although the data were not extensive, returns from lake trout tagged near Keweenaw Point in 1950 and off Marquette, Michigan, in 1952 suggested similar movement. Loftus stated that river-spawning lake trout of eastern Lake Superior returned annually to the same spawning streams. Movements of lake trout must be understood to manage and evaluate the rehabilitation of lake trout stocks in Lake Superior, especially when the trout move across interstate and international boundaries and are subject to different fishing regulations and fishing pressures.

  19. A blood chemistry profile for lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1999-01-01

    A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.

  20. Life history variation among four lake trout morphs at Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Bronte, Charles R.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history traits were compared among four morphs of lake trout at Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Of 738 lake trout caught at Isle Royale, 701 were assigned to a morph (119 humpers, 160 leans, 85 redfins, and 337 siscowets) using a combination of statistical analysis of head and body shape and visual assignment. On average, redfins were longer (544 mm), heavier (1,481 g), heavier at length (Wr = 94), more buoyant, and older (22 years) than siscowets (519 mm; 1,221 g; 90; 19 years), leans (479 mm; 854 g; 82; 13 years), and humpers (443 mm; 697 g; 87; 17 years). On average, leans grew from a younger age at length = 0 and shorter length at age = 0, at a faster early growth rate to a longer asymptotic length than the other three morphs, while redfins grew at a slower instantaneous rate and humpers grew to a shorter asymptotic length than other morphs. On average, leans were longer (562 mm) and older (15 years) at 50% maturity than redfins (427 mm, 12 years), siscowets (401 mm, 11 years), or humpers (394 mm, 13 years). Life history parameters did not differ between males and females within each morph. We conclude that differences in life history attributes of lean, humper, redfin, and siscowet morphs of lake trout are consistent with differential habitat use in waters around Isle Royale, Lake Superior.

  1. Density-independent survival of wild lake trout in the Apostle Islands area of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stock at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior was one of only a few stocks of lean lake trout in the Great Lakes that survived overfishing and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Since the mid 1960s, the abundance of wild recruits measured at age 0 and the number of age-7 to -11 wild fish recruited to the fishable stock have increased. We used the Varley-Gradwell method to test for density-dependent survival between these life stages. Survival from age-0 to ages 7–11 was not affected by increasing density, which suggests that further increases in recruitment and stock size are still possible. We suggest that testing for the existence of density-dependent survival can be used to indicate when lake trout populations are rehabilitated.

  2. Age, growth, maturity, and fecundity of 'humper' lake trout, Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahrer, Jerold F.

    1965-01-01

    Humper lake trout are one of the several races or subpopulations of lake trout in Lake Superior. This study is based on 3,705 fish collected on a reef south of Isle Royale near the eastern end. The mean lengths of humper trout from commercial gill nets were smaller than those of lean lake trout. Members of age-groups VII, VIII, and IX represented 81.5 per cent of the commercial humper catch. The body-scale relation was described by two intersecting straight lines. The weight of humper trout increased as the 3.282 power of the length. Growth in length was slow and ranged from 1.6 to 3.5 inches per year. Annual increments were greatest in the first, sixth, and seventh years. Growth in weight was also slow but increased each year. Humper trout became legal (1 1/2 pounds) in the eighth year of life and reached 5 pounds in 11 years. All fish longer than 19.1 inches and older than age-group VIII were mature; the shortest mature fish were: males, 12.7 inches; females, 14.7 inches. At minimum legal size, 98 per cent of the males and 56 per cent of the females were mature. Humper trout produced an average of 1,351 eggs per fish or 516 per pound.

  3. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  4. Genetic strategies for lake trout rehabilitation: a synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Krueger, Charles C.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Johnson, James E.; Stewart, Thomas J.; Horrall, Ross M.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Kenyon, Roger; Lange, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of lake trout rehabilitation efforts in the Great Lakes has been to reestablish inshore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations to self-sustaining levels. A combination of sea lamprey control, stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout, and catch restrictions were used to enhance remnant lake trout stocks in Lake Superior and reestablish lake trout in Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Genetic diversity is important for the evolution and maintenance of successful adaptive strategies critical to population restoration. The loss of genetic diversity among wild lake trout stocks in the Great Lakes imposes a severe constraint on lake trout rehabilitation. The objective of this synthesis is to address whether the particular strain used for stocking combined with the choice of stocking location affects the success or failure of lake trout rehabilitation. Poor survival, low juvenile recruitment, and inefficient habitat use are three biological impediments to lake trout rehabilitation that can be influenced by genetic traits. Evidence supports the hypothesis that the choices of appropriate lake trout strain and stocking locations enhance the survival of lake trout stocked into the Great Lakes. Genetic strategies proposed for lake trout rehabilitation include conservation of genetic diversity in remnant stocks, matching of strains with target environments, stocking a greater variety of lake trout phenotypes, and rehabilitation of diversity at all trophic levels.

  5. The near extinction of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1957-01-01

    Comparisons in 1949 and 1950 of numbers of legal-sized lake trout caught in large-mesh nets with numbers of small fish taken in chub nets showed that both large and small lake trout declined over the same period, and that by these years the decline may have been greater among small than among legal-sized fish.

  6. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  7. Movements of hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.; Dryer, William R.; King, George R.

    1965-01-01

    The history of stocking of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes is reviewed. The study of movements is based on capture of 24,275 fin-clipped lake trout taken in experimental gill nets and trawls and commercial gill nets. Yearling lake trout planted from shore dispersed to 15-fath (27-m) depths in 3A? hr. Most fish remained within 2 miles (3.2 km) of the planting site 2 months, but within 4 months some fish had moved as much as 17 miles (27 km). The highest abundance of planted lake trout was in areas 2-4 miles (3.2-6.4 km) from the planting site even 3 years after release. Distance moved and size of fish were not correlated. Dispersal of lake trout begins at planting and probably continues until the fish are mature. Most movement was eastward in southern Lake Superior and followed the counterclockwise surface currents. Movement is most rapid in areas of strong currents and slowest in areas of weak currents or eddies. Movement to areas west of the Keweenaw Peninsula was insignificant from plantings in Keweenaw Bay and nil from other plantings farther east. Lake trout planted in the eastern third of the lake dispersed more randomly than those planted farther west. Few fish moved farther offshore than the 50-fath (91-m) contour. Lake trout planted in Canadian waters made insignificant contributions to populations in US waters.

  8. Gillnet selectivity for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Selgeby, James H.; Helser, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    Gillnet selectivity for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was estimated indirectly from catches in nets of 102-, 114-, 127-, 140-, and 152-mm stretch measure. Mesh selectivity was modeled as a nonlinear response surface that describes changes in the mean, standard deviation, and skewness of fish lengths across mesh sizes. Gillnet selectivity for lake trout was described by five parameters that explained 88% of the variation in wedged and entangled catches, 81% of the variation in wedged catches, and 82% of the variation in entangled catches. Combined catches of wedged and entangled lake trout were therefore described more parsimoniously than separate catches of wedged and entangled lake trout. Peak selectivity of wedged and entangled fish increased from 588 to 663 mm total length as mesh size increased from 102 to 152 mm, and relative selectivity peaked at a total length of 638 mm. The estimated lake trout population size-frequency indicated that gillnet catches were negatively biased toward both small and large lake trout. As a consequence of this bias, survival of Lake Superior lake trout across ages 9-11 was underestimated by about 20% when the catch curve was not adjusted for gillnet selectivity.

  9. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  10. Diet overlap of top-level predators in recent sympatry: bull trout and nonnative lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Christopher S.; McMahon, Thomas E.; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Smith, Clinton J.; Garfield, David W.; Cox, Benjamin S.

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of nonnative lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lakes containing lacustrine–adfluvial bull trout Salvelinus confluentus often results in a precipitous decline in bull trout abundance. The exact mechanism for the decline is unknown, but one hypothesis is related to competitive exclusion for prey resources. We had the rare opportunity to study the diets of bull trout and nonnative lake trout in Swan Lake, Montana during a concomitant study. The presence of nonnative lake trout in Swan Lake is relatively recent and the population is experiencing rapid population growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diets of bull trout and lake trout during the early expansion of this nonnative predator. Diets were sampled from 142 bull trout and 327 lake trout during the autumn in 2007 and 2008. Bull trout and lake trout had similar diets, both consumed Mysis diluviana as the primary invertebrate, especially at juvenile stages, and kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka as the primary vertebrate prey, as adults. A diet shift from primarily M. diluviana to fish occurred at similar lengths for both species, 506 mm (476–545 mm, 95% CI) for bull trout and 495 mm (470–518 mm CI) for lake trout. These data indicate high diet overlap between these two morphologically similar top-level predators. Competitive exclusion may be a possible mechanism if the observed overlap remains similar at varying prey densities and availability.

  11. Availability of lake trout reproductive habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A decades-long program to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the four lower Great Lakes produced excellent fisheries supported by stocked fish. These fish spawned widely and small numbers of their offspring were collected intermittently from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario, but no self-sustaining stocks were established. Irt this paper we address habitat sufficiency as a factor in the failure of stocked lake trout to established self-sustaining populations in the four lower Great Lakes. We present the previously unpublished results of lake trout spawning habitat surveys conducted at seven sites in the Great Lakes since 1987 and we compare them with the published results of similar surveys conducted at 24 other sites in the four lower lakes since 1981. Our evaluation indicates all but two of these sites can support the production of viable fry from spawnings by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are stocked in the Great Lakes. However, some of the best spawning, egg, and fry habitat in the lower Great Lakes seems to be at deeper offshore sites that may be unattractive to these shallow-water strains. Thus, we suggest also stocking the lower four lakes with strains from Lake Superior that might more fully exploit the best spawning habitat at these deeper, offshore sites.

  12. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  13. INDIVIDUAL TISSUE TO TOTAL BODY-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND TOTAL, POLAR, AND NON-POLAR LIPIDS IN TISSUES OF HATCHERY LAKE TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissue body weight relaltionships, total lipid, and major lipid subclasses were measured in 20 adult hatchery lake trout to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the major lipid compartments of the "lean" lake trout for use in modeling the disposition of xenobiotics. It is sug...

  14. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  15. Fecundity of hatchery lake trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzsimons, John D.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Fecundity (egg number) was determined from 26 stocked (617-800 mm, total length) lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) collected in western Lake Ontario during September 1992. Previous to this study, fecundity was evaluated only once in Lake Ontario using native stocks in 1927. The following relationships between fecundity and total length (TL) and weight (W) were obtained. Fecundity = -12,492 + 25.87 TL(mm) and Fecundity = -1,010 + 1,307 W(kg). Relative fecundity (number of eggs per kg of body weight) was unrelated to body weight and averaged 1,592 eggs kg-1. Fecundity of contemporary lake trout based on length was significantly lower than that of historic native stocks, but was similar to contemporary stocked lake trout in Lake Superior.

  16. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  17. Evidence of spring spawning lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service began research on the life history, population dynamics, and stock delineation of siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush siscowet in Lake Superior. Siscowet were captured with gill nets in 80-150 m of water on 23-26 April 1992 north of the Apostle Islands in western Lake Superior. Of 91 captured siscowets, one male had fully developed testes in nearly ripe condition and one female had eggs running from the vent. This observation represents the earliest dates that lake trout of any morphotype have been found in spawning or near-spawning condition.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of a lake trout bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.

    1999-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, aged 3 and 6 years and with average weights of 700 and 2,000 g, were grown in laboratory tanks for up to 407 d under a thermal regime similar to that experienced by lake trout in nearshore Lake Michigan. Lake trout were fed alewifeAlosa pseudoharengus and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, prey typical of lake trout in Lake Michigan. Of the 120 lake trout used in the experiment, 40 were fed a low ration (0.25% of their body weight per day), 40 were fed a medium ration (0.5% of their body weight per day), and 40 were fed a high ration (ad libitum). We measured consumption and growth, and we compared observed consumption with that predicted by the Wisconsin bioenergetics model. For lake trout fed the medium ration, model predictions for monthly consumption were unbiased. Moreover, predicted cumulative consumption by medium-ration lake trout for the entire experiment (320 d for smaller lake trout and 407 d for larger lake trout) agreed quite well with observed cumulative consumption; predictions were as close as within 0.1 to 5.2% of observed cumulative consumption. Even so, the model consistently overestimated consumption by low-ration fish and underestimated consumption by high-ration fish. The bias was significant in both cases, but was more severe for the low-ration trout. Because the low-ration and high-ration regimes were probably unrealistic for lake trout residing in Lake Michigan and because the model fit our laboratory data rather well for medium-ration trout, we conclude that applying the Wisconsin bioenergetics model to the Lake Michigan lake trout population in order to estimate the amount of prey fish consumed by lake trout each year is appropriate.

  19. Genetic diversity of wild and hatchery lake trout populations: Relevance for management and restoration in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Burnham-Curtis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The biological diversity of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the upper Great Lakes was historically high, consisting of many recognizable morphological types and discrete spawning populations. During the 1950s and 1960s, lake trout populations were extirpated from much of the Great Lakes primarily as a result of overfishing and predation by the parasitic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Investigations of how genetic diversity is partitioned among remnant wild lake trout populations and hatchery broodstocks have been advocated to guide lake trout management and conservation planning. Using microsatellite genetic markers, we estimated measures of genetic diversity and the apportionment of genetic variance among 6 hatchery broodstocks and 10 wild populations representing three morphotypes (lean, humper, and siscowet). Analyses revealed that different hatchery broodstocks and wild populations contributed disproportionally to the total levels of genetic diversity. The genetic affinities of hatchery lake trout reflected the lake basins of origin of the wild source populations. The variance in allele frequency over all sampled extant wild populations was apportioned primarily on the basis of morphotype (??MT = 0.029) and secondarily among geographically dispersed populations within each morphotype (??ST = 0.024). The findings suggest that the genetic divergence reflected in recognized morphotypes and the associated ecological and physiological specialization occurred prior to the partitioning of large proglacial lakes into the Great Lakes or as a consequence of higher contemporary levels of gene flow within than among morphotypes. Information on the relative contributions of different broodstocks to total gene diversity within the regional hatchery program can be used to prioritize the broodstocks to be retained and to guide future stocking strategies. The findings highlight the importance of ecological and phenotypic diversity in Great Lakes fish communities and

  20. Biology of young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1956-01-01

    Experimental fishing with gill nets of 5 mesh sizes (2 3/8 to 3 inches) in Lake Michigan in 1930-32 yielded more than 16,000 young lake trout. Data are presented here on age, growth, length-weight relationship, abundance, geographical and bathymetric distribution, and other details of their biology.

  1. Estimate of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan lake trout from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both lake trout and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan lake trout retain PCBs from their food. Our estimates were the most reliable estimates to date because (a) the lake trout and prey fish sampled during our study were all from the same vicinity of the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both lake trout and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) lake trout diet was analyzed in detail over a wide range of lake trout size. Our estimates of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to lake trout from their prey averaged from 0.73 to 0.89 for lake trout between the ages of 5 and 10 years old. There was no evidence of an upward or downward trend in our estimates of net trophic transfer efficiency for lake trout between the ages of 5 and 10 years old, and therefore this efficiency appeared to be constant over the duration of the lake trout's adult life in the lake. On the basis of our estimtes, lake trout retained 80% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  2. Otoliths reveal a diverse age structure for humper lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Bronte, Charles R.

    1996-01-01

    Humpers are one of at least three morphological variants of wild lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that maintain self-sustaining populations in Lake Superior. In an early study, bumpers from Isle Royale were shown to have a sharply truncated age distribution that was attributed to high mortality after age 11, but we suspected that these fish were underaged. In August of 1989 and 1992 we collected spawning humper lake trout from the same area and estimated their ages using both scales and sagittal otoliths. Humpers in our sample ranged from 5 to 13 years, based on scale annuli, but counts of sagitta annuli revealed ages of 8 to 28 years. Individual discrepancies between ages from scales and sagittae varied from –2 to 20 years, but differences between scale and otolith ages did not increase with individual age. We applied the von Bertalanffy growth model to the humper length-at-age data to indirectly assess the accuracy of aging estimates. The model significantly overestimated mean asymptotic length when scale ages were used, but the mean asymptotic length estimate was more similar to observed lengths when sagitta ages were used. Our results corroborate evidence that bumpers in Lake Superior grow more slowly and mature at a smaller size than lean lake trout; however, the age composition of bumpers is more diverse than previously thought. This particular population experiences little or no exploitation; the presence of older fish provides one standard by which the success of lake trout rehabilitation programs can be evaluated and emphasizes the need for accurate aging techniques.

  3. Geographical distributions of lake trout strains stocked in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Schaner, Ted

    1996-01-01

    Geographical distributions of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocked at seven locations in U.S. waters and at four locations in Canadian waters of Lake Ontario were determined from fish caught with gill nets in September in 17 areas of U.S. waters and at 10 fixed locations in Canadian waters in 1986-95. For fish of a given strain stocked at a given location, geographical distributions were not different for immature males and immature females or for mature males and mature females. The proportion of total catch at the three locations nearest the stocking location was higher for mature fish than for immature fish in all 24 available comparisons (sexes combined) and was greater for fish stocked as yearlings than for those stocked as fingerlings in all eight comparisons. Mature fish were relatively widely dispersed from stocking locations indicating that their tendency to return to stocking locations for spawning was weak, and there was no appreciable difference in this tendency among strains. Mature lake trout were uniformly distributed among sampling locations, and the strain composition at stocking locations generally reflected the stocking history 5 to 6 years earlier. Few lake trout moved across Lake Ontario between the north and south shores or between the eastern outlet basin and the main lake basin. Limited dispersal from stocking sites supports the concept of stocking different genetic strains in various parts of the lake with the attributes of each strain selected to match environmental conditions in the portion of the lake where it is stocked.

  4. Population attributes of lake trout in Tennessee reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Drew; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    We sampled stocked Salvelinus namaycush (Lake Trout) in Watauga Lake and South Holston Lake, TN using experimental gill nets in 2009-2010 to describe their growth, longevity, and condition. Annuli in sagittal otoliths formed once a year in early spring in both reservoirs. South Holston Lake (n = 99 Lake Trout) has been stocked since 2006, and the oldest fish was age 4. Watauga Lake has been stocked since the mid-1980s, and we collected 158 Lake Trout up to age 20. Annual mortality for age-3 and older fish in Watauga Lake was 24%. When compared to Lake Trout in northern lakes, Tennessee Lake Trout exhibited average to above-average growth and longevity. Condition of Lake Trout in both reservoirs varied seasonally and tended to be lowest in fall, but rebounded in winter and spring. Lake Trout in both reservoirs appeared to be spatially segregated from pelagic prey fishes during summer stratification, but growth rates and body condition were high enough to suggest that neither system was being overstocked.

  5. Acoustic estimates of abundance and distribution of spawning lake trout on Sheboygan Reef in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, D.M.; Claramunt, R.M.; Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Wattrus, N.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes have had widespread success in Lake Superior; but in other Great Lakes, populations of lake trout are maintained by stocking. Recruitment bottlenecks may be present at a number of stages of the reproduction process. To study eggs and fry, it is necessary to identify spawning locations, which is difficult in deep water. Acoustic sampling can be used to rapidly locate aggregations of fish (like spawning lake trout), describe their distribution, and estimate their abundance. To assess these capabilities for application to lake trout, we conducted an acoustic survey covering 22 km2 at Sheboygan Reef, a deep reef (<40 m summit) in southern Lake Michigan during fall 2005. Data collected with remotely operated vehicles (ROV) confirmed that fish were large lake trout, that lake trout were 1–2 m above bottom, and that spawning took place over specific habitat. Lake trout density exhibited a high degree of spatial structure (autocorrelation) up to a range of ~190 m, and highest lake trout and egg densities occurred over rough substrates (rubble and cobble) at the shallowest depths sampled (36–42 m). Mean lake trout density in the area surveyed (~2190 ha) was 5.8 fish/ha and the area surveyed contained an estimated 9500–16,000 large lake trout. Spatial aggregation in lake trout densities, similarity of depths and substrates at which high lake trout and egg densities occurred, and relatively low uncertainty in the lake trout density estimate indicate that acoustic sampling can be a useful complement to other sampling tools used in lake trout restoration research.

  6. Use of cover habitat by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in a laboratory environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., <80 mm total length) bull trout and lake trout. Differences were observed between bull trout and lake trout in the proportion of time using cover (F1,22.6=20.08, P<0.001) and bottom (F1,23.7 = 37.01, P < 0.001) habitat, with bull trout using cover and bottom habitats more than lake trout. Habitat selection ratios indicated that bull trout avoided water column habitat in the presence of lake trout and that lake trout avoided bottom habitat. Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic interactions were infrequent, but approximately 10 times greater for intraspecific inter- actions between lake trout. Results from this study provide little evidence that juvenile bull trout and lake trout compete for cover, and that species-specific differences in habitat use and selection likely result in habitat partitioning between these species.

  7. First evidence of successful natural reproduction by planted lake trout in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) swim-up fry, 24-27 mm long, were captured with emergent fry traps and a tow net in northwestern Lake Huron on a small nearshore reef off Alpena, Michigan, between May 10 and June 1, 1982. These catches represent the first evidence of successful production of swim-up fry by planted, hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Huron since the lake trout rehabilitation program began in 1973.

  8. Factors affecting feeding behavior and survival of juvenile lake trout in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Henry, Mary G.; Kincaid, Harold L.

    1993-01-01

    We explored the importance of experience with feeding on live prey, of cataracts, of strain, and of maternally transferred contaminants for the feeding rate and predator avoidance behavior of young lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Hatchery-reared and feral juvenile lake trout were tested separately as predators on lake trout fry in tanks with artificial cobble reefs. Feral fish captured more prey per day and more prey per strike than did hatchery lake trout. The predatory performance of hatchery and feral fish did not improve significantly with experience. Feeding rates did not differ between lake trout with unilateral cataracts and normal-eyed fish, but significantly diminished for lake trout with bilateral cataracts. Neither strain nor contaminant background affected the ability of fry to feed or to avoid predators. Of the factors studied, previous experience with live food under natural conditions (i.e., the experience of feral fish) was the most important factor affecting feeding behavior of young lake trout.

  9. Rehabilitation of lake trout in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; King, George R.

    1968-01-01

    Marked success of rehabilitation of lake trout in Lake Superior has been due principally to the control of the sea lamprey and closure of the lake trout fishery in 1962 and large-scale plantings of yearling lake trout in 1959-66. After the sea lamprey became established in the late 1940s, spawning stocks of lake trout began to decrease and were almost nonexistent by 1960-61. After control of the sea lamprey and closure of the commercial fishery for lake trout in 1962, the abundance of spawning stocks began to rise and reached the highest levels on record in 1964-66. Successful spawning in 1964 and 1965 was demonstrated by catches of age-0 lake trout in 1965 and 1966, the first evidence of natural reproduction since 1959. Plantings of hatchery-reared lake trout in Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior began in 1952. The percentage of hatchery-reared fish in catches of juvenile lake trout increased almost steadily from 1953 to 1965 (when nearly all were of hatchery origin). The abundance of juvenile fish increased from 1959 to 1962 and remained nearly constant in 1962-66. The success of lake trout plantings was highest in 1959-61 but generally declined after 1961; the success of the plantings was inversely related to the abundance of older lake trout. Annual increments of growth of hatchery-reared lake trout varied from 1.1 to 5.0 inches after planting. The average lengths of fish of identical age-groups varied according to gear of capture, depth of water, and season. More than 65% of the season's growth of age-III lake trout took place after September. The findings indicate that the present rate of stocking lake trout may be higher than necessary to maintain optimum abundance.

  10. Evaluation of offshore stocking of Lake Trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T.G.; Lantry, J.R.; Connerton, M.J.; Schanger, T.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration

  11. Ontogenic and spatial patterns in diet and growth of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1998-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in nearshore waters of Lake Michigan grow faster than lake trout residing offshore on Sheboygan Reef, which is in midlake. We examined the stomachs of lake trout, spanning ages 1 through 16, caught in both nearshore and offshore environments of Lake Michigan during 1994 and 1995 to determine whether diet differences may be responsible for the difference in growth rate. A comparison of the diets, coupled with bioenergetics modeling, indicated that juvenile lake trout on Sheboygan Reef experienced slow growth due to low food availability rather than to cold water temperatures. The availability of appropriate-size prey appeared to regulate lake trout growth. Small prey fish were probably not readily available to small (200- to 399-mm total length) lake trout on Sheboygan Reef, a substantial portion of whose diet consisted of invertebrates; in contrast, nearshore juveniles had a nearly 100% fish diet. Growth rate on the reef remained slow through intermediate lake trout sizes (400-599 mm total length), presumably due to low availability of rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax on the reef. Once lake trout achieved total lengths of approximately 600 mm, they grew slightly faster on Sheboygan Reef than near shore, indicating that large (>170-mm total length) prey fish were readily available to lake trout in the reef area. On a wet-weight basis, alewife Alosa pseudoharengus dominated the diet of large (a?Y 600 mm total length) lake trout from both the nearshore and offshore regions of the lake, although bloater Coregonus hoyi composed over 30% of the diet on Sheboygan Reef and in southeastern nearshore Lake Michigan. Size of alewife prey increased with lake trout size. The bloater population currently represents the bulk of the biomass of the adult prey fish community, so our diet analysis suggests that large lake trout are continuing to select alewives.

  12. Morphological variation of siscowet lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, C.R.; Moore, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior has contained many morphologically distinct forms of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that have occupied specific depths and locations and spawned at specific times of the year. Today, as was probably the case historically, the siscowet morphotype is the most abundant. Recent interest in harvesting siscowets to extract oil containing omega-3 fatty acids will require additional knowledge of the biology and stock structure of these lightly exploited populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether shape differences exist among siscowet populations across Lake Superior and whether these shape differences can be used to infer stock structure. Morphometric analysis (truss protocol) was used to differentiate among siscowets sampled from 23 locations in Lake Superior. We analyzed 31 distance measurements among 14 anatomical landmarks taken from digital images of fish recorded in the field. Cluster analysis of size-corrected data separated fish into three geographic groups: The Isle Royale, eastern (Michigan), and western regions (Michigan). Finer scales of stock structure were also suggested. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that head measurements contributed to most of the observed variation. Cross-validation classification rates indicated that 67–71% of individual fish were correctly classified to their region of capture. This is the first study to present shape differences associated with location within a lake trout morphotype in Lake Superior.

  13. Diet of lake trout and burbot in northern Lake Michigan during spring: Evidence of ecological interaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    We used analyses of burbot (Lota lota) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) diets taken during spring gill-net surveys in northern Lake Michigan in 2006-2008 to investigate the potential for competition and predator-prey interactions between these two species. We also compared our results to historical data from 1932. During 2006-2008, lake trout diet consisted mainly of alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), whereas burbot utilized a much wider prey base including round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), rainbow smelt, alewives, and sculpins. Using the Schoener's diet overlap index, we found a higher potential for interspecific competition in 1932 than in 2006-2008, though diet overlap was not significant in either time period. No evidence of cannibalism by lake trout or lake trout predation on burbot was found in either time period. In 2006-2008, however, lake trout composed 5.4% (by weight) of burbot diet. To determine whether this predation could be having an impact on lake trout rehabilitation efforts in northern Lake Michigan, we developed a bioenergetic-based consumption estimate for burbot on Boulder Reef (a representative reef within the Northern Refuge) and found that burbot alone can consume a considerable proportion of the yearling lake trout stocked annually, depending on burbot density. Overall, we conclude that predation, rather than competition, is the more important ecological interaction between burbot and lake trout, and burbot predation may be contributing to the failed lake trout rehabilitation efforts in Lake Michigan.

  14. Lake trout spawning habitat in the Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef lake trout sanctuary, Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brown, Charles L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the lower four Great Lakes, where the species was extinguished in the 1950s and 1960s, have been largely unsuccessful. To avoid many of the problems believed to be contributing to this failure, the fishery management community recently established several sanctuaries in the offshore waters of the Great Lakes where the development and protection of self-sustaining stocks of lake trout would be a primary management objective. One of these, the Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef sanctuary, was created in the south-central portion of Lake Huron. This sanctuary covers 168,000 ha and includes the shallower portions of the Six Fathom and Ipperwash scarps, which are major bathymetric features in the southern half of the lake. Historical accounts describe Six Fathom Bank as the most important lake trout spawning ground in the lake. Here we present the results of lake bed surveys conducted in the sanctuary with side-scan sonar, underwater videocamera systems, and a small research submarine. Our observations of the lake bed are consistent with what is known of the bedrock stratigraphy, glacial history, and karst geomorphology of the Lake Huron basin. Most of the loose rock we found seemed to be derived from local carbonate bedrock formations, although non-carbonate rock probably from Precambrian sources to the north was also present in some areas. Much of the bedrock and loose rock displayed karst solution features described for the Bruce Peninsula on the Ontario shoreline. Our surveys revealed substantial areas of lake bed at water depths of 20–36 m that resembled suitable spawning and fry production habitat for the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are the focus of the rehabilitation effort. Low mid-lake nutrient levels documented recently by others and the extremely high abundance of Mysis relicta (an important item in the diet of young lake trout) that we documented on Yankee Reef

  15. Lake trout population dynamics in the Northern Refuge of Lake Michigan: implications for future rehabilitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjiana, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Northern Refuge was established in 1985 as part of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush rehabilitation effort for Lake Michigan. To evaluate progress toward lake trout rehabilitation in the Northern Refuge, we conducted annual (1991–2008) gill-net surveys in the fall to assess the adult population and beam trawl surveys in the spring to assess naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout. Our criteria for evaluating progress included the density of “wild” age-0 fish within the Northern Refuge, the proportion of wild fish within the adult population, density of spawners, adult survival, growth, and wounding rate by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. No wild age-0 lake trout were caught in the Northern Refuge during 1991–2008. Overall, wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. The mean density of spawning lake trout decreased from 45 fish·305 m of gill net−1·d−1 during 1991–1999 to only 4 fish·305 m−1·d−1 during 2000–2008. Although the sea lamprey wounding rate more than doubled between these two time periods, catch curve analysis revealed that mortality of adult lake trout actually decreased between the two periods. Therefore, the 90% decrease in abundance of spawning lake trout between the two periods could not be attributed to increased sea lamprey predation but instead was probably due in part to the reduced lake trout stocking rate during 1995–2005. The paucity of natural reproduction in the Northern Refuge during 1991–2008 most likely resulted from alewife Alosa pseudoharengus interference with lake trout reproduction and from the relatively low lake trout spawner density during 2000–2008. Our results suggest that the annual stocking rate of lake trout yearlings should be increased to at least 250,000 fish/reef to achieve greater densities of spawners.

  16. Helminths in an intensively stocked population of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzzall, Patrick M.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2000-01-01

    Eighty stocked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (Salmonidae), collected from 2 locations in Lake Huron in May 1995, were examined for parasites. The parasite fauna of this top predator in Lake Huron was characterized by only 6 helminth species. Echinorhynchus salmonis infected all lake trout with a mean intensity of 163.9. The intensity of this acanthocephalan species significantly increased with host length and weight. Eubothrium salvelini infected 78 lake trout with a maximum number of 81 scoleces counted. Diplostomum sp., Cyathocephalus truncatus, Capillaria salvelini, and Neoechinorhynchus sp. infrequently infected lake trout. The low parasite species richness in these lake trout is believed to be due to their large size at stocking and to the loss of historical enzootic host-parasite relationships that followed the absence of this fish species in Lake Huron for 26 yr.

  17. Seasonal bathythermal distribution of juvenile lake trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1987-01-01

    Bathythermal distributions of hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of three genetic strains (Lake Superior; Clearwater Lake, Manitoba; and Seneca Lake, New York) were described from catches with bottom trawls in Lake Ontario during April-May, June, July-August, and October, 1978–1984. This work was part of a program to evaluate post-stocking performance of hatchery-reared fish and identify strains for continued use in rehabilitation of lake trout in Lake Ontario. All age groups of Lake Superior fish were in deeper water in April-May than in June each year; mean depth of capture was greatest at age II and became progressively shallower at ages III and IV. Mean depth of capture in April-May was positively correlated with severity of the preceding winter as judged by heating degree days and average wind speed. During July-August, the fish were concentrated between the epilimnion and 50 m, with no consistent trend in depth by age; however, 92% were captured at water temperatures of 12°C or lower. Mean temperatures of capture for Lake Superior fish during the four respective sampling periods were 3.9, 7.5, 6.9, and 9.5° C for fish of age II and 3.9, 8.4, 6.9, and 8.7° C for fish of age III. The age-II Clearwater Lake fish were consistently at shallower depths than age-II Lake Superior fish. Mean temperatures of capture were 4.2, 9.7, 9.6, and 10.7° C during the four respective sampling periods; during July-August, 91% were taken in water of 12° C or lower. The distribution of Seneca Lake fish was similar to that of the Lake Superior strain. Mean temperatures at which the three strains were captured were well below published preferred temperatures of yearlings in the laboratory. Annual variations in depth distributions during a given season were probably due to differing thermal regimes resulting from annual variations in the weather.

  18. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations in Lake Superior and their restoration in 1959-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Peck, James W.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Selgeby, James H.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Swanson, Bruce L.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Curtis, Gary L.; Heinrich, John W.; Young, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Naturally-reproducing populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in most of Lake Superior, but have not been restored to 1929-1943 average abundance. Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Superior is described, management actions are reviewed, and the effectiveness of those actions is evaluated; especially stocking lake trout as a tool for building spawning stocks, and subsequently, populations of wild recruits. Widespread destruction of lake trout stocks in the 1950s due to an intense fishery and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation resulted in lower overall phenotypic diversity than was previously present. Stocking of yearling lake trout, begun in the 1950s, produced high densities of spawners that reproduced wherever inshore spawning habitat was widespread. Sea lampreys were greatly reduced, beginning in 1961, using selective chemical toxicants and barrier dams, but continue to exert substantial mortality. Fishery regulation was least effective in Wisconsin, where excessive gillnet effort caused high by-catch of lake trout until 1991, and in eastern Michigan, where lake trout restoration was deferred in favor of a tribal fishery for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in 1985. Restoration of stocks was quicker in offshore areas where remnant wild lake trout survived and fishing intensity was low, and was slower in inshore areas where stocked lake trout reproduced successfully and fishing intensity was high. Inshore stocks of wild lake trout are currently about 61 % of historic abundance in Michigan and 53% in Wisconsin. Direct comparison of modern and historic abundances of inshore lake trout stocks in Minnesota and Ontario is impossible due to lack of historic stock assessment data. Stocks in Minnesota are less abundant at present than in Michigan or Wisconsin, and stocks in Ontario are similar to those in Michigan. Further progress in stock recovery can only be achieved if sea lampreys are depressed and if

  19. Swimming endurance of bull trout, lake trout, arctic char, and rainbow trout following challenge with Renibacterium salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, D.T.; Moffitt, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the swimming endurance of juvenile bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, lake trout S. namaycush, Arctic char S. alpinus, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 9??C and 15??C to determine whether sublethal infection from a moderate challenge of Renibacterium salmoninarum administered months before testing affected the length of time fish could maintain a swimming speed of 5-6 body lengths per second in an experimental flume. Rainbow trout and Arctic char swam longer in trials than did bull trout or lake trout, regardless of challenge treatment. When we tested fish 14-23 weeks postchallenge, we found no measurable effect of R. salmoninarum on the swimming endurance of the study species except for bull trout, which showed a mixed response. We conducted additional trials with bull trout 5-8 weeks postchallenge to determine whether increasing the challenge dose would affect swimming endurance and hematocrit. In those tests, bull trout with clinical signs of disease and those exposed to the highest challenge doses had significantly reduced swimming endurance compared with unchallenged control fish. Fish hematocrit levels measured at the end of all swimming endurance tests varied among species and between test temperatures, and patterns were not always consistent between challenged and control fish.

  20. Lake trout demographics in relation to burbot and coregonine populations in the Algonquin Highlands, Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carl, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lake trout populations change in relation to cisco, lake whitefish, round whitefish and burbot populations in lakes in the Algonquin Highlands region of Ontario. Lake trout population change is greatest where cisco and lake whitefish are present. Lake trout populations in lakes without either coregonine tend to have small adults and many juveniles. Where cisco or lake whitefish are present, adult lake trout are large, juvenile abundance is low, and the stock-recruit relationship appears to be uncoupled likely due to a larval bottleneck. Lake trout populations in these lakes may be sensitive to overfishing and recruitment failure. Lake trout populations do not appear to change in relation to round whitefish. There appears to be an indirect positive change on juvenile lake trout abundance through reductions in the density of benthic coregonines in the presence of large, hypolimnetic burbot. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Biology, population structure, and estimated forage requirements of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eck, Gary W.; Wells, LaRue

    1983-01-01

    Data collected during successive years (1971-79) of sampling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan were used to develop statistics on lake trout growth, maturity, and mortality, and to quantify seasonal lake trout food and food availability. These statistics were then combined with data on lake trout year-class strengths and age-specific food conversion efficiencies to compute production and forage fish consumption by lake trout in Lake Michigan during the 1979 growing season (i.e., 15 May-1 December). An estimated standing stock of 1,486 metric tons (t) at the beginning of the growing season produced an estimated 1,129 t of fish flesh during the period. The lake trout consumed an estimated 3,037 t of forage fish, to which alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) contributed about 71%, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) 18%, and slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) 11%. Seasonal changes in bathymetric distributions of lake trout with respect to those of forage fish of a suitable size for prey were major determinants of the size and species compositions of fish in the seasonal diet of lake trout.

  2. Lake trout in the Great Lakes: Basin-wide stock collapse and binational restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was important to the human settlement of each of the Great Lakes, and underwent catastrophic collapses in each lake in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The timing of lake trout stock collapses were different in each lake, as were the causes of the collapses, and have been the subject of much scientific inquiry and debate. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and review pertinent information relating historical changes in Great Lakes lake trout stocks, binational efforts to restore those stocks, and progress toward stock restoration. This presentation attempts to generalize patterns across the Great Lakes, rather than to focus within each lake. Lake specific analyses have been used to understand lake specific causes and effects, but there is continuing debate about some of these causes and effects. A basinwide review may suggest mechanisms for observed changes that are not evident by lake specific analysis.

  3. Status of lake trout rehabilitation in the Northern Refuge of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    The Northern Refuge in Lake Michigan was established in 1985 as part of a rehabilitation program to stock yearling lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in areas with the best potential for success. Stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout within the refuge began in 1986 at three reefs: Boulder Reef, Gull Island Reef, and Richards Reef. On each reef from 1991 to 1997 we conducted gill-net surveys during the fall spawning season to evaluate performance of adult lake trout, and we conducted beam trawl surveys for naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout in the spring. Criteria to evaluate performance included spawner density, growth, maturity, and mortality. We found no evidence of natural reproduction by lake trout from our surveys. Nevertheless, density of spawning lake trout on Boulder Reef (69 fish/305 m of gill net/night) and Gull Island Reef (34 fish/305 m of gill net/night) appeared to be sufficiently high to initiate a self-sustaining population. Growth and maturity rates of lake trout in the Northern Refuge were similar to those for lake trout stocked in the nearshore region of Lake Michigan. In the Northern Refuge, growth rate for the Marquette strain of lake trout was slightly higher than for the Lewis Lake strain. Annual mortality estimates from catch curve analyses ranged from 0.46 to 0.41, and therefore, these estimates approached a level that was considered to be sufficiently low to allow for a self-sustaining population. Thus, it appeared that the lack of evidence for natural reproduction by lake trout in the Northern Refuge should not be attributed to inability of the population to attain a sufficiently large stock of spawners.

  4. Predation on lake trout eggs and fry: A modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Bowen, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A general model was developed to examine the effects of multiple predators on survival of eggs and fry of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, associated with spawning reefs. Three kinds of predation were simulated: epibenthic egg predators consuming eggs on the substrate surface during spawning, interstitial egg predators that can move in rocky substrate and consume incubating eggs, and fry predators. Also simulated was the effect of water temperature on predation rates. The model predicted that interstitial predation on eggs accounted for most (76 to 81%) of the predation on early life history stages of lake trout; epibenthic egg predation (12 to 19%) and fry predation (0 to 12%) had less effect on lake trout survival. Initial predation conditions chosen for the model were: epibenthic egg predation peaked at 2 eggs/mA?/d over 30 d, insterstitial egg predation at 2 eggs/mA?/d over 180 d, and fry predation at 1 fry/mA?/d over 60 d. With a starting egg density of 100 eggs/mA? and initial predation conditions, no lake trout were estimated to survive to swim-up. At egg densities of 250 eggs/mA?, 36% of the lake trout survived. At the highest egg densities examined, 500 to 1,000 eggs/mA?, estimated survival increased to about 70 to 80%. Simulated survival rates of lake trout decreased dramatically as predation rate increased but were not as sensitive to increases in the duration of predation.

  5. Seasonal movements of non-native lake trout in a connected lake and river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Giersch, Jonathan J.; Marotz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Non-native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum), threaten native salmonid populations in the western United States. Effective management of lake trout requires understanding movements within connected lake and river systems. This study determined the seasonal movements of subadult lake trout in the Flathead River upstream of Flathead Lake, Montana, USA using radio telemetry. The spatiotemporal distribution of lake trout in the river was related to water temperature. Lake trout were detected in the river primarily during autumn, winter and spring, when water temperatures were cool. By contrast, fewer were detected when temperatures were warmest during summer and during high spring flows. Downriver movements to Flathead Lake occurred throughout autumn and winter when water temperature decreased below 5 °C, and in late spring as water temperature rose towards 15 °C and river discharge declined following spring runoff. Upriver movements occurred primarily in October, which coincided with migrations of prey fishes. These results suggest that lake trout are capable of moving throughout connected river and lake systems (up to 230 km) and that warm water temperatures function as an impediment to occupancy of the river during summer. Controlling source populations and maintaining natural water temperatures may be effective management strategies for reducing the spread of non-native lake trout.

  6. Survival of lake trout eggs and fry reared in water from the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol Cotant; Seelye, James G.

    1985-01-01

    As part of continuing studies of the reproductive failure of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan, we measured the survival of lake trout eggs and fry of different origins and reared in different environments. Eggs and milt were stripped from spawning lake trout collected in the fall of 1980 from southeastern Lake Michigan, northwestern Lake Huron, south central Lake Superior, and from hatchery brood stock. Eggs from all sources were incubated, and the newly hatched fry were reared for 139 days in lake water from each of the three upper Great Lakes and in well water. Survival of eggs to hatching at all sites was lowest for those from Lake Michigan (70% of fertilized eggs) and highest for eggs from Lake Superior (96%). Comparisons of incubation water from the different lakes indicated that hatching success of eggs from all sources was highest in Lake Huron water, and lowest in Lake Michigan water. The most notable finding was the nearly total mortality of fry from eggs of southeastern Lake Michigan lake trout. At all sites, the mean survival of Lake Michigan fry through 139 days after hatching was only 4% compared to near 50% for fry from the other three sources. In a comparison of the rearing sites, little influence of water quality on fry survival was found. Thus, the poor survival was associated with the source of eggs and sperm, not the water in which the fry were reared.

  7. Genetic evaluation of a Great Lakes lake trout hatchery program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Bast, D.; Holey, M.E.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts over several decades to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in U.S. waters of the upper Great Lakes have emphasized the stocking of juveniles from each of six hatchery broodstocks. Retention of genetic diversity across all offspring life history stages throughout the hatchery system has been an important component of the restoration hatchery and stocking program. Different stages of the lake trout hatchery program were examined to determine how effective hatchery practices have been in minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in broodstock adults and in progeny stocked. Microsatellite loci were used to estimate allele frequencies, measures of genetic diversity, and relatedness for wild source populations, hatchery broodstocks, and juveniles. We also estimated the effective number of breeders for each broodstock. Hatchery records were used to track destinations of fertilized eggs from all spawning dates to determine whether adult contributions to stocking programs were proportional to reproductive effort. Overall, management goals of maintaining genetic diversity were met across all stages of the hatchery program; however, we identified key areas where changes in mating regimes and in the distribution of fertilized gametes and juveniles could be improved. Estimates of effective breeding population size (Nb) were 9-41% of the total number of adults spawned. Low estimates of Nb were primarily attributed to spawning practices, including the pooling of gametes from multiple males and females and the reuse of males. Nonrandom selection and distribution of fertilized eggs before stocking accentuated declines in effective breeding population size and increased levels of relatedness of juveniles distributed to different rearing facilities and stocking locales. Adoption of guidelines that decrease adult reproductive variance and promote more equitable reproductive contributions of broodstock adults to juveniles would further enhance management goals of

  8. Trout Lake, Wisconsin: A water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets program site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2000-01-01

    The Trout Lake Watershed is in the Northern Highlands Lake District in north-central Wisconsin. The study area includes four subbasins with five lakes and two bog lakes. The objectives of the Trout Lake WEBB project are to (1) describe processes controlling water and solute fluxes in the Trout Lake watershed, (2) examine interactions among those processes and (3) improve the capability to predict changes in water and solute fluxes for a range of spatial and temporal scales (Elder and others, 1992).

  9. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  10. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Lien, G J; McKim, J M; Hoffman, A D; Jenson, C T

    2001-01-01

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PB-TK) model for fish, incorporating chemical exchange at the gill and accumulation in five tissue compartments, was parameterized and evaluated for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Individual-based model parameterization was used to examine the effect of natural variability in physiological, morphological, and physico-chemical parameters on model predictions. The PB-TK model was used to predict uptake of organic chemicals across the gill and accumulation in blood and tissues in lake trout. To evaluate the accuracy of the model, a total of 13 adult lake trout were exposed to waterborne 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE), pentachloroethane (PCE), and hexachloroethane (HCE), concurrently, for periods of 6, 12, 24 or 48 h. The measured and predicted concentrations of TCE, PCE and HCE in expired water, dorsal aortic blood and tissues were generally within a factor of two, and in most instances much closer. Variability noted in model predictions, based on the individual-based model parameterization used in this study, reproduced variability observed in measured concentrations. The inference is made that parameters influencing variability in measured blood and tissue concentrations of xenobiotics are included and accurately represented in the model. This model contributes to a better understanding of the fundamental processes that regulate the uptake and disposition of xenobiotic chemicals in the lake trout. This information is crucial to developing a better understanding of the dynamic relationships between contaminant exposure and hazard to the lake trout.

  11. Fertilization of eggs of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lake water: Effect of PCBs (Aroclor 1254)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; Berlin, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Various studies indicate that PCBs appear to have an adverse effect on the viability of fertilized eggs and subsequent early life stages of lake trout and related species. Our tests detected no impairment of fertilization of lake trout eggs in PCB-dosed lake water. The concentration of PCBs in the fertilization medium that we used was more than 20 times as high as estimated ambient levels in southeastern Lake Michigan and it appears unlikley that ambient levels of PCBs in the water at fertilization would contribute significantly to the apparent widespread reproductive failure of lake trout there.

  12. Increasing thiamine concentrations in lake trout eggs from Lakes Huron and Michigan coincide with low alewife abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Rinchard, Jacques; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Evans, Allison N.; Begnoche, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes suffer from thiamine deficiency as a result of adult lake trout consuming prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Sufficiently low egg thiamine concentrations result in direct mortality of or sublethal effects on newly hatched lake trout fry. To determine the prevalence and severity of low thiamine in lake trout eggs, we monitored thiamine concentrations in lake trout eggs from 15 sites in Lakes Huron and Michigan from 2001 to 2009. Lake trout egg thiamine concentrations at most sites in both lakes were initially low and increased over time at 11 of 15 sites, and the proportion of females with egg thiamine concentrations lower than the recommended management objective of 4 nmol/g decreased over time at eight sites. Egg thiamine concentrations at five of six sites in Lakes Huron and Michigan were significantly inversely related to site-specific estimates of mean abundance of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, and successful natural reproduction of lake trout has been observed in Lake Huron since the alewife population crashed. These results support the hypothesis that low egg thiamine in Great Lakes lake trout is associated with increased alewife abundance and that low alewife abundance may currently be a prerequisite for successful reproduction by lake trout in the Great Lakes.

  13. Starvation resistance in lake trout fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    2003-01-01

    Newly hatched fry were acclimated to 7 or 12A?C and either fed daily (controls) or denied food for varying lengths of time and then fed daily until the end of the study (day 91 at 7A?C and day 43 at 12A?C). Growth was reduced by delays in the onset of feeding of 27 or more days at 7A?C and 7 or more days at 12A?C. Mortality of fry unfed for more than 34 days at 7A?C, or more than 21 days at 12A?C, was higher than among controls. Daily mortality increased with the length of the food deprivation period and did not cease immediately when food was made available, but reached zero by the end of the study. Mortality among unfed fry reached 50% in about 59 days at 7A?C and 32 days at 12A?C. Study results permitted calculation of the 'point-of-no-return' (PNR) mortality, which included the mortality that occurred during the period of food deprivation, and also the delayed component of mortality that was directly attributable to starvation and that occurred after food was made available. The PNR for 50% mortality for food-deprived fry occurred after 52 days at 7A?C and 24 days at 12A?C. Thus, both measures of mortality indicate that lake trout fry would be highly resistant to death by starvation in the thermal habitat they would be expected to occupy in the Great Lakes. We conclude that a more likely adverse effect of reduced food availability would result from a reduction in growth rate that extends the length of time fry remain small and vulnerable to predation by adult alewives and other non-native fishes with which they associate.

  14. Survival of hatchery-reared lake trout stocked near shore and off shore in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.

    1997-01-01

    Establishing a stock of mature, hatchery-reared fish is necessary to restore a self-sustaining population of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Ontario. Stocking fish off shore rather than near shore to reduce predation on these fish by large lake trout or piscivorous birds may enhance survival of hatchery-reared fish and accelerate establishment of a population of adults. Results of an earlier study did not support routinely stocking fish off shore by helicopter in Lake Ontario, but stresses associated with helicopter stocking suggested another method of transporting fish off shore might enhance survival. I conducted this study to determine whether stocking lake trout off shore by barge would enhance first-year survival. Two lots of yearling lake trout were stocked at each of four locations in Lake Ontario in May 1992. One lot was stocked from shore, and an identical lot was transported by barge 3.4–10.4 km off shore of nearshore locations and stocked in water 46–52 m deep. Fish were recovered during trawl, gillnet, and creel surveys in 1992–1996. First-year survival of lake trout stocked off shore tended to be better than that of fish stocked near shore. Predation by double-crested cormorantsPhalacrocorax auritus likely affected survival of fish stocked near shore at two locations, 7 and 37 km, respectively, from a nesting colony of 5,443 pairs of double-crested cormorants. Predation by large lake trout remains a viable hypothesis, which explains, at least partially, lower survival of lake trout stocked near shore at two other locations. Stocking lake trout off shore of traditional nearshore stocking sites likely will enhance first-year survival of hatchery-reared fish and promote accumulation of an adult population, especially for those occassions where nearshore stocking locations are near nesting colonies of double-crested cormorants.

  15. Causes of declining survival of lake trout stocked in U.S. waters of Lake Superior in 1963-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Schram, Stephen T.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Selgeby, James H.; Taylor, William W.

    1996-01-01

    Survival of the 1963-1982 year-classes of stocked yearling lake trout Salvelinus namaycush declined significantly over time in Lake Superior. To investigate possible causes of this decline, a Ricker model of stock-recruitment was used to describe the catch per effort (CPE) of age-7 stocked lake trout in the Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior as functions of the numbers of yearlings stocked 6 years earlier (an index of density dependence), the density (CPE) of wild adult lake trout (an index of predation), and large-mesh (a?Y 114-mm stretch-measure) gill-net fishing effort (an index of fishing mortality). Declining CPE of stocked lake trout in Michigan and Wisconsin was significantly associated with increasing large-mesh gillnet fishing effort. Declining CPE of stocked lake trout in Minnesota was significantly associated with increasing density of wild lake trout. Declining survival of stocked lake trout may therefore have been caused by increased mortality in large-mesh gill-net fisheries in Michigan and Wisconsin, and by predation by wild lake trout that recently recolonized the Minnesota area. We recommend that experimental management be pursued to determine the relative importance of large-mesh gillnet fishing effort and of predation by wild lake trout on the survival of stocked lake trout in U.S. waters of Lake Superior.

  16. Status of lake trout rehabilitation on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; McClain, Jerry R.; Woldt, Aaron P.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank, an offshore reef in the central region of Lake Huron's main basin, was stocked annually with hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush during 1985–1998, and nearby Yankee Reef was stocked with hatchery-reared lake trout in 1992, 1997, and annually during 1999–2001. We conducted gill-net surveys during spring and fall to evaluate performances of each of the various strains of lake trout, as well as the performance of the entire lake trout population (all strains pooled), on these two offshore reefs during 1992–2000. Criteria to evaluate performance included the proportion of “wild” fish within the population, spawner density, adult survival, growth, maturity, and wounding rate by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Although naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout fry were caught on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef, wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. The density of spawning lake trout on Six Fathom Bank (>100 fish/305 m of gill net) during 1995–1998 appeared to be sufficiently high to initiate a self-sustaining population. However, annual mortality estimates for all lake trout strains pooled from catch curve analyses ranged from 0.48 to 0.62, well exceeding the target level of 0.40 suggested for lake trout rehabilitation. Annual mortality rate for the Seneca Lake strain (0.34) was significantly lower than that for the Superior–Marquette (0.69) and Lewis Lake (0.69) strains. This disparity in survival among strains was probably attributable to the lower sea-lamprey-induced mortality experienced by the Seneca Lake strain. The relatively high mortality experienced by adult lake trout partly contributed to the lack of successful natural recruitment to the adult population on these offshore reefs, but other factors were probably also involved. We recommend that both stocking of the Seneca Lake strain and enhanced efforts to reduce sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron be continued.

  17. Side-scan sonar mapping of lake trout spawning habitat in northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Poe, Thomas P.; Nester, Robert T.; Brown, Charles L.

    1989-01-01

    Native stocks of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were virtually or completely extirpated from the lower four Great Lakes by the early 1960s. The failure of early attempts to reestablish self-sustaining populations of lake trout was attributed partly to the practice of stocking hatcheryreared juveniles at locations and over substrates that had not been used in the past for spawning by native fish. Subsequent attempts to improve the selection of stocking locations were impeded by the lack of reliable information on the distribution of substrates on historical spawning grounds. Here we demonstrate the potential of side-scan sonar to substantially expand the data base needed to pinpoint the location of substrates where lake trout eggs, fry, or juveniles could be stocked to maximize survival and help ensure that survivors returning to spawn would encounter suitable substrates. We also describe the substrates and bathymetry of large areas on historical lake trout spawning grounds in the Fox Island Lake Trout Sanctuary in northern Lake Michigan. These areas could be used to support a contemporary self-sustaining lake trout population in the sanctuary and perhaps also in adjacent waters.

  18. Lake trout population dynamics at Drummond Island Refuge in Lake Huron: Implications for future rehabilitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Ebener, M.P.; Desorcie, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Drummond Island Refuge (DIR) was established in 1985 as part of the rehabilitation effort for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since then, several strains of hatchery-reared lake trout have been stocked annually at the DIR. An intensive lampricide treatment of the St. Marys River during 1998-2001 was expected to lower the abundance of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus within the DIR by 2000. We conducted annual gill-net surveys during spring and fall to evaluate the performance of each of the strains of lake trout as well as that of the entire lake trout population (all strains pooled) in the DIR during 1991-2005. The criteria to evaluate performance included the proportion of "wild" fish within the population, spawner density, adult survival, growth, maturity, and wounding rate by sea lampreys. Wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. During 1991-2005, the average density of spawning lake trout appeared to be marginally sufficient to initiate a self-sustaining population. Survival of the Seneca Lake (SEN) strain of lake trout was significantly higher than that of the Superior-Marquette (SUP) strain, in part because of the higher sea-lamprey-induced mortality suffered by the SUP strain. However, other factors were also involved. Apparently SUP fish were more vulnerable to fishing conducted in waters near the refuge boundaries than SEN fish. The St. Marys River treatment appeared to be effective in reducing the sea lamprey wounding rate on SEN fish. We recommend that the stocking of SEN lake trout in the DIR, control of sea lampreys in the St. Marys River, and reduction of commercial fishery effort in waters near the DIR be maintained. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Survival rates of adult lake trout in northwestern Lake Michigan, 1983-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Holey, Mark E.; McKee, Patrick C.; Toneys, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The restoration of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan has been an elusive goal of resource management agencies in the Great Lakes region. In this study, we estimated annual survival rates of adult lake trout from an area in northwestern Lake Michigan known as the Clay Banks refuge. We tagged and recaptured fish with gill nets during the fall spawning season (N = 12,175; 1983–1989 and 1991–1993) and with pound nets in the spring (N = 52,035; 1984–1990 and 1992–1993). We fit Cormack–Jolly–Seber models to the two sets of data. We had insufficient data to analyze annual differences in survival rates of fall-tagged fish, but we were able to estimate an overall annual survival rate of 0.67. Annual survival rates of spring-tagged fish varied between 0.53 and 0.88 and increased after 1987–1988. In addition to the mark–recapture studies, we analyzed catch rates of lake trout from gill-net and pound-net surveys to estimate survival rates using catch curve analyses; these annual rates were generally lower than those estimated from mark–recapture analyses of tagged fish. However, survival rates of lake trout from the Clay Banks refuge appeared to meet the minimum rate believed necessary for restoration of this species in Lake Michigan. Furthermore, adult survival rates have been increasing in recent years, and lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is not hampered by low survival of adult fish. We hypothesize that the recent decrease in abundance of adult lake trout is primarily due to decreases in survival rates of lake trout younger than 6 years.

  20. In situ determination of the annual thermal habitat use by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Seelye, James G.; Scribner, Kim T.; Curtis, Gary L.

    2003-01-01

    Records of the temperatures occupied by 33 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at large in Lake Huron were obtained for up to 14 months per fish, at 75-minute intervals, from surgically implanted archival temperature tags. The dataset covered nearly three years, from October 1998 to June 2001, and included 160,000 observations. The objectives of the tagging were to obtain temperature data to refine bioenergetics models of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation on lake trout, and compare the temperatures occupied by strains of lake trout stocked in Lake Huron. The seasonal, thermal-use profiles of lake trout followed the general warming and cooling pattern of Lake Huron. During periods when the zone of surface water mixing extended below the depth range occupied by lake trout, variability among individual fish and strains was low and followed surface temperature. However, during the period of summer stratification, the average temperatures occupied varied substantially among individual fish and strains. Strains originating from the upper Great Lakes (Lake Superior and Lewis Lake, WY) occupied similar temperatures. Between June and mid August, upper Great Lakes lake trout typically occupied water several degrees warmer than that occupied by lake trout of Finger Lakes, New York origin. Most of the lake trout occupied summer temperatures lower than the preferred temperatures suggested by laboratory studies. In October, all strains occupied water as warm or warmer than that occupied in summer, which may partially explain the higher lethality of sea lamprey attacks during October.

  1. REDUCING EXPOSURE UNCERTAINTY FOR ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN TOXICITY RISKS TO LAKE TROUT POPULATIONS IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 20th century, declines of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations to virtual extinction in all the Great Lakes except Lake Superior were followed by failure of stocked lake trout to achieve recruitment through natural reproduction. Stresses such as excessive harv...

  2. Egg thiamine status of Lake Ontario salmonines 1995-2004 with emphasis on lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzsimons, J.D.; Williston, B.; Williston, G.; Brown, L.; El-Shaarawi, A.; Vandenbyllaardt, L.; Honeyfeld, D.; Tillitt, D.; Wolgamood, M.; Brown, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), the major prey fish for Lake Ontario, contain thiaminase. They are associated with development of a thiamine deficiency in salmonines which greatly increases the potential for developing an early mortality syndrome (EMS). To assess the possible effects of thiamine deficiency on salmonine reproduction we measured egg thiamine concentrations for five species of Lake Ontario salmonines. From this we estimated the proportion of families susceptible to EMS based on whether they were below the ED20, the egg thiamine concentration associated with 20% mortality due to EMS. The ED20s were 1.52, 2.63, and 2.99 nmol/g egg for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), respectively. Based on the proportion of fish having egg thiamine concentrations falling below the ED20, the risk of developing EMS in Lake Ontario was highest for lake trout, followed by coho (O. kisutch), and Chinook salmon, with the least risk for rainbow trout (O. mykiss). For lake trout from western Lake Ontario, mean egg thiamine concentration showed significant annual variability during 1994 to 2003, when the proportion of lake trout at risk of developing EMS based on ED20 ranged between 77 and 100%. Variation in the annual mean egg thiamine concentration for western Lake Ontario lake trout was positively related (p < 0.001, r2 = 0.94) with indices of annual adult alewife biomass. While suggesting the possible involvement of density-dependent changes in alewives, the changes are small relative to egg thiamine concentrations when alewife are not part of the diet and are of insufficient magnitude to allow for natural reproduction by lake trout.

  3. Seasonal food of juvenile lake trout in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.

    1983-01-01

    Stomach contents of 3,554 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), 100 to 449 mm in total length, captured with bottom trawls during April through October 1978–81 along the south shore of Lake Ontario were examined. Invertebrates appeared to be an important food of lake trout less than 200 mm long but were only occasionally eaten by larger fish. For all seasons and size groups of juvenile lake trout combined, the slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) was the principal forage fish, making up 42% (by weight) of identifiable fish remains. Young-of-the-year slimy sculpins were a major food of recently stocked yearling lake trout during July through October. Alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) were the principal forage during April and May, and made up 28% (by weight) of the identifiable fish remains. They were rarely eaten during July and August, however, when lake trout remained in the hypolimnion and alewives were above it. Over 99% of the alewives eaten from April through August were yearlings and over 99% eaten during October were young-of-the-year. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) were the primary forage during July and August, but contributed only a small part of the diet during other seasons; overall, they made up 25% of identifiable fish remains. Johnny darters (Etheostoma nigrum) made up 4% of identifiable fish remains and were most common in stomachs of small lake trout during October.

  4. Gill net saturation by lake trout in Michigan waters of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Selgeby, James H.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted experimental fishing for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Michigan waters of Lake Superior to determine the importance of soak time on catch per effort (CPE) in numbers per kilometer of standard gill net. We modeled CPE as a nonlinear function of the number of nights between setting and lifting (soak time), in which the nets fill at a certain rate toward some maximum after which the nets cannot hold more fish. We found that lake trout CPE increased with soak time at a rate that varied with lake trout density toward a saturation level that was independent of lake trout density. The CPE values of nets soaked 2–5 nights divided by the CPE of nets soaked 1 night were significantly lower than would be expected had CPE increased as a linear function of the number of nights soaked. We derived a means for correcting gill-net CPE values for differing soak times to a common base of 1 night soaked. We concluded that it is inappropriate to assume lake trout catches in gill nets will increase in direct proportion to the number of nights soaked and recommend that CPE of lake trout in gill nets be corrected for soak time.

  5. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit (oral presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents an...

  6. Spring-summer diet of lake trout on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Holuszko, J.D.; Desorcie, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the stomach contents of 1,045 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) caught on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef, two offshore reef complexes in Lake Huron, during late spring and early summer 1998-2003. Lake trout ranged in total length from 213 to 858 mm, and in age from 2 to 14 years. In total, 742 stomachs contained food. On a wet-weight basis, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) dominated the spring-summer diet of lake trout on both of these offshore reef complexes. Alewives accounted for 75 to 90% of lake trout diet, depending on the lake trout size category. Size of alewives found in lake trout stomachs increased with increasing lake trout size. Faster growth of juvenile lake trout on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef than on Sheboygan Reef in Lake Michigan was attributed to greater availability of small alewives on the offshore reefs in Lake Huron. Our findings indicated that alewives inhabited Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef during spring and summer months. Thus, our study provided support for the contention that alewives may have interfered with natural reproduction by lake trout on these offshore reef complexes in Lake Huron.

  7. Use of egg traps to investigate lake trout spawning in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiner, Donald R.; Bronte, Charles R.; Payne, N. Robert; Fitzsimons, John D.; Casselman, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Disk-shaped traps were used to examine egg deposition by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at 29 sites in the Great Lakes. The main objectives were to; first, evaluate the disk trap as a device for sampling lake trout eggs in the Great Lakes, and second, summarize what has been learned about lake trout spawning through the use of disk traps. Of the 5,085 traps set, 60% were classified as functional when retrieved. Evidence of lake trout egg deposition was documented in each of the lakes studied at 14 of 29 sites. A total of 1,147 eggs were trapped. The percentage of traps functioning and catch per effort were compared among sites based on depth, timing of egg deposition, distance from shore, size of reef, and type of reef (artificial or natural). Most eggs were caught on small, shallow, protected reefs that were close to shore. Use of disk traps on large, shallow, unprotected offshore reefs or along unprotected shorelines was generally unsuccessful due to the effects of heavy wind and wave action. Making multiple lifts at short intervals, and retrieval before and re-deployment after storms are recommended for use in exposed areas. On large reefs, preliminary surveys to identify preferred lake trout spawning habitat may be required to deploy disk traps most effectively. Egg deposition by hatchery-reared fish was widespread throughout the Great Lakes, and the use of artificial structures by these fish was extensive.

  8. Embryonic developmental progression in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (Walbaum, 1792) and its relation to lake temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Jeffrey D.; Walker, Glenn K.; Adams, Jean V.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Edsall, Carol C.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental progression of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) embryos was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. From this examination, key developmental stages were described in detail. The key developmental stages were then applied to individual lake trout egg lots incubated in constant temperatures of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10°C. We used Belehradek's, Thermodynamic, and Power models, and also developed the Zero model to determine stage specific developmental rates of lake trout eggs for each background temperature. From the models, hatch dates and staging were predicted for temperature regimes from Lake Superior (1990–91) and Lake Huron (1996–97). Based on the existing lake temperature data and the observed spawning dates, the Zero and the Power models predict that post peak spawning may contribute significantly to overall recruitment success for these years.

  9. Demographic characteristics of an adfluvial bull trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCubbins, Jonathan L; Hansen, Michael J.; DosSantos, Joseph M; Dux, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative species, habitat loss, and stream fragmentation have caused the Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus to decline throughout much of its native distribution. Consequently, in June 1998, the Bull Trout was listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as threatened. The Bull Trout has existed in Lake Pend Oreille and its surrounding tributaries since the last ice age, and the lake once supported a world-renowned Bull Trout fishery. To quantify the current status of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, we compared the mean age, growth, maturity, and abundance with reports in a study conducted one decade earlier. Abundance was estimated by mark–recapture for Bull Trout caught in trap nets and gill nets set in Lake Pend Oreille during ongoing suppression netting of Lake Trout S. namaycushin 2007–2008. Bull Trout sampled in 2006–2008 were used to estimate age structure, survival, growth, and maturity. Estimated Bull Trout abundance was similar to that estimated one decade earlier in Lake Pend Oreille. Bull Trout residing in Lake Pend Oreille between 2006 and 2008 were between ages 4 and 14 years; their growth was fastest between ages 1 and 2 and slowed thereafter. Male and female Bull Trout matured at a similar age, but females grew faster than males, thereby maturing at a larger size. Our findings suggest that management has effectively addressed current threats to increase the likelihood of long-term persistence of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille.

  10. Effectiveness of a refuge for Lake Trout in Western Lake Superior II: Simulation of future performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akins, Andrea L; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior supported one of the largest and most diverse Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but Lake Trout stocks collapsed due to excessive fishery exploitation and predation by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus. Lake Trout stocking, Sea Lamprey control, and fishery regulations, including a refuge encompassing Gull Island Shoal (Apostle Islands region), were used to enable recovery of Lake Trout stocks that used this historically important spawning shoal. Our objective was to determine whether future sustainability of Lake Trout stocks will depend on the presence of the Gull Island Shoal Refuge. We constructed a stochastic age-structured simulation model to assess the effect of maintaining the refuge as a harvest management tool versus removing the refuge. In general, median abundances of age-4, age-4 and older (age-4+), and age-8+ fish collapsed at lower instantaneous fishing mortality rates (F) when the refuge was removed than when the refuge was maintained. With the refuge in place, the F that resulted in collapse depended on the rate of movement into and out of the refuge. Too many fish stayed in the refuge when movement was low (0–2%), and too many fish became vulnerable to fishing when movement was high (≥22%); thus, the refuge was more effective at intermediate rates of movement (10–11%). With the refuge in place, extinction did not occur at any simulated level of F, whereas refuge removal led to extinction at all combinations of commercial F and recreational F. Our results indicate that the Lake Trout population would be sustained by the refuge at all simulated F-values, whereas removal of the refuge would risk population collapse at much lower F (0.700–0.744). Therefore, the Gull Island Shoal Refuge is needed to sustain the Lake Trout population in eastern Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior.

  11. Patterns of egg deposition by lake trout and lake whitefish at Tawas artificial Reef, Lake Huron, 1990-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; Kennedy, G.W.; Munawar, M.; Edsall, T.; Leach, J.

    1995-01-01

    In August 1987, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), with the help and co-sponsorship of Walleyes for Iosco County, constructed Tawas artificial reef to improve recreational fishing in Tawas Bay. Post-construction assessment in October, 1987, by the MDNR found twice as many adult lake trout in a gill net set on the reef as in a similar net set off the reef, indicating that lake trout already had begun to investigate this new habitat. Similar netting efforts in October 1989 caught three times as many adults on the reef as off it, even though the on-reef net was set for less than one third as long a period. Using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), we detected prespawning aggregations of lake trout on the reef in fall 1989, and MDNR biologists set emergent fly traps on the reef in April-May 1990-1991. These fry traps captured several newly emerged lake trout and lake whitefish fry, demonstrating that eggs of both species has hatched successfully. Gill netting in 1992-1993 by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists netted large numbers of ripe lake trout in late October and ripe lake whitefish in early to mid-November. The purpose of this paper is to describe the relative quantities of eggs deposited and the spatial patterns of egg deposition by lake trout and lake whitefish at Tawas artificial reef during 1990-1993.

  12. Bathythermal habitat use by strains of Great Lakes- and Finger Lakes-origin lake trout in Lake Huron after a change in prey fish abundance and composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Krueger, Charles C.; Taylor, William W.

    2012-01-01

    A study conducted in Lake Huron during October 1998–June 2001 found that strains of Great Lakes-origin (GLO) lake trout Salvelinus namaycush occupied significantly higher temperatures than did Finger Lakes-origin (FLO; New York) lake trout based on data from archival (or data storage) telemetry tags that recorded only temperature. During 2002 and 2003, we implanted archival tags that recorded depth as well as temperature in GLO and FLO lake trout in Lake Huron. Data subsequently recorded by those tags spanned 2002–2005. Based on those data, we examined whether temperatures and depths occupied by GLO and FLO lake trout differed during 2002–2005. Temperatures occupied during those years were also compared with occupied temperatures reported for 1998–2001, before a substantial decline in prey fish biomass. Temperatures occupied by GLO lake trout were again significantly higher than those occupied by FLO lake trout. This result supports the conclusion of the previous study. The GLO lake trout also occupied significantly shallower depths than FLO lake trout. In 2002–2005, both GLO and FLO lake trout occupied significantly lower temperatures than they did in 1998–2001. Aside from the sharp decline in prey fish biomass between study periods, the formerly abundant pelagic alewife Alosa pseudoharengus virtually disappeared and the demersal round goby Neogobius melanostomus invaded the lake and became locally abundant. The lower temperatures occupied by lake trout in Lake Huron during 2002–2005 may be attributable to changes in the composition of the prey fish community, food scarcity (i.e., a retreat to cooler water could increase conversion efficiency), or both.

  13. Limitations to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) rehabilitation in the Great Lakes imposed by biotic interactions occurring at early life stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Eck, Gary W.; Evans, David O.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Hoff, Michael H.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Janssen, John; Jude, David; O'Gorman, Robert; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1995-01-01

    We examine evidence that biotic factors, particularly predation, may be limiting early survival of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) juveniles in many areas of the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes contain numerous potential predators of lake trout eggs and fry, some of which are recent invaders, and most of which were probably absent when lake trout most recently re-invaded the Great Lakes after the last ice age. Simple quantitative models of predation suggest that plausible assumptions about prey densities, predator feeding rates, and duration of exposure of predator to prey can lead to very high estimates of predation mortality, in some instances approaching 100%. Indirect evidence from inter-Great Lake comparisons and inland lake examples also suggest that biotic factors may impede successful lake trout colonization. Our synthesis of the evidence leads to recommendations for research to better define field feeding rates of lake trout egg and fry predators and comparative studies of densities of potential egg and fry predators on lake trout spawning reefs. Management options should be designed to provide useful information as well as achieve short-term goals. From a management standpoint we recommend that: newly constructed lake trout reefs should be placed well away from concentrations of potential predators; offshore spawning reefs should be stocked; salmonine stocking, nutrient abatement, and commercial harvest of alewives should all be considered as options to enhance survival of young lake trout; hatchery lake trout should not be stocked at sites where wild lake trout are showing signs of recovery; and exotic species expansions or introductions must be curtailed to maintain or improve on our recent successes in lake trout rehabilitation.

  14. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in Lake Michigan, 1971-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1980-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was exterminated in Lake Michigan by the mid-1950s as a result of the combined effects of an intensive fishery and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The widespread application of lampricide in tributary streams had greatly reduced the abundance of lampreys by the early 1960s, and a program to restore self-sustaining populations of lake trout through stocking of yearlings and fingerlings was initiated in 1965. Although the hatchery-reared fish spawned widely in Lake Michigan each year after 1970, no progeny were observed except in an isolated area in Grand Traverse Bay. During 1971–78, sea lamprey abundance was generally greater in Wisconsin than in other parts of the lake. However, the rate of occurrence of sea lamprey wounds on lake trout dropped dramatically there in 1978 after the Peshtigo River, a tributary to Green Bay, was treated with lampricide. Application of Lake Michigan wounding rates to a regression model relating mortality to lamprey wounding developed from Lake Superior data, yielded lamprey-induced mortality estimates in 1977 of 5% in Michigan plus Indiana (combined) and 31% in Wisconsin; corresponding estimates for 1978 were 5 and 15%.Key words: lake trout, sea lamprey predation, abundance, Lake Michigan

  15. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  16. Comparative hatching success of lake trout eggs in Lake Michigan water and well water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol C.; Mac, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the influence of water from southern Lake Michigan on the survival of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs by comparing the hatching success of eggs from the same source incubated in water from Lake Michigan, or from the laboratory well. It is concluded that the observed differences in hatching are probably attributable to chemical constituents of water from the lake (eg, chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals and other industrial and agricultural chemicals).

  17. Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) feeding on young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): effect of rock size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Miller, John E.

    1991-01-01

    In laboratory studies, we quantified predation rates of crayfish (Orconectes virilis) on the eggs and sac fry of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a surrogate species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mvkiss), dispersed among different sized substrates (bare bottom, gravel, cobble, large rocks). Predation was most severe when no rocks were present. Feeding rate then decreased as the substrate changed from large rocks to cobble to gravel. Crayfish predation rate did not change with prey type—rainbow trout and lake trout eggs or sac fry. Crayfish foraging in large tanks containing cobble averaged about two eggs or sac fry per day. In most instances, crayfish would have little impact on lake trout egg survival. Only in lake trout spawning grounds with relatively low egg densities, large crayfish populations, and cobble or large rock substrate, would crayfish be expected to have some impact on lake trout egg survival.

  18. Gamete ripening and hormonal correlates in three strains of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; O'Connor, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In our 2-year laboratory study of hatchery-reared adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of the Seneca Lake, Marquette (Lake Superior Lean), and Jenny Lake strains, we compared gamete ripening times and changes in plasma concentrations of seven hormones. If interstrain differences in these traits were found, such differences might help explain the apparent failure of stocked fish of these strains to develop large, naturally reproducing populations in the Great Lakes. The complex temporal changes in plasma hormone levels that occur during sexual maturation in lake trout have not been previously described. We detected little evidence of temporal isolation that would prevent interbreeding among the three strains. Strain had no effect on ovulation date (OD) in either year. Strain did not affect spermiation onset date (SOD) in year 1 but did in year 2, when the mean SOD of Jenny Lake males was earlier than that of Seneca Lake males but not different from that of Marquette males. Hormonal data were normalized around ODs for individual females and SODs for individual males. In females, estradiol-17β (E2) was highest 8 weeks before the OD; the highest testosterone (T) level occurred 6 weeks before the OD, and the next highest level occurred simultaneously with the highest level of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) 2 weeks before the OD. Plasma levels of 17∝-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) peaked 1 week before the OD, then abruptly declined immediately after. Cortisol (F), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were highly variable, but F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in either year. In males, plasma E2 levels were highest 3 weeks before the SOD, highest levels of T and of 11-KT occurred simultaneously 2 weeks after the SOD, and DHP peaked 5 weeks after the SOD and 3 weeks after the highest levels of T and 11-KT. As in females, plasma levels of F, T3, and T4 were highly variable, and F was the only hormone that showed no trend with week in

  19. Genetic variation among wild lake trout populations: the 'wanted' and the 'unwanted'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.; Bronte, Charles R.; Greswell, Robert E.; Dwyer, Pat; Hamre, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    In this study we examine genetic variation within and among self-sustaining lake trout populations from the Great Lakes basin, the Rainy Lake basin, and Yellowstone Lake. We used RFLP analysis and direct sequencing to examine DNA sequence variation among several mitochondrial and nuclear genes, including highly conserved loci (e.g. cytochrome b, nuclear exon regions) and highly variable loci (e.g. mitochondrial d-loop and nuclear intron regions). Native Lake Superior lake trout populations show high levels of genetic diversity, while populations from the Rainy Lake basin show little or none. The lake trout population sampled from Yellowstone Lake shows moderate genetic diversity, possibly representative of a relatively large source population closely related to lake trout from Lewis Lake, Wyoming. There has been significant social and management controversy involving these lake trout populations, particularly those that are located in National Parks. In the Great Lakes and Rainy Lake basins, the controversy involves the degree to which hatchery supplementation can contribute to or negatively impact self-sustaining populations which are highly desired by recreational and commercial fisheries. In Yellowstone Lake, the lake trout are viewed as an undesirable intruder that may interfere with resident populations of highly prized native cutthroat trout.

  20. Response of non-native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) to 15 years of harvest in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syslo, J.M.; Guy, C.S.; Bigelow, P.E.; Doepke, P.D.; Ertel, B.D.; Koel, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduced lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) threaten to extirpate native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) in the 34 000 ha Yellowstone Lake in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Suppression (and eventual eradication) of the lake trout population is deemed necessary for the conservation of Yellowstone cutthroat trout. A US National Park Service gill-netting program removed nearly 450 000 lake trout from Yellowstone Lake from 1995 through 2009. We examined temporal variation in individual growth, body condition, length and age at maturity, fecundity, mortality, and population models to assess the efficacy of the lake trout suppression program. Population metrics did not indicate overharvest despite more than a decade of fish removal. The current rate of population growth is positive; however, it is lower than it would be in the absence of lake trout suppression. Fishing effort needs to increase above observed levels to reduce population growth rate below replacement. Additionally, high sensitivity of population growth rate to reproductive vital rates indicates that increasing fishing mortality for sexually mature lake trout may increase the effectiveness of suppression. Lake trout suppression in Yellowstone Lake illustrates the complexities of trying to remove an apex predator to restore a relatively large remote lentic ecosystem with a simple fish assemblage.

  1. Sea lamprey mark type, marking rate, and parasite-host relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  2. Energy budget for yearling lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rottiers, Donald V.

    1993-01-01

    Components of the energy budget of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were derived from data gathered in laboratory growth and metabolism studies; values for energy lost as waste were estimated with previously published equations. Because the total caloric value of food consumed by experimental lake trout was significantly different during the two years in which the studies were done, separate annual energy budgets were formulated. The gross conversion efficiency in yearling lake trout fed ad libitum rations of alewives at 10A?C was 26.6% to 41%. The distribution of energy with temperature was similar for each component of the energy budget. Highest conversion efficiencies were observed in fish fed less than ad libitum rations; fish fed an amount of food equivalent to about 4% of their body weight at 10A?C had a conversion efficiency of 33% to 45.1%. Physiologically useful energy was 76.1-80.1% of the total energy consumed. Estimated growth for age-I and -II lake fish was near that observed for laboratory fish held at lake temperatures and fed reduced rations.

  3. Returns of hatchery-reared lake trout in southern Lake Superior, 1955-62

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.; King, George R.

    1967-01-01

    Experimental plantings of fin-clipped lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of various ages have been made in southern Lake Superior since 1952. The catch of planted lake trout by the commercial fishery was used to measure the success of stocking. Estimates of total returns were based on samples of 8.2 to 21.2% of the Wisconsin catches in 1955-62 and 36.4 to 46.8% of the Michigan catches in 1959-62. Marked lake trout were assigned to various plantings according to the fin mark, length of fish, readings of age from scales, and locations of capture. Estimated returns from Wisconsin plantings of 9-month-old lake trout varied from 2.1 to 6.4%. Wisconsin releases of 16-month-old fish yielded returns of 5.7 to 37.3%. Returns from plantings in Michigan were 0.3% for 9-month-old fish and 1.5 to 3.8% for 16-month-old fish. The ratios of the returns from plantings of 16-month-old fish to those of 9-month-old fish were 3.9:1 for Wisconsin releases and 6.7:1 for Michigan releases. Lake trout planted in Wisconsin generally survived better than those released in Michigan. Returns from fish planted at ages of 17 to 40 months in Michigan in 1958-59 were far greater than those from 16-month-old fish released in Michigan, but were not as high as from the most successful plantings of 16-month-old fish in Wisconsin. Lake trout released in 1960 from shore and from boats survived equally well. Average size of lake trout at release was more closely related to survival than any other factor. All except 1 of 10 highly successful releases were of fish larger than 22 per lb, and all 6 poor releases were of fish smaller than 34 per lb. Fish that ran 22 to 33 per lb survived only moderately well. A size of 17 to 20 fish per lb appears to be close to optimum. Abundance of native lake trout, American smelt (Osmerus mordax), and sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) all appeared to be unrelated to stocking success. The only apparent method of rapidly improving the success of stocking is to rear all lake

  4. Sexual difference in mercury concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Keir, M.J.; Whittle, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 50 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 69 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). Results showed that, on average, males were 8% higher in Hg concentration than females in Lake Ontario. We also used bioenergetics modeling to determine whether a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) could explain the observed sexual difference in Hg concentrations. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, male GGE was about 3% higher than female GGE, on average. Although the bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher Hg concentrations exhibited by the males, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in Hg concentrations of the lake trout. In an earlier study, male lake trout from Lake Ontario were found to be 22% higher in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration than females from Lake Ontario. Thus, although males were higher in both Hg and PCB concentrations, the degree of the sexual difference in concentration varied between the two contaminants. Further research on sexual differences in Hg excretion rates and Hg direct uptake rates may be needed to resolve the disparity in results between the two contaminants.

  5. An evaluation of lake trout reproductive habitat on Clay Banks Reef, northwestern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Holey, Mark E.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    The extinction of the native populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan in about 1956 has been followed by a decades-long attempt to reestablish self-sustaining populations of this valuable species in habitats it formerly occupied throughout the lake. One of the most recent management strategies designed to facilitate recovery was to make a primary management objective the establishment of sanctuaries where stocked lake trout could be protected and self-sustaining populations reestablished. In the present study we employed habitat survey and mapping techniques, field and laboratory bioassays, egg traps, sediment traps, and gill nets to examine the potential for successful natural reproduction by stocked lake trout on Clay Banks Reef in the Door-Kewaunee sanctuary in Wisconsin waters of Lake Michigan. Our study revealed (1) there was suitable habitat on the reef to support the production of viable fry, (2) spawner abundance on the reef was the highest recorded in the great lakes, and (3) eggs taken from spawners on the reef and held on the reef in plexiglas incubators hatched and produced fry that survived through swim-up. We conclude that Clay Banks Reef has the potential to support successful natural reproduction by stocked lake trout.

  6. Contaminant trends in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVault, David S.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Rodgers, Paul W.; Feist, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Trends in PCBs, DDT, and other contaminants have been monitored in Great Lakes lake trout and walleye since the 1970s using composite samples of whole fish. Dramatic declines have been observed in concentrations of PCB, ΣDDT, dieldrin, and oxychlordane, with declines initially following first order loss kinetics. Mean PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan lake trout increased from 13 μg/g in 1972 to 23 μg/g in 1974, then declined to 2.6 μg/g by 1986. Between 1986 and 1992 there was little change in concentration, with 3.5 μg/g observed in 1992. ΣDDT in Lake Michigan trout followed a similar trend, decreasing from 19.2 μg/g in 1970 to 1.1 μg/g in 1986, and 1.2 μg/g in 1992. Similar trends were observed for PCBs and ΣDDT in lake trout from Lakes Superior, Huron and Ontario. Concentrations of both PCB and ΣDDT in Lake Erie walleye declined between 1977 and 1982, after which concentrations were relatively constant through 1990. When originally implemented it was assumed that trends in the mean contaminant concentrations in open-lake fish would serve as cost effective surrogates to trends in the water column. While water column data are still extremely limited it appears that for PCBs in lakes Michigan and Superior, trends in lake trout do reasonably mimic those in the water column over the long term. Hypotheses to explain the trends in contaminant concentrations are briefly reviewed. The original first order loss kinetics used to describe the initial decline do not explain the more recent leveling off of contaminant concentrations. Recent theories have examined the possibilities of multiple contaminant pools. We suggest another hypothesis, that changes in the food web may have resulted in increased bioaccumulation. However, a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis using a change point analysis was inconclusive.

  7. Developing recreational harvest regulations for an unexploited lake trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenker, Melissa A; Weidel, Brian C.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Developing fishing regulations for previously unexploited populations presents numerous challenges, many of which stem from a scarcity of baseline information about abundance, population productivity, and expected angling pressure. We used simulation models to test the effect of six management strategies (catch and release; trophy, minimum, and maximum length limits; and protected and exploited slot length limits) on an unexploited population of Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in Follensby Pond, a 393-ha lake located in New York State’s Adirondack Park. We combined field and literature data and mark–recapture abundance estimates to parameterize an age-structured population model and used the model to assess the effects of each management strategy on abundance, catch per unit effort (CPUE), and harvest over a range of angler effort (0–2,000 angler-days/year). Lake Trout density (3.5 fish/ha for fish ≥ age 13, the estimated age at maturity) was similar to densities observed in other unexploited systems, but growth rate was relatively slow. Maximum harvest occurred at levels of effort ≤ 1,000 angler-days/year in all the scenarios considered. Regulations that permitted harvest of large postmaturation fish, such as New York’s standard Lake Trout minimum size limit or a trophy size limit, resulted in low harvest and high angler CPUE. Regulations that permitted harvest of small and sometimes immature fish, such as a protected slot or maximum size limit, allowed high harvest but resulted in low angler CPUE and produced rapid declines in harvest with increases in effort beyond the effort consistent with maximum yield. Management agencies can use these results to match regulations to management goals and to assess the risks of different management options for unexploited Lake Trout populations and other fish species with similar life history traits.

  8. Clinostomum marginatum in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) in a western Washington lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uzmann, J.R.; Douglas, J.

    1966-01-01

    Clinostomum marginatum (Trematoda: Clinostomatidae), the yellow grub parasite, was recorded in epizootic proportions from Lynch Lake, King County, Washington, in 1961 and 1962. The parasite larvae occurred principally in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri); cutthroat trout (S. clarki) were infected to a relatively minor degree. Fish and snail host populations were destroyed by rotenone and copper sulfate treatments.

  9. The movement of tagged lake trout in Lake Superior, 1950-52

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Daly, Russell; Erkkila, Leo F.

    1953-01-01

    A total of 733 native lake trout was tagged at two widely separated localities in Lake Superior; subsequent recaptures numbered 155 fish (21.1 percent) during the year following marking. In October 1950, 116 large lake trout (average total length, 27.3 inches) were tagged near Keweenaw Point, Michigan. Fifteen (12.9 percent) were recovered during the first year at points as far west as the Gooseberry River, Minnesota (190 miles), north to the Slate Islands, Ontario (95 miles), and east to Grand Marais, Michigan (100 miles). Nine fish (7.8 percent) were recovered during the second year after marking. Returns from 617 tagged lake trout of smaller size (average length 18.2 inches) released in the Apostle Island region of Wisconsin during the period June 12 to August 6, 1951, numbered 140 (22.7 percent) during the first year. Of these fish, 90 percent were recaptured within a radius of 50 miles of the points of release. Seventy-six percent were caught in Wisconsin, 14 percent in Minnesota, and 9 percent in Michigan waters. The fish retaken in Michigan had moved 120 to 255 miles between the time of release and recapture, traveling as far wast as Grand Marais. Lake trout recaptured at distances of more than 50 miles from the tagging locality were of larger average size than marked fish caught within this radius. The four types of tages used in the marking of lake trout in the Apostle Island region, together with the number tagged and percentage recovered during the first year were as follows: 103 aluminum lower-jaw tags (used only on fish less than 17 inches in length when marked)-10.7 percent; 200 monel upper-jaw tags-14 percent; 162 streamer tags-19.8 percent; and 152 Peterson tags-45.4 percent. Obviously lake trout marked with the Peterson tag, with the discs and ends of the pin projecting from each side near the point of maximum girth, were more vulnerable to the fishery than were fish marked with other tags. The recoveries of marked fish show that Lake Superior lake

  10. Genetic assessment of strain-specific sources of lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Kevin S.; Scribner, Kim T.; Bennett, Kristine R.; Garzel, Laura M.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of wild lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been extirpated from nearly all their historical habitats across the Great Lakes. Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout populations in U.S. waters have emphasized the stocking of coded-wire-tagged juveniles from six hatchery strains (Seneca Lake, Lewis Lake, Green Lake, Apostle Islands, Isle Royale, and Marquette) into vacant habitats. Strain-specific stocking success has historically been based on estimates of the survival and catch rates of coded-wire-tagged adults returning to spawning sites. However, traditional marking methods and estimates of relative strain abundance provide no means of assessing strain fitness (i.e., the realized contributions to natural recruitment) except by assuming that young-of-the-year production is proportional to adult spawner abundance. We used microsatellite genetic data collected from six hatchery strains with likelihood-based individual assignment tests (IA) and mixed-stock analysis (MSA) to identify the strain composition of young of the year recruited each year. We show that strain classifications based on IA and MSA were concordant and that the accuracy of both methods varied based on strain composition. Analyses of young-of-the-year lake trout samples from Little Traverse Bay (Lake Michigan) and Six Fathom Bank (Lake Huron) revealed that strain contributions differed significantly from estimates of the strain composition of adults returning to spawning reefs. The Seneca Lake strain contributed the majority of juveniles produced on Six Fathom Bank and more young of the year than expected within Little Traverse Bay. Microsatellite markers provided a method for accurately classifying the lake trout hatchery strains used for restoration efforts in the Great Lakes and for assessment of strain-specific reproductive success.

  11. Short-duration electrical immobilization of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Gingerich, William H.; Gutreuter, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Chemical anesthetics induce stress responses, and most leave residues in fish tissues that require a certain withdrawal time before the animal can be released into the environment. Therefore, alternatives are needed in cases when fish must be released immediately, for example, during egg-collecting operations or after implanting elastomer tags. To evaluate pulsed direct current as an alternative method of immobilization, individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were electrically immobilized using various pulsed-DC voltage gradients and shock durations. Duration of opercular recovery and narcosis were measured for individual fish. Fish were euthanized 24 h after electrical immobilization and processed for lateral radiograph analysis and assessment of perivertebral hemorrhaging by dissection. Survival of lake trout after electrical immobilization at 0.6 V/cm for 30 or 40 s or 0.8 V/cm for 5 or 15 s was monitored for 81 or 84 d after immobilization. Mean narcosis duration increased with voltage gradient and shock duration. Larger fish had longer periods of narcosis at the same combination of voltage gradient and shock duration. Radiological evaluation indicated that 9 of 28 fish in the oldest age-class tested had detectable injuries of the vertebral column, but all but one were in the lowest injury category. Although vertebral column injuries were observed in most small fish, the majority of vertebral column injuries were minor compressions involving two to seven vertebrae. Of the 82 lake trout electrically immobilized to assess long-term survival, only 5 died (6%). Our data suggest that lake trout could be electrically immobilized for a sufficient period to allow field workers to collect length and weight data and implant visible implant tags or colored elastomer tags. The technique we used, however, is probably not appropriate for procedures that require immobilization for more than 2a??3 min.

  12. Predation by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in southern Lake Ontario, 1982-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, C.P.; Owens, R.W.; Bergstedt, R.A.; O'Gorman, R.

    1996-01-01

    Dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) killed by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) were collected from the bottom of Lake Ontario using bottom trawls. The number of dead lake trout per hectare could be predicted from the number of type A-1 sea lamprey marks observed on live fish in September gillnet surveys (r2 = 0.60, P P > 0.05) from those of live fish with A-1 marks in 5 of 6 years where comparisons could be made. Compared with Lake Superior strain lake trout, Seneca Lake strain fish were only 0.41 times as likely to be attacked by sea lamprey and were less likely to die from an attack (both differences P < 0.05). Conservative estimates of the numbers of lake trout killed by sea lamprey in southern Lake Ontario from October to mid-November ranged from 17 000 in 1988 to 121 000 in 1984.

  13. High levels of MHC class II allelic diversity in lake trout from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorschner, M.O.; Duris, T.; Bronte, C.R.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.; Phillips, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Sequence variation in a 216 bp portion of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II B1 domain was examined in 74 individual lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from different locations in Lake Superior. Forty-three alleles were obtained which encoded 71-72 amino acids of the mature protein. These sequences were compared with previous data obtained from five Pacific salmon species and Atlantic salmon using the same primers. Although all of the lake trout alleles clustered together in the neighbor-joining analysis of amino acid sequences, one amino acid allelic lineage was shared with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a species in another genus which probably diverged from Salvelinus more than 10-20 million years ago. As shown previously in other salmonids, the level of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution (d(N)) exceeded the level of synonymous substitution (d(S)). The level of nucleotide diversity at the MHC class II B1 locus was considerably higher in lake trout than in the Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that lake trout colonized Lake Superior from more than one refuge following the Wisconsin glaciation. Recent population bottlenecks may have reduced nucleotide diversity in Pacific salmon populations.

  14. Contaminant trends in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVault, David S.; Willford, Wayne A.; Hesselberg, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Contaminant body burdens in lake trout from the Upper Great Lakes have been monitored since 1970 on Lake Michigan and since 1977 and 1978 on Lakes Superior and Huron by USEPA, Great Lakes National Program Office and USFWS, Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory. Analysis of the Lake Michigan data shows that mean PCB concentrations declined from a maximum of 22.91 mg/kg in 1974 to 5.63 in 1982. Mean total DDT concentrations declined from 19.19 mg/kg in 1970 to 2.74 mg/kg in 1982. The decline in both contaminants closely followed first order loss kinetics. If the current decline continues, PCB concentrations will decline to the USFDA tolerance of 2.0 mg/kg in 1988. Mean total DDT concentrations will fall to the IJC objective of 1.0 mg/kg by 1991. Mean dieldrin concentrations increased significantly from 0.20 mg/kg in 1971 to 0.58 mg/kg in 1979 before declining to 0.21 mg/kg in 1982. The decline from 1979-1982 followed first order loss kinetics. As this decline is not reflected in other species (bloater chubs, smelt) it will require additional years of monitoring to determine if the decline in dieldrin concentrations between 1979 and 1982 truly represents a declining trend. Contaminants in lake trout from Lake Superior and Lake Huron generally declined over the study period. The only statistically significant trend other than in Lake Michigan was for total DDT which declined significantly in Lake Superior lake trout. Large data variance and the short time frame covered (1977-1982) interfered with detection of trends on Lakes Superior and Huron.

  15. Fleet dynamics of the commercial lake trout fishery in Michigan waters of Lake Superior during 1929-1961

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilberg, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding fishing fleet dynamics is important when using fishery dependent data to infer the status of fish stocks. We analyzed data from mandatory catch reports from the commercial lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) fishery in Michigan waters of Lake Superior during 1929-1961, a period when lake trout populations collapsed through the combined effects of overfishing and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation. The number of full-time fishermen increased during 1933-1943 and then decreased during 1943-1957. Addition of new fishermen was related to past yield, market prices, World War II draft exemptions, and lost fishing opportunities in Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. Loss of existing fishermen was related to declining lake trout density. Large mesh (a?Y 114-mm stretch-measure) gill net effort increased during 1929-1951 because fishermen fished more net inshore as lake trout density declined, even though catch per effort (CPE) was often higher in deeper waters. The most common gill net mesh size increased from 114-mm to 120-mm stretch-measure during 1929-1957, as lake trout growth increased. More effort was fished inshore than offshore and the amount of inshore effort was less variable over time than offshore effort. Relatively stable yield was maintained by increasing gill net effort and by moving some effort to better grounds. Because fishing-up caused yield and CPE to remain high despite declining lake trout abundance, caution must be used when basing goals for lake trout restoration on historical fishery indices.

  16. Evaluation of coded wire tags for marking lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1986-01-01

    Among hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the 1979-1982 year classes stocked in New York waters of Lake Ontario, more than 3 million fish were marked with a coded wire tag (CWT) plus an adipose fin clip, and 1.5 million with only conventional fin clips. Altogether, 7,640 tags were recovered from fish collected with bottom trawls and gill nets or caught by anglers during 1980-1983. One person was able to extract and decipher 200 or more CWTs per day with about a 1% error rate in reading and recording codes. Presence of the CWT did not affect growth. The adipose fin clip did not regenerate. The occurrence of fish with an adipose fin clip but no CWT resulted primarily from the regeneration of paired fins among fish marked with a combination of the adipose fin and a paired fin. Loss of CWTs between marking and stocking (generally 4-5 months for fish stocked in spring and 1-8 d for fish stocked in fall) declined from nearly 11% for the 1979 year class stocked as fall fingerlings to less than 3% for the 1981 and 1982 year classes - a difference that primarily reflected improvements in instrumentation and tagging technique. The rate of CWT loss after the marked fish were stocked was probably less than 1% per year. The CWT is a reliable method for marking hatchery-reared lake trout. A large number of experimental groups can be uniquely marked, and fish from each group can be accurately identified throughout their life. Use of this technique should greatly facilitate evaluations of genetic strain, hatchery experience, condition at time of stocking, season of stocking, size at stocking, method of stocking and other factors that affect poststocking survival and performance of lake trout stocked in the Great Lakes.

  17. Lake trout spawning habitat in the Great Lakes - a review of current knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsden, J. Ellen; Casselman, John M.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Elliott, Robert F.; Fitzsimons, John D.; Horns, William H.; Manny, Bruce A.; McAughey, Scott C.; Sly, Peter G.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    We review existing information on lake trout spawning habitat, which might indicate whether habitat is now a limiting factor in lake trout reproductive success. Lake trout spawning habitat quality is defined by the presence or absence of olfactory cues for homing, reef location with respect to the shoreline, water depth, proximity to nursery areas, reef size, contour, substrate size and shape, depth of interstitial spaces, water temperature at spawning time, water quality in interstitial spaces, and the presence of egg and fry predators. Data on factors which attracted native spawners to spawning reefs are lacking, due to the absence of historic data on egg deposition. No direct evidence of egg deposition has been collected from sites deeper than 18 m. Interstitial space and, therefore, substrate size and shape, appear to be critical for both site selection by adults and protection of eggs and fry. Water quality is clearly important for egg incubation, but the critical parameters which define water quality have not yet been well determined in the field. Exposure to wave energy, dictated in part by reef location, may maintain high water quality but may also damage or dislodge eggs. The importance of olfactory cues, water temperature, and proximity to nursery habitat to spawning trout is unclear. Limited data suggest that egg and fry predators, particularly exotic species, may critically affect fry production and survival. Although availability of physical spawning habitat is probably not limiting lake trout reproduction, changes in water quality and species composition may negatively affect early life stages. This review of habitat factors that affect early life stages of lake trout suggests several priorities for research and management.

  18. Do toxic substances pose a threat to rehabilitation of lake trout in the Great Lakes? A review of the literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zint, Michaela T.; Taylor, William W.; Carl, Leon; Edsall, Carol C.; Heinrich, John; Sippel, Al; Lavis, Dennis; Schaner, Ted

    1995-01-01

    Toxic substances have been suspected of being one of the causes of Great Lakes lake trout reproductive failure. Because toxic substances are present in the Great Lakes basin, managers should be aware of the role of contaminants in preventing lake trout rehabilitation. This paper summarizes studies which have sought to establish a relation between toxic substances and lake trout mortality or morbidity, and offers recommendations for future research and management. The review suggests that exposure to toxic substances has the possibility of affecting the species' rehabilitation. A variety of toxic substances, specifically organochlorine compounds, concentrated in lake trout eggs, fry, and the environment, have affected the hatching success of lake trout in the laboratory, but the strength of the relation between toxic substances and lake trout mortality and morbidity in the field remains unclear. In order to clarify this relation, more information is needed on lake trout physiology, biochemistry, behavior, and genetics. An interdisciplinary workshop should be convened to evaluate existing evidence by epidemiological methods, to set priorities for further research, and to develop management strategies.

  19. Identification of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawning habitat in northern Lake Huron using high-resolution satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Amanda G.; Brooks, Colin N.; Binder, Thomas R.; Riley, Stephen C.; Farha, Steve A.; Shuchman, Robert A.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    The availability and quality of spawning habitat may limit lake trout recovery in the Great Lakes, but little is known about the location and characteristics of current spawning habitats. Current methods used to identify lake trout spawning locations are time- and labor-intensive and spatially limited. Due to the observation that some lake trout spawning sites are relatively clean of overlaying algae compared to areas not used for spawning, we suspected that spawning sites could be identified using satellite imagery. Satellite imagery collected just before and after the spawning season in 2013 was used to assess whether lake trout spawning habitat could be identified based on its spectral characteristics. Results indicated that Pléiades high-resolution multispectral satellite imagery can be successfully used to estimate algal coverage of substrates and temporal changes in algal coverage, and that models developed from processed imagery can be used to identify potential lake trout spawning sites based on comparison of sites where lake trout eggs were and were not observed after spawning. Satellite imagery is a potential new tool for identifying lake trout spawning habitat at large scales in shallow nearshore areas of the Great Lakes.

  20. New insight into the spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from a recovering population in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas R.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Riley, Stephen C.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Bronte, Charles R.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, is poorly understood, relative to stream-dwelling salmonines. Underwater video records of spawning in a recovering population from the Drummond Island Refuge (Lake Huron) represent the first reported direct observations of lake trout spawning in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These observations provide new insight into lake trout spawning behavior and expand the current conceptual model. Lake trout spawning consisted of at least four distinct behaviors: hovering, traveling, sinking, and gamete release. Hovering is a new courtship behavior that has not been previously described. The apparent concentration of hovering near the margin of the spawning grounds suggests that courtship and mate selection might be isolated from the spawning act (i.e., traveling, sinking, and gamete release). Moreover, we interpret jockeying for position displayed by males during traveling as a unique form of male-male competition that likely evolved in concert with the switch from redd-building to itinerant spawning in lake trout. Unlike previous models, which suggested that intra-sexual competition and mate selection do not occur in lake trout, our model includes both and is therefore consistent with evolutionary theory, given that the sex ratio on spawning grounds is skewed heavily towards males. The model presented in this paper is intended as a working hypothesis, and further revision may become necessary as we gain a more complete understanding of lake trout spawning behavior.

  1. Historical evidence for discrete stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H.; Eck, G.W.; Foster, N.R.; Horrall, R.M.; Coberly, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Although few biological data exist on the now extinct native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, of Lake Michigan, historical records and interviews with former commercial fishermen strongly suggest that this once widespread resource was composed of a number of discrete spawning populations or stocks. A natural division of the resource into distinct stocks is consistent with the size of Lake Michigan and its varied physiography. The native trout may have undergone subtle genetic changes over the millennia, although we cannot determine whether the physical and behavioral differences represented different genotypes or only temporary effects of the local environment. Because of physiographic similarities among the upper Great Lakes and probable interchanges of lake trout during the last glacial period, we recommend that progeny of extant wild stocks, particularly from Lake Superior, are genetically most suitable for recolonizing Lake Michigan. Moreover, the hatchery-held parents of such fish should be infused periodically with genes of the wild or feral donor populations. Despite the sound historical basis for these recommendations, we also recognize that sufficiently high stocking rates coupled with a reduction of heavy exploitation may be even more important than heritability in obtaining self-sustaining populations.

  2. Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: an epidemiological approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol C.

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success - egg hatchability and fry survival - were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

  3. Effect of stocking season and technique on survival of lake trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1992-01-01

    To identify the stocking season and technique that resulted in maximum contribution of hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) to the population in Lake Ontario, paired lots of yearlings were stocked near shore in March, near shore in May, and offshore by helicopter in May. All mortality associated with stocking season and technique apparently had occurred by age 2. Therefore, survival comparisons were based on combined recoveries of age-2 and older fish. We found statistically significant differences in survival ratios for 19 of 30 comparisons among individual paired lots, but results were not consistent. Variables other than stocking date and technique apparently had a major influence on survival of lake trout following stocking in Lake Ontario. Predation by large salmonids may have been the the dominant mechanism affecting survival.

  4. Visualizing the geology of lake trout spawning sites, northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Barnes, Peter; Gardner, James V.; Lee, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Geologists and biologists are working together to understand the links between lake floor geology (composition and shape) and the distribution of lake trout throughout their life cycle. Lake floor geology is one of the main factors determining where lake trout spawn, feed, and hide. In support of ongoing research to study Lake Michigan trout habitats, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers mapped the morphology of principle lake trout spawning sites. Using the Army Corps of Engineer's SHOALS airborne lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) system we mapped six regions in Northern Lake Michigan in order to identify ideal spawning regions composed of shallow, clean, gravel/cobble substrate, adjacent to deeper water. Lidar mapping systems, which use laser pulses to measure water depths from an airplane, are now available to map the nearshore lake morphology at meter-scale detail. Maps generated from the bathymetric data are used to define regions with smooth homogeneous substrate, regions with higher relief, and mixed regions with both smooth and rough relief. This morphologic information combined with sediment samples and direct bottom observations enable geologists to map areas with rougher relief composed of rock outcrop, boulders, and cobbles, as well as smooth regions covered with sand or mud. This information helps biologists, fishery managers, and ecologists visualize the lake floor in significant detail which promotes better fishery management, species protection, and habitat identification. These maps present the maps and discuss the geology of the six lake trout spawning sites mapped by the lidar system. Where the mapping approached land, aerial photography of the land is combined with the bathymetric data to help visualize the scale of the offshore features. Map and perspective views of Boulder Reef, Hog Island Reef, and Little Traverse Bay are shown on sheet 1, whereas map and perspective views of Trout and High Island

  5. Visualizing the geology of lake trout spawning sites; northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Barnes, Peter; Gardner, James V.; Lee, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    Geologists and biologists are working together to understand the links between lake floor geology (composition and shape) and the distribution of lake trout throughout their life cycle. Lake floor geology is one of the main factors determining where lake trout spawn, feed, and hide. In support of ongoing research to study Lake Michigan trout habitats, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers mapped the morphology of principle lake trout spawning sites. Using the Army Corps of Engineer's SHOALS airborne lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) system we mapped six regions in Northern Lake Michigan in order to identify ideal spawning regions composed of shallow, clean, gravel/cobble substrate, adjacent to deeper water. Lidar mapping systems, which use laser pulses to measure water depths from an airplane, are now available to map the nearshore lake morphology at meter-scale detail. Maps generated from the bathymetric data are used to define regions with smooth homogeneous substrate, regions with higher relief, and mixed regions with both smooth and rough relief. This morphologic information combined with sediment samples and direct bottom observations enable geologists to map areas with rougher relief composed of rock outcrop, boulders, and cobbles, as well as smooth regions covered with sand or mud. This information helps biologists, fishery managers, and ecologists visualize the lake floor in significant detail which promotes better fishery management, species protection, and habitat identification. These maps present the maps and discuss the geology of the six lake trout spawning sites mapped by the lidar system. Where the mapping approached land, aerial photography of the land is combined with the bathymetric data to help visualize the scale of the offshore features. Map and perspective views of Boulder Reef, Hog Island Reef, and Little Traverse Bay are shown on sheet 1, whereas map and perspective views of Trout and High Island

  6. The relative efficiency of nylon and cotton gill nets for taking lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.

    1962-01-01

    The change from cotton to nylon twine for gill nets in 1949–52 resulted in a sharp increase in the efficiency of the most important gear used for taking lake trout in Lake Superior, and, consequently, biased estimates of fishing intensity and abundance severely.From early May to the end of September 1961, short gangs (2000 or 4000 linear feet) of cotton and nylon nets were fished in parallel sets for lake trout. A total of 343,000 feet of gill netting was lifted. Nylon nets were 2.25 times as efficient as cotton nets for taking legal-sized fish and 2.8 times as efficient for undersized lake trout. The average lengths of legal, undersized, and all lake trout taken in nets of the two materials did not differ greatly. The percentage of the catch which was undersized (less than 1.25 lb, dressed weight) was 20.8 in nylon nets and 17.7 in cotton. The relative efficiency of cotton and nylon nets showed no trend during the season. The efficiency ratio determined in this study was closely similar to that obtained by earlier workers.Correction of estimates of fishing intensity and abundance for the greater efficiency of the nylon nets used since 1951 has not been attempted. The drastic decline of the lake trout fishery has forced fishermen to make changes in fishing practices in the past few years that cause new bias of an unknown extent to estimates of fishing intensity.

  7. Spatiotemporal distribution and population characteristicsof a nonnative lake trout population, with implications for suppression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dux, A.M.; Guy, C.S.; Fredenberg, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution and population characteristics of nonnative lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake McDonald,Glacier National Park,Montana, to provide biological data in support of a potential suppression program. Using ultrasonic telemetry, we identified spatial and temporal distribution patterns by tracking 36 adult lake trout (1,137 relocations). Lake trout rarely occupied depths greater than 30 m and were commonly located in the upper hypolimnion directly below the metalimnion during thermal stratification. After breakdown of themetalimnion in the fall, lake trout primarily aggregated at two spawning sites. Lake trout population characteristics were similar to those of populations within the species' native range. However, lake trout in Lake McDonald exhibited lower total annual mortality (13.2%), latermaturity (age 12 formales, age 15 for females), lower body condition, and slower growth than are typically observed in the southern extent of their range. These results will be useful in determining where to target suppression activities (e.g., gillnetting, trap-netting, or electrofishing) and in evaluating responses to suppression efforts. Similar evaluations of lake trout distribution patterns and population characteristics are recommended to increase the likelihood that suppression programs will succeed. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  8. Investigations into the effects of PCB congeners on reproduction in lake trout from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Eggs of feral lake trout collected in Lake Michigan were reared under laboratory conditions and monitored for egg hatchability, physical abnormalities, and survival of fry. Subsamples of eggs were also analyzed for PCB congeners. A negative correlation was found between egg hatchability and total PCBs but expressing PCB dose as dioxin equivalents did not produce as strong a correlation. No other measure of reproductive success correlated significantly with PCB concentration in the egg.

  9. Seasonal habitat selection by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in a small Canadian shield lake: Constraints imposed by winter conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchfield, P.J.; Tate, L.S.; Plumb, J.M.; Acolas, M.-L.; Beaty, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    The need for cold, well-oxygenated waters significantly reduces the habitat available for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) during stratification of small temperate lakes. We examined the spatial and pelagic distribution of lake trout over two consecutive summers and winters and tested whether winter increased habitat availability and access to littoral regions in a boreal shield lake in which pelagic prey fish are absent. In winter, lake trout had a narrowly defined pelagic distribution that was skewed to the upper 3 m of the water column and spatially situated in the central region of the lake. Individual core areas of use (50% Kernel utilization distributions) in winter were much reduced (75%) and spatially non-overlapping compared to summer areas, but activity levels were similar between seasons. Winter habitat selection is in contrast to observations from the stratified season, when lake trout were consistently located in much deeper waters (>6 m) and widely distributed throughout the lake. Winter distribution of lake trout appeared to be strongly influenced by ambient light levels; snow depth and day length accounted for up to 69% of the variation in daily median fish depth. More restricted habitat use during winter than summer was in contrast to our original prediction and illustrates that a different suite of factors influence lake trout distribution between these seasons. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  10. Ups and Downs of Burbot and their predator Lake Trout in Lake Superior, 1953-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, Owen T.; Sitar, Shawn P.

    2013-01-01

    The fish community of Lake Superior has undergone a spectacular cycle of decline and recovery over the past 60 years. A combination of Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus depredation and commercial overfishing resulted in severe declines in Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush, which served as the primary top predator of the community. Burbot Lota lota populations also declined as a result of Sea Lamprey depredation, largely owing to the loss of adult fish. After Sea Lamprey control measures were instituted in the early 1960s, Burbot populations rebounded rapidly but Lake Trout populations recovered more slowly and recovery was not fully evident until the mid-1980s. As Lake Trout populations recovered, Burbot populations began to decline, and predation on small Burbot was identified as the most likely cause. By 2000, Burbot densities had dropped below their nadir in the early 1960s and have continued to decline, with the densities of juveniles and small adults falling below that of large adults. Although Burbot populations are at record lows in Lake Superior, the density of large reproductive adults remains stable and a large reserve of adult Burbot is present in deep offshore waters. The combination of the Burbot's early maturation, long life span, and high fecundity provides the species with the resiliency to remain a viable member of the Lake Superior fish community into the foreseeable future.

  11. Growth of lake trout in Lake Superior before the maximum abundance of sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahrer, Jerold F.

    1967-01-01

    The growth in length of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the inshore water of Lake Superior in 1953 increased with age from the 3rd to 9th year, and was nearly constant from the 9th to the 12th year. Growth was greatest in the 1st year (4.0 inches) and least in the 2nd and 3rd years (2.3 inches). Between the 4th and 9th years the increments increased from 2.6 to 3.5 inches. Growth was calculated from a curvilinear body-scale relation. Intraseasonal growth in length extended from late April until well after October; most growth was in late summer and fall. The younger fish started growth earlier, and some mature fish did not increase in length until after the October spawning. Lake trout reached the minimum legal weight (1.5 pounds) in the 7th year of life and the average size taken in the commercial fishery (about 3 pounds) in the 8th year. The annual increase in weight in the 8th year of life was over 64%. Fish used in this study grew more slowly than those from Lakes Michigan and Huron taken during the period when sea lamprey abundance was increasing, but at about the same rate as lake trout of Lake Michigan before the sea lamprey appeared.

  12. Introduction to the Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Restoration of Lake Trout in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) restoration in the Great Lakes began in the 1950s when stocking of artificially propagated lake trout was coupled with the first attempts at sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control. A major milestone in the restoration process was recorded when a selective sea lamprey larvicide was identified in 1958 (Applegate et al. 1958) and then applied broad scale in Lake Superior in 1958-60 (Applegate et al. 1961). Other milestones include the expansion of the sea lamprey control programs into Lakes Michigan and Huron in 1960 (sustained usage in Lake Huron began in 1966, Smith and Tibbles 1980), Lake Ontario in 1971-72 (Elrod et al. 1995), and Lake Erie in 1986 (Cornelius et al. 1995). Following the collapse of lake trout in the Great Lakes and the implementation of massive stocking of hatchery-reared fish and effective sea lamprey control, the first documented evidence of nearshore natural reproduction of lake trout was in Lake Superior in 1965 (Dryer and King 1968), in Lake Michigan in 1980 (Jude et al. 1981), in Lake Huron in 1981-82 (Nester and Poe 1984), and in Lake Ontario in 1986 (Marsden et al. 1988).

  13. Life history differences between fat and lean morphs of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) in Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history characteristics (size, age, plumpness, buoyancy, survival, growth, and maturity) were compared between fat and lean morphs of lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in Great Slave Lake, Canada, to determine if differences may reflect effects of resource polymorphism. Lake charr were sampled using graded-mesh gill nets set in three depth strata. Of 236 lake charr captured, 122 were a fat morph and 114 were a lean morph. Males and females did not differ from each other in any attributes for either fat or lean morphs. The fat morph averaged 15 mm longer, 481 g heavier, and 4.7 years older than the lean morph. The fat morph averaged 26% heavier and 48% more buoyant at length than the lean morph. Survival of the fat morph was 1.7% higher than that of the lean morph. The fat morph grew at a slower annual rate to a shorter asymptotic length than the lean morph. Fat and lean morphs matured at similar lengths and ages. We concluded that the connection between resource polymorphism and life histories in lean versus fat lake charr suggests that morph-specific restoration objectives may be needed in lakes where lake charr diversity is considered to be a restoration goal.

  14. Changes in the lake trout population of southern Lake Superior in relation to the fishery, the sea lamprey, and stocking, 1950-70

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.; King, George R.

    1975-01-01

    Reduction of sea lamprey abundance resulted in an immediate increase in survival and abundance of lake trout, especially of the larger sizes. As abundance of lake trout progressively increased in 1962-70, survival of the smaller legal-size lake trout increased, probably due to reduction of the predator-prey ratio and an increase in availability of larger lake trout preferred by sea lampreys. Abundance of spawning-size lake trout was limited by high natural mortality in 1965-70. Circumstantial evidence suggested that sea lamprey predation contributed a major part of the high natural mortality.

  15. Growth and survival of stocked lake trout with nuclear cataracts in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Elrod, Joseph H.

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of yearling lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the 1985 and 1986 year-classes at the Allegheny National Fish Hatchery were evaluated for nuclear cataracts prior to stocking in Lake Ontario in June 1986 and 1987. Lake trout recaptured by bottom trawling from April to August 1987 and 1988 were examined for cataracts. Cataract frequencies in three strains of yearling lake trout at stocking in 1986 and after 14 and 26 months in the lake were: Seneca Lake–35, 24, and 29%; Lake Ontario–32,24, and 42%; and Lake Superior–7,4, and 6%. Cataract frequencies for yearlings at stocking in 1987 and after 2 and 14 months were: Seneca Lake–51, 37, and 51 %; Lake Superior–7,12, and 12%; and Jenny Lake–46,13, and 36%. Cataract frequency was lower (P < 0.05) at capture in three of the six groups recaptured in 1987 and in two of the six groups in 1988. Fish with cataracts in the 1987 recovery had survival ratios of 17–186% after 2 months in the lake and 48–67% after 14 months, compared with normal-eyed fish of the same strain. Nuclear cataract frequency was relatively stable after the first year of lake residency, when equilibrium was achieved between the increased mortality of cataract phenotypes and the rate of cataract development in normal-eyed phenotypes. Within groups, weight and length were not different between healthy fish and fish with cataracts. The absence of growth depression in fish with cataracts and the reduced survival rate suggested that faster growing fish were more susceptible to cataract formation.

  16. Population dynamics of Lake Ontario lake trout during 1985-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenden, Travis O.; Bence, James R.; Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Schaner, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were extirpated from Lake Ontario circa 1950 owing to commercial and recreational fishing, predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, and habitat degradation. Since the 1970s, substantial efforts have been devoted to reestablishing a self-sustaining population through stocking, sea lamprey control, and harvest reduction. Although a stocking-supported population has been established, only limited natural reproduction has been detected. Since the 1990s, surveys have indicated a continuing decline in overall abundance despite fairly static stocking levels. We constructed a statistical catch-at-age model to describe the dynamics of Lake Ontario lake trout from 1985 to 2007 and explore what factor(s) could be causing the declines in abundance. Model estimates indicated that abundance had declined by approximately 76% since 1985. The factor that appeared most responsible for this was an increase in age-1 natural mortality rates from approximately 0.9 to 2.5 between 1985 and 2002. The largest source of mortality for age-2 and older fish was sea lamprey predation, followed by natural and recreational fishing mortality. Exploitation was low, harvest levels being uncertain and categorized by length rather than age. Accurate predictions of fishery harvest and survey catch per unit effort were obtained despite low harvest levels by using atypical data (e.g., numbers stocked as an absolute measure of recruitment) and a flexible modeling approach. Flexible approaches such as this might allow similar assessments for a wide range of lightly exploited stocks. The mechanisms responsible for declining age-1 lake trout survival are unknown, but the declines were coincident with an increase in the proportion of stocked fish that were of the Seneca strain and a decrease in the overall stocking rate. It is possible that earlier studies suggesting that Seneca strain lake trout would be successful in Lake Ontario are no longer applicable given the large

  17. Reestablishing a spawning population of lake trout in Lake Superior with fertilized eggs in artificial turf incubators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    Fertilized eggs from lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were placed in artificial turf incubators and deployed on Devils Island Shoal, Lake Superior, in an attempt to reestablish a spawning population on this once important spawning area. Efficacy was measured by the changes in catch rates, age composition, and origin of adult lake trout returning to the shoal in the fall in subsequent years. The abundance of lake trout spawners without fin clips, which implies that these fish hatched in the lake, increased throughout the sampling period, whereas the abundance of hatchery-reared fish (indicated by one or more fin clips) stocked for restoration purposes remained low. Year-class-specific stock-recruitment analysis suggested that the recruitment of unclipped spawners was related to the number of eggs planted in previous years rather than to spawning by the few adult lake trout visiting the reef. Increases in adult fish at Devils Island Shoal were independent of trends at adjacent sites, where unclipped spawner abundances remained low. Enhanced survival to hatch and apparent site imprinting of young lake trout make this technique a viable alternative to stocking fingerling and yearling lake trout to reestablish spawning populations on specific sites in the Great Lakes.

  18. Vateritic sagitta in wild and stocked lake trout: Applicability to stock origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Charles A.; Bronte, Charles R.; Argyle, Ray L.; Adams, Jean V.; Johnson, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Aragonite is the normal form of calcium carbonate found in teleost otoliths, but it is sometimes replaced by vaterite, an alternate crystalline structure. We investigated the assumption that sagittal otoliths with vaterite replacement were unique to stocked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Earlier studies had attributed these abnormalities to stocking stress, and proposed that the presence of vaterite could separate individual unmarked stocked lake trout from their wild counterparts. We examined and described the frequency of vateritic sagittae in two wild and three stocked populations of lake trout from the Great Lakes and a wild population from a remote inland lake in northern Canada. Among lake trout caught 2–12 years after being stocked, prevalence of vateritic sagittae was 66% for Lake Superior fish, 75% for Lake Huron fish, and 86% for Lake Ontario fish. Among wild fish caught, vateritic sagittae were present in 37% of Lake Superior fish, 22% of Lake Huron fish, and 49% of northern Canada fish. We also compared year-to-year differences in prevalence in four year-classes of fingerling lake trout reared in two U.S. national lake trout hatcheries. Prior to release, between 53 and 84% of the hatchery fish had at least one vateritic sagitta, and prevalence increased with handling associated with hatchery practices. Vateritic sagittae in wild fish might also indicate stress in nature. The presence of vateritic sagittae in both wild and stocked fish compromises the use of this characteristic as an unequivocal indicator of a particular fish's origin. Among-population differences in both the prevalence and the extent of vaterite replacement, however, may provide a means of differentiating between stocks of sympatric unmarked wild and stocked lake trout.

  19. Successional change in the Lake Superior fish community: population trends in ciscoes, rainbow smelt, and lake trout, 1958-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community underwent massive changes in the second half of the 20th century. Those changes are largely reflected in changes in abundance of the adults of principal prey species, the ciscoes (Coregonus spp.), the invasive rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and the principal predator, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). To better understand changes in species abundances, a comprehensive series of gillnet and bottom trawl data collected from 1958 to 2008 were examined. In the late 1950s/early 1960s, smelt abundance was at its maximum, wild lake trout was at its minimum, and an abundance of hatchery lake trout was increasing rapidly. The bloater (Coregonus hoyi) was the prevalent cisco in the lake; abundance was more than 300% greater than the next most abundant cisco, shortjaw cisco (C. zenithicus), followed by kiyi (C. kiyi) and lake cisco (C. artedi). By the mid-1960s, abundance of hatchery lake trout was nearing maximum, smelt abundance was beginning to decline, and abundances of all ciscoes declined, but especially that of shortjaw cisco and kiyi. By the late 1970s, recovery of wild lake trout stocks was well underway and abundances of hatchery lake trout and smelt were declining and the ciscoes were reaching their nadir. During 1980–1990, the fish community underwent a dramatic shift in organization and structure. The rapid increase in abundance of wild lake trout, concurrent with a rapid decline in hatchery lake trout, signaled the impending recovery. Rainbow smelt abundance dropped precipitously and within four years, lake cisco and bloater populations rebounded on the heels of a series of strong recruitment events. Kiyi populations showed signs of recovery by 1989, and shortjaw by 2000, though well below historic maximum abundances. High abundance of adult smelt prior to 1980 appears to be the only factor linked to recruitment failure in the ciscoes. Life history traits of the cisco species were examined to better understand their different

  20. Contrasting PCB bioaccumulation patterns among Lake Huron lake trout reflect basin-specific ecology.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Gordon; Ryder, Mark; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This study collected multiple age classes of lake trout from Lake Huron's Main Basin, Georgian Bay, and North Channel regions to compare and contrast top predator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation patterns in separate compartments of the same ecosystem. Sum PCB concentrations were highest for Main Basin (260 ± 24.9 ng g(-1) wet wt) fish, followed by Georgian Bay (74.6 ± 16.2 ng g(-1) ) and North Channel (42.0 ± 3.3 ng g(-1)) fish. Discriminant functions analysis of lake trout PCB profiles and stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope values clearly distinguished fish by location, indicating high degrees of basin fidelity throughout their lifetimes in addition to highly contrasting PCB bioaccumulation profiles. These unique profiles were not attributable to significant differences in lake trout lipid contents (p = 0.856) or trophic position (δ(15)N; p = 0.334), with rainbow smelt representing the primary prey across the basins. Furthermore, significant differences were observed among the basins for the relationships between PCB biomagnification factors and hydrophobicity. An empirical model for predicting PCB biomagnification in Lake Huron lake trout indicated that basin-specific population growth rates and prey abundances were significant for explaining these contrasting patterns of PCB bioaccumulation. The results of the present study are fundamental for understanding the role of ecology in legacy persistent organic pollutant (POP) bioaccumulation. Specifically, ecosystem characteristics such as prey abundances, foraging ecology, and ultimately consumer growth can regulate the variability of legacy POP bioaccumulation as observed within and among a wide range of freshwater ecosystems.

  1. Dispersal of three strains of hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of dispersal and resultant geographical distributions were determined for three strains of hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocked at six sites in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario. The strains were Lake Superior (SUP); Clearwater Lake, Manitoba (CWL); and Seneca Lake, New York (SEN). The fish were recovered with bottom trawls fished during July and August 1980-1985 at 16 locations, extending from Toronto southward and eastward along the south shore to Dablon Point at the east end of the lake. For SUP fish stocked as spring yearlings, the mean distances from stocking site to capture location 2, 14, and 26 months after stocking were 12, 57, and 62 km, respectively, for fish released at four south-shore sites and 5, 34, and 38 km for fish released at two eastern outlet basin sites. Rates of dispersal for the CWL fish were similar to those of the SUP strain for fish stocked at the four south-shore sites, but were considerably less for fish stocked in the eastern outlet basin. The SEN strain was stocked only in the eastern outlet basin; their dispersal was similar to that of the SUP strain. For fish of the same age, SUP fish stocked as fall fingerlings became more widely dispersed than those stocked as spring yearlings. Movement of lake trout between the eastern outlet basin and the lake proper was limited. Large numbers of fish were captured on the Niagara Bar, but few moved past there into the west end of the lake. Movements of lake trout from stocking sites were generally with the prevailing currents. Differences between geographical distributions of the SUP and CWL strains were probably due to the influence of different current regimes at the depths they occupied. These results will be useful in selecting the best genetic strains of lake trout for rehabilitating the species in Lake Ontario, as well as for identifying the best stocking sizes and maximizing post-stocking survival of hatchery-reared fish.

  2. Population recovery and natural recruitment of lake trout at Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior, 1964-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    We documented an increase in the abundance of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior and examined the relationship between parental-stock size and recruitment of age-0 fish in 1964–1992. Abundance of adult wild female lake trout and densities of age-0 fish both increased during the 28-year period. A significant positive, linear relationship (P = 0.0002) was found between the abundance of wild females on the spawning reef in the fall and density of age-0 lake trout on adjacent nursery grounds in August and September of the following year. The abundance of hatchery-origin females did not explain significant amounts (P = 0.107) of variation in recruitment. We concluded that most recruitment in 1965–1992 was the result of natural reproduction of wild females. After 28 years of recovery the Gull Island Shoal lake trout population appears to have additional capacity to increase because the stock-recruitment relationship is still linear. Therefore, restoration periods on the order of 30 years may be needed for other lake trout populations in the Great Lakes. We recommend that the refuge established to protect this population be maintained to allow further study of the relationship between parental stock and recruitment, and to provide a major source of recruitment to the lake trout population in the surrounding waters

  3. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  4. Interactions between introduced trout and larval salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in high-elevation lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyler, T.; Liss, W.J.; Ganio, L.; Larson, Gary L.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Deimling, E.; Lomnicky, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The larval stage of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) is the top vertebrate predator in high-elevation fishless lakes in the North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington (U.S.A.). Although most of these high-elevation lakes were naturally fishless, trout have been stocked in many of them. We sought to determine the effects of physicochemical factors and introduced trout on abundance and behavior of A. macrodactylum larvae. Larval salamander densities were estimated by snorkeling. Snorkelers carefully searched through substrate materials within 2 m of the shoreline and recorded the number of larvae observed and if larvae were hidden in benthic substrates. Physicochemical factors were measured in each lake on the same day that snorkel surveys were conducted. In fishless lakes, larval salamander densities were positively related to total Kjeldahl-N concentration and negatively related to lake elevation. Crustacean zooplankton, especially cladocerans, were important food resources for larval A. macrodactylum. Crustacean zooplankton and cladoceran densities were positively related to total Kjeldahl-N, suggesting that increased food resources contributed to increased densities of larval A. macrodactylum. Differences in larval salamander densities between fish and fishless lakes were related to total Kjeldahl-N concentrations and the reproductive status of trout. Mean larval salamander densities for fishless lakes with total Kjeldahl-N < 0.045 mg/L were not significantly different from mean larval densities in lakes with reproducing trout or in lakes with nonreproducing trout. In fishless lakes with total Kjeldahl-N a?Y 0.045 mg/L, however, mean larval densities were significantly higher than in lakes with reproducing trout where fish reached high densities. In fishless lakes with total Kjeldahl-N a?Y 0.095 mg/L, mean larval densities were significantly higher than in lakes with nonreproducing trout where trout fry were stocked at low

  5. Spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas; Riley, Stephen C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hansen, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity to high-quality spawning sites helps ensure that adults repeatedly spawn at sites that maximize reproductive success. Fidelity is also an important behavioural characteristic to consider when hatchery-reared individuals are stocked for species restoration, because artificial rearing environments may interfere with cues that guide appropriate spawning site selection. Acoustic telemetry was used in conjunction with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to compare degree of spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron. Annual survival was estimated to be between 77% and 81% and did not differ among wild and hatchery males and females. Site fidelity estimates were high in both wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (ranging from 0.78 to 0.94, depending on group and time filter), but were slightly lower in hatchery-reared fish than in wild fish. The ecological implication of the small difference in site fidelity between wild and hatchery-reared lake trout is unclear, but similarities in estimates suggest that many hatchery-reared fish use similar spawning sites to wild fish and that most return to those sites annually for spawning.

  6. Comparison of catch and lake trout bycatch in commercial trap nets and gill nets targeting lake whitefish in northern Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James E.; Ebener, Mark P.; Gebhardt, Kenneth; Bergstedt, Roger

    2004-01-01

    We compared seasonal lake whitefish catch rates, lake trout bycatch, and gearinduced lake trout mortality between commercial trap nets and gill nets in north-central Lake Huron. Onboard monitors recorded catches from 260 gill net and 96 trap net lifts from October 1998 through December 1999. Catch rates for lake whitefish were highest in fall for both gear types, reflecting proximity of spawning sites to the study area. Lake whitefish catch rates were also relatively high in spring but low in both gear types in summer. Lake trout were the principal bycatch species in both gears. The lake trout bycatch was lowest in both gear types in fall, highest in gill nets in spring, and highest in trap nets in summer. The ratio of lake trout to legal whitefish (the target species) was highest in summer and lowest in fall in both gear types. The high lake trout ratio in summer was due principally to low catch rates of lake whitefish. All but 3 of 186 live lake trout removed from trap net pots survived for at least two days of observation in laboratory tanks. Therefore, we estimated that post-release survival of trap netted lake trout that had not been entangled in the mesh was 98.4%. In addition, we accounted for stress-induced mortality for lake trout that were live at capture but entangled in the mesh of either gear type. Resulting estimates of lake trout survival were higher in trap nets (87.8%) than in gill nets (39.6%). The number of lake trout killed per lift was highest during summer in trap nets and during spring in gill nets. In trap nets, 85% of dead lake trout were observed to be entangled in the mesh of the pot or tunnels. Survival rates of lake trout in gill nets were higher in our study than reported by others, probably because our nets were hand lifted in a small boat. Our trap net-induced mortality estimates on lake trout were higher than those reported by others because we adjusted our estimates to account for post-release mortality caused by handling and

  7. Comparative susceptibility of Atlantic salmon, lake trout and rainbow trout to Myxobolus cerebralis in controlled laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Densmore, Christine L.; Schill, W.B.; Cartwright, Deborah D.; Page, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, was compared in controlled laboratory exposures. A total of 450 (225 for each dose) fry for each species were exposed to a low (200 spores per fish) or high (2000 spores per fish) dose of the infective triactinomyxon. At 22 wk post-exposure, 60 fish from each group, as well as controls for each species, were examined for clinical signs (whirling behavior, blacktail, deformed heads and skeletal deformities), microscopic lesions, and presence of spores. Rainbow trout were highly susceptible to infection, with 100% being positive for spores and with microscopic pathological changes in both exposure groups. Rainbow trout were the only species to show whirling behavior and blacktail. Atlantic salmon were less susceptible, with only 44 and 61% being positive for spores, respectively, in the low and high dose groups, while 68 and 75%, respectively, had microscopic pathology associated with cartilage damage. Rainbow trout heads contained mean spore concentrations of 2.2 (low dose) or 4.0 (high dose) ?? 106 spores g tissue-1. The means for positive Atlantic salmon (not including zero values) were 1.7 (low) and 7.4 (high) ?? 104 spores g tissue-1. Lake trout showed no clinical signs of infection, were negative for spores in both groups and showed no histopathological signs of M. cerebralis infection.

  8. Lake trout status in the main basin of Lake Huron, 1973-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    He, Ji X.; Ebener, Mark P.; Riley, Stephen C.; Cottrill, Adam; Kowalski, Adam; Koproski, Scott; Mohr, Lloyd; Johnson, James E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed indices of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush status in the main basin of Lake Huron (1973-2010) to understand increases in the relative abundance of wild year-classes during 1995-2010. Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus wounds per 100 lake trout declined from 23.63 in 2000 to 5.86-10.64 in 2002-2010. The average age-7 lake trout catch per effort per recruitment (CPE/R; fish•305mof gill net-1•million stocked yearlings-1) increased from 0.56 for the 1973-1990 year-classes to 0.92 for the 1991-2001 year-classes. Total CPE (fish/305 m of gill net) declined from 16.4 fish in 1996 to 4.1 fish in 2010, but the percentage of age-5 and younger lake trout steadily decreased from more than 70% before 1996 to less than 10% by 2009. The modal age in gill-net catches increased from age 5 before 1996 to age 7 by 2005. The average adult CPE increased from 2.8 fish/305 m of gill net during 1978-1995 to 5.34 fish/305 m of gill net during 1996-2010. The 1995-2010 year-classes of wild fish weremore abundant than previous year-classes and were associated with the relatively high adult abundance during 1996-2010. Until the 2002 year-class, there was no decline in age-7 CPE/R; until 2008, there was no decline in adult CPE. Low survival of the 2002 and 2003 year-classes of stocked fish was related to the event of alewife Alosa pseudoharengus population collapse in 2003-2004. Lake trout in the main basin of Lake Huron are undergoing a transition from a hatchery stock to a wild stock, accompanied by an increased uncertainty in delayed recruitment. Future management should pay more attention to the protection of wild recruitment and the abundance of the spawning stock.

  9. Heritage strain and diet of wild young of year and yearling lake trout in the main basin of Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, E.F.; Stott, W.; O'Brien, T. P.; Riley, S.C.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush stocks in Lake Huron is a fish community objective developed to promote sustainable fish communities in the lake. Between 1985 and 2004, 12.65 million lake trout were stocked into Lake Huron representing eight different genetic strains. Collections of bona fide wild fish in USGS surveys have increased in recent years and this study examined the ancestry and diet of fish collected between 2004 and 2006 to explore the ecological role they occupy in Lake Huron. Analysis of microsatellite DNA revealed that both pure strain and inter-strain hybrids were observed, and the majority of fish were classified as Seneca Lake strain or Seneca Lake hybrids. Diets of 50 wild age-0 lake trout were examined. Mysis, chironomids, and zooplankton were common prey items of wild age-0 lake trout. These results indicate that stocked fish are successfully reproducing in Lake Huron indicating a level of restoration success. However, continued changes to the benthic macroinvertebrate community, particularly declines of Mysis, may limit growth and survival of wild fish and hinder restoration efforts.

  10. Post Audit of Lake Michigan Lake Trout PCB Model Forecasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  11. Trophic transfer efficiency of DDT to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the efficiency with which lake trout retain DDT from their natural food. Our estimate of DDT assimilation efficiency would represent the most realistic estimate, to date, for use in risk assessment models.

  12. Lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes: stock-size criteria for natural reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Brown, Edward H.; Hansen, Michael J.; Holey, Mark E.; VanAmberg, Jan P.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Makauskas, Daniel B.; Mckee, Patrick; Anderson, David M.; Ferreri, C. Paola; Schram, Stephen T.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the question of whether the lake trout restoration program in the Great Lakes has developed brood stocks of adequate size to sustain natural reproduction. Stock size criteria were developed from areas of the Great Lakes where natural reproduction has been successful (defined as detection of age-1 or older recruits by assessment fishing). We contrasted them with stocks in areas with no natural reproduction. Based on the relative abundance of spawners measured in the fall and the presence or absence of natural reproduction in 24 areas of the Great Lakes, we found three distinct sets of lake trout populations. In seven areas of successful natural reproduction, the catch-per-unit-effort (CPE) of spawners ranged from 17 to 135 fish/305 m of gillnet. Stock sizes in these areas were used as a gauge against which stocks in other areas were contrasted. We conclude that stock densities of 17-135 fish/305 m of gill net are adequate for natural reproduction, provided that all other requirements are met. No natural reproduction has been detected in seven other areas, where CPEs of spawners ranged from only 3 to 5 fish/305 m. We conclude that spawning stocks of only 3-5 fish/305 m of net are inadequate to develop measurable natural reproduction. Natural reproduction has also not been detected in ten areas where CPEs of spawners ranged from 43 to 195 fish/305 m of net. We conclude that spawning stocks in these ten areas were adequate to sustain natural reproduction, but that some factor other than parental stock size prevented recruitment of wild lake trout.

  13. Estimates of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) diet in Lake Ontario using two and three isotope mixing models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colborne, Scott F.; Rush, Scott A.; Paterson, Gordon; Johnson, Timothy B.; Lantry, Brian F.; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent development of multi-dimensional stable isotope models for estimating both foraging patterns and niches have presented the analytical tools to further assess the food webs of freshwater populations. One approach to refine predictions from these analyses is to include a third isotope to the more common two-isotope carbon and nitrogen mixing models to increase the power to resolve different prey sources. We compared predictions made with two-isotope carbon and nitrogen mixing models and three-isotope models that also included sulphur (δ34S) for the diets of Lake Ontario lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). We determined the isotopic compositions of lake trout and potential prey fishes sampled from Lake Ontario and then used quantitative estimates of resource use generated by two- and three-isotope Bayesian mixing models (SIAR) to infer feeding patterns of lake trout. Both two- and three-isotope models indicated that alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) were the primary prey items, but the three-isotope models were more consistent with recent measures of prey fish abundances and lake trout diets. The lake trout sampled directly from the hatcheries had isotopic compositions derived from the hatchery food which were distinctively different from those derived from the natural prey sources. Those hatchery signals were retained for months after release, raising the possibility to distinguish hatchery-reared yearlings and similarly sized naturally reproduced lake trout based on isotopic compositions. Addition of a third-isotope resulted in mixing model results that confirmed round goby have become an important component of lake trout diet and may be overtaking alewife as a prey resource.

  14. Effects of the wildfire on growth of cutthroat trout in Yellowstone Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gresswell, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses the effects of wildfire on the growth of cutthroat trout in Yellowstone Lake. Trends in year-to-year variation in growth for individual age groups and 25 mm length groups of cutthroat trout in Yellowstone Lake were examined in an attempt to detect shifts in growth patterns associated with the fires. Approximately 100,000 ha of the Yellowstone Lake watershed burned between early July and late August 1988 and the majority of area burned was in the southern part of the drainage, including the Yellowstone River, the largest tributary to the lake. Pelican Creek, the second largest tributary to the lake, was the only major tributary entering the lake from the north that was affected by the fire. In order to aid interpretation of trends through time, relative growth rates of cutthroat trout in individual age and length groups were evaluated using linear regression.

  15. Performance of temperature and dissolved oxygen criteria to predict habitat use by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, J.M.; Blanchfield, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared theoretical habitat volumes, determined from traditional combinations of temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) boundaries, with in situ habitat use by acoustically tagged lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). The widely used criteria of 8-12 ??C underestimated lake trout habitat use by 68%-80%. Instead, combined temperature (<12 or 15 ??C) and DO (>4 or 6 mg??L-1) criteria most closely matched lake trout habitat use, had a similar seasonal trend as the tagged fish, suggested modest reductions (5% of total lake volume) in habitat during a warmer year, and performed best when the constraints of temperature and DO were most limiting. All data were collected in a small boreal shield lake (27 ha, zmax = 21 m) at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, during two contrasting periods of thermal stratification (2003: warmer and longer; 2004: cooler and shorter), providing an assessment of observed and theoretical habitat volumes over current environmental extremes.

  16. Increase in lake trout reproduction in lake huron following the collapse of alewife: Relief from thiamine deficiency or larval predation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzsimons, J.D.; Brown, S.; Brown, L.; Honeyfield, D.; He, J.; Johnson, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the Great Lakes there is still uncertainty as to the population level effects of a thiamine deficiency on salmonines caused by high consumption of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus. A resurgence of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush reproduction in Lake Huron following the crash of alewife stocks between 2002 and 2004 provided an opportunity to evaluate the relative effects of this crash on reproduction through relief from either alewife mediated thiamine deficiency or alewife predation on larval lake trout relative to possible changes in the size of the lake trout spawning stock. Changes in mean lake trout egg thiamine concentration post crash at one spawning reef in Parry Sound, wheremean thiamine concentration increased by almost two fold, were consistent with diet switching from alewives to rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, the next most abundant prey fish in Lake Huron. Although thiamine levels for lake trout collected at a second reef in Parry Sound did not change post-crash, levels both pre- and post-crash were consistent with a rainbow smelt diet. A reef specific fry emergence index was found to be positively related to reef specific egg thiamine concentration but negatively related to reef specific occurrence of EMS, a thiamine deficiency related mortality syndrome. We found little evidence for overlap between the timing of spring shoreward migration of alewives and lake trout emergence, suggesting that relief from alewife predation effects had relatively little effect on the observed increase in lake trout recruitment. Numbers of spawners in the north, north-central, and southern zones of the lake increased from 2000 onwards. Overall the abundance post-2003 was higher than from pre-2004, suggesting that spawner abundance may also have contributed to increased lake trout reproduction. However, predicted numbers of spawners and measured abundance of wild recruits in assessment gear were poorly correlated suggesting that the increase in reproduction was not totally

  17. Laboratory Estimation of Net Trophic Transfer Efficiencies of PCB Congeners to Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Its Prey

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination. PMID:25226430

  18. Laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiencies of PCB congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): turning the corner in Great Lakes trout 1980-2009.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Bernard S; Pagano, James J; Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Milligan, Michael S; Holsen, Thomas M

    2012-09-18

    Lake trout and walleye composites were collected between 2004 and 2009 as part of the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program (GLFMSP) and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Yearly mean total PBDE concentrations (sum of congeners BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154) ranged from 44-192, 28-113, 50-107, 37-111, and 11-22 ng/g wet wt. for Lakes Michigan, Huron, Ontario, and Superior lake trout, and Lake Erie walleye, respectively. A 1980-2009 temporal record of PBDE concentrations in the Great Lakes' top predator fish (lake trout and walleye) was assembled by integrating previous GLFMSP data (1980-2003) with current results (2004-2009). Temporal profiles show obvious breakpoints between periods of PBDE accumulation and decline in trout for Lakes Huron, Michigan and Ontario with a significant (p < 0.0001 and r = 0.55, 0.72, and 0.51, respectively) decrease in concentration after 2000-2001. A similar transition was observed in Lake Superior for the nearshore site accompanied by a less significant decreasing trend (p = 0.016, r = 0.33), suggesting concentrations are declining very slowly or have leveled off. In contrast, Lake Erie walleye concentrations began leveling off in the late 1990s and no statistically significant trend (increasing or decreasing) has been observed in recent years. A decrease in the BDE-47/BDE-153 ratio was also recently observed, suggesting a transition to more highly brominated PBDEs is occurring in Great Lakes trout. This study provides region-wide evidence that PBDE concentrations are generally declining in Great Lakes trout, although there are clear exceptions to this trend. Results from this study reflect the positive impact of the 2004 PentaBDE ban on macro-scale aquatic freshwater ecosystems.

  20. Sea lamprey mark type, wounding rate, and parasite-host preference and abundance relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  1. DECLINE AND EXTINCTION OF LAKE TROUT IN THE GREAT LAKES: CAN BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS HELP DIAGNOSE CAUSES, IDENTIFY REMEDIAL ACTIONS, AND PREDICT FUTURE CONDITIONS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, is the predominant top predator native fish species of the Great Lakes. Lake trout are valued for commercial and recreational use in addition to their ecological importance. In the last half of the 20th century, population declines lead to vi...

  2. Evaluation of angler effort and harvest of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Lake Scanewa, Washington, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    A creel evaluation was conducted in Lake Scanewa, a reservoir on the Cowlitz River, to monitor catch rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and determine if the trout fishery was having negative impacts on juvenile anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the system. The trout fishery, which is supported by releases of 20,000 fish (2 fish per pound) per year from June to August, was developed to mitigate for the construction of the Cowlitz Falls Dam in 1994. The trout fishery has a target catch rate of at least 0.50 fish per hour. Interviews with 1,214 anglers during the creel evaluation found that most anglers targeted rainbow trout (52 percent) or Chinook and coho salmon (48 percent). The interviewed anglers caught a total of 1,866 fish, most of which were rainbow trout (1,213 fish; 78 percent) or coho salmon (311 fish; 20 percent). We estimated that anglers spent 17,365 hours fishing in Lake Scanewa from June to November 2010. Catch rates for boat anglers (1.39 fish per hour) exceeded the 0.50 fish per hour target, whereas catch rates for shore anglers (0.35 fish per hour) fell short of the goal. The combined catch rates for all trout anglers in the reservoir were 0.96 fish per hour. We estimated that anglers harvested 7,584 (95 percent confidence interval = 2,795-12,372 fish) rainbow trout during the study period and boat anglers caught more fish than shore anglers (5,975 and 1,609 fish, respectively). This estimate suggests that more than 12,000 of the 20,000 rainbow trout released into Lake Scanewa during 2010 were not harvested, and could negatively impact juvenile salmon in the reservoir through predation or competition. We examined 1,236 stomach samples from rainbow trout and found that 2.1 percent (26 fish) of these samples contained juvenile fish. Large trout (greater than 300 millimeters) had a higher incidence of predation than small trout (less than 300 millimeters; 8.50 and 0.06 percent, respectively). A total of 39 fish were found in rainbow

  3. Influence of PCBs in water on uptake and elimination of DDT and DDE by lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hesselberg, Robert J.; Nicholson, Lawrence W.

    1981-01-01

    Researchers predicted that several hundred years would be required before DDT (1,1,1 trichloro-2,2-bis [P-chlorophyl] ethane) and its metabolites were likely to decrease to nondetectable levels in Lake Michigan. But following the ban on DDT in 1970, residues of total DDT in Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) declined rapidly from 10.5µg/g in 1970 to 5.7 µg/g in 1976. During this period, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were being detected in lake trout tissues at about 20 µg/g. It was hypothesized that the high level of PCBs being accumulated by fish may have influenced uptake and elimination of DDT and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis [p-chlorophenyl] ethylene) by fish. To test this hyphophesis, fingeriing lake trout were exposed to various combinations of DDT, DDE (100 ng/liter), and PCBs (100 and 500 ng/liter) in water for 12 weeks. After DDT and DDe exposures were completed, exposure to PCBs was continued for an additional 16 weeks to measure any effect PCBs may have on the elimination of DDT and DDE by fish. Accumulation and elimination rates of DDT and DDE were compared. It was found that PCBs did not influence the accumulation or elimination rates of DDT or DDE in lake trout and therefore should not have had a major influence on the decline of DDT in lake trout.

  4. Food of young-of-the-year lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Presque Isle Harbor, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swedberg, Donald V.; Peck, James W.

    1984-01-01

    The food habits of young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were studied by examining the digestive tracts of 293 young-of-the-year collected in Presque Isle Harbor, Lake Superior. Lake trout in the 25 to 27-mm length range started to eat food organisms before all of their yolk material was absorbed. Organisms consumed by the 25 to 27-mm young-of-the-year included Chironomidae, Copepoda (Harpacticoida, Calanoida, Cyclopoida), and Cladocerea (Daphnia spp., Bosmina sp., Chydorus sp.). Chironomid pupae and chironomid larvae accounted for 74% and 5%, respectively, of the total volume of food eaten by the young lake trout in Presque Isle Harbor. Although copepods, cladocerans, and mysids were present in many stomachs, their contribution to the total volume of food was only 15%. Some lake trout in the 32 to 54-mm length range had consumed fry of sculpin (Cottus spp.) or rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the overall contribution of fish fry to the total volume of food was only 4% (frequency of occurrence, 10%). The lake trout in Presque Isle Harbor fed heavily on planktonic organisms, sparingly on benthic organisms, and were opportunistic feeders that appeared to prey on whatever forage organisms were available in the shallow nearshore waters.

  5. Optimum temperature for growth and preferred temperatures of age-0 lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Cleland, Joshua

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the thermal preferences and optimum temperature for growth of age-0 lake trout Salvelinus namaycush to help predict the thermal habitat they select when they leave the spawning grounds and to assess the risk posed to them in the Great Lakes by piscivorus, nonnative fishes whose thermal habitat preferences are known. The test fish were hatched in the laboratory from eggs taken from wild fish, acclimated to 5, 10, 15, and 18°C, and fed to excess with commercial trout food for 47 d. The test fish grew at all of the temperatures, and the specific growth rate was highest at about 12.5°C (3.8% wet body weight/d). Fish used in the growth study were also tested in a vertical thermal gradient tank and had a final thermal preferendum between 10.1°C and 10.2°C. These results, which generally agreed with those of an earlier laboratory study of the temperature preference of age-1 lake trout and the limited information on thermal habitat use by age-0 lake trout in the Great Lakes, indicated age-0 lake trout would tend to seek temperatures near 10°C, or as high as 12.5°C, during summer if food was abundant. Published information on thermal habitat use of age-1 and adult alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax indicated they would be expected to co-occur with age-0 lake trout during much of the time when the lake trout were small enough to be eaten by these two introduced piscivores.

  6. Survival of lake trout eggs on reputed spawning grounds in Lakes Huron and Superior: In situ incubation, 1987-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Peck, James W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    Lake trout reproduce widely in Lake Superior but little in Lake Huron. We examined whether survival of lake trout eggs and fry in either lake was reduced by physical disturbances and swim-up mortality. Eggs were collected from feral lake trout in Lake Superior and placed in 108 plastic incubators. A total of 48 incubators was set at Partridge Island Reef in southern Lake Superior, 48 were set at Port Austin Reef in southern Lake Huron, and 12 were held as controls inflowing well water at a laboratory. Survival-to-hatching of these eggs at Partridge Island Reef (18%) was significantly different from that at Port Austin Reef (43%) and significantly different in the laboratory (88%) from that at either reef (P < 0.05). During egg-fry incubation from 28 October 1987 to 5 May 1988, 11–18 cm of sediment accumulated in sediment traps placed on the reefs but < 1 cm of sediment was present on each reef in May 1988. Analysis showed that 44% of the eggs at Port Austin Reef and 28% of those at Partridge Island Reef were buried and killed by sediments. During the first week after deployment, mean wave energy was 90% higher at Partridge Island Reef and significantly different from that at Port Austin Reef. Wave energy may be a habitat condition that makes Partridge Island Reef less suitable than Port Austin Reef for incubation of lake trout eggs. Fry from eggs incubated at all three sites experienced no swim-up mortality. We conclude that in 1987–88 habitat conditions required for survival of lake trout eggs were more suitable at Port Austin Reef than at Partridge Island Reef.

  7. Reproductive potential and fecundity of lake trout strains in southern and eastern waters of Lake Ontario, 1977-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Elrod, Joseph H.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the reproductive potential of various genetic strains of hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in southern and eastern Lake Ontario from indices of fecundity and indices of male abundance. Indices were constructed from catches of mature lake trout in gill nets during September 1980 to 1994 after correcting for mortality from sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) which occurred between September sampling and late fall spawning. Strain and age were assigned to individual lake trout based on clipped fins and maxillary bones or coded wire tags. Fecundity-length relationships for fish of the same age, determined from mature females collected in 1977 to 1981 and 1994, were not different (P > 0.05) among genetic strains. For all strains combined, fecundity-length relationships in 1977 to 1981 were not different among fish of various ages but in 1994, age-5 and -6 fish had fewer eggs (P < 0.003) than age-7 fish, and age-7 fish had fewer eggs (P < 0.003) than fish of age 8, 9, or 10. Annual indices of fecundity varied 19 fold and indices of mature males varied 11 fold; both indices were low in the early 1980s, increased sharply in the mid 1980s, and peaked in 1993. The strain which dominated fecundity and mature male indices shifted during the study from Seneca Lake strain to Lake Superior strain and then back to Seneca Lake strain. However, changes in either reproductive potential or genotypes do not appear responsible for the abrupt appearance of naturally-produced yearling lake trout throughout southern and eastern Lake Ontario in 1994–1995, the first widespread occurrence of juveniles produced by hatchery lake trout in Lake Ontario.

  8. Osteological evidence of genetic divergence of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Smith, Gerald R.

    1994-01-01

    Three phenotypes of Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior, the lean, siscowet, and bumper, are traditionally identified primarily by fat content and body shape. Their taxonomic status is in question because of intermediates as well as the possibility that the diagnostic characters are ecophenotypic. Two osteological characters, the dorsal opercular notch (first recorded by Agassiz in his description of the siscowet) and radii on the anterodorsal part of the supraethmoid, differ between most leans and siscowets. The notch in the opercle near its articulation with the hyomandibular bone is present in humpers, usually present in siscowets, and usually absent in leans. Radii on the anterodorsal surface of the supraethmoid bone usually are found in siscowets and humpers but usually are absent in leans. The correlations among these characters and other features of the phenotype indicate a significant level of differentiation between the three phenotypes. Available evidence suggests that the differentiation is genetic. The frequency of mixed phenotypes is evidence of limited gene flow among the phenotypes. The siscowet and humper phenotypes apparently originated in Lake Superior in postglacial time.

  9. Ecology and population status of trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick; Stoneman, Andrea T.; Kraus, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus is among the most abundant benthic species in Lake Erie, but comparatively little is known about its ecology. Although others have conducted extensive studies on trout-perch ecology, those efforts predated invasions of white perch Morone americana, Dreissena spp., Bythotrephes longimanus and round goby Neogobius melanostomus, suggesting the need to revisit past work. Trout-perch were sampled with bottom trawls at 56 sites during June and September 2010. We examined diets, fecundity, average annual mortality, sex ratio, and long-term population trends at sites sampled since 1961. Trout-perch abundance fluctuated periodically, with distinct shorter- (4-year) and longer-term (over period of 50 years) fluctuations. Males had higher average annual mortality than females. Both sexes were equally abundant at age 0, but females outnumbered males 4:1 by age 2. Diets of trout-perch were dominated by macroinvertebrates, particularly chironomids and Hexagenia sp. Size distributions of trout-perch eggs varied widely and exhibited multiple modes indicative of protracted batch spawning. A review of the few other studies of trout-perch revealed periodic fluctuations in sex ratio of adults, which in light of our evidence of periodicity in abundance suggests the potential for sex-ratio-mediated intrinsic population regulation. Despite the introduction of numerous invasive species in Lake Erie, trout-perch remain one of the most abundant benthic invertivores and the population is relatively stable.

  10. Dynamics of individual growth in a recovering population of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Schram, Stephen T.

    2001-01-01

    In 1976, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources established a refuge for a nearly depleted population of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior. The refuge was intended to reduce fishing mortality by protecting adult lake trout. We examined the growth dynamics of these lake trout during the period of recovery by comparing estimates of ndividual growth before and after the refuge was established. Our estimates are based on an annual mark-recapture survey conducted at the spawning area since 1969. We developed a model that allowed mean growth rates to differ among individuals of different sizes and that accommodated variation in growth rates of individuals of the same size. Likelihood ratio tests were used to determine if the mean growth increments of lake trout changed ater the refuge was established. Our results suggest that growth of mature lake trout (particularly wild fish) decreased significantly in the postrefuge period. This decreased growth may have been associated with a reduction in food availability. We also observed reductions in growth as wild fish grew older and larger, which suggests that the growth of these fish may be adequately approximated by a von Bertalanffy growth model if it becomes possible to obtain accurate ages.

  11. Predator-prey relations and competition for food between age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins in the Apostle Island region of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Bronte, Charles R.

    1995-01-01

    Slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) are an important component of the fish community on reefs and adjacent nursery areas of the Great Lakes and overlap spatially with age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Important interactions between these fishes are possible during the lake trout's first year of life, which could include predation on each other's eggs and larvae, and competition for food resources. We investigated the diets of age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins on a lake trout spawning reef (Gull Island Shoal) and adjacent nursery area (near Michigan Island) in the Apostle Island region of western Lake Superior during June through September from 1988 through 1991. Organisms in stomachs of 511 lake trout and 562 sculpins were identified and counted. Of the 11 major food types found in age-0 lake trout stomachs from both areas, Mysis was the dominant food item (mean volume in stomachs = 68%) and occurred in about 3/4 of the fish analyzed. Copepods, cladocerans, chironomid pupae, fish, and Bythotrephes were also common in the diet (frequency of occurrence > 4%). Diets of lake trout were more diverse on the reef than on the nursery area where Mysis dominated the diet. Slimy sculpins were only found in lake trout greater than 50 mm. Mysis was an important food item of slimy sculpins over the reef but not over the nursery area, where Diporeia was by far the most important taxon. A variety ofben-thic invertebrates (Asellus, chironomids, benthic copepods, and snails) comprised the bulk of the sculpin diet over the reef. Sculpins also ate lake trout eggs in November. Based on cluster analysis, diets were most similar over the reef where both consumed Mysis, calanoid copepods and chironomid pupae. Diets diverged over the nursery areas where sculpins were strictly benthic feeders and lake trout maintained their planktonic diet. In Lake Superior, where lake trout recruitment through natural reproduction has become well established, the coexistence of the two

  12. Effectiveness of a refuge for lake trout in western Lake Superior I: Empirical analysis of past performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Melissa J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The Gull Island Shoal Refuge was created in 1976 in response to overfishing of the Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush population in the Apostle Islands region of western Lake Superior. Our objective was to evaluate effectiveness of the refuge by determining whether Lake Trout abundance, growth, maturity, and mortality differed inside and outside the refuge. We compared abundance of wild and stocked fish captured inside and outside the refuge during spring large-mesh gill-net and summer graded-mesh gill-net surveys. We compared growth and mortality during four periods corresponding to four generations of wild Lake Trout, including the last generation that hatched before the refuge was instituted (sampled in 1981–1984) and three generations that were protected by the refuge (sampled in 1985–1992, 1993–2000, and 2001–2010). Maturity of wild fish inside and outside the refuge was compared only for the latter period (2001–2010) because maturity was not assessed earlier. After the refuge was created, wild Lake Trout abundance increased and stocked Lake Trout abundance decreased. Wild adults and juveniles were more abundant inside than outside the refuge, and stocked adults were less abundant inside than outside the refuge. Growth of wild fish did not differ inside versus outside the refuge before 2001, but wild fish grew faster to a shorter asymptotic length inside than outside the refuge during 2001–2010. Wild fish matured at a similar length but an older age inside than outside the refuge during 2001–2010. Survival of wild fish did not differ inside versus outside the refuge before 1993, but mortality was lower inside than outside the refuge during later periods (1993–2000 and 2001–2010). We conclude that the Gull Island Shoal Refuge enhanced the population growth of wild Lake Trout in the Apostle Islands region and should be retained in the future to sustain conditions that favor population growth.

  13. Nearshore habitat and fish community associations of coaster brook trout in Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, O.T.; Moore, S.A.; Carlson, A.J.; Quinlan, H.R.

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the nearshore habitat and fish community composition of approximately 300 km of shoreline within and adjacent to the major embayments of Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Sampling yielded 17 species, of which 12 were widespread and represented a common element of the Lake Superior fish community, including cisco Coregonus artedi, lake whitefish C. clupeaformis, round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, lake chub Couesius plumbeus, longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus, white sucker C. commersonii, trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus, ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius, burbot Lota lota, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. The presence of brook trout S. fontinalis in an embayment was associated with the common species of the Isle Royale nearshore fish community, particularly cisco, longnose sucker, and round whitefish. However, brook trout were present in only five embayments and were common only in Tobin Harbor. Most Isle Royale embayments had broadly overlapping ranges of nearshore habitats. Within embayments, fish were distributed along a habitat gradient from less-protected rocky habitat near the mouth to highly protected habitat with mixed and finer substrates at the head. Embayments with brook trout had greater mean protection from the open lake, greater variation in depth, greater mean cover, and higher mean frequencies of large substrates (cobble, boulder, and bedrock). Within those embayments, brook trout were associated with habitat patches with higher mean frequencies of small substrates (particularly sand and coarse gravel). Within Tobin Harbor, brook trout were associated with midembayment habitat and species assemblages, especially those locations with a mixture of sand, gravel, and cobble substrates, an absence of bedrock, and the presence of round whitefish, white sucker, and trout-perch. Comparison of embayments with the model, Tobin Harbor, showed that six embayments

  14. New estimates of lethality of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): Implications for fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Chipman, B.D.; Marsden, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in North America costs millions of dollars each year, and control measures are guided by assessment of lamprey-induced damage to fisheries. The favored prey of sea lamprey in freshwater ecosystems has been lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). A key parameter in assessing sea lamprey damage, as well as managing lake trout fisheries, is the probability of an adult lake trout surviving a lamprey attack. The conventional value for this parameter has been 0.55, based on laboratory experiments. In contrast, based on catch curve analysis, mark-recapture techniques, and observed wounding rates, we estimated that adult lake trout in Lake Champlain have a 0.74 probability of surviving a lamprey attack. Although sea lamprey growth in Lake Champlain was lower than that observed in Lake Huron, application of an individual-based model to both lakes indicated that the probability of surviving an attack in Lake Champlain was only 1.1 times higher than that in Lake Huron. Thus, we estimated that lake trout survive a lamprey attack in Lake Huron with a probability of 0.66. Therefore, our results suggested that lethality of a sea lamprey attack on lake trout has been overestimated in previous model applications used in fisheries management. ?? 2008 NRC.

  15. Effect of rearing density on poststocking survival of lake trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; Ostergaard, David E.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1989-01-01

    Six paired lots of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) reared at densities of 41,000 and 51,000 fish per raceway during their last 9 months in the hatchery were stocked in Lake Ontario. Poststocking survival of the high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) fish was not different for the 1982 year-class. However, for the 1983 year-class, mean survival was significantly different between HD and LD fish (P < 0.01). Mean survival of HD fish was only 76% that of LD fish (P < 0.01), and most of the mortality attributable to rearing conditions had apparently occurred within 2 months after stocking. Mean size at stocking was not different for HD and LD fish of the 1982 year-class, but for the 1983 year-class, the LD fish were 6% longer and 22% heavier than the HD fish. Mean lengths and weights of LD and HD fish were not different in samples collected in Lake Ontario at age 2 and older. Size at stocking was not likely the factor that caused the difference in survival. Rather, the rearing conditions (probably water exchange rate in relation to number of fish in the raceway) that resulted in slower growth of the HD fish of the 1983 year-class also caused them to be poorer physiologically than the LD fish. The number of yearling lake trout per rearing unit that will result in maximum contribution to populations in the Great Lakes after stocking may be lower than the rearing densities customarily used at some hatcheries.

  16. Residues of DDT in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1974-01-01

    Concentrations of DDT residues were higher in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from southern Lake Michigan in 1966–70 (average 18.1 ppm in fish 558–684 mm long) than in lake trout of the same size-class from Lake Superior in 1968–69 (4.4 ppm), and higher in adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Lake Michigan in 1968–71 (averages for different year-classes, 9.9–14.0 ppm) than in those from Lake Erie in 1969 (2.2 ppm). Residues were significantly higher in lake trout from southern Lake Michigan than in those from the northern part of the lake. In lakes Michigan and Superior, the levels increased with length of fish and percentage oil. In Lake Michigan coho salmon, the residues remained nearly stable (2–4 ppm) from September of the 1st yr of lake residence through May or early June of the 2nd yr, but increased three to four times in the next 3 mo. Residues in Lake Erie coho salmon did not increase during this period, which preceded the spawning season. Although the concentrations of total residues in whole, maturing Lake Michigan coho salmon remained unchanged from August 1968 until near the end of the spawning season in January 1969, the residues were redistributed in the tissues of the spawning-run fish; concentrations in the loin and brain were markedly higher in January than in August. This relocation of DDT residues accompanied a marked decrease in the percentage of oil in the fish, from 13.2 in August to 2.8 in January. Concentrations of residues were relatively high in eggs of both lake trout (4.6 ppm) and coho salmon (7.4–10.2 ppm) from Lake Michigan. The percentage composition of the residues (p,p′DDE, o,p′/DDT, p,p′DDT, and p,p′DDT) did not differ significantly with life stage, size, age, or locality, or date of collection of lake trout or coho salmon.

  17. Trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury and inorganic mercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenijian, C.P.; David, S.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a laboratory experiment, we estimated the net trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey to be equal to 76.6 %. Under the assumption that gross trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout from its prey was equal to 80 %, we estimated that the rate at which lake trout eliminated methylmercury was 0.000244 day−1. Our laboratory estimate of methylmercury elimination rate was 5.5 times lower than the value predicted by a published regression equation developed from estimates of methylmercury elimination rates for fish available from the literature. Thus, our results, in conjunction with other recent findings, suggested that methylmercury elimination rates for fish have been overestimated in previous studies. In addition, based on our laboratory experiment, we estimated that the net trophic transfer efficiency of inorganic mercury to lake trout from its prey was 63.5 %. The lower net trophic transfer efficiency for inorganic mercury compared with that for methylmercury was partly attributable to the greater elimination rate for inorganic mercury. We also found that the efficiency with which lake trout retained either methylmercury or inorganic mercury from their food did not appear to be significantly affected by the degree of their swimming activity.

  18. Comparative hatchability of lake trout eggs differing in contaminant burden and incubation conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, M.J.; Berlin, W.H.; Rottiers, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    In 1972, fertilized eggs of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Marquette (Michigan) State Fish Hatchery (where levels of contaminants are relatively low) and eggs from lake trout collected in Michigan waters of Lake Michigan near Saugatuck and Charlevoix (where levels of PCB's and DDE are elevated) were incubated at hatchery temperatures (6° C) and at temperatures simulating the natural temperature cycle of Lake Michigan (1-8° C). Survival to yolk absorption of larvae from these three sources ranged from 40.3 to 65.5%, and no correlation was observed between survival and the level of PCB's and DDE in the eggs. Additional studies in 1975 with lake trout eggs from the same three sources confirmed previous observations that the elevated levels of PCB's and DDE in eggs from Lake Michigan did not appear to affect the percent hatch of lake trout eggs or survival of the fry to the swim-up stage. When fry hatched from eggs with an elevated contaminant burden were starved for several weeks, we observed no abnormal increase in posthatching mortality during the period when the yolk stores were being consumed.

  19. Fossil zooplankton and the historical status of westslope cutthroat trout in a headwater lake of Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verschuren, D.; Marnell, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Surviving pure-strain populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in headwater lakes of Glacier National Park could play an important role in the managed recovery of regional cutthroat trout fisheries. However, uncertainty exists about whether native trout could have naturally invaded several park lakes where they now occur. This study used paleolimnological techniques to address the question of whether the population of native trout in Avalanche Lake is indigenous or became established through an undocumented introduction. The validity of using fossil diapause eggs (ephippia) of the fish-sensitive cladocerans Daphnia spp. as indicators for the historical presence of zooplanktivorous fish was tested with a survey of live zooplankton and corresponding surface-sediment fossil assemblages in eight Glacier Park lakes with or without trout. Analysis of a sediment core from Avalanche Lake dated by lead radioisotopes, historical wildfires, and a flood allowed reconstruction of zooplankton dynamics from about 1700 A.D. to the present. Fossil Daphnia ephippia were rare or absent in Avalanche Lake sediments deposited before 1910, suggesting intense zooplanktivory due to sustained presence of an indigenous population of native cutthroat trout. Fossil evidence for larger Daphnia populations in the 1930s and early 1940s revealed a temporary disturbance of the lake's normal food web interactions during which zooplanktivory was significantly reduced. This disturbance may have resulted from a collapse of the native trout population caused indirectly by failed attempts between 1915 and 1943 to stock Avalanche Lake with Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarki bouvieri.

  20. Genetic structure and diversity among brook trout from Isle Royale, Lake Nipigon, and three Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stott, Wendylee; Quinlan, Henry R.; Gorman, Owen T.; King, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from Isle Royale, Michigan, three Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior, and Lake Nipigon in Ontario were analyzed for genetic variation at 12 microsatellite DNA loci. Analysis of molecular variance, genetic distance measures, and cluster analysis were used to examine the diversity, gene flow, and relatedness among the samples. The diversity estimates for the samples from Isle Royale were similar to those for the samples collected from Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior, and all estimates were lower than those reported in other studies of brook trout from eastern North America. Genetic differences were detected among the brook trout at Isle Royale, Lake Nipigon, and the Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior. Further, the population in Tobin Harbor at the eastern end of Isle Royale was distinct from the populations from tributaries at the southwestern end of the island. The Minnesota tributary population formed a group that was genetically distinct from those from Isle Royale and Lake Nipigon. The Isle Royale population should be managed to preserve the genetic and phenotypic variation that distinguishes it from the other brook trout populations analyzed to date.

  1. Declining survival of lake trout stocked during 1963-1986 in U.S. waters of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Schram, Stephen T.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Selgeby, James H.

    1994-01-01

    The average catch per effort (CPE) values for the 1963–1982 year-classes of stocked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush caught at age 7 in gill nets and for the 1976–1986 year-classes caught at ages 2–4 in trawls declined significantly in U.S. waters of Lake Superior. The declines in CPE were not explained by reduced stocking, but rather by significant declines in survival indices of the year-classes of stocked lake trout. Increases in mortality occurred in year-classes before the fish reached ages 2–4, before they were recruited into the sport and commercial fisheries, and before they reached sizes vulnerable to sea lamprey predation. We conclude that declining abundance of stocked lake trout resulted from increased mortality, which may have been caused by competition, predation, or by a combination of these and other factors. Restoration of lake trout in Lake Superior may now depend on prudent management of naturally reproducing stocks rather than on stocking of hatchery-reared fish.

  2. Surficial substrates and bathymetry of five historical lake trout spawning reefs in near-shore waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brown, Charles L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; French, John R. P.

    1992-01-01

    The reestablishment of self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the lower four Great Lakes has been substantially impeded because planted fish do not produce enough progeny that survive and reproduce. The causes for this failure are unknown, but many historical spawning sites of lake trout have been degraded by human activities and can no longer produce viable swim-up fry. In this study, we used side-scan sonar and an underwater video camera to survey, map, and evaluate the sustainability of one reef in each of the five Great Lakes for lake trout spawning and fry production. At four of the reef sites, we found good-to-excellent substrate for spawning and fry production by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are now being planted. These substrates were in water 6-22 m deep and were composed largely of rounded or angular rubble and cobble. Interstitial spaces in these substrates were 20 cm or deeper and would protect naturally spawned eggs and fry from predators, ice scour, and buffeting by waves and currents. Subsequent studies of egg survival by other researchers confirmed our evaluation that the best substrates at two of these sites still have the potential to produce viable swim-up fry.

  3. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change. PMID:25204304

  4. Trends in the lake trout fishery of Lake Huron through 1946

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1949-01-01

    The estimated abundance of lake trout in the United States waters of Lake Huron (all districts combined) had reached an extremely low level in 1946 (24 percent of the 1929–1943 average), and the complete collapse of the fishery in late years is a matter of record. The rate of decline in abundance, however, was much less rapid than the spectacular decreases in production might suggest. Although each year beginning with 1940 saw a new record low yield, the abundance was still 87 percent of average in 1942 and did not drop below 70 percent until 1944. This seeming paradox is explained by the fact that relative to average conditions, fishing intensity in 1941–1946 was lower and was decreasing much more rapidly than was abundance. PDF

  5. A review of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) restoration in Lake Ontario from an early life history perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzsimons, John; Lantry, Brian F.; O'Gorman, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The authors conclude that small numbers of lake trout spawned successfully each year during 1992-97 in Lake Ontario, although this has yet to result in a trend of increasing natural reproduction. Juxtaposed with the high abundance of mature fish (Selgeby et al., 1995), the situation in Lake Ontario suggests a reduction in reproductive efficiency. This could result from mortality factors that may to a certain extent be density independent because recruitment has remained flat in the face of increasing spawner abundance. According to RESTORE, such factors are likely acting during the first year of life. Accordingly, the authors herin review the evidence that former barriers to lake trout reproduction in Lake Ontario that act as early-life-stage bottlenecks have been removed. In addition, the authors review other potential new barriers for which there has only recently been enough information to judge their relative importance.

  6. Recoveries of tagged, hatchery-reared lake trout from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buettner, Howard J.

    1961-01-01

    Plantings that totaled 13,384 tagged, hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)—18, 25, 30, or 37 months old—were made at four Lake Superior localities in 1955-57 to: measure possible increases of return from rearing to greater size and age; study the effect of season of planting on the rate of return; compare returns from different types of tags; and follow the movements of hatchery-reared fish. The great advantage of spring over fall planting, demonstrated for fingerling lake trout in earlier experiments, did not hold for fish planted at ages of 18 to 37 months. The improvement of recovery rates with increase of age over the same 18- to 37-month interval appears to be too small to justify the cost of rearing to the higher ages. The recovery rates were closely similar (3.9 to 4.8 percent) for lower-jaw tags and two types of nylon-streamer tags but were much lower than the rate for Petersen tags (12.4 percent). The pins of Petersen tags render the fish highly vulnerable to entanglement in the webbing of gill nets, the principal gear in Lake Superior. Recoveries of Petersen tags also came earlier after planting than did those of other tags. The time between planting and recovery and the distance traveled by the fish were clearly but not closely correlated. Mean distance between points of planting and recovery increased with time out, and average time out increased with the number of miles traveled. More than half of the recoveries of fish that had been at liberty over 2 years were made within 25 miles of the point of release.

  7. Lake trout consumption and recent changes in the fish assemblage of Flaming Gorge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, D.L. ); Luecke, C. )

    1993-11-01

    Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the consumption dynamics of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. Analysis of diet and population estimates of different size-classes of lake trout indicated that kokanees Oncorhynchus nerka made up the greatest proportion of prey biomass. Examination of growth rates of forage fish and predator-prey size ratios indicated that Utah chub Gila atraria were more vulnerable than kokanees to lake trout predation. Utah chub grow slower than kokanees and thus were susceptible to piscivores over a longer age span. The authors conclude the kokanees will make up an even large proportion of the pelagic fish assemblage of Flaming Gorge Reservoir in future years. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Vulnerability of young lake trout to predation after chronic exposure to PCB's and DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    The vulnerability of fry of Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) to predation by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) was tested after the fry had been exposed to PCB's, DDE, and a combination of these contaminants in both water and food at concentrations corresponding to ambient levels (1X) in water and plankton in Lake Michigan and at levels 5 and 25 times higher. Vulnerability of the fry, measured as the ratio of escapes to predator attacks, was not significantly increased by either 90 or 165 days of exposure to the contaminants at any of the concentrations tested, and no behavioral differences were observed between control and exposed fry in their reaction to predators. Exposure to PCB's and DDE at environmental and higher concentrations thus did not affect the vulnerability of lake trout fry to predation. This observation suggests that the failure of lake trout reproduction in Lake Michigan was not caused by contaminant-induced reductions in the ability of the fry to escape predators.

  9. Hatching, dispersal, and bathymetric distribution of age-0 wild lake trout at the Gull Island Shoal complex, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Saylor, James H.; Miller, Gerald S.; Foster, Neal R.

    1995-01-01

    We studied age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) associated with spawning and nursery areas of the Gull Island Shoal complex in western Lake Superior. Post-emergent age-0 lake trout were captured on rocky spawning substrate with a 3-m beam trawl and at the nursery area with a bottom trawl from June to September 1990 and June to August 1991. Catch data suggested that age-0 lake trout move distances of 7–11 km to the nursery area over a 3-month period. Water currents, measured at Gull Island Shoal, may be a part of the transport mechanism. Examination of daily-growth increments on the sagittae and back-calculation from the date of capture revealed that most fish hatched between 6 June and 19 July in 1990 and between 30 April and 30 May in 1991. The duration of the hatch was 100 days in 1990 and 120 days in 1991, and the estimated incubation period is about 7 months for lake trout eggs at this site. Similar hatch-date distributions of age-0 captured on different sampling dates suggested that natural mortality was low.

  10. Swimming performance of young lake trout after chronic exposure to PCBs and DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rottiers, Donald V.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1981-01-01

    Swimming performance was measured in fry of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) exposed to PCB's, DDE, and a combination of these two contaminants in both food and water at concentrations equal to, and 5 and 25 times higher than, levels found in Lake Michigan water and plankton. Fry were tested after about 50, 110, and 165 days of exposure. We measured swimming performance by forcing the fry to swim through a continuous series of incrementally increased velocities until the fish were exhausted. Although we observed significant differences in swimming performance between a few test groups, we detected no relation between swimming performance of the fry and exposure to PCB's or DDE, or both, at the concentrations tested. Inasmuch as swimming performance apparently was not affected by the levels of contamination by PCB's and DDE in Lake Michigan, impairment of swimming by these contaminants cannot account for the failure of lake trout reproduction in Lake Michigan.

  11. PAHs, nitro-PAHs, hopanes, and steranes in lake trout from Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A

    2014-08-01

    The present study examines concentrations and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), steranes, and hopanes in lake trout collected in Lake Michigan. A total of 74 fish were collected in 2 seasons at 3 offshore sites. The total PAH concentration (Σ9 PAH) in whole fish ranged from 223 pg/g to 1704 pg/g wet weight, and PAH concentrations and profiles were similar across season, site, and sex. The total NPAH (Σ9 NPAH) concentrations ranged from 0.2 pg/g to 31 pg/g wet weight, and carcinogenic compounds, including 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene, were detected. In the fall, NPAH concentrations were low at the Illinois site (0.2-0.5 pg/g wet wt), and site profiles differed considerably; in the spring, concentrations and profiles were similar across sites, possibly reflecting changes in fish behavior. In the fall, the total sterane (Σ5 Sterane) and total hopane (Σ2 Hopane) levels reached 808 pg/g and 141 pg/g wet weight, respectively, but concentrations in the spring were 10 times lower. Concentrations in eggs (fall only) were on the same order of magnitude as those in whole fish. These results demonstrate the presence of target semivolatile organic compounds in a top predator fish, and are consistent with PAH biodilution observed previously. Using the available toxicity information for PAHs and NPAHs, the expected cancer risk from consumption of lake trout sampled are low. However, NPAHs contributed a significant portion of the toxic equivalencies in some samples. The present study provides the first measurements of NPAHs in freshwater fish, and results suggest that additional assessment is warranted.

  12. PAHs, NITRO-PAHs, HOPANES, AND STERANES IN LAKE TROUT FROM LAKE MICHIGAN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines concentrations and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), steranes, and hopanes in lake trout collected in Lake Michigan. A total of 74 fish were collected in 2 seasons at 3 offshore sites. The total PAH concentration (Σ9PAH) in whole fish ranged from 223 pg/g to 1704 pg/g wet weight, and PAH concentrations and profiles were similar across season, site, and sex. The total NPAH (Σ9NPAH) concentrations ranged from 0.2 pg/g to 31 pg/g wet weight, and carcinogenic compounds, including 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene, were detected. In the fall, NPAH concentrations were low at the Illinois site (0.2–0.5 pg/g wet wt), and site profiles differed considerably; in the spring, concentrations and profiles were similar across sites, possibly reflecting changes in fish behavior. In the fall, the total sterane (Σ5Sterane) and total hopane (Σ2Hopane) levels reached 808 pg/g and 141 pg/g wet weight, respectively, but concentrations in the spring were 10 times lower. Concentrations in eggs (fall only) were on the same order of magnitude as those in whole fish. These results demonstrate the presence of target semivolatile organic compounds in a top predator fish, and are consistent with PAH biodilution observed previously. Using the available toxicity information for PAHs and NPAHs, the expected cancer risk from consumption of lake trout sampled are low. However, NPAHs contributed a significant portion of the toxic equivalencies in some samples. The present study provides the first measurements of NPAHs in freshwater fish, and results suggest that additional assessment is warranted. PMID:24764175

  13. Abundance indices for determining the status of lake trout restoration in Michigan waters of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Peck, James W.; Selgeby, James H.; Taylor, William W.

    1995-01-01

    Self-sustaining populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have returned to most areas in Lake Superior, but progress toward achieving historic commercial yields has been difficult to measure because of unrecorded losses to predation by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and to fisheries. Consequently, we developed restoration targets (catch per effort, CPE; geometric mean number per kilometer of 114-mm stretch-meaure gill net during 1929-1943, when historic yields were sustained) from linear relationships between CPE in commercial and assessment fisheries in Michigan. Target CPEs for lake trout restoration were higher and less variable than the modern CPEs in all areas. Modern CPEs generally increased during the 1970s and early 1980s but declined during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Modern CPEs were highest in western Michigan from the Keweenaw Peninsula to Marquette (71 to 81% of target CPEs), but coefficients of variation (CV,SD/mean) of mean CPEs were 1.4 to 2.4 times greater than target CVs. Around Munising, the modern CPE was lower (41% of the target CPE), whereas the CV was 1.9 times greater than the target CV. Around Grand Marais, the modern CPE was lowest among all areas (17% of the target CPE), but the CV was nearly the same (1.1 times the target CV). In Whitefish Bay, the modern CPE was only 28% of the target CPE and the CV was 9.0 times greater, though the modern period was based on only the years 1979-1982 and 1984-1985. Further progress in restoration in most areas can be achieved only if fishery managers adequately protect existing stocks of wild fish from sea lamprey predation and fishery exploitation.

  14. Lethality of sea lamprey attacks on lake trout in relation to location on the body surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Schneider, Clifford P.; O'Gorman, Robert

    2001-01-01

    We compared the locations of healed attack marks of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus on live lake trout Salvelinus namaycush with those of unhealed attack marks on dead lake trout to determine if the lethality of a sea lamprey attack was related to attack location. Lake trout were collected from Lake Ontario, live fish with gill nets in September 1985 and dead fish with trawls in October 1983−1986. Attack location was characterized by the percent distances from snout to tail and from the ventral to the dorsal midline. Kolmogorov−Smirnov two-sample tests did not detect significant differences in the distribution of attack location along either the anteroposterior axis or the dorsoventral axis. When attack locations were grouped into six anatomical regions historically used to record sea lamprey attacks, dead fish did not exhibit a significantly higher proportion of attacks in the more anterior regions. Even if the differences in attack location on live and dead fish were significant, they were too small to imply substantial spatial differences in attack lethality that should be accounted for when modeling the effects of sea lampreys feeding on lake trout. We suggest that the tendency for sea lamprey attacks to occur on the anterior half of the fish is related to the lower amplitude of lateral body movement there during swimming and thus the lower likelihood of being dislodged.

  15. Effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep release on postrelease mortality of Lake Trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ng, Elizabeth L.; Fredericks, Jim P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Unaccounted postrelease mortality violates assumptions of many fisheries studies, thereby biasing parameter estimates and reducing efficiency. We evaluated effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep-release treatment on postrelease mortality of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Lake trout were captured at depths up to 65 m with gill nets in Priest Lake, Idaho, and held in a large enclosure for 10–12 d. Postrelease mortality was the same for surface-release–and deep-release–treated fish (41%). Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of intrinsic and environmental factors on the probability of mortality. Presence of gill-net trauma and degree of barotrauma were associated with increased probability of postrelease mortality. Smaller fish were also more likely to suffer postrelease mortality. On average, deep-release treatment did not reduce postrelease mortality, but effectiveness of treatment increased with fish length. Of the environmental factors evaluated, only elapsed time between lifting the first and last anchors of a gill-net gang (i.e., lift time) was significantly related to postrelease mortality. Longer lift times, which may allow ascending lake trout to acclimate to depressurization, were associated with lower postrelease mortality rates. Our study suggests that postrelease mortality may be higher than previously assumed for lake trout because mortality continues after 48 h. In future studies, postrelease mortality could be reduced by increasing gill-net lift times and increasing mesh size used to increase length of fish captured.

  16. Lake trout fin-clipping rates at two national fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1965-01-01

    The successful stocking of the hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior has imporved the outlook for rehabilitating stocks reduced to an extremely low level by predation from the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Marking the fish by fin-clipping to determine growth and survival benefits from holding young-of-the-year lake trout in the hatchery overwinter was begun in 1952-53 and continued through 1954-55. Boat and shore--and spring and fall--plants of yearlings were compared in subsequent experiments to reduce costs of planting and improve survival. Hatchery lake trout now are marked primarily to distinguish them from wild fish in assessment of natural reproduction. Year-to-year and local variations of the mark also supply information on individual plants. Recent large increases in numbers of lake trout stocked required development of an efficient, economical system of clipping fins on a mass-production basis. Data on marking rates were collected in 1958-63 at the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlifes's Pendills Creek and Charlevois National Fish Hatcheries (both in Michigan), where more than 3.5 million fish were fin-clipped.

  17. A trophic position model of pelagic food webs: Impact on contaminant bioaccumulation in lake trout

    SciTech Connect

    Zanden, M.J.V.; Rasmussen, J.B.

    1996-11-01

    To test how well use of discrete trophic levels represents pelagic trophic structure, dietary data from > 200 lake trout and pelagic forage fish populations was compiled and calculated a continuous (fractional) measure of trophic position for each population. Lake trout trophic position, which ranged from 3.0 to 4.6, explained 85% of the between-lake variability in mean PCB levels in lake trout muscle tissue, providing a significant improvement over the use of discrete trophic levels as a predictor of contaminant levels. Having demonstrated the utility of trophic position, a generalized {open_quotes}trophic position model{close_quotes} of lake trout food webs was developed. This approach eliminates minor trophic linkages, calculates a fractional measure of each species` trophic position, and aggregates species of similar trophic position into trophic guilds. This {open_quotes}realized{close_quotes} model represents trophic structure in terms of mass transfer and accounts for the complexity and omnivory that characterize aquatic food webs. In our trophic position model, smelt (a species of pelagic forage fish) were designated a trophic guild separate from other pelagic forage fish, due to their elevated trophic position. Separate consideration of smelt was supported by elevated lake trout trophic position, PCB, and Hg levels in lakes containing smelt. Consideration of omnivory caused biomagnification factors (BMFs) to be many times higher than BMFs that ignored omnivory. These omnivory-corrected BMF estimates appeared to be more consistent with values calculated using stable nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N), an alternative continuous measure of trophic position. {delta}{sup 15}N, an alternative continuous measure of trophic position. {delta}{sup 15}N provided trophic position estimates that generally corresponded with our diet-derived estimates. 186 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Biochemistry and metabolism of lake trout: laboratory and field studies on the effects of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of ambient and higher concentrations of PCB's (Aroclor 1254) and DDE in food and water on fry of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Michigan, I measured several biochemical indicators of stress in exposed and unexposed (control) fry. No differences between treatments were observed in oxygen consumption rates or lactate concentrations of unexercised fry, but apparent differences in specific swimming speed and lactate response in fry that swam to exhaustion suggested that exposed fry had lower stamina. Observed differences between biochemical profiles of 1-day-old sac fry reared from eggs originating from lake trout collected off Saugatuck and those originating from eggs of brood stock at the Marquette (Michigan) hatchery may have been caused by organochlorine contamination or by genetic and dietary differences between the parental stocks. Activity of the enzyme allantoinase was measured in juvenile and adult lake trout as an indicator of sublethal effects of Great Lakes contaminants. The 50% inhibition of allantoinase in vitro occurred at 6.0 mg/L Cu++, 6.7 mg/L Cd++, 34 mg/L Hg++, and 52 mg/L Pb++. Allantoinase was not affected by in vitro exposure to PCB's up to 7 μg/g, or DDE or DDT up to 10 μg/g; however, in vivo exposure resulting in 2.6 μg/g PCB's in the whole fish activated allantoinase slightly (10% significance level). Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with total length for fish from Lake Michigan but not for fish from Lake Superior or from laboratory stocks. Mercury, PCB's, and DDT, possibly acting in combination with each other and with additional contaminants, may be the cause of the negative correlation of allantoinase activity with size in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  19. Comparison of prehatch C-start responses in rainbow trout and lake trout embryos by means of a tactile stimulus test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, P.J.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The C-start in teleost fishes, a type of startle response, mediates the ability to respond to abrupt, unexpected stimuli and is characterized by a short-latency, C-type fast start acceleration. In prehatch fish embryos, the C-start appears necessary for mechanical breakdown of the egg chorion and successful hatching by way of increased embryo movement and distribution of the hatching enzymes. In later stages, the C-start plays an important role in predator avoidance. Using tactile stimulation, we evaluated the C-start response in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 170 degree-days, when 6.6% of embryos exhibited C-starts, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush embryos at 320 degree-days, when 23% of embryos exhibited C-starts. Triplicate groups of embryos were later tested at three developmental stages: early (220 and 360 degree-days for rainbow trout and lake trout, respectively), middle (260 and 480 degree-days, respectively), and late (320 and 560 degree-days, respectively). The proportion of trout embryos exhibiting C-start increased through time, such that 100% had responded by the late stage, just prior to hatching. C-starts could be obtained by repeated stimulation, and the relative activity of the embryos (based on the number of flexures per stimulus) also increased over time. Rainbow trout and lake trout showed very similar C-start responses at parallel developmental stages, and these patterns of response were similar to those reported in other fish species.

  20. Use of a seismic air gun to reduce survival of nonnative lake trout embryos: A tool for conservation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, B.S.; Dux, A.M.; Quist, M.C.; Guy, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental impacts of nonnative lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the western USA have prompted natural resource management agencies in several states to implement lake trout suppression programs. Currently, these programs rely on mechanical removal methods (i.e., gill nets, trap nets, and angling) to capture subadult and adult lake trout. We conducted a study to explore the potential for using high-intensity sound from a relatively small (655.5 cm3 [40 in3]) seismic air gun to reduce survival of lake trout embryos. Lake trout embryos at multiple stages of development were exposed to a single discharge of the seismic air gun at two depths (5 and 15 m) and at two distances from the air gun (0.1 and 2.7 m). Control groups for each developmental stage, distance, and depth were treated identically except that the air gun was not discharged. Mortality in lake trout embryos treated at 0.1 m from the air gun was 100% at 74 daily temperature units in degrees Celsius (TU°C) at both depths. Median mortality in lake trout embryos treated at 0.1 m from the air gun at 207 TU°C (93%) and 267 °C (78%) appeared to be higher than that of controls (49% and 48%, respectively) at 15-m depth. Among the four lake trout developmental stages, exposure to the air gun at 0.1 m resulted in acute mortality up to 60% greater than that of controls. Mortality at a distance of 2.7 m did not appear to differ from that of controls at any developmental stage or at either depth. Our results indicate that seismic air guns have potential as an alternative tool for controlling nonnative lake trout, but further investigation is warranted.

  1. RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND XENOBIOTIC GILL FLUX IN THE LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo respirometer-metabolism chamber was used to obtain respiratory-cardiovascular physiology under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and xenobiotic gill absorption (flux) data on adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) over a 48-h exposure period at 11? 1?C.

  2. Effects of nonlethal sea lamprey attack on the blood chemistry of lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant; Swink, William D.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory study examined changes in the blood chemistry of field-caught and hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to a nonlethal attack by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. We measured glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase, calcium, magnesium, triglycerides, sodium, and potassium with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer, Ektachem DTSC Module, and the DTE Module. Mean levels of total protein, AST, ALKP, hematocrit, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05), and mean levels of ALT and potassium increased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after sea lamprey feeding. Lake trout condition (K) and hematocrit levels also decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after the sea lamprey attack. Frequency distributions of eight lake trout blood chemistry variables and the hematocrit were significantly different before and after a sea lamprey attack. A second study that used hatchery lake trout broodstock measured changes in hematocrit before and after a sea lamprey attack.

  3. Substrate conditions and abundance of lake trout eggs in a traditional spawning area in southeastern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorr, John A., III; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Foster, Neal R.; Jude, David J.

    1981-01-01

    Spawning by planted lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was documented by sampling with a diver-assisted pump in a traditional spawning area in southeastern Lake Michigan near Saugatuck, Michigan in mid-November in 1978 and 1979. Bottom depths at the 11 locations sampled ranged from 3 to 12 m and substrate size from boulders to sand. Periphyton (Cladophora and associated biota) was several millimeters thick at most stations but sparse at the shallowest. The most eggs recovered from a single sample occurred at the shallowest depth (3 m). In both years, some of the small numbers of eggs collected (9 in 1978, 14 in 1979) were alive and fertilized. Laboratory incubation of viable eggs resulted in successful hatching of larvae. When compared with egg densities measured at spawning sites used by self-sustaining populations of lake trout in other lakes, densities in the study are (0-13/m2) appeared to be critically low. Insufficient numbers of eggs, combined with harsh incubation conditions (turbulence, ice scour, sedimentation), were implicated as prime causes for lake trout reproductive failure in the study area, although other factors, such as inappropriate spawning behavior (selection of suboptimal spawning location, depth, or substrate) also may have reduced survival of eggs and larvae.

  4. Tissue contaminants and associated transcriptional response in trout liver from high elevation lakes of Washington.

    PubMed

    Moran, Patrick W; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Black, Robert W; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2007-09-15

    The consistent cold temperatures and large amount of precipitation in the Olympic and Cascade ranges of Washington State are thought to enhance atmospheric deposition of contaminants. However, little is known about contaminant levels in organisms residing in these remote high elevation lakes. We measured total mercury and 28 organochlorine compounds in trout collected from 14 remote lakes in the Olympic, Mt. Rainer, and North Cascades National Parks. Mercury was detected in trout from all lakes sampled (15 to 262 microg/kg ww), while two organochlorines, total polychlorinated biphenyls (tPCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), were also detected in these fish tissues (<25 microg/kg ww). In sediments, organochlorine levels were below detection, while median total and methyl mercury were 30.4 and 0.34 microg/kg dry weight (ww), respectively. Using fish from two lakes, representing different contaminant loading levels (Wilcox lake: high; Skymo lake: low), we examined transcriptional response in the liver using a custom-made low-density targeted rainbow trout cDNA microarray. We detected significant differences in liver transcriptional response, including significant changes in metabolic, endocrine, and immune-related genes, in fish collected from Wilcox Lake compared to Skymo Lake. Overall, our results suggest that local urban areas contribute to the observed contaminant patterns in these high elevation lakes, while the transcriptional changes point to a biological response associated with exposure to these contaminants in fish. Specifically, the gene expression pattern leads us to hypothesize a role for mercury in disrupting the metabolic and reproductive pathways in fish from high elevation lakes in western Washington.

  5. Tissue contaminants and associated transcriptional response in trout liver from high elevation lakes of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, P.W.; Aluru, N.; Black, R.W.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consistent cold temperatures and large amount of precipitation in the Olympic and Cascade ranges of Washington State are thought to enhance atmospheric deposition of contaminants. However, little is known about contaminant levels in organisms residing in these remote high elevation lakes. We measured total mercury and 28 organochlorine compounds in trout collected from 14 remote lakes in the Olympic, Mt. Rainer, and North Cascades National Parks. Mercury was detected in trout from all lakes sampled (15 to 262 ??g/kg ww), while two organochlorines, total polychlorinated biphenyls (tPCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), were also detected in these fish tissues (<25 ??g/kg ww). In sediments, organochlorine levels were below detection, while median total and methyl mercury were 30.4 and 0.34 ??g/ kg dry weight (ww), respectively. Using fish from two lakes, representing different contaminant loading levels (Wilcox lake: high; Skymo lake: low), we examined transcriptional response in the liver using a custom-made low-density targeted rainbow trout cDNA microarray. We detected significant differences in liver transcriptional response, including significant changes in metabolic, endocrine, and immune-related genes, in fish collected from Wilcox Lake compared to Skymo Lake. Overall, our results suggest that local urban areas contribute to the observed contaminant patterns in these high elevation lakes, while the transcriptional changes point to a biological response associated with exposure to these contaminants in fish. Specifically, the gene expression pattern leads us to hypothesize a role for mercury in disrupting the metabolic and reproductive pathways in fish from high elevation lakes in western Washington. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  6. Conservation genetics of Lake Superior brook trout: Issues, questions, and directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, C.C.; Stott, W.; Miller, L.; D'Amelio, S.; Jennings, Martin J.; Cooper, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Parallel efforts by several genetic research groups have tackled common themes relating to management concerns about and recent rehabilitation opportunities for coaster brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Lake Superior. The questions that have been addressed include the evolutionary and genetic status of coaster brook trout, the degree of relatedness among coaster populations and their relationship to riverine tributary brook trout populations, and the role and effectiveness of stocking in maintaining and restoring coasters to Lake Superior. Congruent genetic results indicate that coasters are an ecotype (life history variant) rather than an evolutionarily significant unit or genetically distinct strain. Regional structure exists among brook trout stocks, coasters being produced from local populations. Introgression of hatchery genes into wild populations appears to vary regionally and may relate to local population size, habitat integrity, and anthropogenic pressures. Tracking the genetic diversity and integrity associated with captive breeding programs is helping to ensure that the fish used for stocking are representative of their source populations and appropriate for rehabilitation efforts. Comparative analysis of shared samples among collaborating laboratories is enabling standardization of genotype scoring and interpretation as well as the development of a common toolkit for assessing genetic structure and diversity. Incorporation of genetic data into rehabilitation projects will facilitate monitoring efforts and subsequent adaptive management. Together, these multifaceted efforts provide comprehensive insights into the biology of coaster brook trout and enhance restoration options. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. Stable isotope evaluation of population- and individual-level diet variability in a large, oligotrophic lake with non-native lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ng, Elizabeth L.; Fredericks, Jim P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native piscivores can alter food web dynamics; therefore, evaluating interspecific relationships is vital for conservation and management of ecosystems with introduced fishes. Priest Lake, Idaho, supports a number of introduced species, including lake troutSalvelinus namaycush, brook trout S. fontinalis and opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana. In this study, we used stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) to describe the food web structure of Priest Lake and to test hypotheses about apparent patterns in lake trout growth. We found that isotopic niches of species using pelagic-origin carbon did not overlap with those using more littoral-origin carbon. Species using more littoral-origin carbon, such as brook trout and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, exhibited a high degree of isotopic niche overlap and high intrapopulation variability in resource use. Although we hypothesised that lake trout would experience an ontogenetic diet shift, no such patterns were apparent in isotopic signatures. Lake trout growth rates were not associated with patterns in δ15N, indicating that variation in adult body composition may not be related to adult diet. Understanding trophic relationships at both the individual and species levels provides a more complete understanding of food webs altered by non-native species.

  8. Depth distribution, diet, and overwinter growth of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in southeastern Lake Michigan sampled in December 1981 and March 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eck, Gary W.; Wells, LaRue

    1986-01-01

    Lake trout were collected in graded-mesh gill nets and forage fishes were collected in trawls in mid December 1981 and late March 1982. The length ranges of 317 lake trout caught in December and 138 in March were 280-767 and 286-857 mm, and the age ranges I-XI and II-XIV, respectively. Three year classes (1977-79) made up almost 80% of the catches of lake trout in both sampling periods. Lake trout were most abundant at depth of 18 to 37 m in December (water temperatures, 5.5-6.8A?C) and at 2864 m in March (water temperatures, 1.0-1.3A?C). Fish of the 1977-79 year classes completed 9 to 24% of their annual growth in length, and 14 to 39% of their growth in weight, between mid December and late March. Lake trout ate mainly alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), especially young-of-the-year, in December, but primarily slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) in March, when alewives were mainly at depths of greater than those occupied by most lake trout. Other important food items were rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and, in deeper water, deepwater sculpins (Myoxocephalus thompsoni). Bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) were eaten only sparingly, although they were abundantly available in both sampling periods. Perhaps this species, which coevolved with the lake trout in Lake Michigan and was important in the native trout's diet, is better able to avoid capture by the trout than are the exotic alewife and rainbow smelt. It may not again become a major forage species unless the other food sources become scarce.

  9. Development of thiamine deficiencies and early mortality syndrome in lake trout by feeding experimental and feral fish diets containing thiaminase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Brown, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory investigation on the consequences of feeding predatory saimonids either experimental diets low in thiamine or diets containing alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. In experiment 1, adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were fed experimental diets containing bacterial thiaminase. In experiment 2, adult lake trout were fed natural prey species, alewives, and bloaters Coregonus hoyi. The diets consisted of four combinations of alewives and bloaters from Lake Michigan (100% alewives, 65% alewives-35% bloaters, 35% alewives-65% bloaters, and 100% bloaters), alewives from Cayuga Lake, a casein bacterial thiaminase, and a commercial trout diet. We assessed the effects of each diet on egg thiamine concentration and incidence of an embryonic early mortality syndrome (EMS). In experiment 1, incidence of EMS ranged from 0% to 100%. Significant relationships were found between the incidence of EMS and thiamine. In experiment 2, adult lake trout fed 100% alewives from either Lake Michigan or Cayuga Lake or fish fed the casein bacterial thiaminase diet produced eggs with low thiamine and swim-up fry with EMS. At either 35% or 65% alewives in the diet, egg thiamine was significantly lowered. The number of females that produced offspring that died from EMS were low but demonstrated the negative potential if feral lake trout foraged on either 35% or 65% alewives. Depleted egg thiamine and the onset of EMS required diets containing thiaminase for a minimum of 2 years in lake trout initially fully thiamine replete. We conclude that EMS can be caused by extensive feeding on 100% alewives and dietary levels of 35% or greater may prove detrimental to sustainable reproduction of salmonids in the Great Lakes. The data are consistent with that observed in feral lake trout, and it is concluded that EMS is the result of a thiamine deficiency. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  10. Classification of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attack marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Everett Louis

    1980-01-01

    Criteria for the classification of marks inflicted by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into nine categories were developed from laboratory studies in an attempt to refine the classification system used in field assessment work. These criteria were based on characteristics of the attachment site that could be identified under field conditions by unaided visual means and by touching the attachment site. Healing of these marks was somewhat variable and was influenced by the size of lamprey, duration of attachment, severity of the wound at lamprey detachment, season and water temperature, and by other less obvious factors. Even under laboratory conditions staging of some wounds was difficult, especially at low water temperatures. If these criteria are to be used effectively and with precision in the field, close examination of individual fish may be required. If the feeding and density of specific year-classes of sea lampreys are to be accurately assessed on an annual basis, close attention to the wound size (as it reflects the size of the lamprey's oral disc) and character of wounds on fish will be required as well as consideration of the season of the year in which they are observed.Key words: sea lamprey, attack marks, lake trout, Great Lakes

  11. Chronic bioassays of rainbow trout fry with compounds representative of contaminants in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Berlin, William H.; Hickey, James P.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the hazard of organic compounds detected in Great Lakes fish by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we tested compounds representative of heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyclic alkanes and alkenes. Sixty-day bioassays on the effects of nicotine, phenanthrene, pinane, and pinene on the behavior, growth, and survival of rainbow trout fry, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were conducted in a large, constant-flow, temperature-controlled water system. The following 60-day LCSO's were determined (mg/L): nicotine 5.0, phenanthrene 0.2, pinane 0.8, and pinene 1.2. Values of lowest observed effects level (LOEL) and no observed effects level (NOEL) showed that growth was generally as sensitive an endpoint as behavior and was more sensitive than time of swim-up. The 60-day LC50 values for rainbow trout were compared with earlier acute bioassays with Daphnia pulexand rainbow trout and chronic bioassays with D.pulex conducted at the Great Lakes Science Center. Rainbow trout fry were less sensitive than daphnids in all tests, indicating that toxicity tests with daphnids should be protective of salmonid fry for these types of compounds. The results for representative compounds indicate that these classes of compounds should be included in aquatic risk assessments at sites in the Great Lakes.

  12. Diet of juvenile lake trout in southern Lake Ontario in relation to abundance and size of prey fishes, 1979-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We examined the diet of juvenile lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (<450 mm, total length) in Lake Ontario during four sampling periods (April–May, June, July–August, and October 1979–1987) in relation to changes in prey fish abundance in the depth zone where we caught the lake trout. Over all years combined, slimy sculpins Cottus cognatus contributed the most (39–52%) by wet weight to the diet, followed by alewives Alosa pseudoharengus(3–38%), rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax (17–43%), and johnny darters Etheostoma nigrum(2–10%). Over 90% of alewives eaten during April–May and June were age 1, and 98% of those eaten during October were age 0 (few alewives were eaten in July–August). Mean lengths of rainbow smelt and slimy sculpins in stomachs increased with size of lake trout. Juvenile lake trout generally fed opportunistically—seasonal and annual changes in diet usually reflected seasonal and annual changes in abundance of prey fishes near bottom where we captured the lake trout. Furthermore, diet within a given season varied with depth of capture of lake trout, and changes with depth in proportions of prey species in lake trout stomachs mirrored changes in proportions of the prey species in trawl catches at the same depth. Alewives (ages 0 and 1) were the only prey fish eaten in substantial quantities by both juvenile lake trout and other salmonines, and thus are a potential focus of competition between these predators.

  13. Introduction and summary: Chlorinated hydrocarbons as a factor in the reproduction and survival of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willford, Wayne A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Berlin, William H.; Foster, Neal R.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Mac, Michael J.; Passino, Dora R. May; Reinert, Robert E.; Rottiers, Donald V.

    1981-01-01

    Although lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were considered extinct in Lake Michigan by the mid 1950's, control of the parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and extensive restocking resulted in an abundance of hatchery-produced lake trout in the lake by the early 1970's. However, no naturally produced yearling or older lake trout have been found in the lake during nearly a decade of assessment sampling. Among the numerous hypotheses proposed to account for this apparent reproductive failure of the planted lake trout, a frequently suggested cause is the well-documented contamination of the fish by toxic substances such as DDT and its metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) at concentrations reported as adversely affecting the hatching of eggs and survival of larval fish. However, manually stripped and fertilized eggs of Lake Michigan lake trout have hatched successfully and the fry have survived normally under a variety of hatchery conditions. This observation led to studies at the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory on the performance and survival of fry hatched from eggs of Lake Michigan lake trout and exposed for 6 months to PCB's (Aroclor 1254) and DDE at concentrations similar to those present in offshore waters and zooplankton of Lake Michigan (10.0 ng/L PCB's and 1.0 ng/L DDE in water; 1.0 μg/g PCB's and 0.1 μg/g DDE in food), and at concentrations 5 and 25 times higher. Cumulative mortality of the fry exposed to simulated Lake Michigan levels of PCB's and DDE for 6 months was 40.7% — nearly twice that of unexposed (control) fry — and mortality at the highest exposure level was 46.5%. Evaluation of the growth, swimming performance, predator avoidance, temperature preference, and metabolism of the fry showed no significant effects attributable to exposure to PCB's and DDE, except for a lowering of preferred temperature at the highest (25x) exposures (the only concentration tested) to each contaminant and (additively) both contaminants combined

  14. Myxobolus cerebralis in native cutthroat trout of the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koel, T.M.; Mahony, D.L.; Kinnan, K.L.; Rasmussen, C.; Hudson, C.J.; Murcia, S.; Kerans, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    The exotic parasite Myxobolus cerebralis was first detected in native adult Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvierii from Yellowstone Lake in 1998, seriously threatening the ecological integrity of this pristine, naturally functioning ecosystem. We immediately began to assess the prevalence and spatial extent of M. cerebralis infection in Yellowstone cutthroat trout within Yellowstone Lake and to determine the infection risk of age-0 Yellowstone cutthroat trout, the relative abundance and actinospore production of lubificid worms, and the basic environmental characteristics of tributaries. During 1999-2001, juvenile and adult Yellowstone cutthroat trout were infected throughout Yellowstone Lake; the highest prevalence (15.3-16.4%) occurred in the northern and central regions. Exposure studies in 13 streams indicated that Pelican and Clear creeks and the Yellowstone River were positive for M. cerebralis; the highest prevalence (100%) and severity was found in Pelican Creek during mid-July. Sexually mature individuals of the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex were most abundant in early summer, were genetically homogenous, and were members of a lineage known to produce moderate to high levels of M. cerebralis triactinomyxons. Only 20 of the 3,037 sampled tubificids produced actinospores after 7 d in culture, and none of the actinospores were M. cerebralis. However, one non-actinospore-producing T. tubifex from Pelican Creek tested positive for M. cerebralis by polymerase chain reaction. Stream temperatures at Pelican Creek, a fourth-order, low-gradient stream, were over 20??C during the first exposure period, suggesting that T. tubifex were capable of producing triactinomyxons at elevated temperatures in the wild. Although the infection of otherwise healthy adult Yellowstone cutthroat trout within Yellowstone Lake suggests some resistance, our sentinel cage exposures indicated that this subspecies may be more susceptible to whirling disease than previous

  15. Using side scan sonar data in a geographic information system to locate and display lake trout spawning habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Waltermire, Robert G.; White, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    The National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has extensively used a side scan sonar to survey and pinpoint lake trout spawning grounds in the Great Lakes. The Geographic Information System (GIS) of the National Ecology Research Center produced maps from the side scan sonar data showing the exact location of the spawning grounds; this will enable current stocking programs to be carried out at those locations. These maps show the geographic position (latitude and longitude) of both the color-coded primary substrate types and the secondary substrate types, which are denoted by overstrikes. The maps must be supplemented with a Loran-C navigation grid for field use. The maps are proving useful to fishery managers by locating lake trout stocking areas in Lakes Michigan and Huron, as well as to researchers who investigate habitat quality on lake trout spawning grounds.

  16. Biomagnification of mercury through lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) food webs of lakes with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xioawa; Whittle, Mike; Swanson, Heidi K; Johnston, Tom; Guildford, Stephanie

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems remains a concern because this pollutant is known to affect the health of fish-eating wildlife and humans, and the fish themselves. The "rate" of mercury biomagnification is being assessed more frequently using stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N), a measure of relative trophic position of biota within a food web. Within food webs and across diverse systems, log-transformed Hg concentrations are significantly and positively related to δ(15)N and the slopes of these models vary from one study to another for reasons that are not yet understood. Here we compared the rates of Hg biomagnification in 14 lake trout lakes from three provinces in Canada to understand whether any characteristics of the ecosystems explained this among-system variability. Several fish species, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were collected from these lakes and analyzed for total Hg (fish only), methyl Hg (invertebrates) and stable isotopes (δ(15)N; δ(13)C to assess energy sources). Mercury biomagnification rates varied significantly across systems and were higher for food webs of larger (surface area), higher nutrient lakes. However, the slopes were not predictive of among-lake differences in Hg in the lake trout. Results indicate that among-system differences in the rates of Hg biomagnification seen in the literature may be due, in part, to differences in ecosystem characteristics although the mechanisms for this variability are not yet understood. PMID:22982939

  17. Occurrence and morphogenetic characteristics of Gyrodactylus (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from a rainbow trout farm (Lake Ladoga, Russia).

    PubMed

    Ieshko, Evgeny; Barskaya, Yulia; Parshukov, Aleksey; Lumme, Jaakko; Khlunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Gyrodactylus parasite infected juveniles on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) from a fish farm in Lake Ladoga were investigated. The observed cases of infection in fish featured a high prevalence, when almost all of the fish were infected. However, if an outbreak of the monogenean infection is observed in spring, the intensity of the infection may be low, and when the infection occurs in the ice-covered period (late autumn - winter), the number of parasites on the fins of a single fish may exceed 3000 specimens. Molecular identification of the parasite demonstrated that the infecting clone was identical with rainbow trout specific strain of Gyrodactylus salaris RBT widely spread in Northern Europe, but a small proportion of the parasites were the hybrid clone Gyrodactylus pomeraniae x G. lavareti. Morphological variations of hooks and other opisthaptor parts in the monogenean Gyrodactylus depending on the intensity of infection in rainbow trout were demonstrated.

  18. Shifts in depth distributions of alewives, rainbow smelt, and age-2 lake trout in southern Lake Ontario following establishment of Dreissenids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Elrod, Joseph H.; Owens, Randall W.; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Lantry, Brian F.

    2000-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, biologists conducting assessments of fish stocks in Lake Ontario reported finding alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and juvenile lake trout Salvelinus namaycush at greater depths than in the mid-1980s. To determine if depth distributions shifted coincident with the early 1990s colonization of Lake Ontario by exotic Dreissena mussels, we calculated mean depth of capture for each of the three species during trawl surveys conducted annually during 1978–1997 and examined the means for significant deviations from established patterns. We found that mean capture depth of alewives, rainbow smelt, and age-2 lake trout shifted deeper during the build up of the dreissenid population in Lake Ontario but that timing of the shift varied among seasons and species. Depth shifts occurred first for rainbow smelt and age-2 lake trout in June 1991. In 1992, alewives shifted deeper in June followed by age-2 lake trout in July–August. Finally, in 1993 and 1994, the distribution of lake trout and alewives shifted in April–May. Reasons why the three fishes moved to deeper water are not clear, but changes in distribution were not linked to temperature. Mean temperature of capture after the depth shift was significantly lower than before the depth shift except for alewives in April–May. Movement of alewives, rainbow smelt, and age-2 lake trout to colder, deeper water has the potential to alter growth and reproduction schedules by exposing the fish to different temperature regimes and to alter the food chain, increasing predation on Mysis relicta in deep water and decreasing alewife predation on lake trout fry over nearshore spawning grounds in spring.

  19. Effect of water temperature on sea lamprey growth and lake trout survival

    SciTech Connect

    Swink, W.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Percent mortality of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to single sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus attacks did not differ significantly between lower-temperature (mortality = 54%; temperature [le] 10[degrees]C; N = 33) and higher-temperature (mortality = 69%; temperature = 12.8-14.4[degrees]C; N = 45) laboratory studies conducted from 1 June to 28 November 1989. However, sea lampreys fed longer and killed fewer fish in colder water (mean attachment 467.0 h; 18 fish killed) than in warmer water (mean attachment 161.7 h; 31 fish killed), probably because food consumption was lower in colder water. These results indicate that the number of fish killed by sea lampreys could be much greater in warmer water and that temperature must be considered when fish losses from sea lamprey attacks are estimated. Previous studies (Swink and Hanson 1989; Swink 1990) of the effects of single sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus attacks on lake trout Salvelinus namaycush showed significantly less lake trout mortality at temperatures of 10[degrees]C and lower than at higher temperatures. The reduced host mortality, however, could not be attributed solely to lower temperature because warmwater and coldwater attacks occurred during different seasons. In those studies, the author was unable to hold water temperature at 10[degrees]C or less in late summer and early fall, when most fish are killed by sea lampreys in the Great Lakes (Christie and Kolenosky 1980; Bergstedt and Schneider 1988). Modifications to the fish holding facilities at the Hammond Bay Biological Station in 1988 allowed maintenance of a limited amount of water at 10[degrees]C or less throughout the year. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare sea lamprey-induced mortality of lake trout at 10[degrees]C or less with that at 12.8-14.4[degrees]C during the normal feeding season (June through November). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Thiamine status of Cayuga Lake rainbow trout and its influence on spawning migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketola, H. George; Chiotti, Thomas L.; Rathman, Robert S.; Fitzsimons, John D.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Van Dusen, Peter J.; Lewis, Graham E.

    2005-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Cayuga Lake, New York, appear to be suffering from a thiamine deficiency because their progeny develop general weakness, loss of equilibrium, and increased mortality, which are prevented by treatment with thiamine. Thiamine status and its effect on adults are unknown. In 2000 and 2002, we captured, tagged, and released 64 and 189 prespawning rainbow trout, respectively, in Cayuga Inlet at a collection weir to evaluate their thiamine status and the effect of thiamine injection (150 nmol/g) on instream migration. Half of the rainbow trout in each year (32 in 2000 and 95 in 2002) were injected with thiamine and half were uninjected; all rainbow trout were released above the weir to continue their upstream migration. By means of electrofishing in 2000, we recaptured significantly more thiamine-injected (N = 7) than uninjected (N = 0) rainbow trout approximately 7.0–9.3 river kilometers upstream from the weir. In 2002, the concentration of thiamine in the muscle of rainbow trout collected above a 1.8-m cascade was significantly higher (mean ± SD = 5.47 ± 5.04 nmol/g; range = 1.0– 13.8 nmol/g; N = 8) than that of rainbow trout collected either above a 1.0-m cascade (1.36 ± 0.71 nmol/g; range = 0.6–3.3 nmol/g; N = 16) or below the cascades (1.20 ± 0.46 nmol/g; range = 0.7–1.9 nmol/g; N = 5). The lowest concentration of thiamine observed in the muscle of rainbow trout collected upstream of the 1.8-m cascade was 1.0 nmol/g, suggesting that the threshold concentration required for rainbow trout to ascend the cascade was no more than that. Analyses of thiamine in the muscle of 26 untagged rainbow trout captured in Cayuga Inlet in 2002 showed that 16 fish (62%) had at least 1.0 nmol/g, which was apparently sufficient to support vigorous migration.

  1. Comparison of hatchery-reared lake trout stocked as fall fingerlings and as spring yearlings in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; Ostergaard, David E.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1988-01-01

    We made 16 paired releases of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of four year classes (1979–1982) at five locations to compare survival and growth of hatchery-reared fish stocked as fall fingerlings (FF) and as spring yearlings (SY). Comparisons were based on fish at ages 2–8 recovered with bottom trawls, with gill nets, and from anglers' catches. Mean lengths and weights were greater for SY than for FF at all ages, and SY attained sexual maturity at an earlier age than FF. The survival of FF may have been affected by average size at stocking and by the severity of the weather during the first winter after stocking. Survival ratios of SY to FF lake trout from stocking to age 2 ranged from 1.32:1 to 6.80:1, and a ratio of 2.41:1 was considered to be typical. Stocking cost per 1,000 fish was US$21.76 for FF and $35.45 for SY. Under the most cost-effective hatchery regime for producing lake trout (the maximum number of SY plus some FF to fully utilize hatchery space and personnel year round), rearing cost per 1,000 fish was estimated to be $235.41 for SY and $38.75 for FF.

  2. Age, growth, spawning season, and fecundity of the trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) in southeastern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, Robert; Wells, LaRue

    1973-01-01

    Growth of trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) in the first 2 years of life was somewhat slower in southeastern Lake Michigan (average length at end of second year, 83 mm) than in Lower Red Lake, Minnesota (90 mm), but considerably faster than in Lake Superior (58 mm); size differences in later years were slightly less pronounced. Young fish began growing earlier in the year (some before June 20) than older ones (as late as August). Females tended to live longer than males, as they do in Lower Red Lake and Lake Superior. Trout-perch spawned from late June or early July until late September, somewhat later than in Lower Red Lake (May to August) or Lake Erie (June to August). Fecundity was similar to that in Lake Erie; mature females 94-146 mm long contained from 126 to 1329 yolked eggs.

  3. Evidence that lake trout served as a buffer against sea lamprey predation on burbot in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The population of burbot Lota lota in Lake Erie recovered during 1986–2003, mainly because of the control of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which began in 1986. Burbot populations continued to grow during 1996–1998, when sea lamprey control was substantially reduced. We calculated mortality parameters for burbot in Lake Erie by estimating age at capture for 2,793 burbot caught in annual gill-net surveys of eastern Lake Erie from 1994 to 2003. Based on catch-curve analysis, annual mortality in Lake Erie during 1994–2003 was estimated as 33%. Annual mortality of the 1992 year-class of burbot was estimated as 30%. The mortality of burbot during the years of reduced sea lamprey control was not different from that during the 3 years preceding reduced control and was significantly lower than that during the entire portion of the time series in which full sea lamprey control was conducted. These results suggest that the reduction in sea lamprey control did not lead to increased burbot mortality. The catch per gill-net lift of large burbot (total length > 600 mm), the size preferred by sea lampreys, was lower than that of adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (age 5 and older; total length > 700 mm) before lampricide application was reduced. Although adult lake trout populations declined, the abundance of large burbot did not change during the period of reduced lampricide application. These results support a hypothesis that a healthy population of adult lake trout can serve as a buffer species, acting to reduce predation of burbot by sea lampreys when sea lamprey populations increase. Burbot attained sexual maturity at a relatively early age (3 or 4 years) and a total length (approximately 500 mm) that was smaller than the preferred prey size for sea lampreys. These characteristics and the buffering effect of the lake trout population enabled growth of the burbot population during the brief period when lamprey control was reduced.

  4. Metabolism and Fatty Acid Profile in Fat and Lean Rainbow Trout Lines Fed with Vegetable Oil: Effect of Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies. PMID:24124573

  5. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  6. Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus is not the cause of thiamine deficiency impeding lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Catherine A.; Evans, Allison N.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Zajicek, James L.; Heppell, Scott A.; Riley, Stephen C.; Krueger, Charles C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is a global concern affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans. In Great Lakes salmonines, thiamine deficiency causes embryo mortality and is an impediment to restoration of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocks. Thiamine deficiency in fish may result from a diet of prey with high levels of thiaminase I. The discoveries that the bacterial species Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus produces thiaminase I, is found in viscera of thiaminase-containing prey fish, and causes mortality when fed to lake trout in the laboratory provided circumstantial evidence implicating P. thiaminolyticus. This study quantified the contribution of P. thiaminolyticus to the total thiaminase I activity in multiple trophic levels of Great Lakes food webs. Unexpectedly, no relationship between thiaminase activity and either the amount of P. thiaminolyticus thiaminase I protein or the abundance of P. thiaminolyticus cells was found. These results demonstrate that P. thiaminolyticus is not the primary source of thiaminase activity affecting Great Lakes salmonines and calls into question the long-standing assumption that P. thiaminolyticus is the source of thiaminase in other wild and domestic animals.

  7. Genetic and phenotypic variation along an ecological gradient in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baillie, Shauna M.; Muir, Andrew M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.; Bentzen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAdaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycushthat considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes. Genetic and phenotypic traits organized along common ecological gradients of water depth and geographic distance provide important insights into diversification processes in a lake with high levels of human disturbance from over-fishing.ResultsFour putative lake trout ecotypes could not be distinguished using population genetic methods, despite morphological differences. Neutral genetic partitioning in lake trout was stronger along a gradient of water depth, than by locality or ecotype. Contemporary genetic migration patterns were consistent with isolation-by-depth. Historical gene flow patterns indicated colonization from shallow to deep water. Comparison of phenotypic (Pst) and neutral genetic variation (Fst) revealed that morphological traits related to swimming performance (e.g., buoyancy, pelvic fin length) departed more strongly from neutral expectations along a depth gradient than craniofacial feeding traits. Elevated phenotypic variance with increasing water depth in pelvic fin length indicated possible ongoing character release and diversification. Finally, differences in early growth rate and asymptotic fish length across depth strata may be associated with limiting factors attributable to cold deep-water environments.ConclusionWe provide evidence of reductions in gene flow and divergent natural selection associated with water depth in Lake Superior. Such information is relevant for documenting intraspecific biodiversity in the largest freshwater lake

  8. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  9. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ≈ Erie > Huron > Superior ≈ Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid.

  10. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes-- lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Hesselberg and Seelye 1982). This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compounds, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes (Passino and Smith 1987a). In further studies Smith et al. (1988) focused on 6 of the 19 classes of compounds using the zooplankter Daphnia pulex as the test organism. They ranked the six classes as follows (in decreasing order of toxicity): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, and silicon-containing compounds.

  11. Influence of basin-scale physical variables on life history characteristics of cutthroat trout in Yellowstone Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gresswell, Robert E.; Liss, W.J.; Larson, Gary L.; Bartlein, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Individual spawning populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri differ in life history characteristics associated with broad spatial and temporal environmental patterns, but relationships between specific life history characteristics of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and physical aspects of the environment are poorly understood. We examined basin-scale physical characteristics of tributary drainages and subbasins of Yellowstone Lake in relation to timing (peak and duration) of lacustrinea??adfluvial Yellowstone cutthroat trout spawning migrations and mean length of cutthroat trout spawners in 27 tributaries to the lake. Stream drainages varied along gradients that can be described by mean aspect, mean elevation, and drainage and stream size. Approximately two-thirds of the variation in the timing of the peak of the annual cutthroat trout spawning migrations and average length of spawners was explained by third-order polynomial regressions with mean aspect and basin area as predictor variables. Because most cutthroat trout ascend tributaries soon after peak runoff, it appears that the influence of basin-scale physical variables on the date of the migration peak is manifested by the pattern of stream discharge. Spawner length does not seem to be a direct function of stream size in the Yellowstone Lake watershed, and aspect of the tributary basin seems to have a greater influence on the body length of cutthroat trout spawners than does stream size. Mechanisms that explain how the interaction of basin-scale physical variables influence spawner length were not investigated directly; however, we found evidence of distinct aggregations of cutthroat trout that are related to physical and limnological characteristics of the lake subbasins, and there is some indication that lake residence may be related to tributary location.

  12. Comparison of harvest scenarios for the cost-effective suppression of Lake Trout in Swan Lake, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syslo, John M.; Guy, Christopher S.; Cox, Benjamin S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the large amount of resources required for long-term control or eradication projects, it is important to assess strategies and associated costs and outcomes before a particular plan is implemented. We developed a population model to assess the cost-effectiveness of mechanical removal strategies for suppressing long-term abundance of nonnative Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in Swan Lake, Montana. We examined the efficacy of targeting life stages (i.e., juveniles or adults) using temporally pulsed fishing effort for reducing abundance and program cost. Exploitation rates were high (0.80 for juveniles and 0.68 for adults) compared with other lakes in the western USA with Lake Trout suppression programs. Harvesting juveniles every year caused the population to decline, whereas harvesting only adults caused the population to increase above carrying capacity. Simultaneous harvest of juveniles and adults was required to cause the population to collapse (i.e., 95% reduction relative to unharvested abundance) with 95% confidence. The population could collapse within 15 years for a total program cost of US$1,578,480 using the most aggressive scenario. Substantial variation in cost existed among harvest scenarios for a given reduction in abundance; however, total program cost was minimized when collapse was rapid. Our approach provides a useful case study for evaluating long-term mechanical removal options for fish populations that are not likely to be eradicated.

  13. An evaluation of restoration efforts in fishless lakes stocked with exotic trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.C.; Naiman, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Detrimental effects of introduced fishes on native amphibian populations have prompted removal of introduced cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki), rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from naturally fishless lakes at Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington (U.S.A.). Using paleolimnological indicators (diatoms, invertebrates, and sediment characteristics) in eight 480-year-old sediment cores from eight lakes, we (1) derived estimates of baseline environmental conditions and natural variation, (2) assessed the effects of stocking naturally fishless lakes, and (3) determined whether lakes returned to predisturbance conditions after fish removal (restoration). Diatom floras were relatively stable between 315 and 90 years before present in all lakes; we used this time period to define lake-specific "baseline" conditions. Dissimilarity analyses of diatoms revealed sustained, dramatic changes in diatom floras that occurred approximately 80 years ago (when fish were introduced) in four of five stocked lakes, whereas the diatom floras in two unstocked lakes had not changed significantly in the last 315 years. Diatoms were not preserved in an eighth lake. State changes also occurred in two lakes over 200 years before European settlement of the Pacific Northwest. Preserved invertebrate densities fluctuated dramatically over time in all cores, providing a poor reference for assessing the effects of fishes. Nevertheless, fish-invertebrate interactions have been demonstrated in other paleolimnological studies and may be useful for lower-elevation or more productive lakes. Because diatom communities have not returned to predisturbance assemblages in restored lakes, even 20-30 years after fish removal, we conclude that Mt. Rainier lakes were not successfully restored by the removal of fishes.

  14. Assessment of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation by recovery of dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario, 1982-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1988-01-01

    During 1982-85, 89 dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were recovered with bottom trawls in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario: 28 incidentally during four annual fish-stock assessment surveys and 61 during fall surveys for dead fish. During the assessment surveys, no dead lake trout were recovered in April-June, one was recovered in August, and 27 were recovered in October or November, implying that most mortality from causes other than fishing occurred in the fall. The estimated numbers of dead lake trout between the 30- and 100-m depth contours in U.S. waters ranged from 16 000 (0.08 carcass/ha) in 1983 to 94 000 (0.46 carcass/ha) in 1982. Of 76 carcasses fresh enough to enable recognition of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounds, 75 bore fresh wounds. Assuming that sea lamprey wounding rates on dead fish were the same as on live ones of the same length range (430-740 mm), the probability of 75 of the 76 dead lake trout bearing sea lamprey wounds was 3.5 x 10-63 if death was independent of sea lamprey attack, thus strongly implicating sea lampreys as the primary cause of death of fish in the sample. The recovery of only one unwounded dead lake trout also suggested that natural mortality from causes other than sea lamprey attactks is negligible.

  15. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Charles D.

    2000-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  16. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sear, Sheri

    2001-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  17. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project : Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Charles D.

    1999-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Personnel of three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and

  18. Maternal characteristics versus egg size and energy density: do stocked lake trout in Lake Ontario experience premature reproductive senescence?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Machut, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Observations from September 1994 and 1997 collections of hatchery-origin, mature female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario indicated that egg mass decreased with age, fueling the notion that stocked fish experienced premature reproductive senescence. Supplemental collections during September 2002 and November 2002-2004 were combined with the 1994 and 1997 samples to examine whether sample date or maternal age, body mass, condition (K), egg count, or strain were related to egg mass or energy content (percentage dry mass [%DM]). Body mass was correlated with egg mass for age ≥ 8 lake trout sampled in September, and egg count was correlated with egg mass for September age-6 lake trout only. Within each month, egg mass was not related to K or egg %DM, however, egg %DM was 1.52% greater (P ≤ 0.0247) in November than in September which is equivalent to a 110 cal/g difference. Samples were grouped for the three most abundant strains (Seneca, Superior, and Ontario) after finding no strain or year effects from our 1994 and 1997 samples and based on life history data from the literature and our assessment sampling. Further analysis indicated that September egg masses were greater for fish ages ≤ 6 than for fish ages ≥ 8. The age effect disappeared in November when mean egg mass across all ages (0.078 g) was greater than September means (P < 0.0005) for ages -5 (0.054 g), -6 (0.057 g) and ≥ 8 (0.041 g). Our results indicate that the decrease in egg mass with female age in September was not due to senescence, but to oogenesis being closer to completion in young age-5 and -6 fish than in older individuals.

  19. Life-history organization of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) in Yellowstone Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gresswell, Robert E.; Liss, W.J.; Larson, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Life-history organization of the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) may be viewed at various levels, including species, subspecies, metapopulation, population, or individual. Each level varies in spatial scale and temporal persistence, and components at each level continually change with changes in environment. Cutthroat trout are widely distributed throughout the western United States, occurring in such diverse environments as coastal rivers of the Pacific Northwest and interior streams of the Great Basin. During its evolution the species has organized into 14 subspecies with many different life-history characteristics and habitat requirements. Within subspecies, organization is equally complex. For example, life-history traits, such as average size and age, migration strategy, and migration timing, vary among individual spawning populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) in tributary streams of Yellowstone Lake. Understanding the effects of human perturbations on life-history organization is critical for management of the cutthroat trout and other polytypic salmonid species. Loss of diversity at any hierarchical level jeopardizes the long-term ability of the species to adapt to changing environments, and it may also lead to increased fluctuations in abundance and yield and increase the risk of extinction.

  20. Summer-autumn habitat use of yearling rainbow trout in two streams in the Lake Ontario watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of salmonids in streams is an important component of fisheries management. We examined the summer and autumn habitat use of yearling Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to available habitat in two streams in the Lake Ontario watershed. Little interstream variation in trout habitat use was observed; the variation that did occur was largely due to differences between streams in available habitat in the autumn. In both streams, yearling Rainbow Trout utilized pool habitat and during periods of high stream discharge were associated with larger substrate that may provide a velocity barrier. These findings may assist resource managers in their efforts to protect and restore habitat for migratory Rainbow Trout in the Lake Ontario watershed.

  1. Lake trout otolith chronologies as multidecadal indicators of high-latitude freshwater ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, B.A.; Von Biela, V.R.; Zimmerman, C.E.; Brown, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude ecosystems are among the most vulnerable to long-term climate change, yet continuous, multidecadal indicators by which to gauge effects on biology are scarce, especially in freshwater environments. To address this issue, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques were applied to growth-increment widths in otoliths from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Chandler Lake system, Alaska (68.23°N, 152.70°W). All otoliths were collected in 1987 and exhibited highly synchronous patterns in growth-increment width. Increments were dated, the widths were measured, and age-related growth declines were removed using standard dendrochronology techniques. The detrended time series were averaged to generate an annually resolved chronology, which continuously spanned 1964–1984. The chronology positively and linearly correlated with August air temperature over the 22-year interval (p < 0.01), indicating that warmer summers were beneficial for growth, perhaps by increasing fish metabolic rate or lake productivity. Given the broad distribution of lake trout within North America, this study suggests that otolith chronologies could be used to examine responses between freshwater ecosystems and environmental variability across a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  2. Striking Phenotypic Variation yet Low Genetic Differentiation in Sympatric Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Andrew; Carson, Robert; Debes, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The study of population differentiation in the context of ecological speciation is commonly assessed using populations with obvious discreteness. Fewer studies have examined diversifying populations with occasional adaptive variation and minor reproductive isolation, so factors impeding or facilitating the progress of early stage differentiation are less understood. We detected non-random genetic structuring in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabiting a large, pristine, postglacial lake (Mistassini Lake, Canada), with up to five discernible genetic clusters having distinctions in body shape, size, colouration and head shape. However, genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.017) and genetic clustering was largely incongruent between several population- and individual-based clustering approaches. Genotype- and phenotype-environment associations with spatial habitat, depth and fish community structure (competitors and prey) were either inconsistent or weak. Striking morphological variation was often more continuous within than among defined genetic clusters. Low genetic differentiation was a consequence of relatively high contemporary gene flow despite large effective population sizes, not migration-drift disequilibrium. Our results suggest a highly plastic propensity for occupying multiple habitat niches in lake trout and a low cost of morphological plasticity, which may constrain the speed and extent of adaptive divergence. We discuss how factors relating to niche conservatism in this species may also influence how plasticity affects adaptive divergence, even where ample ecological opportunity apparently exists. PMID:27680019

  3. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    SciTech Connect

    Edsall, C.C. )

    1991-02-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes - lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye. Stizostedion vitreum vitreum. This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compound, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes. The author focuses on four of the classes. The PAHs are products of fuel combustion and components of fossil fuels. The other three classes principally originate from industrial applications (alkyl halides), as fossil fuels, insecticides, solvents, and in perfumes (cyclic alkanes); and as herbicides and insecticides (heterocyclic nitrogen compounds). The authors purpose is to report results of static acute toxicity tests in which larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used as the test fish and to compare results of acute toxicity tests with previous studies.

  4. Effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated early life stage toxicity on lake trout populations in Lake Ontario during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip M; Robbins, John A; Endicott, Douglas D; Lodge, Keith B; Guiney, Patrick D; Walker, Mary K; Zabel, Erik W; Peterson, Richard E

    2003-09-01

    Lake trout embryos and sac fry are very sensitive to toxicity associated with maternal exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and structurally related chemicals that act through a common aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated mechanism of action. The loading of large amounts of these chemicals into Lake Ontario during the middle of the 20th century coincided with a population decline that culminated in extirpation of this species around 1960. Prediction of past TCDD toxicity equivalence concentrations in lake trout eggs (TEC(egg)s) relative to recent conditions required fine resolution of radionuclide-dated contaminant profiles in two sediment cores; reference core specific biota--sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for TCDD-like chemicals in lake trout eggs; adjustment of the BSAFs for the effect of temporal changes in the chemical distributions between water and sediments; and toxicity equivalence factors based on trout early life stage mortality. When compared to the dose-response relationship for overt early life stage toxicity of TCDD to lake trout, the resulting TEC(egg)s predict an extended period during which lake trout sac fry survival was negligible. By 1940, following more than a decade of population decline attributable to reduced fry stocking and loss of adult lake trout to commercial fishing, the predicted sac fry mortality due to AHR-mediated toxicity alone explains the subsequent loss of the species. Reduced fry survival, associated with lethal and sublethal adverse effects and possibly complicated by other environmental factors, occurred after 1980 and contributed to a lack of reproductive success of stocked trout despite gradually declining TEC(egg)s. Present exposures are close to the most probable no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL TECegg = 5 pg TCDD toxicity equivalence/g egg). The toxicity predictions are very consistent with the available historical data for lake trout population levels in Lake Ontario, stocking

  5. Biological consequences of the coaster brook trout restoration stocking program in Lake Superior tributaries with Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Jill B.K.; Stott, Wendylee; Loope, Delora M.; Kusnierz, Paul C.; Sreenivasan, Ashwin

    2013-01-01

    The coaster Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is a Lake Superior ecotype representing intraspecific variation that has been impacted by habitat loss and overfishing. Hatchery strains of Brook Trout derived from populations in Lake Superior were stocked into streams within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, as part of an effort to rehabilitate adfluvial coaster Brook Trout. Wild and hatchery Brook Trout from three streams (Mosquito River, Hurricane River, and Sevenmile Creek) were examined for movement behavior, size, physiology, and reproductive success. Behavior and size of the stocked fish were similar to those of wild fish, and less than 15% of the stocked, tagged Brook Trout emigrated from the river into which they were stocked. There was little evidence of successful reproduction by stocked Brook Trout. Similar to the results of other studies, our findings suggest that the stocking of nonlocal Brook Trout strains where a local population already exists results in limited natural reproduction and should be avoided, particularly if the mechanisms governing the ecotype of interest are poorly understood.

  6. Comparison of three nonlinear models to describe long-term tag shedding by lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Swanson, Bruce L.; Schram, Stephen T.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    We estimated long-term tag-shedding rates for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush using two existing models and a model we developed to account for the observed permanence of some tags. Because tag design changed over the course of the study, we examined tag-shedding rates for three types of numbered anchor tags (Floy tags FD-67, FD-67C, and FD-68BC) and an unprinted anchor tag (FD-67F). Lake trout from the Gull Island Shoal region, Lake Superior, were double-tagged, and subsequent recaptures were monitored in annual surveys conducted from 1974 to 1992. We modeled tag-shedding rates, using time at liberty and probabilities of tag shedding estimated from fish released in 1974 and 1978–1983 and later recaptured. Long-term shedding of numbered anchor tags in lake trout was best described by a nonlinear model with two parameters: an instantaneous tag-shedding rate and a constant representing the proportion of tags that were never shed. Although our estimates of annual shedding rates varied with tag type (0.300 for FD-67, 0.441 for FD-67C, and 0.656 for FD-68BC), differences were not significant. About 36% of tags remained permanently affixed to the fish. Of the numbered tags that were shed (about 64%), two mechanisms contributed to tag loss: disintegration and dislodgment. Tags from about 11% of recaptured fish had disintegrated, but most tags were dislodged. Unprinted tags were shed at a significant but low rate immediately after release, but the long-term, annual shedding rate of these tags was only 0.013. Compared with unprinted tags, numbered tags dislodged at higher annual rates; we hypothesized that this was due to the greater frictional drag associated with the larger cross-sectional area of numbered tags.

  7. Watershed scale response to climate change--Trout Lake Basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen basins for which the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System has been calibrated and evaluated were selected as study sites. Precipitation Runoff Modeling System is a deterministic, distributed parameter watershed model developed to evaluate the effects of various combinations of precipitation, temperature, and land use on streamflow and general basin hydrology. Output from five General Circulation Model simulations and four emission scenarios were used to develop an ensemble of climate-change scenarios for each basin. These ensembles were simulated with the corresponding Precipitation Runoff Modeling System model. This fact sheet summarizes the hydrologic effect and sensitivity of the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System simulations to climate change for the Trout River Basin at Trout Lake in northern Wisconsin.

  8. Concentration and distribution of contaminants in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes (2008-2012).

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daryl J; Murphy, Elizabeth W

    2016-10-01

    Biomonitoring programs for persistent, bioaccumulative, and/or toxic chemicals of concern in fish tissues have been operated by the governments of Canada and the United States in the Great Lakes since the 1970's. The objectives of these programs are to assess concentrations of harmful chemicals in whole body top predator fish as an indicator of ecosystem health and to infer potential harm to fish and fish consuming wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin. Chemicals of interest are selected based upon national and binational commitments, risk assessment, and regulation, and include a wide range of compounds. This review summarizes all available data generated by Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemicals measured in whole body homogenates of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Walleye (Sander vitreus) for the time period spanning 2008 to 2012 from each of the five Great Lakes. The summary shows that concentrations of legacy compounds, such as, POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention and mercury continue to dominate the chemical burden of Great Lakes fish. This assessment, and others like it, can guide the creation of environmental quality targets where they are lacking, optimize chemical lists for monitoring, and prioritize chemicals of concern under agreements such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Stockholm Convention.

  9. Temperature selection by young lake trout after chronic exposure to PCB's and DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1981-01-01

    Temperature selection tests were conducted with fry of Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) exposed to PCB's, DDE and a combination of these contaminants in food and water at levels 25 times the ambient levels in plankton and water in Lake Michigan. The observed effect of the contaminants was a lowering of the preferred temperature. After 98 days of exposure, mean preferred temperatures were 10.3A?C for fry exposed to PCB's, 9.8A?C for those exposed to DDE, and 8.7A?C for those exposed to PCB's + DDE, as compared with 11.2A?C for control fry. Frequency distributions of residence temperatures were significantly (P < 0.01) different among all treatments. Such a change in the preferred temperature caused by a contaminant could reduce the energetic efficiency of a fish and thereby reduce growth and survival.

  10. Five-year evaluation of habitat remediation in Thunder Bay, Lake Huron: Comparison of constructed reef characteristics that attract spawning lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsden, J. Ellen; Binder, Thomas R.; Johnson, James; He, Ji; Dingledine, Natalie; Adams, Janice; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of aquatic habitats has motivated construction and research on the use of artificial reefs to enhance production of fish populations. However, reefs are often poorly planned, reef design characteristics are not evaluated, and reef assessments are short-term. We constructed 29 reefs in Thunder Bay, Lake Huron, in 2010 and 2011 to mitigate for degradation of a putative lake trout spawning reef. Reefs were designed to evaluate lake trout preferences for height, orientation, and size, and were compared with two degraded natural reefs and a high-quality natural reef (East Reef). Eggs and fry were sampled on each reef for five years post-construction, and movements of 40 tagged lake trout were tracked during three spawning seasons using acoustic telemetry. Numbers of adults and spawning on the constructed reefs were initially low, but increased significantly over the five years, while remaining consistent on East Reef. Adult density, egg deposition, and fry catch were not related to reef height or orientation of the constructed reefs, but were related to reef size and adjacency to East Reef. Adult lake trout visited and spawned on all except the smallest constructed reefs. Of the metrics used to evaluate the reefs, acoustic telemetry produced the most valuable and consistent data, including fine-scale examination of lake trout movements relative to individual reefs. Telemetry data, supplemented with diver observations, identified several previously unknown natural spawning sites, including the high-use portions of East Reef. Reef construction has increased the capacity for fry production in Thunder Bay without apparently decreasing the use of the natural reef. Results of this project emphasize the importance of multi-year reef assessment, use of multiple assessment methods, and comparison of reef characteristics when developing artificial reef projects. Specific guidelines for construction of reefs focused on enhancing lake trout spawning are suggested.

  11. Temporal Genetic Variance and Propagule-Driven Genetic Structure Characterize Naturalized Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a Patagonian Lake Impacted by Trout Farming

    PubMed Central

    Seeb, Lisa W.; Seeb, James E.; Arismendi, Ivan; Hernández, Cristián E.; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Cádiz, Maria I.; Musleh, Selim S.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the genetic underpinnings of invasions—a theme addressed by invasion genetics as a discipline—is still scarce amid well documented ecological impacts of non-native species on ecosystems of Patagonia in South America. One of the most invasive species in Patagonia’s freshwater systems and elsewhere is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This species was introduced to Chile during the early twentieth century for stocking and promoting recreational fishing; during the late twentieth century was reintroduced for farming purposes and is now naturalized. We used population- and individual-based inference from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to illuminate three objectives related to the establishment and naturalization of Rainbow Trout in Lake Llanquihue. This lake has been intensively used for trout farming during the last three decades. Our results emanate from samples collected from five inlet streams over two seasons, winter and spring. First, we found that significant intra- population (temporal) genetic variance was greater than inter-population (spatial) genetic variance, downplaying the importance of spatial divergence during the process of naturalization. Allele frequency differences between cohorts, consistent with variation in fish length between spring and winter collections, might explain temporal genetic differences. Second, individual-based Bayesian clustering suggested that genetic structure within Lake Llanquihue was largely driven by putative farm propagules found at one single stream during spring, but not in winter. This suggests that farm broodstock might migrate upstream to breed during spring at that particular stream. It is unclear whether interbreeding has occurred between “pure” naturalized and farm trout in this and other streams. Third, estimates of the annual number of breeders (Nb) were below 73 in half of the collections, suggestive of genetically small and recently founded populations that might experience

  12. Temporal Genetic Variance and Propagule-Driven Genetic Structure Characterize Naturalized Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a Patagonian Lake Impacted by Trout Farming.

    PubMed

    Benavente, Javiera N; Seeb, Lisa W; Seeb, James E; Arismendi, Ivan; Hernández, Cristián E; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Cádiz, Maria I; Musleh, Selim S; Gomez-Uchida, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the genetic underpinnings of invasions-a theme addressed by invasion genetics as a discipline-is still scarce amid well documented ecological impacts of non-native species on ecosystems of Patagonia in South America. One of the most invasive species in Patagonia's freshwater systems and elsewhere is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This species was introduced to Chile during the early twentieth century for stocking and promoting recreational fishing; during the late twentieth century was reintroduced for farming purposes and is now naturalized. We used population- and individual-based inference from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to illuminate three objectives related to the establishment and naturalization of Rainbow Trout in Lake Llanquihue. This lake has been intensively used for trout farming during the last three decades. Our results emanate from samples collected from five inlet streams over two seasons, winter and spring. First, we found that significant intra- population (temporal) genetic variance was greater than inter-population (spatial) genetic variance, downplaying the importance of spatial divergence during the process of naturalization. Allele frequency differences between cohorts, consistent with variation in fish length between spring and winter collections, might explain temporal genetic differences. Second, individual-based Bayesian clustering suggested that genetic structure within Lake Llanquihue was largely driven by putative farm propagules found at one single stream during spring, but not in winter. This suggests that farm broodstock might migrate upstream to breed during spring at that particular stream. It is unclear whether interbreeding has occurred between "pure" naturalized and farm trout in this and other streams. Third, estimates of the annual number of breeders (Nb) were below 73 in half of the collections, suggestive of genetically small and recently founded populations that might experience substantial

  13. Temporal Genetic Variance and Propagule-Driven Genetic Structure Characterize Naturalized Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a Patagonian Lake Impacted by Trout Farming.

    PubMed

    Benavente, Javiera N; Seeb, Lisa W; Seeb, James E; Arismendi, Ivan; Hernández, Cristián E; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Cádiz, Maria I; Musleh, Selim S; Gomez-Uchida, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the genetic underpinnings of invasions-a theme addressed by invasion genetics as a discipline-is still scarce amid well documented ecological impacts of non-native species on ecosystems of Patagonia in South America. One of the most invasive species in Patagonia's freshwater systems and elsewhere is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This species was introduced to Chile during the early twentieth century for stocking and promoting recreational fishing; during the late twentieth century was reintroduced for farming purposes and is now naturalized. We used population- and individual-based inference from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to illuminate three objectives related to the establishment and naturalization of Rainbow Trout in Lake Llanquihue. This lake has been intensively used for trout farming during the last three decades. Our results emanate from samples collected from five inlet streams over two seasons, winter and spring. First, we found that significant intra- population (temporal) genetic variance was greater than inter-population (spatial) genetic variance, downplaying the importance of spatial divergence during the process of naturalization. Allele frequency differences between cohorts, consistent with variation in fish length between spring and winter collections, might explain temporal genetic differences. Second, individual-based Bayesian clustering suggested that genetic structure within Lake Llanquihue was largely driven by putative farm propagules found at one single stream during spring, but not in winter. This suggests that farm broodstock might migrate upstream to breed during spring at that particular stream. It is unclear whether interbreeding has occurred between "pure" naturalized and farm trout in this and other streams. Third, estimates of the annual number of breeders (Nb) were below 73 in half of the collections, suggestive of genetically small and recently founded populations that might experience substantial

  14. Content and chemical form of mercury and selenium in Lake Ontario salmon and trout

    SciTech Connect

    Cappon, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The content and chemical form of mercury and selenium were determined in the edible tissue of salmon (coho, chinook) and trout (lake, brown) taken offshore from Lake Ontario near Rochester, New York. For all species, total mercury content ranged from 0.3 to 0.8 micro g/g (fresh-weight), which is similar to concentrations commonly found in canned tuna. Most of the total mercury (63 to 79%) was present as methylmercury, the remainder being divalent inorganic mercury. For all species, 6 to 45% of the total selenium content was present as selenate (SeVI), the remainder being selenite (SeIV) and selenide (SEII). On a molar basis, total selenium content usually exceeded that of total mercury. Samples of smoked and unsmoked brown trout fillets were also examined. Based on the results of this study there is no immediate human health hazard from mercury and selenium. However, there is a need to report specific forms of these metals in Lake Ontario salmonid fish so that elevated concentrations can be better evaluated. 42 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  15. Organochlorine compounds in trout from lakes over a 1600 meter elevation gradient in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Demers, Marc J; Kelly, Erin N; Blais, Jules M; Pick, Frances R; St Louis, Vincent L; Schindler, David W

    2007-04-15

    The effect of altitude on the concentration and composition of organochlorine compounds (OC) in troutwas investigated along an elevation gradient of 1600 m in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The eight lakes sampled were within or adjacent to national parks in sparsely settled parts of Alberta and British Columbia, thus contaminants were assumed to have derived from long-range atmospheric transport. Concentrations of several OCs in trout increased significantly with lake elevation. In general, these increases were most pronounced for the higher K(ow) pesticides (i.e., dieldrin and DDTs), and less pronounced for lower K(ow) pesticides (e.g., HCHs and HCB) and PCBs. Most OC concentrations in trout were inversely correlated with fish growth rate. Growth rate explained more of the variation for some OCs (particularly PCBs) than lake elevation. Differences in trophic position (indicated by delta15N) explained little of the variation in OC concentration in comparison to other factors such as lake elevation and the growth rate and age of trout. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identified the importance of lake elevation and octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) to the OC composition of trout.

  16. Organochlorine compounds in trout from lakes over a 1600 meter elevation gradient in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Demers, Marc J; Kelly, Erin N; Blais, Jules M; Pick, Frances R; St Louis, Vincent L; Schindler, David W

    2007-04-15

    The effect of altitude on the concentration and composition of organochlorine compounds (OC) in troutwas investigated along an elevation gradient of 1600 m in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The eight lakes sampled were within or adjacent to national parks in sparsely settled parts of Alberta and British Columbia, thus contaminants were assumed to have derived from long-range atmospheric transport. Concentrations of several OCs in trout increased significantly with lake elevation. In general, these increases were most pronounced for the higher K(ow) pesticides (i.e., dieldrin and DDTs), and less pronounced for lower K(ow) pesticides (e.g., HCHs and HCB) and PCBs. Most OC concentrations in trout were inversely correlated with fish growth rate. Growth rate explained more of the variation for some OCs (particularly PCBs) than lake elevation. Differences in trophic position (indicated by delta15N) explained little of the variation in OC concentration in comparison to other factors such as lake elevation and the growth rate and age of trout. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identified the importance of lake elevation and octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) to the OC composition of trout. PMID:17533830

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Great Lakes lake trout and their eggs: relations to survival and congener composition 1979-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Schwartz, Ted R.; Edsall, Carol C.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1993-01-01

    Eggs taken from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) captured from various Great Lakes between 1979 and 1988 were analyzed for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Eggs from the same fish had been previously reared through hatching and early fry development to ascertain egg quality. Tissues from a subsample of the adult females that provided eggs were similarly analyzed. Significant relations were found between embryonic mortality (eggs dying between fertilization and hatch) and the concentrations of total PCBs in both the eggs and adults. PCB concentrations were also negatively correlated with the percentage of normal fry that successfully hatched, but no relation was found between PCB residues and fry mortality. Pattern recognition analysis indicated that the PCB congener fingerprint for eggs from Lake Superior was different than that of eggs from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario. A difference between PCB residue patterns was also identified between eggs and the parent fish. While this difference indicated some preferential deposition of congeners in the eggs, the difference was not attributed to the toxic AHH-active congeners. No difference in the PCB pattern was observed over the 10 years of sample collection, demonstrating that concentrations of individual congeners are declining at similar rates.

  18. Behavioral evidence for a role of chemoreception during reproduction in lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreception is hypothesized to influence spawning site selection, mate search, and synchronization of gamete release in chars (Salvelinus spp.), but behavioral evidence is generally lacking. Here, we provide a survey of the behavioral responses of reproductive male and female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) to natural conspecific chemosensory stimuli. A flow-through laboratory assay with side-by-side artificial spawning reefs was used to evaluate behavioral preferences of spawning-phase males and females for chemosensory stimuli from juveniles and from spawning-phase males and females. Males and females preferred male and juvenile stimuli over no stimuli, but only had weak preferences for female stimuli. Only females had a preference for male over juvenile stimuli when given a direct choice between the two. The unexpected observation of male attraction to male stimuli, even when offered female stimuli, indicates a fundamental difference from the existing models of chemical communication in fishes. We discuss our results from the perspectives of prespawning aggregation, mate evaluation, and spawning synchronization. Identification of specific components of the stimuli will allow confirmation of the function and may have management implications for native and invasive populations of lake trout that are ecologically and economically important.

  19. In vitro immune functions in thiamine-replete and -depleted lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, Christopher A.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Densmore, Christine L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the impacts of in vivo thiamine deficiency on lake trout leukocyte function measured in vitro. When compared outside the context of individual-specific thiamine concentrations no significant differences were observed in leukocyte bactericidal activity or in concanavalin A (Con A), and phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) stimulated leukocyte proliferation. Placing immune functions into context with the ratio of in vivo liver thiamine monophosphate (TMP – biologically inactive form) to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP – biologically active form) proved to be the best indicator of thiamine depletion impacts as determined using regression modeling. These observed relationships indicated differential effects on the immune measures with bactericidal activity exhibiting an inverse relationship with TMP to TPP ratios, Con A stimulated mitogenesis exhibiting a positive relationship with TMP to TPP ratios and PHA-P stimulated mitogenesis exhibiting no significant relationships. In addition, these relationships showed considerable complexity which included the consistent observation of a thiamine-replete subgroup with characteristics similar to those seen in the leukocytes from thiamine-depleted fish. When considered together, our observations indicate that lake trout leukocytes experience cell-type specific impacts as well as an altered physiologic environment when confronted with a thiamine-limited state.

  20. Using a coupled groundwater/surface-water model to predict climate-change impacts to lakes in the Trout Lake Watershed, northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall; Walker, John F.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Doherty, John; Webb, Richard M.T.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2009-01-01

    The Trout Lake watershed in northern Wisconsin is underlain by a highly conductive outwash sand aquifer. In this area, streamflow is dominated by groudwater contributions, however, surface runoff occurs during intense rainfall periods and spring snowmelt. Surface runoff also occurs locally near stream/lake areas where the unsaturated zone is thin. A diverse data set, collected from 1992 to 2007 for the Trout Lake WEBB project and the co-located and NSF-funded North Temperate Lake LTER project, includes snowpack, solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, lake levels, groundwater levels, and streamflow. The time-series processing software TSPROC (Doherty 2001)was used to distill the large time series data set to a smaller set of observations and summary statistics that captured the salient hydrologic information. The time-series processing reduced hundreds of thousands of observations to less than 5,000. Model calibration included specific predictions for several lakes in the study area using the PEST parameter estimation suit of software (Doherty 2007). The calibrated model was used to simulate the hydrologic response in the study lakes to a variety of climate change scenarios culled from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (Solomon et al. 2007). Results from the simulations indicate climate change could result in substantial changes to the lake levels and components of the hydrologic budget of a seepage lake in the flow system. For a drainage lake lower in the flow system, the impacts of climate change are diminished.

  1. Using a coupled groundwater/surfacewater model to predict climate-change impacts to lakes in the Trout Lake watershed, Northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Doherty, John

    2009-01-01

    A major focus of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Trout Lake Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) project is the development of a watershed model to allow predictions of hydrologic response to future conditions including land-use and climate change. The coupled groundwater/surface-water model GSFLOW was chosen for this purpose because it could easily incorporate an existing groundwater flow model and it provides for simulation of surface-water processes. The Trout Lake watershed in northern Wisconsin is underlain by a highly conductive outwash sand aquifer. In this area, streamflow is dominated by groundwater contributions; however, surface runoff occurs during intense rainfall periods and spring snowmelt. Surface runoff also occurs locally near stream/lake areas where the unsaturated zone is thin. A diverse data set, collected from 1992 to 2007 for the Trout Lake WEBB project and the co-located and NSF-funded North Temperate Lakes LTER project, includes snowpack, solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, lake levels, groundwater levels, and streamflow. The timeseries processing software TSPROC (Doherty 2003) was used to distill the large time series data set to a smaller set of observations and summary statistics that captured the salient hydrologic information. The timeseries processing reduced hundreds of thousands of observations to less than 5,000. Model calibration included specific predictions for several lakes in the study area using the PEST parameter estimation suite of software (Doherty 2007). The calibrated model was used to simulate the hydrologic response in the study lakes to a variety of climate change scenarios culled from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Solomon et al. 2007). Results from the simulations indicate climate change could result in substantial changes to the lake levels and components of the hydrologic budget of a seepage lake in the flow system. For a drainage lake

  2. Relative abundance, site fidelity, and survival of adult lake trout in Lake Michigan from 1999 to 2001: Implications for future restoration strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, C.R.; Holey, M.E.; Madenjian, C.P.; Jonas, J.L.; Claramunt, R.M.; McKee, P.C.; Toneys, M.L.; Ebener, M.P.; Breidert, B.; Fleischer, G.W.; Hess, R.; Martell, A.W.; Olsen, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the relative abundance of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawners in gill nets during fall 1999–2001 in Lake Michigan at 19 stocked spawning sites with that at 25 unstocked sites to evaluate how effective site-specific stocking was in recolonizing historically important spawning reefs. The abundance of adult fish was higher at stocked onshore and offshore sites than at unstocked sites. This suggests that site-specific stocking is more effective at establishing spawning aggregations than relying on the ability of hatchery-reared lake trout to find spawning reefs, especially those offshore. Spawner densities were generally too low and too young at most sites to expect significant natural reproduction. However, densities were sufficiently high at some sites for reproduction to occur and therefore the lack of recruitment was attributable to other factors. Less than 3% of all spawners could have been wild fish, which indicates that little natural reproduction occurred in past years. Wounding by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus was generally lower for Seneca Lake strain fish and highest for strains from Lake Superior. Fish captured at offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan had the lowest probability of wounding, while fish at onshore sites in northern Lake Michigan had the highest probability. The relative survival of the Seneca Lake strain was higher than that of the Lewis Lake or the Marquette strains for the older year-classes examined. Survival differences among strains were less evident for younger year-classes. Recaptures of coded-wire-tagged fish of five strains indicated that most fish returned to their stocking site or to a nearby site and that dispersal from stocking sites during spawning was about 100 km. Restoration strategies should rely on site-specific stocking of lake trout strains with good survival at selected historically important offshore spawning sites to increase egg deposition and the probability of natural reproduction in Lake

  3. EFFECTS OF ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR MEDIATED EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY ON LAKE TROUT POPULATIONS IN LAKE ONTARIO DURING THE 20TH CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake trout embryos and sac fry are very sensitive to toxicity associated with maternal exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenza-p-dioxin (TCDD) and structurally related chemicals that act through a common aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)- mediated mechanism of action. The presence ...

  4. Ice age fish in a warming world: minimal variation in thermal acclimation capacity among lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nicholas I; Burness, Gary; McDermid, Jenni L; Wilson, Chris C

    2014-01-01

    In the face of climate change, the persistence of cold-adapted species will depend on their adaptive capacity for physiological traits within and among populations. The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is a cold-adapted salmonid and a relict from the last ice age that is well suited as a model species for studying the predicted effects of climate change on coldwater fishes. We investigated the thermal acclimation capacity of upper temperature resistance and metabolism of lake trout from four populations across four acclimation temperatures. Individuals were reared from egg fertilization onward in a common environment and, at 2 years of age, were acclimated to 8, 11, 15 or 19°C. Although one population had a slightly higher maximal metabolic rate (MMR), higher metabolic scope for activity and faster metabolic recovery across all temperatures, there was no interpopulation variation for critical thermal maximum (CTM) or routine metabolic rate (RMR) or for the thermal acclimation capacity of CTM, RMR, MMR or metabolic scope. Across the four acclimation temperatures, there was a 3°C maximal increase in CTM and 3-fold increase in RMR for all populations. Above 15°C, a decline in MMR and increase in RMR resulted in sharply reduced metabolic scope for all populations acclimated at 19°C. Together, these data suggest there is limited variation among lake trout populations in thermal physiology or capacity for thermal acclimatization, and that climate change may impact lake trout populations in a similar manner across a wide geographical range. Understanding the effect of elevated temperatures on the thermal physiology of this economically and ecologically important cold-adapted species will help inform management and conservation strategies for the long-term sustainability of lake trout populations.

  5. Impact of thiamine deficiency on T-cell dependent and T-cell independent antibody production in lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, Christopher A.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Densmore, Christine L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on thiamine-replete and thiamine-depleted diets were evaluated for the effects of thiamine status on in vivo responses to the T-dependent antigen trinitophenol (TNP)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH), the T-independent antigen trinitrophenol-lipolysaccaharide (TNP-LPS), or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS; negative control fish). Plasma antibody concentrations were evaluated for possible differences in total anti-TNP activity as well as differences in response kinetics. Associations between anti-TNP activity and muscle and liver thiamine concentrations as well as ratios of muscle-to-liver thiamine to anti-TNP activity were also examined. Thiamine-depleted lake trout that were injected with TNP-LPS exhibited significantly more anti-TNP activity than thiamine-replete fish. The depleted fish injected with TNP-LPS also exhibited significantly different response kinetics relative to thiamine-replete lake trout. No differences in activity or kinetics were observed between the thiamine-replete and -depleted fish injected with TNP-KLH or in the DPBS negative controls. Anti-TNP activity in thiamine-depleted lake trout injected with TNP-KLH was positively associated with muscle thiamine pyrophosphate (thiamine diphosphate; TPP) concentration. A negative association was observed between the ratio of muscle-to-liver TPP and T-independent responses. No significant associations between anti-TNP activity and tissue thiamine concentration were observed in the thiamine-replete fish. We demonstrated that thiamine deficiency leads to alterations in both T-dependent and T-independent immune responses in lake trout.

  6. Ice age fish in a warming world: minimal variation in thermal acclimation capacity among lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Nicholas I.; Burness, Gary; McDermid, Jenni L.; Wilson, Chris C.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of climate change, the persistence of cold-adapted species will depend on their adaptive capacity for physiological traits within and among populations. The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is a cold-adapted salmonid and a relict from the last ice age that is well suited as a model species for studying the predicted effects of climate change on coldwater fishes. We investigated the thermal acclimation capacity of upper temperature resistance and metabolism of lake trout from four populations across four acclimation temperatures. Individuals were reared from egg fertilization onward in a common environment and, at 2 years of age, were acclimated to 8, 11, 15 or 19°C. Although one population had a slightly higher maximal metabolic rate (MMR), higher metabolic scope for activity and faster metabolic recovery across all temperatures, there was no interpopulation variation for critical thermal maximum (CTM) or routine metabolic rate (RMR) or for the thermal acclimation capacity of CTM, RMR, MMR or metabolic scope. Across the four acclimation temperatures, there was a 3°C maximal increase in CTM and 3-fold increase in RMR for all populations. Above 15°C, a decline in MMR and increase in RMR resulted in sharply reduced metabolic scope for all populations acclimated at 19°C. Together, these data suggest there is limited variation among lake trout populations in thermal physiology or capacity for thermal acclimatization, and that climate change may impact lake trout populations in a similar manner across a wide geographical range. Understanding the effect of elevated temperatures on the thermal physiology of this economically and ecologically important cold-adapted species will help inform management and conservation strategies for the long-term sustainability of lake trout populations. PMID:27293646

  7. Distinguishing wild vs. stocked lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Ontario: Evidence from carbon and oxygen stable isotope values of otoliths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaner, T.; Patterson, W.P.; Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the potential for using carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate as a method to distinguish naturally produced (wild) lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Ontario. We determined δ 13C(CaCO3) and δ 18O(CaCO3) values of otoliths from juvenile fish taken from two hatcheries, and of otoliths from wild yearlings. Clear differences in isotope values were observed between the three groups. Subsequently we examined otoliths from large marked and unmarked fish captured in the lake, determining isotope values for regions of the otolith corresponding to the first year of life. Marked (i.e., stocked) fish showed isotope ratios similar to one of the hatchery groups, whereas unmarked fish, (wild fish or stocked fish that lost the mark) showed isotope ratios similar either to one of the hatchery groups or to the wild group. We interpret these data to suggest that carbon and oxygen isotope values can be used to determine the origin of lake trout in Lake Ontario, if a catalogue of characteristic isotope values from all candidate years and hatcheries is compiled.

  8. Trends of chlorinated organic contaminants in Great Lakes trout and walleye from 1970-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.P.; Batterman, S.A.; Chernyak, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Levels of chlorinated organic contaminants in predator fish have been monitored annually in each of the Great Lakes since the 1970s. This article updates earlier reports with data from 1991 to 1998 for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and (Lake Erie only) walleye (Sander vitreus) to provide a record that now extends nearly 30 years. Whole fish were analyzed for a number of industrial contaminants and pesticides, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, toxaphene, and mirex, and contaminant trends were quantified using multicompartment models. As in the past, fish from Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron have the highest levels of PCBs, DDT, and dieldrin; Superior has the highest levels of toxaphene; and Ontario has the highest levels of mirex. In the period after curtailment of chemical use, concentrations rapidly decreased, represented by relatively short half-lives from approximately 1 to 9 years. Although trends depend on both the contaminant and the lake, in many cases the rate of decline has been decreasing, and concentrations are gradually approaching an irreducible concentration. For dioxin-like PCBs, levels have not been decreasing during the most recent 5-year period (1994 to 1998). In some cases, the year-to-year variation in contaminant levels is large, mainly because of food-web dynamics. Although this variation sometimes obscures long-term trends, the general pattern of a rapid decrease followed by slowing or leveling-off of the downward trend seems consistent across the Great Lakes, and future improvements of the magnitude seen in the 1970s and early 1980s likely will take much longer.

  9. Growth and mortality of fry of Lake Michigan lake trout during chronic exposure to PCB's and DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, William H.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Mac, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Fry hatched from eggs of Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed (beginning about 1 week after hatching) to contaminant concentrations of PCB's and DDE similar to those in water and plankton in southeastern Lake Michigan (1X level), and to concentrations about 5 (5X) and 25 (25X) times greater. Body concentrations of contaminants in fry (I?g/g) decreased at 1X levels of PCB's and at 1X and 5X levels of DDE, but generally increased at all other contaminant exposure levels. Uptake of PCB's and DDE was evident from increases in body burden (I?g/fish) of the contaminants at all exposure levels and the controls. Growth was not significantly affected by any of the contaminant exposures. Mortalities of fry exposed to the lower concentrations (1X and 5X) were significantly less than those of control fry before day 56; however, between days 57 and 136, mortality rates increased dramatically and were significantly higher in all nine exposed groups than in the control group. For the last 40-day period (days 137-176), mortality was low and leveled off, but continued to be significantly higher in all exposed fry (except those in 1X and 5X PCB's) than in control fry. By the end of the 176-day study, the total cumulative mortality ranged from 30.5 to 46.5% in the exposed groups and was 21.7% in the control group.

  10. Variability of kokanee and rainbow trout food habits, distribution, and population dynamics, in an ultraoligotrophic lake with no manipulative management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake is a unique environment to evaluate the ecology of introduced kokanee and rainbow trout because of its otherwise pristine state, low productivity, absence of manipulative management, and lack of lotic systems for fish spawning. Between 1986 and 2004, kokanee displayed a great deal of variation in population demographics with a pattern that reoccurred in about 10 years. We believe that the reoccurring pattern resulted from density dependent growth, and associated changes in reproduction and abundance, driven by prey resource limitation that resulted from low lake productivity exacerbated by prey consumption when kokanee were abundant. Kokanee fed primarily on small-bodied prey from the mid-water column; whereas rainbow trout fed on large-bodied prey from the benthos and lake surface. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance may be regulated by kokanee. And kokanee growth and reproductive success may be influenced by the availability of Daphnia pulicaria, which was absent in zooplankton samples collected annually from 1990 to 1995, and after 1999. Distribution and diel migration of kokanee varied over the duration of the study and appeared to be most closely associated with prey availability, maximization of bioenergetic efficiency, and fish density. Rainbow trout were less abundant than were kokanee and exhibited less variation in population demographics, distribution, and food habits. There is some evidence that the population dynamics of rainbow trout were in-part related to the availability of kokanee as prey. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Bathythermal distribution, maturity, and growth of lake trout strains stocked in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario, 1978-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1996-01-01

    Bathythermal distributions, sexual maturity, and growth of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) strains stocked in Lake Ontario were determined for fish collected with trawls and gill nets in 1978-93. The purpose was to augment the basis for deciding which strains to continue stocking in an effort to reestablish a self-sustaining population. The Clearwater Lake (CWL) strain was found in shallower, warmer water than all other strains; the Seneca Lake (SEN) strain was usually shallower than the Jenny Lake (JEN) and Lake Superior (SUP) strains at ages 1 and 2 but was usually deeper at age 3 and older. Depth distribution of the 'Ontario strain'--from gametes of several strains that survived to maturity in Lake Ontario-- was similar to that of the SEN and SUP strains. About half the males matured at age 4 and half the females at age 5; males < 500 mm and females < 600 mm long were rarely mature. Least-sqaures mean lengths and weights of the CWL strain were greater than those of all other strains through age 4. At age 7 and older, CWL and JEN fish were generally smaller than all other strains. Means lengths and weights of males and females of the same age and strain frequently differed at age 4 and older. Growth in weight at age 4 and older was not associated with biomass indices of prey fishes. Differences in growth rates among strains were associated with bathythermal distribution which is a heritable trait. Weight-length regressions differed by year, sex, and stage of maturity but were rarely different among strains. Competition for space appeared to affect condition of large lake trout. Growth rates and maturity schedules provide little basis for recommending stocking one strain in preference to another. Depth ranges of strains overlapped widely, but lake trout occupied only about one-fourth of available bottom habitat. Stocking several strains should be continued to maximize use of sustainable habitat.

  12. Changes in mortality of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Michigan waters of Lake Superior in relation to sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, 1968-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Total mortality rates of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of age VII and older from eastern Lake Superior were estimated from catch curves of age distributions each year in 1968–78. The instantaneous rate of total mortality Z varied from 0.62 to 2.31 in close synchrony with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounding rates on lake trout. The regression of transformed Z on the index of lamprey wounding, accounted for over 89% of the variation in lake trout mortality (r2 = 0.893). An iterative method of estimating rates of exploitation u, instantaneous rates of fishing mortality F, K (a constant relating sample catch per unit effort to population size), instantaneous normal natural mortality rate M, and instantaneous rate of mortality due to sea lamprey predationL from the sample catch per unit effort and total catch by the fishery is presented. A second method using the results of a 1970–71 tagging study to estimate the mean F in 1970–77 yielded closely similar results to the above and is presented as corroboration. The estimates of u, F, andM appear to be reasonable. F ranged from 0.17 in 1974 to 0.42 in 1969 and M was estimated at 0.26. L varied from 0.21 in 1974 to 1.70 in 1968. Management implications of various policies concerning sea lamprey control, exploitation, and stocking are discussed.Key words: lake trout, sea lamprey, lamprey control, mortality, predation, Lake Superior, fishery, management

  13. Effect of artificial sunlight on the retention of external calcein marks on lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kehler, T.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    When choosing a fish marking technique to address fishery related questions, it is important to consider factors that affect mark retention. Calcein, a chemical marking agent, is under investigation for potential use on fish. Two laboratory trials were conducted with calcein-marked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush to determine the effect of artificial sunlight on calcein mark intensity. In trial 1, fish exposed to 18,000 lx for 7 d lost 90% or more of the calcein mark intensity (relative to the colorimetric key, mg/L) on the head, body, ventral region, and pectoral fins relative to mark intensity in fish that were maintained in darkness. In trial 2, light intensity was reduced 2.5-3.0-fold. After 7 d of light exposure, calcein mark intensity on the head was reduced by 40-45% relative to mark intensity in fish that were held in darkness; by day 14, calcein mark intensity on the head was reduced by 55-60% relative to that of dark-treated fish. No further decline was observed in light-exposed fish, and head mark intensity values did not differ among days 14, 21, and 28 for this treatment group. Of the four areas evaluated, the head and pectoral fin were more easily read using a colorimetric key than the lateral or ventral regions of the fish. The concentration of calcein spotted on filter paper to devise the colorimetric key ranged from 1 to 100 mg/L. A difference of approximately 7 mg/L in apparent calcein mark intensity means for the head region could be detected using the colorimetric key. These trials showed that calcein mark intensity on lake trout declined when fish were exposed to artificial sunlight, and the use of a colorimetric key improved the objectivity of calcein mark intensity assessment.

  14. Modeling data from double-tagging experiments to estimate heterogeneous rates of tag shedding in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Swanson, Bruce L.; Schram, Stephen T.

    1999-01-01

    Data from mark-recapture studies are used to estimate population rates such as exploitation, survival, and growth. Many of these applications assume negligible tag loss, so tag shedding can be a significant problem. Various tag shedding models have been developed for use with data from double-tagging experiments, including models to estimate constant instantaneous rates, time-dependent rates, and type I and II shedding rates. In this study, we used conditional (on recaptures) multinomial models implemented using the program SURVIV (G.C. White. 1983. J. Wildl. Manage. 47: 716-728) to estimate tag shedding rates of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and explore various potential sources of variation in these rates. We applied the models to data from several long-term double-tagging experiments with Lake Superior lake trout and estimated shedding rates for anchor tags in hatchery-reared and wild fish and for various tag types applied in these experiments. Estimates of annual tag retention rates for lake trout were fairly high (80-90%), but we found evidence (among wild fish only) that retention rates may be significantly lower in the first year due to type I losses. Annual retention rates for some tag types varied between male and female fish, but there was no consistent pattern across years. Our estimates of annual tag retention rates will be used in future studies of survival rates for these fish.

  15. Comparison of lake trout-egg survival at inshore and offshore and shallow-water and deepwater sites in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bronte, Charles R.; Peck, James W.

    1995-01-01

    We incubated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs over winter at shallow (10 m) and deep locations (20 m) on Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior; at a shallow-water (10 m) site off the mainland (Bark Point); and in flowing Great Lakes water at two laboratories. Survival to hatch was significantly higher in the laboratories and averaged 80.9%. In Lake Superior, egg survival among incubators at all sites was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for incubators that remained buried in spawning substrates (15.1–21.0%) than for incubators that were partially or completely exposed to water currents (1.0–12.6%). Egg survival for incubators that remained buried at the shallow-water sites was significantly higher at Bark Point (44.6%) than at Gull Island Shoal (21.0%). Egg survival among incubators that remained buried at the deep (14.4%) and shallow-water sites (21.0%) on Gull Island Shoal was not significantly different. Because incubators that were completely buried or partially exposed only appeared to differ in their degree of exposure, we concluded that survival of eggs in the lake was reduced by mechanical stress associated with water turbulence. Lower egg survival at Gull Island Shoal, a known lake trout-spawning site, was not expected and appeared to have been caused by a strong gale that occurred when these eggs were in late epiboly, a sensitive embryological stage. We present a hypothesis suggesting that lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes is limited by availability of spawning habitat.

  16. Genetic identity of brook trout in Lake Superior south shore streams: Potential for genetic monitoring of stocking and rehabilitation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloss, Brian L.; Jennings, Martin J.; Franckowiak, R.; Pratt, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation of migratory ('coaster') brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis along Lake Superior's south shore is a topic of high interest among resource stakeholders and management agencies. Proposed strategies for rehabilitation of this brook trout life history variant in Wisconsin include supplemental stocking, watershed management, habitat rehabilitation, harvest regulations, or a combination thereof. In an effort to evaluate the success of coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts, we collected genetic data from four populations of interest (Whittlesey Creek, Bois Brule River, Bark River, and Graveyard Creek) and the hatchery sources used in the Whittlesey Creek supplementation experiment. We characterized the genetic diversity of 30 individuals from each of four populations using 13 microsatellite DNA loci. Levels of genetic variation were consistent with those in similar studies conducted throughout the basin. Significant genetic variation among the populations was observed, enabling adequate population delineation through assignment tests. Overall, 208 of the 211 sampled fish (98.6%) were correctly assigned to their population of origin. Simulated F1 hybrids between two hatchery strains and the Whittlesey Creek population were identifiable in the majority of attempts (90.5-100% accuracy with 0-2.5% error). The genetic markers and analytical techniques described provide the ability to monitor the concurrent coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts along Wisconsin's Lake Superior south shore, including the detection of hybridization between hatchery and native populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  17. Lake trout reproductive behavior: influence of chemosensory cues from young-of-the-year by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Neal R.

    1985-01-01

    Chemosensory cues, particularly those emanating from substrate areas occupied by previously hatched young, may play an important role in the reproductive behavior of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Support for this hypothesis was obtained in laboratory experiments. Adults were placed in a large circular pool with four experimental reefs. Egg membranes and feces obtained from young that had hatched earlier were placed in polyester fiber in screen envelopes and positioned on selected reefs. Females approached and males contacted ('cleaned') the treated reefs but not the untreated reefs. Of 6,858 eggs recovered, 92% were from treated reefs. Some of these eggs had been fertilized and provide the first record of volitional spawning by lake trout under artificial conditions. A second experiment was less definitive, because no spawning occurred, but visual observations and analysis of videotaped behavior sequences showed that, again, adults were attracted more to reefs treated with feces of young of the year than to untreated reefs.

  18. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  19. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  20. Short-term fate of dietary dieldrin in the digestive tract of juvenile lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Donald J.; Stein, Roy A.

    1974-01-01

    Short-term fate of dietary dieldrin in the digestive tract of fishes is poorly known. Studies of the uptake, distribution, and elimination of chlorinated hydrocarbons have suggested that uptake or degradation is rapid in the intestine (GROSS 1969; MACEK et al. 1970; GRZENDA et al. 1970, 1971). The present study was designed to determine the short-term fate of a single oral dose of dieldrin in the digestive tract of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

  1. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bowen, Charles; Seelye, James G.; Locke, Jeffrey C.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about 10 degrees C (from a base of 1-4 degrees C) over 14 h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98, and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of rings.

  2. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, R.A.; Eshenroder, R.L.; Bowen, C. II; Seelye, J.G.; Locke, J.C.; Parker, N.C.; Giorgi, A.E.; Heidenger, R.C.; Jester, D. B.; Prince, E.D.; Winans, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about IOA?C (from a base of 1-4A?C) over 14h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin-sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98,and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of three rings.

  3. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide versus formalin treatments to control mortality associated with saprolegniasis on lake trout eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Redman, S.; Bast, D.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide versus formalin treatments to control fungal infections on eggs of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush incubated at a hatchery in Wisconsin. Four strains of lake trout eggs were incubated in six vertical-flow Heath incubators; three replicate incubators for each chemical. Each incubator had 13 trays containing approximately 25,000-30,000 eggs/tray. Formalin (1,667 mg/L) or hydrogen peroxide (1,000 mg/L) treatments were administered once daily for 15 min up to the development of visible eye spots in the eggs (eyed egg stage). Eyed and dead eggs were separated using a photoelectric egg sorter, and the number of live and dead eggs was determined volumetrically. In the hydrogen peroxide test group, the bottom trays of each incubator had fungus present on the eggs, whereas no fungus was observed on eggs treated with formalin. The mean percentage of eyed eggs for an incubator treated with formalin (75%) was significantly greater than an incubator treated with hydrogen peroxide (70%). Formalin was the most efficacious therapeutant; however, both therapeutants were effective in increasing lake trout egg survival up to the eyed egg stage. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  4. Dieldrin and DDT: accumulation from water and food by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1974-01-01

    In the laboratory we measured the amounts of dieldrin and p,p'DDT accumulated by fish from contaminated water and food to determine how fish from Lake Michigan accumulate high concentrations of these insecticides from an environment where the concentrations in water are generally less than 0.01 ppb. Eight groups of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to different combinations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and food. Concentrations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT ranged from 0.006 to 0.010 ppb in water and from 1,700 to 2,300 ppb in food (Oregon moist pellets). After 152 days of exposure to insecticides in water, fish had accumulated an average of 478 ppb dieldrin or 352 ppb p,p'DDT. Fish exposed to dieldrin and p,p'DDT in food accumulated 470 and 648 ppb, respectively. However, it was difficult to determine exactly how much of either insecticide was accumulated from the food because trace amounts (0.003-0.004 ppb) had leached from food or feces. After exposure to the insecticide was terminated, fish eliminated dieldrin at a much faster rate than p,p'DDT. In fish exposed to a combination of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and then held for 125 days in uncontaminated water, the total amount of dieldrin (I?g) declined 89%, but the total amount of p,p'DDT remained unchanged. We used data from this study to estimate how much p,p'DDT adult Lake Michigan coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) accumulated from water and from food during a 104-day period (May-August 1968). The estimates suggest that during these months coho salmon accumulated most of the body burden of p,p'DDT from food.

  5. A legacy of divergent fishery management regimes and the resilience of rainbow and cutthroat trout populations in Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Kennedy, Philip R.; Baker, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    As a means to increase visitation, early fisheries management in the National Park Service (NPS) promoted sport harvest and hatchery supplementation. Today, NPS management objectives focus on the preservation of native fish. We summarized management regimes of Olympic National Park's Lake Crescent, which included decades of liberal sport harvest and hatchery releases of 14.3 million salmonids. Notably, nonnative species failed to persist in the lake. Complementary analyses of annual redd counts (1989–2012) and genetics data delineated three sympatric trout (one rainbow; two cutthroat) populations that exhibited distinct spatial and temporal spawning patterns, variable emergence timings, and genetic distinctiveness. Allacustrine rainbow trout spawned in the lake outlet from January to May. Cutthroat trout spawned in the major inlet tributary (Barnes Creek) from February to June and in the outlet river (Lyre) from September to March, an unusual timing for coastal cutthroat trout. Redd counts for each species were initially low (rainbow = mean 89; range 37–159; cutthroat = mean 93; range 18–180), and significantly increased for rainbow trout (mean 306; range 254–352) after implementation of catch-and-release regulations. Rainbow and cutthroat trout reached maximum sizes of 10.4 kg and 5.4 kg, respectively, and are among the largest throughout their native ranges. Morphometric analyses revealed interspecific differences but no intraspecific differences between the two cutthroat populations. Genetic analyses identified three distinct populations and low levels (9–17%) of interspecific hybridization. Lake Crescent rainbow trout were genetically divergent from 24 nearby Oncorhynchus mykiss populations, and represented a unique evolutionary legacy worthy of protection. The indigenous and geographically isolated Lake Crescent trout populations were resilient to overharvest and potential interactions with introduced fish species.

  6. A Bayesian assessment of the mercury and PCB temporal trends in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye (Sander vitreus) from lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Visha, Ariola; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) are two of the most prevalent contaminants, resulting in restrictive advisories on consuming fish from the Laurentian Great Lakes. The goal of this study is to examine the temporal trends of the two contaminants in walleye (Sander vitreus) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) for Lake Ontario. We employed Bayesian inference techniques to parameterize three different strategies of time series analysis: dynamic linear, exponential decay, and mixed-order modeling. Our analysis sheds light on the role of different covariates (length, lipid content) that can potentially hamper the detection of the actual temporal patterns of fish contaminants. Both PCBs and mercury demonstrate decreasing temporal trends in lake trout males and females. Decreasing PCB trends are evident in walleye, but the mean annual mercury levels are characterized by a "wax and wane" pattern, suggesting that specific fish species may not act as bio-indicators for all contaminants. This finding may be attributed to the shifts in energy trophodynamics along with the food web alterations induced from the introduction of non-native species, the intricate nature of the prey-predator interactions, the periodicities of climate factors, and the year-to-year variability of the potentially significant fluxes from atmosphere or sediments. Finally, a meaningful risk assessment exercise will be to elucidate the role of within-lake fish contaminant variability and evaluate the potential bias introduced when drawing inference from pooled datasets.

  7. The accumulation, distribution, and toxicological effects of dietary arsenic exposure in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Pedlar, R M; Ptashynski, M D; Wautier, K G; Evans, R E; Baron, C L; Klaverkamp, J F

    2002-01-01

    A 20-day experiment was conducted to compare the accumulation, distribution, and toxicological effects of dietary As, as arsenate, in lake whitefish (LWF, Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake trout (LT, Salvelinus namaycush). Results of this experiment were used to design an experiment of longer duration in which one of the fish species was selected and exposed three times per week to lower dietary As doses. In the present study each treatment group was exposed to a combination of one of three doses of As (0, 100, or 1000 microg As/g) and one of two types of diet, no brine shrimp (NS) or with brine shrimp (WS) for a total of eight dosing events. Brine shrimp were added to determine whether their presence enhanced consumption of As-contaminated food. Modified feeding behavior occurred in both fish species fed As contaminated diets, with the exception of the 100 microg As/g NS food. Brine shrimp addition did not affect feed consumption of the As contaminated diets. Significant As accumulation occurred in stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine, liver, kidney, and gallbladder, but not in bile or muscle. As exposure did not have a significant effect on hepatic and renal metallothionein concentrations. Concentrations of lipid peroxides were only significantly elevated in the plasma of LT fed the 1000 microg As/g WS food. Liver somatic indices decreased significantly in both species, whereas hematological parameters were not affected in either species. Histological lesions occurred in gallbladder, liver, kidney, pyloric caeca and intestine from LWF. These lesions were not observed in LT; however, gallbladders were not examined in this species. Weight gain was lower in both species fed As contaminated diets, however, condition factors were not affected. PMID:11796327

  8. Subchronic metabolic effects and toxicity of a simulated pulp mill effluent on juvenile lake trout, Salmo trutta m. lacustris

    SciTech Connect

    Oikari, A.; Linstroem-Seppae, P.Ku.; Kukkonen, J.

    1988-12-01

    Juvenile lake trout (Salmo trutta m. lacustris) were exposed for 7 weeks to 0.05X and 0.2X 96-hr LC50 concentrations of simulated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (KME - Sa + CP). A sulfate soap preparation, composed mainly of resin and fatty acids, with added chlorophenols (CP, tri-, tetra-, and penta-CP) was used as the toxicant mixture. Concentrations of free CP in plasma and free and conjugated CP in bile were proportional to their concentrations in the water. The greatest total gradient between bile and water CP was 5.2 X 10(4) for pentachlorophenol. The activity of a liver polysubstrate monooxygenase (PSMO) system, assayed with three model substrates, increased 40 to 67% due to KME - Sa + CP. However, the increase was not directly dependent on the exposure concentration. In contrast to PSMO, activities of conjugating enzymes (p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronosyl and glutathione transferases) were decreased in the liver. Increased concentration of glutathione was noted in the liver and kidney. In addition, a small (9%) but significant decrease in blood hemoglobin concentration was observed at the higher exposure concentration. Although growth rate of lake trout was markedly decreased due to KME - Sa + CP, hydromineral balance and carbohydrate metabolism in fish were unaffected, indicating possible physiological compensation. On the other hand, lethality tests with lake trout preexposed to KME - Sa + CP at 0.2 X LC50 revealed decreased tolerance, whereas at the lower exposure concentration it was unchanged. We therefore conclude that various physiological adjustments in trout during subchronic exposures were not adaptive in terms of short-term tolerance.

  9. Changing numbers of spawning cutthroat trout in tributary streams of Yellowstone Lake and estimates of grizzly bears visiting streams from DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.A.; Reinhart, D.P.; Podruzny, S.R.; Cegelski, C.; Waits, L.; Wyman, T.C.; Smith, J.

    2005-01-01

    Spawning Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) provide a source of highly digestible energy for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) that visit tributary streams to Yellowstone Lake during the spring and early summer. During 1985–87, research documented grizzly bears fishing on 61% of the 124 tributary streams to the lake. Using track measurements, it was estimated that a minimum of 44 grizzly bears fished those streams annually. During 1994, non-native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were discovered in Yellowstone Lake. Lake trout are efficient predators and have the potential to reduce the native cutthroat population and negatively impact terrestrial predators that use cutthroat trout as a food resource. In 1997, we began sampling a subset of streams (n = 25) from areas of Yellowstone Lake surveyed during the previous study to determine if changes in spawner numbers or bear use had occurred. Comparisons of peak numbers and duration suggested a considerable decline between study periods in streams in the West Thumb area of the lake. The apparent decline may be due to predation by lake trout. Indices of bear use also declined on West Thumb area streams. We used DNA from hair collected near spawning streams to estimate the minimum number of bears visiting the vicinity of spawning streams. Seventy-four individual bears were identified from 429 hair samples. The annual number of individuals detected ranged from 15 in 1997 to 33 in 2000. Seventy percent of genotypes identified were represented by more than 1 sample, but only 31% of bears were documented more than 1 year of the study. Sixty-two (84%) bears were only documented in 1 segment of the lake, whereas 12 (16%) were found in 2–3 lake segments. Twenty-seven bears were identified from hair collected at multiple streams. One bear was identified on 6 streams in 2 segments of the lake and during 3 years of the study. We used encounter histories derived from DNA and the Jolly-Seber procedure in Program MARK

  10. Investigation of thiamine and PCB association with early life stage fry mortality in lake trout from northwestern Lake Michigan in 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Beltman, Dong; Holey, Mark; Edsall, Carol C.

    2005-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs were collected from 72 females near Sturgeon Bay, WI in northwestern Lake Michigan from 1996, 1997, and 1998 to determine the relationships between egg thiamine and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations with egg fertilization and hatch, prevalence of abnormal fry, and fry mortality. Fry mortality consistent with early mortality syndrome (EMS) was observed in eggs from 33% of the females in 1996, 25% in 1997, and 28% in 1998. Among egg lots exhibiting EMS, fry mortality averaged 95% in 1996, 63% in 1997 and 77% in 1998 compared to 2% or less in lots that did not exhibit EMS. Expression of EMS was strongly correlated with egg thiamine concentrations; egg lots with less than approximately 1 nmol/g total thiamine consistently exhibited high rates of EMS, whereas egg batches with greater than 1.5 nmol/g showed little or no incidence of EMS among swim-up fry. Egg thiamine concentration was not related to fertilization rate, egg hatch, or the prevalence of abnormal fry. There was no relationship between egg concentrations of PCBs or tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (from PCBs, dioxins, and furans) and any of the egg or fry viability measurements, including EMS. We concluded that fry mortality observed in Lake Michigan lake trout in 1996-1998 was not caused by the toxicity of PCBs, dioxins, and furans, but is due to low egg thiamine concentrations.

  11. Classifying sea lamprey marks on Great Lakes lake trout: observer agreement, evidence on healing times between classes and recommendations for reporting of marking statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebener, Mark P.; Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Mullet, Katherine M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998 two workshops were held to evaluate how consistent observers were at classifying sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) as described in the King classification system. Two trials were held at each workshop, with group discussion between trials. Variation in counting and classifying marks was considerable, such that reporting rates for A1–A3 marks varied two to three-fold among observers of the same lake trout. Observer variation was greater for classification of healing or healed marks than for fresh marks. The workshops highlighted, as causes for inconsistent mark classification, both departures from the accepted protocol for classifying marks by some agencies, and differences in how sliding and multiple marks were interpreted. Group discussions led to greater agreement in classifying marks. We recommend ways to improve the reliability of marking statistics, including the use of a dichotomous key to classify marks. Laboratory data show that healing times of marks on lake trout were much longer at 4°C and 1°C than at 10°C and varied greatly among individuals. Reported A1–A3 and B1–B3 marks observed in late summer and fall collections likely result from a mixture of attacks by two year classes of sea lamprey. It is likely that a substantial but highly uncertain proportion of attacks that occur in late summer and fall lead to marks that are classified as A1–A3 the next spring. We recommend additional research on mark stage duration.

  12. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20 h at 4° C or 10° C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  13. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global FST θ = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global FST = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

  14. Lake Roosevelt Volunteer Net Pens, Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Net Pens, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Gene

    2003-11-01

    The completion of Grand Coulee Dam for power production, flood control, and irrigation resulted in the creation of a blocked area above the dam and in the loss of anadromous fish. Because of lake level fluctuations required to meet the demands for water release or storage, native or indigenous fish were often threatened. For many years very little effort was given to stocking the waters above the dam. However, studies by fish biologists showed that there was a good food base capable of supporting rainbow and kokanee (Gangmark and Fulton 1949, Jagielo 1984, Scholz etal 1986, Peone etal 1990). Further studies indicated that artificial production might be a way of restoring or enhancing the fishery. In the 1980's volunteers experimented with net pens. The method involved putting fingerlings in net pens in the fall and rearing them into early summer before release. The result was an excellent harvest of healthy fish. The use of net pens to hold the fingerlings for approximately nine months appears to reduce predation and the possibility of entrainment during draw down and to relieve the hatcheries to open up available raceways for future production. The volunteer net pen program grew for a few years but raising funds to maintain the pens and purchase food became more and more difficult. In 1995 the volunteer net pen project (LRDA) was awarded a grant through the Northwest Power Planning Council's artificial production provisions.

  15. Thermal stratification of Dilute Lakes. Evaluation of regulatory processes and biological effects before and after base addition: Effects on brook trout habitat and growth. Technical report series

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, C.L.; Josephson, D.; Keleher, C.; Gloss, S.P.

    1993-04-01

    The authors address the significance of changes in summer thermal stratification patterns of Adirondack lakes affected by acidification to cold-water fish populations inhabiting these sensitive lakes. The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the primary cold-water fish species indigenous to acid-sensitive lakes in the Adirondack region of northern New York State; the ability of these lakes to sustain this important sport species is highly dependent on the availability of adequate summer habitat, consisting of cool, well-oxygenated water. The authors hypothesized that acidification-induced reductions in the thermal stability of sensitive Adirondack lakes could lead to degradation of potential brook trout habitat. These hypotheses were addressed in the study by utilizing data available from previous lake liming studies in the Adirondack region, brook trout growth data from management studies in the region, and the extensive Adirondack Lake Survey Corporation (ALSC) data base. More than 70% of the small, shallow ALSC lakes were classified as predominantly weakly stratified systems that would be potentially sensitive to changes in thermal stratification status resulting from relatively small changes in color and transparency.

  16. Effects of selected polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) thymocyte viability, apoptosis, and necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birchmeier, Kelly L.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.

    2005-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame-retardants have been identified as an emergent contaminants issue in many parts of the world. In vitro analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that selected PBDEs congeners affect viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of thymocytes from laboratory-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). At current environmental levels (<1 mg/L), effects of the tested PBDEs on thymocytes were negligible. However, at 100 mg/L, major effects were seen for congener brominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) and minor effects were seen for congener BDE-99.

  17. Foraging mechanisms of siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) on pelagic prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keyler, Trevor D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Austin, C. Lee; Gorman, Owen T.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction distance, angle of attack, and foraging success were determined for siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) during laboratory trials under lighting conditions that approximated downwelling spectral irradiance and intensity (9.00 × 108–1.06 × 1014 photons m− 2 s− 1) at daytime depths. Siscowet reaction distance in response to golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) was directly correlated with increasing light intensity until saturation at 1.86 × 1011 photons m− 2 s− 1, above which reaction distance was constant within the range of tested light intensities. At the lowest tested light intensity, sensory detection was sufficient to locate prey at 25 ± 2 cm, while increasing light intensities increased reaction distance up to 59 ± 2 cm at 1.06 × 1014 photons m− 2 s− 1. Larger prey elicited higher reaction distances than smaller prey at all light intensities while moving prey elicited higher reaction distances than stationary prey at the higher light intensities (6.00 × 109 to 1.06 × 1014 photons m− 2 s− 1). The capture and consumption of prey similarly increased with increasing light intensity while time to capture decreased with increasing light intensity. The majority of orientations toward prey occurred within 120° of the longitudinal axis of the siscowet's eyes, although reaction distances among 30° increments along the entire axis were not significantly different. The developed predictive model will help determine reaction distances for siscowet in various photic environments and will help identify the mechanisms and behavior that allow for low light intensity foraging within freshwater systems.

  18. Status and trends in the fish community of Lake Superior, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, Owen T.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Vinson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Due to ship mechanical failures, nearshore sampling was delayed from mid-May to mid-June to mid-June to late August. The shift to summer sampling when the lake was stratified may have affected our estimates, thus our estimates of status and trends for the nearshore fish community in 2012 are tentative, pending results of future surveys. However, the results of the 2012 survey are comparable with those during 2009 and 2010 when lake-wide fish biomass declined to < 1.40 kg/ha. Declines in prey fish biomass since the late 1990s can be attributed to a combination of increased predation by recovered lake trout populations and infrequent and weak recruitment by the principal prey fishes, cisco and bloater. In turn declines in lake trout biomass since the mid-2000s are likely linked to declines in prey fish biomass. If lean and siscowet lake trout populations in nearshore waters continue to remain at current levels, predation mortality will likely maintain the relatively low prey fish biomass observed in recent years. Alternatively, if lake trout populations show a substantial decline in abundance in upcoming years, prey fish populations may rebound in a fashion reminiscent to what occurred in the late 1970s to mid-1980s. However, this scenario depends on substantial increases in harvest of lake trout, which seems unlikely given that levels of lake trout harvest have been flat or declining in many regions of Lake Superior since 2000.

  19. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  20. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Evaluation of Limiting Factors for Stocked Kokanee and Rainbow Trout in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Casey; Polacek, Matt

    2009-03-01

    Hatchery supplementation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka and rainbow trout O. mykiss has been the primary mitigation provided by Bonneville Power Administration for loss of anadromous fish to the waters above Grand Coulee Dam (GCD). The hatchery program for rainbow trout has consistently met management goals and provided a substantial contribution to the fishery; however, spawner returns and creel survey results for kokanee have been below management goals. Our objective was to identify factors that limit limnetic fish production in Lake Roosevelt by evaluating abiotic conditions, food limitations, piscivory, and entrainment. Dissolved oxygen concentration was adequate throughout most of the year; however, levels dropped to near 6 mg/L in late July. For kokanee, warm water temperatures during mid-late summer limited their nocturnal distribution to 80-100 m in the lower section of the reservoir. Kokanee spawner length was consistently several centimeters longer than in other Pacific Northwest systems, and the relative weights of rainbow trout and large kokanee were comparable to national averages. Large bodied daphnia (> 1.7 mm) were present in the zooplankton community during all seasons indicating that top down effects were not limiting secondary productivity. Walleye Stizostedion vitreum were the primary piscivore of salmonids in 1998 and 1999. Burbot Lota lota smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, and northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis preyed on salmonids to a lesser degree. Age 3 and 4 walleye were responsible for the majority (65%) of the total walleye consumption of salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling indicated that reservoir wide consumption by walleye could account for a 31-39% loss of stocked kokanee but only 6-12% of rainbow trout. Size at release was the primary reason for differential mortality rates due to predation. Entrainment ranged from 2% to 16% of the monthly abundance estimates of limnetic fish, and could account for 30% of total

  1. Food of alewives, yellow perch, spottail shiners, trout-perch, and slimy and fourhorn sculpins in southeastern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1980-01-01

    Stomachs of 1,064 alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), 1,103 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 246 spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius), 288 trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), 454 slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus), and 562 fourhorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) from Lake Michigan were examined for food contents. Fish were sampled primarily from March to November and nearly all were caught at the bottom in the southeastern part of the lake near Saugatuck, Michigan. Depths of capture (m) were: alewives, 5 to 110; yellow perch, 5 to 26; spottail shiners, 5 to 31; trout-perch, 9 to 46; slimy sculpins, 31 to 91; and fourhorn sculpins, 73 to 110. Alewives, particularly those less than 140 mm long, fed chiefly on zooplankton; Pontoporeia usually constituted most of the rest of the food, although Mysis and immature midges were occasionally eaten in considerable quantity. Yellow perch ate primarily Pontoporeia, fish eggs, Mysis, and crayfish; Pontoporeia was consumed most heavily by perch less than 250 mm long and those in relatively deep water, fish (mainly slimy sculpins) by those 200 mm long or longer, Mysis by those in deep water, and crayfish by those on rocky bottom. Spottail shiners fed most commonly on immature midges, Pontoporeia, zooplankton, fingernail clams, and (in July only) fish eggs; immature midges were eaten mainly by shiners in shallow water; and Pontoporeia by those in deeper areas. The diet of trout-perch was strongly dominated by Pontoporeia and immature midges. Slimy sculpins ate Pontoporeia almost exclusively. Fourhorn sculpins fed almost entirely on Mysis and Pontoporeia; Pontoporeia was particularly important in the diet of the larger fish.

  2. Food of alewives, yellow perch, spottail shiners, trout-perch, and slimy and fourhorn sculpins in southeastern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1980-01-01

    Stomachs of 1, 064 alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), 1, 103 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 246 spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius), 288 trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), 454 slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus), and 562 fourhorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) from Lake Michigan were examined for food contents. Fish were sampled primarily from March to November and nearly all were caught at the bottom in the southeastern part of the lake near Saugatuck, Michigan. Depths of capture (m) were: alewives, 5 to 110; yellow perch, 5 to 26; spottail shiners, 5 to 31; trout-perch, 9 to 46; slimy sculpins, 31 to 91; and fourhorn sculpins, 73 to 110. Alewives, particularly those less than 140 mm long, fed chiefly on zooplankton; Pontoporeia usually constituted most of the rest of the food, although Mysis and immature midges were occasionally eaten in considerable quantity. Yellow perch ate primarily Pontoporeia, fish eggs, Mysis, and crayfish; Pontoporeiawas consumed most heavily by perch less than 250 mm long and those in relatively deep water, fish (mainly slimy sculpins) by those 200 mm long or longer, Mysis by those in deep water, and crayfish by those on rocky bottom. Spottail shiners fed most commonly on immature midges, Pontoporeia, zooplankton, fingernail clams, and (in July only) fish eggs; immature midges were eaten mainly by shiners in shallow water; and Pontoporeia by those in deeper areas. The diet of trout-perch was strongly dominated by Pontoporeia and immature midges. Slimy sculpins ate Pontoporeia almost exclusively. Fourhorn sculpins fed almost entirely on Mysis and Pontoporeia Pontoporeia was particularly important in the diet of the larger fish.

  3. Habitat and diet differentiation by two strains of rainbow trout in Lake Superior based on archival tags, stable isotopes, and bioenergetics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two strains of potamodromous rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Minnesota waters of Lake Superior exhibited differences in behavior and temperature tolerance at egg and fry stages, but the extent of these differences was not well understood in adult fish. To gain a better u...

  4. Potency of 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), to produce lake trout early life stage mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E.; Cook, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have been determined in rainbow trout for certain polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) using endpoints of early life stage mortality. Rainbow trout are a convenient model fish species. However, one of the major species at risk in the Great Lakes, and the fish species most sensitive to TCDD, is lake trout. The current study sought to (1) determine in lake trout the toxic potency of 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) in order to test the validity of generalizing TEFs across related species and (2) determine whether PCB 126 and TCDD act in an additive manner at a ratio similar to that found in feral lake trout eggs from the Great Lakes. Newly fertilized lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs were exposed to TCDD, PCB 126, or their combination at a ratio of 75:1, and sac fry mortality was used to determine toxic potencies. Signs of PCB 126 toxicity in lake trout early life stages were yolk-sac edema, multifocal hemorrhages, craniofacial malformations and mortality, identical to toxicity caused by TCDD. The TEF for PCB 126 was 0.003, which is similar to the TEF of 0.005 determined for rainbow trout early life stage mortality, suggesting that TEFs for the same endpoint are similar across related fish species. The dose-response curve for the congener mixture based on TCDD toxic equivalence was not significantly different from TCDD alone, suggesting that the congener combination acted additively to produce lake trout early life stage mortality.

  5. Multiscale Terrain Analysis of Multibeam Bathymetry Data for Lake Trout Spawning Habitat Mapping in the Drummond Island Refuge, northern Lake Huron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattrus, N. J.; Binder, T.

    2012-12-01

    Until the 1950s, lake trout supported a valuable commercial fishery in the Great Lakes. The introduction of sea lamprey into the Great Lakes and overfishing resulted in the loss of most populations. Despite consistent stocking efforts since the 1960s, restoration of these populations has been slow. The reasons are numerous, but may be related to differences in the spawning behavior between hatchery and wild trout. A four-year study initiated in 2010, utilizes acoustic telemetry to characterize and compare the spawning behaviors of hatchery and wild lake trout in the Drummond Island Refuge in northern Lake Huron. In this project, the movement of tagged fish are monitored by an array of over 125 lake floor hydrophones during the fall spawning period. Fish behavior is overlaid over detailed bathymetric and substrate data and compared with environmental variables (e.g. water temperature, wind speed and direction, and wave height and direction) to develop a conceptual behavioral model. Sites suspected of being spawning sites based upon telemetry data are verified through the use of divers and trapping eggs and fry. Prior to this study, the factors that influenced how the spawning fish utilize the lake floor shoals have been poorly understood. Among the factors thought to impact spawning success were: bathymetry and substrate composition. Diver and telemetry data suggest that the fish(both hatchery raised and wild) are particularly attracted to rocky substrates and that fragment size is important. High resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 have been used to characterize the shape and composition of the lake floor in the study area. Classification of the substrate is a labor intensive process requiring divers, drop cameras and sediment sampling. To improve this, the traditional approach has been to use supervised and unsupervised classification techniques that are based upon measured acoustic backscatter from an echosounder or sidescan sonar

  6. The importance of diverse data types to calibrate a watershed model of the Trout Lake Basin, Northern Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Feinstein, D.T.; Pint, C.D.; Anderson, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets project and the NSF Long-Term Ecological Research work, a parameter estimation code was used to calibrate a deterministic groundwater flow model of the Trout Lake Basin in northern Wisconsin. Observations included traditional calibration targets (head, lake stage, and baseflow observations) as well as unconventional targets such as groundwater flows to and from lakes, depth of a lake water plume, and time of travel. The unconventional data types were important for parameter estimation convergence and allowed the development of a more detailed parameterization capable of resolving model objectives with well-constrained parameter values. Independent estimates of groundwater inflow to lakes were most important for constraining lakebed leakance and the depth of the lake water plume was important for determining hydraulic conductivity and conceptual aquifer layering. The most important target overall, however, was a conventional regional baseflow target that led to correct distribution of flow between sub-basins and the regional system during model calibration. The use of an automated parameter estimation code: (1) facilitated the calibration process by providing a quantitative assessment of the model's ability to match disparate observed data types; and (2) allowed assessment of the influence of observed targets on the calibration process. The model calibration required the use of a 'universal' parameter estimation code in order to include all types of observations in the objective function. The methods described in this paper help address issues of watershed complexity and non-uniqueness common to deterministic watershed models. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustainability of the Lake Superior fish community: Interactions in a food web context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitchell, James F.; Cox, Sean P.; Harvey, Chris J.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Mason, Doran M.; Schoen, Kurt K.; Aydin, Kerim; Bronte, Charles; Ebener, Mark; Hansen, Michael; Hoff, Michael; Schram, Steve; Schreiner, Don; Walters, Carl J.

    2000-01-01

    The restoration and rehabilitation of the native fish communities is a long-term goal for the Laurentian Great Lakes. In Lake Superior, the ongoing restoration of the native lake trout populations is now regarded as one of the major success stories in fisheries management. However, populations of the deepwater morphotype (siscowet lake trout) have increased much more substantially than those of the nearshore morphotype (lean lake trout), and the ecosystem now contains an assemblage of exotic species such as sea lamprey, rainbow smelt, and Pacific salmon (chinook, coho, and steelhead). Those species play an important role in defining the constraints and opportunities for ecosystem management. We combined an equilibrium mass balance model (Ecopath) with a dynamic food web model (Ecosim) to evaluate the ecological consequences of future alternative management strategies and the interaction of two different sets of life history characteristics for fishes at the top of the food web. Relatively rapid turnover rates occur among the exotic forage fish, rainbow smelt, and its primary predators, exotic Pacific salmonids. Slower turnover rates occur among the native lake trout and burbot and their primary prey—lake herring, smelt, deepwater cisco, and sculpins. The abundance of forage fish is a key constraint for all salmonids in Lake Superior. Smelt and Mysis play a prominent role in sustaining the current trophic structure. Competition between the native lake trout and the exotic salmonids is asymmetric. Reductions in the salmon population yield only a modest benefit for the stocks of lake trout, whereas increased fishing of lake trout produces substantial potential increases in the yields of Pacific salmon to recreational fisheries. The deepwater or siscowet morphotype of lake trout has become very abundant. Although it plays a major role in the structure of the food web it offers little potential for the restoration of a valuable commercial or recreational fishery

  8. Landscape influences on genetic differentiation among bull trout populations in a stream-lake network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Guy, C.S.; Kalinowski, S.T.; Fredenberg, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of landscape heterogeneity on genetic differentiation between migratory bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. An information-theoretic approach was used to compare different conceptual models of dispersal associated with barriers, different models of isolation by distance, and the combined effects of barriers, waterway distance, patch size, and intra- and inter-drainage distribution of populations on genetic differentiation between bull trout populations. The effect of distance between populations on genetic differentiation was best explained by partitioning the effects of mainstem and tributary stream sections. Models that categorized barriers as having a one-way effect (i.e. allowed downstream dispersal) or a two-way effect were best supported. Additionally, patch size and the distribution of populations among drainages influenced genetic differentiation. Genetic differentiation between bull trout populations in Glacier National Park is linked to landscape features that restrict dispersal. However, this analysis illustrates that modelling variability within landscape features, such as dispersal corridors, will benefit landscape genetic analyses. Additionally, the framework used for evaluating the effects of barriers must consider not just barrier presence, but also potential asymmetries in barrier effects with respect to the organism under investigation.

  9. Effect of brook trout removal from a spawning stream on an adfluvial population of Lahontan cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter H.; Shea, Sean P.; Somer, William

    2012-01-01

    Independence Lake (Nevada and Sierra counties, California) harbors the only extant native population of Lahontan cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi in the Truckee River system and one of two extant adfluvial populations in the Lahontan basin. The persistence of this population has been precarious for more than 50 years, with spawning runs consisting of only 30–150 fish. It is assumed that this population was much larger prior to the introduction of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout overlap with cutthroat trout in upper Independence Creek, where the cutthroat trout spawn and their resulting progeny emigrate to Independence Lake. In 2005, we began removing brook trout from upper Independence Creek using electrofishers and monitored the cutthroat trout population. Stomach analysis of captured brook trout revealed cutthroat trout fry, and cutthroat trout fry survival increased significantly from 4% to 12% with brook trout removal. Prior to brook trout removal, the only Lahontan cutthroat trout progeny emigrating to Independence Lake were fry; with brook trout removal, juveniles were found entering the lake. In 2010, 237 potential spawners passed a prefabricated weir upstream of Independence Lake. Although the results of this study suggest that brook trout removal from upper Independence Creek has had a positive influence on the population dynamics of Independence Lake Lahontan cutthroat trout, additional years of removal are needed to assess the ultimate effect this action will have upon the cutthroat trout population.

  10. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background.

  11. Loss of genetic integrity in wild lake trout populations following stocking: insights from an exhaustive study of 72 lakes from Québec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Valiquette, Eliane; Perrier, Charles; Thibault, Isabel; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Stocking represents the most important management tool worldwide to increase and sustain commercial and recreational fisheries in a context of overexploitation. Genetic impacts of this practice have been investigated in many studies, which examined population and individual admixture, but few have investigated determinants of these processes. Here, we addressed these questions from the genotyping at 19 microsatellite loci of 3341 adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from 72 unstocked and stocked lakes. Results showed an increase in genetic diversity and a twofold decrease in the extent of genetic differentiation among stocked populations when compared to unstocked. Stocked populations were characterized by significant admixture at both population and individual levels. Moreover, levels of admixture in stocked populations were strongly correlated with stocking intensity and a threshold value of total homogenization between source and stocked populations was identified. Our results also suggest that under certain scenarios, the genetic impacts of stocking could be of short duration. Overall, our study emphasizes the important alteration of the genetic integrity of stocked populations and the need to better understand determinants of admixture to optimize stocking strategies and to conserve the genetic integrity of wild populations. PMID:25067947

  12. DIAGNOSIS OF 20TH CENTURY LAKE ONTARIO LAKE TROUT POPULATION TRENDS IN A CONSTANTLY CHANGING, MULTI-STRESSOR ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early mortality syndrome (EMS) in Great Lakes salmonids is thought to reduce recruitment through a thiamine deficiency in embryos that is related to dietary input of thiaminase by the female. This may be complicated...

  13. Quality of water used during cage cultivation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Bereket HES IV Dam Lake (Muğla, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Nedim; Demirak, Ahmet; Keskin, Feyyaz

    2014-12-01

    A thorough investigation of the impact of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cultivation on surface water quality in the area known as Bereket HES IV Dam Lake was conducted. Water samples were collected from October 2009 to June 2010 from four stations in the Dam Lake and analyzed for water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and orthophosphate. Surface water quality was then evaluated based on the comparison of samples collected from three stations located near fish cages to those collected from a reference station outside the cultivation area as well as by the comparison with standards specified in the Water Pollution Registration Act. According to the Water Pollution Registration Act, the surface water quality of the Dam Lake was class I. Additionally, there were no significant differences in water quality within the Dam Lake among any of the sampling stations, including the reference station. Overall, these findings indicate that cage cultivation of rainbow trout may have a negative impact on the entire Dam Lake.

  14. Seasonally dynamic diel vertical migrations of Mysis diluviana, coregonine fishes, and siscowet lake trout in the pelagia of western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.; Sass, Greg G.

    2011-01-01

    Diel vertical migrations are common among many aquatic species and are often associated with changing light levels. The underlying mechanisms are generally attributed to optimizing foraging efficiency or growth rates and avoiding predation risk (μ). The objectives of this study were to (1) assess seasonal and interannual changes in vertical migration patterns of three trophic levels in the Lake Superior pelagic food web and (2) examine the mechanisms underlying the observed variability by using models of foraging, growth, and μ. Our results suggest that the opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana, kiyi Coregonus kiyi, and siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush migrate concurrently during each season, but spring migrations are less extensive than summer and fall migrations. In comparison with M. diluviana, kiyis, and siscowets, the migrations by ciscoes C. artedi were not as deep in the water column during the day, regardless of season. Foraging potential and μ probably drive the movement patterns of M. diluviana, while our modeling results indicate that movements by kiyis and ciscoes are related to foraging opportunity and growth potential and receive a lesser influence from μ. The siscowet is an abundant apex predator in the pelagia of Lake Superior and probably undertakes vertical migrations in the water column to optimize foraging efficiency and growth. The concurrent vertical movement patterns of most species are likely to facilitate nutrient transport in this exceedingly oligotrophic ecosystem, and they demonstrate strong linkages between predators and prey. Fishery management strategies should use an ecosystem approach and should consider how altering the densities of long-lived top predators produces cascading effects on the nutrient cycling and energy flow in lower trophic levels.

  15. Climate change expands the spatial extent and duration of preferred thermal habitat for lake Superior fishes.

    PubMed

    Cline, Timothy J; Bennington, Val; Kitchell, James F

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter species distributions and habitat suitability across the globe. Understanding these shifting distributions is critical for adaptive resource management. The role of temperature in fish habitat and energetics is well established and can be used to evaluate climate change effects on habitat distributions and food web interactions. Lake Superior water temperatures are rising rapidly in response to climate change and this is likely influencing species distributions and interactions. We use a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model that captures temperature changes in Lake Superior over the last 3 decades to investigate shifts in habitat size and duration of preferred temperatures for four different fishes. We evaluated habitat changes in two native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) ecotypes, siscowet and lean lake trout, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and walleye (Sander vitreus). Between 1979 and 2006, days with available preferred thermal habitat increased at a mean rate of 6, 7, and 5 days per decade for lean lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye, respectively. Siscowet lake trout lost 3 days per decade. Consequently, preferred habitat spatial extents increased at a rate of 579, 495 and 419 km(2) per year for the lean lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye while siscowet lost 161 km(2) per year during the modeled period. Habitat increases could lead to increased growth and production for three of the four fishes. Consequently, greater habitat overlap may intensify interguild competition and food web interactions. Loss of cold-water habitat for siscowet, having the coldest thermal preference, could forecast potential changes from continued warming. Additionally, continued warming may render more suitable conditions for some invasive species.

  16. Mammalian and teleost cell line bioassay and chemically derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, North America

    SciTech Connect

    Whyte, J.J.; Heuvel, M.R. van den; Clemons, J.H.; Dixon, D.G.; Bols, N.C.; Huestis, S.Y.; Servos, M.R.

    1998-11-01

    For livers of lake trout from three Great Lakes sites, the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent concentrations (TEQs) were determined in four ways. Bioassay-derived (BD) TEQs were measured with rat (H4IIE) and rainbow trout (RTL-W1) cell lines, and chemistry-derived (CD) TEQs were calculated with TCDD equivalency factors (TEFs) derived with H4IIE and RTL-W1. Generally, BD-TEQs and CD-TEQs for individual samples did not differ significantly for either H4IIE or RTL-W1, indicating that all of the AhR-active compounds in a sample were accounted for by the congener analysis and that these compounds acted in an additive fashion in both mammalian and piscine systems. However, contributions of individual chemicals to overall CD-TEQs differed with H4IIE and RTL-W1 TEFs, and for some individual samples. TEQs did depend on the method used. Hepatic TEQs and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) levels differed significantly between sites. For TEQs, the order was Glenora > Jackfish Bay > Black Bay; for EROD activity, the order was Jackfish Bay > Glenora = Black Bay. No correlation was found between hepatic TEQs and EROD activity, which suggests that the two measurements are evaluating different but related consequences of contaminant exposure.

  17. Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study Post Audit: Integrated, Multi-media PCB Modeling and Forecasting for Lake Trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  18. Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study Post Audit: Integrated, Multi-media PCB Modeling and Forecasting for Lake Trout, Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  19. Detecting contaminant-induced apoptosis and necrosis in lake trout thymocytes via flow cytometry.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, Leonard I.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.; Omann, Geneva M.; Stolen, J.S.; Fletcher, T.C.; Rowley, A.F.; Zelikoff, J.T.; Kaattari, S.L.; Smith, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter details the cytofluorometric techniques employed to assess levels of active (apoptosis) and passive (necrotic) cell death in untreated and contaminant-treated fish thymocytes. The thymus is believed to be a central component of hematopoiesis and immune function in teleosts (Abelli et al., 1996). Hence, chemically-elicited adverse effects to the thymus may result in immunomodulation and organ dysfunction. However, it is not well documented that environmental contaminants induce apoptosis, or programmed cell death. There is some evidence suggesting that low level exposure to waterborne contaminants can specifically induce cell death in the olfactory epithelium of rainbow trout (Julliard et al., 1996). Presently, only limited information is available in the literature regarding apoptotic death in piscine immune cells (Alford et al., 1994; Greenlee et al., 1991).

  20. Genetic monitoring reveals temporal stability over 30 years in a small, lake-resident brown trout population.

    PubMed

    Charlier, J; Laikre, L; Ryman, N

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the degree of temporal stability of population genetic structure and composition is important for understanding microevolutionary processes and addressing issues of human impact of natural populations. We know little about how representative single samples in time are to reflect population genetic constitution, and we explore the temporal genetic variability patterns over a 30-year period of annual sampling of a lake-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) population, covering 37 consecutive cohorts and five generations. Levels of variation remain largely stable over this period, with no indication of substructuring within the lake. We detect genetic drift, however, and the genetically effective population size (N(e)) was assessed from allele-frequency shifts between consecutive cohorts using an unbiased estimator that accounts for the effect of overlapping generation. The overall mean N(e) is estimated as 74. We find indications that N(e) varies over time, but there is no obvious temporal trend. We also estimated N(e) using a one-sample approach based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) that does not account for the effect of overlapping generations. Combining one-sample estimates for all years gives an N(e) estimate of 76. This similarity between estimates may be coincidental or reflecting a general robustness of the LD approach to violations of the discrete generations assumption. In contrast to the observed genetic stability, body size and catch per effort have increased over the study period. Estimates of annual effective number of breeders (N(b)) correlated with catch per effort, suggesting that genetic monitoring can be used for detecting fluctuations in abundance. PMID:22828900

  1. Concentrations of mercury and other trace elements in walleye, smallmouth bass, and rainbow trout in Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and the upper Columbia River, Washington, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, M.D.; Cox, S.E.; Dean, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Three species of sportfish--walleye, smallmouth bass, and rainbow trout--were collected from Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and the upstream reach of the Columbia River within the state of Washington, to determine the concentrations of mercury and other selected trace elements in fish tissue. Concentrations of total mercury in walleye fillets ranged from 0.11 to 0.44 milligram per kilogram, with the higher concentrations in the larger fish. Fillets of smallmouth bass and rainbow trout also contained mercury, but generally at lower concentrations. Other selected trace elements were found in fillet samples, but the concentrations were generally low depending on species and the specific trace element. The trace elements cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were found in liver tissue of these same species with zinc consistently present in the highest concentration.

  2. Simulation of climate-change effects on streamflow, lake water budgets, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP, Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Regan, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Although groundwater and surface water are considered a single resource, historically hydrologic simulations have not accounted for feedback loops between the groundwater system and other hydrologic processes. These feedbacks include timing and rates of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, soil-zone flow, and interactions with the groundwater system. Simulations that iteratively couple the surface-water and groundwater systems, however, are characterized by long run times and calibration challenges. In this study, calibrated, uncoupled transient surface-water and steady-state groundwater models were used to construct one coupled transient groundwater/surface-water model for the Trout Lake Watershed in north-central Wisconsin, USA. The computer code GSFLOW (Ground-water/Surface-water FLOW) was used to simulate the coupled hydrologic system; a surface-water model represented hydrologic processes in the atmosphere, at land surface, and within the soil-zone, and a groundwater-flow model represented the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, stream, and lake budgets. The coupled GSFLOW model was calibrated by using heads, streamflows, lake levels, actual evapotranspiration rates, solar radiation, and snowpack measurements collected during water years 1998–2007; calibration was performed by using advanced features present in the PEST parameter estimation software suite. Simulated streamflows from the calibrated GSFLOW model and other basin characteristics were used as input to the one-dimensional SNTEMP (Stream-Network TEMPerature) model to simulate daily stream temperature in selected tributaries in the watershed. The temperature model was calibrated to high-resolution stream temperature time-series data measured in 2002. The calibrated GSFLOW and SNTEMP models were then used to simulate effects of potential climate change for the period extending to the year 2100. An ensemble of climate models and emission scenarios was evaluated. Downscaled climate drivers for the period

  3. Simulation of climate-change effects on streamflow, lake water budgets, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP, Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Regan, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Although groundwater and surface water are considered a single resource, historically hydrologic simulations have not accounted for feedback loops between the groundwater system and other hydrologic processes. These feedbacks include timing and rates of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, soil-zone flow, and interactions with the groundwater system. Simulations that iteratively couple the surface-water and groundwater systems, however, are characterized by long run times and calibration challenges. In this study, calibrated, uncoupled transient surface-water and steady-state groundwater models were used to construct one coupled transient groundwater/surface-water model for the Trout Lake Watershed in north-central Wisconsin, USA. The computer code GSFLOW (Ground-water/Surface-water FLOW) was used to simulate the coupled hydrologic system; a surface-water model represented hydrologic processes in the atmosphere, at land surface, and within the soil-zone, and a groundwater-flow model represented the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, stream, and lake budgets. The coupled GSFLOW model was calibrated by using heads, streamflows, lake levels, actual evapotranspiration rates, solar radiation, and snowpack measurements collected during water years 1998–2007; calibration was performed by using advanced features present in the PEST parameter estimation software suite. Simulated streamflows from the calibrated GSFLOW model and other basin characteristics were used as input to the one-dimensional SNTEMP (Stream-Network TEMPerature) model to simulate daily stream temperature in selected tributaries in the watershed. The temperature model was calibrated to high-resolution stream temperature time-series data measured in 2002. The calibrated GSFLOW and SNTEMP models were then used to simulate effects of potential climate change for the period extending to the year 2100. An ensemble of climate models and emission scenarios was evaluated. Downscaled climate drivers for the period

  4. Use of oviduct-inserted acoustic transmitters and positional telemetry to estimate timing and location of spawning: a feasibility study in lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas R.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Miehls, Scott M.; Thompson, Henry T.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Our results satisfied the three assumptions of oviduct tagging and suggested that oviduct transmitters can be used with positional telemetry to estimate time and location of spawning in lake trout and other species. In situations where oviduct transmitters may be difficult to position once expelled into substrate, pairing oviduct transmitters with a normal-sized fish transmitter that remains in the fish is recommended, with spawning inferred when the two tags separate in space. Optimal transmitter delay will depend on expected degree of spawning site residency and swim speed.

  5. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Jessie L; McGeer, James C

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18nM) in moderately hard water (120mgL(-1) CaCO3) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (Ucrit) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the Ucrit of control fish, a 30min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine Ucrit. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim Ucrit and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure where 31% and 38% reductions were observed for brown trout and lake whitefish respectively. Swimming to 85% Ucrit resulted in metabolic expenditure with little recovery after 30min. Few differences were observed between control and Cd exposed fish with the exception of a reduction in resting white muscle ATP stores of Cd exposed fish after 1 week of exposure. The results show that chronic sublethal Cd exposure results in an impairment of swimming ability in repeat swim challenges but this impairment is generally not related to metabolic processes

  6. Water quality (2000-08) and historical phosphorus concentrations from paleolimnological studies of Swamp and Speckled Trout Lakes, Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Jones, Perry M.; Edlund, Mark B.; Ramstack, Joy M.

    2010-01-01

    A paleolimnological approach was taken to aid the Grand Portage Reservation, in northeastern Minnesota, in determining reference conditions for lakes on the reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Indians and the Science Museum of Minnesota, conducted a study to describe water quality (2000-08) and historical total phosphorus concentrations (approximately 1781-2006) for Swamp and Speckled Trout Lakes. Results from this study may be used as a guide in establishing nutrient criteria in these and other lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation. Historical phosphorus concentrations were inferred through paleolimnological reconstruction methods involving diatom analysis and lead-210 dating of lake-sediment cores. Historical diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations in Swamp Lake ranged from 0.017 to 0.025 milligrams per liter (mg/L) based on diatom assemblages in sediment samples dated 1781-2005. Historical diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations in Speckled Trout Lake ranged from 0.008 to 0.014 mg/L based on diatom assemblages in sediment samples dated 1825-2006. In both lakes, historical changes in diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations did not exceed model error estimates, indicating that there has been minimal change in total phosphorus concentrations in the two lakes over about two centuries. Nutrient concentrations in monthly water samples collected May through October during 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008 were compared to the diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations. Total phosphorus concentrations from water samples collected from Swamp Lake during 2000-08 ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.160 mg/L (median= 0.023 mg/L) compared to diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations of 0.018 to 0.020 mg/L for 2002 to 2005. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected from Speckled Trout Lake during 2000-08 were similar to those of Swamp Lake, ranging from less than 0

  7. Myxobolus cerebralis (Hofer) infection risk in native cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii (Richardson) and its relationships to tributary environments in the Yellowstone Lake Basin.

    PubMed

    Murcia, S; Kerans, B L; Koel, T M; MacConnell, E

    2015-07-01

    Conservation of native species is challenged by the introduction of non-native pathogens and diseases into aquatic and terrestrial environments worldwide. In the Yellowstone Lake basin, Yellowstone National Park, the invasive parasite causing salmonid whirling disease Myxobolus cerebralis (Hofer) has been identified as one factor contributing to population declines of native Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri (Jordan & Gilbert). In 2002 and 2003, we examined relationships between the stream environment and severity of M. cerebralis infection in native trout. Coefficients of variation of environmental features were calculated to examine variability. Ten years later, we reassessed infection levels at 22 tributaries broadly across the system. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) of physical features (2003) were negatively correlated with infection severity, mostly in lower jaw cartilage of cutthroat trout, and PCA of chemical features (and temperature) correlated with infection severity in cranial cartilage. Pelican Creek, where M. cerebralis prevalence and severity was high 2002-2003, remained high in 2012. We did not find evidence that the parasite had dispersed further within the system. Variable environmental features (physiological stress) across short spatiotemporal scales within a stream or season may possibly predispose salmonids to infection in the wild and facilitate parasite establishment.

  8. Trophic relationships between a native and a nonnative predator in a system of natural lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fedenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Bull trout, a species of char listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act, have been displaced from portions of their historic range following the introduction of nonnative lake trout. It has been suggested that competitive exclusion as a result of trophic overlap between bull trout and lake trout may be the causal mechanism associated with displacement of bull trout. This study used stable isotope data to evaluate trophic relationships among native bull trout, nonnative lake trout and other fishes in seven lakes in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. Bull trout and lake trout had greater δ15N values relative to other fishes among lakes (δ15N = 3.0‰). Lake trout had greater δ15N values relative to bull trout (δ15N = +1.0‰). Bull trout had greater δ13C values relative to lake trout in six of the seven lakes examined. Although both bull trout and lake trout had greater δ15N values relative to other fishes within lakes in GNP, differences in δ15N and 13C between bull trout and lake trout suggest that they are consuming different prey species or similar prey species in different proportions. Therefore, displacement of bull trout as a direct result of complete overlap in food resource use is not anticipated unless diet shifts occur or food resources become limiting. Additionally, future studies should evaluate food habits to identify important prey species and sources of partial dietary overlap between bull trout and lake trout.

  9. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of heavy metals pollution in the water, soil and sediments environment of the Lean River-Poyang Lake Wetland].

    PubMed

    Jian, Min-Fei; Li, Ling-Yu; Xu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Pu-Qing; Xiong, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Xue-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Overlying water, sediments, surface soils in the typical wetland areas of Lean River and Poyang Lake which were rich in non-ferrous metal mineral resources on both sides of the river, were chosen for monitoring heavy metals including copper, lead and cadmium of base flow in average season, flood season, and dry season in 2012. Statistical analysis methods were coupled to characterize the spatiotemporal variation of heavy metals pollution and identify the main sources. The results indicated that the concentrations of copper were the highest in all samples of each sampling sites in the Lean River-Poyang Lake wetland. And the content values of copper, lead and cadmium in different samples of different sampling sites also showed that the content values of copper were higher than those of lead, and the content values of lead were also higher than those of cadmium. The results also showed that the heavy metals pollution of copper, lead and cadmium in flood season was the heaviest whereas the heavy metals pollution in dry season was comparatively light. The results of the contents of the three kinds of heavy metals elements in different sampling sites of the watersheds of lean River showed that the contents of copper in the samples from the upstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. And the contents of lead in the samples from the downstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sampling sites. The contents of cadmium in the samples from the midstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. The first principal component representing copper pollution explained 36. 99% of the total variance of water quality. The second principal component concerning representing lead pollution explained 30. 12% of the total variance. The correlation analysis results showed that there were significant positive correlations among the contents of copper

  10. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of heavy metals pollution in the water, soil and sediments environment of the Lean River-Poyang Lake Wetland].

    PubMed

    Jian, Min-Fei; Li, Ling-Yu; Xu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Pu-Qing; Xiong, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Xue-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Overlying water, sediments, surface soils in the typical wetland areas of Lean River and Poyang Lake which were rich in non-ferrous metal mineral resources on both sides of the river, were chosen for monitoring heavy metals including copper, lead and cadmium of base flow in average season, flood season, and dry season in 2012. Statistical analysis methods were coupled to characterize the spatiotemporal variation of heavy metals pollution and identify the main sources. The results indicated that the concentrations of copper were the highest in all samples of each sampling sites in the Lean River-Poyang Lake wetland. And the content values of copper, lead and cadmium in different samples of different sampling sites also showed that the content values of copper were higher than those of lead, and the content values of lead were also higher than those of cadmium. The results also showed that the heavy metals pollution of copper, lead and cadmium in flood season was the heaviest whereas the heavy metals pollution in dry season was comparatively light. The results of the contents of the three kinds of heavy metals elements in different sampling sites of the watersheds of lean River showed that the contents of copper in the samples from the upstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. And the contents of lead in the samples from the downstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sampling sites. The contents of cadmium in the samples from the midstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. The first principal component representing copper pollution explained 36. 99% of the total variance of water quality. The second principal component concerning representing lead pollution explained 30. 12% of the total variance. The correlation analysis results showed that there were significant positive correlations among the contents of copper

  11. Allantoinase in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): in vitro effects of PCBs, DDT and metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May; Cotant, Carol A.

    1979-01-01

    1. Allantoinase, an enzyme in the purine-urea cycle, was found in livers of Salvelinus namaycush (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes). 2. The enzyme was active from pH 6.6 to 8.2 at 37°C and from pH 7.4 to 9.0 at 10°C and had an Arrhenius energy of activation of 11.0 kcal/mol and a temperature quotient of 2.0. The Km of the enzyme homogenate was 8.4 mM allantoin. 3. The concentration of inorganic metals at which 50% inhibition occurred during in vitro exposure were 6.0 mg/l Cu2+, 6.7 mg/l Cd2+, 34 mg/l Hg2+ and 52 mg/l Pb2+. The in vitro sensitivity to PCBs, DDT and DDE and kinetics in the presence of metals were determined. 4. Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with body length for fish from Lake Michigan but not from Lake Superior or the laboratory.

  12. Some bioaccumulation factors and biota-sediment accumulation factors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lake Trout

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, L.P.; Lukasewycz, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/triphenylene were calculated using the tissue data of Zabik et al. for Salvelinus namaycush siscowet with a 20.5% lipid content, the water data of Baker and Eisenreich, and the sediment data of Baker and Eisenreich for the Lake Superior ecosystem. Log BAFs, both lipid normalized and based on the freely dissolved concentration of the chemical in the water, of 1.95, 3.22, 4.72, 4.73, and 3.61 were calculated for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/triphenylene, respectively. The BSAFs for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/tripenylene were 0.00011, 0.00016, 0.0071, 0.0054, and 0.00033, respectively.

  13. Investigating genomic and phenotypic parallelism between piscivorous and planktivorous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) ecotypes by means of RADseq and morphometrics analyses.

    PubMed

    Bernatchez, S; Laporte, M; Perrier, C; Sirois, P; Bernatchez, L

    2016-10-01

    Repeated adaptive ecological diversification has commonly been reported in fish and has often been associated with trophic niche diversity. The main goal of this study was to investigate the extent of parallelism in the genomic and phenotypic divergence between piscivorous and planktivorous lake trout ecotypes from Laurentian Shield lakes, Canada. This was achieved by documenting the extent of morphological differentiation using geometric morphometrics and linear measurements as well as the pattern of genomic divergence by means of RADseq genotyping (3925 filtered SNPs) in 12 lakes. Our results indicate that the two ecotypes evolved distinct body shape and several linear measurements in parallel. Neutral genetic differentiation was pronounced between all isolated populations (Mean FST  = 0.433), indicating no or very limited migration and pronounced genetic drift. Significant genetic differentiation also suggested partial reproductive isolation between ecotypes in the two lakes where they are found in sympatry. Combining different outlier detection methods, we identified 48 SNPs putatively under divergent selection between ecotypes, among which 10 could be annotated and related to functions such as developmental processes and ionic regulation. Finally, our results indicate that parallel morphological divergence is accompanied by both parallel and nonparallel genomic divergence, which is associated with the use of different trophic niches between ecotypes. The results are also discussed in the context of management and conservation of this highly exploited species throughout northern North America.

  14. Investigating genomic and phenotypic parallelism between piscivorous and planktivorous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) ecotypes by means of RADseq and morphometrics analyses.

    PubMed

    Bernatchez, S; Laporte, M; Perrier, C; Sirois, P; Bernatchez, L

    2016-10-01

    Repeated adaptive ecological diversification has commonly been reported in fish and has often been associated with trophic niche diversity. The main goal of this study was to investigate the extent of parallelism in the genomic and phenotypic divergence between piscivorous and planktivorous lake trout ecotypes from Laurentian Shield lakes, Canada. This was achieved by documenting the extent of morphological differentiation using geometric morphometrics and linear measurements as well as the pattern of genomic divergence by means of RADseq genotyping (3925 filtered SNPs) in 12 lakes. Our results indicate that the two ecotypes evolved distinct body shape and several linear measurements in parallel. Neutral genetic differentiation was pronounced between all isolated populations (Mean FST  = 0.433), indicating no or very limited migration and pronounced genetic drift. Significant genetic differentiation also suggested partial reproductive isolation between ecotypes in the two lakes where they are found in sympatry. Combining different outlier detection methods, we identified 48 SNPs putatively under divergent selection between ecotypes, among which 10 could be annotated and related to functions such as developmental processes and ionic regulation. Finally, our results indicate that parallel morphological divergence is accompanied by both parallel and nonparallel genomic divergence, which is associated with the use of different trophic niches between ecotypes. The results are also discussed in the context of management and conservation of this highly exploited species throughout northern North America. PMID:27497114

  15. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part II: the nearshore fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    We use detailed diet analyses of the predominant planktivorous, benthivorous and piscivorous fish species from Lake Superior to create a nearshore (bathymetric depths Mysis diluviana and Diporeia spp). Although the piscivorous fishes like lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) fed to a lesser extent on Diporeia and Mysis, they were still strongly connected to these macroinvertebrates, which were consumed by their primary prey species (sculpin spp., rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and coregonines). The addition of Bythotrephes to summer/fall cisco and lake whitefish diets, and the decrease in rainbow smelt in lean lake trout diets (replaced by coregonines) were the largest observed differences relative to historic Lake Superior diet studies. Although the offshore food web of Lake Superior was simpler than nearshore in terms of number of fish species present, the two areas had remarkably similar food web structures, and both fish communities were primarily supported by Mysis and Diporeia. We conclude that declines in Mysis or Diporeia populations would have a significant impact on energy flow in Lake Superior. The food web information we generated can be used to better identify management strategies for Lake Superior.

  16. Mixed-function oxidase enzyme activity and oxidative stress in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) exposed to 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126)

    SciTech Connect

    Palace, V.P.; Klaverkamp, J.F.; Lockhart, W.L. |; Metner, D.A.; Muir, D.C.G.; Brown, S.B.

    1996-06-01

    Juvenile lake trout were intraperitoneally injected with corn oil containing nominal concentrations of 0, 0.6, 6.3, or 25 {micro}g [{sup 14}C]-3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) per gram of body weight. The PCB-126 accumulated in liver in a dose-dependent manner to a sustained concentration by 6 weeks and remained elevated for the 30-week experimental period. Mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzyme activity was elevated in the two highest dose groups relative to the control group, but not in the low-dose group throughout the 30 weeks. Oxidative stress, measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test, was correlated with ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and was elevated in liver of the two highest PCB dose groups but not the low-dose group. The activities of the enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were unaffected by PCB-126 exposure. The nonenzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were unaffected by PCB-126 exposure. The nonenzymatic antioxidant tocopherol was depleted to approximately 75% of the control concentration in liver of all three PCB-dosed groups. Hepatic ascorbic acid levels were not different in any of the treatment groups. Retinol was depleted by greater than an order of magnitude in liver of the two highest dose groups but not in the los-dose group. This study demonstrates a correlation between hepatic MFO activity and oxidative stress in PCB-exposed lake trout. Tocopherol and retinol may be important mediators of oxidative stress but additional study is required to confirm the antioxidant activity of retinol.

  17. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jason; Maroney, Joseph R.; Andersen, Todd

    2004-11-01

    In 2003, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 209 bull trout and 1,276 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples next year. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  18. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maroney, Joseph R.; Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F.

    2003-10-01

    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  19. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,

    2015-01-01

    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  20. Purification and characterization of carbonic anhydrase from Ağrı Balık Lake trout gill (Salmo trutta labrax) and effects of sulfonamides on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Demirdag, Ramazan; Comakli, Veysal; Kuzu, Muslum; Yerlikaya, Emrah; Şentürk, Murat

    2015-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) was purified from Ağrı Balık Lake trout gill (fCA) by affinity chromatography on a sepharose 4B-tyrosine-sulfanilamide column. The fCA enzyme was purified with about a 303.9 purification factor, a specific activity 4130.4 EU (mg-protein)(-1), and a yield of 79.3 by using sepharose-4B-L tyrosine-sulfanilamide affinity gel chromatography. The molecular weight determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was found to be about 29.9 kDa. The kinetic parameters, K(M) and V(max) were determined for the 4-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis reaction. Some sulfonamides were tested as inhibitors against the purified CA enzymes. The Ki constants for mafenide (1), p-toluenesulfonamide (2), 2-bromo-benzene sulfonamide (3), 4-chlorobenzene sulfonamide (4), 4-amino-6-chloro-1-3 benzenedisulfonamide (5), sulfamethazine (6), sulfaguanidine (7), sulfadiazine (8), and acetozazolamide (9) were in the range of 7.5-108.75 μM. PMID:25345690

  1. Phylogenetic status of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in five rivers from the southern Caspian Sea and two inland lake basins, Iran: a morphogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Hashemzadeh Segherloo, I; Farahmand, H; Abdoli, A; Bernatchez, L; Primmer, C R; Swatdipong, A; Karami, M; Khalili, B

    2012-10-01

    Interrelationships, origin and phylogenetic affinities of brown trout Salmo trutta populations from the southern Caspian Sea basin, Orumieh and Namak Lake basins in Iran were analysed from complete mtDNA control region sequences, 12 microsatellite loci and morphological characters. Among 129 specimens from six populations, seven haplotypes were observed. Based on mtDNA haplotype data, the Orumieh and southern Caspian populations did not differ significantly, but the Namak basin-Karaj population presented a unique haplotype closely related to the haplotypes of the other populations (0·1% Kimura two-parameter, K2P divergence). All Iranian haplotypes clustered as a distinct group within the Danube phylogenetic grouping, with an average K2P distance of 0·41% relative to other Danubian haplotypes. The Karaj haplotype in the Namak basin was related to a haplotype (Da26) formerly identified in the Tigris basin in Turkey, to a Salmo trutta oxianus haplotype from the Aral Sea basin, and to haplotype Da1a with two mutational steps, as well as to other Iranian haplotypes with one to two mutational steps, which may indicate a centre of origin in the Caspian basin. In contrast to results of the mtDNA analysis, more pronounced differentiation was observed among the populations studied in the morphological and microsatellite DNA data, except for the two populations from the Orumieh basin, which were similar, possibly due to anthropogenic causes.

  2. Potency of 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), alone and in combination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), to produce lake trout early life-stage mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E.; Cook, P.M.

    1995-12-01

    Newly fertilized lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), or their combination, and sac fry mortality was used to determine toxic potencies. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) for PCB 126 was 0.0030. The dose-response curve for the PCB 126/TCDD mixture based on TCDD toxic equivalents was not significantly different from that for TCDD alone, suggesting additivity between the two congeners in causing sac fry mortality.

  3. Brown Trout removal effects on short-term survival and movement of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Schisler, George J.; Davies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Following establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease) in Colorado, populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykissexperienced significant declines, whereas Brown Trout Salmo trutta densities increased in many locations across the state, potentially influencing the success of M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout reintroductions. We examined the effects of Brown Trout removal on the short-term (3-month) survival and movement of two crosses of reintroduced, M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Radio frequency identification passive integrated transponder tags and antennas were used to track movements of wild Brown Trout and stocked Rainbow Trout in reaches where Brown Trout had or had not been removed. Multistate mark–recapture models were used to estimate tagged fish apparent survival and movement in these sections 3 months following Brown Trout removal. A cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Colorado River Rainbow Trout strains exhibited similar survival and movement probabilities in the reaches, suggesting that the presence of Brown Trout did not affect its survival or movement. However, a cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Harrison Lake Rainbow Trout exhibited less movement from the reach in which Brown Trout had been removed. Despite this, the overall short-term benefits of the removal were equivocal, suggesting that Brown Trout removal may not be beneficial for the reintroduction of Rainbow Trout. Additionally, the logistical constraints of conducting removals in large river systems are substantial and may not be a viable management option in many rivers.

  4. Measuring groundwater-surface water interaction and its effect on wetland stream benthic productivity, Trout Lake watershed, northern Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Strand, M.; Walker, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of groundwater-surface water exchange at three wetland stream sites were related to patterns in benthic productivity as part of the US Geological Survey's Northern Temperate Lakes-Water, Energy and Biogeochemical Budgets (NTL-WEBB) project. The three sites included one high groundwater discharge (HGD) site, one weak groundwater discharge (WGD) site, and one groundwater recharge (GR) site. Large upward vertical gradients at the HGD site were associated with smallest variation in head below the stream and fewest gradient reversals between the stream and the groundwater beneath the stream, and the stream and the adjacent streambank. The WGD site had the highest number of gradient reversals reflecting the average condition being closest to zero vertical gradient. The duration of groundwater discharge events was related to the amount of discharge, where the HGD site had the longest strong-gradient durations for both horizontal and vertical groundwater flow. Strong groundwater discharge also controlled transient temperature and chemical hyporheic conditions by limiting the infiltration of surface water. Groundwater-surface water interactions were related to highly significant patterns in benthic invertebrate abundance, taxonomic richness, and periphyton respiration. The HGD site abundance was 35% greater than in the WGD site and 53% greater than the GR site; richness and periphyton respiration were also significantly greater (p???0.001, 31 and 44%, respectively) in the HGD site than in the GR site. The WGD site had greater abundance (27%), richness (19%) and periphyton respiration (39%) than the GR site. This work suggests groundwater-surface water interactions can strongly influence benthic productivity, thus emphasizing the importance of quantitative hydrology for management of wetland-stream ecosystems in the northern temperate regions. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Food of salmonine predators in Lake Superior, 1981-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conner, David J.; Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Collins, Hollie L.

    1993-01-01

    Diets of ten species of Lake Superior salmonines are described. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) were the primary prey during all seasons and years for inshore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (S. trutta), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and splake (lake trout x brook trout hybrid). Coregonines were the second most-important prey for chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), siscowet trout (S. namaycush siscowet), and splake. Invertebrates were important to rainbow trout (O. mykiss), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), especially during the summer. Diets of lake trout from inshore and offshore locations differed markedly. Rainbow smelt were the primary food of inshore lake trout, and coregonines were the main food of offshore lake trout. Chinook salmon and inshore lake trout had the most similar diets because they ate similar proportions of rainbow smelt and coregonines. Salmonines generally ate more rainbow smelt and less coregonines in proportion to the abundance of these prey in the lake. If rainbow smelt populations collapse, the ability of salmonines to convert to a diet based on lake herring (Coregonus artedi) could be important to the stability of predator populations.

  6. Lean consumption.

    PubMed

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  7. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  8. Larval long-toed salamanders incur nonconsumptive effects in the presence of nonnative trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenison, Erin K.; Litt, Andrea R.; Pilliod, David; McMahon, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Predators can influence prey directly through consumption or indirectly through nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) by altering prey behavior, morphology, and life history. We investigated whether predator-avoidance behaviors by larval long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in lakes with nonnative trout result in NCEs on morphology and development. Field studies in lakes with and without trout were corroborated by experimental enclosures, where prey were exposed only to visual and chemical cues of predators. We found that salamanders in lakes with trout were consistently smaller than in lakes without trout: 38% lower weight, 24% shorter body length, and 29% shorter tail length. Similarly, salamanders in protective enclosures grew 2.9 times slower when exposed to visual and olfactory trout cues than when no trout cues were present. Salamanders in trout-free lakes and enclosures were 22.7 times and 1.48 times, respectively, more likely to metamorphose during the summer season than those exposed to trout in lakes and/or their cues. Observed changes in larval growth rate and development likely resulted from a facultative response to predator-avoidance behavior and demonstrate NCEs occurred even when predation risk was only perceived. Reduced body size and growth, as well as delayed metamorphosis, could have ecological consequences for salamander populations existing with fish if those effects carry-over into lower recruitment, survival, and fecundity.

  9. Diel resource partitioning among juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Brown Trout, and Rainbow Trout during summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific partitioning of food and habitat resources has been widely studied in stream salmonids. Most studies have examined resource partitioning between two native species or between a native species and one that has been introduced. In this study we examine the diel feeding ecology and habitat use of three species of juvenile salmonids (i.e., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, New York. Subyearling Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout fed more heavily from the drift than the benthos, whereas subyearling Atlantic Salmon fed more from the benthos than either species of trout. Feeding activity of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout was similar, with both species increasing feeding at dusk, whereas Brown Trout had no discernable feeding peak or trough. Habitat availability was important in determining site-specific habitat use by juvenile salmonids. Habitat selection was greater during the day than at night. The intrastream, diel, intraspecific, and interspecific variation we observed in salmonid habitat use in Grout Brook illustrates the difficulty of acquiring habitat use information for widespread management applications.

  10. Diel resource partitioning among juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Brown Trout, and Rainbow Trout during summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific partitioning of food and habitat resources has been widely studied in stream salmonids. Most studies have examined resource partitioning between two native species or between a native species and one that has been introduced. In this study we examine the diel feeding ecology and habitat use of three species of juvenile salmonids (i.e., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, New York. Subyearling Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout fed more heavily from the drift than the benthos, whereas subyearling Atlantic Salmon fed more from the benthos than either species of trout. Feeding activity of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout was similar, with both species increasing feeding at dusk, whereas Brown Trout had no discernable feeding peak or trough. Habitat availability was important in determining site-specific habitat use by juvenile salmonids. Habitat selection was greater during the day than at night. The intrastream, diel, intraspecific, and interspecific variation we observed in salmonid habitat use in Grout Brook illustrates the difficulty of acquiring habitat use information for widespread management applications.

  11. Factors influencing the distribution of native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in western Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana. We evaluated the association of a suite of abiotic factors (stream width, elevation, gradient, large woody debris density, pool density, August mean stream temperature, reach surface area) with the occurrence (presence or absence) of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in 79 stream reaches in five sub-drainages containing glacial lakes. We modeled the occurrence of each species using logistic regression and evaluated competing models using an information theoretic approach. Westslope cutthroat trout were widely distributed (47 of 79 reaches), and there appeared to be no restrictions on their distribution other than physical barriers. Westslope cutthroat trout were most commonly found in relatively warm reaches downstream of lakes and in headwater reaches with large amounts of large woody debris and abundant pools. By contrast, bull trout were infrequently detected (10 of 79 reaches), with 7 of the 10 (70%) detections in sub-drainages that have not been compromised by non-native lake trout (S. namaycush). Bull trout were most often found in cold, low-gradient reaches upstream of glacial lakes. Our results indicate that complex stream habitats in sub-drainages free of non-native species are important to the persistence of native salmonids in western Glacier National Park. Results from this study may help managers monitor and protect important habitats and populations, inform conservation and recovery programs, and guide non-native species suppression efforts in Glacier National Park and elsewhere.

  12. Habitat use by fishes of Lake Superior. I. Diel patterns of habitat use in nearshore and offshore waters of the Apostle Islands region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, O.T.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Diel patterns of distribution of fishes in nearshore (15–80 m depth) and offshore (>80 m) waters of the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior were described using bottom trawls, mid-water trawls, and acoustic gear during day and night sampling. These data revealed three types of diel migration: diel vertical migration (DVM), diel bank migration (DBM), and no migration. DVM was expressed by fishes migrating from benthopelagic to pelagic strata and DBM was expressed by fishes migrating horizontally from deeper waters in the day to shallower waters at night while remaining within the benthopelagic stratum. Most fishes that did not exhibit diel migration showed increased nighttime densities as a result of increased activity and movement from benthic to benthopelagic strata. Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax), Cisco (Coregonus artedi), Bloater (C. hoyi), Kiyi (C. kiyi), juvenile Trout-Perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), and adult siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) exhibited DVM. Lake Whitefish (C. clupeaformis), lean Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush), and juvenile siscowet exhibited DBM. Adult Trout-Perch and adult Pygmy Whitefish (Prosopium coulteri) exhibited a mixture of DBM and DVM. Burbot (Lota lota), Slimy Sculpin (Cottus cognatus), Spoonhead Sculpin (C. ricei), and Deepwater Sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii) did not exhibit diel migration, but showed evidence of increased nocturnal activity. Ninespine Stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) exhibited a mixture of DVM and non-migration. Juvenile Pygmy Whitefish did not show a diel change in density or depth distribution. Species showing ontogenetic shifts in depth distribution with larger, adult life stages occupying deeper waters included, Rainbow Smelt, lean and siscowet Lake Trout, Lake Whitefish, Pygmy Whitefish, Ninespine Stickleback and Trout-Perch. Of these species, siscowet also showed an ontogenetic shift from primarily DBM as juveniles to primarily DVM as adults. Across all depths, fishes

  13. Feeding ecology of native and nonnative salmonids during the expansion of a nonnative apex predator in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syslo, John M.; Guy, Christopher S.; Koel, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    The illegal introduction of Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush into Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, preceded the collapse of the native population of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri, producing a four-level trophic cascade. The Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout population’s collapse and the coinciding increase in Lake Trout abundance provided a rare opportunity to evaluate the feeding ecology of a native prey species and a nonnative piscivore species after the restructuring of a large lentic ecosystem. We assessed diets, stable isotope signatures, and depth-related CPUE patterns for Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Lake Trout during 2011–2013 to evaluate trophic overlap. To evaluate diet shifts related to density, we also compared 2011–2013 diets to those from studies conducted during previous periods with contrasting Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Lake Trout CPUEs. We illustrate the complex interactions between predator and prey in a simple assemblage and demonstrate how a nonnative apex predator can alter competitive interactions. The diets of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout were dominated by zooplankton during a period when the Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout CPUE was high and were dominated by amphipods when the CPUE was reduced. Lake Trout shifted from a diet that was dominated by Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout during the early stages of the invasion to a diet that was dominated by amphipods after Lake Trout abundance had increased and after Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout prey had declined. The shifts in Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Lake Trout diets resulted in increased trophic similarity of these species through time due to their shared reliance on benthic amphipods. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout not only face the threat posed by Lake Trout predation but also face the potential threat of competition with Lake Trout if amphipods are limiting. Our results demonstrate the importance of studying the long-term feeding ecology of fishes in

  14. Agonistic behavior among three stocked trout species in a novel reservoir fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budy, Phaedra; Hafen, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of reservoirs to support sport fisheries has led to the stocking of species that did not co-evolve, creating novel reservoir fish communities. In Utah, the Bear Lake strain of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah and tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) are being more frequently added to a traditional stocking regimen consisting primarily of Rainbow TroutO. mykiss. Interactions between these three predatory species are not well understood, and studies evaluating community interactions have raised concern for an overall decrease of trout condition. To evaluate the potential for negative interactions among these species, we tested aggression in laboratory aquaria using three-species and pairwise combinations at three densities. Treatments were replicated before and after feeding. During the three-species trials Rainbow Trout initiated 24.8 times more aggressive interactions than Cutthroat Trout and 10.2 times more aggressive interactions than tiger trout, and tiger trout exhibited slightly (1.9 times) more aggressive initiations than Cutthroat Trout. There was no significant difference in behavior before versus after feeding for any species, and no indication of increased aggression at higher densities. Although Rainbow Trout in aquaria may benefit from their bold, aggressive behavior, given observations of decreased relative survival in the field, these benefits may be outweighed in reservoirs, possibly through unnecessary energy expenditure and exposure to predators.

  15. Ninespine Stickleback Abundance in Lake Michigan Increases After Dreissenid Mussel Invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Gorman, Owen T.

    2010-01-01

    Based on data from our annual lakewide bottom trawl survey of Lake Michigan, we determined that density of ninespine sticklebacks Pungitius pungitius increased from an average of 0.234 kg/ha during 1973–1995 to an average of 1.318 kg/ha during 1996–2007. This greater-than-fivefold increase in density coincided with the dreissenid mussel invasion of Lake Michigan. Intervention analysis revealed that ninespine stickleback density in Lake Michigan significantly increased between the two time periods. In contrast, based on data from our annual bottom trawl survey of U.S. waters of Lake Superior, ninespine stickleback density decreased from an average of 0.133 kg/ha during 1978–1999 to an average of only 0.026 kg/ha during 2000–2007. This greater-than-fivefold density decrease, which was found to be significant via intervention analysis, coincided with population recovery for both lean and fat morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior. In contrast to Lake Michigan, dreissenid mussels have not invaded Lake Superior on a lakewide basis. Thus, a comparison of these two lakes indicated that the increase in ninespine stickleback abundance in Lake Michigan was most likely attributable to the dreissenid mussel invasion. In addition, based on our correlation analysis, alewives Alosa pseudoharengus did not have an adverse effect on ninespine stickleback abundance in Lake Michigan. Perhaps the recent increase in biomass of green algae Cladophora spp. associated with the dreissenid mussel invasion improved spawning habitat quality for ninespine sticklebacks and led to their stepwise abundance increase in Lake Michigan beginning in 1996

  16. Changes in Wisconsin's Lake Michigan salmonid sport fishery, 1969-1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Schultz, Paul T.; Lasee, Becky A.

    1990-01-01

    The modern sport fishery for salmonids in Wisconsin waters of Lake Michigan was begun during 1963-1969 with the stocking of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), brook trout (S. fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). The fishery grew rapidly during 1969-1985 as angler effort increased 10-fold, catch rate doubled, and catch increased 20-fold. The stocking and catch became increasingly dominated by chinook salmon, with coho salmon and lake trout of secondary importance and brown, rainbow, and brook trout of least importance. Trolling dominated the fishery, particularly by launched-boat anglers and, more recently, by moored-boat anglers. Charter boat trolling grew the most continuously and had the highest catch rates. The catch by trollers was dominated by chinook and coho salmon and lake trout. Pier, stream, and shore anglers fished less overall, but had catch rates that were similar to launched-boat anglers. The catch by pier and shore anglers was spread among chinook and coho salmon, and lake, brown and rainbow trout. The catch by stream anglers was dominated by chinook salmon. The percentage of stocked fish that were subsequently caught (catch ratio) was highest for fingerling chinook salmon (12.9%). Yearling brook trout, brown trout, coho salmon, lake trout, and rainbow trout had intermediate catch ratios (5.1-9.8%). Fingerling brook trout, brown trout, and lake trout had the lowest catch ratios (2.5-3.5%). The catch ratio for rainbow trout dropped from 9.8 to 5.1% after stocking with a different strain (the Shasta strain). Fingerling rainbow trout produced the lowest returns (<0.5%). We derived stocking recommendations for each species and life stage based on these catch ratios, and catch objectives based on maintaining catch levels recorded during 1983-1985.

  17. Lean blowoff detection sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Jimmy; Straub, Douglas L.; Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Huckaby, David

    2007-04-03

    Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

  18. Genetic diversity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from Feather River and Lake Oroville, California, and virulence of selected isolates for Chinook salmon and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bendorf, C.M.; Kelley, G.O.; Yun, S.C.; Kurath, G.; Andree, K.B.; Hedrick, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a significant pathogen of young salmonid fishes worldwide but particularly within the historical range of the Pacific Northwest and California. In the Sacramento and San Joaquin River drainages of California, IHNV outbreaks in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha have been observed regularly at large production hatcheries, including Coleman National Fish Hatchery (established in 1941) and Feather River State Fish Hatchery (FRH; established in 1967), since facility operations began. Recent severe epidemics at the FRH in 1998 and 2000-2002 prompted investigations into the characteristics and potential sources of virus at this facility. Both phylogenetic analyses of a variable portion of the glycoprotein gene and serologic comparisons based on neutralization with three polyclonal rabbit sera were used to characterize 82 IHNV isolates from the Feather River watershed between 1969 and 2004. All isolates examined were in the L genogroup and belonged to one of three serologic groups typical of IHNV from California. The IHNV isolates from the Feather River area demonstrated a maximum nucleotide sequence divergence of 4.0%, and new isolates appeared to emerge from previous isolates rather than by the introduction of more diverse subgroups from exogenous sources. The earliest isolates examined from the watershed formed the subgroup LI, which disappeared coincidently with a temporal shift to new genetic and serologic types of the larger subgroup LII. Experimental challenges demonstrated no significant differences in the virulence for juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout O. mykiss from selected isolates representing the principal types of IHNV found historically and from recent epidemics at FRH. While most isolates were equally virulent for both host species, one isolate was found to be more virulent for Chinook salmon than for rainbow trout. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  19. Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the third year (2000) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, genetics, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species declined from 1999 observations. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout increased while brook trout abundance was similar to 1999 observations in eight index reaches. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the second year. Mean relative densities of both species, within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in a 2.4 km control reach. Mill Creek was surveyed for the presence of juvenile bull trout. The American Fisheries Society ''Interim protocol for determining bull trout presence'' methodology was field tested. No bull trout were found in the 2 km survey area.

  20. An epizootic among rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1953-01-01

    An epizootic among rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) in a private trout farm, resulting from a species of Ichthyosporidium that caused very high mortality rates in all ages of trout, reported from the State of Washington.

  1. The pygmy whitefish, Coregonus coulteri, in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Bailey, Reeve M.

    1955-01-01

    Other cold-water fishes–cottids, ninespine sticklebacks, smelt, and four species of coregonines–were the most frequent associates of the pygmy whitefish. Lake trout and trout-perch were also taken with it at the same stations or in the same trawl hauls. Its closest relative in Lake Superior, the round whitefish, was not an ecological associate.

  2. Lake Superior revisited 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCallum, Wayne R.; Selgeby, James H.

    1987-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community has changed substantially since the early 1960s, when control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) became effective. Self-reproducing stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in many inshore areas, although they have not yet reached pre-sea lamprey abundance; offshore lake trout are probably at or near pre-sea lamprey abundance. Stocks of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) appear to have fully recovered; commercial catches are at or above historical levels. Lake herring (Coregonus artedii) are recovering rapidly in U.S. waters and are abundant in western Canadian waters. The population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which declined in the 1970s, is recovering. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) are becoming more abundant as a result of increased stocking in U.S. waters and are reproducing in most suitable tributaries; they have become significant in anglers' creels.

  3. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) stocking and Contracaecum spp.

    PubMed

    Dick, T A; Papst, M H; Paul, H C

    1987-04-01

    A stocking program with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) at High Rock Lake, Manitoba failed due to infections with large numbers of Contracaecum spp. larvae. Nematode larvae in the intestinal tract, body cavity and musculature made the fish unmarketable. A combination of experimental infections of rainbow trout and pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), observations on the behavior of fish-eating birds, and numbers of larval Contracaecum spp. in minnow species led to the following conclusions. The introduction of rainbow trout attracted large numbers of fish-eating birds, particularly pelicans. Concurrent predation by rainbow trout on fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), five-spined sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans), and nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius), concentrated the parasites. The combined increase in densities of the introduced fish host and fish-eating birds, and the short life cycle of the parasite, increased the numbers of parasites in rainbow trout over a season and in the indigenous minnow species between years. Numbers of larvae in the indigenous minnow species declined when stocking of rainbow trout was stopped and use of the lake by fish-eating birds, particularly pelicans, returned to normal levels.

  4. lean-ISD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Guy W.

    2001-01-01

    Explains lean instructional systems design/development (ISD) as it relates to curriculum architecture design, based on Japan's lean production system. Discusses performance-based systems; ISD models; processes for organizational training and development; curriculum architecture to support job performance; and modular curriculum development. (LRW)

  5. Effect of stocking sub-yearling Atlantic salmon on the habitat use of sub-yearling rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) restoration in the Lake Ontario watershed may depend on the species' ability to compete with naturalized non-native salmonids, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Lake Ontario tributaries. This study examined interspecific habitat associations between sub-yearling Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout as well as the effect of salmon stocking on trout habitat in two streams in the Lake Ontario watershed. In sympatry, Atlantic salmon occupied significantly faster velocities and deeper areas than rainbow trout. However, when examining the habitat use of rainbow trout at all allopatric and sympatric sites in both streams, trout habitat use was more diverse at the sympatric sites with an orientation for increased cover and larger substrate. In Grout Brook, where available habitat remained constant, there was evidence suggesting that trout may have shifted to slower and shallower water in the presence of salmon. The ability of sub-yearling Atlantic salmon to affect a habitat shift in rainbow trout may be due to their larger body size and/or larger pectoral fin size. Future studies examining competitive interactions between these species during their first year of stream residence should consider the size advantage that earlier emerging Atlantic salmon will have over rainbow trout.

  6. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Gunther, K.A.; Crock, J.G.; Haroldson, M.A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ± 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

  7. Survival and hepatic metallothionein in developing rainbow trout exposed to a mixture of zinc, copper, and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Roch, M.; McCarter, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Buttle Lake on Vancouver Island, B.C. are exposed to metal contamination originating from a copper and zinc mining operation at Myra Falls near the head of the lake. In order to properly assess the risk to a population of rainbow trout in Buttle Lake, the authors initiated a long-term exposure of rainbow trout from hatch including the swim-up stage. Copper, zinc or cadmium are known to induce metallothionein in mammals and as a mixture of metals, induce hepatic metallothionein in rainbow trout. Investigation of hepatic metallothionein concentrations in wild rainbow trout from Buttle Lake and in lakes of the Campbell River downstream showed a correlation with metal concentrations in the water. Rainbow trout held in situ for 4 weeks showed the same correlation. In this report they determined whether or not the degree of contamination was correlated with concentrations of metallothionein in the livers of rainbow trout exposed to the mixture of metals during the early life stages.

  8. Growth of the rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque), in five lakes of northeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1942-01-01

    Rock bass of corresponding length from Allequash, Silver, and Trout Lakes were so nearly of the same weight that one curve described the length-weight relationship of the three stocks. Muskellunge Lake rock bass were considerably lighter than fish of the same length from these three lakes, and Nebish Lake rock bass were somewhat lighter than those from Muskellunge Lake.

  9. Mercury in the muscle tissue of fish from three northern Maine lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Akielaszek, J.J.; Haines, T.A.

    1981-08-01

    We report the levels of mercury in the muscle tissue of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and lake trout (S. namaycush) from three northern Maine lakes. Mercury levels in fish from two wilderness lakes in the same drainage basin were compared with each other, and in turn with those in fish from a lake in a separate drainage basin. The fish species composition in one of the wilderness lakes, Cliff Lake, is different from that in the other two lakes, enabling us to analyze the effects of trophic structure on mercury concentration in top carnivores. It is unlikely that mercury from agricultural, geological, or local industrial sources occurs in these lakes.

  10. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA FROM FOUR US ARCTIC LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including...

  11. HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN SEDIMENT AND FRESHWATER FISH IN U.S. ARCTIC LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal concentrations in sediment and two species of freshwater fish (lake trout [Salvelinus namaycush], and grayling [Thymallus arcticus]} were examined in four Arctic lakes in Alaska. Concentrations of several metals were naturally high in the sediment relative to uncontaminated...

  12. HYDROACOUSTIC ESTIMATES OF ABUNDANCE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PELAGIC PREY FISHES IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) are a valuable prey resource for the recovering lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). However, their respective biomasses may be insufficient to support the current predator demand. In August 1977, we assessed the ...

  13. Molecular analysis of population genetic structure and recolonization of rainbow trout following the Cantara spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.; Heine, E.L.; Gan, C.A.; Fountain, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and allelic frequency data for 12 microsatellite loci were used to analyze population genetic structure and recolonization by rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following the 1991 Cantara spill on the upper Sacramento River, California. Genetic analyses were performed on 1,016 wild rainbow trout collected between 1993 and 1996 from the mainstem and in 8 tributaries. Wild trout genotypes were compared to genotypes for 79 Mount Shasta Hatchery rainbow trout. No genetic heterogeneity was found 2 years after the spill (1993) between tributary populations and geographically proximate mainstem fish, suggesting recolonization of the upper mainstem directly from adjacent tributaries. Trout collections made in 1996 showed significant year-class genetic variation for mtDNA and microsatellites when compared to fish from the same locations in 1993. Five years after the spill, mainstem populations appeared genetically mixed with no significant allelic frequency differences between mainstem populations and geographically proximate tributary trout. In our 1996 samples, we found no significant genetic differences due to season of capture (summer or fall) or sampling technique used to capture rainbow trout, with the exception of trout collected by electrofishing and hook and line near Prospect Avenue. Haplotype and allelic frequencies in wild rainbow trout populations captured in the upper Sacramento River and its tributaries were found to differ genetically from Mount Shasta Hatchery trout for both years, with the notable exception of trout collected in the lower mainstem river near Shasta Lake, where mtDNA and microsatellite data both suggested upstream colonization by hatchery fish from the reservoir. These data suggest that the chemical spill in the upper Sacramento River produced significant effects over time on the genetic population structure of rainbow trout throughout the entire upper river basin.

  14. Introduced trout sever trophic connections in watersheds: consequences for a declining amphibian.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Jacques C; Vredenburg, Vance T

    2007-09-01

    Trophic linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are increasingly recognized as important yet poorly known features of food webs. Here we describe research to understand the dynamics of lake food webs in relation to a native riparian amphibian and its interaction with introduced trout. The mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa is endemic to alpine watersheds of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Transverse Ranges of California, but it has declined to a small fraction of its historical distribution and abundance. Although remaining frogs and introduced trout feed in different habitats of alpine lakes, our stable-isotope analyses clearly show that the same resource base of benthic invertebrates sustains their growth. During one period, insect emergence from naturally fishless lakes was nearly 20-fold higher compared to adjacent lakes with trout, showing that fish reduce availability of aquatic prey to amphibious and terrestrial consumers. Although trout cannot prey on adult frogs due to gape limitation, foraging post-metamorphic frogs are 10 times more abundant in the absence of trout, suggesting an important role for competition for prey by trout in highly unproductive alpine watersheds. Most Sierran lakes contain fish, and those that do not are usually small isolated ponds; in our study, these two lake types supported the lowest densities of post-metamorphic frogs, and these frogs were less reliant on local, benthic sources of productivity. Since Rana muscosa was formerly the most abundant vertebrate in the Sierra Nevada, the reduction in energy flow from lake benthos to this consumer due to fish introductions may have had negative consequences for its numerous terrestrial predators, many of which have also declined. We suggest that disruptions of trophic connections between aquatic and terrestrial food webs are an important but poorly understood consequence of fish introduction to many thousands of montane lakes and streams worldwide and may

  15. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  16. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) during early development

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.K.; Peterson, R.E. )

    1994-05-01

    The sensitivity of early life stages of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity was investigated. Newly fertilized eggs were exposed for 48 h to water containing either acetone or a range of concentrations of [[sup 3]H]TCDD dissolved in acetone. Eggs were then transferred to TCDD-free water and observed through development. TCDD concentrations of 101 to 470 pg/g in the eggs caused dose-related increases in sac-fry mortality associated with yolk-sac edema, hemorrhages, and arrested development. These signs of TCDD-induced toxicity resemble blue-sac disease. The NOELs and LOELs for sac-fry mortality were 135 and 185 pg TCDD/g egg, respectively, whereas the LD50 and LD100 were 200 and 324 pg/g egg, respectively. The time course and signs of TCDD toxicity to brook trout during early development are essentially identical to those observed in both rainbow trout and lake trout following TCDD exposure of their eggs via water or injection, and in lake trout exposed to maternally derived TCDD. Brook trout sac fry are intermediate in sensitivity to TCDD-induced lethality compared to lake trout and rainbow trout.

  17. Spawning migration of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in a natural area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Larson, Gary L.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the spawning migration of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in the North Fork Skokomish River in Olympic National Park (Washington State) during 1996. Day-snorkeling and electrofishing were conducted to determine timing and duration of the migration and the distribution and abundance of bull trout. The primary spawning migration began in early October and was waning by December. Bull trout migrated 6 km or less up the river from Lake Cushman. Increased river discharge and decreased water temperature appeared to be the primary environmental variables corresponding to the initiation of the migration. Mean length of migratory bull trout increased from June to December. Comparisons with other lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations in Oregon, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia suggested that these populations exhibit specific migratory strategies related to local environmental conditions.

  18. Variable migratory patterns of different adult rainbow trout life history types in a southwest Alaska watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meka, J.M.; Knudsen, E.E.; Douglas, D.C.; Benter, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to document population structure in adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Alagnak River, southwest Alaska. Rainbow trout (N = 134) longer than 440 mm were implanted with radio transmitters and tracked for varying periods from July 1997 to April 1999. Fifty-eight radio-tagged fish were tracked for sufficient duration (at least 11 months) to allow description of seasonal migratory patterns. Unique seasonal movements of fish suggested discrete, within-basin population structure. Telemetry data documented the existence of multiple migratory and nonmigratory groups of rainbow trout, indicating unique life history patterns. The observed groups consisted of what we defined as a lake-resident ecotype, a lake-river ecotype, and a riverine ecotype; the riverive ecotype demonstrated both highly migratory and nonmigratory movement behavior. Considerable variation in movement patterns was found within both the lake-river group and the river migratory group. Radio-tagged trout did not migrate between the two Alagnak watershed lakes in either year of the study, suggesting lake fidelity in the population structure. Alagnak River rainbow trout may have evolved the observed seasonal movement patterns to optimize winter thermal refugia and summer food availability of salmon eggs and carcasses.

  19. The lean service machine.

    PubMed

    Swank, Cynthia Karen

    2003-10-01

    Jefferson Pilot Financial, a life insurance and annuities firm, like many U.S. service companies at the end of the 1990s was looking for new ways to grow. Its top managers recognized that JPF needed to differentiate itself in the eyes of its customers, the independent life-insurance advisers who sell and service policies. To establish itself as these advisers' preferred partner, it set out to reduce the turnaround time on policy applications, simplify the submission process, and reduce errors. JPF's managers looked to the "lean production" practices that U.S. manufacturers adopted in response to competition from Japanese companies. Lean production is built around the concept of continuous-flow processing--a departure from traditional production systems, in which large batches are processed at each step. JPF appointed a "lean team" to reengineer its New Business unit's operations, beginning with the creation of a "model cell"--a fully functioning microcosm of JPF's entire process. This approach allowed managers to experiment and smooth out the kinks while working toward an optimal design. The team applied lean-manufacturing practices, including placing linked processes near one another, balancing employees' workloads, posting performance results, and measuring performance and productivity from the customer's perspective. Customer-focused metrics helped erode the employees' "My work is all that matters" mind-set. The results were so impressive that JPF is rolling out similar systems across many of its operations. To convince employees of the value of lean production, the lean team introduced a simulation in which teams compete to build the best paper airplane based on invented customer specifications. This game drives home lean production's basic principles, establishing a foundation for deep and far-reaching changes in the production system.

  20. Trophic ecology of northern pike and their effect on conservation of westslope cutthroat trout.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walrath, John D.; Quist, Michael; Firehammer, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho, have declined in recent years; predation by Northern Pike Esox lucius, a nonnative sport fish, is thought to be a causative mechanism. The goal of this study was to describe the seasonal food habits of Northern Pike and determine their influence on Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Coeur d’Alene Lake by using a bioenergetics modeling approach. Fish were sampled monthly from March 2012 to May 2013 using pulsed-DC electrofishing and experimental gillnetting in four bays. Northern Pike catch rates from electrofishing were generally low but increased slightly each season and were highest in the southern portion of the lake; catch rates from gillnetting were approximately 50% higher during the two spring sampling periods compared with the summer and fall. Seasonal growth and food habits of 695 Northern Pike (TL = 16.2–108.0 cm; weight = 24–9,628 g) were analyzed. Diets primarily consisted of kokanee O. nerka, Westslope Cutthroat Trout, and Yellow PerchPerca flavescens. Results of a bioenergetics model estimated that Westslope Cutthroat Trout represented approximately 2–30% of the biomass consumed by age-1–4 Northern Pike. Total Westslope Cutthroat Trout biomass consumed by Northern Pike (2008–2011 year-classes) across all seasons sampled was estimated to be 1,231 kg (95% CI = 723–2,396 kg), and the total number consumed was 5,641 (95% CI = 3,311–10,979). The highest occurrence of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Northern Pike diets was observed during spring. Thus, reducing Northern Pike predation on Westslope Cutthroat Trout would be one tool worth considering for conserving Westslope Cutthroat Trout populations in Coeur d’Alene Lake.

  1. Lake Pend Oreille Predation Research, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Bassista, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    During August 2002 we conducted a hydroacoustic survey to enumerate pelagic fish >406 mm in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho. The purpose of this survey was to determine a collective lakewide biomass estimate of pelagic bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and lake trout S. namaycush and compare it to pelagic prey (kokanee salmon O. nerka) biomass. By developing hydroacoustic techniques to determine the pelagic predator to prey ratio, we can annually monitor their balance. Hydroacoustic surveys were also performed during December 2002 and February 2003 to investigate the effectiveness of autumn and winter surveys for pelagic predators. The inherent problem associated with hydroacoustic sampling is the inability to directly identify fish species. Therefore, we utilized sonic tracking techniques to describe rainbow trout and lake trout habitat use during our winter hydroacoustic survey to help identify fish targets from the hydroacoustic echograms. During August 2002 we estimated there were 39,044 pelagic fish >406 mm in Lake Pend Oreille (1.84 f/ha). Based on temperature and depth utilization, two distinct groups of pelagic fish >406 mm were located during August; one group was located between 10 and 35 m and the other between 40 and 70 m. The biomass for pelagic fish >406 mm during August 2002 was 73 t (metric ton). This would account for a ratio of 1 kg of pelagic predator for every 2.63 kg of kokanee prey, assuming all pelagic fish >406 mm are predators. During our late fall and winter hydroacoustic surveys, pelagic fish >406 mm were observed at lake depths between 20 and 90 m. During late fall and winter, we tracked three rainbow trout (168 habitat observations) and found that they mostly occupied pelagic areas and predominantly stayed within the top 10 m of the water column. During late fall (one lake trout) and winter (four lake trout), we found that lake trout (184 habitat observations) utilized benthic-nearshore areas 65% of the time

  2. Rethinking Lean Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, John; O'Donovan, Brendan; Zokaei, Keivan

    Ever since Levitt's influential Harvard Business Review article 'Production-Line Approach to Service' was published in 1972, it has been common for services to be treated like production lines in both the academic literature and more widely in management practice. The belief that achieving economies of scale will reduce unit costs is a common feature of management decision-making. As technological advancement has produced ever more sophisticated IT and telephony, it has become increasingly easier for firms to standardise and off-shore services. The development of the 'lean' literature has only helped to emphasise the same underlying management assumptions: by managing cost and workers' activity, organisational performance is expected to improve. This chapter argues that through misinterpretation of the core paradigm 'lean' has become subsumed into the 'business as usual' of conventional service management. As a result, 'lean' has become synonymous with 'process efficiency' and the opportunity for significant performance improvement - as exemplified by Toyota - has been missed.

  3. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2000 Data Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  4. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.S.

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  5. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations : Rainbow Trout Recruitment : Period Covered: 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Chris

    1999-02-02

    The objective of this study was to determine if juvenile production is limiting the population of rainbow trout Oncorbynchus mykiss in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used snorkeling and electrofishing techniques to estimate juvenile rainbow trout abundance in, and outmigration from, the Deep, Boulder, and Myrtle creek drainages in Idaho. The total population estimates for the three drainages estimated in 1997 were 30,023; 763; and 235; respectively. A rotary-screw trap was utilized to capture juvenile outmigrants for quantification of age at outmigration and total outmigration from the Deep Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The total outmigrant estimate for 1997 from the Deep Creek drainage was 38,206 juvenile rainbow trout. Age determination based largely on scales suggests that most juvenile rainbow trout outmigration from the Deep Creek drainage occurs at age-l, during the spring runoff period. Forty-three adult rainbow trout captured in the Deep Creek drainage were tagged with $10.00 reward T-bar anchor tags in 1997. A total of three of these fish were harvested, all in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. This suggests the possibility of an adfluvial component in the spawning population of the Deep Creek drainage.

  6. Leaning Tower of PESA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2009-01-01

    There is a certain similarity between the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA) and the leaning tower of Pisa. Both have a certain presence on the landscape: the tower has a commanding appearance on the Italian countryside while PESA has left its mark on the academic fabric of Australasia. Both are much loved: Pisa by visiting…

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in sediment and freshwater fish in U.S. Arctic lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, S.M.; Gubala, C.P.; Landers, D.H.; Lasorsa, B.K.; Crecelius, E.A.; Curtis, L.R.

    1997-04-01

    Metal concentrations in sediment and two species of freshwater fish (lake trout [Salvelinus namaycush], and grayling [Thymallus arcticus]) were examined in four Arctic lakes in Alaska. Concentrations of several metals were naturally high in the sediment relative to uncontaminated lakes in other Arctic regions and more temperate locations. For example, concentrations of Hg and Ni were 175 ng/g and 250 ng/g dry weight, respectively, in Feniak Lake surface sediment. If any anthropogenic enrichment has occurred, it is not distinguishable from background variability based on surface sediment to down core comparisons. With the exception of Hg, the site rank order of metal concentrations (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in sediment and freshwater fish tissue among lakes is not consistent. This suggests that a number of physical, chemical, and physiological parameters mediate metal bioavailability and uptake in these systems. Maximum concentrations of most metals in fish from this study are equal to or higher than those collected from remote Arctic lakes and rivers in Canada, Finland, and Russia. Muscle Hg concentrations in excess of 1 {micro}g/g wet weight were observed in lake trout from Feniak Lake, which has no identified Hg source other than naturally Hg-enriched sediments. Fish diet seems to influence some heavy metal burdens, as evidenced by the higher concentrations of some metals in lake trout compared to grayling, and differences among lakes for lake trout. Cadmium, Cu, and Zn burdens were higher in lakes where snails were consumed by trout compared to lakes without snails.

  8. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  9. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S.; Honanie, Isadore

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  10. Great Lakes water quality scenario models: Operational feasibility -Lake Michigan Mass Balance models

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance models were provided (eutrophication/nutrients, atrazine, mercury, and PCBs) with emphasis on the PCB model post-audit and forecast for Lake Trout. Provided were modeling construct, model description, and primary results. An assessm...

  11. The effects of Medieval dams on genetic divergence and demographic history in brown trout populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600–800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis of 44 microsatellite loci we investigated if the lake populations have been naturally genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Results Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence times ca. 600–800 years bp, providing strong evidence for establishment of dams in the Medieval as the factor causing divergence. Bayesian cluster analysis showed influence of stocked trout in several reference populations, but not in the focal lake and anadromous populations. Estimates of effective population size using a linkage disequilibrium method ranged from 244 to > 1,000 in all but one anadromous population, but were lower (153 and 252) in the lake populations. Conclusions We show that genetic divergence of lake-dwelling trout in two Danish lakes reflects establishment of water mills and impassable dams ca. 600–800 years ago rather than a natural genetic population structure. Although effective population sizes of the two lake populations are not critically low they may ultimately limit response to selection and thereby future adaptation. Our results demonstrate that populations may have been affected by anthropogenic disturbance over longer time scales than normally assumed. PMID:24903056

  12. Genetic structure of Columbia River redband trout populations in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana, revealed by microsatellite and allozyme loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, K.-L.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Sage, G.K.; Leary, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the genetic divergence among 10 populations of redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri from the upper Columbia River drainage. Resident redband trout from two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage and hatchery stocks of migratory Kamloops redband trout from Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, were analyzed using allele frequency data from microsatellite and allozyme loci. The Kamloops populations have significantly different allele frequencies from those of the Kootenai River drainage. Of the total genetic variation detected in the resident redband trout, 40.7% (microsatellites) and 15.5% (allozymes) were due to differences between populations from the two Kootenai River watersheds. The divergence among populations within each watershed, however, was less than 3.5% with both techniques. Our data indicate that watershed-specific broodstocks of redband trout are needed by fisheries managers for reintroduction or the supplementation of populations at risk of extinction.

  13. Organizational change through Lean Thinking.

    PubMed

    Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

    2008-08-01

    In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change.

  14. Trout in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program

  15. Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  16. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  17. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly; Olson, Jason

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  18. Interacting effects of water temperature and swimming activity on body composition and mortality of fasted juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Martinez Del Rio, C.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: We assessed changes in proximate body composition, wet mass, and the occurrence of mortality among sedentary and actively swimming (15 cm/s) juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (120-142 mm total length) that were held at 4.0, 7.5, or 15.0 ??C and fasted for 140 days. Warmer water temperatures and swimming activity accentuated declines in lipid mass, but they did not similarly affect lean mass and wet mass. Swimming fish conserved lean mass independent of water temperature. Because lean mass exceeded lipid mass, wet mass was not affected substantially by decreases in lipid mass. Consequently, wet mass did not accurately reflect the effects that water temperature and swimming activity had on mortality of fasted rainbow trout. Rather, lipid mass was more accurate in predicting death from starvation. Juvenile rainbow trout survived long periods without food, and fish that died of starvation appeared to have similar body composition. It appears that the ability of fish to endure periods without food depends on the degree to which lipid mass and lean mass can be utilized as energy sources.

  19. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam, 2008 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-03-31

    The goal of this project is to provide temporary upstream passage of bull trout around Albeni Falls Dam on the Pend Oreille River, Idaho. Our specific objectives are to capture fish downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, tag them with combination acoustic and radio transmitters, release them upstream of Albeni Falls Dam, and determine if genetic information on tagged fish can be used to accurately establish where fish are located during the spawning season. In 2007, radio receiving stations were installed at several locations throughout the Pend Oreille River watershed to detect movements of adult bull trout; however, no bull trout were tagged during that year. In 2008, four bull trout were captured downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, implanted with transmitters, and released upstream of the dam at Priest River, Idaho. The most-likely natal tributaries of bull trout assigned using genetic analyses were Grouse Creek (N = 2); a tributary of the Pack River, Lightning Creek (N = 1); and Rattle Creek (N = 1), a tributary of Lightning Creek. All four bull trout migrated upstream from the release site in Priest River, Idaho, were detected at monitoring stations near Dover, Idaho, and were presumed to reside in Lake Pend Oreille from spring until fall 2008. The transmitter of one bull trout with a genetic assignment to Grouse Creek was found in Grouse Creek in October 2008; however, the fish was not found. The bull trout assigned to Rattle Creek was detected in the Clark Fork River downstream from Cabinet Gorge Dam (approximately 13 km from the mouth of Lightning Creek) in September but was not detected entering Lightning Creek. The remaining two bull trout were not detected in 2008 after detection at the Dover receiving stations. This report details the progress by work element in the 2008 statement of work, including data analyses of fish movements, and expands on the information reported in the quarterly Pisces status reports.

  20. Experimental analysis of trout effects on survival, growth, and habitat use of two species of western Ambystomatid salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyler, T.; Liss, W.J.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Ganio, L.

    1998-01-01

    Introduced fish have been implicated as reducing abundance or eliminating ambystomatid salamanders from montane lakes in western North America. We tested the null hypotheses that survivorship, growth, and refuge use of larvae reared for 30 d did not differ between artificial ponds with trout and without trout. Larval survivorship for both A. macrodactylum and A. gracile was significantly lower in ponds with trout than in fishless ponds. Both species had significantly lower snout-vent lengths in ponds with trout than in fishless ponds at the conclusion of the experiments. Only A. gracile had significantly lower body weight in ponds with trout than in ponds without trout. For both species, substrate locations of larvae were significantly influenced by trout at the conclusion of the experiments. Larvae of both species were found in a narrower range of substrates in ponds with fish than in control ponds. Our findings support inferences from field studies that the presence of trout have negative impacts on larval A. macrodactylum and A. gracile.

  1. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv, N.; Self, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes test strategies and lean philisophies and practices that are applied to Ares Launch Vehicles. The topics include: 1) Testing strategy; 2) Lean Practices in Ares I-X; 3) Lean Practices Applied to Ares I-X Schedule; 4) Lean Event Results; 5) Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Practices in the Ares Projects Office; 6) Lean and Kaizen Success Stories; and 7) Ares Six Sigma Practices.

  2. Lean Tissue Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Body composition refers to the amount of fat and lean tissues in our body; it is a science that looks beyond a unit of body weight, accounting for the proportion of different tissues and its relationship to health. Although body weight and body mass index are well-known indexes of health status, most researchers agree that they are rather inaccurate measures, especially for elderly individuals and those patients with specific clinical conditions. The emerging use of imaging techniques such as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound imaging in the clinical setting have highlighted the importance of lean soft tissue (LST) as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. It is clear from emerging studies that body composition health will be vital in treatment decisions, prognostic outcomes, and quality of life in several nonclinical and clinical states. This review explores the methodologies and the emerging value of imaging techniques in the assessment of body composition, focusing on the value of LST to predict nutrition status. PMID:25239112

  3. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  4. Trout-liver histones

    PubMed Central

    Palau, J.; Butler, J. A. V.

    1966-01-01

    1. The histones of trout liver were examined and four main fractions (f1, f2b, f2a and f3) were isolated and characterized. 2. The amino acid analyses, N-terminal group analyses and starch-gel electrophoresis patterns are remarkably similar to the corresponding fractions of calf thymus. 3. The group f2a was also separated into two subfractions, f2al and f2a2, which are similar to those of calf thymus. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5969291

  5. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  6. Phthalate biotransformation by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, M.G.; Hayton, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    The biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was studied in rainbow trout because DEHP bioconcentration is limited by metabolism. Biological fluids were collected following intravascular administration. Methylesterified metabolites were identified using rodent-derived standards and nonlinear gradient elution HPLC; metabolites were confirmed by gas chromatography. Similarities between the biotransformation of DEHP by rainbow trout and mammalian species included: (1) mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) appeared to be the obligatory first step in DEHP metabolism; (2) the phthalate ring was not oxidized; (3) phthalic acid was a minor metabolite; and (4) several metabolites contained multiple oxidations of the 2-ethylhexyl moiety of MEHP. No metabolites unique to rainbow trout were identified. However, fewer oxidized metabolites were identified in rainbow trout than in mammalian species, possibly due to limited mitochondrial metabolism of MEHP in rainbow trout. The amount of biliary MEHP glucuronide after intravascular administration of DEHP was substantially less than reported in rainbow trout exposed to DEHP via the water. The results confirmed that DEHP metabolism in rainbow trout proceeds by initial rapid formation of MEHP, followed by excretion or extensive oxidation by microsomal P450.

  7. Control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior, 1953-70

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Bernard R.; Tibbles, J. James; Johnson, B.G.H.

    1974-01-01

    Although sea lamprey control and heavy plantings of hatchery-reared stock had restored lake trout abundance to prelamprey levels in many areas by 1970, the trout had not yet become self-sustaining. Additional effort will be required to further reduce the effects of lamprey predation.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of macrophage aggregates in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwindt, Adam R.; Truelove, Nathan; Schreck, Carl B.; Fournie, John W.; Landers, Dixon H.; Kent, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage aggregates (MAs) occur in various organs of fishes, especially the kidney, liver and spleen, and contain melanin, ceroid/lipofuscin and hemosiderin pigments. They have been used as indicators of a number of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Macrophage aggregates occur in salmonids but are poorly organized, irregularly shaped, and are generally smaller than those in derived teleosts. These features complicate quantification, and thus these fishes have seldom been used in studies correlating MAs with environmental stressors. To alleviate these complications, we developed color filtering algorithms for use with the software package ImagePro Plus® (Media Cybernetics) that select and quantify pigmented area (i.e. colors ranging from gold to brown to black) in tissue sections. Image analysis results compared well with subjective scoring when tested on brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss captured from high-elevation lakes or hatcheries. Macrophage aggregate pigments correlated positively with age and negatively with condition factor. Within individual fish, pigmentation correlated positively among organs, suggesting that the kidney, liver or spleen are suitable indicator organs. In age-matched fishes, MA pigments were not different between hatcheries and lakes in the organs examined. Between lakes, differences in pigments were observed in the kidney and spleen, but were not explained by age, condition factor, sex or maturation state. Our results indicate that quantification of the area occupied by MA pigments is an efficient and accurate means of evaluating MAs in salmonid organs and that organ pigmentation correlates with age and condition factor, as seen in studies with more derived fishes. 

  9. VITELLOGENIN GENE EXPRESSION IN FATHEAD MINNOWS EXPOSED TO EE2 IN A WHOLE LAKE DOSING EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A whole-lake endocrine disruption experiment was conducted by Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario in 2001 and 2002. This experiment examined population, organism, biochemical and cellular-level effects in lake trout, white sucke...

  10. Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Christopher V.

    2002-01-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the fourth year (2001) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species were the lowest observed since surveys began in 1999. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout increased in Shitike Cr. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the third year. Mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in the 2.4 km control reach. However, the mean relative density of brook trout in the 2.4 km control reach was slightly higher than what was observed in within the index reaches. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout occupied pools more frequently than glides, riffles and rapids. However, pools accounted for only a small percentage

  11. Dynamics of CFCs in northern temperate lakes and adjacent groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.; Saad, D.A.; Hunt, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Three dimictic lakes and one meromictic lake in and near the Trout Lake, Wisconsin, watershed were sampled to determine the variation of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentrations within the lakes. The lakes were sampled during stratified conditions, during fall turnover, and during ice cover. The results demonstrate a considerable variation in CFC concentrations and corresponding atmospheric mixing ratios in the lakes sampled, both with depth and season within a given lake, and across different lakes. CFC profiles and observed degradation were not related to the groundwater inflow rate and hence are likely the result of in-lake processes influenced by CFC degradation in the (lake) water column, CFC degradation in the lake-bed sediments, and gas exchange rates and the duration of turnover (turnover efficiency).

  12. Toxic substances and survival of Lake Michigan salmonids: field and laboratory approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Evans, Marlene S.

    1988-01-01

    An examination is made of the effects of chemical contaminants on the reproduction of fish from the Great Lakes. Routes of contaminant exposure are outlined; andlake trout and chinook salmon mortality are discussed with respect to evidence showing contaminant involvement.

  13. Intra-strain dioxin sensitivity and morphometric effects in swim-up rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carvalho, Paulo S. M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Inter and intra-specific differences in sensitivity of early life stage salmonids to 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure have been reported, but intra-strain differences have not been found in the literature. Our results indicate that intra-strain variability in terms of embryo mortality (LD50) is small in Eagle Lake strain of rainbow trout, LD50 values ranging from 285 to 457 pg TCDD egg g-1. These results confirm Eagle Lake as a less sensitive strain within rainbow trout, and do not indicate overlap with reported LD50 values for brook or lake trout. Our results also demonstrate that although generalized edema in regions including the yolk-sac are frequently associated with mortality following dioxin exposure, not all edematous fish die. We detected dose-dependent decreases in cranial length, eye diameter, mass, and total length (P<0.05) in viable swim-up rainbow trout. These effects are presumed to indicate more subtle dose-dependent disruptions of the viteline vein vasculature and, therefore, in access to energy sources. A tendency for dose-dependent decrease in liver glycogen reserves concurred with previous results on salmonids and with the well described TCDD-induced alterations in intermediate metabolism of rats and chicken embryos (wasting syndrome). This syndrome could be contributing to the reduced growth that we observed. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fragmentation of riverine systems: the genetic effects of dams on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Clark Fork River system.

    PubMed

    Neraas, L P; Spruell, P

    2001-05-01

    Migratory bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) historically spawned in tributaries of the Clark Fork River, Montana and inhabited Lake Pend Oreille as subadult and adult fish. However, in 1952 Cabinet Gorge Dam was constructed without fish passage facilities disrupting the connectivity of this system. Since the construction of this dam, bull trout populations in upstream tributaries have been in decline. Each year adult bull trout return to the base of Cabinet Gorge Dam when most migratory bull trout begin their spawning migration. However, the origin of these fish is uncertain. We used eight microsatellite loci to compare bull trout collected at the base of Cabinet Gorge Dam to fish sampled from both above and further downstream from the dam. Our data indicate that Cabinet Gorge bull trout are most likely individuals that hatched in above-dam tributaries, reared in Lake Pend Oreille, and could not return to their natal tributaries to spawn. This suggests that the risk of outbreeding depression associated with passing adults over dams in the Clark Fork system is minimal compared to the potential genetic and demographic benefits to populations located above the dams. PMID:11380874

  15. USPS – Lean Green Teams

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-01

    Institutional change case study details the U.S. Postal Service's Lean Green Teams, which collaborate across functions to identify and implement low- and no-cost ways to conserve natural resources, purchase fewer consumable products, and reduce waste.

  16. Defect reduction through Lean methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdy, Kathleen; Kindt, Louis; Densmore, Jim; Benson, Craig; Zhou, Nancy; Leonard, John; Whiteside, Cynthia; Nolan, Robert; Shanks, David

    2010-09-01

    Lean manufacturing is a systematic method of identifying and eliminating waste. Use of Lean manufacturing techniques at the IBM photomask manufacturing facility has increased efficiency and productivity of the photomask process. Tools, such as, value stream mapping, 5S and structured problem solving are widely used today. In this paper we describe a step-by-step Lean technique used to systematically decrease defects resulting in reduced material costs, inspection costs and cycle time. The method used consists of an 8-step approach commonly referred to as the 8D problem solving process. This process allowed us to identify both prominent issues as well as more subtle problems requiring in depth investigation. The methodology used is flexible and can be applied to numerous situations. Advantages to Lean methodology are also discussed.

  17. Lean premixed/prevaporized combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, A. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations were formulated on the status and application of lean premixed/prevaporized combustion to the aircraft gas turbine for the reduction of pollutant emissions. The approach taken by the NASA Stratospheric Cruise Emission Reduction Program (SCERP) in pursuing the lean premixed/prevaporized combustion technique was also discussed. The proceedings contains an overview of the SCERP program, the discussions and recommendations of the participants, and an overall summary.

  18. Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Reservation : 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Christopher V.; Dodson, Rebekah

    2003-03-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be healthy in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings to date from this multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance has been assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek since 1999. In the Warm Springs R. the relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout were .003 fish/m{sup 2} and .001 fish/m{sup 2} respectively during 2002. These densities were the lowest recorded in the Warm Springs River during the period of study. In Shitike Cr. the relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout were .025 fish/m{sup 2} and .01 fish/m{sup 2} respectively during 2002. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance in the Warm Springs R. has been assessed since 1999. During 2002 the mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the 2.4 km study area was higher than what was observed in four index reaches. However, the mean relative densities of brook trout was slightly higher in the index reaches than what was observed in the 2.4 km study area. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout were most abundant in pools and glides. However pools and glides comprised less than 20% of the available habitat

  19. Lean meat and heart health.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    The general health message to the public about meat consumption is both confusing and misleading. It is stated that meat is not good for health because meat is rich in fat and cholesterol and high intakes are associated with increased blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). This paper reviewed 54 studies from the literature in relation to red meat consumption and CHD risk factors. Substantial evidence from recent studies shows that lean red meat trimmed of visible fat does not raise total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Dietary intake of total and saturated fat mainly comes from fast foods, snack foods, oils, spreads, other processed foods and the visible fat of meat, rather than lean meat. In fact, lean red meat is low in saturated fat, and if consumed in a diet low in SFA is associated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol in both healthy and hypercholesterolemia subjects. Lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. Lean red meat is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors). PMID:15927927

  20. Long-term impacts of invasive species on a native top predator in a large lake system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rush, Scott A.; Paterson, Gordon; Johnson, Tim B.; Drouillard, Ken G.; Haffner, Gordon D.; Hebert, Craig E.; Arts, Michael T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Backus, Sean M.; Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Schaner, Ted; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    1. Declining abundances of forage fish and the introduction and establishment of non-indigenous species have the potential to substantially alter resource and habitat exploitation by top predators in large lakes. 2. We measured stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in field-collected and archived samples of Lake Ontario lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and five species of prey fish and compared current trophic relationships of this top predator with historical samples. 3. Relationships between δ15N and lake trout age were temporally consistent throughout Lake Ontario and confirmed the role of lake trout as a top predator in this food web. However, δ13C values for age classes of lake trout collected in 2008 ranged from 1.0 to 3.9‰ higher than those reported for the population sampled in 1992. 4. Isotope mixing models predicted that these changes in resource assimilation were owing to the replacement of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) by round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in lake trout diet and increased reliance on carbon resources derived from nearshore production. This contrasts with the historical situation in Lake Ontario where δ13C values of the lake trout population were dominated by a reliance on offshore carbon production. 5. These results indicate a reduced capacity of the Lake Ontario offshore food web to support the energetic requirements of lake trout and that this top predator has become increasingly reliant on prey resources that are derived from nearshore carbon pathways.

  1. Changes in a population of exotic rainbow smelt in Lake Superior: Boom to bust, 1974-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, O.T.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in a population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior were chronicled over a 32-yr time series, 1974–2005. At the beginning of the time series, rainbow smelt was the predominant prey species, abundance of lake herring (Coregonis artedi) was very low, and the dominant predator was stocked lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Following a period of successful lake trout stocking in the 1970s, the rainbow smelt population declined sharply in 1980, largely through mortality of adult fish and subsequent poor recruitment. In the succeeding 4 years, rainbow smelt populations reached historic low levels, resulting in reduced food resources for both wild and stocked lake trout. During 1985–1990 lake herring stocks began a spectacular recovery following the appearance of a very strong 1984 year class and subsequent 1988, 1989, and 1990 year classes. Rainbow smelt benefited from the high abundance of young lake herring as an alternate prey source for lake trout and showed a partial recovery in the late 1980s. However, a growing lake trout population coupled with an 8-yr period of low herring reproduction after 1990 resulted in a diminished rainbow smelt population dominated by age-1 and 2 fish and showing a pattern of alternating recruitment attributed to cannibalism. Low productivity of rainbow smelt and intermittent production of herring over the past decade has left lake trout populations with a diminished prey base. Although lake trout recovery benefited from the presence of rainbow smelt as a prey resource, the Lake Superior fish community was fundamentally altered by the introduction of rainbow smelt.

  2. Lean limit phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Law, C.K.

    1983-03-01

    The influence of stretch and preferential diffusion on premixed flame extinction and stability was investigated via two model flame configurations, namely the stagnation flame and the bunsen flame. Using a counterflow burner and a stagnation flow burner with a water-cooled wall, the effect of downstream heat loss on the extinction of a stretched premixed flame investigated for lean and rich propane/air and methane/air mixtures. It was demonstrated that extinction by stretch alone is possible only when the deficient reactant is the less mobile one. When it is the more mobile one, downstream heat loss or incomplete reaction is also needed to achieve extinction. The local extinction of bunsen flame tips and edges of hydrocarbon/air premixtures was investigated using a variety of burners. Results show that, while for both rich propane/air and butane/air mixtures tip opening occurs at a constant fuel equivalence ratio of 1.44 and is therefore independent of the intensity, uniformity, and configuration of the approach flow, for rich methane/air flames burning is intensified at the tip and therefore opening is not possible.

  3. Twin Lakes studies: a characterization of the Twin Lakes fishery via creel census with an evaluation of potential effects of pump-storage power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nesler, T.P.

    1981-11-01

    Creel census studies were conducted at Twin Lakes, Colo. from 1972 to 1979 to characterize the fishery, and to provide a basis for the evaluation of potential impacts upon the fishery resulting from the construction and operation of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant located on the lower lake. In this report, creel census data are presented for the period December 1976 to September 1979. Creel census has resulted in characterization of the Twin Lakes fishery with a precision adequate for analyses of pumped-storage effects upon the major components of the fishery. Potential powerplant impacts, such as increased mortality to rainbow trout, daily and seasonal water-level fluctuations, and shoreline turbidity may have adverse effects on the Twin Lakes shore fishery for rainbow trout. Large-scale impacts probably will be necessary to demonstrate effects upon the boat fishery and the lake trout harvest.

  4. 33 CFR 117.337 - Trout River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trout River. 117.337 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.337 Trout River. The draw of the CSX Railroad Bridge across the Trout River, mile 0.9 at Jacksonville, operates as follows: (a) The bridge is...

  5. Patterns of hybridization of nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout with native redband trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neville, Helen M.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the greatest threats to native fishes. Threats from hybridization are particularly important for native trout species as stocking of nonnative trout has been widespread within the ranges of native species, thus increasing the potential for hybridization. While many studies have documented hybridization between native cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, fewer have focused on this issue in native rainbow trout despite widespread threats from introductions of both nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout. Here, we describe the current genetic (i.e., hybridization) status of native redband trout O. mykiss gairdneri populations in the upper Boise River, Idaho. Interspecific hybridization was widespread (detected at 14 of the 41 sampled locations), but high levels of hybridization between nonnative cutthroat trout and redband trout were detected in only a few streams. Intraspecific hybridization was considerably more widespread (almost 40% of sampled locations), and several local populations of native redband trout have been almost completely replaced with hatchery coastal rainbow trout O. mykiss irideus; other populations exist as hybrid swarms, some are in the process of being actively invaded, and some are maintaining genetic characteristics of native populations. The persistence of some redband trout populations with high genetic integrity provides some opportunity to conserve native genomes, but our findings also highlight the complex decisions facing managers today. Effective management strategies in this system may include analysis of the specific attributes of each site and population to evaluate the relative risks posed by isolation versus maintaining connectivity, identifying potential sites for control or eradication of nonnative trout, and long-term monitoring of the genetic integrity of remaining redband trout populations to track changes in their status.

  6. Lake fisheries need lamprey control and research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffett, James W.

    1953-01-01

    Since 1921, when the first sea lamprey was recorded from Lake Erie, concern about this parasite in the Great Lakes above Niagara Falls, where previously it had never occurred, grew successively. At first, the concern was shared only in scientific circles, but as the parasite continued its persistent and rapid spread throughout the upper Great Lakes this concern was voiced by state conservation departments, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and interested fishermen. Catches of lake trout especially, and other species secondarily, began to fall below anything representing normal fluctuations in abundance. The fishing industry on Lake Huron and Lake Michigan became extremely concerned due to the fact that income was diminishing greatly. Producers on Lake Superior were fearful that the same decline in production would soon characterize their fishery.

  7. Toxaphene congeners in the Canadian Great Lakes basin: temporal and spatial food web dynamics.

    PubMed

    Whittle, D M; Kiriluk, R M; Carswell, A A; Keir, M J; MacEachen, D C

    2000-01-01

    Samples of a top predator fish species, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and predominant forage species including smelt (Osmerus mordax), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and lake herring (Coregonus artedii) were, collected from throughout 4 of the 5 Great Lakes (Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario) (Fig. 1). Lake trout were also collected from three isolated lake systems (Lakes Nipigon, Simcoe and Opeongo), all located within the basin. All the samples were analysed for body burdens of total toxaphene and 22 toxaphene congeners. In addition, from each of the Great Lakes sites samples of major invertebrate dietary items, which included Mysis relicta, Diporeia hoyi and plankton, were similarly analysed. Whole lake trout samples, archived at -80 degrees C, were reanalysed to determine historical trends of toxaphene congeners plus carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures. The Lake Superior food web consistently had the highest levels of total toxaphene of all the Great Lakes monitored. The primary source of toxaphene to Lake Superior has been identified as atmospheric transport and deposition from sites in the southern US, Mexico and Central America (Hoff, R.M., Strachan, W.M.J., Sweet, C.W., Chan, C.H., Shackelton, M., Bidleman, T.F., Brice, K.A., Burnison, D.A., Cussion, S., Gatz, D.F., Harlin, K., Schroeder, W.H., 1996. Atmospheric deposition of toxic chemicals to the Great Lakes: A review of data through 1994. Atmospheric Environ. 30, 3505-3527). Of the offsystem lakes surveyed. Lake Nipigon, situated due north of Lake Superior and with a Lake Basin area of about 6% of Lake Superior (Hendendorf, C.E., 1982. J. Great Lakes Res. 8(3), 379-412) had total toxaphene levels in lake trout equivalent to about 50% of those found in lake trout from Lake Superior. Temporal trend toxaphene congener analysis was conducted on archived whole fish samples collected over the period 1980 through to

  8. Chemical and biological recovery from acid deposition within the Honnedaga Lake watershed, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Daniel C; Robinson, Jason M; Chiotti, Justin; Jirka, Kurt J; Kraft, Clifford E

    2014-07-01

    Honnedaga Lake in the Adirondack region of New York has sustained a heritage brook trout population despite decades of atmospheric acid deposition. Detrimental impacts from acid deposition were observed from 1920 to 1960 with the sequential loss of acid-sensitive fishes, leaving only brook trout extant in the lake. Open-lake trap net catches of brook trout declined for two decades into the late 1970s, when brook trout were considered extirpated from the lake but persisted in tributary refuges. Amendments to the Clean Air Act in 1990 mandated reductions in sulfate and nitrogen oxide emissions. By 2000, brook trout had re-colonized the lake coincident with reductions in surface-water sulfate, nitrate, and inorganic monomeric aluminum. No changes have been observed in surface-water acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) or calcium concentration. Observed increases in chlorophyll a and decreases in water clarity reflect an increase in phytoplankton abundance. The zooplankton community exhibits low species richness, with a scarcity of acid-sensitive Daphnia and dominance by acid-tolerant copepods. Trap net surveys indicate that relative abundance of adult brook trout population has significantly increased since the 1970s. Brook trout are absent in 65 % of tributaries that are chronically acidified with ANC of <0 μeq/L and toxic aluminum levels (>2 μmol/L). Given the current conditions, a slow recovery of chemistry and biota is expected in Honnedaga Lake and its tributaries. We are exploring the potential to accelerate the recovery of brook trout abundance in Honnedaga Lake through lime applications to chronically and episodically acidified tributaries. PMID:24671614

  9. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Ponnusamy, Senthil; Ferguson, Harley Douglas; Williams, Aaron M; Tassitano, James B

    2007-09-01

    efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial

  10. Fish community change in Lake Superior, 1970-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Ebener, Mark P.; Schreiner, Donald R.; DeVault, David S.; Petzold, Michael M.; Jensen, Douglas A.; Richards, Carl; Lozano, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in Lake Superior's fish community are reviewed from 1970 to 2000. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks have increased substantially and may be approaching ancestral states. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) have also recovered, but under sporadic recruitment. Contaminant levels have declined and are in equilibrium with inputs, but toxaphene levels are higher than in all other Great Lakes. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control, harvest limits, and stocking fostered recoveries of lake trout and allowed establishment of small nonnative salmonine populations. Natural reproduction supports most salmonine populations, therefore further stocking is not required. Nonnative salmonines will likely remain minor components of the fish community. Forage biomass has shifted from exotic rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to native species, and high predation may prevent their recovery. Introductions of exotics have increased and threaten the recovering fish community. Agencies have little influence on the abundance of forage fish or the major predator, siscowet lake trout, and must now focus on habitat protection and enhancement in nearshore areas and prevent additional species introductions to further restoration. Persistence of Lake Superior's native deepwater species is in contrast to other Great Lakes where restoration will be difficult in the absence of these ecologically important fishes.

  11. Species succession and fishery exploitation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1968-01-01

    The species composition of fish in the Great Lakes has undergone continual change since the earliest records. Some changes were caused by enrichment of the environment, but others primarily by an intensive and selective fishery for certain species. Major changes related to the fishery were less frequent before the late 1930's than in recent years and involved few species. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were overexploited knowingly during the late 1800's because they interfered with fishing for preferred species; sturgeon were greatly reduced in all lakes by the early 1900's. Heavy exploitation accompanied sharp declines of lake herring (Leucichthys artedi) in Lake Erie during the 1920's and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Huron during the 1930's. A rapid succession of fish species in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior that started about 1940 has been caused by selective predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on native predatory species, and the resultant shifting emphasis of the fishery and species interaction as various species declined. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and burbot (Lota lota), the deepwater predators, were depleted first; this favored their prey, the chubs (Leucichthys spp.). The seven species of chubs were influenced differently according to differences in size. Fishing emphasis and predation by sea lampreys were selective for the largest species of chubs as lake trout and burbot declined. A single slow-growing chub, the bloater, was favored and increased, but as the large chubs declined the bloater was exploited by a new trawl fishery. The growth rate and size of the bloater increased, making it more vulnerable to conventional gillnet fishery and lamprey predation. This situation in Lakes Michigan and Huron favored the small alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) which had recently become established in the upper Great Lakes, and the alewife increased rapidly and dominated the fish stocks of the lakes. The successive

  12. Status and conservation of interior Redband Trout in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Gunckel, Stephanie L; Writer, Benjamin J; Shepard, Bradley B.; May, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe the current status and conservation of interior (potamodromous) Redband Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss sspp. throughout its range in the western United States using extant data and expert opinion provided by fish managers. Redband Trout historically occupied 60,295 km of stream habitat and 152 natural lakes. Currently, Redband Trout occupy 25,417 km of stream habitat (42% of their historical range) and 124 lakes or reservoirs. Nonhybridized populations are assumed to occupy 11,695 km (46%) of currently occupied streams; however, fish from only 4,473 km (18%) have been genetically tested. Approximately 47% of the streams occupied by Redband Trout occur on private land, 45% on government lands, and 8% in protected areas. A total of 210 Redband Trout populations, occupying 15,252 km of stream habitat (60% of the current distribution) and 95,158 ha of lake habitat (52%), are being managed as “conservation populations.” Most conservation populations have been designated as weakly to strongly connected metapopulations (125; 60%) and occupy much more stream length (14,112 km; 93%) than isolated conservation populations (1,141 km; 7%). The primary threats to Redband Trout include invasive species, habitat degradation and fragmentation, and climate change. Although the historical distribution of interior Redband Trout has declined dramatically, we conclude that the species is not currently at imminent risk of extinction because it is still widely distributed with many populations isolated by physical barriers and active conservation efforts are occurring for many populations. However, the hybridization status of many populations has not been well quantified, and introgression may be more prevalent than documented here. We recommend (1) collecting additional genetic data and estimating distribution and abundance by means of a more rigorous spatial sampling design to reduce uncertainties, (2) collecting additional information to assess and

  13. MOLECULAR, PROTEIN AND HISTOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN FATHEAD MINNOWS EXPOSEDF TO EE2 IN A WHOLE-LAKE DOSING EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A whole-lake endocrine disruption experiment was conducted by Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario from 2001 to 2003. This experiment examined population, organism, biochemical and cellular-level effects in lake trout, white suck...

  14. Bull Trout Life His