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Sample records for lean meat content

  1. Effects of Partial Substitution of Lean Meat with Pork Backfat or Canola Oil on Sensory Properties of Korean Traditional Meat Patties (Tteokgalbi)

    PubMed Central

    Imm, Bue-Young; Kim, Chung Hwan; Imm, Jee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Korean traditional meat patties (Tteokgalbi) were prepared by replacing part of the lean meat content with either pork backfat or canola oil and the effect of substitution on sensory quality of the meat patties was investigated. Compared to the control patties, pork-loin Tteokgalbi with 10% pork backfat or 10% canola oil had significantly higher overall acceptability and higher perceived intensity of meat flavor, sweetness, umami, and oiliness. The pork-loin patties containing 10% fat also had lower perceived firmness, toughness, and chalkiness of than the control Tteokgalbi. The chicken breast Tteokgalbi with 10% canola oil had the lowest perceived firmness and chalkiness (control > pork backfat > canola oil). No significant difference was noted in the overall acceptability of chicken breast patties with 10% pork backfat and those with 10% canola oil. These results indicate that substituting 10% of lean meat of Tteokgalbi with fat improved the sensory acceptability of the product for Korean customers regardless of the lean meat and/or fat source used in the patties. Lean meat patties formulated with a limited amount of vegetable oil such as canola oil can be a healthy option for Korean consumers by providing desirable fatty acid profiles without sacrificing sensory quality of the product. PMID:26761287

  2. Effects of Partial Substitution of Lean Meat with Pork Backfat or Canola Oil on Sensory Properties of Korean Traditional Meat Patties (Tteokgalbi).

    PubMed

    Imm, Bue-Young; Kim, Chung Hwan; Imm, Jee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Korean traditional meat patties (Tteokgalbi) were prepared by replacing part of the lean meat content with either pork backfat or canola oil and the effect of substitution on sensory quality of the meat patties was investigated. Compared to the control patties, pork-loin Tteokgalbi with 10% pork backfat or 10% canola oil had significantly higher overall acceptability and higher perceived intensity of meat flavor, sweetness, umami, and oiliness. The pork-loin patties containing 10% fat also had lower perceived firmness, toughness, and chalkiness of than the control Tteokgalbi. The chicken breast Tteokgalbi with 10% canola oil had the lowest perceived firmness and chalkiness (control > pork backfat > canola oil). No significant difference was noted in the overall acceptability of chicken breast patties with 10% pork backfat and those with 10% canola oil. These results indicate that substituting 10% of lean meat of Tteokgalbi with fat improved the sensory acceptability of the product for Korean customers regardless of the lean meat and/or fat source used in the patties. Lean meat patties formulated with a limited amount of vegetable oil such as canola oil can be a healthy option for Korean consumers by providing desirable fatty acid profiles without sacrificing sensory quality of the product.

  3. Effect of lean red meat from lamb v. lean white meat from chicken on the serum lipid profile: a randomised, cross-over study in women.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Perez-Calahorra, Sofia; Cenarro, Ana; Bea, Ana M; Andres, Eva; Horno, Jaime; Ros, Emilio; Civeira, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    The main dietary guidelines recommend restricting total and saturated fat intake in the management of high blood cholesterol levels for cardiovascular risk. These recommendations are usually oversimplified by considering that all red meats should be limited and replaced by white meats. However, lean red meat can be as low in fat as white meat. We examined the effects of red meat (lean breed lamb) and lean white meat (chicken) intake on the lipid profile of a group of women with stable life conditions (nuns living in convents). An open-label, randomised, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-six nuns who consumed either lamb or chicken three times per week for 5-week periods with their usual diet. Clinical, dietary and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and the end of each diet period. A validated FFQ was used to assess nutrient intake and monitor compliance. The results showed neither between-diet differences in lipid responses nor differences from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or TAG for any diet period. In conclusion, consumption of lean red meat (lamb) or lean white meat (chicken) as part of the usual diet is associated with a similar lipid response. These two foods can be exchanged in a healthy diet to increase palatability.

  4. Lean red meat consumption and lipid profiles in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Bradlee, M. Loring; Singer, Martha R.; Moore, Lynn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies of red meat consumption often fail to distinguish between leaner and fattier or processed cuts of meat. Red meat has also been frequently linked with less healthy diet patterns. Data exploring health effects of lean red meat in younger individuals, particularly in the context of a healthy diet, are sparse. This study examined the effects of lean red meat in combination with higher intakes of fruit/non-starchy vegetables on lipid profiles in older adolescent girls. Methods Data from 1,461 girls followed for 10 years starting at 9-10 years of age in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study were used. Diet was assessed using multiple sets of 3-day records collected over eight exam cycles. Outcome measures included fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides at ages 18-20 years. Results After adjusting for age, race, SES, height, activity level, hours of television/day, and intakes of whole grains and dairy foods using multivariable modeling, girls consuming ≥6 oz lean red meat/wk combined with ≥2 servings of fruit/non-starchy vegetables/day had LDL levels about 6-7 mg/dL lower (p<0.05) than girls with lower intakes of lean red meat and fruit/non-starchy vegetables. In addition, girls with higher intakes of both were 33% less likely (OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94) to have an LDL-C ≥110 mg/dL and 41% less likely (OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.83) to have an elevated LDL:HDL ratio (≥2.2) at the end of adolescence. Conclusion These analyses suggest that lean red meat may be included in a healthy adolescent diet without unfavorable effects on lipid values. PMID:23663235

  5. Lean red meat consumption and lipid profiles in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Bradlee, M L; Singer, M R; Moore, L L

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of red meat consumption often fail to distinguish between leaner and fattier or processed cuts of meat. Red meat has also been frequently linked with less healthy diet patterns. Data exploring the health effects of lean red meat in younger individuals are scarce, particularly in the context of a healthy diet. The present study examined the effects of lean red meat in combination with higher intakes of fruit/nonstarchy vegetables on lipid profiles in older adolescent girls. Data from 1461 girls who were followed for 10 years, starting at 9-10 years of age, in the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were used. Diet was assessed using multiple sets of 3-day records collected over eight examination cycles. Outcome measures included fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C and triglycerides at age 18-20 years. After adjusting for age, race, socioeconomic status, height, activity level, hours of television per day, and intakes of whole grains and dairy foods using multivariable modelling, girls consuming ≥6 oz lean red meat per week combined with two or more servings of fruit/nonstarchy vegetables per day had LDL-C levels approximately 6-7 mg dL(-1) lower (P < 0.05) than girls with lower intakes of lean red meat and fruit/nonstarchy vegetables. In addition, girls with higher intakes of both were 33% less likely (odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-0.94) to have an LDL-C ≥110 mg dL(-1) and 41% less likely (odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-0.83) to have an elevated LDL : HDL ratio (≥2.2) at the end of adolescence. These analyses suggest that lean red meat may be included in a healthy adolescent diet without unfavourable effects on lipid values. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Genetic variation in efficiency to deposit fat and lean meat in Norwegian Landrace and Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, K H; Ødegård, J; Olsen, D; Meuwissen, T H E

    2015-08-01

    Feed costs amount to approximately 70% of the total costs in pork production, and feed efficiency is, therefore, an important trait for improving pork production efficiency. Production efficiency is generally improved by selection for high lean growth rate, reduced backfat, and low feed intake. These traits have given an effective slaughter pig but may cause problems in piglet production due to sows with limited body reserves. The aim of the present study was to develop a measure for feed efficiency that expressed the feed requirements per 1 kg deposited lean meat and fat, which is not improved by depositing less fat. Norwegian Landrace ( = 8,161) and Duroc ( = 7,202) boars from Topigs Norsvin's testing station were computed tomography scanned to determine their deposition of lean meat and fat. The trait was analyzed in a univariate animal model, where total feed intake in the test period was the dependent variable and fat and lean meat were included as random regression cofactors. These cofactors were measures for fat and lean meat efficiencies of individual boars. Estimation of fraction of total genetic variance due to lean meat or fat efficiency was calculated by the ratio between the genetic variance of the random regression cofactor and the total genetic variance in total feed intake during the test period. Genetic variance components suggested there was significant genetic variance among Norwegian Landrace and Duroc boars in efficiency for deposition of lean meat (0.23 ± 0.04 and 0.38 ± 0.06) and fat (0.26 ± 0.03 and 0.17 ± 0.03) during the test period. The fraction of the total genetic variance in feed intake explained by lean meat deposition was 12% for Norwegian Landrace and 15% for Duroc. Genetic fractions explained by fat deposition were 20% for Norwegian Landrace and 10% for Duroc. The results suggested a significant part of the total genetic variance in feed intake in the test period was explained by fat and lean meat efficiency. These new

  7. Optical probe for determining the fat/lean interface in cuts of meat

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Thomas M.; Callow, Diane S.; Jones, James F.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Spletzer, Barry L.

    2005-02-22

    An apparatus and method for locating the boundary surface between a layer of fatty tissue and lean tissue in a cut of meat, such as beef, such as slabs of meat undergoing trimming and cutting in commercial meet processing facilitates. The invention exploits the fact that fatty tissue and lean tissue have significantly different responses to incident light energy. By gauging the degree to which a generated beam of light is scattered and reflected by the tissues under evaluation, the invention permits the character of the tissue to be ascertained. An incident beam of light, such as green light, is generated and transmitted to a probe tip, which tip is inserted into the cut of meat under investigation. The light beam is emitted into the meat tissues from the probe tip, and then is scattered and reflected by the tissues, whereupon some fraction of the emitted light returns to the probe tip. The returning light energy is transmitted to a detector; relative changes in the returning light transmitted to the detector permit the operator to determine when the probe tip is approaching or penetrating the fat/lean tissue interface.

  8. Comparison of effects of Wasabia japonica and allyl isothiocyanate on the growth of four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in lean and fatty tuna meat suspensions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, N; Matsumoto, Y; Hoshino, A; Iwashita, K

    1999-08-01

    Lean tuna meat suspensions (LEAN), with a fat content of 0.006%, and fatty tuna meat suspension (FATTY), with a fat content of 3.0% were inoculated with four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) or allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was added before incubation at 37 degrees C. During the incubation, viable Vibrio counts were determined on TCBS agar plates. Both LEAN and FATTY suspensions were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus AOTO-81, (1.28+/-0.20) x 10(2) CFU/ml, followed by addition of 20 mg wasabi/ml, and incubation for 8 h. The viable Vibrio counts were (7.76+/-5.93) x 10(5) CFU/ml in LEAN and (3.50+/-2.65) x 10(1) CFU/ml in FATTY. When the same strain, at (1.18+/-0.22) x 10(2) CFU/ml, was incubated for 8 h with 50.9 microg AIT/ml, viable Vibrio counts were (4.79+/-1.78) x 10(4) CFU/ml in LEAN and (1.80+/-1.30) x 10(1) CFU/ml in FATTY. Growth of the other three strains with wasabi or AIT was shown to be less in FATTY than in LEAN. These results indicate that growth of V. parahaemolyticus is inhibited more in FATTY than in LEAN by wasabi and allyl isothiocyanate.

  9. Cull sow knife-separable lean content evaluation at harvest and lean mass content prediction equation development.

    PubMed

    Abell, Caitlyn E; Stalder, Kenneth J; Hendricks, Haven B; Fitzgerald, Robert F

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a prediction equation for carcass knife-separable lean within and across USDA cull sow market weight classes (MWC) and to determine carcass and individual primal cut knife separable lean content from cull sows. There were significant percent lean and fat differences in the primal cuts across USDA MWC. The two lighter USDA MWC had a greater percent carcass lean and lower percent fat compared to the two heavier MWC. In general, hot carcass weight explained the majority of carcass lean variation. Additionally, backfat was a significant variation source when predicting cull sow carcass lean. The findings support using a single lean prediction equation across MWC to assist processors when making cull sow purchasing decisions and determine the mix of animals from various USDA MWC that will meet their needs when making pork products with defined lean:fat content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets based on lean seafood or lean meat mixtures.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Video image analysis in the Australian meat industry - precision and accuracy of predicting lean meat yield in lamb carcasses.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D L; Safari, E; Thompson, J M; Smith, C R

    2004-06-01

    A wide selection of lamb types of mixed sex (ewes and wethers) were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir and during this process images of 360 carcasses were obtained online using the VIAScan® system developed by Meat and Livestock Australia. Soft tissue depth at the GR site (thickness of tissue over the 12th rib 110 mm from the midline) was measured by an abattoir employee using the AUS-MEAT sheep probe (PGR). Another measure of this thickness was taken in the chiller using a GR knife (NGR). Each carcass was subsequently broken down to a range of trimmed boneless retail cuts and the lean meat yield determined. The current industry model for predicting meat yield uses hot carcass weight (HCW) and tissue depth at the GR site. A low level of accuracy and precision was found when HCW and PGR were used to predict lean meat yield (R(2)=0.19, r.s.d.=2.80%), which could be improved markedly when PGR was replaced by NGR (R(2)=0.41, r.s.d.=2.39%). If the GR measures were replaced by 8 VIAScan® measures then greater prediction accuracy could be achieved (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). A similar result was achieved when the model was based on principal components (PCs) computed from the 8 VIAScan® measures (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). The use of PCs also improved the stability of the model compared to a regression model based on HCW and NGR. The transportability of the models was tested by randomly dividing the data set and comparing coefficients and the level of accuracy and precision. Those models based on PCs were superior to those based on regression. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate modeling the VIAScan® system offers a workable method for predicting lean meat yield automatically.

  12. Selection for intramuscular fat and lean meat yield will improve the bloomed colour of Australian lamb loin meat.

    PubMed

    Calnan, H B; Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2017-09-01

    The colour of bloomed m. longissimus was measured 24h post slaughter for 8165 lamb carcasses produced over 5years across 8 sites in Australia. Intramuscular fat across a 2 to 8% range and shortloin fat weight were positively associated with meat lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue and chroma (P<0.01). Shortloin muscle weight was negatively associated with these meat colour parameters (P<0.01), although this was largely accounted for by correlated changes in intramuscular fat (P<0.01). The effect of sire breeding values for lamb weight, shortloin muscle depth and fat depth on loin L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma were small and varied between lambs of different sire type, dam breed and sex. Thus selection for lean meat yield will have neutral or positive effects on meat colour, while selection for increased intramuscular fat will make the bloomed colour of lamb meat lighter and redder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Daly, Robin M; O'Connell, Stella L; Mundell, Niamh L; Grimes, Carley A; Dunstan, David W; Nowson, Caryl A

    2014-04-01

    Physical inactivity, inadequate dietary protein, and low-grade systemic inflammation contribute to age-related muscle loss, impaired function, and disability. We assessed the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) combined with a protein-enriched diet facilitated through lean red meat on lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle size, strength and function, circulating inflammatory markers, blood pressure, and lipids in elderly women. In a 4-mo cluster randomized controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 y who were residing in 15 retirement villages were allocated to receive PRT with lean red meat (∼160 g cooked) to be consumed 6 d/wk [resistance training plus lean red meat (RT+Meat) group; n = 53] or control PRT [1 serving pasta or rice/d; control resistance training (CRT) group; n = 47)]. All women undertook PRT 2 times/wk and received 1000 IU vitamin D3/d. The mean (± SD) protein intake was greater in the RT+Meat group than in the CRT group throughout the study (1.3 ± 0.3 compared with 1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, respectively; P < 0.05). The RT+Meat group experienced greater gains in total body LTM (0.45 kg; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.84 kg), leg LTM (0.22 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.42 kg), and muscle strength (18%; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.34) than did the CRT group (all P < 0.05). The RT+Meat group also experienced a 10% greater increase in serum insulin-like growth factor I (P < 0.05) and a 16% greater reduction in the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05) after 4 mo. There were no between-group differences for the change in blood lipids or blood pressure. A protein-enriched diet equivalent to ∼1.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹ achieved through lean red meat is safe and effective for enhancing the effects of PRT on LTM and muscle strength and reducing circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women. This trial was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000223235.

  14. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Juan Ramon Olalquiaga

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Methods Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella’s was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. Results The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a*, C*, and lower h°) and darker (lower L*) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Conclusion Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM. PMID:28920407

  15. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages.

    PubMed

    Massingue, Armando Abel; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; Perez, Juan Ramon Olalquiaga; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella's was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a *, C *, and lower h °) and darker (lower L *) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  16. Effects of milk powder and its components on texture, yield, and color of a lean poultry meat model system.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S

    2010-06-01

    The effects of whole milk powder, 2 skim milk powders, caseinate, and 2 modified whey proteins (2% protein level in the final product) were evaluated in lean chicken meat batters and compared with controls with and without added lactose. All dairy proteins significantly (P<0.05) reduced cook losses when compared against the controls, with the 2 skim milk powders and modified whey-I showing the best results. Hardness and fracturability were also higher for all test batters compared with controls. Skim milk-II showed the highest fracturability value (21.9 vs. 7.1 N for the control) and was also found to be the most cost-effective ingredient for improving moisture binding and texture; skim milk-I and modified whey-I followed behind. Springiness and fracture distance were higher for all of the dairy proteins, except caseinate, indicating a positive contribution to the lean meat system's elasticity. In terms of color, adding the skim milk powders, modified whey-II, and whole milk powder resulted in lighter cooked meat batters as evidenced by the higher L* values and higher spectra curves.

  17. Variation in the ovine MYF5 gene and its effect on carcass lean meat yield in New Zealand Romney sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiqing; Zhou, Huitong; Forrest, Rachel H J; Hu, Jiang; Liu, Xiu; Li, Shaobin; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2017-09-01

    Myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) plays an important role in regulating skeletal muscle, but to date there have been no reports on whether the gene is variable and whether this variation is associated with meat yield in sheep. In this study, four variants (A to D) of ovine MYF5 containing two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and one basepair (bp) insertion/deletion were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction - Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. Breed differences in variant frequencies were observed. The effect of variation in ovine MYF5 on lean meat yield, predicted using VIAScan® technology, was investigated in 388 male NZ Romney lambs. Only genotypes AA and AB were found in these lambs. Lambs with genotype AA had a higher leg yield (P=0.044), loin yield (P=0.002) and total yield (P=0.012) than those with genotype AB. No association with shoulder yield was detected. These results suggest that ovine MYF5 may be a valuable genetic marker for improved lean meat yield. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Minerals, haem and non-haem iron contents of rhea meat.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Cabrera, M C; Del Puerto, M; Saadoun, A

    2009-01-01

    Mineral contents, haem and non-haem iron of rhea (Rhea americana) muscles Obturatorius medialis (OM), Iliotibialis lateralis (IL) and Iliofibularis (I) were determined. No differences between the three muscles were observed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium. There is more potassium, zinc and copper in IL muscle than in OM and I muscles. For Manganese, OM and IL muscles show a higher content in comparison with I muscle. For selenium, IL and I muscles show the highest content compared to OM muscle. For total, haem and non-haem iron, the IL muscle shows the highest content respect to the other muscles. When compared to other meats, the minerals content of rhea meat show an elevated level in phosphorus, selenium and total and haem iron. The human health concern due to the deficient diet in selenium and iron, and their high contents in rhea meat will be of great importance in the promotion of this meat.

  19. Proximate Composition, and l-Carnitine and Betaine Contents in Meat from Korean Indigenous Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Seo, Dong Won; Park, Hee Bok; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the proximate composition and l-carnitine and betaine content of meats from 5 lines of Korean indigenous chicken (KIC) for developing highly nutritious meat breeds with health benefits from the bioactive compounds such as l-carnitine and betaine in meat. In addition, the relevance of gender (male and female) and meat type (breast and thigh meat) was examined. A total of 595 F1 progeny (black [B], grey-brown [G], red-brown [R], white [W], and yellow-brown [Y]) from 70 full-sib families were used. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents of the meats were significantly affected by line, gender, and meat type (p<0.05). The males in line G and females in line B showed the highest protein and the lowest fat content of the meats. l-carnitine and betaine content showed effects of meat type, line, and gender (p<0.05). The highest l-carnitine content was found in breast and thigh meats from line Y in both genders. The breast meat from line G and the thigh meat from line R had the highest betaine content in males. The female breast and thigh meats showed the highest betaine content in line R. These data could be valuable for establishing selection strategies for developing highly nutritious chicken meat breeds in Korea. PMID:26580444

  20. Quality characteristics of low fat ostrich meat patties formulated with either pork lard or modified corn starch, soya isolate and water.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Mellett, F D

    2003-10-01

    A trained taste panel could not distinguish (P>0.05) between ostrich meat patties containing either 10% pork lard or 10% of a modified starch/protein isolate (fat replacer) mixture. The panel could distinguish between the types of ostrich muscle/meat cuts used with a significant (P<0.05) number preferring ostrich patties made from meat containing a higher collagen content (±3% vs <1%). The chemical analysis of the patties showed that within the meat classes (Class fillet-de-membraned, Class A-very lean off-cuts and Class B-off-cuts containing visual connective tissue and some fat), the patties containing the pork fat had a +6% higher total fat content than those containing the fat replacer. The fatty acid profiles of the various products were in accordance with the meat type and fat or fat replacer used. The mineral profile was as expected for lean ostrich meat that had spices added. It is concluded that fat replacers can be used successfully for the production of low fat ostrich patties without any negative quality attributes being perceived.

  1. The effect of preheated tendon as a lean meat replacement on the properties of fine emulsion sausages.

    PubMed

    Sadler, D H; Young, O A

    1993-01-01

    Tendon from beef hind leg muscles was used to replace some of the lean in a conventional emulsion formulation. The tendon was homogenized and either used raw or preheated for 2·5 h at a range of temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80°C) before use. Texture analysis and sensory evaluation were performed on cylinders of cooked sausage. Texture analysis was carried out on formulations which had 20% of meat protein replaced by 20% tendons which were raw or had been preheated to 50, 60, 70, or 80°C. Fracturability decreased by about 40% with raw tendon, but was restored to within 20% of the no-replacement control if the tendon had been preheated. Hardness was approximately doubled by replacement with raw tendon or tendon heated at 50°C. At temperatures higher than that, hardness returned to approximately no-replacement levels. For sensory evaluation (0-25% replacement; preheating at 70°C), sausages were assessed by a 12-member panel for texture, flavour and overall acceptability. All attributes decreased with increasing collagen content, the decrease being less marked with preheated tendon. Thus more connective tissue could be added for the same panel score if the tissue was preheated. Comparison of the texture profile and the panel scores for texture at the same lean replacement level suggested that reduced fracturability was the texture parameter that panellists objected to when heated tendon replaced some of the lean. Other researchers have shown that connective tissue preheated to 100°C before addition in emulsion sausages results in improved yields and better sensory attributes, but the present results show that temperatures as low as 60°C can be effective for beef tendon. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Eating quality of UK-style sausages varying in price, meat content, fat level and salt content.

    PubMed

    Sheard, P R; Hope, E; Hughes, S I; Baker, A; Nute, G R

    2010-05-01

    Thirty-six brands of pork sausage were purchased from a total of 10 retailers over a 4 months period and assessed for eating quality. The brands included 5 of the 10 most popular sausages in the UK, 4 basic, 14 standard, 10 premium and 8 healthy eating brands. The average price, meat content, fat content and salt content was 3.31 pounds/kg, 62%, 17% and 1.6%, respectively, but there were wide differences in price (1.08 pound/kg-5.23 pounds/kg), meat content (32-97%), fat content (2.1-29.1%) and salt content (0.5-2.5%). Sausages were assessed by a trained sensory panel using 100mm unstructured line scales and 14 descriptors (skin toughness, firmness, juiciness, pork flavour, fattiness, meatiness, particle size, cohesiveness, saltiness, sweet, acidic, bitter and metallic) including overall liking. The declared meat content was positively correlated with price, skin toughness, firmness, pork flavour, meatiness, particle size and perceived saltiness (r=0.5 or better). The declared fat content was positively correlated with fattiness and sweetness (r=0.42 or better) but not juiciness. There was no significant correlation between declared salt content and perceived saltiness. A principal component analysis showed that the first two principal components accounted for 51% of the variability in the data. Products could be separated into four quadrants according to their price, meat content, fat content and their associated eating quality attributes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of curing sodium nitrite additive and natural meat fat on growth control of Listeria monocytogenes by the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus curvatus strain CWBI-B28.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, P; Ghalfi, H; Destain, J; Dubois-Dauphin, R; Evrard, P; Thonart, P

    2009-09-01

    In realistic model meat systems, the separate and combined effects of fat content and sodium nitrite on the antilisterial activity of the bacteriocin of Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 were studied. In laboratory fermentations where Listeria monocytogenes was co-cultured at 4 degrees C with bacteriocin-producing CWBI-B28 in lean pork meat (fat content: 13%) without added nitrite, a strong antilisterial effect was observed after one week. The effect was maintained for an additional week, after which a slight and very gradual rebound was observed. Both added nitrite (20 ppm) and a high-fat content (43%) were found to antagonise this antilisterial effect, the Listeria cfu count reached after six weeks being 200 times as high in high-fat meat with added nitrite than in lean meat without nitrite. This antagonism could not be attributed to slower growth of the bacteriocin-producing strain, since CWBI-B28 grew optimally in fat-rich meat with 20 ppm sodium nitrite. Bacteriocin activity was also measured in the samples. The observed activity levels are discussed in relation to the degree of antilisterial protection conferred.

  4. Cholesterol content and methods for cholesterol determination in meat and poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Available data for cholesterol content of beef, pork, poultry, and processed meat products were reported. Although the cholesterol concentration in meat and poultry can be influenced by various factors, effects of animal species, muscle fiber type, and muscle fat content are focused on in this revi...

  5. Cooking methods and the formation of PhIP (2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine) in the crust of the habitually consumed meat in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Reartes, Gabriela Angelina; Di Paola Naranjo, Romina Daniela; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Muñoz, Sonia Edith

    2016-06-01

    Content of carcinogenic molecules like, 2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in meals is one of the main mutagenic substances formed during meat cooking, and it can be used as a dietary exposure marker. Our objective was to estimate the amount of PhIP consumed from habitual Argentinean diet, rich in red meats, comparing different cooking procedures and meat type. Samples (n = 240) of lean and fatty beef, chicken, pork, and fish were cooked using different methods: griddle, grill, sauté pan, and oven. Samples were: Overcooked, or cooked with a microbiologically suitable or "healthy technique" (HT). The PhIP was determined by HPLC-MS. Meats cooked using HT formed little crust amounts and PhIP was below the detection levels. In overcooked meats, large amounts of crust were formed in lean meats, fatty beef, fatty chicken and baked pork. PhIP was measured in lean meats sauted or cooked on a griddle, a method reaching temperatures until 250 °C.It was estimated that Argentine people eats about 12,268.0 ng/day of PhIP being these values above those tolerated limits for total dietary heterocyclic amines in some developed countries. Hence, cooking small meat portions, at medium temperature, avoiding prolonged cooking and preferring baked lean meats could be recommended as a healthier habit. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Dietary advice for muscularity, leanness and weight control in Men's Health magazine: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Cook, Toni M; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2014-10-11

    The dietary content of advice in men's lifestyle magazines has not been closely scrutinised. We carried out an analysis of such content in all 2009 issues (n = 11) of Men's Health (MH) focusing on muscularity, leanness and weight control. Promotion of a mesomorphic body image underpinned advice to affect muscle building and control weight. Diet advice was underpinned by a strong pseudo-scientific discourse, with citation of expert sources widely used to legitimise the information. Frequently multiple dietary components were advocated within one article e.g. fat, omega-3 fatty acids, thiamine, zinc and high-glycaemic index foods. Furthermore advice would cover numerous nutritional effects, e.g. strengthening bones, reducing stress and boosting testosterone, with little contextualisation. The emphasis on attainment of a mesomorphic body image permitted promotion of slimming diets.Advice to increase calorie and protein intake to augment muscle mass was frequent (183 and 262 references, respectively). Such an anabolic diet was advised in various ways, including consumption of traditional protein foods (217 references) and sports foods (107 references), thereby replicating muscle magazines' support for nutritional supplements. Although advice to increase consumption of red meat was common (52 references), fish and non-flesh sources of protein (eggs, nuts & pulses, and soy products) together exceeded red meat in number of recommendations (206 references). Advice widely asserted micronutrients and phytochemicals from plant food (161 references) as being important in muscle building. This emphasis diverges from stereotypical gender-based food consumption patterns.Dietary advice for control of body weight largely replicated that of muscularity, with strong endorsement to consume fruits and vegetables (59 references), diets rich in nuts and pulses and fish (66 references), as well as specific micronutrients and phytochemicals (62 references). Notably there was emphasis on

  7. The ability of video image analysis to predict lean meat yield and EUROP score of lamb carcasses.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, E; Eythórsdóttir, E; Smith, C R; Jónmundsson, J V

    2014-07-01

    A total of 862 lamb carcasses that were evaluated by both the VIAscan® and the current EUROP classification system were deboned and the actual yield was measured. Models were derived for predicting lean meat yield of the legs (Leg%), loin (Loin%) and shoulder (Shldr%) using the best VIAscan® variables selected by stepwise regression analysis of a calibration data set (n=603). The equations were tested on validation data set (n=259). The results showed that the VIAscan® predicted lean meat yield in the leg, loin and shoulder with an R 2 of 0.60, 0.31 and 0.47, respectively, whereas the current EUROP system predicted lean yield with an R 2 of 0.57, 0.32 and 0.37, respectively, for the three carcass parts. The VIAscan® also predicted the EUROP score of the trial carcasses, using a model derived from an earlier trial. The EUROP classification from VIAscan® and the current system were compared for their ability to explain the variation in lean yield of the whole carcass (LMY%) and trimmed fat (FAT%). The predicted EUROP scores from the VIAscan® explained 36% of the variation in LMY% and 60% of the variation in FAT%, compared with the current EUROP system that explained 49% and 72%, respectively. The EUROP classification obtained by the VIAscan® was tested against a panel of three expert classifiers (n=696). The VIAscan® classification agreed with 82% of conformation and 73% of the fat classes assigned by a panel of expert classifiers. It was concluded that VIAscan® provides a technology that can directly predict LMY% of lamb carcasses with more accuracy than the current EUROP classification system. The VIAscan® is also capable of classifying lamb carcasses into EUROP classes with an accuracy that fulfils minimum demands for the Icelandic sheep industry. Although the VIAscan® prediction of the Loin% is low, it is comparable to the current EUROP system, and should not hinder the adoption of the technology to estimate the yield of Icelandic lambs as it delivered

  8. Impact of red meat consumption on the metabolome of rats.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Louise M A; Yde, Christian C; Van Hecke, Thomas; Jessen, Randi; Young, Jette F; De Smet, Stefaan; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2017-03-01

    The scope of the present study was to investigate the effects of red versus white meat intake on the metabolome of rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 15 days of ad libitum feeding of one of four experimental diets: (i) lean chicken, (ii) chicken with lard, (iii) lean beef, and (iv) beef with lard. Urine, feces, plasma, and colon tissue samples were analyzed using 1 H NMR-based metabolomics and real-time PCR was performed on colon tissue to examine the expression of specific genes. Urinary excretion of acetate and anserine was higher after chicken intake, while carnosine, fumarate, and trimethylamine N-oxide excretion were higher after beef intake. In colon tissue, higher choline levels and lower lipid levels were found after intake of chicken compared to beef. Expression of the apc gene was higher in response to the lean chicken and beef with lard diets. Correlation analysis revealed that intestinal apc gene expression was correlated with fecal lactate content (R 2 = 0.65). This study is the first to identify specific differences in the metabolome related to the intake of red and white meat. These differences may reflect perturbations in endogenous metabolism that can be linked to the proposed harmful effects associated with intake of red meat. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Raman spectroscopy in determination of horse meat content in the mixture with other meats.

    PubMed

    Zając, A; Hanuza, J; Dymińska, L

    2014-08-01

    A new method based on FT-Raman measurements that allows to determine the content of horse meat in its mixture with beef has been proposed. In the analysis of the Raman spectra of the meat mixtures, the integral intensity ratios of the 937/1003, 879/1003, 856/1003, 829/1003, and 480/1003cm(-1) pairs of bands have been determined the intensities of which were related to the reference intensity of the band at 1003cm(-1). The reasonable results that show good fitting between the spectroscopic parameters and chemical content of the studied samples have been obtained. The analytical equations between these parameters have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intramuscular fat in lamb muscle and the impact of selection for improved carcass lean meat yield.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%) has been shown to have a positive influence on the eating quality of red meat. Selection of Australian lambs for increased lean tissue and reduced carcass fatness using Australian Sheep Breeding Values has been shown to decrease IMF% of the Muscularis longissimus lumborum. The impact this selection has on the IMF% of other muscle depots is unknown. This study examined IMF% in five different muscles from 400 lambs (M. longissimus lumborum, Muscularis semimembranosus, Muscularis semitendinosus, Muscularis supraspinatus, Muscularis infraspinatus). The sires of these lambs had a broad range in carcass breeding values for post-weaning weight, eye muscle depth and fat depth over the 12th rib (c-site fat depth). Results showed IMF% to be highest in the M. supraspinatus (4.87 ± 0.1, P<0.01) and lowest in the M. semimembranosus (3.58 ± 0.1, P<0.01). Hot carcass weight was positively associated with IMF% of all muscles. Selection for decreasing c-site fat depth reduced IMF% in the M. longissimus lumborum, M. semimembranosus and M. semitendinosus. Higher breeding values for post-weaning weight and eye muscle depth increased and decreased IMF%, respectively, but only in the lambs born as multiples and raised as singles. For each per cent increase in lean meat yield percentage (LMY%), there was a reduction in IMF% of 0.16 in all five muscles examined. Given the drive within the lamb industry to improve LMY%, our results indicate the importance of continued monitoring of IMF% throughout the different carcass regions, given its importance for eating quality.

  11. Optimization of Replacing Pork Meat with Yellow Worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork meat with yellow mealworms on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated in this study. The control (50% pork ham), T1 (45% pork ham + 5% yellow mealworm), T2 (40% pork ham + 10% yellow mealworm), T3 (35% pork ham + 15% yellow mealworm), T4 (30% pork ham + 20% yellow mealworm), T5 (25% pork ham + 25% yellow mealworm), and T6 (20% pork ham + 30% yellow mealworm) were prepared, replacing lean pork meat with yellow mealworm. The moisture content, lightness, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters with yellow mealworm were lower than those of the control (p<0.05), whereas the content of protein and ash, pH, and yellowness of frankfurters with yellow mealworm were higher than those of the control (p<0.05). The fat content of frankfurters in T1 (p<0.05) was the highest, and the fat content of treatments decreased with increasing yellow mealworm concentrations (p<0.05). Frankfurters with increasing yellow mealworm concentrations had lower color, flavor, off-flavor, and juiciness scores. The overall acceptability was not significantly different in the control, T1, and T2 (p>0.05). Thus, the results of this study showed that replacing lean pork meat with up to 10% yellow mealworm successfully maintained the quality of frankfurters at a level similar to that of the regular control frankfurters. PMID:29147084

  12. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain...

  13. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain...

  14. Food labeling: nutrient content claims, expansion of the nutrient content claim "lean". Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-01-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its food labeling regulations for the expanded use of the nutrient content claim "lean" on the labels of foods categorized as "mixed dishes not measurable with a cup" that meet certain criteria for total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol content. This final rule responds to a nutrient content claim petition submitted by Nestlé Prepared Foods Co. (Nestlé) under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). This action is also being taken to provide reliable information that would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices.

  15. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and meat.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Tilak R; Nam, Seung-Hee; Ure, Amy L

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been recently studied mainly because of its potential in protecting against cancer, atherogenesis, and diabetes. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term for a series of conjugated dienoic positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid, which are found in relative abundance in milk and tissue fat of ruminants compared with other foods. The cis-9, trans-11 isomer is the principle dietary form of CLA found in ruminant products and is produced by partial ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid or by endogenous synthesis in the tissues themselves. The CLA content in milk and meat is affected by several factors, such as animal's breed, age, diet, and management factors related to feed supplements affecting the diet. Conjugated linoleic acid in milk or meat has been shown to be a stable compound under normal cooking and storage conditions. Total CLA content in milk or dairy products ranges from 0.34 to 1.07% of total fat. Total CLA content in raw or processed beef ranges from 0.12 to 0.68% of total fat. It is currently estimated that the average adult consumes only one third to one half of the amount of CLA that has been shown to reduce cancer in animal studies. For this reason, increasing the CLA contents of milk and meat has the potential to raise the nutritive and therapeutic values of dairy products and meat.

  16. Fatty and lean red meat consumption in China: differential association with Chinese abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, B.; Zhai, F.; Wang, H.; Zhang, J.; Du, W.; Su, C.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, H.; Popkin, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim We examined the longitudinal association between red meat (RM) consumption and the risk of abdominal obesity in Chinese adults. Methods and results Our data are from 16,822 adults aged 18 to 75 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1993 to 2011. We assessed RM intake with three 24-hour dietary recalls. We defined abdominal obesity as a waist circumference (WC) ≥ 85 centimeters (cm) for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Multilevel mixed-effect regression models showed that men experienced WC increases of 0.74 cm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39–1.09) from a higher total intake of fresh RM and 0.59 cm (95% CI: 0.24–0. 95) from a higher intake of fatty fresh RM but 0.14 cm (95% CI: −0.39–0.66) from a higher intake of lean fresh RM in the top versus the bottom quartile when adjusted for potential confounders. In contrast, after additional adjustment for baseline WC, the odds ratios of abdominal obesity in men were attenuated for total fresh RM (1.25 [95% CI: 1.06–1.47]) and fatty fresh RM (1.22 [95% CI: 1.03–1.44]) but were still not affected by lean fresh RM (0.95 [95% CI: 0.75–1.22]). Women also showed a positive association of fatty fresh RM intake with abdominal obesity. Conclusion Greater intake of fatty fresh RM was significantly associated with higher WC (men only) and abdominal obesity risk in Chinese adults. The gender-specific differential association of fatty versus lean fresh RM warrants further study. PMID:24795160

  17. Fatty and lean red meat consumption in China: differential association with Chinese abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Zhang, B; Zhai, F; Wang, H; Zhang, J; Du, W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H; Popkin, B M

    2014-08-01

    We examined the longitudinal association between red meat (RM) consumption and the risk of abdominal obesity in Chinese adults. Our data are from 16,822 adults aged 18-75 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1993 to 2011. We assessed RM intake with three 24-h dietary recalls. We defined abdominal obesity as a waist circumference (WC) ≥85 centimeters (cm) for men and ≥80 cm for women. Multilevel mixed-effect regression models showed that men experienced WC increases of 0.74 cm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-1.09) from a higher total intake of fresh RM and 0.59 cm (95% CI: 0.24-0. 95) from a higher intake of fatty fresh RM but 0.14 cm (95% CI: -0.39 to 0.66) from a higher intake of lean fresh RM in the top quartile versus non-consumers when adjusted for potential confounders. In contrast, after additional adjustment for baseline WC, the odds ratios of abdominal obesity in men were attenuated for total fresh RM (1.25 [95% CI: 1.06-1.47]) and fatty fresh RM (1.22 [95% CI: 1.03-1.44]) but were still not affected by lean fresh RM (0.95 [95% CI: 0.75-1.22]). Women also showed a positive association of fatty fresh RM intake with abdominal obesity. Greater intake of fatty fresh RM was significantly associated with higher WC (men only) and abdominal obesity risk in Chinese adults. The gender-specific differential association of fatty versus lean fresh RM warrants further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Evaluation of the possibilities to increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat and meat product].

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.

  19. Differences among total and in vitro digestible phosphorus content of meat and milk products.

    PubMed

    Karp, Heini; Ekholm, Päivi; Kemi, Virpi; Hirvonen, Tero; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-05-01

    Meat and milk products are important sources of dietary phosphorus (P) and protein. The use of P additives is common both in processed cheese and meat products. Measurement of in vitro digestible phosphorus (DP) content of foods may reflect absorbability of P. The objective of this study was to measure both total phosphorus (TP) and DP contents of selected meat and milk products and to compare amounts of TP and DP and the proportion of DP to TP among different foods. TP and DP contents of 21 meat and milk products were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In DP analysis, samples were digested enzymatically, in principle, in the same way as in the alimentary canal before the analyses. The most popular national brands of meat and milk products were chosen for analysis. The highest TP and DP contents were found in processed and hard cheeses; the lowest, in milk and cottage cheese. TP and DP contents in sausages and cold cuts were lower than those in cheeses. Chicken, pork, beef, and rainbow trout contained similar amounts of TP, but slightly more variation was found in their DP contents. Foods containing P additives have a high content of DP. Our study confirms that cottage cheese and unenhanced meats are better choices than processed or hard cheeses, sausages, and cold cuts for chronic kidney disease patients, based on their lower P-to-protein ratios and sodium contents. The results support previous findings of better P absorbability in foods of animal origin than in, for example, legumes. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Growth Performance, Meat Yield, and Selenium Content and Lipid Oxidation of Breast Meat of Broilers Reared Under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125, and 250 mg/kg), selenium (0, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on performance, meat yield, and selenium content and lipid oxidation of breast meat of broilers raised under either a thermoneutral (TN, 24 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 24 to 37 °C cycling) condition. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in body weight and feed intake and an increase (P < 0.05) in feed conversion ratio when broilers exposed to HS. In the overall period of the study (1 to 49 days), growth performance of TN broilers was not affected (P < 0.05) by vitamin E and selenium supplementation. However, under HS condition, broilers receiving 250 mg/kg vitamin E and 0.5 mg/kg selenium consumed more (P < 0.05) feed than that of broilers receiving 250 mg/kg vitamin E alone, but similar (P > 0.05) to that of broilers receiving 250 mg/kg vitamin E and 1 mg/kg selenium. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the breast meat was increased (P < 0.05), but its selenium content was decreased (P < 0.05) by exposure to HS. The breast meat selenium content was increased (P < 0.05) by selenium supplementation. The breast meat selenium content was decreased (P < 0.05) by supplementation of 250 mg/kg vitamin E to diet of TN birds. However, the breast meat selenium content was increased (P < 0.05) by supplementation of vitamin E under HS condition. The breast meat MDA content was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatments under TN condition. However, the breast meat MDA content was decreased (P < 0.05) by both vitamin E and selenium supplementation under HS condition, and the lowest MDA content was observed in the breast meat of broilers receiving combination of 125 mg/kg vitamin E and 1 mg/kg selenium. The results showed that supplementation of selenium and vitamin E was capable of increasing the selenium content of the breast meat and could improve the lipid

  1. Effect of reduced dietary protein and supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid product on broiler performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Costa, P; Alves, S P; Benevides, W S; Bessa, R J B; Lemos, J P C; Pinto, R M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2014-01-01

    1. Chicken breast meat is a lean meat due to its low content of intramuscular fat (IMF) resulting in an overall lower acceptability by consumers due to a decrease in juiciness, flavour and increased chewiness. Recently, studies performed in pigs suggested the possibility of increasing IMF by decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) content, an effect possibly mediated through an increased lipogenesis. 2. Dietary supplementation with lipids rich in omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) may modulate an increase in the content of these fatty acids in meat from monogastric animals and, thus, promote the daily intake of n-3 LC-PUFA by humans. 3. LC-PUFA are very susceptible to oxidation, resulting in off-flavours that affect meat quality and consumers' acceptability. 4. This trial was conducted to assess the effect of reducing dietary CP, from 21% to 17%, on chicken's meat IMF content and, simultaneously, to evaluate if a complementary supplementation with a proprietary n-3 LC-PUFA source (DHA Gold™) could improve meat quality. These effects were assessed by measuring productive performance and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and fatty acid profile. 5. A reduction in CP content of broiler diets, from 21% to 17%, balanced for lysine, improved performance while it was not sufficient to increase IMF content in chicken meat. In contrast, DHA Gold™ supplementation had a positive impact both in broiler productive parameters and in meat fatty acid profile. 6. In addition, incorporation of 7.4% of DHA Gold™ in the diet promoted carcass yield but negatively affected chicken meat acceptability by consumers, due to a decrease of meat oxidative stability. 7. Overall the data suggest that neither a dietary supplementation with DHA Gold™ nor a reduction in CP have a direct positive effect in the levels of IMF present in broiler meat.

  2. Selenium content of game meat

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, L.C.; Belden, R.P.

    Selenium (Se) content of elk, deer, bison and beef were measured and compared. Samples were obtained from animals grazed on soil known to contain high, but variable amounts of Se. Beef were feedlot grazed and elk, deer, and bison were from captive or semi-captive herds. Selenium content was determined by graphite furnace after high pressure wet microwave digestion of samples. Deer and bison contained more Se than elk or beef. On a dry weight basis, deer contained more Se than bison. Game species contained more Se than beef. Within samples from male elk and deer and elk and bison ofmore » both genders, there were interactions between specie and muscle effects. Muscle and gender did not significantly influence Se content. The animals from which these samples were taken were supplemented with feeds grown on high Se containing soils, which was reflected in all values. Se values were twofold higher than those previously reported for meat. Those consuming large quantities of game from areas with high Se soil may need to monitor Se intake to avoid consuming excessive quantities.« less

  3. Substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne M L; Hansen, Mette D; Tjønneland, Anne; Rimm, Eric B; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-05-01

    Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but previous studies have rarely taken replacement foods into consideration. We aimed to investigate optimal substitutions between and within the food groups of red meat, poultry and fish for MI prevention. We followed up 55 171 women and men aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at recruitment. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up time of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for replacing red meat with fatty fish was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89), whereas the HR for replacing red meat with lean fish was 1·00 (95 % CI 0·89, 1·14). Similarly, replacing poultry with fatty but not lean fish was inversely associated with MI: the HR was 0·81 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·98) for fatty fish and was 1·08 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·27) for lean fish. The HR for replacing lean with fatty fish was 0·75 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·94). Replacing processed with unprocessed red meat was not associated with MI. Among men, a similar pattern was found, although the associations were not statistically significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat, poultry or lean fish with fatty fish is associated with a lower risk of MI.

  4. Fat content in individual muscle fibers of lean and obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Malenfant, P; Joanisse, D R; Thériault, R; Goodpaster, B H; Kelley, D E; Simoneau, J A

    2001-09-01

    To examine skeletal muscle intracellular triglyceride concentration in different fiber types in relation to obesity. Skeletal muscle fiber type distribution and intracellular lipid content were measured in vastus lateralis samples obtained by needle biopsy from lean and obese individuals. Seven lean controls (body mass index (BMI) 23.0+/-3.3 kg/m(2); mean+/-s.d.) and 14 obese (BMI 33.7+/-2.7 kg/m(2)) individuals; both groups included comparable proportions of men and women. Samples were histochemically stained for the identification of muscle fiber types (myosin ATPase) and intracellular lipid aggregates (oil red O dye). The number and size of fat aggregates as well as their concentration within type I, IIA and IIB muscle fiber types were measured. The cellular distribution of the lipid aggregates was also examined. The size of fat aggregates was not affected by obesity but the number of lipid droplets within muscle fibers was twice as abundant in obese compared to lean individuals. This was seen in type I (298+/-135 vs 129+/-75; obese vs lean, P<0.05), IIA (132+/-67 vs 79+/-29; P<0.05), and IIB (103+/-63 vs 51+/-13; P<0.05) muscle fibers. A more central distribution of lipid droplets was observed in muscle fibers of obese compared to lean subjects (27.2+/-5.7 vs 19.7+/-6.4%; P<0.05). The higher number of lipid aggregates and the disposition to a greater central distribution in all fiber types in obesity indicate important changes in lipid metabolism and/or storage that are fiber type-independent.

  5. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  6. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat.

  7. Salt, sodium chloride or sodium? Content and relationship with chemical, instrumental and sensory attributes in cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Kameník, Josef; Saláková, Alena; Vyskočilová, Věra; Pechová, Alena; Haruštiaková, Danka

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt content in selected cooked meat products by the methods of determining the sodium content and the content of chlorides. The resulting data was compared with other chemical, instrumental and sensory parameters of the analysed samples. A total of 133 samples of 5 meat products were tested. The sodium content ranged from 558.0 to 1308.0mgNa/100g. Salt level determined by the two methods strongly correlated and did not differ in any meat product. Intensity of salty taste of the product was independent on its salt content. The salt (sodium) content may be reduced without a negative impact on sensory or instrumental properties of meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of progressive resistance training combined with a protein-enriched lean red meat diet on health-related quality of life in elderly women: secondary analysis of a 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Torres, Susan J; Robinson, Sian; Orellana, Liliana; O'Connell, Stella L; Grimes, Carley A; Mundell, Niamh L; Dunstan, David W; Nowson, Caryl A; Daly, Robin M

    2017-06-01

    Resistance training (RT) and increased dietary protein are recommended to attenuate age-related muscle loss in the elderly. This study examined the effect of a lean red meat protein-enriched diet combined with progressive resistance training (RT+Meat) on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in elderly women. In this 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 years (mean 73 years) from self-care retirement villages participated in RT twice a week and were allocated either 160 g/d (cooked) lean red meat consumed across 2 meals/d, 6 d/week or ≥1 serving/d (25-30 g) carbohydrates (control group, CRT). HR-QoL (SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire), lower limb maximum muscle strength and lean tissue mass (LTM) (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed at baseline and 4 months. In all, ninety-one women (91 %) completed the study (RT+Meat (n 48); CRT (n 43)). Mean protein intake was greater in RT+Meat than CRT throughout the study (1·3 (sd 0·3) v. 1·1 (sd 0·3) g/kg per d, P<0·05). Exercise compliance (74 %) was not different between groups. After 4 months there was a significant net benefit in the RT+Meat compared with CRT group for overall HR-QoL and the physical component summary (PCS) score (P<0·01), but there were no changes in either group in the mental component summary (MCS) score. Changes in lower limb muscle strength, but not LTM, were positively associated with changes in overall HR-QoL (muscle strength, β: 2·2 (95 % CI 0·1, 4·3), P<0·05). In conclusion, a combination of RT and increased dietary protein led to greater net benefits in overall HR-QoL in elderly women compared with RT alone, which was because of greater improvements in PCS rather than MCS.

  9. Effects of breeds, tissues and genders on purine contents in pork and the relationships between purine content and other meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min; Huang, Yizhong; Ji, Jiuxiu; Xiao, Shijun; Ma, Junwu; Huang, Lusheng

    2018-09-01

    The purine contents of animal foods are becoming widely concerned because excess intake of purine increases the risk of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, we investigated the impacts of breed, tissue and sex on pork purine content and its correlations with multiple meat quality traits. Among six pig breeds, the average value of total purine contents (TP) in longissimus lumborum muscle was lowest in Chinese Laiwu pigs (114.2 mg/100 g) while highest in Chinese Bamaxiang mini pigs (139.3 mg/100 g). Considerable variations in TP were observed within most breeds, as well as among twelve pork organs with the range from 7 to 245 mg/100 g. However, no significant differences in TP were found between barrows and gilts. Intriguingly, lower purine content in meat was significantly associated with higher ultimate pH, better meat color and more abundant intramuscular fat content and marbling. The results thus suggest that the selection of low-purine pig species is available, which may simultaneously improve other meat quality traits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Potential Use of 3-D Scanning to Evaluate the Chemical Composition of Pork Meat.

    PubMed

    Adamczak, Lech; Chmiel, Marta; Florowski, Tomasz; Pietrzak, Dorota; Witkowski, Marcin; Barczak, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of 3-D scanning method in chemical composition evaluation of pork meat. The sampling material comprised neck muscles (1000 g each) obtained from 20 pork carcasses. The volumetric estimation process of the elements was conducted on the basis of point cloud collected using 3-D scanner. Knowing the weight of neck muscles, their density was calculated which was subsequently correlated with the content of basic chemical components of the pork meat (water, protein and fat content, determined by standard methods). The significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between meat density and water (r = 0.5213), protein (r = 0.5887), and fat (r = -0.6601) content were obtained. Based on the obtained results it seems likely to employ the 3-D scanning method to compute the meat chemical composition. The use of the 3-D scanning method in industrial practice will allow to evaluate the chemical composition of meat in online mode on a dressing and fabrication line and in a rapid, noninvasive manner. The control of the raw material using the 3-D scanning will allow to make visual assessment more objective and will enable optimal standardization of meat batches prior to processing stage. It will ensure not only the repeatability of product quality characteristics, but also optimal use of raw material-lean and fat meat. The knowledge of chemical composition of meat is essential due to legal requirements associated with mandatory nutrition facts labels on food products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. The Effect of Crude Protein Content on Meat and Fat Production in Sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawati, S.; Restitrisnani, V.; Soedarsono

    2018-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) content on meat protein and fat production in sheep. Twenty four male thin tail sheep aged 6-7 months with average body weight of 13±1.56 kg were used in this study. The sheep were fed 10-14% CP. Sheep with the average body weight amount 16.75 kg were slaughter after 4 months rising. Parameters observed in this study were carcass weight, meat weight and fat weight of thin tail sheep. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis. The result of this study showed that CP content on diet had weak and negative correlation with meat production (r = -0.06) (y = -0.148x + 62.54) but had weak and possitive correlation with fat production (r = 0.3) (y = 0.807x2 -18.40x + 119.1). Based on the result, it can be concluded that the optimum CP content for sheep is 12.5% CP.

  12. Evaluating Lean in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Nicola; Radnor, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present findings relating to how Lean is implemented in English hospitals. Lean implementation snapshots in English hospitals were conducted by content analysing all annual reports and web sites over two time periods, giving a thorough analysis of Lean's status in English healthcare. The article identifies divergent approaches to Lean implementation in English hospitals. These approaches are classified into a typology to facilitate an evaluation of how Lean is implemented. The findings suggest that implementation tends to be isolated rather than system-wide. A second dataset conveys Lean implementation trajectory across the time period. These data signal Lean's increasing use by English hospitals and shows progression towards an increasingly systemic approach. Data were collected using content analysis methods, which relies on how "Lean" methods were articulated within the annual report and/or on the organisation's web site, which indicates approaches taken by hospital staff implementing Lean. This research is the first to examine more closely "how" Lean is implemented in English hospitals. The emergent typology could prove relevant to other public sector organizations and service organisations more generally. The research also presents a first step to understanding Lean thinking in the English NHS. This article empirically analyses Lean implementation in English hospitals. It identifies divergent approaches that allow inferences about how far Lean is implemented in an organisation. Data represent a baseline for further analysis so that Lean implementation can be tracked.

  13. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  14. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality.

  15. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A L; Goh, Y M; Samsudin, A A; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).

  16. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  17. Genetic parameters for meat quality traits of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, S I; van der Werf, J H J; Jacob, R H; Hopkins, D L; Pannier, L; Pearce, K L; Gardner, G E; Warner, R D; Geesink, G H; Edwards, J E Hocking; Ponnampalam, E N; Ball, A J; Gilmour, A R; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for a range of meat quality traits recorded on Australian lamb meat. Data were collected from Merino and crossbred progeny of Merino, terminal and maternal meat breed sires of the Information Nucleus programme. Lambs born between 2007 and 2010 (n=8968) were slaughtered, these being the progeny of 372 sires and 5309 dams. Meat quality traits were found generally to be of moderate heritability (estimates between 0.15 and 0.30 for measures of meat tenderness, meat colour, polyunsaturated fat content, mineral content and muscle oxidative capacity), with notable exceptions of intramuscular fat (0.48), ultimate pH (0.08) and fresh meat colour a* (0.08) and b* (0.10) values. Genetic correlations between hot carcass weight and the meat quality traits were low. The genetic correlation between intramuscular fat and shear force was high (-0.62). Several measures of meat quality (fresh meat redness, retail meat redness, retail oxy/met value and iron content) appear to have potential for inclusion in meat sheep breeding objectives. © 2013.

  18. Slaughtering Age Effect on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Italian Heavy Draught Horse Foals

    PubMed Central

    De Palo, P.; Maggiolino, A.; Centoducati, P.; Tateo, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the effect of slaughtering age on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian heavy draught horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided in 3 groups according to 3 age at slaughtering classes: 6 months old, 11 months old and 18 months old. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus Dorsi muscle between 13th and 18th thoracic vertebra of each animal and then analyzed. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided in cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Then, the classification of the lean meat in first and second quality cuts was performed according to the butchers’ customs. Older animals were characterized by a lower incidence of first quality cuts (p<0.01) on carcass. Younger animals showed greater content in protein (p<0.01). Fatty acid profile showed an increasing trend of PUFA connected to the increasing of slaughtering age (p<0.05). The unsaturation index of intramuscular fatty acids was not affected by slaughtering age, confirming that horse meat, if compared to beef, is more suitable from a nutritional point of view. Season influenced reproduction, birth as well as production aspects of this species. The different slaughtering age could represent the way to produce meat of IHDH foals during the entire year without change in the qualitative standard expected by consumers. PMID:25049752

  19. Slaughtering age effect on carcass traits and meat quality of italian heavy draught horse foals.

    PubMed

    De Palo, P; Maggiolino, A; Centoducati, P; Tateo, A

    2013-11-01

    The present work describes the effect of slaughtering age on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian heavy draught horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided in 3 groups according to 3 age at slaughtering classes: 6 months old, 11 months old and 18 months old. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus Dorsi muscle between 13th and 18th thoracic vertebra of each animal and then analyzed. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided in cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Then, the classification of the lean meat in first and second quality cuts was performed according to the butchers' customs. Older animals were characterized by a lower incidence of first quality cuts (p<0.01) on carcass. Younger animals showed greater content in protein (p<0.01). Fatty acid profile showed an increasing trend of PUFA connected to the increasing of slaughtering age (p<0.05). The unsaturation index of intramuscular fatty acids was not affected by slaughtering age, confirming that horse meat, if compared to beef, is more suitable from a nutritional point of view. Season influenced reproduction, birth as well as production aspects of this species. The different slaughtering age could represent the way to produce meat of IHDH foals during the entire year without change in the qualitative standard expected by consumers.

  20. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Unraveling molecular mechanistic differences in liver metabolism between lean and fat lines of Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica): a proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Chang, Wenhuan; Hou, Shuisheng; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Chen, Guilan; Lou, Ruiying; Liu, Guohua

    2014-02-26

    Duck is one of the major poultry meat sources for human consumption. To satisfy different eating habits, lean and fat strains of Pekin ducks have been developed. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanistic differences in liver metabolism between two duck strains. The liver proteome of the Pekin duck lines was compared on days 1, 14, 28, and 42 posthatching using 2-DE based proteomics. There was a different abundance of 76 proteins in the livers of the two duck lines. Fat ducks strongly expressed proteins related to pathways of glycolysis, ATP synthesis, and protein catabolism, suggesting enhanced fat deposition rather than protein retention. In contrast, highly expressed proteins in lean ducks improved protein anabolism and reduced protein catabolism, resulting in an enhancement of lean meat deposition. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, the immune system of the lean duck strain may be enhanced by enhanced expression of proteins involved in stress response, immune defense, and antioxidant functions. These results indicate that selection pressure has shaped the two duck lines differently resulting in different liver metabolic capacities. These observed variations between the two strains at the molecular level are matched with physiological changes in growth performance and meat production. This information may have beneficial impacts in areas such as genetic modification through the manipulation of target proteins or genes in specific pathways to improve the efficiency of duck meat production. The objective of this study was to unravel molecular mechanistic differences in liver metabolism between lean and fat Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) strains. There was a different abundance of 76 proteins in the livers of the two duck lines. Enhanced protein expression in the fat ducks related to pathways of glycolysis, ATP synthesis and protein catabolism suggesting increased fat deposition rather than protein retention. In

  2. Is meat quality of forage-fed steers comparable to the meat quality of conventional beef from concentrate-fed bulls?

    PubMed

    Blanco, Mireia; Casasús, Isabel; Ripoll, Guillermo; Albertí, Pere; Panea, Begoña; Joy, Margalida

    2017-11-01

    Replacing concentrates with forages in the diet of finishing cattle to satisfy societal demands and for economic reasons is a target for beef farmers, but this change may affect meat acceptance. In the Mediterranean area, young bulls are usually finished on concentrates (Conventional beef). Alternatively, steers can be finished on grass with supplements (G-supp); however, if carcasses are too lean, meat quality may be negatively affected. To increase fat deposition, grazing steers were finished on a total mixed ration composed of alfalfa hay and corn (TMR). Thus the objective of the study was to compare the quality of Longissimus muscle of the three systems. Conventional beef had low yellowness and similar lightness and redness values compared with the beef from the forage-based systems, which differed slightly. The meat of the G-supp and TMR steers had higher conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (more appropriate from a human health point of view) but was tougher than the Conventional beef. The Conventional beef was better accepted by consumers than the beef from both forage-based systems because it was the most tender. Thus tenderness of meat from forage-fed steers should be improved to ensure consumer acceptance. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Processing temperature and moisture content effects on the texture and microscopic appearance of cooked fowl meat gels.

    PubMed

    Voller, L M; Dawson, P L; Han, I Y

    1996-12-01

    New aseptic processes are being used and refined to produce convenient, shelf stable liquid products containing meat particles. These processes utilize high temperature, short time thermal treatments to minimize food quality change; however, little research has been conducted on the effects of this process on the texture of meat from mature hens traditionally used for canning. The objective of this study was to examine textural and structural changes in meat structure due to different high temperature (HT) heat treatments and meat moisture contents were examined by use of electron microscopy and torsion analyses. Cooked gels of different moisture contents (71.2 to 74.8%) were formulated from spent fowl breast meat and exposed to processing temperatures of 120 or 124 C. The HT processing resulted in stronger (tougher) meat gels that were more deformable (more chewy) than gels that were not processed by HT. Water added prior to cooking was not retained in samples that were cooked and then processed at 124 C, but was retained in the samples processed at 120 C. Electron micrographs showed a more organized and open gel structure in the samples with higher moisture content and lower temperature (120 C) processing compared to the lower moisture and higher (124 C) temperature treatments.

  4. Carcass and meat characteristics from farm-raised and wild fallow deer (Dama dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): A review.

    PubMed

    Kudrnáčová, Eva; Bartoň, Luděk; Bureš, Daniel; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-07-01

    Deer species are utilised for food, hunting and other products throughout the world. Consumers are typically exposed to venison derived predominantly from both farm-raised or wild fallow (Dama dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). The production of venison under farm conditions, compared to the meat of deer hunted in the wild, allows for a regular supply of a consistently good meat. It is lean, tasty, and rich in proteins and minerals, with a low content of fat and cholesterol. Overall, the worldwide demand for meat is still growing, and both the potential of farming deer species and their use as meat producers have led to an increased interest in venison. The current knowledge about various factors (e.g. nutrition, age, sex, condition, season) affecting venison and game meat has significantly increased during past decades but information regarding the interaction between production system or pre- and post-slaughter handling and ultimate deer meat quality are still very limited. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Meat quality of "Galician Mountain" foals breed. Effect of sex, slaughter age and livestock production system.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; Rodríguez, Eva; Purriños, Laura; Crecente, Santiago; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of sex, slaughter age (9 vs. 12 months) and livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) vs. semi extensive system (SES)) of "Galician Mountain" foals breed on meat quality from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were investigated. Forty-two foals had been used for this study, 19 (11 females and 8 males) were reared in a semi extensive system and weaned three months prior to slaughtering (8 and 11 were slaughtered at 9 and 12 months, respectively) while the other 23 (11 females and 12 males) were reared together with its mothers in a system in freedom and were slaughtered at the age of 9 months. The obtained results showed that there were no significant differences between the sexes and the slaughter age whereas the livestock production system was a significant variation source on intramuscular fat content and meat tenderness because SES foals showed 51.6% more of IMF and the improved meat tenderness achieved a shear force of <3 kg. In general, the meat from foals of the study at hand showed very lean meat (<0.3% in IMF) with a high protein content (>20.5%) and heme-iron (1.62 mg/100g meat) comparable to veal meat. Furthermore, the meat samples showed a higher luminosity (L*>40), a very good water holding capacity, measured by cooking losses (<18.3%), and a tenderness less than 4 kg. Thus, it can be classified as "very tender" meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensory quality and fatty acid content of springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) meat: influence of farm location and sex.

    PubMed

    Neethling, Jeannine; Muller, Magdalena; van der Rijst, Marieta; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-05-01

    Springbok are harvested for meat production irrespective of farm location or sex from which the meat is derived. The present study investigated the influence of farm location (three farms containing different vegetation types) and sex on the sensory quality of springbok longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. The sensory profile (aroma, flavour and texture) was determined by descriptive sensory analysis, in addition to determination of the physical meat quality, proximate and fatty acid composition. Farm location had a significant influence on the sensory quality (gamey and liver-like aroma; beef, liver-like, lamb-like and herbaceous flavour; sweet taste; tenderness; residue; mealiness; Warner-Bratzler shear force; moisture, protein and intramuscular lipid content) and fatty acid content (oleic acid; α-linolenic acid; total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio; total omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; and omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio) of springbok meat. Sex influenced the chemical composition of springbok meat; however, the influence on the sensory profile was minor (sweet taste; P < 0.001). Farm location could influence the sensory quality and composition of springbok meat and should be considered when harvesting for meat production. Sex does not have to be considered for the marketing of springbok meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Dietary Fermentable Carbohydrate Content on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 96 pigs (49.23±3.20 kg) were used in an 11 wk growth trial to evaluate the effect of fermentable carbohydrate (FC) content on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrient, blood profile, and meat quality. The dietary treatments were: i) negative control (NC), basal diet, ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (positive control diet with 5 ppm flavomycin), iii) PCL, PC-13% lower FC, and iv) NCL, NC-13% lower FC. The growth performance (average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain/feed) didn’t differ among treatments through the whole experiment. These pigs fed the PCL diet had the greater (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter than those from PC and NC treatment at the end of the experiment. No differences were observed in white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), and lymphocyte concentration among different treatments. After the feeding period, meat samples were collected from the pigs at slaughter. The pigs in NCL and PCL treatments had greater (p<0.05) backfat thickness and lower lean percentage. The color value of loin was higher (p<0.05) in NCL treatment compared to PCL treatment. Also, the NCL treatment had higher (p<0.05) marbling value than PC treatment. The drip loss was depressed by PCL and NCL treatment comapared to NC treatments. The water holding capacity (WHC) was higher (p<0.05) in NC and PCL treatment. In conclusion, the low FC can improve digestibility and meat quality of finishing pigs. PMID:25049693

  8. Comparison of the longissimus muscle proteome between obese and lean pigs at 180 days.

    PubMed

    Li, Anning; Mo, Delin; Zhao, Xiao; Jiang, Wei; Cong, Peiqing; He, Zuyong; Xiao, Shuqi; Liu, Xiaohong; Chen, Yaosheng

    2013-02-01

    Production of high-quality meat is important to satisfy the consumer and make the pig industry competitive. Obese and lean breeds of pig show clear differences in adipogenic capacity and meat quality, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We have compared protein expression of the longissimus muscle between Lantang (LT, obese) and Landrace (LR, lean) pigs at the age of 180 days using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Of the 1,400 protein spots detected per gel, 18 were differentially expressed between the two breeds. Using peptide mass fingerprint and tandem mass spectrometry, 17 protein spots were identified, corresponding to ten different proteins that could be divided into four groups: metabolism-related, structure-related, stress-related, and other (unclassified). Among the metabolism-related proteins, COX5A and ATP5B, which participate in oxidative phosphorylation, were highly expressed in LT, whereas ENO3, which is involved in glycolysis, was highly expressed in LR. These results may contribute valuable information to our understanding of the molecular mechanism responsible for differences between obese and lean pigs, such as growth rate and meat quality.

  9. Influence of mitochondrial efficiency on beef lean color stability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Loss of electrons in the electron transport chain has been implicated as a source of variation in feed efficiency of meat producing animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of electron loss during electron transport on beef lean color stability. Beef carcasses (n = 91) were...

  10. Technology to control variation in meat quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumers have certain expectations regarding the quality of the meat they purchase. Lean color is the primary quality attribute used by consumers to make purchase decisions. Similarly, repeat purchase decisions are generally a result of eating satisfaction, which is determined by the perceived va...

  11. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  12. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Selection for an increased meatiness in beef cattle has resulted in double-muscled (DM) animals, owing to the inactivation of the myostatin gene. These animals are characterized by an excellent conformation and an extremely high carcass yield, coinciding with a reduced organ mass. As a consequence, voluntary feed intake is reduced, but feed efficiency is considerably improved, although maintenance requirements are not clearly reduced. DM animals are more susceptible to respiratory disease, stress and dystocia, requiring extra attention for accommodation and welfare. Carcasses of DM animals are very lean, and intramuscular fat content is low. The fatty acid profile is different when compared with non-DM animals, containing less saturated fatty acids. Collagen content of the meat is lower, so that meat from double-muscled animals is mostly more tender. However, meat tenderness, color and juiciness are not always improved. A different metabolism as a consequence of faster glycolytic myofibers can be partly responsible for this phenomenon. DM animals are interesting for the producer and butcher, and beneficial for the consumer, if an appropriate nutrition and accommodation, and adequate slaughter conditions are taken into account. Abstract Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM) animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and

  13. Endogenous functional compounds in Korean native chicken meat are dependent on sex, thermal processing and meat cut.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Alahakoon, Amali U; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-03-15

    In this study the effects of sex, meat cut and thermal processing on the carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine and carnitine contents of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat were determined. Forty 1-day-old chicks (20 chicks of each sex) from a commercial KNC strain (Woorimatdag™) were reared under similar standard commercial conditions with similar diets, and ten birds of each sex were randomly selected and slaughtered at 14 weeks of age. Raw and cooked meat samples were prepared from both breast and leg meats and analyzed for the aforementioned functional compounds. Female KNCs had significantly higher betaine and creatine contents. The breast meat showed significantly higher carnosine and anserine contents, whereas the leg meat had a higher betaine and carnitine content. The content of all functional compounds was significantly depleted by thermal processing. This study confirms that KNC meat is a good source of the above-mentioned functional compounds, which can be considered attractive nutritional quality factors. However, their concentrations were significantly affected by thermal processing conditions, meat cut and sex. Further experiments are needed to select the best thermal processing method to preserve these functional compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The effect of dietary Digestarom® herbal supplementation on rabbit meat fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant content.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, S; Dal Bosco, A; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Castellini, C; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The experiment tested the effect of Digestarom® herbal supplementation on the antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into two dietary groups (N=162 kits/dietary group) and fed either a control diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with Digestarom® (D: 300mg/kg). At weaning (35days) four experimental fattening groups (54 rabbits each) were considered: CC, CD, DC and DD. After slaughtering (12weeks of age), Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were dissected from 20 rabbits/group and analyzed. Rabbit meat of DD group was enriched in essential C18:3 n-3 fatty acid and in other long-chain PUFA of n-3 series. Despite meat of DD group displayed the highest peroxidability index, TBARs value was the lowest. Meat antioxidant content followed the rank order: DD>CD>DC>CC. Digestarom® improved fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbit meat, particularly when administered from weaning throughout the growing period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Correlative responses for carcass and meat quality traits to selection for ovulation rate or prenatal survival in French Large White pigs.

    PubMed

    Rosendo, A; Druet, T; Péry, C; Bidanel, J P

    2010-03-01

    Correlated effects of selection for components of litter size on carcass and meat quality traits were estimated using data from 3 lines of pigs derived from the same Large White base population. Two lines were selected for 6 generations on high ovulation rate at puberty (OR) or high prenatal survival corrected for ovulation rate in the first 2 parities (PS). The third line was an unselected control (CON). The 3 lines were kept for a 7th generation, but without any selection. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded on the 5th to 7th generation of the experiment. Carcass traits included dressing percentage, carcass length (LGTH), average backfat thickness (ABT), estimated lean meat content, and 8 carcass joint weight traits. Meat quality traits included pH recorded 24 h after slaughter (pH24) of LM, gluteus superficialis (GS), biceps femoris (BF), and adductor femoris (AD) muscles, as well as reflectance and water-holding capacity (WHC) of GS and BF muscles. Heritabilities of carcass and meat quality traits and their genetic correlations with OR and PS were estimated using REML methodology applied to a multiple trait animal model. Correlated responses to selection were then estimated by computing differences between OR or PS and CON lines at generations 5 to 7 using least squares and mixed model methodology. Heritability (h(2)) estimates were 0.08 +/- 0.04, 0.58 +/- 0.10, 0.70 +/- 0.10, and 0.74 +/- 0.10 for dressing percentage, LGTH, ABT, and lean meat content, respectively, ranged from 0.28 to 0.72 for carcass joint traits, from 0.28 to 0.45 for pH24 and reflectance measurements, and from 0.03 to 0.11 for WHC measurements. Both OR and PS had weak genetic correlations with carcass (r(G) = -0.09 to 0.17) and most meat quality traits. Selection for OR did not affect any carcass composition or meat quality trait. Correlated responses to selection for PS were also limited, with the exception of a decrease in pH24 of GS and BF muscles (-0.12 to -0.14 after 6

  16. Effect of partial replacement of pork meat with an olive oil organogel on the physicochemical and sensory quality of dry-ripened venison sausages.

    PubMed

    Utrilla, M C; García Ruiz, A; Soriano, A

    2014-08-01

    A venison salchichon was made using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat and to obtain a healthier product. Six types of salchichon were produced. The control type contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other types, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% of the pork meat were replaced by olive oil introduced in the form of an organogel (olive oil emulsified with soy protein and water). All types were satisfactory in terms of physicochemical characteristics (pH, a(w), moisture loss) and instrumental colour throughout ripening, and displayed acceptable levels of lipolysis (acidity index) and lipid oxidation (TBARS). Higher proportions of olive oil prompted an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content (mainly C18:1). All six types of salchichon were judged acceptable by consumers, the highest scores being given to those in which no more than 25% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrition content of brisket point end of part Simental Ongole Crossbred meat in boiled various temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyanto, J.; Sudibya; Cahyadi, M.; Aji, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    This aim of this study was to determine the quality of nutritional contents of beef brisket point end of Simental Ongole Crossbred meat in various boiling temperatures. Simental Ongole Crossbred had been fattened for 9 months. Furthermore, they were slaughtered at slaughterhouse and brisket point end part of meat had been prepared to analyse its nutritional contents using Food Scan. These samples were then boiled at 100°C for 0 (TR), 15 (R15), and 30 (R30) minutes, respectively. The data was analysed using Randomized Complete Design (CRD) and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) had been conducted to differentiate among three treatments. The results showed that boiling temperatures significantly affected moisture, and cholesterol contents of beef (P<0.05) while fat content was not significantly affected by boiling temperatures. The boiling temperature decreased beef water contents from 72.77 to 70.84%, on the other hand, the treatment increased beef protein and cholesterol contents from 20.77 to 25.14% and 47.55 to 50.45 mg/100g samples, respectively. The conclusion of this study was boiling of beef at 100°C for 15 minutes and 30 minutes decreasing water content and increasing protein and cholesterol contents of brisket point end of Simental Ongole Crossbred beef.

  18. Reducing the CP content in broiler feeds: impact on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization.

    PubMed

    Belloir, P; Méda, B; Lambert, W; Corrent, E; Juin, H; Lessire, M; Tesseraud, S

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the dietary CP content is an efficient way to limit nitrogen excretion in broilers but, as reported in the literature, it often reduces performance, probably because of an inadequate provision in amino acids (AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing the CP content in the diet on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization in growing-finishing broilers using an optimized dietary AA profile based on the ideal protein concept. Two experiments (1 and 2) were performed using 1-day-old PM3 Ross male broilers (1520 and 912 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) using the minimum AA:Lys ratios proposed by Mack et al. with modifications for Thr and Arg. The digestible Thr (dThr): dLys ratio was increased from 63% to 68% and the dArg:dLys ratio was decreased from 112% to 108%. In experiment 1, the reduction of dietary CP from 19% to 15% (five treatments) did not alter feed intake or BW, but the feed conversion ratio was increased for the 16% and 15% CP diets (+2.4% and +3.6%, respectively), while in experiment 2 (three treatments: 19%, 17.5% and 16% CP) there was no effect of dietary CP on performance. In both experiments, dietary CP content did not affect breast meat yield. However, abdominal fat content (expressed as a percentage of BW) was increased by the decrease in CP content (up to +0.5 and +0.2 percentage point, in experiments 1 and 2, respectively). In experiment 2, meat quality traits responded to dietary CP content with a higher ultimate pH and lower lightness and drip loss values for the low CP diets. Nitrogen retention efficiency increased when reducing CP content in both experiments (+3.5 points/CP percentage point). The main consequence of this higher efficiency was a decrease in nitrogen excretion (-2.5 g N/kg BW gain) and volatilization (expressed as a percentage of excretion: -5 points/CP percentage point). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that with an adapted AA profile, it is possible to reduce

  19. Phosphorus and Potassium Content of Enhanced Meat and Poultry Products: Implications for Patients Who Receive Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ojas

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Uncooked meat and poultry products are commonly enhanced by food processors using phosphate salts. The addition of potassium and phosphorus to these foods has been recognized but not quantified. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We measured the phosphorus, potassium, and protein content of 36 uncooked meat and poultry products: Phosphorus using the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) official method 984.27, potassium using AOAC official method 985.01, and protein using AOAC official method 990.03. Results: Products that reported the use of additives had an average phosphate-protein ratio 28% higher than additive free products; the content ranged up to almost 100% higher. Potassium content in foods with additives varied widely; additive free products all contained <387 mg/100 g, whereas five of the 25 products with additives contained at least 692 mg/100 g (maximum 930 mg/100 g). Most but not all foods with phosphate and potassium additives reported the additives (unquantified) on the labeling; eight of 25 enhanced products did not list the additives. The results cannot be applied to other products. The composition of the food additives used by food processors may change over time. Conclusions: Uncooked meat and poultry products that are enhanced may contain additives that increase phosphorus and potassium content by as much as almost two- and three-fold, respectively; this modification may not be discernible from inspection of the food label. PMID:19628683

  20. Incorporation of nisin into a meat binding system to inhibit bacteria on beef surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cutter, C N; Siragusa, G R

    1998-07-01

    In two separate experiments, the bacteriocin, nisin, was incorporated into a commercially available meat binding system (Fibrimex) and applied to meat surfaces as a way of inhibiting the meat spoilage organism, Brochothrix thermosphacta during extended refrigerated storage. In experiment 1, pre-rigor lean beef carcass tissue (BCT) was inoculated with B. thermosphacta, left untreated (U), treated with 10 micrograms ml-1 nisin (N), Fibrimex (F) or Fibrimex containing 10 micrograms ml-1 nisin (FN), held aerobically at 4 degrees C for up to 7 d, and populations of B. thermosphacta and nisin activity determined. Experiment 2 determined the effects of the same treatments but on post-rigor, frozen and thawed lean BCT that was inoculated, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 4 degrees C for up to 14 d. In both experiments, N- and FN-treated tissues exhibited significantly lower populations of B. thermosphacta compared to U- and F-treated tissues, for the duration of refrigerated storage. Nisin activity was detected up to 7 d in N- and FN-treated samples from experiment 1. However, activity was detected only to days 0 and 2 in FN- and N-treated samples, respectively, from experiment 2. These studies indicate that the addition of a bacteriocin to a meat binding system and application to meat surfaces may be useful in reducing undesirable bacteria in restructured meat products.

  1. The role of red meat in the diet: nutrition and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Wyness, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Red meat has been an important part of the human diet throughout human evolution. When included as part of a healthy, varied diet, red meat provides a rich source of high biological value protein and essential nutrients, some of which are more bioavailable than in alternative food sources. Particular nutrients in red meat have been identified as being in short supply in the diets of some groups of the population. The present paper discusses the role of red meat in the diets of young infants, adolescents, women of childbearing age and older adults and highlights key nutrients red meat can provide for these groups. The role of red meat in relation to satiety and weight control is discussed as the inclusion of lean red meat in a healthy, varied diet may help weight loss as part of an energy-reduced diet. A summary of the UK advice on the amount of red meat that can be consumed as part of a healthy, varied diet is also provided.

  2. Fat Content and Nitrite-Curing Influence the Formation of Oxidation Products and NOC-Specific DNA Adducts during In Vitro Digestion of Meat

    PubMed Central

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Raes, Katleen; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fat content and nitrite-curing of pork were investigated on the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, volatile simple aldehydes), protein oxidation products (protein carbonyl compounds) and NOC-specific DNA adducts (O6-carboxy-methylguanine) during in vitro digestion. The formation of these products during digestion is suggested to be responsible for the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. Digestion of uncured pork to which fat was added (total fat content 5 or 20%), resulted in significantly higher lipid and protein oxidation in the mimicked duodenal and colonic fluids, compared to digestion of pork without added fat (1% fat). A higher fat content also significantly favored the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine in the colon. Nitrite-curing of meat resulted in significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation before and after digestion, while an inconsistent effect on the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine was observed. The presented results demonstrate that haem-Fe is not solely responsible for oxidation and nitrosation reactions throughout an in vitro digestion approach but its effect is promoted by a higher fat content in meat. PMID:24978825

  3. Modulation of glycogen and breast meat processing ability by nutrition in chickens: effect of crude protein level in 2 chicken genotypes.

    PubMed

    Jlali, M; Gigaud, V; Métayer-Coustard, S; Sellier, N; Tesseraud, S; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of 2 isoenergetic growing diets with different CP (17 vs. 23%) on the performance and breast meat quality of 2 lines of chicken divergently selected for abdominal fatness [i.e., fat and lean (LL) lines]. Growth performance, breast and abdominal fat yields, breast meat quality parameters (pH, color, drip loss), and muscle glycogen storage at death were measured. Increased dietary CP resulted in increased BW, increased breast meat yield, and reduced abdominal fatness at slaughter regardless of genotype (P < 0.001). By contrast, dietary CP affected glycogen storage and the related meat quality parameters only in the LL chickens. Giving LL chickens the low-CP diet led to reduced concentration of muscle glycogen (P < 0.01), and as a result, breast meat with a higher (P < 0.001) ultimate pH, decreased (P < 0.001) lightness, and reduced (P < 0.001) drip loss during storage. The decreased muscle glycogen content observed in LL receiving the low-CP diet compared with the high-CP diet occurred concomitantly with greater phosphorylation amount for the α-catalytic subunit of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and glycogen synthase. This was consistent with the reduced muscle glycogen content observed in LL fed the low-CP diet because adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibits glycogen synthesis through its action on glycogen synthase. Our results demonstrated that nutrition is an effective means of modulating breast meat properties in the chicken. The results also highlighted the need to take into account interaction with the genetic background of the animal to select nutritional strategies to improve meat quality traits in poultry.

  4. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... specifications for percent light meat and percent dark meat set forth in said table. Table I Label terminology Percent light meat Percent dark meat Natural proportions 50-65 50-35. Light or white meat 100 0. Dark meat 0 100. Light and dark meat 51-65 49-35. Dark and light meat 35-49 65-51. Mostly white meat 66 or...

  5. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... specifications for percent light meat and percent dark meat set forth in said table. Table I Label terminology Percent light meat Percent dark meat Natural proportions 50-65 50-35. Light or white meat 100 0. Dark meat 0 100. Light and dark meat 51-65 49-35. Dark and light meat 35-49 65-51. Mostly white meat 66 or...

  6. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... specifications for percent light meat and percent dark meat set forth in said table. Table I Label terminology Percent light meat Percent dark meat Natural proportions 50-65 50-35. Light or white meat 100 0. Dark meat 0 100. Light and dark meat 51-65 49-35. Dark and light meat 35-49 65-51. Mostly white meat 66 or...

  7. Use of near infrared spectroscopy for estimating meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid content from cattle fed sunflower or flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Juárez, M; Uttaro, B

    2014-10-01

    This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid (FA) composition from 63 steers fed sunflower or flaxseed in combination with high forage diets. NIRS calibrations, tested by cross-validation, were successful for predicting crude protein, moisture and fat content with coefficients of determination (R(2)) (RMSECV, g·100g(-1) wet matter) of 0.85 (0.48), 0.90 (0.60) and 0.86 (1.08), respectively, but were not reliable for meat quality attributes. This technology accurately predicted saturated, monounsaturated and branched FA and conjugated linoleic acid content (R(2): 0.83-0.97; RMSECV: 0.04-1.15mg·g(-1) tissue) and might be suitable for screening purposes in meat based on the content of FAs beneficial to human health such as rumenic and vaccenic acids. Further research applying NIRS to estimate meat quality attributes will require the use on-line of a fibre-optic probe on intact samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Proximal composition, lipid and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed peach-palm meal (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) and synthetic lysine].

    PubMed

    Jerez-Timaure, Nancy; Rivero, Janeth Colina; Araque, Humberto; Jiménez, Paola; Velazco, Mariela; Colmenares, Ciolys

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the proximal composition, lipids and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed diets with peach-palm meal (PPM), with or without addition of synthetic lysine (LYS). In experiment 1, 24 pigs were randomly allotted into six treatments with three levels of PPM (0.16 and 32%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). In experiment II, 16 finishing pigs were fed with two levels of PPM (0 and 17.50%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). At the end of each experiment (42 and 35 d, respectively), pigs were slaughtered and loin samples were obtained to determine crude protein, dry matter, moisture, ash, total lipids, and cholesterol content. In experiment I, pork loin from 16% PPM had more dry matter (26.45 g/100 g) and less moisture (73.49 g/100g) than pork loin from 32% PPM (25.11 y 75.03 g/100g, respectively). Meat samples from pigs without LYS had higher (p < 0.05) content of lipids (2.11 g/100 g) than meat from pigs that consumed LYS (1.72 g/100 g). In experiment II, the proximal, lipids and cholesterol content were similar among treatments. The PPM addition to pig diets did not affect the proximal composition of pork, while LYS addition indicated a reduction of total lipids, which could result as an alternative to obtain leaner meat.

  9. Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

  10. Effect of House Cricket (Acheta domesticus) Flour Addition on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Meat Emulsion Under Various Formulations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Setyabrata, Derico; Lee, YongJae; Jones, Owen G; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of house cricket (Acheta domesticus) flour addition on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion under various formulations. As an initial marker of functionality, protein solubility, water absorption, emulsifying capacity, and gel formation ability of house cricket flour were determined at pH (2 to 10) and NaCl concentrations (0 to 2.10 M). Control emulsion was formulated with 60% lean pork, 20% back fat, and 20% ice. Six treatment emulsions were prepared with replacement of lean pork and/or back fat portions with spray-dried house cricket flour at 5% and 10% levels, based on a total sample weight. The protein solubility of house cricket flour (67 g protein/100 g) was significantly altered depending upon pH (P < 0.0001) and NaCl concentration (P = 0.0421). Similar water absorption capacity, emulsifying capacity, and gel formation ability of house cricket flour were found between 0 and 2.10 M NaCl concentration (P > 0.05). The replacement of lean meat/fat portion with house cricket flour within 10% level could fortify protein and some micronutrients (phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium) in meat emulsion, without negative impacts on cooking yield and textural properties. Our results suggest that house cricket flour can be used as an effective nonmeat functional ingredient to manufacture emulsified meat products. To better utilize house cricket flour as a food ingredient in wide application, understanding its technological properties in various pH, and ionic strength conditions is a pivotal step. Protein solubility of house cricket flour would be considerably affected by the varying pH and NaCl concentrations of applied conventional foods. In the case of meat emulsion, within 10% lean meat and/or fat portions could be successfully substituted with house cricket flour without detectable adverse impacts on technological properties associated with cooking yield and instrumental analysis of texture

  11. Red meat, dairy, and insulin sensitivity: a randomized crossover intervention study.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kirsty M; Keogh, Jennifer B; Clifton, Peter M

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked high consumption of red and processed meat with risk of developing type 2 diabetes, whereas high dairy consumption has been associated with decreased risk, but interventions have been limited. We compared the effects on insulin sensitivity of consuming a diet high in lean red meat with minimal dairy, a diet high in primarily low-fat dairy (from milk, yogurt, or custard) with no red meat, and a control diet that contained neither red meat nor dairy. A randomized crossover study was undertaken with 47 overweight and obese men and women divided into 2 groups as follows: those with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Participants followed the 3 weight-stable dietary interventions for 4 wk with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measured by using oral-glucose-tolerance tests at the end of each diet. Fasting insulin was significantly higher after the dairy diet than after the red meat diet (P < 0.01) with no change in fasting glucose resulting in a decrease in insulin sensitivity after the high-dairy diet (P < 0.05) as assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A significant interaction between diet and sex was observed such that, in women alone, HOMA-IR was significantly lower after the red meat diet than after the dairy diet (1.33 ± 0.8 compared with 1.71 ± 0.8, respectively; P < 0.01). Insulin sensitivity calculated by using the Matsuda method was 14.7% lower in women after the dairy diet than after the red meat diet (P < 0.01) with no difference between diets in men. C-peptide was not different between diets. In contrast to some epidemiologic findings, these results suggest that high consumption of dairy reduces insulin sensitivity compared with a diet high in lean red meat in overweight and obese subjects, some of whom had glucose intolerance. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN

  12. Fetal programming in meat production.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid alters oxidative stability and alleviates plasma cholesterol content in meat of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4 °C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05).

  14. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Oxidative Stability and Alleviates Plasma Cholesterol Content in Meat of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05). PMID:25386625

  15. Lipid stability in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, P A; Sheehy, P J; Galvin, K; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J

    1998-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation.

  16. NIR spectroscopy for determining soy contents in processed meat products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soy products such as soy concentrate, soy protein and soy grits are used as a meat extender in processed meat products to improve meat texture. However, soy allergies are one of the common food allergies, especially in infants and young children, and can be mild to life-threatening. The United State...

  17. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  18. Short-term beef consumption promotes systemic oxidative stress, TMAO formation and inflammation in rats, and dietary fat content modulates these effects.

    PubMed

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Jakobsen, Louise M A; Vossen, Els; Guéraud, Françoise; De Vos, Filip; Pierre, Fabrice; Bertram, Hanne C S; De Smet, Stefaan

    2016-09-14

    A high consumption of red and/or processed meat is associated with a higher risk to develop several chronic diseases in which oxidative stress, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and/or inflammation are involved. We aimed to elucidate the effect of white (chicken) vs. red (beef) meat consumption in a low vs. high dietary fat context (2 × 2 factorial design) on oxidative stress, TMAO and inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were found in gastrointestinal contents (up to 96% higher) and colonic tissues (+8.8%) of rats fed the beef diets (all P < 0.05). The lean beef diet resulted in lower blood glutathione, higher urinary excretion of the major 4-hydroxy-nonenal metabolite, and higher plasma C-reactive protein, compared to the other dietary treatments (all P < 0.05). Rats on the fat beef diet had higher renal MDA (+24.4% compared to all other diets) and heart MDA (+12.9% compared to lean chicken) and lower liver vitamin E (-26.2% compared to lean chicken) (all P < 0.05). Rats on the fat diets had lower plasma vitamin E (-23.8%), lower brain MDA (-6.8%) and higher plasma superoxide dismutase activity (+38.6%), higher blood glutathione (+16.9%) (all P < 0.05) and tendency to higher ventral prostate MDA (+14.5%, P = 0.078) and prostate weight (+18.9%, P = 0.073), compared to rats on the lean diets. Consumption of the beef diets resulted in higher urinary trimethylamine (4.5-fold) and TMAO (3.7-fold) concentrations (P < 0.001), compared to the chicken diets. In conclusion, consumption of a high beef diet may stimulate gastrointestinal and/or systemic oxidative stress, TMAO formation and inflammation, depending on the dietary fat content and composition.

  19. Effect of nutritive level on carcass traits and meat quality of IHDH foals

    PubMed Central

    De Palo, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Maggiolino, Aristide; Centoducati, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the effect of nutritive level on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided into three groups according to three nutritive level classes: 150%, 180% and 200% of maintenance requirements. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus dorsi muscle. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided into cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage were not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Horses fed with the lower nutritive level showed a higher incidence of lean and a lower incidence of fat (P < 0.01). Moreover, fatty acid profile was not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Probably the tendency of IHDH foals to concentrate adipogenesis in the subcutaneous district could explain the lack of influence of nutritive level on meat quality parameters and its influence on carcass and cut composition, which tend to be richer in fat. PMID:24961285

  20. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    PubMed

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Meat consumption, meat cooking and risk of lung cancer among Uruguayan men.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted in Uruguay, including 876 male cases of lung cancer and 876 male hospitalized controls, frequency matched for age (ten-year intervals), residence and hospital. The following explanatory variables were included in the study: fried red meat, barbecued red meat, boiled red meat, and salted red meat. These items were log transformed and energy-adjusted by the residuals method. The following potential confounders were included into the models: age, residence, hospital, education, family history of lung cancer, body mass index, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy intake, non-meat fatty foods and total fruits. The main objective was to estimate the odds ratios associated with lung cancer risk. Whereas fried meat, barbecued meat, and salted meat were positively associated with risk (OR of the highest quartile of salted meat versus the lowest, 2.90, 95 % CI 1.99-4.25, p-value for trend<0.0001), boiled red meat was mainly protective. We conclude that salted meat was the main risk factor. The mechanisms could be related to the content of N-nitroso compounds in salted meat.

  2. Intermittent hypoxia induces hyperlipidemia in lean mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Thorne, Laura N; Punjabi, Naresh M; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Schwartz, Alan R; Smith, Philip L; Marino, Rafael L; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Hubbard, Walter C; O'Donnell, Christopher P; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2005-09-30

    Obstructive sleep apnea, a syndrome leading to recurrent intermittent hypoxia (IH), has been associated previously with hypercholesterolemia, independent of underlying obesity. We examined the effects of experimentally induced IH on serum lipid levels and pathways of lipid metabolism in the absence and presence of obesity. Lean C57BL/6J mice and leptin-deficient obese C57BL/6J-Lep(ob) mice were exposed to IH for five days to determine changes in serum lipid profile, liver lipid content, and expression of key hepatic genes of lipid metabolism. In lean mice, exposure to IH increased fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, phospholipids (PLs), and triglycerides (TGs), as well as liver TG content. These changes were not observed in obese mice, which had hyperlipidemia and fatty liver at baseline. In lean mice, IH increased sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) levels in the liver, increased mRNA and protein levels of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD-1), an important gene of TG and PL biosynthesis controlled by SREBP-1, and increased monounsaturated fatty acid content in serum, which indicated augmented SCD-1 activity. In addition, in lean mice, IH decreased protein levels of scavenger receptor B1, regulating uptake of cholesterol esters and HDL by the liver. We conclude that exposure to IH for five days increases serum cholesterol and PL levels, upregulates pathways of TG and PL biosynthesis, and inhibits pathways of cholesterol uptake in the liver in the lean state but does not exacerbate the pre-existing hyperlipidemia and metabolic disturbances in leptin-deficient obesity.

  3. Dietary purines in vegetarian meat analogues.

    PubMed

    Havlik, Jaroslav; Plachy, Vladimir; Fernandez, Javier; Rada, Vojtech

    2010-11-01

    The meat alternatives market offers a wide range of products resembling meat in taste, flavour or texture but based on vegetable protein sources. These high protein-low purine foods may find application in a low purine or purine-free diet, which is sometimes suggested for subjects with increased serum urate levels, i.e. hyperuricaemia. We determined purine content (uric acid, adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine) in 39 commercially available meat substitutes and evaluated them in relation to their protein content. Some of the products contained a comparable sum of adenine and hypoxanthine per protein as meat. Analysis of variance showed an influence of protein source used. Mycoprotein-based products had significantly higher contents (2264 mg kg(-1)) of adenine and hypoxanthine per kg of 100% protein than soybean-based products (1648 mg kg(-1)) or mixtures consisting of soybean protein and wheat protein (1239 mg kg(-1)). Protein-rich vegetable-based meat substitutes might be generally accepted as meat alternatives for individuals on special diets. The type of protein used to manufacture these products determines the total content of purines, which is relatively higher in the case of mycoprotein or soybean protein, while appearing lower in wheat protein and egg white-based products. These are therefore more suitable for dietary considerations in a low-purine diet for hyperuricaemic subjects. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  4. The dependence of the growth rate and meat content of young boars on semen parameters and conception rate.

    PubMed

    Knecht, D; Jankowska-Mąkosa, A; Duziński, K

    2017-05-01

    Boars have a decisive impact on the progress in pig production, however, there is no recent information about the optimal growth parameters during the rearing period for modern breed later used in artificial insemination (AI) stations. Therefore, the objective of the research was to conduct semen parameter and conception rate analyses on the basis of growth rate and meat content assessments made during the rearing of AI boars of different genotypes. The study was carried out between 2010 and 2014 and included 184 boars in five breed combinations: 46 Polish Large White, 50 Polish Landrace, 27 Pietrain, 36 Duroc×Pietrain and 25 Hampshire×Pietrain. Boars were qualified by daily gains and meat content assessment (between 170 and 210 days of life). A total number of 38 272 ejaculates were examined (semen volume (ml), spermatozoa concentration (×106 ml-1), total number of spermatozoa (×109) and number of insemination doses from one ejaculate (n)). The fertility was determined by the conception rate (%). Semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and conception rate (P<0.01), followed by the total number of spermatozoa and insemination doses (P<0.05) were characterized by the highest variability in relation to breed of boars. The effect of daily gains was reported for spermatozoa concentration, number of insemination doses, conception rate (all P<0.01) and total number of spermatozoa (P<0.05). The peak of growth for spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, insemination doses and conception rate was achieved for 800 to 850 g gains. Meat content affected semen volume, number of insemination doses and conception rate (P<0.05). Rearing boars while maintaining daily gains at the 800 to 850 g level and 62.5% to 65% meat content helps AI stations to increase the efficiency and economic profitability, and the number of insemination doses to increase by up to 300 doses/boar within a year. The analyses of growth parameters may help increase the efficiency and

  5. Can we improve the nutritional quality of meat?

    PubMed

    Scollan, Nigel D; Price, Eleri M; Morgan, Sarah A; Huws, Sharon A; Shingfield, Kevin J

    2017-11-01

    The nutritional value of meat is an increasingly important factor influencing consumer preferences for poultry, red meat and processed meat products. Intramuscular fat content and composition, in addition to high quality protein, trace minerals and vitamins are important determinants of nutritional value. Fat content of meat at retail has decreased substantially over the past 40 years through advances in animal genetics, nutrition and management and changes in processing techniques. Evidence of the association between diet and the incidence of human non-communicable diseases has driven an interest in developing production systems for lowering total SFA and trans fatty acid (TFA) content and enrichment of n-3 PUFA concentrations in meat and meat products. Typically, poultry and pork has a lower fat content, containing higher PUFA and lower TFA concentrations than lamb or beef. Animal genetics, nutrition and maturity, coupled with their rumen microbiome, are the main factors influencing tissue lipid content and relative proportions of SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Altering the fatty acid (FA) profile of lamb and beef is determined to a large extent by extensive plant and microbial lipolysis and subsequent microbial biohydrogenation of dietary lipid in the rumen, and one of the major reasons explaining the differences in lipid composition of meat from monogastrics and ruminants. Nutritional strategies can be used to align the fat content and FA composition of poultry, pork, lamb and beef with Public Health Guidelines for lowering the social and economic burden of chronic disease.

  6. A review of the growth, and of the carcass and meat quality characteristics of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries).

    PubMed

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Purchas, R W

    2008-11-01

    The dromedary camel is a good source of meat especially in areas where the climate adversely affects the performance of other meat animals. This is because of its unique physiological characteristics, including a great tolerance to high temperatures, solar radiation, water scarcity, rough topography and poor vegetation. The average birth weight of camels is about 35kg, but it varies widely between regions, breeds and within the same breed. The meat producing ability of camels is limited by modest growth rates (500g/day). However, camels are mostly produced under traditional extensive systems on poor levels of nutrition and are mostly slaughtered at older ages after a career in work, racing or milk production. Camels reach live weights of about 650kg at 7-8 years of age, and produce carcass weights ranging from 125 to 400kg with dressing-out percentage values from 55% to 70%. Camel carcasses contain about 57% muscle, 26% bone and 17% fat with fore halves (cranial to rib 13) significantly heavier than the hind halves. Camel lean meat contains about 78% water, 19% protein, 3% fat, and 1.2% ash with a small amount of intramuscular fat, which renders it a healthy food for humans. Camel meat has been described as raspberry red to dark brown in colour and the fat of the camel meat is white. Camel meat is similar in taste and texture to beef. The amino acid and mineral contents of camel meat are often higher than beef, probably due to lower intramuscular fat levels. Recently, camel meat has been processed into burgers, patties, sausages and shawarma to add value. Future research efforts need to focus on exploiting the potential of the camel as a source of meat through multidisplinary research into efficient production systems, and improved meat technology and marketing.

  7. Characterization of protected designation of origin Italian meat products obtained from heavy pigs fed barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Gallo, A; Faeti, V; Della Casa, G

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of protected designation of origin (PDO) Parma ham and Piacentina neck obtained from heavy pigs (Italian Duroc × Italian Large White) fed barley-based diets. Four diets were tested: 1) a corn-based diet (control), 2) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulled barley variety (Cometa), 3) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulless barley variety (Astartis), and 4) the control diet with 80% of a low-amylose hulless barley variety (Alamo). All the meat products were analyzed for physicochemical and color parameters. The dry-cured hams and necks were also evaluated for sensory properties. The data of physicochemical, color, and sensory parameters were separately analyzed by multivariate factor analysis, and interpretation of each extracted factor was based on specific original variables loading on each one. The meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets differed from those obtained from the control pigs on the PUFA factors characterized by C18:2-6 and omega-3:omega-6 ratio. In particular, the meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets had a lower content of C18:2-6 and a higher omega-3:omega-6 ratio ( < 0.05) than the control. In fresh hams, iodine number and SFA (C16:0 and C18:0) in addition to PUFA and omega-3:omega-6 ratio loaded on the PUFA/SFA factor. The fresh hams produced from pigs fed the barley-based diets had subcutaneous fat (SC) with a lower iodine number and a higher SFA level compared with those produced from the control pigs ( < 0.05). A sex effect was measured for PUFA/SFA and oleic acid factors. In particular, the barrow SC had a lower SFA content, higher PUFA and C18:1-9 levels, and a higher iodine number ( < 0.05) than the gilt SC. There were no appreciable differences in the color and sensory properties of meat products obtained from pigs fed the different diets. The hams from barrows differed from those obtained from gilts on

  8. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Hulya; Altinel, Burak; Kumcuoglu, Seher; Kisla, Duygu; Tavman, Sebnem

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder) were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  9. The role of total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Milićević, Dragan; Vranić, Danijela; Mašić, Zoran; Parunović, Nenad; Trbović, Dejana; Nedeljković-Trailović, Jelena; Petrović, Zoran

    2014-03-03

    The objective of the study was to present information about the chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and cholesterol content of chicken meat in order to investigate the impact of chicken meat consumption on cardiovascular risk in the general population. A total of 48 6-wk-old broiler chickens broilers from two farms in June to November of 2012, and February of 2013, were used in this trial. Total lipid content was determined by extraction of fat by petrol ether (Soxhlet) after acid hydrolysis of samples. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Cholesterol determination was performed by using HPLC/PDA system. The results indicate that the total free cholesterol content in raw breast and drumstick of chickens was in the range of 37,41-79,9 mg/100 g and 48,35-99,5 mg/100 g, respectively. The main fatty acids identified in all cuts were C18:1c9, C18:2n6, C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1. Decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 clearly decreased the content in breast and drumstick muscle of C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and C20: 3n6, but increased that of C16:0, C18:0, and C20:2. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) was significantly differ among the four treatments. Our study shows that dietary fat and fatty acid composition influence the concentrations of total cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition in broiler muscle. This information will aid in determining the burden of chicken meat as a cardiovascular risk factors disease and act as a planning tool for public-health Programmes.

  10. The role of total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to present information about the chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and cholesterol content of chicken meat in order to investigate the impact of chicken meat consumption on cardiovascular risk in the general population. Methods A total of 48 6-wk-old broiler chickens broilers from two farms in June to November of 2012, and February of 2013, were used in this trial. Total lipid content was determined by extraction of fat by petrol ether (Soxhlet) after acid hydrolysis of samples. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Cholesterol determination was performed by using HPLC/PDA system. Results The results indicate that the total free cholesterol content in raw breast and drumstick of chickens was in the range of 37,41–79,9 mg/100 g and 48,35-99,5 mg/100 g, respectively. The main fatty acids identified in all cuts were C18:1c9, C18:2n6, C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1. Decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 clearly decreased the content in breast and drumstick muscle of C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and C20: 3n6, but increased that of C16:0, C18:0, and C20:2. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) was significantly differ among the four treatments. Conclusion Our study shows that dietary fat and fatty acid composition influence the concentrations of total cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition in broiler muscle. This information will aid in determining the burden of chicken meat as a cardiovascular risk factors disease and act as a planning tool for public-health Programmes. PMID:24588940

  11. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 “excellent” fish; (ii) 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv) 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods. PMID:26492269

  12. Mutagenicity of pan residues and gravy from fried meat.

    PubMed

    Overvik, E; Nilsson, L; Fredholm, L; Levin, O; Nord, C E; Gustafsson, J A

    1987-02-01

    Lean pork meat was fried with or without the addition of frying-fat at 200 or 250 degrees C. The pan residues were collected by washing the hot pan with boiling water. When producing thickened gravy the water was substituted by a mixture of water and flour, milk and flour or cream and flour. The basic extracts were tested for mutagenicity in Ames' Salmonella test on strain TA98 with the addition of S9 mix. High amounts of mutagenicity were found in all samples. The amounts of mutagenicity in the pan residues were at a comparable level of the amounts found in the meat crusts. Thickening of the gravy caused only small changes in the mutagenicity.

  13. Meat Intake and Insulin Resistance in Women without Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Larry A.; LeCheminant, James D.; Bailey, Bruce W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between meat intake and insulin resistance (IR) in 292 nondiabetic women. Methods. IR was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Diet was assessed via 7-day weighed food records. Servings of very lean meat (VLM) and regular meat (meat) were indexed using the ADA Exchange Lists Program. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and body fat was measured using the Bod Pod. Results. Meat intake was directly related to HOMA (F = 7.4; P = 0.007). Women with moderate or high meat intakes had significantly higher HOMA levels than their counterparts. Adjusting for body fat weakened the relationship (F = 1.0; P = 0.3201). Odds ratio results showed that the low meat quartile had 67% lower odds of being IR (75th percentile) compared to their counterparts (OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.16–0.71). These findings changed little after adjusting for all covariates simultaneously (OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.14–0.83). Conversely, VLM intake was not related to HOMA, with or without the covariates. Conclusion. Moderate and high meat intakes are associated with increased insulin resistance in nondiabetic women. However, differences in body fat contribute significantly to the relationship. VLM is not predictive of IR. Prudence in the amount and type of meat consumed may be helpful in decreasing the likelihood of IR. PMID:26240831

  14. Proximate and fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of different cuts of guinea fowl meat as affected by cooking method.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Louwrens C; Tlhong, Tumelo M

    2012-10-01

    Poultry is one of the leading meat products in South Africa, and its nutritional composition can be affected by the cut and cooking method. Limited food composition data are available for typical South African poultry products. This study investigated the effect of different cuts and cooking methods on the proximate and fatty acid composition as well as the cholesterol content of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) meat. The open-roasting method produced the highest moisture content for all cuts, and the baking bag method the lowest. The baking bag method resulted in the highest protein content. Cooking method had no effect on fat content, although breast had the lowest and thigh the highest fat content. Ash content was highest in the open-roasted drumstick. All cuts, regardless of cooking method, had a favourable polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio (>0.4). Their n-6/n-3 ratio was also within the recommended beneficial range (<4:1). Both cooking method and cut affected cholesterol content. Different cuts of guinea fowl vary in proximate and fatty acid composition as well as in cholesterol content, which in turn is affected to varying degrees by cooking method. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of nutritive level on carcass traits and meat quality of IHDH foals.

    PubMed

    De Palo, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Maggiolino, Aristide; Centoducati, Pasquale

    2014-07-01

    The present work describes the effect of nutritive level on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided into three groups according to three nutritive level classes: 150%, 180% and 200% of maintenance requirements. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus dorsi muscle. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided into cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage were not affected by nutritive level (P>0.05). Horses fed with the lower nutritive level showed a higher incidence of lean and a lower incidence of fat (P<0.01). Moreover, fatty acid profile was not affected by nutritive level (P>0.05). Probably the tendency of IHDH foals to concentrate adipogenesis in the subcutaneous district could explain the lack of influence of nutritive level on meat quality parameters and its influence on carcass and cut composition, which tend to be richer in fat. © 2014 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Meat quality and health implications of organic and conventional beef production.

    PubMed

    Kamihiro, S; Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Eyre, M D; Butler, G

    2015-02-01

    Recommendation to reduce fat consumption from ruminant meat does not consider the contribution of nutritionally beneficial fatty acids in lean beef. Here we report effects of production system (organic vs conventional) and finishing season on meat and fat quality of sirloin steaks from retail outlets and simulated fatty acid intakes by consumers. There was little difference in meat quality (pH, shear force and colour), but the fat profiles varied considerably between production systems and season. Meat fat from organic and summer finished cattle contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, its precursor vaccenic acid and individual omega-3 fatty acids and had a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids compared with non-organic and winter finished cattle respectively. The fat profile from summer finished organic beef aligns better to recommended dietary guideline including those for long chain omega-3 fatty acids compared with that from winter finished, non-organic steak.

  17. Boar taint compound levels in back fat versus meat products: Do they correlate?

    PubMed

    Wauters, Jella; Vercruysse, Vicky; Aluwé, Marijke; Verplanken, Kaat; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-09-01

    Surgical castration of male pigs will soon be abandoned, turning a major advantage of this practice, the elimination of boar taint, into the biggest challenge for pig industry when raising intact male pigs becomes common practice. To map the (economical) consequences in relation to boar-taint consumer acceptance, as well as offer a processing strategy for tainted carcasses to stockholders, the current study investigated not only back fat boar taint levels, but additionally generated information on the levels of boar taint compounds recovered after the production of commercially relevant meat products using UHPLC-HRMS laboratory analysis. Our results demonstrate that levels of androstenone, skatole and indole in back fat and meat products tend to correlate strongly, particularly in fatty meat products (generally r>0.80). Concentration values in the edible (lean) meat fraction were significantly lower compared to back fat and fat sampled from fresh or processed meat (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Finnish healthcare services lean management.

    PubMed

    Hihnala, Susanna; Kettunen, Lilja; Suhonen, Marjo; Tiirinki, Hanna

    2018-02-05

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss health services managers' experiences of management in a special health-care unit and development efforts from the point of view of the Lean method. Additionally, the aim is to deepen the knowledge of the managers' work and nature of the Lean method development processes in the workplace. The research focuses on those aspects and results of Lean method that are currently being used in health-care environments. Design/methodology/approach These data were collected through a number of thematic interviews. The participants were nurse managers ( n = 7) and medical managers ( n = 7) who applied Lean management in their work at the University Hospital in the Northern Ostrobothnia Health Care District. The data were analysed with a qualitative content analysis. Findings A common set of values in specialized health-care services, development of activities and challenges for management in the use of the Lean manager development model to improve personal management skills. Practical implications Managers in specialized health-care services can develop and systematically manage with the help of the Lean method. This emphasizes assumptions, from the point of view of management, about systems development when the organization uses the Lean method. The research outcomes originate from specialized health-care settings in Finland in which the Lean method and its associated management principles have been implemented and applied to the delivery of health care. Originality/value The study shows that the research results and in-depth knowledge on Lean method principles can be applied to health-care management and development processes. The research also describes health services managers' experiences of using the Lean method. In the future, these results can be used to improve Lean management skills, identify personal professional competencies and develop skills required in development processes. Also, the research findings can be used

  20. Label Authentication of Minced Meat by Automated Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inspections are needed for minced meat because physical characteristics cannot be used to identify its content in terms of meat species or part, i.e. pork, chicken, beef, bacon, shank or internal organs. In addition, a rapid technique to verify meat labels in the viewpoint of nutritional content and...

  1. Color image analysis technique for measuring of fat in meat: an application for the meat industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballerini, Lucia; Hogberg, Anders; Lundstrom, Kerstin; Borgefors, Gunilla

    2001-04-01

    Intramuscular fat content in meat influences some important meat quality characteristics. The aim of the present study was to develop and apply image processing techniques to quantify intramuscular fat content in beefs together with the visual appearance of fat in meat (marbling). Color images of M. longissimus dorsi meat samples with a variability of intramuscular fat content and marbling were captured. Image analysis software was specially developed for the interpretation of these images. In particular, a segmentation algorithm (i.e. classification of different substances: fat, muscle and connective tissue) was optimized in order to obtain a proper classification and perform subsequent analysis. Segmentation of muscle from fat was achieved based on their characteristics in the 3D color space, and on the intrinsic fuzzy nature of these structures. The method is fully automatic and it combines a fuzzy clustering algorithm, the Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm, with a Genetic Algorithm. The percentages of various colors (i.e. substances) within the sample are then determined; the number, size distribution, and spatial distributions of the extracted fat flecks are measured. Measurements are correlated with chemical and sensory properties. Results so far show that advanced image analysis is useful for quantify the visual appearance of meat.

  2. Preserving pre-rigor meat functionality for beef patty production.

    PubMed

    Claus, J R; Sørheim, O

    2006-06-01

    Three methods were examined for preserving pre-rigor meat functionality in beef patties. Hot-boned semimembranosus muscles were processed as follows: (1) pre-rigor ground, salted, patties immediately cooked; (2) pre-rigor ground, salted and stored overnight; (3) pre-rigor injected with brine; and (4) post-rigor ground and salted. Raw patties contained 60% lean beef, 19.7% beef fat trim, 1.7% NaCl, 3.6% starch, and 15% water. Pre-rigor processing occurred at 3-3.5h postmortem. Patties made from pre-rigor ground meat had higher pH values; greater protein solubility; firmer, more cohesive, and chewier texture; and substantially lower cooking losses than the other treatments. Addition of salt was sufficient to reduce the rate and extent of glycolysis. Brine injection of intact pre-rigor muscles resulted in some preservation of the functional properties but not as pronounced as with salt addition to pre-rigor ground meat.

  3. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Houser, Terry A; Hunt, Melvin C; Smith, J Scott

    2012-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers, are produced in meats cooked at high temperature. The aim of this study was to determine the HCA content in cooked meat products (beef, chicken, pork, fish) prepared by various cooking methods (pan frying, oven broiling, and oven baking at 170 to 230°C) that are preferred by U.S. meat consumers. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (1.49-10.89ng/g), MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-4.0ng/g), and DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.57ng/g). Type and content of HCAs in cooked meat samples were highly dependent on cooking conditions. The total HCA content in well-done meat was 3.5 times higher than that of medium-rare meat. Fried pork (13.91ng/g) had higher levels of total HCAs than fried beef (8.92ng/g) and fried chicken (7.00ng/g). Among the samples, fried bacon contained the highest total HCA content (17.59ng/g). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of rankings for lean meat based on results from a CT scanner and a video image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Jay, N P; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2014-10-01

    Coopworth cross lambs born over three years were examined in this study. Differences between two machines; a computer tomography (CT) scanner and a VIAScan® system for the estimation of carcase lean weight in lamb carcases was examined. The CT scanner provided a significantly higher estimate of carcase lean. The rank correlation (0.84) between the CT scanner and the VIAScan® system for the prediction of carcase lean was significant, but there was a different ranking for carcase lean depending on which machine was used. This has important ramifications for the use of VIAScan® data in the New Zealand Sheep Improvement Ltd genetic programme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers.

  6. Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves

    PubMed Central

    Irshad, A.; Sharma, B. D.; Ahmed, S. R.; Talukder, S.; Malav, O. P.; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to develop a functional meat product by fortifying calcium (in the form of calcium lactate) with restructured buffalo meat loaf (RBML). Materials and Methods: Deboned buffalo meat obtained from the carcass of adult female buffalo within 5-6 h of slaughter and stored under frozen condition. Calcium fortified RBML were prepared by replacing the lean buffalo meat with calcium lactate powder at 0%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5% level through the pre-standardized procedure. The developed products were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, calcium concentration (mg/100 g), water activity (aw), Lovibond® tintometer color units, texture profile analysis (TPA), and sensory qualities as per-standard procedures. Results: Of the various product quality parameters evaluated, cooking yield (%), product pH, moisture (%), protein (%), fat (%), and water activity (aw) decreases significantly with increasing level of calcium lactate. Calcium content of fortified functional RBMLs was 135.02, 165.73, and 203.85 mg/100 g as compared to 6.48 mg/100 g in control. Most of the sensory scores at 1% and 1.25% levels of calcium lactate in treatment products remained comparable among themselves and control product, with a gradual decline. Conclusions: The present study concluded that 1.25% calcium lactate was the optimum level for the fortification of calcium in RBML without affecting the textural and sensory properties which could meet out 15% of recommended dietary allowance for calcium. PMID:27051201

  7. Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves.

    PubMed

    Irshad, A; Sharma, B D; Ahmed, S R; Talukder, S; Malav, O P; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a functional meat product by fortifying calcium (in the form of calcium lactate) with restructured buffalo meat loaf (RBML). Deboned buffalo meat obtained from the carcass of adult female buffalo within 5-6 h of slaughter and stored under frozen condition. Calcium fortified RBML were prepared by replacing the lean buffalo meat with calcium lactate powder at 0%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5% level through the pre-standardized procedure. The developed products were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, calcium concentration (mg/100 g), water activity (aw), Lovibond(®) tintometer color units, texture profile analysis (TPA), and sensory qualities as per-standard procedures. Of the various product quality parameters evaluated, cooking yield (%), product pH, moisture (%), protein (%), fat (%), and water activity (aw) decreases significantly with increasing level of calcium lactate. Calcium content of fortified functional RBMLs was 135.02, 165.73, and 203.85 mg/100 g as compared to 6.48 mg/100 g in control. Most of the sensory scores at 1% and 1.25% levels of calcium lactate in treatment products remained comparable among themselves and control product, with a gradual decline. The present study concluded that 1.25% calcium lactate was the optimum level for the fortification of calcium in RBML without affecting the textural and sensory properties which could meet out 15% of recommended dietary allowance for calcium.

  8. Plasma and muscle cortisol measurements as indicators of meat quality and stress in pigs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, F D; Trout, G R; McPhee, C P

    1995-01-01

    Post-slaughter blood samples and muscle samples were collected from pigs slaughtered at the completion of a live-animal performance trial. There were two lines of pigs in which the halothane allele (n) was segregating. The lines were a lean line selected for rapid lean growth and an unselected fat line. There were homozygous normal (NN), homozygous halothane positive (nn) and heterozygous (Nn) genotypes in both lnes. Cortisol was measured in the plasma of the blood samples and in muscle juice obtained by high-speed centrifugation. Meat quality was assessed using pH, colour, fibre-optic probe, drip loss and cure yield measurements. Plasma cortisol concentrations in the fat line were significantly (P < 0·05) greater than thosein the lean line but concentrations did not differ significantly for the three halothane genotypes. Carcasses classified as dark, firm and dry (DFD) had significantly (P < 0·05) greater muscle cortisol concentrations than those classified as normal. Plasma and muscle cortisol concentrations of carcases classified as pale, soft and exudative (PSE) did not differ significantly from those classified as normal. Correlations between muscle cortisol and meat quality attributes were generally highly significant (r = 0·31 to r = 0·51, P < 0·001) There was a highly significant correlation (r = 0·73, P < 0·0001) between plasma and muscle cortisol concentrations.

  9. Quantification of meat proportions by measuring DNA contents in raw and boiled sausages using matrix-adapted calibrators and multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Köppel, René; Eugster, Albert; Ruf, Jürg; Rentsch, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of meat proportions in raw and boiled sausage according to the recipe was evaluated using three different calibrators. To measure the DNA contents from beef, pork, sheep (mutton), and horse, a tetraplex real-time PCR method was applied. Nineteen laboratories analyzed four meat products each made of different proportions of beef, pork, sheep, and horse meat. Three kinds of calibrators were used: raw and boiled sausages of known proportions ranging from 1 to 55% of meat, and a dilution series of DNA from muscle tissue. In general, results generated using calibration sausages were more accurate than those resulting from the use of DNA from muscle tissue, and exhibited smaller measurement uncertainties. Although differences between uses of raw and boiled calibration sausages were small, the most precise and accurate results were obtained by calibration with fine-textured boiled reference sausages.

  10. Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) content in samples of household-prepared meat dishes.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, L; Janoszka, B; Błaszczyk, U; Strózyk, M; Bodzek, D; Dobosz, C

    2004-03-25

    Aminoazaarene content was investigated in 10 meat samples (including pork, beef, turey and chicken) thermally processed at home according to common recipes used by residents of Upper Silesia region in Poland. The clean-up procedure included tandem solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Extrelut-type columns filled with diatomaceous earth, propylsulphonic acid and chemically bounded phase-C18. Identification and quantitative analysis of HAs fraction was carried out using a HPLC system with DAD-type detector. Separation was achieved using TSK-gel ODS 80-TM column and a mixture of 5% acetonitrile and 95% triethylamine phosphate buffer (pH 3.3) as a mobile phase. The results of qualitative determinations were confirmed by GC-MS method. To achieve this, HAs fractions were derivatized to pentafluoropropionic acid (PFPA) amide derivatives. The summary content of five aminoazaarenes determined in investigated meat samples, i.e. 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) falls within the range of 1.9-77.4 ng/g of sample. The calculated values of theoretically daily human exposure to five determined HAs were in the range of 0.2-7.7 microg per day per person.

  11. Effect of ground poppy seed as a fat replacer on meat burgers.

    PubMed

    Gök, Veli; Akkaya, Levent; Obuz, Ersel; Bulut, Sait

    2011-12-01

    Poppy seed paste was used in koefte production as an animal fat replacer and efficacy of using poppy seed was investigated. The use of ground poppy seed in formulation of meat burgers had no effect on the moisture content of uncooked meat burgers; however, it did have a significant effect (p<0.05) on the fat content of meat burgers. Ground poppy seed addition significantly affected (p<0.05) cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention of meat burgers. Ground poppy seed addition significantly decreased (p<0.05) saturated fatty acid contents as the amount of ground poppy seed increased in meat burgers. A strong significant decrease (p<0.05) on the cholesterol content of meat burgers with ground poppy seed addition was observed. Samples having 20% ground poppy seed had significantly better texture and juiciness score (p<0.05) than any other sample which could be explained by increased moisture retention. Replacing animal fat with ground poppy seed paste is effective and may pave the way for an innovative meat product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on meat color, myoglobin content, enzyme activities, and genes associated with oxidative potential of pigs slaughtered at different growth stages

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qin Ping; Feng, Ding Yuan; Xiao, Juan; Wu, Fan; He, Xiao Jun; Xia, Min Hao; Dong, Tao; Liu, Yi Hua; Tan, Hui Ze; Zou, Shi Geng; Zheng, Tao; Ou, Xian Hua; Zuo, Jian Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment investigated meat color, myoglobin content, enzyme activities, and expression of genes associated with oxidative potential of pigs slaughtered at different growth stages. Methods Sixty 4-week-old Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pigs were assigned to 6 replicate groups, each containing 10 pigs. One pig from each group was sacrificed at day 35, 63, 98, and 161 to isolate longissimus dorsi and triceps muscles. Results Meat color scores were higher in pigs at 35 d than those at 63 d and 98 d (p<0.05), and those at 98 d were lower than those at 161 d (p<0.05). The total myoglobin was higher on 161 d compared with those at 63 d and 98 d (p<0.05). Increase in the proportions of metmyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin and a decrease in oxymyoglobin were observed between days 35 and 161 (p<0.05). Meat color scores were correlated to the proportion of oxymyoglobin (r = 0.59, p<0.01), and negatively correlated with deoxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin content (r = −0.48 and −0.62, p<0.05). Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity at 35 d and 98 d was higher than that at 161 d (p<0.05). The highest lactate dehydrogenase/MDH ratio was achieved at 161 d (p<0.05). Calcineurin mRNA expression decreased at 35 d compared to that at 63 d and 98 d (p<0.05). Myocyte enhancer factor 2 mRNA results indicated a higher expression at 161 d than that at 63 d and 98 d (p<0.05). Conclusion Porcine meat color, myoglobin content, enzyme activities, and genes associated with oxidative potential varied at different stages. PMID:28728400

  13. Effect of probiotics and thyme essential oil on the essential amino acid content of the broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Alfaig, Ebrahim; Angelovičova, Maria; Kral, Martin; Bučko, Ondrej

    2014-01-01

    Differences in the types and percentages of essential amino acids (EAAs) in food could influence the value of protein consumed and proteins with a high content of EAAs are the most important components of poultry meat. The use of probiotics for meat and carcass quality improvement has been questioned, while feed supplementation with thyme essential oil (TEO) could be considered as useful natural supplement to be applied in the poultry industry to improve meat quality. Day-old broilers Ross 308 (n = 400) were randomly divided into four groups based on the feed supplement as follows: control, probiotics 0.05%, TEO 0.05% and combination of probiotics and TEO, while the fattening period was 42 days. Six birds of both sexes from each group were selected as a sample, slaughtered and then stored (-18°C) for 6 months till the analysis. The muscular homogeneous sample (50 g) from the breast and thigh of each sample bird was analysed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy method using the device Nicolet 6700. The essential amino acids content was determined and the quality indicators include chemical score, amino acid score, EAA index and biological value were calculated. The obtained results show that for all the tested EAAs of the breast and thigh muscles, the content numerically increased gradually and progressively within the groups as the control scored the minimum followed by the probiotics group, then the combination group and finally the TEO group which scored the highest results. It can be concluded that the TEO promoted the increase of all the EAAs and consequently the quality indicators with significant different compared with the control group and significantly different for some EAAs and quality indicators compared with the probiotics group and the combination group.

  14. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat.

    PubMed

    Okuskhanova, Eleonora; Assenova, Bahytkul; Rebezov, Maksim; Amirkhanov, Kumarbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Smolnikova, Farida; Nurgazezova, Almagul; Nurymkhan, Gulnur; Stuart, Marilyne

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC), and amino acid content. Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions) was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%). Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g), threonine (5.38 g/100 g), and valine (5.84 g/100 g) predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g), methionine (3.29 g/100 g), and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g) were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food.

  15. Acute effect of red meat and dairy on glucose and insulin: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kirsty M; Keogh, Jennifer B; Clifton, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with some epidemiologic evidence, our previous research showed that a 4-wk diet that was high in low-fat dairy reduced insulin sensitivity compared with the effect of a diet that was high in red meat. We investigated whether a dairy meal would produce a greater insulin response than a carbohydrate-matched red meat meal would, which might account for the change in insulin sensitivity. One meal contained lean red meat, bread, and orange juice, and the other meal contained skim milk, low-fat yogurt, cheese, and bread. Meals were isoenergetic, equal in macronutrient profile, and consumed 1 wk apart. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were measured before and 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after meal consumption. Differences between meals were tested with the use of a repeated-measures ANOVA and paired sample t tests. Nineteen men and 24 women [mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 16.0 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30.0 ± 3.5] completed the study. Twenty-two participants had normal glucose tolerance, and 21 participants had impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. The red meat meal resulted in a higher glucose response at 30 min after consumption (P < 0.001); however, the glucose total AUC was not different between meals (P = NS). The mean ± SEM incremental AUC (iAUC) for glucose was significantly higher after the dairy meal than after the red meat meal (2.23 ± 0.49 compared with 0.88 ± 0.57 mmol/L · 3 h, respectively; P = 0.004). The insulin total AUC and iAUC were not different between meals (iAUC: 159.65 ± 20.0 mU/L · 3 h for red meat compared with 167.49 ± 24.1 mU/L · 3 h for dairy; P = NS). Lean red meat and low-fat dairy produced a similar glycemic response. The higher glucose response 30 min after consumption of the red meat meal was likely attributable to differences in the glycemic load between orange juice and milk and yogurt. An insulinotropic effect of dairy was not observed. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as

  16. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  17. [The significance of meat quality in marketing].

    PubMed

    Kallweit, E

    1994-07-01

    Food quality in general and meat quality in particular are not only evaluated by means of objective quality traits but the entire production process is gaining more attention by the modern consumer. Due to this development quality programs were developed to define the majority of the processes in all production and marketing steps which are again linked by contracts. Not all of these items are quality relevant, but are concessions to ethic principles (animal welfare etc.). This is demonstrated by the example of Scharrel-pork production. The price differentiation at the pork market is still influenced predominantly by quantitative carcass traits. On the European market quality programs still are of minor significance. Premiums which are paid for high quality standards are more or less compensated by higher production costs and lower lean meat percentages, which must be expected in stress susceptible strains. The high efforts to establish quality programs, however, help to improve the quality level in general, and secure the market shares for local producers.

  18. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  19. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Robert C [Woodinville, WA; Edmonds, Ryan G [Renton, WA; Williams, Joseph T [Kirkland, WA; Baldwin, Stephen P [Winchester, MA

    2009-10-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  20. Properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Raj; Mendiratta, S K; Mane, B G

    2013-04-01

    The properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat meat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions were evaluated. The conditions evaluated were: cooking of meat within 1-2 h post-slaughter (condition 1); deboning meat storage at 25 ± 2 °C for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 2); post-slaughter storage of carcass at room temperature for 5-6 h, then deboning followed by storage of meat at refrigeration temperature for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 3); deboning and storage of meat at 25 ± 2 °C for 10-12 h and cooking (condition 4). Significant difference was observed in pH values in condition 1 (p < 0.01) and moisture content (p < 0.05) of raw meat as compared to the conditions 2, 3 and 4. However, the moisture content of cooked meat was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for conditions 1 and 2 as compared to the conditions 3 and 4. Significant differences were also observed in muscle fiber diameter values of different conditions, that is, the mean values were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for conditions 2 and 4 and significantly lower for condition 1. The mean water holding capacity and cooking yield values were highest in condition 1, followed by conditions 2, 3 and 4. The significant differences was also observed in shear force value of cooked meat chunks, that is, the mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for condition 2 and significantly lower for condition 1. Sensory scores were significantly higher in condition 1 and significantly lower in condition 2. However, sensory scores for condition 4 were almost similar to the condition 1.

  1. Effect of seasonal differences in dietary meat intake on changes in body mass and composition in wild and captive brown bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilderbrand, Grant V.; Jenkins, S.G.; Schwartz, C.C.; Hanley, Thomas A.; Robbins, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of seasonal dietary meat intake on changes in body mass and composition in wild and captive brown bears (Ursus arctos) was investigated because the importance and availability of meat to brown bear populations is currently an important management consideration in several North American ecosystems. Adult female brown bears on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, utilized meat heavily in both spring and fall. Meat accounted for 76.2 ± 26.0% (mean ± 1 SD; primarily moose carrion and calves) of assimilated carbon and nitrogen in the spring and 80.4 ± 22.2% (primarily salmon) in the fall. Mass increases in the spring (71.8 ± 28.2%) were mostly lean body mass, but increases in the fall (81.0 ± 19.5%) were primarily fat. Daily intake by captive brown bears fed meat ad libitum during 12-day trials was positively related to body mass. Mass change was positively related to intake in both seasons, but the composition of the gain varied by season, with spring gains primarily lean body mass (64.2 ± 9.4%), while fall gains were 78.8 ± 19.6% lipid. Absolute rates of gain by wild bears occasionally equaled, but were usually much less than, those of captive bears. This was likely due to a combination of factors, which included the time required to locate and handle meat resources, the limited availability of or access to meat resources, and (or) the duration of meat resource availability. Estimated intake by bears not feeding selectively on high-energy components of moose and salmon were 8.5 ± 1.5 kg/day and 541 ± 156 kg/year and 10.8 ± 4.6 kg/day and 1003 ± 489 kg/year, respectively. Intake would drop by as much as 58% for bears feeding exclusively on salmon roe. Management strategies for areas with brown bears that consume significant amounts of meat should address the perpetuation and availability of these meat resources.

  2. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

    PubMed Central

    Okuskhanova, Eleonora; Assenova, Bahytkul; Rebezov, Maksim; Amirkhanov, Kumarbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Smolnikova, Farida; Nurgazezova, Almagul; Nurymkhan, Gulnur; Stuart, Marilyne

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC), and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions) was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%). Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g), threonine (5.38 g/100 g), and valine (5.84 g/100 g) predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g), methionine (3.29 g/100 g), and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g) were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food. PMID:28717313

  3. [Vitamin A excess by feeding with horse meat products containing high levels of liver].

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Kienzle, E

    2013-01-01

    Horse meat is often used in the context of an elimination diet. For reasons of practicability some pet owners feed canned horse meat, which is commercially available. Based on a report of a cat with food allergy that displayed cervical spondylosis, the vitamin A content was analyzed in various horse meat products. The vitamin A (retinol) content was analyzed in 14 commercially available horse meat products. The content of metabolizable energy was calculated on the basis of the declaration by using estimation equations. High amounts of vitamin A were found in some products for which liver, offal or animal by-products were labelled as contents. When feeding exclusively with one of these products, the vitamin A supply was just below the safe upper limit for cats while above the safe upper limit for dogs. Labelling and content of all-meat-products should be thoroughly checked to identify products with high liver percentages. An excessive vitamin A intake can occur when feeding with horse-meat products with a high liver content over a long period.

  4. Pig feeds rich in rapeseed products and organic selenium increased omega-3 fatty acids and selenium in pork meat and backfat.

    PubMed

    Gjerlaug-Enger, Eli; Haug, Anna; Gaarder, Mari; Ljøkjel, Kari; Stenseth, Ragna Sveipe; Sigfridson, Kerstin; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Saarem, Kristin; Berg, Per

    2015-03-01

    The concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and selenium (Se) is generally too low in the Western diet. But as the nutrient composition of pork meat and adipose tissue is influenced by the feed given to the animals, the product can be changed to support nutrient demands. Half (297/594) the pigs were given a feed concentrate based on low-glucosinolate rapeseed products (RS), while the other half was fed a traditional concentrate (Contr): The RS feed had an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3.6:1, and the Contr feed had a ratio of 8.9:1, and both feeds were supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg (organic Se: inorganic Se, 1:1). There was a small difference in growth rate, but no differences in feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, carcass value, and margin per pig for the two groups. There were no differences in meat quality between the two groups, but there were differences in technological fat quality. The RS pigs contained about 2 times more alpha-linolenic acid in the backfat and 41% more in the meat (M. longissimus dorsi) compared to the controls. The concentration of EPA, DPA, and DHA were 42% and 20% higher in backfat and meat of the RS pigs compared to the control pigs respectively. The ratio between omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids were 4.7 in the meat and 4.0 in the backfat in the RS pigs, and the corresponding values were 6.6 and 8.0 in the control pigs. The selenium content was 0.3 mg/kg meat in both groups. The study showed that a portion of the present pig meat (175 g) provided the daily recommended intake of Se for men and women and about 1/6 of proposed reference intake of omega-3 LCPUFA (250 mg/day) to reduce the risk of CVD thereby providing a meat that is somewhat healthier for the consumer.

  5. Pig feeds rich in rapeseed products and organic selenium increased omega-3 fatty acids and selenium in pork meat and backfat

    PubMed Central

    Gjerlaug-Enger, Eli; Haug, Anna; Gaarder, Mari; Ljøkjel, Kari; Stenseth, Ragna Sveipe; Sigfridson, Kerstin; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Saarem, Kristin; Berg, Per

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and selenium (Se) is generally too low in the Western diet. But as the nutrient composition of pork meat and adipose tissue is influenced by the feed given to the animals, the product can be changed to support nutrient demands. Half (297/594) the pigs were given a feed concentrate based on low-glucosinolate rapeseed products (RS), while the other half was fed a traditional concentrate (Contr): The RS feed had an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3.6:1, and the Contr feed had a ratio of 8.9:1, and both feeds were supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg (organic Se: inorganic Se, 1:1). There was a small difference in growth rate, but no differences in feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, carcass value, and margin per pig for the two groups. There were no differences in meat quality between the two groups, but there were differences in technological fat quality. The RS pigs contained about 2 times more alpha-linolenic acid in the backfat and 41% more in the meat (M. longissimus dorsi) compared to the controls. The concentration of EPA, DPA, and DHA were 42% and 20% higher in backfat and meat of the RS pigs compared to the control pigs respectively. The ratio between omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids were 4.7 in the meat and 4.0 in the backfat in the RS pigs, and the corresponding values were 6.6 and 8.0 in the control pigs. The selenium content was 0.3 mg/kg meat in both groups. The study showed that a portion of the present pig meat (175 g) provided the daily recommended intake of Se for men and women and about 1/6 of proposed reference intake of omega-3 LCPUFA (250 mg/day) to reduce the risk of CVD thereby providing a meat that is somewhat healthier for the consumer. PMID:25838890

  6. The effects of a protein enriched diet with lean red meat combined with a multi-modal exercise program on muscle and cognitive health and function in older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Daly, Robin M; Gianoudis, Jenny; Prosser, Melissa; Kidgell, Dawson; Ellis, Kathryn A; O'Connell, Stella; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-08-08

    Age-related muscle wasting has been strongly implicated with falls and fractures in the elderly, but it has also been associated with cognitive decline and dementia. Progressive resistance training (PRT) and adequate dietary protein are recognised as important contributors to the maintenance of muscle health and function in older adults. However, both factors also have the potential to improve brain function and prevent cognitive decline via several pathways, including the regulation of various growth and neurotrophic factors [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)]; brain-derived growth factor (BDNF)] and/or the modulation of systemic inflammation. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether a modest increase in dietary protein achieved through the consumption of lean red meat three days per week, when combined with PRT, can enhance muscle mass, size and strength and cognitive function in community-dwelling older people. The study design is a 48-week randomised controlled trial consisting of a 24-week intervention with a 24-week follow-up. Men and women (n=152) aged 65 years and over residing in the community will be randomly allocated to: 1) PRT and provided with 220 g (raw weight) of lean red meat to be cooked and divided into two 80 g servings on each of the three days that they complete their exercise session, or 2) control PRT in which participants will be provided with and advised to consume ≥1 serving (~1/2 cup) of rice and/or pasta or 1 medium potato on each of the three training days. The primary outcome measures will be muscle mass, size and strength and cognitive function. Secondary outcomes will include changes in: muscle function, neural health (corticospinal excitability and inhibition and voluntary activation), serum IGF-1 and BDNF, adipokines and inflammatory markers, fat mass and inter-/intra-muscular fat, blood pressure, lipids and health-related quality of life. All outcome measures will be assessed at baseline and 24 weeks, with the

  7. Healthcare Lean.

    PubMed

    Long, John C

    2003-01-01

    Lean Thinking is an integrated approach to designing, doing and improving the work of people that have come together to produce and deliver goods, services and information. Healthcare Lean is based on the Toyota production system and applies concepts and techniques of Lean Thinking to hospitals and physician practices.

  8. Satiating properties of meat-preparations: role of protein content and energy density.

    PubMed

    Berti, Cristiana; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the effects of three beef-based preparations (roast-beef, boiled beef, canned beef in jelly) on satiety and eating behavior. Ten male and ten female healthy volunteers (normal weight for height) were recruited. Three different studies were conducted, all with a within-subjects design. In Study 1, the effect of the beef-preparations on the specific satiety was evaluated by ad libitum consumption. In Study 2, the effect of the beef-preparations, proposed as a first course (preload) of a complete meal, on the total energy intake was explored. Subjects were asked to eat the beef-preloads (260g for women; 400g for men) in full, and then to consume as much as they wanted of a test meal. A no-load condition (ad libitum test meal consumption without any meat-preload) was included. In Study 3, the contribution of three different amounts of canned beef, served with a fixed amount of salad, on the desire to eat and satiety sensations over time was evaluated. In Study 1, energy, weight and protein intakes were significantly affected by the type of beef-preparation, but not by pleasantness. In fact, specific satiety was reached with comparable amount of boiled meat and roast-beef, whilst canned meat was eaten in a higher amount, despite a lower rating of pleasantness. In Study 2, total energy was independent of the type of beef-preparation and was always lower than in the no-load condition; on the contrary, weight intake was similar in all conditions. From Study 3, a significant effect of time and low-energy protein food portion/time interaction on satiety ratings was observed. The satiating properties of the beef-preparations did not depend strictly on protein content; on the contrary, physical characteristics and, mainly, energy density seemed the most effective determinants. However, small portions of low-energy dense-protein foods seemed to be useful in modulating satiety sensations. On the whole, our results suggest that high protein intakes are not

  9. Influence of intramuscular fat content on the quality of pig meat - 2. Consumer acceptability of m. longissimus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, X; Monin, G; Talmant, A; Mourot, J; Lebret, B

    1999-09-01

    The present study is part of a project which aimed to examine the influence of intramuscular fat (IMF) content on sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of pork. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate consumer acceptability of pork chops with varying IMF level in muscle Longissimus lumborum (LL). Each experiment used 32 castrated male pigs selected after slaughter either from 125 Duroc × Landrace (Experiment 1) or 102 Tia Meslan × Landrace (Experiment 2) crossbred animals, and showing large variability in LL IMF content: from <1.5 to >3.5% in Experiment 1 and from 1.25 to 3.25% in Experiment 2. A group of 56 consumers evaluated various items on rib-eye (LL muscle trimmed of backfat) (Experiment 1) and on entire chops trimmed of backfat (Experiment 2). Data from Experiment 1 indicate that an increase in IMF level is associated with an increase in visual perception of fat and a corresponding decrease in the willingness to eat and purchase the meat, when expressed before tasting. The latter effect disappeared after the consumers had tasted the meat, probably due to a positive effect of increase IMF, up to 3.5%, on the perception of texture and taste. In Experiment 2, where entire chops were evaluated, the perception of visible fat was not affected by IMF level, probably due to the lack of variation in the level of intermuscular fat between the four IMF groups. The willingness to eat and purchase the meat were unaffected by IMF level, whereas the perception of texture and taste was enhanced with increased IMF levels up to 3.25%. The present data suggest that the acceptability of pork may be improved by increasing IMF level but: (1) this effect disappeared for IMF levels higher than 3.5%, which are associated with a high risk of meat rejection due to visible fat and (2) the positive effect of increased IMF probably holds true as long as it is not associated with an increase in the level of intermuscular fat.

  10. Effects of Eating Fresh Lean Pork on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Karen J.; Thomson, Rebecca L.; Coates, Alison M.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Howe, Peter R. C.

    2012-01-01

    High protein meat-based diets are commonly promoted for weight loss, supposedly by increasing satiety and energy expenditure. Pork is a good source of protein however little information on the metabolic effects of pork consumption exists. This pilot study aimed to examine whether regular consumption of fresh lean pork could improve body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in a 6 month parallel intervention trial. 164 overweight adults (mean BMI 32) were randomly assigned to incorporate up to 1 kg pork/week by substituting for other foods or maintain their habitual diet (control). Plasma levels of lipids, glucose and insulin, BMI, waist/hip circumference, blood pressure, heart rate and arterial compliance were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 144 volunteers completed and volunteers in the pork group increased their intake 10 fold by substituting pork for mainly beef and chicken. After 3 months, there were significant (p ≤ 0.01) reductions in weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fat mass and abdominal fat in the pork group relative to controls, which persisted for 6 months. There was no change in lean mass, indicating that the reduction in weight was due to loss of fat mass. There were no significant effects on other metabolic parameters. Regular consumption of lean fresh pork may improve body composition. PMID:22852059

  11. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Thorning, Tanja K; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Astrup, Arne; Tholstrup, Tine; Raben, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the saturated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean meat (CARB). The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P < 0.001), and a 5% lower apoB:apo A-I ratio (P = 0.008) than did the CARB diet. Also, the MEAT diet caused an 8% higher HDL-cholesterol concentration (P < 0.001) and a 4% higher apo A-I concentration (P = 0.033) than did the CARB diet. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triacylglycerol were similar with the 3 diets. Fecal fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively) and 0.9 g higher with the MEAT diet than with the CARB diet (P = 0.005). CHEESE and MEAT diets caused higher fecal bile acid excretion than did the CARB diet (P < 0.05 and P = 0

  12. Development of rabbit meat products fortified with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a "functional food" by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA.

  13. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA. PMID:22253971

  14. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Technological aspects of horse meat products - A review.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Zhu, Zhenzhou; Alpas, Hami; Barba, Francisco J; Tomasevic, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Horse meat and its products can be considered as a food with a high nutritional value. However, due to cases of economically motivated food adulteration by the intentional addition of horse meat beef products in recent years, horse meat has become a controversial issue. Consumer confidence in meat products and the meat industry has diminished, although consumers consider the differences between the food content and the label as the major issue rather than the safety and nutritional characteristics of horse meat. The elaboration of meat products from horse meat (e.g. "cecina", dry-cured loin, salami, bressaola and pâté) is also an interesting alternative to other traditional meat products such as dry-cured pork hams, pork sausages and liver pâtés. In this review, the technological aspects, safety and storage stability of meat products elaborated from horse meat will be addressed by highlighting the nutritional and sensory aspects of these meat products. We aim to improve the existing knowledge about horse meat in the view of recent scandals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Authentication of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Ballin, N Z

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, interest in meat authenticity has increased. Many consumers are concerned about the meat they eat and accurate labelling is important to inform consumer choice. Authentication methods can be categorised into the areas where fraud is most likely to occur: meat origin, meat substitution, meat processing treatment and non-meat ingredient addition. Within each area the possibilities for fraud can be subcategorised as follows: meat origin-sex, meat cuts, breed, feed intake, slaughter age, wild versus farmed meat, organic versus conventional meat, and geographic origin; meat substitution-meat species, fat, and protein; meat processing treatment-irradiation, fresh versus thawed meat and meat preparation; non-meat ingredient addition-additives and water. Analytical methods used in authentication are as diverse as the authentication problems, and include a diverse range of equipment and techniques. This review is intended to provide an overview of the possible analytical methods available for meat and meat products authentication. In areas where no authentication methods have been published, possible strategies are suggested. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antecedents and characteristics of lean thinking implementation in a Swedish hospital: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ulhassan, Waqar; Sandahl, Christer; Westerlund, Hugo; Henriksson, Peter; Bennermo, Marie; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Thor, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the reported success of Lean in health care settings, it is unclear why and how organizations adopt Lean and how Lean transforms work design and, in turn, affects employees' work. This study investigated a cardiology department's journey to adopt and adapt Lean. The investigation was focused on the rationale and evolution of the Lean adoption to illuminate how a department with a long quality improvement history arrived at the decision to introduce Lean, and how Lean influenced employees' daily work. This is an explanatory single case study based on semistructured interviews, nonparticipant observations, and document studies. Guided by a Lean model, we undertook manifest content analysis of the data. We found that previous improvement efforts may facilitate the introduction of Lean but may be less important when forecasting whether Lean will be sustained over time. Contextual factors seemed to influence both what Lean tools were implemented and how well the changes were sustained. For example, adoption of Lean varied with the degree to which staff saw a need for change. Work redesign and teamwork were found helpful to improve patient care whereas problem solving was found helpful in keeping the staff engaged and sustaining the results over time.

  18. Does lean muddy the quality improvement waters? A qualitative study of how a hospital management team understands lean in the context of quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Savage, Carl; Parke, Louise; von Knorring, Mia; Mazzocato, Pamela

    2016-10-19

    Health care has experimented with many different quality improvement (QI) approaches with greater variation in name than content. This has been dubbed pseudoinnovation. However, it could also be that the subtleties and differences are not clearly understood. To explore this further, the purpose of this study was to explore how hospital managers perceive lean in the context of QI. We used a qualitative study design with semi-structured interviews to explore twelve top managers' perceptions of the relationship between lean and quality improvement (QI) at a university-affiliated hospital. Managers described that QI and lean shared the same overall purpose: focus on patient needs and improve efficiency and effectiveness. Employee involvement was emphasized in both strategies, as well as the support offered by managers of staff initiatives. QI was perceived as a strategy that could support structural changes at the organizational level whereas lean was seen as applicable at the operational level. Moreover, lean carried a negative connotation, lacked the credibility of QI, and was perceived as a management fad. Aspects of QI and lean were misunderstood. In a context where lean remains an abstract term, and staff associate lean with automotive applications and cost reduction, it may be fruitful for managers to invest time and resources to develop a strategy for continual improvement and utilize vocabulary that resonates with health care staff. This could reduce the risk that improvement efforts are rejected out of hand.

  19. Development of an interprofessional lean facilitator assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Sanchez, Cindy; Dorazio, Vincent; Denmark, Robert; Heuer, Albert J; Parrott, J Scott

    2018-05-01

    High reliability is important for optimising quality and safety in healthcare organisations. Reliability efforts include interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) and Lean quality/process improvement strategies, which require skilful facilitation. Currently, no validated Lean facilitator assessment tool for interprofessional collaboration exists. This article describes the development and pilot evaluation of such a tool; the Interprofessional Lean Facilitator Assessment Scale (ILFAS), which measures both technical and 'soft' skills, which have not been measured in other instruments. The ILFAS was developed using methodologies and principles from Lean/Shingo, IPCP, metacognition research and Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains. A panel of experts confirmed the initial face validity of the instrument. Researchers independently assessed five facilitators, during six Lean sessions. Analysis included quantitative evaluation of rater agreement. Overall inter-rater agreement of the assessment of facilitator performance was high (92%), and discrepancies in the agreement statistics were analysed. Face and content validity were further established, and usability was evaluated, through primary stakeholder post-pilot feedback, uncovering minor concerns, leading to tool revision. The ILFAS appears comprehensive in the assessment of facilitator knowledge, skills, abilities, and may be useful in the discrimination between facilitators of different skill levels. Further study is needed to explore instrument performance and validity.

  20. Pork meat increases iron absorption from a 5-day fully controlled diet when compared to a vegetarian diet with similar vitamin C and phytic acid content.

    PubMed

    Bach Kristensen, Mette; Hels, Ole; Morberg, Catrine; Marving, Jens; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge

    2005-07-01

    Meat increases absorption of non-haem iron in single-meal studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate, over a 5 d period, the potential increasing effect of consumption of pork meat in a whole diet on the fractional absorption of non-haem iron and the total absorption of iron, when compared to a vegetarian diet. A randomised cross-over design with 3 x 5 d whole-diet periods with diets containing Danish-produced meat, Polish-produced meat or a vegetarian diet was conducted. Nineteen healthy female subjects completed the study. All main meals in the meat diets contained 60 g of pork meat and all diets had high phytic acid content (1250 mumol/d). All main meals were extrinsically labelled with the radioactive isotope (59)Fe and absorption of iron was measured in a whole body counter. The non-haem iron absorption from the Danish meat diet was significantly higher compared to the vegetarian diet (P=0.031). The mean fractional absorption of non-haem iron was 7.9 (se1.1), 6.8 (se 1.0) and 5.3 (se 0.6) % for the Danish and Polish meat diets and vegetarian diet, respectively. Total absorption of iron was higher for both meat diets compared to the vegetarian diet (Danish meat diet: P=0.006, Polish meat diet: P=0.003). The absorption ratios of the present study were well in accordance with absorption ratios estimated using algorithms on iron bioavailability. Neither the meat diets nor the vegetarian diets fulfilled the estimated daily requirements of absorbed iron in spite of a meat intake of 180 g/d in the meat diets.

  1. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile.

  2. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  3. Citrus pulp and wheat straw silage as an ingredient in lamb diets: effects on growth and carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Scerra, V; Caparra, P; Foti, F; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

    2001-04-01

    Twenty "Merinizzata Italiana" lambs were introduced to two experimental diets. Ten animals (five males and five females, control group) received the traditional diet that is supplied by farmers in southern Italy, which comprised of oat hay ad libitum and commercial concentrate. The second group (the same number of lambs, silage group) received citrus pulp and wheat straw silage ad libitum and 70% of the commercial concentrate supplied to the control group. The animals were slaughtered after 80 days of feeding and carcass and some meat quality parameters were measured. No differences were observed for live weight between treatments, and carcass weights were similar for the two diets, but with obvious differences between sexes. Animals on silage produced carcasses with a better muscular conformation and with a lower fatness score (P<0.05). Subcutaneous fat colour was influenced by sex, being lighter in the female carcasses (P<0.05). Dissection of different anatomical parts showed a higher percentage of lean and a lower proportion of fat in silage samples compared to control ones. Ultimate pH was highly affected by sex being higher in the samples from male lambs (P<0.01), but was unaffected by diet treatment. Diet tended to affect meat shear force value which was lower in the silage samples, although, samples from all the animals were extremely tender. Meat from silage samples had a higher water content (P<0.05). Overall, in our experimental conditions, the use of citrus pulp silage seemed to be economically convenient for producing animals with substantially unmodified carcass and meat quality characteristics.

  4. How does lean work in emergency care? A case study of a lean-inspired intervention at the Astrid Lindgren Children's hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mazzocato, Pamela; Holden, Richard J; Brommels, Mats; Aronsson, Håkan; Bäckman, Ulrika; Elg, Mattias; Thor, Johan

    2012-02-01

    There is growing interest in applying lean thinking in healthcare, yet, there is still limited knowledge of how and why lean interventions succeed (or fail). To address this gap, this in-depth case study examines a lean-inspired intervention in a Swedish pediatric Accident and Emergency department. We used a mixed methods explanatory single case study design. Hospital performance data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical process control techniques to assess changes in performance one year before and two years after the intervention. We collected qualitative data through non-participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and internal documents to describe the process and content of the lean intervention. We then analyzed empirical findings using four theoretical lean principles (Spear and Bowen 1999) to understand how and why the intervention worked in its local context as well as to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Improvements in waiting and lead times (19-24%) were achieved and sustained in the two years following lean-inspired changes to employee roles, staffing and scheduling, communication and coordination, expertise, workspace layout, and problem solving. These changes resulted in improvement because they: (a) standardized work and reduced ambiguity, (b) connected people who were dependent on one another, (c) enhanced seamless, uninterrupted flow through the process, and (d) empowered staff to investigate problems and to develop countermeasures using a "scientific method". Contextual factors that may explain why not even greater improvement was achieved included: a mismatch between job tasks, licensing constraints, and competence; a perception of being monitored, and discomfort with inter-professional collaboration. Drawing on Spear and Bowen's theoretical propositions, this study explains how a package of lean-like changes translated into better care process management. It adds new knowledge regarding how lean

  5. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, H. J.; Choo, Y. K.; Choi, Y. I.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, H. K.; Heo, K. N.; Choi, H. C.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, C. J.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45) and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45) were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP) and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn)/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05). Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck. PMID:25358325

  6. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, H J; Choo, Y K; Choi, Y I; Kim, E J; Kim, H K; Heo, K N; Choi, H C; Lee, S K; Kim, C J; Kim, B G; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45) and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45) were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP) and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn)/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05). Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.

  7. Virtual water content for meat and egg production through livestock farming in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Ouda, Omar K. M.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of virtual water content (VWC) may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i.e., Saudi Arabia. In this paper, VWC was estimated for different livestocks in the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The overall VWC for livestock in Saudi Arabia was about 10.5 and 8.9 billion m3 in 2006 and 2010, respectively. This study shows the decreasing trend of overall VWC in producing livestock in Saudi Arabia. The VWC were highest in Riyadh followed by Eastern region, Qaseem, Hail, and Makkah with ranges of 3587-4112, 1684-2044, 1007-1331, 644-810, and 504-715 million m3/year, respectively. The results demonstrate that a shift in diet from the high VWC meat to low VWC meat may reduce the overall VWC for livestock production. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.

  8. Carcass merit and meat quality in Suffolk lambs, Katahdin lambs, and meat-goat kids finished on a grass-legume pasture with and without supplementation.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Belesky, D P; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-10-01

    The experiment evaluated traditional U.S. sheep (Suffolk), hair sheep (Katahdin), and meat goat (Boer crossbred; Goat) carcass and meat quality parameters when finished on pasture with and without supplemental whole cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Supplemented animals had greater ribeye area (P<0.01), body wall thickness (P<0.001), and lean quality score (P<0.05) than unsupplemented animals. Whole cottonseed increased fatty acids (FA) 18:1 trans-10, 18:1 trans-12, 18:2, and Omega6:Omega3 ratio and decreased FA 18:1 trans-11, 18:3, and Omega3 in longissimus muscle (LM). Katahdin LM had greater (P<0.001) intramuscular fat compared to Suffolk and Goat. Goat LM had less (P<0.001) FA 14:0, 18:0, 18:1 t11, 18:3, 20:3n-6, and saturated FA when compared to Suffolk or Katahdin. Carcass weights from pasture-finished sheep and goats would be acceptable for most ethnic markets in the USA. Omega6:Omega3 ratios in chevon and lamb were within the guidelines for meats that can improve human diets and health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Nutrient composition and technological quality of meat from alpacas reared in Peru.

    PubMed

    Salvá, Bettit K; Zumalacárregui, José M; Figueira, Ana C; Osorio, María T; Mateo, Javier

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge on alpaca meat quality characteristics. Twenty Huacaya breed alpacas, reared under a traditional unspecialized production system at the Andean region of Peru, were slaughtered at ages between 18 and 24months. Analyses were carried out on Longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle (LTLM), unless otherwise specified. These included composition parameters: moisture, fat, protein, ash, minerals, amino acids, fatty acid profile (of both LTLM and perirenal fat), retinol and tocopherol concentrations and myoglobin and collagen contents. Other meat quality parameters were evaluated: pH, colour, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear-force. Alpaca LTLM was characterized by a low intramuscular fat content and mineral and amino acid compositions, polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio and conjugated linoleic acid content comparable to those found for beef and sheep meat. However, specifically, alpaca meat showed a relatively high n-6 to n-3 (3.7) ratio and low vitamin E concentration. Values of alpaca meat technological quality parameters were in the ranges reported for more conventional red meats, the exception being a lower b(∗) value.

  10. Contribution of the microbial and meat endogenous enzymes to the free amino acid and amine contents of dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Hierro, E; de La Hoz, L; Ordóñez, J A

    1999-03-01

    The role of the starter culture and meat endogenous enzymes on the free amino acid and amine contents of dry fermented sausages was studied. Five batches of sausages were prepared. The control batch was manufactured with aseptic ingredients without microbial inoculation. The other four experimental batches were manufactured with aseptic ingredients inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum 4045 or Micrococcus-12 or L. plantarum 4045 and Micrococcus-12 or L. plantarum 4045 and Staphylococcus sp. Their effects on pH, a(w), myofibrillar proteins, and free amino acid and amine contents were studied. Sausages inoculated only with L. plantarum 4045 or with this starter combined with a Micrococcaceae had the lowest pH as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. In all batches similar patterns were observed for myofibrillar proteins and free amino acids which could indicate that meat endogenous proteases play an important role in proteolytic phenomena. No changes were observed in the amine fraction, indicating that the strains used as starter cultures did not show amino acid decarboxylase activity.

  11. Soybeans vs. textured soy proteins as meat extenders. Cooking losses, palatability, and thiamin content of freshly cooked and frozen meat loaves.

    PubMed

    Ali, F S; Perry, A K; Van Duyne, F O

    1982-10-01

    The effects of replacing 30 percent of the ground beef in meat loaves with boiled ground soybeans or textured soy protein (TSP) were studied. The substitutions were equally effective in increasing yields of freshly cooked, raw frozen and cooked, and cooked, frozen, and reheated meat loaves. Scores for several palatability characteristics, including general desirability, were higher for meat loaves containing soybeans than for loaves containing TSP. The mixtures and loaves contained similar amounts of protein and thiamin. Cooking losses and mean palatability scores indicated advantages for freezing raw loaf mixtures rather than cooked loaves.

  12. A theoretical approach of the relationships between collagen content, collagen cross-links and meat tenderness.

    PubMed

    Lepetit, J

    2007-05-01

    This work concerns the relationship between meat tenderness and the rubber-like properties, i.e. pressure and elastic modulus, that endomysium and perimysium connective tissues develop when meat has been heated to a temperature above which collagen contracts. For rest length meats with similar intramuscular connective tissue morphology, and which are at the same ageing state and pH, the elastic modulus of the collagenous fraction of connective tissues is approximately proportional to the total number of collagen cross-links present per volume of meat. Calculations from various published experiments concerned with the effect on tenderness of muscle type, animal age, type, and sex from different species show that this modulus follows most of the variations of meat toughness. Moreover, the proportionality between the increase in this elastic modulus and the increase in meat toughness approaches unity in situations where toughness mainly depends on connective tissues. This work demonstrates the decisive role of rubber-like properties of connective tissues in meat tenderness variations.

  13. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (p<0.05). The crude protein, total collagen, zinc and iron contents in thigh meat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (p<0.05). The meat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (p<0.05) better than those of the other two groups. Moreover, the current findings also indicate that the Taiwan game hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice.

  14. A comparative study of functional properties of normal and wooden breast broiler chicken meat with NaCl addition.

    PubMed

    Xing, Tong; Zhao, Xue; Han, Minyi; Cai, Linlin; Deng, Shaolin; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian

    2017-09-01

    The selection of broilers for augmented growth rate and breast has brought about wooden-breast (WB) muscle abnormalities, which caused substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to compare water holding capacity, water mobility and distribution, salt-soluble protein (SSP) content, and protein profiles of normal and WB chicken meat with different additions of NaCl. Thirty WB and 30 normal chicken breasts were selected from a deboning line of a major Chinese processing plant at 2 to 3 h post mortem. Two different meat batters were formulated to 150 mg/g meat protein and different NaCl contents (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). Results indicated that as NaCl contents increased, the cooking loss of meat batters decreased (P < 0.05). Increasing the NaCl content to 3% or more increased the solubility of myofibrillar protein and the extraction of SSPs, which resulted in the improving of cooking yield. Over a range of salt concentrations, normal and WB meat showed different protein profiles, with myosin heavy chain exhibiting a higher intensity at ≥3% salt level. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR)revealed an increased T22 and higher P22 in raw WB meat compared to normal meat (P < 0.05). Regarding the meat batters, WB meat batters had reduced T21 and lower immobilized water proportions at low NaCl contents (<2%). After heating, T2 shifted towards higher relaxation times with increasing NaCl contents in meat gels. Meat gels prepared from WB had a lower proportion of water within the myofibrillar protein matrix and a greater proportion of exuded bulk water at NaCl contents <3% (P < 0.05), while at higher NaCl contents the difference was eliminated, thus improving water retention capacity. In conclusion, for raw meat, meat batters and gels, water distribution and mobility of WB exhibited significant differences compared to normal meat. The addition of NaCl affected water mobility and distributions in meat batters, with a level of 3% NaCl eliminating the

  15. Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS administration in drinking water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.

  16. Analysis of consumers' preferences and behavior with regard to horse meat using a structured survey questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Oh, Woon Yong; Lee, Ji Woong; Lee, Chong Eon; Ko, Moon Seok; Jeong, Jae Hong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a structured survey questionnaire was used to determine consumers' preferences and behavior with regard to horse meat at a horse meat restaurant located in Jeju, Korea, from October 1 to December 24, 2005. The questionnaire employed in this study consisted of 20 questions designed to characterize six general attributes: horse meat sensory property, physical appearance, health condition, origin, price, and other attributes. Of the 1370 questionnaires distributed, 1126 completed questionnaires were retained based on the completeness of the answers, representing an 82.2% response rate. Two issues were investigated that might facilitate the search for ways to improve horse meat production and marketing programs in Korea. The first step was to determine certain important factors, called principal components, which enabled the researchers to understand the needs of horse meat consumers via principal component analysis. The second step was to define consumer segments with regard to their preferences for horse meat, which was accomplished via cluster analysis. The results of the current study showed that health condition, price, origin, and leanness were the most critical physical attributes affecting the preferences of horse meat consumers. Four segments of consumers, with different demands for horse meat attributes, were identified: origin-sensitive consumers, price-sensitive consumers, quality and safety-sensitive consumers, and non-specific consumers. Significant differences existed among segments of consumers in terms of age, nature of work, frequency of consumption, and general level of acceptability of horse meat.

  17. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J

    the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency

  18. Enzyme immunoassay and proteomic characterization of troponin I as a marker of mammalian muscle compounds in raw meat and some meat products.

    PubMed

    Zvereva, Elena A; Kovalev, Leonid I; Ivanov, Alexei V; Kovaleva, Marina A; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Shishkin, Sergey S; Lisitsyn, Andrey B; Chernukha, Irina M; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2015-07-01

    The skeletal muscle protein troponin I (TnI) has been characterized as a potential thermally stable and species-specific biomarker of mammalian muscle tissues in raw meat and meat products. This study proposed a technique for the quantification of TnI comprising protein extraction and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The technique is characterized by a TnI detection limit of 4.8 ng/ml with quantifiable concentrations ranging from 8.7 to 52 ng/ml. The method was shown to be suitable for detection of TnI in mammalian (beef, pork, lamb, and horse) meat but not in poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck) meat. In particular, the TnI content in beef was 0.40 3 ± 0.058 mg/g of wet tissue. The TnI estimations obtained for the pork and beef samples using ELISA were comparable to the proteomic analysis results. Thus, the quantitative study of TnI can be a convenient way to assess the mammalian muscle tissue content of various meat products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. EPA Lean Government Initiative: How to Replicate Lean Successes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Lean Replication Primer describes how EPA Offices and Regions can identify and adapt successful practices from previous Lean projects to “replicate” their successes and generate further improvements.

  20. Impact of high pressure treatment and intramuscular fat content on colour changes and protein and lipid oxidation in sliced and vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Verónica; Utrera, Mariana; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (600MPa) and intramuscular fat content (IMF) on colour parameters and oxidative stability of lipids and proteins in sliced vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham during refrigerated storage (120 days at 2°C) was investigated. Several studies have investigated the influence of HHP on lipid oxidation of meat products. However, its effects on protein carbonylation, as also the influence of IMF content on this carbonylation are poorly understood. HHP treatment had a significant effect on lean lightness after 0 and 120 days of storage while IMF content increased lightness and yellowness over time. Regarding oxidative stability, the effect of HHP treatment depended on IMF content samples with a high IMF having greater lipid instability while samples with a low IMF underwent more protein carbonylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of an outdoor-grazed raising model on meat composition, physical properties and sensory attributes of Taiwan game hens. Six hundred 1-d old female chicks were raised on a floor for 8 weeks. On day 57, 600 healthy birds, with similar body weight, were selected and randomly assigned to three treatment groups (cage, floor-pen and free-range). The results showed that different feeding models had no effect on drip loss, cooking loss, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, zinc and calorie contents in breast meat and moisture content in thigh meat. The free-range group had the lowest fat content in both breast and thigh meat, and the lowest calorie content in thigh meat. The firmness and toughness in both thigh and breast of the free-range group were the highest values (p<0.05). The crude protein, total collagen, zinc and iron contents in thigh meat and total collagen content in breast meat of the free-range group were significantly higher than those of the cage-feeding group (p<0.05). The meat sensory scores of flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability of both thigh and breast meat of the free-range group were significantly (p<0.05) better than those of the other two groups. Moreover, the current findings also indicate that the Taiwan game hens of the free-range feeding model displayed well-received carcass traits and meat quality, with higher scores for flavor, chewiness and overall acceptability for greater sensory satisfaction in both breast and thigh meat. In addition, the thigh meat contained high protein and total collage but low fat, offering a healthier diet choice. PMID:25050027

  2. Carcass traits and meat fatty acid composition of Barbarine lambs reared on rangelands or indoors on hay and concentrate.

    PubMed

    Majdoub-Mathlouthi, L; Saïd, B; Kraiem, K

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass and meat quality between Barbarine lambs raised on rangelands and those reared indoors. A total of 24 weaned male lambs (23.2 kg) were allotted into two groups. The first group (GS) grazed pasture dominated by natural shrubs and was supplemented with 100 g of concentrate. The second group (HS) received oat hay and 200 to 300 g supplement of the same concentrate in order to obtain the same average daily gain (ADG) as the GS group. Six lambs from each group were slaughtered. Lambs to be slaughtered were randomly identified at the beginning of the trial. Carcass traits (offals percentage, dressing percentage, cuts yield, tissue composition, fatness and conformation) were determined; pH and meat and fat color were measured. Samples from longissimus lumborum were collected to analyze fatty acid composition. The GS group was characterized by a higher offals percentage, associated with higher lungs, heart, liver and kidney percentage. Carcass dressing percentage defined as the rate between hot carcass weight and empty BW was lower by 3.4% in the GS group. No differences were observed for carcass meat yield and carcass and leg compactness. Shoulder bone percentage of the GS group was higher, without differences in fat and lean percentages. Fat thickness, kidney and tail fats were lower in the GS lambs. However, intramuscular fat content was not affected. Percentages of saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not modified, whereas levels of n-3 and long n-3PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) as well as Δ5 desaturase plus Δ6 desaturase index were higher for the GS group. Thrombogenic and atherogenic indexes were not altered. No significant effects were observed for meat pH, meat and fat color. Despite having the same ADG, lambs from the GS group were less fatty, and their meat was richer in beneficial fatty acids.

  3. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Haider, Muhammad Faizan; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Sohaib, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid

    2013-02-08

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  4. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  5. TRUNK LEAN DURING A SINGLE-LEG SQUAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH TRUNK LEAN DURING PITCHING.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Hillary A; Oliver, Gretchen D; Powers, Christopher M; Michener, Lori A

    2018-02-01

    Impaired trunk motion during pitching may be a risk factor for upper extremity injuries. Specifically, increased forces about the shoulder and elbow have been observed in pitchers with excessive contralateral trunk lean during pitching. Because of the difficulty in identifying abnormal trunk motions during a high-speed task such as pitching, a clinical screening test is needed to identify pitchers who have impaired trunk motion during pitching. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the degree of lateral trunk lean during the single-leg squat and amount of trunk lean during pitching and if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat. Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional. Seventy-three young baseball pitchers (11.4 ± 1.7 years; 156.3 ± 11.9 cm; 50.5 ± 8.8 kg) participated. An electromagnetic tracking system was used to obtain trunk kinematic data during a single-leg squat task (lead leg) and at maximum shoulder external rotation of a fastball pitch. Pearson correlation coefficients for trunk lean during the single-leg squat and pitching were calculated. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat. There was a positive correlation between trunk lean during the single-leg squat and trunk lean during pitching (r = 0.53; p<0.001). Lateral trunk lean during the single-leg squat predicted the amount of lateral trunk lean during pitching (R 2 = 0.28; p < 0.001). A moderate positive correlation was observed between trunk lean during an SLS and pitching. Trunk lean during the single-leg squat explained 28% of the variance in trunk lean during pitching. Diagnosis, level 3.

  6. Novel meat-enriched foods for older consumers.

    PubMed

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Hamid, Nazimah S A; Staincliffe, Maryann; Davies, Briar; Knowles, Scott O

    2018-02-01

    Red meat enriched versions of bread, spaghetti, yoghurt, ice cream and chocolate were prototyped and assessed for some of their physical, chemical and microbiological properties, as well as sensory appeal. The protein content of the products were significantly increased and their colour went darker with meat enrichment (p<0.05). Bread volume and spaghetti tensile strength increased and ice cream meltability and yoghurt apparent viscosity decreased with meat enrichment (p<0.05). The overall acceptability/liking of bread, flavoured ice cream and spaghetti were not affected (p>0.05) but that of non-flavoured ice cream and yoghurt went down (p<0.05) with meat enrichment. 75% of the 940 panellist who ate the meat-enriched chocolates either loved or slightly-liked them. The outcome of the present study would assist in making the nutrition of meat available in a wider range of product categories, helping the meat industry stretch its established business models, and encouraging further development of novel food choices for elderly and other groups of consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of nano-selenium on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cai, S J; Wu, C X; Gong, L M; Song, T; Wu, H; Zhang, L Y

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nano-selenium (nano-Se) on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers. A total of five hundred forty 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The 5 treatments consisted of corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se. The selenium content of the unsupplemented control diet was 0.09 mg/kg for the starter phase (0 to 21 d) and 0.08 mg/kg for the grower phase (22 to 42 d). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in performance, meat color, or immune organ index (thymus, bursa, and spleen) due to supplementation with nano-Se. On d 42, a significant quadratic effect of nano-Se was observed on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition, contents of IgM, glutathione, and malondialdehyde in serum, on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition in liver, and on glutathione peroxidase activity in muscle, with birds fed 0.30 mg/kg of nano-Se exhibiting the best effect and birds fed 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se showing the worst effect on these parameters. Liver and muscle selenium content increased linearly and quadratically as the dietary nano-Se level increased (P < 0.01), and reached the highest value when 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se was fed. Based on a consideration of all experiment indexes, 0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg is suggested to be the optimum level of supplementation of nano-Se, and the maximum supplementation of nano-Se could not be more than 1.0 mg/kg in broilers.

  8. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary branched-chain amino acids; effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism.

    PubMed

    Imanari, M; Kadowaki, M; Fujimura, S

    2008-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were either 100:100:100 (Low Leu group), 150:100:100 (Control group) or 150:150:150 (High Ile + Val group) for Leu:Ile:Val (% of each BCAA requirement according to NRC, 1994). Taste-related components of meat (free amino acids and ATP metabolites) and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. 3. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by dietary BCAA. Compared to the Control group, free Glu content increased by 30% in the High Ile + Val group. However, the inosine monophosphate (IMP) content in meat did not change among groups. 4. Sensory evaluation of meat soups showed that Control and High Ile + Val groups had different meat flavours. The sensory score of overall taste intensity was significantly higher in the High Ile + Val group. 5. These results suggest that dietary BCAA concentrations regulate free Glu in meat. Increasing dietary Ile + Val induces an increase in free Glu content of meat, improves meat taste and is more effective for increasing free Glu content in meat than decreasing dietary Leu level.

  9. Selenium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese content of seven meat cuts from Hereford and Braford steers fed pasture in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M C; Ramos, A; Saadoun, A; Brito, G

    2010-03-01

    Tenderloin (T), eye of rump (E), striploin (S), eye round (ER), tri-tip (TT), rib-eye roll (RR) and three rib plate-flank on (RP) meat cuts were evaluated. Selenium contents ranged between 0.42 and 1.20 mg/kg wet tissue (wt) in Hereford (H) breed and between 0.49 and 1.3 mg/kg wt in Braford (B) breed. In H and B breeds, T, TT and RP, and TT and RP were the richest cuts in selenium, respectively. Copper contents ranged between 0.25 and 1.04 mg/kg wt in H, and between 0.19 and 1.09 mg/kg wt in B. In H breed, RP had significantly more Cu than ER, TT, and RR. In B breed, ER and RR show a significant lower Cu level in comparison to the other meat cuts. Zinc contents ranged between 23 and 72.7 mg/kg wt in H, and between 23 and 63.9 mg/kg wt in B. RP is the richest cut in Zn compared to the other cuts in the two breeds. Iron contents ranged between 16.4 and 48.2 mg/kg wt in H, and between 14.2 and 47.9 mg/kg wt in B. In H breed, RR shows a lower content compared to the other cuts, except RP and S. In B breed, RR had the lowest level of Fe compared to the other cuts, except RP and T. Manganese contents ranged between 0.05 and 0.17 mg/kg wt in H, and between 0.04 and 0.48 mg/kg wt in B. In H no differences were detected between cuts. In B breed, ER cut shows the highest level of Mn. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How does lean work in emergency care? A case study of a lean-inspired intervention at the Astrid Lindgren Children's hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in applying lean thinking in healthcare, yet, there is still limited knowledge of how and why lean interventions succeed (or fail). To address this gap, this in-depth case study examines a lean-inspired intervention in a Swedish pediatric Accident and Emergency department. Methods We used a mixed methods explanatory single case study design. Hospital performance data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical process control techniques to assess changes in performance one year before and two years after the intervention. We collected qualitative data through non-participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and internal documents to describe the process and content of the lean intervention. We then analyzed empirical findings using four theoretical lean principles (Spear and Bowen 1999) to understand how and why the intervention worked in its local context as well as to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Results Improvements in waiting and lead times (19-24%) were achieved and sustained in the two years following lean-inspired changes to employee roles, staffing and scheduling, communication and coordination, expertise, workspace layout, and problem solving. These changes resulted in improvement because they: (a) standardized work and reduced ambiguity, (b) connected people who were dependent on one another, (c) enhanced seamless, uninterrupted flow through the process, and (d) empowered staff to investigate problems and to develop countermeasures using a "scientific method". Contextual factors that may explain why not even greater improvement was achieved included: a mismatch between job tasks, licensing constraints, and competence; a perception of being monitored, and discomfort with inter-professional collaboration. Conclusions Drawing on Spear and Bowen's theoretical propositions, this study explains how a package of lean-like changes translated into better care process management. It adds

  11. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    PubMed

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases.

  12. Desorption isotherms and isosteric heat of desorption of previously frozen raw pork meat.

    PubMed

    Clemente, G; Bon, J; Benedito, J; Mulet, A

    2009-08-01

    Some meat products involve drying previously frozen pork meat, which makes the knowledge of sorption characteristics very important for the design and management of meat dehydration processes. The sorption isotherms of raw pork meat from the Biceps femoris and Semimembranosus muscles were determined at four temperatures: 25, 30, 35 and 40°C. The experimental results were modelled using the GAB (Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer) model. The effect of temperature was also taken into account to model the experimental sorption isotherms using four models (GAB, Oswin, Halsey and Henderson). The best results were provided by the GAB model. From the experimental sorption isotherms the isosteric heats of sorption were determined. For a moisture content higher than 0.15kgwater/kgdm, the isosteric heat of meat was similar to the latent heat of vaporization for pure water. For a lower moisture content, an increase in the isosteric heat was observed when the moisture content decreased.

  13. TRUNK LEAN DURING A SINGLE-LEG SQUAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH TRUNK LEAN DURING PITCHING

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Gretchen D.; Powers, Christopher M.; Michener, Lori A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Impaired trunk motion during pitching may be a risk factor for upper extremity injuries. Specifically, increased forces about the shoulder and elbow have been observed in pitchers with excessive contralateral trunk lean during pitching. Because of the difficulty in identifying abnormal trunk motions during a high-speed task such as pitching, a clinical screening test is needed to identify pitchers who have impaired trunk motion during pitching. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the degree of lateral trunk lean during the single-leg squat and amount of trunk lean during pitching and if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional. Methods Seventy-three young baseball pitchers (11.4 ± 1.7 years; 156.3 ± 11.9 cm; 50.5 ± 8.8 kg) participated. An electromagnetic tracking system was used to obtain trunk kinematic data during a single-leg squat task (lead leg) and at maximum shoulder external rotation of a fastball pitch. Pearson correlation coefficients for trunk lean during the single-leg squat and pitching were calculated. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat. Results There was a positive correlation between trunk lean during the single-leg squat and trunk lean during pitching (r = 0.53; p<0.001). Lateral trunk lean during the single-leg squat predicted the amount of lateral trunk lean during pitching (R2 = 0.28; p < 0.001). Conclusions A moderate positive correlation was observed between trunk lean during an SLS and pitching. Trunk lean during the single-leg squat explained 28% of the variance in trunk lean during pitching. Level of Evidence Diagnosis, level 3 PMID:29484242

  14. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. lean-ISD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Guy W.

    2001-01-01

    Explains lean instructional systems design/development (ISD) as it relates to curriculum architecture design, based on Japan's lean production system. Discusses performance-based systems; ISD models; processes for organizational training and development; curriculum architecture to support job performance; and modular curriculum development. (LRW)

  16. Fatty acid composition of goose meat depending on genotype and sex.

    PubMed

    Uhlířová, Linda; Tůmová, Eva; Chodová, Darina; Volek, Zdeněk; Machander, Vlastislav

    2018-04-12

    The aim of this study was to compare male and female geese of two contrasting genotypes in terms of fatty acid composition, indexes related to human health, lipid metabolism and oxidative stability of the meat. The experiment was carried out on total of 120 geese of two different genotypes; the native breed Czech Goose (CG) and commercial hybrid Novohradska Goose (NG). One-d-old goslings were divided into 4 groups according to genotype and sex, and 8 birds from each group were slaughtered at 8 weeks of age. The effects of the interactions between genotype and sex were observed on growth performance and carcass traits. Final live weight (P < 0.001), daily weight gain (P < 0.001), daily feed intake (P < 0.001), slaughter weight (P < 0.001) and cold carcass weight (P < 0.001) were highest in NG males and lowest in CG females. The meat fatty acid composition results showed effects of both genotype and sex on the total n-6 and the total PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio. Regarding genotype, the total n-6, the total PUFA content and the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio were higher in CG, and higher values were found in females. In terms of the lipid metabolism, Δ5 - Δ6 desaturase (P = 0.006) was higher in males. The meat oxidative stability results revealed an interaction between genotype, sex and storage time (P < 0.001). The highest (13.85 mg/kg) malondialdehyde content was measured in the meat of CG females after 5 days of storage and was presumably related to a higher PUFA content. NG had a relatively higher growth rate and meat oxidative stability, whereas the advantage of CG meat is its favourable fatty acid profile characterized by a higher PUFA content.

  17. Comparison of MRI-assessed body fat content between lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and matched controls: less visceral fat with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Dolfing, Jacoba G; Stassen, Chrit M; van Haard, Paul M M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2011-06-01

    BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder. However, PCOS has a strong resemblance to the metabolic syndrome, including preponderance of visceral fat deposition. The aim of this study is to compare fat distribution between lean women with PCOS and controls matched for body composition but with regular menstrual cycles and proven fertility. METHODS In this prospective cross-sectional study in a fertility outpatient clinic, 10 Caucasian women with PCOS and 10 controls, all with a BMI between 19 and 25 kg/m(2), were included. Fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), hormonal levels and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) variables were assessed and fat content and ovarian volume determinations were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multiple axial cross-sections were calculated. RESULTS The age of the PCOS and control groups were [mean (SD)] 28.2 years (2.6) versus 33.7 years (2.3) P < 0.0001, respectively, and both groups were matched for BMI: 21.6 kg/m(2) (1.1) versus 21.8 kg/m(2) (2.1) (ns), fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) levels and BIA parameters. PCOS cases had higher ovarian volumes and less visceral fat compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Lean women with PCOS have higher MRI-determined ovarian volumes and less visceral fat content when compared with control women.

  18. An Updated Review of Meat Authenticity Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Antonios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Tserkezou, Persefoni

    2016-05-18

    Adulteration of foods is a serious economic problem concerning most foodstuffs, and in particular meat products. Since high-priced meat demand premium prices, producers of meat-based products might be tempted to blend these products with lower cost meat. Moreover, the labeled meat contents may not be met. Both types of adulteration are difficult to detect and lead to deterioration of product quality. For the consumer, it is of outmost importance to guarantee both authenticity and compliance with product labeling. The purpose of this article is to review the state of the art of meat authenticity with analytical and immunochemical methods with the focus on the issue of geographic origin and sensory characteristics. This review is also intended to provide an overview of the various currently applied statistical analyses (multivariate analysis (MAV), such as principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, etc.) and their effectiveness for meat authenticity.

  19. Neutralising the meat paradox: Cognitive dissonance, gender, and eating animals.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Elisha; Semmler, Carolyn; Bray, Heather; Ankeny, Rachel A; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Meat eating is a common behaviour, despite many people claiming to like, love, and care about animals. The apparent disconnection between not wanting animals to suffer, yet killing them for food, has been termed the 'meat paradox.' In this experimental study (N = 460), participants completed pre-affect, post-affect, meat attachment, and attitude towards animals questionnaires, under two conditions: exposure to the life of an Australian meat lamb, and information about the nutritional benefits of meat. A factorial MANOVA revealed that negative affect was significantly greater when participants were exposed to the meat-animal connection; however, more entrenched attitudes towards animals and attachment to meat remained unaffected. Significant gender effects were found across all variables: most notably, meat attachment differed according to gender, decreasing in women and increasing in men when exposed to the meat-animal condition. Open-ended responses were subjected to content analysis to understand participants' future meat-consumption preferences and accompanying reasoning strategies. Findings from the present study contribute to understanding how cognitive dissonance and inconsistencies are rationalised by meat consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  1. Effects of a meal feeding regimen and the availability of fresh alfalfa on growth performance and meat and bone quality of broiler genotypes.

    PubMed

    Koçer, B; Bozkurt, M; Ege, G; Tüzün, A E; Konak, R; Olgun, O

    2018-03-13

    1. The aim of this study was to identify a feeding regimen that encourages good pasture use in slow (SG) and fast (FG) growing broiler genotypes under free-range management. 2. SG and FG birds fed on either an ad libitum (ADB) or a meal feeding (MEF) programme were given free outdoor access with or without fresh alfalfa from day 22 to 72 and from day 22 to 45, respectively. In two consecutive trials, 800 birds of each genotype were included in a factorial design using groups of 40 birds replicated 5 times. 3. Fresh alfalfa consumption did not improve growth performance and meat quality attributes, whereas the feeding regimen had significant implications. When compared with their ad libitum-fed counterparts, meal-fed birds showed a significantly lower body weight at a considerably lower feed consumption rate, leading to a more favourable feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the course of the experiment. 4. The MEF regimen with a strong feed limitation significantly increased crop and gizzard weight in both genotypes. In FG birds, water holding capacity, drip loss, cooking loss and pH 45 in the breast and thigh meat were adversely affected by MEF; however, feed restriction demonstrated benefits with significant decreases in muscle fat accumulation. In SG birds, decreases in protein and dry matter content of the breast and thigh muscle with meal feeding were conclusive. 5. In both genotypes, there was no treatment-related effect on meat yield, mineral composition of the meat or bone mechanical properties. 6. In conclusion, MEF, irrespective of alfalfa intake, may provide a viable method to decrease FCR; it may be able to contribute to the production of chickens with lean carcasses but it was not capable of improving overall meat quality.

  2. The prevalence and some metabolic traits of Brochothrix thermosphacta in meat and meat products packaged in different ways.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Rygala, Anna; Oltuszak-Walczak, Elzbieta; Walczak, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    The effect of Brochothrix thermosphacta on the quality of meat and meat products is of vital importance in connection with Regulation EC/178/2002 extending the definition of unsafe foodstuffs to encompass all those which are unfit for human consumption. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of B. thermosphacta in meat and meat products packaged under different conditions and to estimate the effect of B. thermosphacta strains on product quality based on their protein and lipid degradation activity. B. thermosphacta was absent in only two of 132 samples. All other samples were contaminated with this bacterium (10(1) to 10(9) cfu g(-1) meat and 10(2) to 10(8) cfu g(-1) meat product). In products stored under high-oxygen atmosphere Brochothrix cells accounted for almost 100% total mesophilic count (TMC) and below 50% TMC in oxygen-free atmosphere. While the tested B. thermosphacta strains did not show any proteolytic activity, most of them displayed lipolytic activity at 25 °C and some even at 4 °C. B. thermosphacta is commonly present in meat and meat products packaged in different ways. This bacterium can display lipolytic activity also at refrigeration temperature. Its over-proliferation can be inhibited through vacuum packaging or packaging under a modified atmosphere with reduced oxygen content. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The utilization of coconut waste fermentated by aspergillus niger and saccharomyces cerevisiae on meat quality of weaning males rex rabbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuni, T. H.; Ginting, N.; Yunilas; Hasnudi; Mirwandono, E.; Siregar, G. A.; Sinaga, I. G.; Sembiring, I.

    2018-02-01

    Coconut waste (CW) could be applied for animal feed while its nutrition quality were low. This study aims to investigate fermented CW effect on meat quality of Rex rabbit which feed by fermented CW either by Aspergillus niger or Tape Yeast. This research was conducted in rabbit farm Brastagi, using 24 male Rex rabbits with initial weight 1012 ± 126.67 gram in July-October 2016. The design used was complete randomized design : 6 treatment 4 replications. Treatment were T1 (unfermented 10%); T2 (unfermented 20%); T3 (a.niger fermentation 10%); T4 (a niger fermentation 20%); T5 (tape yeast fermentation 10%) and T6 (tape yeast fermentation 20%). The parameters were pH, meat texture either raw or cooked, water content, fat content, protein content of meat and cooking loss. The results showed that effect of treatment was not significantly different (P>0.05) on pH and raw meat texture, but significantly different (P< 0.05) on texture of meat cooked and meat fat content and very significantly different effect ( P> 0,01) on cooking loss, water content and protein content of meat. The conclusion of this research was the utilization of fermented CW by Aspergillius niger and Tape Yeast improved the quality of Rex rabbit meat

  4. Effect of Meat Type, Animal Fatty Acid Composition, and Isothermal Temperature on the Viscoelastic Properties of Meat Batters.

    PubMed

    Glorieux, Seline; Steen, Liselot; De Brabanter, Jos; Foubert, Imogen; Fraeye, Ilse

    2018-05-22

    The aim of this research was to simultaneously study the effect of meat type (chicken breast and leg meat), animal fatty acid composition (selected pork backfats having a low and high degree of saturation, respectively), and isothermal temperature (50, 60, 70, and 80 °C) on the viscoelastic properties of meat batters during and after application of different time-temperature profiles. Gelation of meat proteins contributed most to the viscoelastic properties of meat batters during heating, whereas crystallization of the lipids especially contributed to the viscoelastic properties during the cooling phase. Although the meat type had little effect on the final viscoelastic properties of the meat product, the fatty acid composition had a clear impact on the melting peak area (and therefore solid fat content) of lard, and subsequently on the final viscoelastic properties of meat batters prepared with different types of fats, with higher G' (elastic modulus) values for the most saturated animal fat. The crystallization of the fat clearly transcended the effect of the meat type with regard to G' at the end of the process. With increasing (isothermal) temperature, G' of meat batters increased. Therefore, it could be concluded that the structural properties of heated meat batters mainly depend on the heating temperature and the fatty acid composition, rather than the meat type. Quality characteristics of cooked sausages depend on multiple factors such as the meat and fat type, non-meat ingredients and processing conditions. From this study it could be concluded that the structural properties of cooked sausage batters mainly depend on the heating temperature and the fatty acid composition, rather than the meat type. Because the fatty acid composition of different animal fats differs widely, these results may be a concern for all manufactures of cooked sausages products with regard to the product structure and final texture, keeping in mind that rendered fat was used in this

  5. Nutritional value of traditional Italian meat-based dishes: influence of cooking methods and recipe formulation.

    PubMed

    D'Evoli, L; Salvatore, P; Lucarini, M; Nicoli, S; Aguzzi, A; Gabrielli, P; Lombardi-Boccia, G

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides a picture of the compositional figure and nutritive value of meat-based dishes typical of Italian culinary tradition. Recipes specific for a bovine meat cut (top-side) were selected among the most widespread ones in Italy: in pan, pizzaiola, cutlet, meat ball, and escalope. The total fat and cholesterol content varied depending on the ingredients utilized (extra-virgin olive oil, parmesan, egg). Meat-based dishes that utilized extra-virgin olive oil showed a significant reduction in palmitic and stearic acids and a parallel increase in oleic acid compared with raw meat; furthermore, the ratio among saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids shifted in favour of monounsaturated fatty acids. B vitamins were affected at different extent by heating; by contrast, vitamin E content increased because of the new sources of this vitamin, which masked losses due to heating. Ingredients (parmesan, discretionary salt) induced significant increases in the calcium and sodium concentrations compared with raw meat. The total iron content did not show marked differences in most of the meat-based dishes compared with raw meat; by contrast, losses in the heme-iron concentration were detected depending on the severity of heating treatments. Our findings suggest that heme iron, because of its important health aspects, might be a useful index of the nutritional quality of cooked meats.

  6. Effects of dietary protein/energy ratio on growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality, and plasma metabolites in pigs of different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Jiang, Guoli; Tan, Bi'e; Deng, Jinping; Yang, Xiaojian; Li, Fengna; Xiong, Xia; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    The protein/energy ratio is important for the production performance and utilization of available feed resources by animals. Increased protein consumption by mammals leads to elevated feed costs and increased nitrogen release into the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary protein/energy ratio on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and plasma metabolites of pigs of different genotypes. Bama mini-pigs and Landrace pigs were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment groups (Chinese conventional diet with low protein/energy ratio or National Research Council diet with high protein/energy ratio; n = 24 per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood and muscle samples were collected at the end of the nursery, growing, and finishing phases. We observed significant interactions (P < 0.05) between breed and diet for total fat percentage, intramuscular fat (IMF) content, protein content in biceps femoris (BF) muscle, and plasma urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in the nursery phase; for average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), dry matter, IMF content in psoas major (PM) muscle, and plasma total protein and albumin concentrations in the growing phase; and for drip loss and plasma UN concentration in the finishing phase. Breed influenced (P < 0.05) growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality, but not plasma metabolites. Throughout the trial, Landrace pigs showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, dressing percentage, lean mass rate, and loin-eye area than did Bama mini-pigs, but significantly lower (P < 0.05) feed/gain ratio, fat percentage, backfat thickness, and IMF content. Dietary protein/energy ratio influenced the pH value, chemical composition of BF and PM muscles, and plasma activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and plasma concentration of UN. Compared with Landrace pigs, Bama mini-pigs showed slower growth and lower

  7. Lean leadership: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Aij, Kjeld Harald; Visse, Merel; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical analysis of contemporary Lean leadership in the context of a healthcare practice. The Lean leadership model supports professionals with a leading role in implementing Lean. This article presents a case study focusing specifically on leadership behaviours and issues that were experienced, observed and reported in a Dutch university medical centre. This ethnographic case study provides auto-ethnographic accounts based on experiences, participant observation, interviews and document analysis. Characteristics of Lean leadership were identified to establish an understanding of how to achieve successful Lean transformation. This study emphasizes the importance for Lean leaders to go to the gemba, to see the situation for one's own self, empower health-care employees and be modest. All of these are critical attributes in defining the Lean leadership mindset. In this case study, Lean leadership is specifically related to healthcare, but certain common leadership characteristics are relevant across all fields. This article shows the value of an auto-ethnographic view on management learning for the analysis of Lean leadership. The knowledge acquired through this research is based on the first author's experiences in fulfilling his role as a health-care leader. This may help the reader examining his/her own role and reflecting on what matters most in the field of Lean leadership.

  8. Heme Iron Content in Lamb Meat Is Differentially Altered upon Boiling, Grilling, or Frying as Assessed by Four Distinct Analytical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pourkhalili, Azin; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron. PMID:23737716

  9. Heme iron content in lamb meat is differentially altered upon boiling, grilling, or frying as assessed by four distinct analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Pourkhalili, Azin; Mirlohi, Maryam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron.

  10. Meat consumption after disaggregation of meat dishes in a cohort of British adults in 1989 and 1999 in relation to diet quality.

    PubMed

    Prynne, C J; Wagemakers, J J M F; Stephen, A M; Wadsworth, M E J

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify more precisely the meat intake of a cohort of adults in the UK by disaggregating composite meat dishes. Subjects were members of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, 1946 birth cohort. Five-day diaries were collected from 2256 men and women in 1989 and 1772 men and women in 1999. From the details provided, composite meat dishes were broken down into their constituent parts and the meat fraction was added to meat portions only. Meat intake was classified as red meat, processed meat and poultry. Meat consumption without disaggregation of meat dishes resulted in a mean overestimation of 50% in men and 33% in women. Red meat consumption fell between 1989 and 1999 from 51.7 to 41.5 g per day in men and 35.7 to 30.1 g per day in women. Poultry consumption rose from 21.6 to 32.2 g per day in men and 18.2 to 29.4 g per day in women. Re-calculating red meat intakes resulted in the percentage of subjects in 1999 consuming more than the recommendation of the World Cancer Research Fund falling from 30 to 12%. Increasing consumption of red and processed meat was associated with increased intakes of energy, fat, haem iron, zinc and vitamin B(12), and lower intake of fibre. Increased sodium intake was associated with increased consumption of processed meat. Disaggregation of meat dishes provided a more precise estimate of meat consumption. The quantity of red or processed meat in the diet was reflected in the nutrient content of the entire diet.

  11. Meat consumption after disaggregation of meat dishes in a cohort of British adults in 1989 and 1999 in relation to diet quality

    PubMed Central

    Prynne, Celia J.; Wagemakers, Jessie J.M.F.; Stephen, Alison M.; Wadsworth, Michael E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to quantify more precisely the meat intake of a cohort of adults in the UK by disaggregating composite meat dishes. Subjects/Methods Subjects were members of the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, 1946 birth cohort. Five-day diaries were collected from 2256 men and women in 1989 and 1772 men and women in 1999. From the details provided, composite meat dishes were broken down into their constituent parts and the meat fraction added to meat only portions. Meat intake was classified as red meat, processed meat and poultry. Results Meat consumption without disaggregation of meat dishes resulted in a mean over-estimation of 50% in men and 33% in women. Red meat consumption fell between 1989 and 1999 from 51.7 to 41.5g/day in men and 35.7 to 30.1g/day in women. Poultry consumption rose from 21.6 to 32.2g./day in men and 18.2 to 29.4 g/day in women. Re-calculating red meat intakes resulted in the percentage of subjects in 1999 consuming more the recommendation of the World Cancer Research Fund falling from 30% to 12 %. Increasing consumption of red and processed meat was associated with increased intakes of energy, fat, haem iron, zinc and vitamin B12 and lower intake of fibre. Increased sodium intake was associated with increased consumption of processed meat. Conclusions Disaggregation of meat dishes provided a more precise estimate of meat consumption. The quantity of red or processed meat in the diet was reflected in the nutrient content of the entire diet. PMID:18285805

  12. Four-way-leaning test shows larger limits of stability than a circular-leaning test.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Mikkel Højgaard; Støttrup, Nicolai; Larsen, Frederik Greve; Pedersen, Ann-Marie Sydow Krogh; Poulsen, Anne Grove; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2017-01-01

    Limits of stability (LOS) have extensive clinical and rehabilitational value yet no standard consensus on measuring LOS exists. LOS measured using a leaning or a circling protocol is commonly used in research and clinical settings, however differences in protocols and reliability problems exist. This study measured LOS using a four-way-leaning test and a circular-leaning test to test which showed larger LOS measurements. Furthermore, number of adaptation trials needed for consistent results was assessed. Limits of stability were measured using a force plate (Metitur Good Balance System ® ) sampling at 50Hz. Thirty healthy subjects completed 30 trials assessing LOS alternating between four-way-leaning test and circular-leaning test. A main effect of methods (ANOVA:F(1,28)=45.86, P<0.01) with the four-way-leaning test showing larger values than the circular-leaning test (NK, P<0.01). An interaction between method×directions was found (ANOVA:F(3, 84)=24.87, P<0.01). The four-way-leaning test showed larger LOS in anterior (NK, P<0.05), right (NK, P<0.01) and left direction (NK, P<0.01). Analysis of LOS for the four-way-leaning test showed a difference between trials (ANOVA:F(14,392)=7.81, P<0.01). Differences were found between trial 1 and 7 (NK, P<0.03), trial 6 and 8 (NK, P<0.02) and trial 7 and 15 (NK, P<0.02). Four-way-leaning test showed high correlation (ICC>0.87) between first and second trial for all directions. Four-way-leaning test yields larger LOS in anterior, right and left direction making it more reliable when measuring LOS. A learning effect was found up to the 8th trial, which suggests using 8 adaptation trials before reliable LOS is measured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa under blind and informed conditions.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; Nalério, Elen Silveira; Giongo, Citieli; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2018-03-01

    The development of air-dried cured sheep meat products represents an interesting option to add value to the meat of adult animals. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa, an innovative product. Four sheep meat coppa samples were formulated by varying smoking (smoked vs. non-smoked) and salt content (4.5% vs. 3.4%), and compared with two commercial samples of regular pork meat coppa. Samples were evaluated under blind or informed conditions by 202 consumers, who had to rate their liking and to answer a check-all-that-apply question. Sheep and pork meat coppa samples did not largely differ in their overall liking in both experimental conditions. Smoking and high salt content significantly increased consumers' hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa. The information included in the labels did not modify consumer hedonic perception but influenced their sensory description, particularly for the terms related to the type of meat used in their manufacture. Results indicate positive market opportunities for sheep meat coppa in the Brazilian market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Leaning in: lessons for leadership career development.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2013-11-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author introduces the book Lean In and presents applicable lessons for nursing leadership career development.

  16. Meat cooking habits and risk of colorectal cancer in Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Alicia; Muñoz, Sonia E; Lantieri, María J; del Pilar Diaz, María; Cristaldo, Patricia E; de Fabro, Sofía P; Eynard, Aldo R

    2004-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third cause of death among women and the fifth among men in Córdoba, Argentina. We previously reported colorectal cancer to be associated with a high intake of fatty meats and bovine viscera and inversely associated with dietary fiber intake. In this study, we investigated the role of method of cooking meat and preferences in browned surfaces in the risk of colorectal cancer. A case-control retrospective study was carried out by interviewing 296 patients and 597 control subjects with a food-frequency questionnaire. Meat consumption and preferred cooking procedures (boiled, roasted, barbecued, cooked in a flat iron-pan without fat, and fried) were investigated. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were obtained by unconditional logistic regression analysis. Barbecuing was the cooking method preferred by men, whereas iron-pan cooking was favored by women; frying was the least favored method. Fatty beef, sausages, and bovine viscera were preferentially barbecued or boiled, whereas lean beef was mainly roasted, iron-pan cooked, or fried. Chicken was barbecued or roasted. The multivariate relative risks (adjusted by age, sex, social stratum, and total energy intake) for preferring darkly browned surfaces were significantly associated with an increased risk for all cooking procedures (odds ratio, 4.57; 95% confidence interval, 3.10 to 6.73). No associations were found for red roasted or for boiled meats. Increased risk seems to be related to cooking temperature and close contact of the food to the heating source, because higher risks were observed for heavily browned surfaces when meats were barbecued or iron-pan cooked.

  17. Lean blowoff detection sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Jimmy [Morgantown, WV; Straub, Douglas L [Morgantown, WV; Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, David [Morgantown, WV

    2007-04-03

    Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

  18. Effect of slaughter age on foal carcass traits and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, R; Crecente, S; Borrajo, P; Agregán, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2015-10-01

    Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. Recent studies have shown that horsemeat may be considered as an alternative to other meat (such as beef or pork), and it may have a positive effect on human health from a nutritional point of view. This research was conducted to characterize the carcass measurement, meat quality (chemical composition, colour characteristics and textural traits) and nutritional value (fatty acid and amino acid composition) of foals slaughtered at 8 and 11 months of age (8 and 11 m groups). For this study, a total of 21 foals (10 and 11 animals from the 8 and 11-m groups, respectively) were used. The results obtained showed a positive influence on carcass characteristics with an increase in slaughter age, because 11 m animals had slightly higher values of live (275 v. 247 kg) and carcass weights (148 v. 133 kg), length of leg (72.86 v. 69.85 cm) and carcass (100.41 v. 96.30 cm) and perimeter of leg (97.68 v. 89.22 cm) compared with animals from the 8-m group. Regarding meat quality, only Fe-haeme and cholesterol content in chemical composition and luminosity (L*) in colour parameters showed significant differences. Foals from the 8-m group had the highest content of cholesterol (0.47 v. 0.28 mg/100 g of meat) and luminosity values (39.66 v. 37.88) and the lowest content of ash (1.20% v. 1.40%). In fatty acids content, only five out of 23 fatty acids showed differences between the two groups. However, an interesting change in the fatty acid profile occurred with an increase in the slaughter age. Foals from the 8-m group had the highest values of α-linolenic acid and n-3 fatty acids and the lowest values of linoleic and n-6 fatty acids, which is an interesting fact from a health point of view. Finally, slaughter age had no statistical influence on textural properties or amino acid content. As a main conclusion, animals slaughtered at 8

  19. A portable nondestructive detection device of quality and nutritional parameters of meat using Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenxiu; Peng, Yankun; Wang, Fan; Sun, Hongwei

    2017-05-01

    The improvement of living standards has urged consumers to pay more attention to the quality and nutrition of meat, so the development of nondestructive detection device for quality and nutritional parameters is commercioganic undoubtedly. In this research, a portable device equipped with visible (Vis) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers, tungsten halogen lamp, optical fiber, ring light guide and embedded computer was developed to realize simultaneous and fast detection of color (L*, a*, b*), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), intramuscular fat (IF), protein and water content in pork. The wavelengths of dual-band spectrometers were 400 1100 nm and 940 1650 nm respectively and the tungsten halogen lamp cooperated with ring light guide to form a ring light source and provide appropriate illumination intensity for sample. Software was self-developed to control the functionality of dual-band spectrometers, set spectrometer parameters, acquire and process Vis/NIR spectroscopy and display the prediction results in real time. In order to obtain a robust and accurate prediction model, fresh longissimus dorsi meat was bought and placed in the refrigerator for 12 days to get pork samples with different freshness degrees. Besides, pork meat from three different parts including longissimus dorsi, haunch and lean meat was collected for the determination of IF, protein and water to make the reference values have a wider distribution range. After acquisition of Vis/NIR spectra, data from 400 1100 nm were pretreated with Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filter and standard normal variables transform (SNVT) and spectrum data from 940 1650 nm were preprocessed with SNVT. The anomalous were eliminated by Monte Carlo method based on model cluster analysis and then partial least square regression (PLSR) models based on single band (400 1100 nm or 940 1650 nm) and dual-band were established and compared. The results showed the optimal models for each parameter were built with correlation

  20. Influence of type of muscles on nutritional value of foal meat.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Pateiro, Mirian

    2013-03-01

    The effect of type of muscle on nutritional characteristic (fatty acid profile, amino acid content, cholesterol and major and minor mineral) of foal meat was investigated. Six muscles: longissimus dorsi (LD), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), triceps brachii (TB) and psoas major & minor (PM) from twelve foals slaughtered at 15 months from an extensive production system in freedom regimen were extracted for this study. Horse meat is characterized by low fat, low cholesterol content, rich in iron and in vitamin B. Statistical analysis showed that the cholesterol content did not show significant differences (P>0.05) among muscle with mean value range between 0.62 and 0.57 mg/100g. Most fatty acid presented significant differences (P<0.05) with respect to the type of muscle. The obtained results showed that except for the polyunsaturated linoleic acid, the highest contents of fatty acids were found in the hindquarter muscles. Regarding amino acid profile, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed among muscles and our results indicated that, 100g of foal meat covered from 80.6 to 86.7% for the daily requirement for an adult man weighing 70 kg for essential amino acids for ST and LD muscles, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (P=0.050) for the EAA (essential amino acids) index, which was highest for TB muscle, followed by BF and SM muscles, while the lowest values were reported by ST muscle. Finally, foal meat seems to be a very good nutritional source of major and minor minerals. The higher nutritional value of foal meat will be of great importance in the promotion of this meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The ability of genetically lean or fat slow-growing chickens to synthesize and store lipids is not altered by the dietary energy source.

    PubMed

    Baéza, E; Gondret, F; Chartrin, P; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C; Gabriel, I; Narcy, A; Lessire, M; Métayer-Coustard, S; Collin, A; Jégou, M; Lagarrigue, S; Duclos, M J

    2015-10-01

    The increasing use of unconventional feedstuffs in chicken's diets results in the substitution of starch by lipids as the main dietary energy source. To evaluate the responses of genetically fat or lean chickens to these diets, males of two experimental lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets with either high lipid (80 g/kg), high fiber (64 g/kg) contents (HL), or low lipid (20 g/kg), low fiber (21 g/kg) contents (LL) from 22 to 63 days of age. The diet had no effect on growth performance and did not affect body composition evaluated at 63 days of age. Glycolytic and oxidative energy metabolisms in the liver and glycogen storage in liver and Sartorius muscle at 63 days of age were greater in chicken fed LL diet compared with chicken fed HL diet. In Pectoralis major (PM) muscle, energy metabolisms and glycogen content were not different between diets. There were no dietary-associated differences in lipid contents of the liver, muscles and abdominal fat. However, the percentages of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in tissue lipids were generally higher, whereas percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were lower for diet LL than for diet HL. The fat line had a greater feed intake and average daily gain, but gain to feed ratio was lower in that line compared with the lean line. Fat chickens were heavier than lean chickens at 63 days of age. Their carcass fatness was higher and their muscle yield was lower than those of lean chickens. The oxidative enzyme activities in the liver were lower in the fat line than in the lean line, but line did not affect energy metabolism in muscles. The hepatic glycogen content was not different between lines, whereas glycogen content and glycolytic potential were higher in the PM muscle of fat chickens compared with lean chickens. Lipid contents in the liver, muscles and abdominal fat did not differ between lines, but fat chickens stored less MUFA and

  2. Genotoxicity testing of cooked cured meat pigment (CCMP) and meat emulsion coagulates prepared with CCMP.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, M; Cadez, P; Zlender, B; Filipic, M

    2000-07-01

    The preformed cooked cured meat pigment (CCMP) synthesized directly from bovine red blood cells or through a hemin intermediate was found to be a viable colorant for application to comminuted pork as a nitrite substitute. However the genotoxicity of CCMP and meat emulsion coagulates prepared with CCMP has not been evaluated. Therefore the objectives of this work were to investigate genotoxicity of CCMP and the influence of CCMP addition on genotoxicity and the content of residual nitrite in model meat emulsion coagulates. Meat emulsions were prepared from white (musculus longissimus dorsi) and red (musculus quadriceps femoris) pork muscles with two different amounts of synthesized pigment CCMP. Comparatively, emulsions with fixed addition of nitrite salt and emulsions without any addition for color development were made. Genotoxicity of CCMP and meat emulsion coagulates was tested with the SOS/umu test and the Ames test. Neither CCMP nor meat emulsion coagulates prepared with CCMP or nitrite salt were genotoxic in the SOS/umu test. In the Ames test using Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 samples of coagulates prepared with CCMP and with nitrite showed weak mutagenic activity in Salmonella Typhimurium strain TA100 but only in the absence of the metabolic activation, while CCMP was not mutagenic. Coagulates prepared with CCMP contained significantly less residual nitrite than coagulates prepared with nitrite salt. These results indicate that from the human health standpoint the substitution of nitrite salt with CCMP would be highly recommendable.

  3. Alterations in Oral [1-14C] 18:1n-9 Distribution in Lean Wild-Type and Genetically Obese (ob/ob) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinxia; Feng, Jie; Yu, Caihua; Shen, Qingwu W.; Wang, Yizhen

    2015-01-01

    Obesity may result from altered fatty acid (FA) disposal. Altered FA distribution in obese individuals is poorly understood. Lean wild-type C57BL/6J and obese C57BL/6Job/ob mice received an oral dose of [1-14C]18:1n-9 (oleic acid), and the radioactivity in tissues was evaluated at various time points. The 14C concentration decreased rapidly in gastrointestinal tract but gradually increased and peaked at 96 h in adipose tissue, muscle and skin in lean mice. The 14C concentration was constant in adipose tissue and muscle of obese mice from 4h to 168h. 14C-label content in adipose tissue was significantly affected by genotype, whereas muscle 14C-label content was affected by genotype, time and the interaction between genotype and time. There was higher total 14C retention (47.7%) in obese mice than in lean mice (9.0%) at 168 h (P<0.05). The 14C concentrations in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle were higher in obese mice than in lean mice (P<0.05). Perirenal adipose tissue contained the highest 14C content in lean mice, whereas subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) had the highest 14C content and accounted for the largest proportion of total radioactivity among fat depots in obese mice. More lipid radioactivity was recovered as TAG in SAT from obese mice than from lean mice (P<0.05). Gene expression suggested acyl CoA binding protein and fatty acid binding protein are important for FA distribution in adipose tissue and muscle. The FA distribution in major tissues was altered in ob/ob mice, perhaps contributing to obesity. Understanding the disparity in FA disposal between lean and obese mice may reveal novel targets for the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:25826747

  4. Processed meat: the real villain?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach.

  5. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  6. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Cônsolo, N R B; Mesquita, B S; Rodriguez, F D; Rizzi, V G; Silva, L F P

    2016-03-01

    greater CP in the diet. Supplementation with RH decreased meat shear force, but only at day 0 of aging, having no effect after 7, 14 or 21 days. Greater dietary protein increased meat shear force after 0 and 7 days of aging, with no effect after 14 or 21 days. These results demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of ractopamine supplementation to improve gain and feed efficiency of intact Bos indicus males, with relatively low carcass fat content. Ractopamine effects were not further improved by increasing dietary protein content above requirements.

  7. Lean and Information Technology Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lean and Information Technology Toolkit is a how-to guide which provides resources to environmental agencies to help them use Lean Startup, Lean process improvement, and Agile tools to streamline and automate processes.

  8. Effect of age on structural properties of intramuscular connective tissue, muscle fibre, collagen content and meat tenderness in pig longissimus lumborum muscle.

    PubMed

    Wojtysiak, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the structure and properties of the intramuscular connective tissue, muscle fibre size, collagen content and meat tenderness of m. longissimus lumborum during growth was studied in 45 Polish Large White (PLW) pigs slaughtered at 90, 150 and 210 days of age. The results show that the endomysial sheath in m. longissimus lumborum consists of collagen fibrils of wavy appearance which run in all directions and form a loose network. The arrangement of collagen fibrils in the endomysium and perimysium becomes denser and more regular with increasing age of pigs. In addition, the increase in endomysium and perimysium thickness was paralleled by a significant increase in muscle fibre diameter, as well as an increase in shear force value with chronological aging. In contrast, the percentage of collagen area in muscle structure and the amount of total collagen and amount of soluble collagen decreased gradually with age of pigs. In conclusion, the structural changes in the arrangement of collagen fibres in the architecture of intramusclular connective tissue, as well as the decrease in soluble collagen content in m. longissimus lumborum during growth of pigs are important factors influencing shear force value, and thus raw meat tenderness.

  9. Determination of the boar taint compound skatole in meat juice by means of stable isotope dilution analysis-direct immersion-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jochen; Brinkmann, Detert; Elsinghorst, Paul W; Wüst, Matthias

    2012-07-01

    A novel SIDA-DI-SPME-GC/MS procedure for the quantitation of skatole in pork meat juice was developed and validated as a substitute for back fat sample analysis. System suitability was evaluated by determining the correlation between skatole concentrations in a subset of 38 paired meat juice and back fat samples selected from 90 fattened boars. High correlation was observed between both matrices and conclusions about the partitioning of skatole as well as of androstenone between fat and lean compartments in vivo were drawn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proximate and mineral composition of crab meat consumed in Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Rumaidh, Mohammed J

    2005-06-01

    The proximate, mineral and heavy metals of raw and cooked crab meat, Portunus pelagicus, consumed in Bahrain were studied. The crab meat contains a good level of protein (17.5-18.8%), with very low proportion of fat (0.6-1.4%). The levels of sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus were found to be higher than other minerals. Traces of heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium) were also reported. Traditional cooking had a considerable effect on proximate and mineral contents of crab meat.

  11. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0–4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2–5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association. PMID:26517837

  12. Comparative analyses of the chemical and sensory parameters and consumer preference of a semi-dried smoked meat product (cabanossi) produced with warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and domestic pork meat.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Monlee; Leslie, Alison J; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-04-01

    The study compared the chemical and sensory characteristics and consumer preference of a semi-dried, cured meat product, cabanossi, produced with warthog meat and with domestic pork. The warthog and pork cabanossi had similar total moisture (59.0%±2.07 and 54.3%±1.26) and protein (26.3%±2.20 and 24.2%±2.15) contents, while the warthog cabanossi was lower in total fat content (6.9%±1.01) compared to pork cabanossi (13.7%±1.77, P=0.007). Descriptive sensory analysis found that the warthog cabanossi appeared darker red (P=0.001) and less fatty (P=0.001), while the pork cabanossi had a higher overall pork flavour (P=0.001). There were no differences in consumer preference of the appearance and taste between the two types of cabanossi, while the majority of consumers (91%) supported the use of game meat in meat products. The study concluded that warthog meat can be used in processed products without compromising the associated technical or organoleptic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology: The case of cultured meat.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Gerben A; Fischer, Arnout R H; Tobi, Hilde; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2017-01-01

    Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  15. Species identification and quantification in meat and meat products using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).

    PubMed

    Floren, C; Wiedemann, I; Brenig, B; Schütz, E; Beck, J

    2015-04-15

    Species fraud and product mislabelling in processed food, albeit not being a direct health issue, often results in consumer distrust. Therefore methods for quantification of undeclared species are needed. Targeting mitochondrial DNA, e.g. CYTB gene, for species quantification is unsuitable, due to a fivefold inter-tissue variation in mtDNA content per cell resulting in either an under- (-70%) or overestimation (+160%) of species DNA contents. Here, we describe a reliable two-step droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay targeting the nuclear F2 gene for precise quantification of cattle, horse, and pig in processed meat products. The ddPCR assay is advantageous over qPCR showing a limit of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) in different meat products of 0.01% and 0.001%, respectively. The specificity was verified in 14 different species. Hence, determining F2 in food by ddPCR can be recommended for quality assurance and control in production systems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of heavy metals pollution in the water, soil and sediments environment of the Lean River-Poyang Lake Wetland].

    PubMed

    Jian, Min-Fei; Li, Ling-Yu; Xu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Pu-Qing; Xiong, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Xue-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Overlying water, sediments, surface soils in the typical wetland areas of Lean River and Poyang Lake which were rich in non-ferrous metal mineral resources on both sides of the river, were chosen for monitoring heavy metals including copper, lead and cadmium of base flow in average season, flood season, and dry season in 2012. Statistical analysis methods were coupled to characterize the spatiotemporal variation of heavy metals pollution and identify the main sources. The results indicated that the concentrations of copper were the highest in all samples of each sampling sites in the Lean River-Poyang Lake wetland. And the content values of copper, lead and cadmium in different samples of different sampling sites also showed that the content values of copper were higher than those of lead, and the content values of lead were also higher than those of cadmium. The results also showed that the heavy metals pollution of copper, lead and cadmium in flood season was the heaviest whereas the heavy metals pollution in dry season was comparatively light. The results of the contents of the three kinds of heavy metals elements in different sampling sites of the watersheds of lean River showed that the contents of copper in the samples from the upstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. And the contents of lead in the samples from the downstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sampling sites. The contents of cadmium in the samples from the midstream sampling sites of Lean River were higher than those of other samples from other sites. The first principal component representing copper pollution explained 36. 99% of the total variance of water quality. The second principal component concerning representing lead pollution explained 30. 12% of the total variance. The correlation analysis results showed that there were significant positive correlations among the contents of copper

  17. Carcass yield and meat quality in broilers fed with canola meal.

    PubMed

    Gopinger, E; Xavier, E G; Lemes, J S; Moraes, P O; Elias, M C; Roll, V F B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of canola meal in broiler diets on carcass yield, carcass composition, and instrumental and sensory analyses of meat. 2. A total of 320 one-day-old Cobb broilers were used in a 35-d experiment using a completely randomised design with 5 concentrations of canola meal (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) as a dietary substitute for soya bean meal. 3. Polynomial regression at 5% significance was used to evaluate the effects of canola meal content. The following variables were measured: carcass yield, chemical composition of meat, and instrumental and sensorial analyses. 4. The results showed that carcass yield exhibited a quadratic effect that was crescent to the level of 18% of canola meal based on the weight of the leg and a quadratic increase at concentrations up to 8.4% of canola meal based on the weight of the chest. The yield of the chest exhibited a linear behaviour. 5. The chemical composition of leg meat, instrumental analysis of breast meat and sensory characteristics of the breast meat was not significantly affected by the inclusion of canola meal. The chemical composition of the breast meat exhibited an increased linear effect in terms of dry matter and ether extract and a decreased linear behaviour in terms of the ash content. 6. In conclusion, soya bean meal can be substituted with canola meal at concentrations up to 20% of the total diet without affecting carcass yield, composition of meat or the instrumental or sensory characteristics of the meat of broilers.

  18. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine methyltransferase 3b gene and their association with meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y

    2012-08-16

    DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits.

  19. Effect of partial reduction of pork meat on the physicochemical and sensory quality of dry ripened sausages: development of a healthy venison salchichon.

    PubMed

    Utrilla, M C; García Ruiz, A; Soriano, A

    2014-12-01

    The minimum percentage of pork meat to be added to traditional venison salchichon has been determined in order to ensure a nutritionally healthier product without impairing physicochemical or sensory properties. Six types of salchichon were made using lean venison and a varying amount of pork meat (40%, 30%, 25%, 20%, 15% and 10%). All types displayed appropriate physicochemical properties (pH, aw, moisture loss) and color (L*, a*, b*) during ripening, as well as adequate levels of lipolysis (acidity index) and lipid oxidation (TBARS). Moreover, reduction of the amount of pork meat in salchichon prompted an increase in the relative percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It was concluded that in making venison salchichon, the addition of a 25% pork meat is sufficient to ensure a satisfactory ripening process and physicochemical characteristics, optimal organoleptic properties and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids than that found in traditional venison salchichon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Methodology for the Assessment of Experiential Learning Lean: The Lean Experience Factory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Zan, Giovanni; De Toni, Alberto Felice; Fornasier, Andrea; Battistella, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to assess the experiential learning processes of learning lean in an innovative learning environment: the lean model factories. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on learning and lean management literatures was carried out to design the methodology. Then, a case study…

  1. Meat Training Council Aims to Make Willing Workers into Professional Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, David

    2002-01-01

    Details the UK Meat Training Council's management development programme, aimed at increasing the levels of professionalism in the meat and poultry industry and making it more attractive to young people as a long-term career. Describes the course contents and assessment methods, and contains interviews with course participants.

  2. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be... fat. (iv) A synonym for “___ percent fat free” is “___ percent lean.” (c) Fatty acid content claims...

  3. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be.... (iv) A synonym for “___ percent fat free” is “___ percent lean.” (c) Fatty acid content claims. (1...

  4. How Muscle Structure and Composition Influence Meat and Flesh Quality

    PubMed Central

    Listrat, Anne; Lebret, Bénédicte; Louveau, Isabelle; Astruc, Thierry; Bonnet, Muriel; Lefaucheur, Louis; Picard, Brigitte; Bugeon, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle consists of several tissues, such as muscle fibers and connective and adipose tissues. This review aims to describe the features of these various muscle components and their relationships with the technological, nutritional, and sensory properties of meat/flesh from different livestock and fish species. Thus, the contractile and metabolic types, size and number of muscle fibers, the content, composition and distribution of the connective tissue, and the content and lipid composition of intramuscular fat play a role in the determination of meat/flesh appearance, color, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and technological value. Interestingly, the biochemical and structural characteristics of muscle fibers, intramuscular connective tissue, and intramuscular fat appear to play independent role, which suggests that the properties of these various muscle components can be independently modulated by genetics or environmental factors to achieve production efficiency and improve meat/flesh quality. PMID:27022618

  5. Influence of two dietary fats on the composition of emu oil and meat.

    PubMed

    Beckerbauer, L M; Thiel-Cooper, R; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L; Parrish, F C; Beitz, D C

    2001-02-01

    Male and female emus were fed a diet rich in saturated fat (beef tallow) or a diet rich in unsaturated fat (soybean oil) until they weighed about 35 kg. Samples of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and samples of six major meat cuts were taken for determination of composition. Emus fed the two different diets grew at similar rates, but the male emus had a higher percentage of carcass fat. The adipose tissue cells from males were larger than those from females. All six meat cuts averaged 2.2% fat, with the regular filet having the most and the inside and outside drums the least. Cholesterol concentration of all sizes of meat cuts averaged 32.2 mg/100 g meat. Diet did not influence cholesterol content of the rendered oil. Fan filets had the greatest concentration of cholesterol, and the inside and outside drums had the least. Source of dietary fat had no effect on fat and cholesterol content of the meats. Meat from emus fed beef tallow was more tender and juicy. Fan filets were the most tender meat, had the least intense flavor, and were the most flavorful. Untrained panelists were able to discriminate between emu meat and beef. Source of dietary fat did not influence the fatty acid compositions of the meats. As expected, the soybean oil-fed emus produced oil that was more polyunsaturated than did the tallow-fed emus.

  6. Changes in endogenous bioactive compounds of Korean native chicken meat at different ages and during cooking.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P < 0.05). The KNC meat lost significant amounts of all bioactive compounds during cooking (P < 0.05). Leg meat had high retention percentages of carnosine and anserine after cooking, whereas breast meat showed almost complete retention of betaine and carnitine. The results of this study provide useful and rare information regarding the presence, amounts, and determinants of endogenous bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv, N.; Self, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes test strategies and lean philisophies and practices that are applied to Ares Launch Vehicles. The topics include: 1) Testing strategy; 2) Lean Practices in Ares I-X; 3) Lean Practices Applied to Ares I-X Schedule; 4) Lean Event Results; 5) Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Practices in the Ares Projects Office; 6) Lean and Kaizen Success Stories; and 7) Ares Six Sigma Practices.

  8. Colour and fat content as intrinsic cues for consumers attitudes towards meat product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers’ attitudes towards sensory properties of chicken, royal and beef salami, meat products from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1018) in four retail stores (Delhaize) in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference concerning the colour and fat of three selected salami and then completed questionnaire of socio-demographic information including eating behaviour. Selected smoked meat products were evaluated in the DLG Test Center Food, Germany. Consumers, at all education levels and in all age groups, evaluated colour as good and fat as sufficient with a significantly (p<0.05) higher percentage in comparison with other offered answers. All smoked products passed the DLG tests and received “DLG award winner” medals in Gold (73%) or Silver (27%).

  9. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens increase lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J.; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F.; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat-mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE), a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n=2101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining ~80% of the cases from the area. Non-cancer population controls (n=2120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1903 cases and 2073 controls, and used in conjunction with a meat-mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.5–2.2; p-trend<0.001 and OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.4–2.1; p-trend<0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.4–4.0, p-trend=0.001 and OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.5–4.2, p-trend=0.001, respectively). Heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:19141639

  10. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of meat appearance on consumer preferences for pork chops in Greece and Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Fortomaris, P; Arsenos, G; Georgiadis, M; Banos, G; Stamataris, C; Zygoyiannis, D

    2006-04-01

    The effect of meat appearance on consumers' preferences for pork chops was assessed using images manipulated for appearance characteristics. Data were collected from 412 consumers in Greece and Cyprus. Consumers were asked for their preference for pork chops from a book of computer-modified images and then completed a questionnaire of socio-demographic information, including eating and purchasing behaviour. Consumers under the age of 35 years showed preferences for dark red, lean pork, while consumers aged 35 years and older preferred either dark or light red pork. Gender appeared to be an important selection factor as men showed an increased preference for dark red pork while women preferred the light red. Consumers who stated that they like pork for its taste (91%) preferred either dark or light red pork chops while those who like pork for reasons other than taste preferred dark red, lean pork. Urban consumers preferred light red, fatty pork chops while the rural consumers preferred the dark red pork chops.

  12. Implementing lean in Malaysian universities: Lean awareness level in an engineering faculty of a local university

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azim Khairi, M.; Rahman, Mohamed Abd

    2018-01-01

    Many academic articles were published in Malaysia promoting the goodness of lean in manufacturing and industrial sectors but less attention was apparently given to the possibility of obtaining the same universal benefits when applying lean in non-manufacturing sectors especially higher education. This study aims to determine the level of lean awareness among a local university’s community taking its Faculty of Engineering (FoE) as the case study. It also seeks to identify typical FoE’s staff perception on lean regarding its benefits and the obstacles in implementing it. A web-based survey using questionnaires was carried out for 215 respondents consisting of academic and administrative staff of the faculty. Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyze the survey data collected. A total of 13.95% of respondents returned the forms. Slightly more than half of those responded (56.7%) have encountered some of the lean terms with mean 1.43 and standard deviation 0.504. However, the large amount of standard deviation somewhat indicates that the real level of lean awareness of FoE as a group was low. In terms of lean benefits, reduction of waste was favored (93.3%) by the respondents with mean 0.93 and standard deviation 0.254. For obstacles in implementing lean, lack of knowledge was selected by most respondents (86.7%) to be the major factor with mean 0.87 and standard deviation 0.346. Through the analysis done, the study may conclude that level of lean awareness among the university‘s community was low thus may hinder implementation of lean concept.

  13. Consumer evaluations of processed meat products reformulated to be healthier - A conjoint analysis study.

    PubMed

    Shan, Liran C; De Brún, Aoife; Henchion, Maeve; Li, Chenguang; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G; Monahan, Frank J

    2017-09-01

    Recent innovations in processed meats focus on healthier reformulations through reducing negative constituents and/or adding health beneficial ingredients. This study explored the influence of base meat product (ham, sausages, beef burger), salt and/or fat content (reduced or not), healthy ingredients (omega 3, vitamin E, none), and price (average or higher than average) on consumers' purchase intention and quality judgement of processed meats. A survey (n=481) using conjoint methodology and cluster analysis was conducted. Price and base meat product were most important for consumers' purchase intention, followed by healthy ingredient and salt and/or fat content. In reformulation, consumers had a preference for ham and sausages over beef burgers, and for reduced salt and/or fat over non reduction. In relation to healthy ingredients, omega 3 was preferred over none, and vitamin E was least preferred. Healthier reformulations improved the perceived healthiness of processed meats. Cluster analyses identified three consumer segments with different product preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Web-Based Lean Simulation Game for Office Operations: Training the Other Side of a Lean Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriger, Glenn W.; Wan, Huang-da; Mirehei, S. Moussa; Tamma, Saumya; Chen, F. Frank

    2010-01-01

    This research proposes a Web-based version of a lean office simulation game (WeBLOG). The game is designed to be used to train lean concepts to office and administrative personnel. This group belongs to the frequently forgotten side of a lean enterprise. Over four phases, the game presents the following seven lean tools: one-piece flow,…

  15. Heterocyclic amines content of meat and fish cooked by Brazilian methods.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Sharma, Sangita; Le Marchand, Loïc; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2010-02-01

    Heterocyclic amine (HCA) concentrations were measured in meat and fish samples cooked by pan-frying, grilling and churrasco (Brazilian barbecue) to various levels of doneness in accordance with the cooking methods most commonly used in Brazil. HCAs were extracted by the Blue-rayon absorption method and measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) were sharply increased in very well-done meats and fish. HCA levels varied somewhat across cooking methods: levels of PhIP (ng/g) in very well-done, non-marinated samples were particularly high for churrasco (31.8 in the exterior of the sample), compared to lower levels for grilled (16.3), and pan-fried beef (0.58). On comparison across foods, chicken contained higher HCA levels than other non-marinated samples. For example, PhIP levels (ng/g) in very well-done pan-fried foods were 34.6 for chicken with the skin, 0.58 for beef, 7.25 for pork, 2.28 for sardines, and 7.37 for salmon cooked with the skin. HCA levels were lower in marinated meats and fish than in non-marinated samples, except for pan-fried salmon. This study provides valuable information which will allow the estimation of dietary HCA exposure using an epidemiologic questionnaire and the investigation of the association of HCA intake with cancer risk in Brazil.

  16. Heterocyclic amines content of meat and fish cooked by Brazilian methods

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Sharma, Sangita; Le Marchand, Loïc; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Heterocyclic amine (HCA) concentrations were measured in meat and fish samples cooked by pan-frying, grilling and churrasco (Brazilian barbecue) to various levels of doneness in accordance with the cooking methods most commonly used in Brazil. HCAs were extracted by the Blue-rayon absorption method and measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) were sharply increased in very well-done meats and fish. HCA levels varied somewhat across cooking methods: levels of PhIP (ng/g) in very well-done, non-marinated samples were particularly high for churrasco (31.8 in the exterior of the sample), compared to lower levels for grilled (16.3), and pan-fried beef (0.58). On comparison across foods, chicken contained higher HCA levels than other non-marinated samples. For example, PhIP levels (ng/g) in very well-done pan-fried foods were 34.6 for chicken with the skin, 0.58 for beef, 7.25 for pork, 2.28 for sardines, and 7.37 for salmon cooked with the skin. HCA levels were lower in marinated meats and fish than in non-marinated samples, except for pan-fried salmon. This study provides valuable information which will allow the estimation of dietary HCA exposure using an epidemiologic questionnaire and the investigation of the association of HCA intake with cancer risk in Brazil. PMID:20383312

  17. Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Egan, A F

    1983-09-01

    When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When these organisms spoil meats it is generally by causing souring, however other specific types of spoilage do occur. Some strains cause slime formation and greening of cured meats, and others may produce hydrogen sulphide during growth on vacuum-packaged beef. The safety and stability of fermented sausages depends upon fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria. Overall the presence on meats of lactic acid bacteria is more desirable than that of the types of bacteria they have replaced.

  18. The human side of lean teams.

    PubMed

    Wackerbarth, Sarah B; Strawser-Srinath, Jamie R; Conigliaro, Joseph C

    2015-05-01

    Organizations use lean principles to increase quality and decrease costs. Lean projects require an understanding of systems-wide processes and utilize interdisciplinary teams. Most lean tools are straightforward, and the biggest barrier to successful implementation is often development of the team aspect of the lean approach. The purpose of this article is to share challenges experienced by a lean team charged with improving a hospital discharge process. Reflection on the experience provides an opportunity to highlight lessons from The Team Handbook by Peter Scholtes and colleagues. To improve the likelihood that process improvement initiatives, including lean projects, will be successful, organizations should consider providing training in organizational change principles and team building. The authors' lean team learned these lessons the hard way. Despite the challenges, the team successfully implemented changes throughout the organization that have had a positive impact. Training to understand the psychology of change might have decreased the resistance faced in implementing these changes. © 2014 by the American College of Medical Quality.

  19. The effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean blowout limit, lean stability limit and NO(x) emissions in lean premixed gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, W.-P.; Lee, J. G.; Santavicca, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for both land-based and aircraft propulsion applications are facing regulations on NOx emissions which cannot be met with current combustor technology. A number of alternative combustor strategies are being investigated which have the potential capability of achieving ultra-low NOx emissions, including lean premixed combustors, direct injection combustors, rich burn-quick quench-lean burn combustors and catalytic combustors. The research reported in this paper addresses the effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing on the lean limit performance and the NOx emissions characteristics of lean premixed combustors.

  20. Sensory properties and fatty acids profiles of fermented dry sausages made of pork meat from various breeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parunović, N.; Radović, Č.; Savić, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the parallel examinations on fatty acid profiles and sensory properties of fermented dry sausages are presented. Three types of kulen and sremska sausages were made, which varied depending on the percentage of meat and fat derived from different pig breeds: autochthonous (Swallow-Belly Mangalitsa and Moravka) and commercial (Swedish Landrace). In sausages made from meat of commercial pig breed, the highest cholesterol content was detected. However, sausage made from the Mangalitsa pork meat contained higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA), and lower saturated fatty acid levels (SFA).The level of polyunsaturated (PUFA) in sausage made of Landrace pork meat was significantly higher than levels in other types. These differences between fatty acids were mostly deriving by higher total n-6 PUFA content. In a sausage made of Mangulitsa meat, the values of atherogenic (IA) and thrombogenic (IT) health lipid indexes are lower. Kulen and sremska sausages made from the Mangalitsa pork meat was superior in terms of colour, odour, taste, after taste and overall acceptability. This study demonstrate that pig breed have an effect on the chemical content, fatty acids profiles and sensory properties of dry fermented sausages.

  1. Natural Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  2. Effects of protein phosphorylation on color stability of ground meat.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Li, Xin; Xin, Jianzeng; Li, Zheng; Li, Guixia; Zhang, Yan; Du, Manting; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2017-03-15

    The influence of protein phosphorylation on meat color stability was investigated in this study. Phosphatase and protein kinase inhibitors were added to minced ovine Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle to manipulate the global phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. The data obtained show that the rate and extent of pH decline, along with lactate accumulation in postmortem muscle, were related to protein phosphorylation. Analysis of meat color and the relative content of myoglobin redox forms revealed that meat color stability was inversely related to the phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. Thus, this study suggests that protein phosphorylation may be involved in meat color development by regulating glycolysis and the redox stability of myoglobin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The lean service machine.

    PubMed

    Swank, Cynthia Karen

    2003-10-01

    Jefferson Pilot Financial, a life insurance and annuities firm, like many U.S. service companies at the end of the 1990s was looking for new ways to grow. Its top managers recognized that JPF needed to differentiate itself in the eyes of its customers, the independent life-insurance advisers who sell and service policies. To establish itself as these advisers' preferred partner, it set out to reduce the turnaround time on policy applications, simplify the submission process, and reduce errors. JPF's managers looked to the "lean production" practices that U.S. manufacturers adopted in response to competition from Japanese companies. Lean production is built around the concept of continuous-flow processing--a departure from traditional production systems, in which large batches are processed at each step. JPF appointed a "lean team" to reengineer its New Business unit's operations, beginning with the creation of a "model cell"--a fully functioning microcosm of JPF's entire process. This approach allowed managers to experiment and smooth out the kinks while working toward an optimal design. The team applied lean-manufacturing practices, including placing linked processes near one another, balancing employees' workloads, posting performance results, and measuring performance and productivity from the customer's perspective. Customer-focused metrics helped erode the employees' "My work is all that matters" mind-set. The results were so impressive that JPF is rolling out similar systems across many of its operations. To convince employees of the value of lean production, the lean team introduced a simulation in which teams compete to build the best paper airplane based on invented customer specifications. This game drives home lean production's basic principles, establishing a foundation for deep and far-reaching changes in the production system.

  4. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  5. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 317.360 Section 317.360 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  6. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 381.460 Section 381.460 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  7. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 317.360 Section 317.360 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  8. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 317.360 Section 317.360 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  9. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 381.460 Section 381.460 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  10. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie content. 381.460 Section 381.460 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  11. Comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus breeds.

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, C; Clinquart, A; Hocquette, J F; Cabaraux, J F; Dufrasne, I; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2006-11-01

    Thirty-six young finishing bulls from three breeds (Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus) were fattened over five months with finishing diets based either on sugar-beet pulp or on cereals. Nutritional quality traits of meat - fat content and fatty acid composition with emphasis on the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - along with some organoleptic quality traits were measured. The Belgian Blue bulls had the lowest intramuscular fat content associated with lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content did not differ to a large extent between the breeds, the Aberdeen Angus bulls showing slightly higher values. Relative to energy intake, the overall contribution of meat to the n-3 fatty acid recommended intake was small, whatever the breed. By contrast, the contribution of meat to daily fat intake was of greater importance, especially for the Aberdeen Angus bulls. The quality traits of meat varied also according to the breed: compared to the Aberdeen Angus, the Belgian Blue bull meat had the stablest colour, the highest drip and the lowest cooking losses. The meat of Limousin bulls had intermediate characteristics for all the parameters.

  12. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  13. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  14. Influence of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine or spermine on the formation of N-nitrosamine in heated cured pork meat.

    PubMed

    Drabik-Markiewicz, G; Dejaegher, B; De Mey, E; Kowalska, T; Paelinck, H; Vander Heyden, Y

    2011-06-15

    The influence of biogenic amines (i.e. putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine) on the N-nitrosamine formation in heated cured lean meat was studied in the presence or absence of sodium nitrite and at different meat processing temperatures. Experimental evidence was produced using gas chromatography with thermal energy analysis detection (GC-TEA). Concentration of N-nitrosamines was modelled as a function of the temperature and the nitrite concentration for two situations, i.e. presence or absence of added biogenic amines to the meat. The significance of the influence of the changing parameters was evaluated by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). It was found that higher processing temperatures and higher added amounts of sodium nitrite increase the yields of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP). Spermidine and putrescine amplify the formation of NDMA, but spermine and cadeverine do not influence the formation of this N-nitrosamine. Spermidine and cadeverine cause a significant increase of NPIP. Beside N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) in some rare cases, no other volatile N-nitrosamines are detected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Game and venison - meat for the modern consumer.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Wiklund, E

    2006-09-01

    This review focuses on how game meat from southern Africa and venison that are increasingly being imported into Europe and the US addresses consumer issues as pertaining to production (wild, free range or intensive production) and harvesting methods, healthiness (chemical composition, particularly fatty acid composition), and traceability. Although African game meat species are farmed extensively, deer species are farmed using extensive to intensive production systems. However, the increasingly intensive production of the cervids and the accompanying practices associated with this (castration, velvetting, feeding of balanced diets, etc.) may have a negative impact in the near future on the consumer's perception of these animals. These alternative meat species are all harvested in a sustainable manner using acceptable methods. All these species have very low muscle fat contents consisting predominantly of structural lipid components (phospholipid and cholesterol) that have high proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This results in the meat having desirable polyunsaturated:saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios. The South African traceability system is discussed briefly as an example on how these exporting countries are able to address the requirements pertaining to the import of meat as stipulated by the European Economic Community.

  16. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 319.10 Section 319.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim...

  17. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 319.10 Section 319.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim...

  18. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 319.10 Section 319.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim...

  19. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 319.10 Section 319.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim...

  20. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 319.10 Section 319.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim...

  1. Research of principles for estimating the freshness of meat products by color analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Petukhova, Daria B.; Alekhin, Artem A.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    Color is one of the most important metrics of foodstuffs quality. It gives an indication of freshness, ingredient composition as well as about the presence or absence of falsification. Most often, the color is estimated visually, and thus, the evaluation is subjective. By automating the color analysis a wide application for this method could be found. The aim of this research is to study the principles of color analysis as applied to the task of evaluating the freshness of meat products using modern machine vision systems. From a scientific point of view, the color of meat depends on the proportion of myoglobin and its derivatives. It's the main pigment that characterizes the freshness of meat. Further color of meat can change due to oxidation of myoglobin during storage. Myoglobin exists in three forms. There are oxygenated form, oxidized form and form without oxygen. The meat color changes not only due to the conversion of one form into another. The content of amino acids and ammonia are another characteristics and constant signs of meat products spoilage. The paper presents the results of meat color computer simulation based on data on the content of various forms of myoglobin in different proportions. The spectral characteristic of the light source used to illuminate the meat sample is taken into account. Also the experimental studies were conducted using samples of beef. As a result the correlations between said biochemical indicators of the quality and color of the meat obtained with the help of machine vision system were found.

  2. A prospective study of meat, cooking methods, meat mutagens, heme iron, and lung cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Tasevska, Natasa; Sinha, Rashmi; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F; Leitzmann, Michael F; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Caporaso, Neil E; Schatzkin, Arthur; Cross, Amanda J

    2009-06-01

    Red and processed meat consumption may play a role in lung cancer pathogenesis because of these meats' fat and carcinogen content. We prospectively investigated whether meat type, cooking method, doneness level, and intake of specific meat mutagens and heme iron are associated with lung carcinoma. Men (n = 278,380) and women (n = 189,596) from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study with no history of cancer at baseline were monitored for 8 y. Diet was assessed with a 124-item food-frequency questionnaire. A meat-cooking module was used to estimate the intake of individual heterocyclic amines, benzo(a)pyrene, and heme iron. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. In a comparison of quintiles 5 with 1 (Q5vsQ1), a high intake of red meat was associated with an increased risk of lung carcinoma in both men (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.38; P for trend = 0.005) and women (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.13; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.32; P for trend = 0.05). A high intake of processed meat increased the risk only in men (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.23; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.37; P for trend = 0.003). In an analysis stratified by smoking status, we observed a tendency for an increased risk with red meat intake in never smoking men and women; however, the risks were not statistically significant. In a comparison of tertiles 3 and 1 (T3vsT1), the risk of lung carcinoma was associated with intake of well-/very-well-done meat (HR(T3vsT1): 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.35; P for trend = 0.002) and the intake of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.20; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.38; P for trend = 0.04) in men. Heme iron intake increased the risk of lung carcinoma in both men (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.25; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.45; P for trend = 0.02) and women (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.42; P for trend = 0.002). We observed a moderate association between meat consumption and lung carcinoma, which might be explained by heme iron intake, high

  3. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  4. Effect of dietary fat sources and zinc and selenium supplements on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Barroeta, A C; Codony, R

    2005-07-01

    A factorial design was used to study the effect of changes in broiler feed on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. One week before slaughter, 1.25% dietary fish oil was removed from the feed and replaced by other fat sources (animal fat or linseed oil) or we continued with fish oil, and diets were supplemented with Zn (0, 300, or 600 mg/kg), and Se (0 or 1.2 mg/kg as sodium selenite or 0.2 mg/kg as Se-enriched yeast). The changes in dietary fat led to distinct fatty acid compositions of mixed raw dark and white chicken meat with skin. The fish oil diet produced meat with the highest eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) content, whereas the linseed oil diet led to meat with the highest content in total n-3 polyunsaturated acids (PUFA), especially linolenic acid. However, meat from animals on the animal fat diet was still rich in very long-chain n-3 PUFA. Se content was affected by Se and Zn supplements. Se content increased with Zn supplementation. However, only Se from the organic source led to a significant increase in this mineral in meat compared with the control. Consumer acceptability scores and TBA values of cooked dark chicken meat after 74 d or after 18 mo of frozen storage were not affected by any of the dietary factors studied.

  5. Effect of breeding strategy and feeding system on the within-herd variation of lean meat percents in Danish slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Stege, H; Bagger, J; Nielsen, J P; Ersbøll, A K

    2011-08-01

    In several countries slaughter pigs are paid for individually, according to slaughter weight and lean meat percent (LMP). Production of uniform batches of pigs within the optimal weight and LMP limits will obtain the best price. Therefore, all pigs should have a similar growth rate (average daily gain, ADG) and reach an appropriate slaughter weight within the same time period. LMP may serve as a proxy for ADG since pigs with low LMP have significantly higher ADG than pigs with high LMP and vice versa. Both breeding strategy and feeding system may influence the range of variation among pigs. The aim of this study was to test the two following hypotheses: (1) Herds purchasing breeding gilts have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds producing their own breeding gilts and (2) Herds using restricted feeding of finishers have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds with ad libitum feeding of finishers. The study included 72 herds and a total of 345,132 pigs slaughtered during one year. Among the 72 herds, 40 were home-breeders and 32 purchased breeding gilts from a breeding company. Nineteen herds used restricted feeding, of which 8 (42%) were home-breeders. Fifty-three herds used ad libitum feeding, of which 32 (60%) were home-breeders. Breeding strategy had a significant effect on SDLMP (p=0.003), where purchase of breeding gilts resulted in a significantly lower standard deviation of the monthly LMP compared to home-bred gilts (a difference in median SDLMP of 0.2 percentage points or 8% difference between groups). Feeding system had a significant effect on the meanLMP (p<0.001), with a significantly higher meanLMP in herds using restrictive feeding compared to ad libitum feeding (60.7% versus 60.0%). Restrictive feeding also resulted in a significantly lower SDLMP (p<0.001) compared to ad libitum feeding (2.2% versus 2.5% or a 12% difference between groups). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  6. Nutrients Composition in Fit Snacks Made from Ostrich, Beef and Chicken Dried Meat.

    PubMed

    Zdanowska-Sąsiadek, Żaneta; Marchewka, Joanna; Horbańczuk, Jarosław Olav; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka; Lipińska, Paulina; Jóźwik, Artur; Atanasov, Atanas G; Huminiecki, Łukasz; Sieroń, Aleksander; Sieroń, Karolina; Strzałkowska, Nina; Stelmasiak, Adrian; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Hecke, Thomas; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-05-25

    The aim of the study was to compare three types of meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat in relation to their nutrients content including fat, fatty acids, heme iron, and peptides, like anserine and carnosine, from which human health may potentially benefit. Dry meat samples were produced, from one type of muscle, obtained from ostrich ( m. ambiens ), beef ( m. semimembranosus ), and broiler chicken meat ( m. pectoralis major ). The composition of dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat, with and without spices was compared. We show that meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat were characterized by high concentration of nutrients including proteins, minerals (heme iron especially in ostrich, than in beef), biologically active peptides (carnosine-in beef, anserine-in ostrich then in chicken meat). The, beneficial to human health, n -3 fatty acids levels differed significantly between species. Moreover, ostrich jerky contained four times less fat as compared to beef and half of that in chicken. In conclusion we can say that dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat could be a good source of nutritional components.

  7. Presence of sulphites in different types of partly processed meat products prepared for grilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.; Trbović, D.; Petronijević, R.; Parunović, N.

    2017-09-01

    In the period January 2016 to May 2017, the presence and levels of sulfite were examined in 270 samples of hamburger, sausage (various types), pljeskavica (Serbian-style meat patties of various types) and ćevapi or ćevapčići (grill kebabs) from the Serbian market. Some (12.59%) of these partly processed meat products contained sulfites, expressed as SO2, at levels above 10 mg/kg, and so did not meet requirements laid down in the National Regulation. In the remainder of the meat products (87.41%), sulfite contents were below 10 mg/kg, which is considered as “not detected”. By groups, 100% of hamburgers, 91.76% of sausages and 90.48% of pljeskavica met requirements of National Regulation. The meat product group with the biggest percentage of non-compliant meat products in which sulfites were detected was the ćevapi or ćevapčići - 18.10% of them contained sulfites. All in all, most of the partly processed meat products from the Serbian market met the National Regulation regarding sulfite content, and they were safe for consumption. Nonetheless, the high percentage of ćevapi or ćevapčići that contained sulfites leads us to conclude that regular and periodic control is necessary and one of the most important steps in ensuring safe and quality meat products for consumers.

  8. Meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition of Catria Horse.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Maria Federica; Nocelli, Francesco; Pasquini, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36.78% and fat accounted for 9.19% of weight of steak. Regarding chemical composition, protein and fat content was 20.31% and 2.83%, respectively. Total iron content (1.95 mg/100 g) was lower than data reported in the literature. Color parameters showed a luminous and intense red hue muscle. The sum of unsaturated fatty acid composition (50.3%) was higher than the sum of saturated fatty acids (46.64 %). The fatty acid profile and nutritional values of Catria Horse meat could be modified adopting extensive rearing systems and grazing. The data suggests that further investigation on the composition of Catria Horse meat should be carried out to valorize this autochthonous breed, reared in sustainable livestock systems, and its meat in local short-chain systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Decreased red meat fat consumption in New Zealand: 1995-2002.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Murray

    2005-11-25

    To review New Zealand red meat and meat fat supply trends before and after the introduction of the Quality Mark standard. Review of trends in: per capita meat fat supply estimates from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); carcase and meat cut composition reports of knife dissection and chemical analyses; the fate of fat trim; and a Lincoln College study of home-cooked and trimmed beef. Intervention From September 1997, the red meat industry's Quality Mark required trimming of beef and lamb cuts to no more than 5 mm external fat. (1) Trimming of fat from red meat before sale (supported by virtually all butchers) decreased the fat and saturated fat content of a red meat carcase by 30% (beef, -27%; lamb, -30%; tallow unchanged); by -8% in the total food supply; and by -17% across all meat. In 2002, fat comprised 7.4% of trimmed beef cuts, and 11.2% of all beef sold: cuts, mince, or sausages. In 2002, fat comprised 15.3% of lamb cuts; and 15.5% with mince included. (2) From 1995 to 2002, total saturated fat availability per capita in the food supply decreased by 19% (from 65 g to 53 g per day), mostly due to 7 g less saturated fat daily from red meat. (3) When combining effects (1) and (2), saturated fat per capita decreased: -27% in total food supply; -65% in red meat excluding tallow; -48% in red meat including tallow. In 1995 (without trimming), red meat contributed 25% of saturated fat in the total food supply whereas in 2002, red meat contributed 19% before (and 13% after) trimming. (4) Home trimming may remove an additional 27% of fat from beef steaks. Centralised meat processing, and Quality Mark labelling since 1997, ensured fat was trimmed from beef and lamb cuts, and reduced saturated fat in red meats by 30%. In 2002, mince and sausages accounted for nearly half of beef fat sold as red meat.

  10. Genome-wide association of myoglobin concentrations in pork loins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pork is a widely consumed protein source. To remain competitive, pork quality must improve. Pork quality is a focus not only for producers and packers but also for consumers. Consumer purchasing decisions are largely based on lean meat color, indicating freshness. Myoglobin content in pork is the ma...

  11. Lean in healthcare from employees' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Drotz, Erik; Poksinska, Bozena

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute toward a deeper understanding of the new roles, responsibilities, and job characteristics of employees in Lean healthcare organizations. The paper is based on three cases studies of healthcare organizations that are regarded as successful examples of Lean applications in the healthcare context. Data were collected by methods including interviews, observations, and document studies. The implementation of Lean in healthcare settings has had a great influence on the roles, responsibilities, and job characteristics of the employees. The focus has shifted from healthcare professionals, where clinical autonomy and professional skills have been the guarding principles of patient care, to process improvement and teamwork. Different job characteristics may make it difficult to implement certain Lean practices in healthcare. Teamwork and decentralization of authority are examples of Lean practices that could be considered countercultural because of the strong professional culture and uneven power distribution, with doctors as the dominant decision makers. Teamwork, value flow orientation, and company-wide involvement in CI were associated with positive effects on the organizations' working environment, staff development, and organizational performance. In order to succeed with Lean healthcare, it is important to understand and recognize the differences in job characteristics between Lean manufacturing and healthcare. This paper provides insights into how Lean implementation changes the roles, responsibilities, and job characteristics of healthcare staff and the challenges and implications that may follow from this.

  12. Physical and nutritional properties of buffalo meat finished on hay or maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cifuni, Giulia Francesca; Contò, Michela; Amici, Andrea; Failla, Sebastiana

    2014-04-01

    The current study examines the effect of different finishing diets (hay- vs. maize-silage on meal ration) on carcass quality, physical, chemical and sensory properties, and fatty acid profiles of buffalo meat. Twenty male Italian Mediterranean buffaloes (246 ± 9.00 kg live weight) were distributed at random into two groups at the beginning of the finishing period (368 ± 20 days). The buffaloes were offered two finishing diets: a maize silage (MS) or an alfalfa hay (AH) diet. No significant differences were found between dietary treatments for live and carcass weight. Meat chemical composition was influenced by dietary treatment. A higher fat content was detected in meat from animals finished with MS than AH (P < 0.05). Overall, the data indicated differences between the fatty acid profiles of meat as a consequence of different feeding systems. The higher fat deposition in the MS group resulted in meat with a less favorable fatty acid profile (i.e. a lower polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and α-linolenic fatty acid content) in relation to human health compared with meat from animals fed the AH diet. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Shelf life of meat from lambs given essential oil-free rosemary extract containing carnosic acid plus carnosol at 200 or 400 mg kg⁻¹.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Jordi; Serrano, Rafael; Jordán, María José; Bañón, Sancho

    2014-04-01

    The use of dietary rosemary extract (DRE) at low doses is proposed as a nutritional strategy to improve meat preservation. Lamb diet was supplemented with 0, 200 or 400mg DRE (containing carnosic acid and carnosol at 1:1 w:w) per kg feed during the fattening stage. Meat quality was evaluated in lamb fillets packed under protective atmosphere and kept in retail conditions for up to 14 days. The effects of diet and storage time were determined on different physical-chemical (L*a*b* color, pH, TBARS, protein oxidation and volatiles from lipid oxidation), microbial (total viable and psychrophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, molds and yeasts) and sensory (appearance and odor) characteristics of the meat. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of DRE on meat were demonstrated. DRE delayed lean and fat discoloration, lipid oxidation, odor deterioration and microbial spoilage, extending the shelf life time of fillets from around 9 to 13 days. Both DRE doses provided similar shelf life extension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry approach compared with DNA-based PCR method for authentication of meat species from raw and cooked ground meat mixtures containing cattle meat, water buffalo meat and sheep meat.

    PubMed

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Jagadeesh Babu, A; Madhava Rao, T; Kamuni, Veeranna; Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Rapole, Srikanth

    2017-10-15

    The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0.5% level in sheep meat with high confidence. Relative quantification of buffalo meat mixed with sheep meat was done by quantitative label-free mass spectrometry using UPLC-QTOF and PLGS search engine to substantiate the confidence level of the data. In the DNA-based method, PCR amplification of mitochondrial D loop gene using species specific primers found 226bp and 126bp product amplicons for buffalo and cattle meat, respectively. The method was efficient in detecting a minimum of 0.5% and 1.0% when buffalo meat was spiked with cattle meat in raw and cooked meat mixes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organizational change through Lean Thinking.

    PubMed

    Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

    2008-08-01

    In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change.

  16. Influences of end-point heating temperature on the quality attributes of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, W; Chen, C F; Chen, H Y; Tan, F J

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) pectoralis muscle heated at temperatures of 50-95°C. With increasing temperature, cooking loss, collagen solubility, shear force value and hardness, of samples increased in both chicken breeds. Rapid decreases in protein solubility were observed when the meat was heated to 50°C and gradually decreased thereafter. Meat from BRs and native chickens performed differently upon heating in certain characteristics. TNC meat had longer cooking time and lower myofibrillar fragmentation index than BR meat did. TNC meat had higher collagen content, shear force values and springiness but lower collagen solubility than BR meat did. BR meat had significantly higher onset and end transition temperatures than TNC meat did. In BR meat, a sensory analysis revealed that moisture release decreased and chicken flavour increased with increasing temperature. Protein solubility, cooking loss and the texture of heated meat were highly correlated. This study scientifically assessed the performances of the two breeds of chickens with different thermal treatments; producers could utilise the information to produce poultry products with more desirable qualities.

  17. Modelling Lean and Green Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Susana Carla Vieira Lino Medina

    The success of an organization depends on the effective control of its supply chain. It is important to recognize new opportunities for organization and its supply chain. In the last few years the approach to lean, agile, resilient and green supply chain paradigms has been addressed in the scientific literature. Research in this field shows that the integration of these concepts revealed some contradictions among so many paradigms. This thesis is mainly focused on the lean and green approaches. Thirteen different management frameworks, embodied in awards, standards and tools were studied to understand if they could contribute for the modelling process of a lean and green approach. The study reveals a number of categories that are common in most management frameworks, providing adequate conditions for a lean and green supply chain transformation. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of a lean and green organization`s supply chain was proposed. The framework considers six key criteria, namely, leadership, people, strategic planning, stakeholders, processes and results. It was proposed an assessment method considering a criteria score for each criterion. The purpose is to understand how lean and green supply chain can be compatible, using principles, practices, techniques or tools (i.e. elements) that support both, a lean and a green approach, in all key criteria. A case study in the automotive upstream supply chain was performed to understand more deeply if the elements proposed for the conceptual framework could be implemented in a real-scenario. Based on the conceptual framework and the case study, a roadmap to achieve a lean-green transformation is presented. The proposed roadmap revealed its contribution to the understanding on how and when an organization`s supply chain should apply the lean and green elements. This study is relevant to practice, as it may assist managers in the adoption of a lean and green supply chain approach, giving insights for the

  18. A prescription for Lean healthcare.

    PubMed

    Wood, David

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of Lean in the healthcare industry has been an important advancement, and not just for healthcare management. Evidence suggests that Lean can improve labour and capital efficiencies, reduce the throughput time for patients and enhance the quality of care. However, the adoption of Lean has generated large variations in results and even wider-ranging suggestions on how to implement Lean in a healthcare setting. In this article, the author examines three very similar hospitals that implemented Lean in the emergency department during the same time. Through an examination of longitudinal data and a collection of unstructured interviews, the author found that implementation does make a substantial difference to long-term results. Although the presence of strong and persistent leadership can have favourable results on performance in the short term, these performance improvements are not sustainable. To have a long-term impact, healthcare providers need to engage all of the stakeholders in the healthcare system and create a culture that is continuously focused on the improvement of the patient healthcare experience. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  19. The Lean and Environment Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Lean and Environment Toolkit assembles practical experience collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and partner companies and organizations that have experience with coordinating Lean implementation and environmental management.

  20. A Value Analysis of Lean Processes in Target Value Design and Integrated Project Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Upali; K Rybkowski, Zofia; Pati, Sipra; Nejati, Adeleh

    2017-04-01

    To investigate what key stakeholders consider to be the advantages and the opportunities for improvement in using lean thinking and tools in the integrated project delivery (IPD) process. A detailed literature review was followed by case study of a Lean-IPD project. Interviews with members of the project leadership team, focus groups with the integrated team as well as the design team, and an online survey of all stakeholders were conducted. Statistical analysis and thematic content analysis were used to analyze the data, followed by a plus-delta analysis. (1) Learning is a large, implicit benefit of Lean-IPD that is not currently captured by any success metric; (2) the cardboard mock-up was the most successful lean strategy; (3) although a collaborative project, the level of influence of different stakeholder groups was perceived to be different by different stakeholders; (4) overall, Lean-IPD was rated as better than traditional design-bid-build methods; and (5) opportunities for improvement reported were increase in accurate cost estimating, more efficient use of time, perception of imbalance of control/influence, and need for facilitation (which represents different points of view). While lean tools and an IPD method are preferred to traditional design-bid-build methods, the perception of different stakeholders varies and more work needs to be done to allow a truly shared decision-making model. Learning was identified as one of the biggest advantages.

  1. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the sodium content. 381.461 Section 381.461 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATIO...

  2. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the sodium content. 381.461 Section 381.461 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATIO...

  3. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the sodium content. 317.361 Section 317.361 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATIO...

  4. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the sodium content. 317.361 Section 317.361 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATIO...

  5. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the sodium content. 381.461 Section 381.461 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATIO...

  6. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the sodium content. 317.361 Section 317.361 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATIO...

  7. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the sodium content. 381.461 Section 381.461 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATIO...

  8. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the sodium content. 317.361 Section 317.361 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATIO...

  9. The physicochemical quality and meat microstructure of post laying hen with addition of Biduri (Calotropis gigantea) latex extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Hertanto, B. S.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Swastike, W.; Cahyadi, M.; Rasid, S.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extract level of Biduri latex on the meat quality of laying hens. The materials of this research were Biduri latex and thigh meat from hens strain Lohman. The latex was tapped from a young tissue stem and centrifuged for its supernatant. Meats were smeared with latex, punctured and incubated for 30 minutes. Concentrations of latex were 0, 3, 6 and 9% from the weight of meat (w/w). The variables were water, dissolved protein, crude fat content, tenderness and microstructure of meat. The statistical analysis method using ANOVA and if there was a mean difference, Duncan test was used. Descriptive analysis was used for microstructures of meat by comparing its hydrolysis conditions. The study showed that fat had significant difference (P <0.05), dissolved protein and tenderness had very significance (P <0.01). Descriptive analysis showed that there were different compositions of microstructures on meat structure. The fat content increased with addition of 3% latex. The value of dissolved protein increased but tenderness decreased by addition extract of 6% latex. The addition of Biduri latex extract showed that hydrolysis in the microstructure of meat. The addition of 6% latex was the best meat quality.

  10. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meat analogues: Health promising sustainable meat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Mehta, Nitin; Singh, Parminder; Malav, O P; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-03-24

    There is a scarcity of protein of high biological value due to rapid increase in the world population and limited natural resources. Meat is a good source of protein of high biological value but converting the vegetable protein into animal protein is not economical. There is a trend of production of healthy and delicious meat free food for satisfaction of vegetarian and personal well beings. This resulted in increasing use of low cost vegetable protein such as textured soy protein, mushroom, wheat gluten, pulses etc as a substitute for animal-protein. These simulated meat-like products, with similar texture, flavor, color, and nutritive value can be substituted directly for meat to all sections of the society.

  12. Contribution of meat to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the USA: implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Sheehy, T; Kolonel, L N

    2013-04-01

    To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects, aged 45-75 years at baseline (1993-1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the US Department of Agriculture recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc were determined. Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3-14.3%), except for Native Hawaiian and Japanese American men, and Japanese American women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables, respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1-29.3%) and vitamin B₁₂ (19.7-40%) and, to a lesser extent, for iron (4.3-14.2%). This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the USA. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption aiming to improve dietary quality among these groups. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Prevalence and hemodynamic effects of leaning during CPR

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Dana E.; Sutton, Robert M.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Glatz, Andrew; Zuercher, Mathias; Maltese, Matthew R.; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Abella, Benjamin S.; Becker, Lance B.; Berg, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines recommend complete release between chest compressions (CC). Objective Evaluate the hemodynamic effects of leaning (incomplete chest wall release) during CPR and the prevalence of leaning during CPR. Results In piglet ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests, 10% and 20% (1.8 kg and 3.6 kg, respectively), leaning during CPR increased right atrial pressures, decreased coronary perfusion pressures, and decreased cardiac index and left ventricular myocardial blood flow by nearly 50%. In contrast, residual leaning of a 260 g accelerometer/ force feedback device did not adversely affect cardiac index or myocardial blood flow. Among 108 adult in-hospital CPR events, leaning ≥2.5 kg was demonstrable in 91% of the events and 12% of the evaluated CC. For 12 children with in-hospital CPR, 28% of CC had residual leaning ≥2.5 kg and 89% had residual leaning ≥0.5 kg. Conclusions Leaning during CPR increases intrathoracic pressure, decreases coronary perfusion pressure, and decreases cardiac output and myocardial blood flow. Leaning is common during CPR. PMID:22208173

  14. Effects of meat addition on pasta structure, nutrition and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Hamid, Nazimah; Kantono, Kevin; Pereira, Loveena; Farouk, Mustafa M; Knowles, Scott O

    2016-12-15

    In our study, semolina flour was substituted with beef emulsion (EM) at three different levels of 15, 30 and 45% (w/w) to develop a pasta with enhanced nutritional profile. The protein, fat, and water content significantly increased with addition of meat. The addition of meat enhanced the pasta gluten network. The redness and yellowness of cooked pasta increased with meat addition. Tensile strength increased from 0.018N/mm(2) in the control sample to 0.046N/mm(2) in 45% beef emulsion (45EM) sample. All meat-containing samples had significantly higher elasticity than control (0.039N/mm(2)). GI significantly decreased and IVPD value increased in 45EM sample. Five essential amino acids (leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan) in pasta digesta increased significantly with increasing meat addition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  16. Meat-type chickens have a higher efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation than laying-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Toyomizu, Masaaki; Kikusato, Motoi; Kawabata, Yusuke; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Inui, Eriko; Amo, Taku

    2011-05-01

    Meat-type chickens show high feed efficiency and have a very rapid growth rate compared with laying-type chickens. To clarify whether the type-specific difference in feed conversion efficiency is involved in mitochondrial bioenergetics, modular kinetic analysis was applied to oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria of both type chickens. Mitochondria from skeletal muscle of meat-type chickens showed greater substrate oxidation and phosphorylating activities, and less proton leak than those of the laying-type, resulting in a higher efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Gene expression and protein content of uncoupling protein (avUCP) but not adenine nucleotide translocase (avANT) gene expression were lower in skeletal muscle mitochondria of meat-type chickens than the laying-type. The current results regarding a higher efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and UCP content may partially support the high feed efficiency of meat-type chickens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    PubMed

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  18. Salt content and minimum acceptable levels in whole-muscle cured meat products.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Fischer, Estelle; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joe P; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth M

    2018-05-01

    Reported salt levels in whole-muscle cured meat products differ substantially within and among European countries, providing substantial scope for salt reduction across this sector. The objective of this study was to identify the minimum acceptable salt levels in typical whole-muscle cured products in terms of physicochemical, microbial and sensorial properties. Salt levels in a small selection of commercial Irish meat products were determined to establish a baseline for reduction. Subsequently, eight different back bacon rasher and cooked ham products were produced with varying levels of salt: 2.9%, 2.5%, 2% and 1.5% for bacon, and 2%, 1.6%, 1.0% and 0.8% for ham. Salt reduction produced products with significantly harder texture and higher microbial counts, with no difference in the colour and affecting the sensory properties. Nonetheless, salt reduction proved to be feasible to levels of 34% and 19% in bacon and ham products, respectively, compared to baseline. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rethinking Lean Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, John; O'Donovan, Brendan; Zokaei, Keivan

    Ever since Levitt's influential Harvard Business Review article 'Production-Line Approach to Service' was published in 1972, it has been common for services to be treated like production lines in both the academic literature and more widely in management practice. The belief that achieving economies of scale will reduce unit costs is a common feature of management decision-making. As technological advancement has produced ever more sophisticated IT and telephony, it has become increasingly easier for firms to standardise and off-shore services. The development of the 'lean' literature has only helped to emphasise the same underlying management assumptions: by managing cost and workers' activity, organisational performance is expected to improve. This chapter argues that through misinterpretation of the core paradigm 'lean' has become subsumed into the 'business as usual' of conventional service management. As a result, 'lean' has become synonymous with 'process efficiency' and the opportunity for significant performance improvement - as exemplified by Toyota - has been missed.

  20. Processed and unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension in women.

    PubMed

    Lajous, Martin; Bijon, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Rossignol, Emilie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-09-01

    High processed red meat consumption is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The high sodium content of processed red meat could increase blood pressure and explain the association with cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the relation between the consumption of unprocessed and processed red meat and incident hypertension. In a prospective cohort of 44,616 disease-free French women who responded to a validated dietary questionnaire, we observed 10,256 incident cases of hypertension between 1993 and 2008. Cases were identified through self-reports of diagnosed or treated hypertension. Multivariate Cox regression models were adjusted for age, education, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, and alcohol, bread, coffee, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Women who consumed ≥5 servings of processed red meat/wk (50 g = 1 serving) had a 17% higher rate of hypertension than that of women who consumed <1 serving/wk (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.26; P-trend = 0.0002). No association was observed between unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension. When women who consumed ≥5 servings of unprocessed red meat/wk (100 g = 1 serving) were compared with women who consumed <1 serving unprocessed red meat/wk, the multivariate HR was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.08; P-trend = 0.63). In this large prospective cohort of French women, we observed an association between the consumption of processed red meat and hypertension. We observed no association for unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Lean consumption.

    PubMed

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  2. In the elderly, meat protein assimilation from rare meat is lower than that from meat that is well done.

    PubMed

    Buffière, Caroline; Gaudichon, Claire; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Migné, Carole; Scislowsky, Valérie; Khodorova, Nadezda; Mosoni, Laurent; Blot, Adeline; Boirie, Yves; Dardevet, Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Rémond, Didier

    2017-11-01

    Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly. Objective: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects. Design: The study recruited 10 elderly volunteers aged 70-82 y. Each received, on 2 separate occasions, a test meal exclusively composed of intrinsically 15 N-labeled bovine meat (30 g protein), cooked at 55°C for 5 min [rare meat (RM)] or at 90°C for 30 min [fully cooked meat (FCM)], and minced. Whole-body fluxes of leucine, before and after the meal, were determined with the use of a [1- 13 C]leucine intravenous infusion. Meat protein absorption was recorded with the use of 15 N enrichment of amino acids. Results: Postprandial time course observations showed a lower concentration in the plasma of indispensable amino acids ( P < 0.01), a lower entry rate of meat leucine in the plasma ( P < 0.01), and a lower contribution of meat nitrogen to plasma amino acid nitrogen ( P < 0.001), evidencing lower peripheral bioavailability of meat amino acids with RM than with FCM. This was associated with decreased postprandial whole-body protein synthesis with RM than with FCM (40% compared with 56% of leucine intake, respectively; P < 0.01). Conclusions: Whereas meat cooking conditions have little effect on postprandial protein utilization in young adults, the present work showed that the bioavailability and assimilation of meat amino acids in the elderly is lower when meat is poorly cooked. In view to preventing sarcopenia, elderly subjects should be advised to favor the consumption of well-cooked meat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157805. © 2017 American Society for

  3. Lean Body Mass and Bone Health in Urban Adolescents From Northern India.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Raman K; Garg, M K; Bhadra, Kuntal; Mahalle, Namita; Mithal, Ambrish; Tandon, Nikhil

    2017-03-15

    To prepare percentile charts of lean body mass (LBM) among Indian urban children and adolescents; and to evaluate gender differences in LBM, and its relation with pubertal status. Secondary data analysis. School in city of Delhi, India. 1403 apparently healthy children and adolescents (826 boys) with mean (SD) age 13.2 (2.7) years. Lean body mass assessed by dual energy absorptiometry. Total and regional lean mass were greater in older age groups in both sexes. LBM showed rising trends up to the age of 18 years in boys, whereas it plateaued after the age of 15 years in girls. The age-associated increase in LBM was significantly higher in boys (130%) compared to girls (83%) (P<0.001). Total and regional lean mass increased with progression of pubertal staging in both genders. During pubertal development, LBM almost doubled (100% increase) from stage-2 to stage-5 in boys, as opposed to a 73% rise in girls (P<0.001). Total and regional lean mass and Appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) was positively correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), serum 25(OH)D, total fat mass, and bone mineral content (BMC). Relation between LBM and BMC remained significant even after adjusting for age, fat mass and various biochemical parameters. Total and regional LBM rise with age and pubertal maturation in both genders, but more so in boys when compared to girls. LBM has direct bearing on BMC even after adjusting for age, fat mass and biochemical parameters.

  4. Contribution of meat to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the U.S.: Implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sangita; Sheehy, Tony; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2016-01-01

    Background To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects aged 45–75 years at baseline (1993–1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American (JpAm), Native Hawaiian (NH) and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the USDA recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc were determined. Results Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3–14.3%), except for NH and JpAm men, and JpAm women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1–29.3%) and vitamin B-12 (19.7–40%), and to a lesser extent for iron (4.3–14.2%). Conclusions This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the U.S. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption to improve dietary quality among these groups. PMID:23398393

  5. Healthy n-6/n-3 fatty acid composition from five European game meat species remains after cooking.

    PubMed

    Valencak, Teresa G; Gamsjäger, Lisa; Ohrnberger, Sarah; Culbert, Nicole J; Ruf, Thomas

    2015-06-27

    Intensive farming of livestock along with recent food scandals and consumer deception have increased awareness about risks for human nutrition. In parallel, the demand for meat obtained under more natural conditions from animals that can freely forage has largely increased. Interestingly, the consumption of game meat has not become more common despite its excellent quality and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We addressed the question if game meat fatty acid composition is modified through kitchen preparation. By analysing muscle fatty acid (FA) composition (polar and total lipids) of five European game species in a raw and a processed state, we aimed to quantify the proportion of PUFA that are oxidised and hydrogenated during processing. All game meat species originated from local hunters and free-living individuals. To mimic a realistic situation a professional chef prepared the meat samples with gentle use of heat in a standardised way. Expectedly, the overall content of polyunsaturated fatty acids declined during the cooking process but the decrease size was <5% and the nutritiously most important n-3/n-6 ratio was not affected by processing (F1,54 = 0.46; p = 0.5). Generally, our samples contained species-specific high PUFA and n-3 FA contents but we point out that differentiating between species is necessary. Game meat thus provides a healthy meat source, as cooking does not substantially alter its favourable fatty acid composition. Further research is needed to elucidate species-specific differences and the role of habitat quality and locomotion for tissue composition.

  6. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

  7. Has Lean improved organizational decision making?

    PubMed

    Simons, Pascale; Benders, Jos; Bergs, Jochen; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Sustainable improvement is likely to be hampered by ambiguous objectives and uncertain cause-effect relations in care processes (the organization's decision-making context). Lean management can improve implementation results because it decreases ambiguity and uncertainties. But does it succeed? Many quality improvement (QI) initiatives are appropriate improvement strategies in organizational contexts characterized by low ambiguity and uncertainty. However, most care settings do not fit this context. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether a Lean-inspired change program changed the organization's decision-making context, making it more amenable for QI initiatives. Design/methodology/approach - In 2014, 12 professionals from a Dutch radiotherapy institute were interviewed regarding their perceptions of a Lean program in their organization and the perceived ambiguous objectives and uncertain cause-effect relations in their clinical processes. A survey (25 questions), addressing the same concepts, was conducted among the interviewees in 2011 and 2014. The structured interviews were analyzed using a deductive approach. Quantitative data were analyzed using appropriate statistics. Findings - Interviewees experienced improved shared visions and the number of uncertain cause-effect relations decreased. Overall, more positive (99) than negative Lean effects (18) were expressed. The surveys revealed enhanced process predictability and standardization, and improved shared visions. Practical implications - Lean implementation has shown to lead to greater transparency and increased shared visions. Originality/value - Lean management decreased ambiguous objectives and reduced uncertainties in clinical process cause-effect relations. Therefore, decision making benefitted from Lean increasing QI's sustainability.

  8. Lean in healthcare: the unfilled promise?

    PubMed

    Radnor, Zoe J; Holweg, Matthias; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    In an effort to improve operational efficiency, healthcare services around the world have adopted process improvement methodologies from the manufacturing sector, such as Lean Production. In this paper we report on four multi-level case studies of the implementation of Lean in the English NHS. Our results show that this generally involves the application of specific Lean 'tools', such as 'kaizen blitz' and 'rapid improvement events', which tend to produce small-scale and localised productivity gains. Although this suggests that Lean might not currently deliver the efficiency improvements desired in policy, the evolution of Lean in the manufacturing sector also reveals this initial focus on the 'tool level'. In moving to a more system-wide approach, however, we identify significant contextual differences between healthcare and manufacturing that result in two critical breaches of the assumptions behind Lean. First, the customer and commissioner in the private sector are the one and the same, which is essential in determining 'customer value' that drives process improvement activities. Second, healthcare is predominantly designed to be capacity-led, and hence there is limited ability to influence demand or make full use of freed-up resources. What is different about this research is that these breaches can be regarded as not being primarily 'professional' in origin but actually more 'organisational' and 'managerial' and, if not addressed could severely constrain Lean's impact on healthcare productivity at the systems level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extension of the Vane Pump-Grinder Technology to Manufacture Finely Dispersed Meat Batters.

    PubMed

    Irmscher, Stefan B; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Oechsle, Anja Maria; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-03-01

    A vane pump-grinder system was extended to enable the manufacture of finely dispersed emulsion-type sausages by constructing and attaching a high-shear homogenizer at the outlet. We hypothesized that the dispersing capabilities of the extended system may be improved to the point of facilitating meat-fat emulsification due to an overall increased volumetric energy input EV . Coarsely ground raw material mixtures were processed to yield meat batters at varying volume flow rates (10 to 60 L/min) and rotational rotor speeds of the homogenizer nrotor (1000 to 3400 rpm). The normalized torques acting on pump, grinder, and homogenizer motors were recorded and unit power consumptions were calculated. The structure of the manufactured meat batters and sausages were analyzed via image analysis. Key physicochemical properties of unheated and heated batters, that is, texture, water-binding, color, and solubilized protein were determined. The mean diameter d10 of the visible lean meat particles varied between 352 and 406 μm whereas the mean volume-surface diameter d32 varied between 603 and 796 μm. The lightness L* ranged from 66.2 to 70.7 and correlated with the volumetric energy input and product structure. By contrast, varying process parameters did not impact color values a* (approximately 11) and b* (approximately 8). Interestingly, water-binding and protein solubilization were not affected. An exponential process-structure relationship was identified allowing manufacturers to predict product properties as a function of applied process parameters. Raw material mixtures can be continuously comminuted, emulsified, and subsequently filled into casings using an extended vane pump-grinder. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Nutritional profiling of Eurasian woodcock meat: chemical composition and myoglobin characterization.

    PubMed

    Landi, Nicola; Ragucci, Sara; Di Giuseppe, Antonella Ma; Russo, Rosita; Poerio, Elia; Severino, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo

    2018-04-10

    Meat from birds is a rich source of proteins for the human diet. In this framework, Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola L.), a medium-small wading bird hunted as game in many Eurasian countries, is considered one of the best meats for culinary purposes. Since the nutritional composition of Eurasian woodcock meat has not yet been reported, we decided to determine the nutritional profile of S. rusticola meat. Macronutrient components (proteins, lipids and fatty acids) were determined, as well as free and total amino acids, and compared with those of the common pheasant. Eurasian woodcock meat contains high levels of proteins and essential amino acids. The levels of unsaturated fatty acids represent a great contribution to the total lipid amount. Among polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6) is the major essential fatty acid. Finally, we report the characterization of myoglobin (Mb) from Eurasian woodcock. The data revealed that meat from this bird could be a good source of quality raw proteins because of its amino acid composition, and it had a low lipid content. On the other hand, Mb characterization might be of benefit to the meat industry, by providing useful information for the determination of species-specific differences in meat from birds. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Dietary glutamine supplementation improves growth performance, meat quality and colour stability of broilers under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Wang, L K; Wen, A Y; Wang, L X; Jin, G M

    2009-05-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) supplementation on growth performance, carcase characteristics and meat quality in broilers exposed to high ambient temperature. 2. A total of 240 35-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (three replicates of 20 birds per cage). The broilers were kept in a temperature-controlled room at either 23 degrees C (no-stress groups, NS) or 28 degrees C (heat stress groups, HS). The broilers were fed either on a basal diet (control, NS) or on the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5 or 1.0% Gln (HS). 3. Compared with the NS, the HS (0% Gln) group gained less weight and consumed less feed, had lower final body weight, gain-to-feed ratio, and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat in HS (0% Gln) had lower pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), a* value, ether extract (EE) content and crude protein (CP) content, and had higher shear force (SF) and L* value. 4. Linear increase were found in groups supplemented with Gln (0, 0.5% and 1.0%) for final body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, gain-to-feed ratio and abdominal fat yield. Supplementation with Gln improved breast meat pH, WHC, SF, L* value, a* value, EE content and CP content in broilers exposed to heat stress. No significant difference was observed in all the indices determined between the HS (1% Gln) and the NS. 5. Heat stress caused obvious breast meat discoloration in L*, a* and b* values. However, dietary supplementation with Gln gave a better colour stability. 6. The results indicated that dietary supplementation with Gln may alleviate heat stress-caused deterioration in growth performance, carcase characteristics, meat quality and meat colour stability of broilers.

  12. Lean in healthcare: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    D'Andreamatteo, Antonio; Ianni, Luca; Lega, Federico; Sargiacomo, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Lean seems to be the next revolution for a better, improved, value-based healhcare. In the last 15 years Lean has been increasingly adapted and adopted in healthcare. Accordingly, Lean healthcare has been developing into a major strand of research since the early 2000s. The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive overview of the main issues highlighted by research on implementation of Lean in a complex contest such as the healthcare one. Comprehensive literature review was conducted in order to identify empirical and theoretical articles published up to September 2013. Thematic analysis was performed in order to extract and synthesis data. 243 articles were selected for analysis. Lean is best understood as a means to increase productivity. Hospital is the more explored setting, with emergency and surgery as the pioneer departments. USA appears to be the leading country for number of applications. The theoretical works have been focused mainly on barriers, challenges and success factors. Sustainability, framework for measurement and critical appraisal remain underestimated themes. Evaluations of "system wide approach" are still low in number. Even though Lean results appear to be promising, findings so far do not allow to draw a final word on its positive impacts or challenges when introduced in the healthcare sector. Scholars are called to explore further the potentiality and the weaknesses of Lean, above all as for the magnitude of investments required and for the engagement of the whole organization it represents increasingly strategic choice, whilst health professionals, managers and policy makers could and should learn from research how to play a pivotal role for a more effective implementation of lean in different health contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement of cooking quality and gel formation capacity of Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) fish meat.

    PubMed

    Rupsankar, Chakrabarti

    2010-10-01

    High moisture content (89%) along with high enzymatic and bacteriological activity in Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) meat are responsible for short shelf life and disintegration of meat in cooking. Minimum solubility was at pH 5 (iso-electric point) of muscle protein. Citric acid- sodium citrate buffer (pH 5) with 0.2% potassium sorbate was very effective in reducing moisture in dressed fish and in increasing shelf life up to 4 days at ambient temperature (25-28 °C). Reduction in moisture in meat improved its cooking quality and gel formation capacity with increased protein content. Fish meat contained 1.0-1.5% NaCl and produced stronger gel by using 2% NaCl than conventionally prepared gel with 4% NaCl. Washing fish mince with cold water followed by pressing at pH 5, gave fish cake with more salt soluble protein and better gel strength (>500 gcm) than the same operation done at ambient temperature.

  14. A Review of Patents for the Smart Packaging of Meat and Muscle-based Food Products.

    PubMed

    Holman, Benjamin; Kerry, Joseph P; Hopkins, David L

    2017-10-31

    Meat packaging once acted primarily as an inert barrier to protect its contents against contamination and this function has shifted. Packaging now includes complementary functions that improve product quality, longevity and customer/retail appeal. The devices and methods applied to achieve these functions may be categorised as smart packaging, which includes intelligent packaging, devised to monitor and communicate packaged content status, and active packaging, to provide passive adjustment of in-pack conditions from its interactions with the packaged meat. Smart packaging examples already available from recent patents include antimicrobial and antioxidant packaging coatings and inserts; sensors or indicators that identify spoilage and freshness; functional engineering customisations; improvements to packaging integrity; leak or tamper detectors; and, environmentally sustainable options. Together, these inventions respond to industry and customer demands for meat packaging and are therefore the focus of this review, in which we discuss their applications and limitations in meat packaging. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Of Meat and Men: Sex Differences in Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Meat.

    PubMed

    Love, Hamish J; Sulikowski, Danielle

    2018-01-01

    Modern attitudes to meat in both men and women reflect a strong meat-masculinity association. Sex differences in the relationship between meat and masculinity have not been previously explored. In the current study we used two IATs (implicit association tasks), a visual search task, and a questionnaire to measure implicit and explicit attitudes toward meat in men and women. Men exhibited stronger implicit associations between meat and healthiness than did women, but both sexes associated meat more strongly with 'healthy' than 'unhealthy' concepts. As 'healthy' was operationalized in the current study using terms such as "virile" and "powerful," this suggests that a meat-strength/power association may mediate the meat-masculinity link readily observed across western cultures. The sex difference was not related to explicit attitudes to meat, nor was it attributable to a variety of other factors, such as a generally more positive disposition toward meat in men than women. Men also exhibited an attention bias toward meats, compared to non-meat foods, while females exhibited more caution when searching for non-meat foods, compared to meat. These biases were not related to implicit attitudes, but did tend to increase with increasing hunger levels. Potential ultimate explanations for these differences, including sex differences in bio-physiological needs and receptivity to social signals are discussed.

  16. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product...

  17. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product...

  18. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product...

  19. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product...

  20. Lean Management Systems in Radiology: Elements for Success.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stacy R; Ruter, Royce L; Tibor, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature on Lean and Lean Management Systems and how they have been implemented in healthcare organizations and particularly in radiology departments. The review focuses on the elements required for a successful implementation of Lean by applying the principles of a Lean Management System instead of a Lean tools-only approach. This review shares the successes and failures from healthcare organizations' efforts to improve the quality and safety of the services they provide. There are a limited number of healthcare organizations in the literature who have shared their experiences and additional research is necessary to determine whether a Lean Management System is a viable alternative to the current management structure in healthcare.

  1. Lean practices for quality results: a case illustration.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Pauline; Hwang, David; Hong, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, healthcare providers are implementing lean practices to achieve quality results. Implementing lean healthcare practices is unique compared to manufacturing and other service industries. The purpose of this paper is to present a model that identifies and defines the lean implementation key success factors in healthcare organisations. The model is based on an extant literature review and a case illustration that explores actual lean implementation in a major USA hospital located in a Midwestern city (approximately 300,000 people). An exploratory/descriptive study using observation and follow-up interviews was conducted to identify lean practices in the hospital. Lean practice key drivers include growing elderly populations, rising medical expenses, decreasing insurance coverage and decreasing management support. Effectively implementing lean practices to increase bottom-line results and improve organisational integrity requires sharing goals and processes among healthcare managers and professionals. An illustration explains the model and the study provides a sound foundation for empirical work. Practical implications are included. Lean practices minimise waste and unnecessary hospital stays while simultaneously enhancing customer values and deploying resources in supply systems. Leadership requires clear project targets based on sound front-end planning because initial implementation steps involve uncertainty and ambiguity (i.e. fuzzy front-end planning). Since top management support is crucial for implementing lean practices successfully, a heavyweight manager, who communicates well both with top managers and project team members, is an important success factor when implementing lean practices. Increasingly, green orientation and sustainability initiatives are phrases that replaced lean practices. Effective results; e.g. waste reduction, employee satisfaction and customer values are applicable to bigger competitive challenges arising both in specific

  2. Implications of white striping and spaghetti meat abnormalities on meat quality and histological features in broilers.

    PubMed

    Baldi, G; Soglia, F; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Canonico, L; Babini, E; Laghi, L; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2018-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology. In two replications, 96 P. major muscles were classified into four classes: normal (N), WS, SM and WS/SM. The whole fillet was used for weight assessment and morphometric measurements, then each sample was cut in order to separate the superficial layer from the deep one and used to evaluate proximate composition, histological features, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times, functional properties and both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins profile. Fillets affected by WS and SM abnormalities exhibited higher weights and increased thickness and length. SM condition was associated with a relevant decrease in protein content coupled with a significant increase in moisture level, whereas fat content was affected only by the simultaneous presence of WS. Histological evaluations revealed that abnormal samples were characterized by several degenerative aspects that almost completely concerned the superficial layer of the fillets. White striped fillets exhibited necrosis and lysis of fibers, fibrosis, lipidosis, loss of cross striation and vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, SM samples were characterized by poor fiber uniformity and a progressive rarefaction of the endo- and peri-mysial connective tissue, whereas WS/SM fillets showed intermediate histological features. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis revealed a higher proportion of extra-myofibrillar water in the superficial section of all the abnormal fillets, especially in SM

  3. Meet meat: An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Gerben A; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R H

    2017-07-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries and theory of social practices helps to better understand the possibly culturally dependent operationalization of the concept meat. Ten visiting graduate students from China, 10 from Ethiopia and 10 native Dutch graduate students completed freelist tasks, a pile sort task, interview and essay task, during a single session. We found that butchered animals are at the center of the concept of meat, although depending on culture not all animals are a source of meat. Symbolic boundaries were restricted or stretched depending on social practices within countries. Ethiopian participants applied strictly defined symbolic boundaries, where Chinese and Dutch participants used more broadly defined symbolic boundaries. Cultured meat was seen as a technology for the future and was positioned across the symbolic boundaries of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Heo, Kang Nyung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat. PMID:26761808

  5. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Heo, Kang Nyung; Song, Ji Eun; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat.

  6. Lean premixed/prevaporized combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, A. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations were formulated on the status and application of lean premixed/prevaporized combustion to the aircraft gas turbine for the reduction of pollutant emissions. The approach taken by the NASA Stratospheric Cruise Emission Reduction Program (SCERP) in pursuing the lean premixed/prevaporized combustion technique was also discussed. The proceedings contains an overview of the SCERP program, the discussions and recommendations of the participants, and an overall summary.

  7. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and classified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food...

  8. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and classified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food...

  9. Comparison of lipid content and Fatty Acid composition in the edible meat of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps from china.

    PubMed

    Li, Guipu; Sinclair, Andrew J; Li, Duo

    2011-03-09

    The lipid content and fatty acid composition in the edible meat of twenty-nine species of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps were investigated. Both the lipid content and fatty acid composition of the species were specified due to their unique food habits and trophic levels. Most of the marine fish demonstrated higher lipid content than the freshwater fish, whereas shrimps had the lowest lipid content. All the marine fish and shrimps had much higher total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA, while most of the freshwater fish and shrimps demonstrated much lower total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. This may be the biggest difference in fatty acid composition between marine and freshwater species. The cultured freshwater fish demonstrated higher percentages of total PUFA, total n-3 PUFA, and EPA + DHA than the wild freshwater fish. Two freshwater fish, including bighead carp and silver carp, are comparable to the marine fish as sources of n-3 PUFA.

  10. Improving healthcare using Lean processes.

    PubMed

    Baker, G Ross

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, healthcare organizations across Canada have been using Lean management tools to improve care processes, reduce preventable adverse events, increase patient satisfaction and create better work environments. The largest system-wide effort in Canada, and perhaps anywhere, is currently under way in Saskatchewan. The jury is still out on whether Lean efforts in that province, or elsewhere in Canada, are robust enough to transform current delivery systems and sustain new levels of performance. This issue of Healthcare Quarterly features several articles that provide a perspective on Lean methods in healthcare. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  11. Using Dynamic Value Stream Mapping and Lean Accounting Box Scores to Support Lean Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehrle, Stephen L.; Abou-Shady, Louay

    2010-01-01

    Lean has proven to be an effective management philosophy for improving businesses in a competitive market by eliminating waste and improving operations. An impact of implementing lean projects is the rapid reduction in inventory levels, which gives management the false impression that profits are decreasing while workers on the shop floor observe…

  12. Lean leadership attributes: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aij, Kjeld Harald; Teunissen, Maurits

    2017-10-09

    Purpose Emphasis on quality and reducing costs has led many health-care organizations to reconfigure their management, process, and quality control infrastructures. Many are lean, a management philosophy with roots in manufacturing industries that emphasizes elimination of waste. Successful lean implementation requires systemic change and strong leadership. Despite the importance of leadership to successful lean implementation, few researchers have probed the question of ideal leadership attributes to achieve lean thinking in health care. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into applicable attributes for lean leaders in health care. Design/methodology/approach The authors systematically reviewed the literature on principles of leadership and, using Dombrowski and Mielke's (2013) conceptual model of lean leadership, developed a parallel theoretical model for lean leadership in health care. Findings This work contributes to the development of a new framework for describing leadership attributes within lean management of health care. Originality/value The summary of attributes can provide a model for health-care leaders to apply lean in their organizations.

  13. Preservation of chicken breast meat treated with thyme and balm essential oils.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; De Martino, Laura; Melone, Antonio; De Feo, Vincenzo; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2010-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of thyme and balm essential oils on the 3-wk storage of fresh chicken breast meat at 4 °C. Thyme and, to a lesser extent, balm essential oils reduced DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical formation in the meat (25% to 30% and 20%, respectively). Treatment with the 2 essential oils also limited lipid peroxidation and the deterioration of sarcoplasmic proteins, helping to preserve the meat even after 2 wk of storage. Thyme and balm essential oils decreased the natural microflora present in the meat; total microbial content decreased down to 50% in comparison to the control samples. In addition, a clear effect on lactic acid bacterial growth was recorded. Balm essential oil significantly limited the growth of Salmonella sp., whereas thyme essential oil effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Our data demonstrate that these 2 essential oils effectively reduced deteriorative processes in chicken meat and extended the shelf life of this fresh product. Practical Application: The essential oils of thyme and balm can protect the chicken meat from decomposition during the storage time.

  14. Nutritional value of milk and meat products derived from cloning.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Daniel; Dubarry, Michel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    The development and use of milk and meat products derived from cloning depends on their safety and on the nutritional advantages they can confer to the products as perceived by consumers. The development of such products thus implies (i) to demonstrate their safety and security, (ii) to show that their nutritional value is equivalent to the traditional products, and (iii) to identify the conditions under which cloning could allow additional nutritional and health benefit in comparison to traditional products for the consumers. Both milk and meat products are a source of high quality protein as determined from their protein content and essential amino acid profile. Milk is a source of calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium and vitamin B2 and B12. Meat is a source of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. An important issue regarding the nutritional quality of meat and milk is the level and quality of fat which usually present a high content in saturated fat and some modification of the fat fraction could improve the nutritional quality of the products. The role of the dietary proteins as potential allergens has to be taken into account and an important aspect regarding this question is to evaluate whether the cloning does not produce the appearance of novel allergenic structures. The presence of bio-activities associated to specific components of milk (lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, growth factors, anti-microbial components) also represents a promising development. Preliminary results obtained in rats fed cow's milk or meat-based diets prepared from control animals or from animals derived from cloning did not show any difference between control and cloning-derived products.

  15. Of Meat and Men: Sex Differences in Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Meat

    PubMed Central

    Love, Hamish J.; Sulikowski, Danielle

    2018-01-01

    Modern attitudes to meat in both men and women reflect a strong meat-masculinity association. Sex differences in the relationship between meat and masculinity have not been previously explored. In the current study we used two IATs (implicit association tasks), a visual search task, and a questionnaire to measure implicit and explicit attitudes toward meat in men and women. Men exhibited stronger implicit associations between meat and healthiness than did women, but both sexes associated meat more strongly with ‘healthy’ than ‘unhealthy’ concepts. As ‘healthy’ was operationalized in the current study using terms such as “virile” and “powerful,” this suggests that a meat-strength/power association may mediate the meat-masculinity link readily observed across western cultures. The sex difference was not related to explicit attitudes to meat, nor was it attributable to a variety of other factors, such as a generally more positive disposition toward meat in men than women. Men also exhibited an attention bias toward meats, compared to non-meat foods, while females exhibited more caution when searching for non-meat foods, compared to meat. These biases were not related to implicit attitudes, but did tend to increase with increasing hunger levels. Potential ultimate explanations for these differences, including sex differences in bio-physiological needs and receptivity to social signals are discussed. PMID:29731733

  16. CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS.

    PubMed

    HALL, H E; ANGELOTTI, R

    1965-05-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C.

  17. Clostridium perfringens in Meat and Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Herbert E.; Angelotti, Robert

    1965-01-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C. PMID:14325274

  18. Lean Six Sigma implementation and organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between four organizational cultural types defined by the Competing Values Framework and three Lean Six Sigma implementation components - management involvement, use of Lean Six Sigma methods and Lean Six Sigma infrastructure. The study involved surveying 446 human resource and quality managers from 223 hospitals located in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts and Rhode Island using the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument. Findings - In total, 104 completed responses were received and analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. Follow-up analysis of variances showed management support was significant, F(3, 100)=4.89, p < 0.01, η2=1.28; infrastructure was not significant, F(3, 100)=1.55, p=0.21, η2=0.05; and using Lean Six Sigma methods was also not significant, F(3, 100)=1.34, p=0.26, η2=0.04. Post hoc analysis identified group and development cultures having significant interactions with management support. The relationship between organizational culture and Lean Six Sigma in hospitals provides information on how specific cultural characteristics impact the Lean Six Sigma initiative key components. This information assists hospital staff who are considering implementing quality initiatives by providing an understanding of what cultural values correspond to effective Lean Six Sigma implementation. Managers understanding the quality initiative cultural underpinnings, are attentive to the culture-shared values and norm's influence can utilize strategies to better implement Lean Six Sigma.

  19. Physicochemical composition and sensory quality evaluation of capon and rooster meat.

    PubMed

    Amorim, André; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of caponization on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of rooster and capon meat (2 Portuguese autochthonous chicken breeds of roosters:Amarela and Pedrês), raised under the same production. The birds were castrated at 9 wk of age and bred until 140 d of age. Forty Amarela (20 roosters and 20 capons-castrated male) and 40 Pedrês Portuguesa (20 roosters and 20 capons) breed chickens, 5 free-range chickens, and 5 broilers were used. From the breast, leg, and wing muscles, physicochemical parameters such as pH, water activity (aw), physical color, moisture content, ash, CP, pigments, collagen, and total fat and fatty acids profile, were analyzed according to standard procedures. Caponization did not affect pH, aw, lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), ash, protein, collagen, saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA)/SFA. Results show that caponization decreased (P≤0.05) moisture content and increased (P≤0.05) pigments and intramuscular fat content. Capons showed higher (P≤0.001) redness (a*) and chroma (C*), and lower (P≤0.001) hue (H*) compared to roosters. Caponization increased (P≤0.05) monounsaturated fatty acids content and PUFA/SFA. The main fatty acids found were oleic (C18:1), palmitic (C16:0), and linoleic (C18:2). Capons had greater (P≤ 0.05) C18:1 content but lower (P≤0.01) butyric acid (C4:0), caprylic acid (C8:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and (P≤0.05) arachidonic acid (C20.4) content than roosters. The objective of sensory analysis was making the comparison of the Amarela and Pedrêsmeat with a free-range chicken and a broiler. Panelists classified the capon meat (Amarela and Pedrês) as juicier and less tough and fibrous than rooster meat. Broilers were in general juicier, tenderer, and less fibrous than the other chickens in this study. The results of sensory evaluation complement those obtained in

  20. Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika; Schuh, Valerie; Salminen, Hanna

    2010-09-01

    Changes in consumer demand of meat products as well as increased global competition are causing an unprecedented spur in processing and ingredient system developments within the meat manufacturing sector. Consumers demand healthier meat products that are low in salt, fat, cholesterol, nitrites and calories in general and contain in addition health-promoting bioactive components such as for example carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and fibers. On the other hand, consumers expect these novel meat products with altered formulations to taste, look and smell the same way as their traditionally formulated and processed counterparts. At the same time, competition is forcing the meat processing industry to use the increasingly expensive raw material "meat" more efficiently and produce products at lower costs. With these changes in mind, this article presents a review of novel ingredient systems and processing approaches that are emerging to create high quality, affordable meat products not only in batch mode but also in large-scale continuous processes. Fat replacers, fat profile modification and cholesterol reduction techniques, new texture modifiers and alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are being discussed. Modern processing equipment to establish continuously operating product manufacturing lines and that allow new meat product structures to be created and novel ingredients to be effectively utilized including vacuum fillers, grinders and fine dispersers, and slicers is reviewed in the context of structure creation in meat products. Finally, trends in future developments of ingredient and processing systems for meat products are highlighted.

  1. Recent advances in rapid and non-destructive assessment of meat quality using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.

  2. Clinically lean; "cutting the crap".

    PubMed

    Caldwell, G

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Lean Philosophy believe that successful businesses must reduce waste in working time and resources to a minimum, and maximise their use in productive work. The productive work of the Acute Medical Unit is to provide effective clinical management to a daily cohort of acutely ill patients. Many Clinicians are cynical about Lean. In this article, Dr Caldwell discusses how many clinicians complain of too much crap in the workplace, which gets in the way of swift, safe high quality clinical care. He argues that "Cutting the Crap" in the Acute Medical Unit is entirely consistent with Lean approaches to management of complex systems.

  3. The promise of Lean in health care.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L

    2013-01-01

    An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lean sigma--will it work for healthcare?

    PubMed

    Bahensky, James A; Roe, Janet; Bolton, Romy

    2005-01-01

    The manufacturing industry has been using Lean Sigma for years in pursuit of continuous improvement to obtain a competitive advantage. The objectives of these efforts are to use the Lean techniques for reducing cycle times and the Six Sigma concepts for reducing product defects. The Iowa Business Council with several advocates worked with the University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics (UIHC) and two other Iowa hospitals to determine whether Lean Sigma is adaptable in healthcare. A team of 15 people at UIHC used the Kaizen Breakthrough Methodology over a five-day period in an aggressive identification and elimination of non-value added activities in Radiology CT scanning. The results exceeded the initial project objectives and indicated that Lean Sigma is applicable in healthcare. Overall, the Lean Sigma project increased revenue by approximately $750,000 per year. The Kaizen process proved to be successful and interesting. Within three days, the team installed new work flow processes. This implementation-oriented approach is what differentiates Lean Sigma from other quality improvement processes.

  5. Can lean save lives?

    PubMed

    Fillingham, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how over the last 18 months Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust have been exploring whether or not lean methodologies, often known as the Toyota Production System, can indeed be applied to healthcare. This paper is a viewpoint. One's early experience is that lean really can save lives. The Toyota Production System is an amazingly successful way of manufacturing cars. It cannot be simply translated unthinkingly into a hospital but lessons can be learned from it and the method can be adapted and developed so that it becomes owned by healthcare staff and focused towards the goal of improved patient care. Working in healthcare is a stressful and difficult thing. Everyone needs a touch of inspiration and encouragement. Applying lean to healthcare in Bolton seems to be achieving just that for those who work there.

  6. The effect of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) on tenderness, microstructure and chemical-physical index of duck breast meat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoying; Deng, Shaoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-30

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) is often used in meat and poultry soups as a flavor enhancer (flavor modifier), or as food additives for specific nutritional purposes. Our previous research as well as evidence from others showed that actomyosin could be dissociated into myosin and actin by AMP in extracted muscle solution. However, there is no report available on the application of AMP to dissociate actomyosin and to improve meat tenderness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMP on duck meat tenderness and other quality traits and to explore the mechanism of the action of AMP on meat tenderness. Duck breast muscle was treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mmol L(-1) AMP at 5 °C for 10 h and examined for shear force, microstructure, actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), pH, water content, cooking loss, CIE* color (L*, a*, b*), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and free amino acid (FAA) contents. Results showed that shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* of the muscles significantly decreased after AMP treatment (P < 0.05); actomyosin dissociation, MFI, pH, water content, fiber diameter, sarcomere length, IMP and ammonia significantly increased (P < 0.05); no significant change in a* or other FAA content was observed (P > 0.05), and muscle shrinkage in transverse and longitudinal directions were restrained after AMP treatment. The results suggest that AMP could notably improve meat tenderness, and this effect was probably mainly through increasing muscle pH, promoting actomyosin dissociation and disrupting the Z-line; meanwhile, the conversion of AMP to IMP may contribute to the flavor of meat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Variation of meat quality traits among five genotypes of chicken.

    PubMed

    Tang, H; Gong, Y Z; Wu, C X; Jiang, J; Wang, Y; Li, K

    2009-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the diversity of meat quality traits among 5 chicken genotypes. The genotypes included 2 Chinese native breeds (Wenchang,WCH, and Xianju), 1 commercial broiler line (Avian, AV), 1 commercial layer line (Hy-Line Brown, HLB), and 1 Chinese commercial broiler line (Lingnanhuang, LNH) synthesized by exotic and native breeds, which were slaughtered at their market ages: 16, 7, 16, and 8 wk, respectively. The effects of genotype, muscle type, and sex on meat quality traits were examined. Birds from slow-growing genotypes (WCH, Xianju, and HLB) exhibited higher shear value, inosine-5'-monophosphate concentration, lower cook loss, and more fat than those from fast-growing genotypes (AV and LNH). Chickens from WCH possessed the lowest expressible moisture, cook loss, and the highest lipid (%) among the 3 slow-growing genotypes. The HLB birds were intermediate in expressible moisture and cook loss and lowest in lipid among all genotypes. The LNH cross birds were similar to AV broilers in most meat quality parameters, although they had a lower shear force value and higher fat content than AV broilers. Breast muscle had higher expressible moisture, shear force, protein (%), inosine-5'-monophosphate content, lower cook loss, and lipid (%) than leg muscle. Muscles from male chickens had higher expressible moisture than those from the females. Variability of meat quality characteristics is mainly related to genotype and muscle type differences.

  8. Relative Importance of Lean and Fat Mass on Bone Mineral Density in Iranian Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Ayatollahi, Sayed Mohammad Taghi; Bagheri, Zahra; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2015-07-01

    Body weight is made up of lean and fat mass and both are involved in growth and development. Impression of these two components in bone density accrual has been controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fat and lean mass and bone density in Iranian children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed on 472 subjects (235 girls, 237 boys) aged 9-18 years old in Fars Province. The participants' weight, height, waist circumference, stage of puberty, and level of physical activity were recorded. Bone Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD), total body fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results showed that 12.2% of boys and 12.3% of girls were overweight and 5.5% of boys and 4.7% of girls were obese. Obese individuals had greater total body BMD (0.96 ± 0.11) than normal-weight ones (0.86 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). We found the greatest correlation between total body BMD and total body lean mass (R = 0.78. P < 0.001) and the least correlation with total body fat percentage (R = 0.03, P = 0.44). Total lean mass in more active boys was 38.1 ± 10.9 and in less active boys was 32.3 ± 11.0 (P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that age and total body lean mass were independent factors of BMD in growing children and adolescents. These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of BMD in both genders. Physical activity appears to positively impact on lean mass and needs to be considered in physical education and health-enhancing programs in Iranian school children.

  9. Comparison of carcass yields and meat quality between Baicheng-You chickens and Arbor Acres broilers.

    PubMed

    Sarsenbek, A; Wang, T; Zhao, J K; Jiang, W

    2013-10-01

    This study examined carcass yields and meat quality traits between Baicheng-You (BCY) chickens and Arbor Acres (AA) broilers. Thirty birds for each strain were selected and slaughtered at market ages of 49 d for AA broilers and 120 d for BCY. The results showed that BCY chickens had lower dressing (2.99%), semi-evisceration (5.10%), breast muscle (5.80%), and abdominal fat (1.55%) than those for AA broilers (P < 0.05). However, the leg muscle (%) of BCY chickens was greater (3.14%) than that of AA broilers (P < 0.05). The meat pH45min and pH24h value variations of these 2 breeds were within the normal range (5.53-6.70). The meat color density (optical density, OD) of thigh muscle was darker than breast muscles in both strains (P < 0.05). The cooking loss (%) of breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (18.81 and 20.20%, respectively) was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of same muscles of AA broilers (26.41 and 27.33%, respectively). The shear force of breast meat in both breeds was lower (P < 0.05) than that of their thigh meat. The moisture of breast muscle of BCY chickens (72.93%) was lower (P < 0.05) than breast muscles of AA broilers (74.43%). The CP content of breast muscles was greater (P < 0.05) than its thigh muscles of same strain, but it had no significant (P > 0.05) difference of CP content in the same muscles of the 2 strains. The intramuscular fat (IMF) content was greater (P < 0.05) in thigh muscles of BCY chickens (6.80%) than those of AA broilers (4.28%), and inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content was greater (P < 0.05) in breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (IMP: 3.79 and 1.47 mg/g) than same muscles in AA broilers (1.42 and 0.47 mg/g). In this study, muscle from 120-d-old BCY chickens was judged to have better quality traits with regard to cooking loss, drip loss, contents of IMF, and IMP compared with meat from 42-d-old AA broilers. At the same time, greater carcass yields, greater thigh pH24, and lower IMF content were

  10. Colour and oxidative stability of mince produced from fresh and frozen/thawed fallow deer (Dama dama) meat.

    PubMed

    Chakanya, Chido; Arnaud, Elodie; Muchenje, Voster; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2017-04-01

    Colour and oxidative stability of minced meat from fresh and frozen/thawed fallow deer was investigated. For the seven fallow deer harvested, half of the meat was minced fresh and half was frozen (-20°C) for 2months under vacuum prior to grinding. Surface colour attributes, myoglobin content and surface redox forms, pH and lipid oxidation of the mince were measured during eight days of display storage. Proximate composition was determined in mince on day 0, fatty acid composition on day 0 and 8. Freezing had no effect on the proximate composition or fatty acid composition of the mince. Frozen meat mince had lower (P≤0.05) total myoglobin content but higher (P≤0.05) decrease in redness (a*) during display storage, higher (P≤0.05) accumulation of metmyoglobin at the surface from day 2 and higher (P≤0.05) TBARS values. Results showed shorter colour and oxidative stability for frozen meat mince as compared to mince from fresh meat. Display storage however did not affect fatty acid composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of genotype, housing system and hay supplementation on carcass traits and meat quality of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, K; Gerencsér, Zs; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Matics, Zs

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of genotype (Pannon Large × Pannon Ka/Large/or Hungarian Giant × Pannon Ka/Hung), housing system (Cage or small Pen) and hay supplementation (Pellet without or with Hay/P+Hay/) on carcass and meat (Longissimus dorsi/LD/ and hind leg/HL/) quality of growing rabbits. Large rabbits showed higher carcass weights, as well as higher fatness and meatiness compared to Hung rabbits. Caged rabbits were heavier, with higher prevalence of the mid part of the carcass, and showed higher fatness and lower meat toughness than Penned rabbits. Caged rabbits meat was richer in MUFA, but poorer in PUFA and Σ n-6 FA. Hay supplementation impaired carcass weight, carcass fatness, L* and a* color, and lipids content. P+Hay increased the HL meat content of C18:3 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 FA. Overall results offer further information on how alternative breeds, housing systems and feeding strategies can affect carcass traits and meat quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of short-term exercise training on intramyocellular lipid content

    PubMed Central

    Bajpeyi, Sudip; Reed, Melissa A.; Molskness, Sara; Newton, Christopher; Tanner, Charles J.; McCartney, Jennifer S.; Houmard, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise training on intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content and test the hypothesis that the effect of endurance-oriented exercise training on IMCL is dependent on characteristics of the population studied. Lean (N = 11, body mass index (BMI) = 22.2 ± 0.7 kg·m−2), obese (N = 14, BMI = 38.8 ± 1.7 kg·m−2), and type 2 diabetic (N = 9, BMI = 35.5 ± 2.5 kg·m−2) participants were examined before and after 10 consecutive days of endurance-oriented (60 min·day−1 at ~70% V̇ O2peak) exercise training. IMCL and muscle glycogen were measured by Oil-Red-O and periodic acid – Schiff staining, respectively. The results indicated that IMCL was elevated (p < 0.05) in the obese and diabetic groups compared with the lean subjects prior to training. After training, IMCL content decreased (−35%) in the participants with type 2 diabetes; there were no changes in IMCL in the lean or obese groups. Muscle glycogen content was lower in the diabetic subjects than in the lean subjects both before and after training. These data indicate that changes in IMCL with exercise training do not exhibit a universal response but rather depend on the metabolic status of the population studied. PMID:22691059

  13. [Four awareness of clinical lean management].

    PubMed

    Xiong, L Z; Zhang, C F

    2017-01-20

    Along with changes of medical model, hospitals need to provide best outcome with lowest cost and best patient's experience rather than merely medical treatments. It is the cultivation of lean awareness to the doctors that could acquire such outcome. The healthcare lean awareness can be summarized as responsibility awareness, digitalized awareness, detail awareness, and outstanding awareness. Through the cultivation of lean awareness, humanism can immerse into the doctors'practice, which is conducive to train for the great masters of the medicine.

  14. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  16. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be...

  17. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be...

  18. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be...

  19. Incorporation of lean methodology into pharmacy residency programs.

    PubMed

    John, Natalie; Snider, Holly; Edgerton, Lisa; Whalin, Laurie

    2017-03-15

    The implementation of lean methodology into pharmacy residency programs at a community teaching hospital is described. New Hanover Regional Medical Center, a community teaching hospital in southeastern North Carolina, fully adopted a lean culture in 2010. Given the success of lean strategies organizationally, this methodology was used to assist with the evaluation and development of its pharmacy residency programs in 2014. Lean tools and activities have also been incorporated into residency requirements and rotation learning activities. The majority of lean events correspond to the required competency areas evaluating leadership and management, teaching, and education. These events have included participation in and facilitation of various lean problem-solving and communication tools. The application of the 4 rules of lean has resulted in enhanced management of the programs and provides a set of tools by which continual quality improvement can be ensured. Regular communication and direct involvement of all invested parties have been critical in developing and sustaining new improvements. In addition to program enhancements, lean methodology offers novel methods by which residents may be incorporated into leadership activities. The incorporation of lean methodology into pharmacy residency programs has translated into a variety of realized and potential benefits for the programs, the preceptors and residents, and the health system. Specific areas of growth have included quality-improvement processes, the expansion of leadership opportunities for residents, and improved communication among program directors, preceptors, and residents. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Meat consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

  1. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association Between Meat and Meat-Alternative Consumption and Iron Stores in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kelly Anne; Parkin, Patricia C; Anderson, Laura N; Chen, Yang; Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Macarthur, Colin; Borkhoff, Cornelia M

    To prevent iron deficiency, 2014 Canadian recommendations for healthy term infants from 6 to 24 months recommend iron-rich complementary foods such as meat and meat alternatives 2 or more times a day. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the association between meat and meat-alternative consumption and iron status in young children and the association between red meat consumption and iron status among children meeting recommendations. Healthy children aged 12 to 36 months were recruited. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Meat and meat-alternative consumption was measured using the NutriSTEP questionnaire. Adjusted multivariable regression analyses were used to evaluate an association between meat consumption and serum ferritin, and iron deficiency (serum ferritin <14 μg/L). A total of 1043 children were included. Seventy-three percent of children met the recommended daily intake of meat and meat alternatives, and 66% ate red meat in the past 3 days. Eating meat and meat alternatives was not associated with serum ferritin (0.13 μg/L, 95% confidence interval -0.05, 0.31, P = .16), but it was associated with a decreased odds of iron deficiency (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94, 0.99, P = .03). Associations between red meat consumption and iron status were not statistically significant. Statistically significant covariates associated with increased odds of iron deficiency included longer breast-feeding duration, daily cow's milk intake of >2 cups, and a higher body mass index z score. Daily cow's milk intake of >2 cups, longer breast-feeding duration, and a higher body mass index z score were modifiable risk factors associated with iron deficiency. Eating meat according to recommendations may be a promising additional target for the prevention of iron deficiency in early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Meat, meat cooking methods and preservation, and risk for colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rashmi; Peters, Ulrike; Cross, Amanda J; Kulldorff, Martin; Weissfeld, Joel L; Pinsky, Paul F; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hayes, Richard B

    2005-09-01

    Cooking meat at high temperatures produces heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Processed meats contain N-nitroso compounds. Meat intake may increase cancer risk as HCAs, PAHs, and N-nitroso compounds are carcinogenic in animal models. We investigated meat, processed meat, HCAs, and the PAH benzo(a)pyrene and the risk of colorectal adenoma in 3,696 left-sided (descending and sigmoid colon and rectum) adenoma cases and 34,817 endoscopy-negative controls. Dietary intake was assessed using a 137-item food frequency questionnaire, with additional questions on meats and meat cooking practices. The questionnaire was linked to a previously developed database to determine exposure to HCAs and PAHs. Intake of red meat, with known doneness/cooking methods, was associated with an increased risk of adenoma in the descending and sigmoid colon [odds ratio (OR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.05-1.50 comparing extreme quintiles of intake] but not rectal adenoma. Well-done red meat was associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06-1.37). Increased risks for adenoma of the descending colon and sigmoid colon were observed for the two HCAs: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5]quinoxaline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5]pyridine (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38 and OR, 1.17, 95% CI, 1.01-1.35, respectively) as well as benzo(a)pyrene (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.35). Greater intake of bacon and sausage was associated with increased colorectal adenoma risk (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30); however, total intake of processed meat was not (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.90-1.19). Our study of screening-detected colorectal adenomas shows that red meat and meat cooked at high temperatures are associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  4. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Courtney J; Kliem, Kirsty E; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-15

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (P<0.01). Meat was rich in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, although organic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; P<0.001). Organic meat was also lower (P<0.001) in 18:3 n-3 (115 vs. 180 mg/100 g) and, whilst it contained more (P<0.001) docosahexaenoic acid (30.9 vs. 13.7 mg/100 g), this was due to the large effect of one supermarket. This system by supermarket interaction suggests that poultry meat labelled as organic is not a guarantee of higher long chain n-3 fatty acids. Overall there were few major differences in fatty acid contents/profiles between organic and conventional meat that were consistent across all supermarkets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at 75...

  6. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at 75...

  7. Lean management in academic surgery.

    PubMed

    Collar, Ryan M; Shuman, Andrew G; Feiner, Sandra; McGonegal, Amy K; Heidel, Natalie; Duck, Mary; McLean, Scott A; Billi, John E; Healy, David W; Bradford, Carol R

    2012-06-01

    Lean is a management system designed to enhance productivity by eliminating waste. Surgical practice offers many opportunities for improving efficiency. Our objective was to determine whether systematic implementation of lean thinking in an academic otolaryngology operating room improves efficiency and profitability and preserves team morale and educational opportunities. In an 18-month prospective quasi-experimental study, a multidisciplinary task force systematically implemented lean thinking within an otolaryngology operating room of an academic health system. Operating room turnover time and turnaround time were measured during a baseline period; an observer-effect period in which workers were made aware that their efficiency was being measured but before implementing lean changes; and an intervention period after redesign principles had been used. The impact on teamwork, morale, and surgical resident education were measured during the baseline and intervention periods through validated surveys. A profit model was applied to estimate the financial implications of the study. There was no difference between the baseline and observer-effect periods of the study for turnover time (p = 0.98) or turnaround time (p = 0.20). During the intervention period, the mean turnover time and turnaround time were significantly shorter than during the baseline period (29 vs 38 minutes; p < 0.001 and 69 vs 89 minutes; p < 0.001, respectively). The composite morale score suggested improved morale after implementation (p = 0.011). Educational metrics were unchanged before and after implementation. The annual opportunity revenue for the involved operating room is $330,000; when extrapolated throughout the operating rooms, lean thinking could create 6,500 hours of capacity annually. Application of lean management techniques to a single operating room and surgical service improved operating room efficiency and morale, sustained resident education, and can provide considerable financial

  8. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical Properties of Meat Batter Added with Edible Silkworm Pupae (Bombyx mori) and Transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo-Sun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Cheol-Won; Shin, Dong-Min; Han, Sung Gu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of meat batters prepared with fresh pork meat, back fat, water, and salt and formulated with three different amounts (5%, 10%, and 15%) of silkworm pupae ( Bombyx mori ) powder and transglutaminase (TG). Meat batters formulated with silkworm pupae powder showed significantly higher contents of protein and ash than control batter. Addition of silkworm pupae to batter also showed significantly lower cooking loss than the control. Moreover, meat batter containing 15% silkworm pupae showed no significant difference in redness value compared to the control. In addition, pH, viscosity, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were improved after the addition of silkworm pupae. Furthermore, meat batter formulated with TG and silkworm pupae showed improved hardness, gumminess, chewiness and viscosity compared to control batter. Addition of 1% TG with 15% silkworm pupae to meat batter resulted in significantly higher pH, textures, and viscosity. Our data suggest that both silkworm pupae and TG can be added to meat batter to improve its physicochemical properties. Therefore, combination of silkworm pupae and TG could be a new nutritional and functional source for meat products.

  10. Physicochemical Properties of Meat Batter Added with Edible Silkworm Pupae (Bombyx mori) and Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of meat batters prepared with fresh pork meat, back fat, water, and salt and formulated with three different amounts (5%, 10%, and 15%) of silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) powder and transglutaminase (TG). Meat batters formulated with silkworm pupae powder showed significantly higher contents of protein and ash than control batter. Addition of silkworm pupae to batter also showed significantly lower cooking loss than the control. Moreover, meat batter containing 15% silkworm pupae showed no significant difference in redness value compared to the control. In addition, pH, viscosity, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were improved after the addition of silkworm pupae. Furthermore, meat batter formulated with TG and silkworm pupae showed improved hardness, gumminess, chewiness and viscosity compared to control batter. Addition of 1% TG with 15% silkworm pupae to meat batter resulted in significantly higher pH, textures, and viscosity. Our data suggest that both silkworm pupae and TG can be added to meat batter to improve its physicochemical properties. Therefore, combination of silkworm pupae and TG could be a new nutritional and functional source for meat products. PMID:28747820

  11. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  12. Metabolic profiling of muscle contraction in lean compared with obese rodents.

    PubMed

    Thyfault, John P; Cree, Melanie G; Tapscott, Edward B; Bell, Jill A; Koves, Timothy R; Ilkayeva, Olga; Wolfe, Robert R; Dohm, G Lynis; Muoio, Deborah M

    2010-09-01

    Interest in the pathophysiological relevance of intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) accumulation has grown from numerous studies reporting that abnormally high glycerolipid levels in tissues of obese and diabetic subjects correlate negatively with glucose tolerance. Here, we used a hindlimb perfusion model to examine the impact of obesity and elevated IMTG levels on contraction-induced changes in skeletal muscle fuel metabolism. Comprehensive lipid profiling was performed on gastrocnemius muscles harvested from lean and obese Zucker rats immediately and 25 min after 15 min of one-legged electrically stimulated contraction compared with the contralateral control (rested) limbs. Predictably, IMTG content was grossly elevated in control muscles from obese rats compared with their lean counterparts. In muscles of obese (but not lean) rats, contraction resulted in marked hydrolysis of IMTG, which was then restored to near resting levels during 25 min of recovery. Despite dramatic phenotypical differences in contraction-induced IMTG turnover, muscle levels of diacylglycerol (DAG) and long-chain acyl-CoAs (LCACoA) were surprisingly similar between groups. Tissue profiles of acylcarnitine metabolites suggested that the surfeit of IMTG in obese rats fueled higher rates of fat oxidation relative to the lean group. Muscles of the obese rats had reduced lactate levels immediately following contraction and higher glycogen resynthesis during recovery, consistent with a lipid-associated glucose-sparing effect. Together, these findings suggest that contraction-induced mobilization of local lipid reserves in obese muscles promotes beta-oxidation, while discouraging glucose utilization. Further studies are necessary to determine whether persistent oxidation of IMTG-derived fatty acids contributes to systemic glucose intolerance in other physiological settings.

  13. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.42 Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. All mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product inspected under this part shall be marked and...

  14. [Characterization and nutritional value of a food artisan: the meat pie of Murcia].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; González-Silvera, Daniel; Frutos, Maria José; Zamora, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The main aims of this study are to describe the characteristics of the meat pie, a typical product of the regional gastronomy of Murcia and to determine its nutritional and energy values, fatty acid profile and fat quality. There were studied 24 samples of Murcia's meat pie from the six best-selling retail establishments in this Region (four units per establishment).The moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fibre and minerals, contents and the energy value, fatty acid profile and fat quality were analyzed using the Official Analysis Methods of Foods. All analyses were performed by triplicate. The average weight of this product was 192.3 ± 11.8 g, with three differentiated parts (base, filling and pastry lid). All ingredients were natural raw materials: wheat flour, lard, ground beef, sliced boiled egg and chorizo, water and spices (salt, pepper, garlic, paprika and nutmeg). Most of its organoleptic attributes are due to the type and amount of fat or lard. The combination of the other ingredients and the particular formulation of the spices are also responsible of other attributes. Due to its protein content (11.0%), this meat pie can replace other meat dishes, and be incorporated into a balanced diet. However, it is necessary to take into account its fat and energy contents (17.3 g and 317 kcal/100 g, respectively). Unlike many common pastry products, it contains no trans fatty acids. The results of the research show that the studied product remains, at present, an artisan food, and offer reliable information that it is representative of the energy and nutritional values of the Murcia's meat pie, a typical product of the gastronomy of the Region of Murcia. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Legumes and meat analogues consumption are associated with hip fracture risk independently of meat intake among Caucasian men and women: the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Lousuebsakul-Matthews, Vichuda; Thorpe, Donna L; Knutsen, Raymond; Beeson, W Larry; Fraser, Gary E; Knutsen, Synnove F

    2014-10-01

    In contrast to non-vegetarians, vegetarians consume more legumes and meat analogues as sources of protein to substitute for meat intake. The present study aimed to assess the association between foods with high protein content (legumes, meat, meat analogues) by dietary pattern (vegetarians, non-vegetarians) and hip fracture incidence, adjusted for selected lifestyle factors. A prospective cohort of Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) enrollees who completed a comprehensive lifestyle and dietary questionnaire between 2002 and 2007. Every two years after enrolment, a short questionnaire on hospitalizations and selected disease outcomes including hip fractures was sent to these members. Respondents (n 33,208) to a baseline and a follow-up questionnaire. In a multivariable model, legumes intake of once daily or more reduced the risk of hip fracture by 64% (hazard ratio = 0·36, 95% CI 0·21, 0·61) compared with those with legumes intake of less than once weekly. Similarly, meat intake of four or more times weekly was associated with a 40% reduced risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio = 0·60, 95% CI 0·41, 0·87) compared with those whose meat intake was less than once weekly. Furthermore, consumption of meat analogues once daily or more was associated with a 49 % reduced risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio = 0·51, 95% CI 0·27, 0·98) compared with an intake of less than once weekly. Hip fracture incidence was inversely associated with legumes intake and, to a lesser extent, meat intake, after accounting for other food groups and important covariates. Similarly, a high intake of meat analogues was associated with a significantly reduced risk of hip fracture.

  16. Legumes and meat analogues consumption are associated with hip fracture risk independently of meat intake among Caucasian men and women: the Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Lousuebsakul-Matthews, Vichuda; Thorpe, Donna L; Knutsen, Raymond; Beeson, W Larry; Fraser, Gary E; Knutsen, Synnove F

    2014-01-01

    Objective In contrast to non-vegetarians, vegetarians consume more legumes and meat analogues as sources of protein to substitute for meat intake. The present study aimed to assess the association between foods with high protein content (legumes, meat, meat analogues) by dietary pattern (vegetarians, non-vegetarians) and hip fracture incidence, adjusted for selected lifestyle factors. Design A prospective cohort of Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) enrollees who completed a comprehensive lifestyle and dietary questionnaire between 2002 and 2007. Setting Every two years after enrolment, a short questionnaire on hospitalizations and selected disease outcomes including hip fractures was sent to these members. Subjects Respondents (n 33 208) to a baseline and a follow-up questionnaire. Results In a multivariable model, legumes intake of once daily or more reduced the risk of hip fracture by 64% (hazard ratio=0·36, 95% CI 0·21, 0·61) compared with those with legumes intake of less than once weekly. Similarly, meat intake of four or more times weekly was associated with a 40% reduced risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio=0·60, 95% CI 0·41, 0·87) compared with those whose meat intake was less than once weekly. Furthermore, consumption of meat analogues once daily or more was associated with a 49% reduced risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio=0·51, 95% CI 0·27, 0·98) compared with an intake of less than once weekly. Conclusions Hip fracture incidence was inversely associated with legumes intake and, to a lesser extent, meat intake, after accounting for other food groups and important covariates. Similarly, a high intake of meat analogues was associated with a significantly reduced risk of hip fracture. PMID:24103482

  17. Measurement of the abundance of choline and the distribution of choline-containing moieties in meat.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Erin D; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Richard, Caroline; Bruce, Heather L; Jacobs, René L; Field, Catherine J; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies identify meat as a major source of choline; however, the most comprehensive reference for food choline content, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database for dietary choline, does not include values for meats of importance in some regions. In this work, the total choline and choline-containing moieties of 20 samples of meat were analyzed by LC-MS/MS; 16 samples analyzed are absent from the USDA database and 4 samples included for comparison. Average total choline for one serving (75 g) was 50 ± 12 mg, which was 82.6% ± 5.5% phosphatidylcholine. There was general agreement between total choline levels in the meats analyzed in this work and USDA values. A strong negative correlation (r = -0.777, p < 0.001) between total choline and fat content was found. This research added choline composition data to a food group that is a major source of choline and ultimately this data will assist in obtaining more accurate estimates of dietary choline.

  18. [Characteristics of the nitrous substances in the meat of sharks and rays as a protein food raw material].

    PubMed

    Kizevetter, I V; Nasedkina, E A

    1975-01-01

    The nitrous composition of meat in 19 species of oceanic sharks and 2 species of rays were analyzed. The meat of these fish species was found to be characterized by a comparatively low protein content, whose amino acids composition proved relatively poor of essential amino acids. The meat of sharks and rays is distinguished by a high level of extractives, whose bulk includes urea and trimethylaminoxide.

  19. Why Lean doesn't work for everyone.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gary S; Patterson, Sarah H; Ching, Joan M; Blackmore, C Craig

    2014-12-01

    Popularisation of Lean in healthcare has led to emphasis on Lean quality improvement tools in isolation, with inconsistent results. We argue that delivery of safer, more efficient, and higher quality-patient focused care requires organisational transformation of which the Lean toolkit is only one component. To successfully facilitate system transformation toward higher quality care at lower cost, Lean tools must be part of a comprehensive management system, within a supportive institutional culture, and with committed leadership. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  1. Attempts to increase inosinic acid in broiler meat by using feed additives.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Liu, G H; Cai, H Y; Chang, W H; Ma, J S; Zheng, A J; Zhang, S

    2014-11-01

    To explore regulation of inosinic acid content in chicken meat as a result of feed additives, 576 one-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted into 8 dietary treatments including control, purine nucleotide (P), betaine (B), soybean isoflavone (S), purine nucleotide + betaine (PB), purine nucleotide + soybean isoflavone (PS), betaine +soybean isoflavone (BS), and purine nucleotide + betaine + soybean isoflavone (PBS) by a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. At d 42 of age, broilers were slaughtered, and growth performance, carcass characteristics, inosinic acid content, and activities of enzyme closely related to inosinic acid metabolism of broilers were measured. The results revealed that these feed additives did not affect ADG and ADFI of the broilers (P > 0.05). However, supplementing purine nucleotides lowered feed/gain of broilers in PS and PBS groups (P < 0.05). There was a significant interaction on feed/gain of broilers between purine nucleotides and soybean isoflavone (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat percentages in groups B, S, BS, and PBS were lower than the control group, respectively (P < 0.05). The thigh muscle percentages of groups P and B were higher than that of group PB (P < 0.05). There were certain interactions on the percentage of thigh muscle (P = 0.05) and abdominal fat (P < 0.05) between P, B, and S groups. Compared with the control group, inosinic acid content in broiler breast meat was improved by using feed additives (P < 0.05). Supplementing purine nucleotides, betaine, soybean isoflavone, and their combinations increased alkaline phosphatase activity in breast meat of broilers (P < 0.05). Purine nucleotides improved the activity of adenosine deaminase, but decreased the activity of 5'-nucleotidase. Soybean isoflavone lowered the activity of alkaline phosphatase. There were no significant interactions on activities of creatine kinase, adenosine deaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and 5'-nucleotidase between these additives (P > 0

  2. An overview of the nutritional value of beef and lamb meat from South America.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M C; Saadoun, A

    2014-11-01

    The southern region of South America, a subtropical and temperate zone, is an important region for the production of beef and lamb meat, which is mainly produced in extensive pasture-based systems. Because of its content in highly valuable nutrients such as iron, zinc, selenium, fatty acids, and vitamins, meat is a unique and necessary food for the human diet in order to secure a long and healthy life, without nutritional deficiencies. Beef and lamb production systems based on temperate or tropical grasslands show interesting and, in some cases, a differential content in minerals, fatty acids and vitamins. This review deals with the distinctive aspects of the nutritional quality of beef and lamb meat produced in this region in terms of nutritional composition and the bioavailability of key nutrients related to its contribution for a healthy diet for all ages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Postural Stability When Leaning from Perceived Upright

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanya, Robert D.; Grounds, John F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    The transition between quiet stance and gait requires the volitional movement of one?s center of mass (COM) toward a limit of stability (LOS). The goal of this study was to measure the effect of leaning from perceived upright on postural stability when voluntarily maintaining fixed stance positions and during perturbations of the support surface. The COM was derived from force plate data in 12 healthy subjects while standing with feet positioned so that lateral base of support was equal to foot length. For all conditions, arms were folded and subjects were instructed to lean without bending at the hips or lifting their feet. The LOS was determined during maximal voluntary leans with eyes open and closed. The COM was then displayed on a monitor located in front of the subject. Subjects were visually guided to lean toward a target position, maintain this position for 10s, return to upright, and then repeat the same targeted lean maneuver with eyes closed. Targets were randomly presented at 2? in 8 directions and between 2-6? in these same directions according to the asymmetric LOS. Subjects were then verbally guided to lean between 2? back and 4? forward prior to a perturbation of the support surface in either a forward or backward direction. The average LOS was 5.8? forward, 2.9? back, and 4.8? in left/right directions, with no significant difference between eyes open and closed. Center of pressure (COP) velocity increased as subjects maintained fixed stance positions farther from upright, with increased variability during eyes closed conditions. The time to stability and COP path length increased as subjects leaned opposite to the direction of the support surface perturbations. We conclude that postural stability is compromised as subjects lean away from perceived upright, except for perturbations that induce sway in the direction opposite the lean. The asymmetric LOS relative to perceived upright favors postural stability for COM movements in the forward direction.

  4. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C

    2008-11-01

    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).

  5. Application of lean manufacturing techniques in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Eric W; Singh, Sabi; Cheung, Dickson S; Wyatt, Christopher C; Nugent, Andrew S

    2009-08-01

    "Lean" is a set of principles and techniques that drive organizations to continually add value to the product they deliver by enhancing process steps that are necessary, relevant, and valuable while eliminating those that fail to add value. Lean has been used in manufacturing for decades and has been associated with enhanced product quality and overall corporate success. To evaluate whether the adoption of Lean principles by an Emergency Department (ED) improves the value of emergency care delivered. Beginning in December 2005, we implemented a variety of Lean techniques in an effort to enhance patient and staff satisfaction. The implementation followed a six-step process of Lean education, ED observation, patient flow analysis, process redesign, new process testing, and full implementation. Process redesign focused on generating improvement ideas from frontline workers across all departmental units. Value-based and operational outcome measures, including patient satisfaction, expense per patient, ED length of stay (LOS), and patient volume were compared for calendar year 2005 (pre-Lean) and periodically after 2006 (post-Lean). Patient visits increased by 9.23% in 2006. Despite this increase, LOS decreased slightly and patient satisfaction increased significantly without raising the inflation adjusted cost per patient. Lean improved the value of the care we delivered to our patients. Generating and instituting ideas from our frontline providers have been the key to the success of our Lean program. Although Lean represents a fundamental change in the way we think of delivering care, the specific process changes we employed tended to be simple, small procedure modifications specific to our unique people, process, and place. We, therefore, believe that institutions or departments aspiring to adopt Lean should focus on the core principles of Lean rather than on emulating specific process changes made at other institutions.

  6. The Effect of Different Location of Muscle on Quality of Frozen Simmental Ongole Grade Male Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triasih, D.; Krisdiani, D.; Riyanto, J.; Pratitis, W.; Widyawati, S. D.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the influence of different types of muscle on the characteristics physical quality frozen meat of Simmental Ongole Crossbreed Male frozen meat. The research had been conducted at the Laboratory of Meat Technology and Processing and Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Faculty of Animal Science, University GadjahMada, Yogyakarta. The physical quality with 4 levels treatments, the name was Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), Triceps brachii (TB), and Pectoralis profundus (PP). The chemical quality with 3 levels treatments, the name was Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), and Triceps brachii (TB). The research used Completely Randomized Design with 5 replications for each treatment. The variables of the physical quality test were pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water-holding capacity. The chemical quality test were water content, protein content, fat content, and cholesterol content. The result of the physical quality test showed that the different types of muscle were significantly influence the pH value (P<0,01), also the influence the tenderness and cooking loss (P<0,05), but there was no significant different on water-holding capacity. The chemical quality test showed that the different types of muscle significant influenced on protein content and fat content (P<0,01). They were significant different (P<0,05) on water content, and there was significant effect (P<0,05) on cholesterol. In conclusion, the BF have high value of pH, cooking loss, water content, protein content, and cholesterol than other muscle, but have low value of tenderness and fat content.

  7. Chemical composition, vitamin E content, lipid oxidation, colour and cooking losses in meat from Tudanca bulls finished on semi-extensive or intensive systems and slaughtered at 12 or 14 months.

    PubMed

    Humada, M J; Sañudo, C; Serrano, E

    2014-02-01

    The effects of production system (SE: pasture based vs. IN: concentrate based) and slaughter age (12 vs. 14 months) on chemical composition, vitamin E and myoglobin contents, lipid oxidation at 0, 3 and 6 days of display, colour and cooking losses at 2 and 7 days postmortem from thirty-three Tudanca calves were studied. SE animals showed lower IMF and greater vitamin E contents (1.2 vs. 2.9% and 4.1 vs. 1.8 μg/g, respectively). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased (p ≤ 0.001) with display time and was greater in the IN system. After 6 days display, IN animals presented twofold TBARS values (1.4 vs. 0.8 mg malonaldehyde/kg meat). At 7 days postmortem, SE groups presented greater (p ≤ 0.05) L* and lower (p ≤ 0.05) b* and H° than IN groups. Myoglobin increased with age (3.4 to 3.9 mg/g meat), but differences (p ≤ 0.05) on a* and C* values were observed only between 12 and 14 months at 2 days postmortem. © 2013.

  8. Fatty acid composition of polar and neutral meat lipids of goats browsing in native pasture of Brazilian Semiarid.

    PubMed

    Fonteles, Natália L O; Alves, Susana P; Madruga, Marta Suely; Queiroga, Rita R E; Andrade, Albericio P; Silva, Divan S; Leal, Amanda P; Bessa, Rui J B; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo N

    2018-05-01

    Thirty six male goats grazing Caatinga native pasture were randomly assigned to 4 concentrate supplementation levels (0, 5, 10 and 15g/kg of body weight) and slaughtered after 120days. Longissimus muscle meat lipids were extracted and fractionated into neutral (NL) and polar (PL) lipids. Supplementation of grazing goats increased linearly (P<0.05) intramuscular fat (1 to 1.5% of meat) and NL (0.3 to 1% of meat) but decreased linearly (P=0.044) the PL (0.66 to 0.50% of meat). On NL, supplementation increased linearly (P=0.047) the proportion of c9-18:1 (31 to 40% of FA) with supplementation. On PL, supplementation reduced linearly (P<0.03) the dimethyl acetals, 18:3n-3 and most of long chain polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) proportions but increased linearly (P<0.001) the c9-18:1. Considering the total meat FA, supplementation led to an increase of the saturated and monounsaturated FA contents and a decrease of the long chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA contents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preslaughter Transport Effect on Broiler Meat Quality and Post-mortem Glycolysis Metabolism of Muscles with Different Fiber Types.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Chen, Xiangxing; Zhu, Xudong; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-11-29

    Preslaughter transport has been reported to decrease the quality of breast meat but not thigh meat of broilers. However, tissue-specific difference in glycogen metabolism between breast and thigh muscles of transported broilers has not been well studied. We thus investigated the differences in meat quality, adenosine phosphates, glycolysis, and bound key enzymes associated with glycolysis metabolism in skeletal muscles with different fiber types of preslaughter transported broilers during summer. Compared to a 0.5 h transport, a 3 h transport during summer decreased ATP content, increased AMP content and AMP/ATP ratio, and accelerated glycolysis metabolism via the upregulation of glycogen phosphorylase expression accompanied by increased activities of bound glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in pectoralis major muscle, which subsequently increased the likelihood of pale, soft, and exudative-like breast meat. On the other hand, a 3 h transport induced only a moderate glycolysis metabolism in tibialis anterior muscle, which did not cause any noticeable changes in the quality traits of the thigh meat.

  10. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: meat proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile, oxidative status and sensory traits.

    PubMed

    Cullere, M; Tasoniero, G; Giaccone, V; Acuti, G; Marangon, A; Dalle Zotte, A

    2018-03-01

    In the perspective of improving the sustainability of meat production, insects have been rapidly emerging as innovative feed ingredient for some livestock species, including poultry. However, at present, there is still limited knowledge regarding the quality and sensory traits of the derived meat. Therefore, the present study tested the effect of a partial substitution of soya bean meal and oil with defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (H) in the diet for growing broiler quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on meat proximate composition, cholesterol, amino acid and mineral contents, fatty acid profile, oxidative status and sensory characteristics. To this purpose, three dietary treatments were designed: a control diet (C) and two diets (H1 and H2) corresponding to 10% and 15% H inclusion levels, respectively, were fed to growing quails from 10 to 28 days of age. At 28 days of age, quails were slaughtered and breast meat was used for meat quality evaluations. Meat proximate composition, cholesterol content and oxidative status remained unaffected by H supplementation as well as its sensory characteristics and off-flavours perception. Differently, with increasing the dietary H inclusion, the total saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid proportions raised to the detriment of the polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction thus lowering the healthiness of the breast meat. The H2 diet increased the contents of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, serine, tyrosine and threonine thus further enhancing the biological value of the meat protein. As a direct result of the dietary content of Ca and P, the meat of quails fed with the highest H level, displayed the highest Ca and the lowest P values. Therefore, meat quality evaluations confirmed H to be a promising insect protein source for quails. The only potential drawback from feeding H to broiler quails regarded the fatty acid profile of the meat, therefore requiring further research

  11. Quality improvement in basic histotechnology: the lean approach.

    PubMed

    Clark, David

    2016-01-01

    Lean is a comprehensive system of management based on the Toyota production system (TPS), encompassing all the activities of an organization. It focuses management activity on creating value for the end-user by continuously improving operational effectiveness and removing waste. Lean management creates a culture of continuous quality improvement with a strong emphasis on developing the problem-solving capability of staff using the scientific method (Deming's Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle). Lean management systems have been adopted by a number of histopathology departments throughout the world to simultaneously improve quality (reducing errors and shortening turnround times) and lower costs (by increasing efficiency). This article describes the key concepts that make up a lean management system, and how these concepts have been adapted from manufacturing industry and applied to histopathology using a case study of lean implementation and evidence from the literature. It discusses the benefits, limitations, and pitfalls encountered when implementing lean management systems.

  12. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.168 Pasteurized blended cheese with... § 133.167, except that: (1) Its moisture content may be 1 percent more, and the milk fat content of its...

  13. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.170 Section 133.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.170 Pasteurized process cheese with... by § 133.169, except that: (1) Its moisture content may be 1 percent more, and the milk fat content...

  14. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes.

  15. Lean in service industries: A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Vignesh; Suresh, M.; Aramvalarthan, S.

    2016-09-01

    Lean service is an amalgamation of tools and practices which, if applied appropriately, would definitely improve the existing quality of operations and ensure the generation of a large amount of favourable financial and economic outcomes and improve the behaviour of the workforce. As a result, it assumes of great significance in the fiercely competitive modern world. This article presents a comprehensive bibliographic study about the various lean service practices through a variety of approaches like service improvement, manufacturing, supply chain, market and retailing approaches, etc. Thus it gives a clear view on how the lean services are implemented in various sectors and the contribution of lean service towards improving the quality in the services provided while reducing the costs.

  16. Fattening performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics of Kivircik male lambs.

    PubMed

    Gökdal, Ozdal; Atay, Okan; Eren, Vadullah; Demircioğlu, Sibel Karaca

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fattening performance and carcass and meat quality characteristics of Kivircik twin male lambs. Twelve lambs at approximately 5 months of age were subjected to a finishing diet for 60 days. Average live weight of lambs at the beginning and the end of the fattening were 23.14 ± 0.84 and 39.0 ± 1.01 kg, respectively. Daily live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency were found as 0.265 ± 0.007 and 6.14 kg, respectively. Hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and dressing percentage were 19.6 ± 0.6 and 18.9 ± 0.6 kg and 48.1 ± 0.3%, respectively. Kidney-pelvic fat weight, internal fat weight, and m. longissimus dorsi area were 0.117 ± 0.023 and 0.364 ± 0.041 kg and 15.26 ± 0.70 cm(2), respectively. The percentages of leg, back loin, forearm, shoulder, neck, flank-chest, kidney-pelvic fat, and internal fat in carcasses of the lambs were found as 34.1 ± 0.4%, 19.6 ± 0.3%, 21.0 ± 0.2%, 7.0 ± 0.3%, 10.5 ± 0.3%, 7.2 ± 0.2%, 1.3 ± 0.1%, and 1.8 ± 0.1%, respectively. Averages water content, ash, protein content, and fat content of meat samples were 73.4%, 1.0%, 19.5% and 3.6%, respectively. pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of meat samples were 5.55 and 0.056 ± 0.017. L*(lightness), a*(redness), and b*(yellowness) values were recorded as 43.87, 12.69, and 10.22, respectively. Thus, we conclude that fattening performance, carcass, and meat quality of Kivircik lambs are satisfactory levels than that of other native breeds.

  17. Getting 'Lean': hardwiring process excellence into Northeast Health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tricia; Duthe, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Many healthcare organizations are turning to the "Lean" Toyota Production System as a means to hardwire process excellence into their organizations. Northeast Health, an integrated delivery system in New York's capital region, introduced the Lean concept into its culture in 2004. After four years, the organization is beginning to see its staff hardwire Lean thinking into day-to-day behaviors. This paper focuses on the approach used by Northeast Health to introduce Lean concepts into its culture, challenges faced, lessons learned and the factors critical to success.

  18. Associations among animal, carcass, muscle characteristics, and fresh meat color traits in Charolais cattle.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Picard, Brigitte; Monteils, Valérie

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of animal, carcass and muscle characteristics on initial color traits of steaks from 887 Charolais cattle. First, the fixed factors of year of birth, experiment and sex had strong impacts on color traits. From the covariates, increased age lead to intense color (low h*, -1.55 units) and darker and vivid meat (high a*, b* and C*: +4.56, +3.41 and +5.61, respectively). Increases in fatness score and carcass fat weight were associated with increases in a*, b* and C* (redness; +2.90 to +4.06 for a*; yellowness; +2.60 to +3.76 for b*; and vividness, +3.87 to +5.49 for C*) and a darker colored lean (L*; -1.56 to -3.23). As pH24h increased, a* (less red) and C* (less vivid) decreased (-3.06), whereas hue angle increased (+2.69) leading to poorer color. The selection of animals for high degree of muscularity or slaughter weight resulted in lighter and darker meat, respectively. The studied covariates could be used as indicators of Charolais beef color traits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, Rennio F. de; Institute of Environmental Engineering; Tambosi, Jose L.

    2009-09-15

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) - were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastesmore » can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.« less

  20. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petitionmore » is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.« less

  1. Effect of residual ascorbate on determination of nitrite in commercial cured meat products.

    PubMed

    Fox, J B; Doerr, R C; Gates, R

    1984-01-01

    Residual ascorbate in cured meat slurries results in different amounts of pigment being produced from different Griess reagent combinations. The phenomenon was used to study residual ascorbate in commercial cured meat products which had a variety of textures, acidities, moisture and meat content, fat, homogeneity, initial nitrite, and processing conditions. Diluting and heating the samples according to the AOAC procedure did not completely eliminate the ascorbate interference, but making the sample alkaline did. Determining nitrite separately in supernate and precipitate from the first dilution showed the effect of heating to be the elimination of interferences and solubilization or extraction of nitrite from the precipitate.

  2. Unprocessed Red and Processed Meats and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Type 2 Diabetes – An Updated Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Micha, Renata; Michas, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that effects of red meat consumption on coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes could vary depending on processing. We reviewed the evidence for effects of unprocessed (fresh/frozen) red and processed (using sodium/other preservatives) meat consumption on CHD and diabetes. In meta-analyses of prospective cohorts, higher risk of CHD is seen with processed meat consumption (RR per 50 g: 1.42, 95 %CI = 1.07–1.89), but a smaller increase or no risk is seen with unprocessed meat consumption. Differences in sodium content (~400 % higher in processed meat) appear to account for about two-thirds of this risk difference. In similar analyses, both unprocessed red and processed meat consumption are associated with incident diabetes, with higher risk per g of processed (RR per 50 g: 1.51, 95 %CI = 1.25–1.83) versus unprocessed (RR per 100 g: 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.04–1.37) meats. Contents of heme iron and dietary cholesterol may partly account for these associations. The overall findings suggest that neither unprocessed red nor processed meat consumption is beneficial for cardiometabolic health, and that clinical and public health guidance should especially prioritize reducing processed meat consumption. PMID:23001745

  3. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results.

  4. Novel Lean Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model Using Gestational Low Protein Programming

    PubMed Central

    BLESSON, Chellakkan S.; SCHUTT, Amy K.; BALAKRISHNAN, Meena P.; PAUTLER, Robia G.; PEDERSEN, Steen E.; SARKAR, Poonam; GONZALES, Daniel; ZHU, Gang; MARINI, Juan C.; CHACKO, Shaji K.; YALLAMPALLI, Uma; YALLAMPALLI, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes in lean individuals is not well studied and up to 26% of diabetes occurs in these individuals. Although the cause is not well understood, it has been primarily attributed to nutritional issues during early development. Objective Our objective was to develop a lean type 2 diabetes model using gestational low protein programming. Study Design Pregnant rats were fed control (20% protein) or isocaloric low protein (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery. Standard diet was given to dams after delivery and to pups after weaning. Glucose tolerance test was done at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Magnetic resonance imaging of body fat for the females was done at 4 months. Rats were sacrificed at 4 months and 8 months of age and their peri-gonadal, peri-renal, inguinal and brown fat were weighed and expressed relative to their body weight. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was done around 6 months of age. Results Male and female offspring exposed to a low protein diet during gestation developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Further, glucose intolerance progressed with increasing age and occurred earlier and was more severe in females when compared to males. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp showed whole body insulin resistance in both sexes, with females demonstrating increased insulin resistance compared to males. Low protein females showed a 4.5-fold increase in insulin resistance while males showed a 2.5-fold increase when compared to their respective controls. Data from magnetic resonance imaging on female offspring showed no difference in the subcutaneous, inguinal and visceral fat content. We were able to validate this observation by sacrificing the rats at 4 and 8 months and measuring total body fat content. This showed no differences in body fat content between control and LP offspring in both males and females. Additionally, diabetic rats had a similar body mass index to that of the controls. Conclusion LP gestational

  5. Review of the association between meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Coelho, Desire; Blachier, François

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is rapidly increasing in developing countries, especially among populations that are adopting Western-style diets. Several, but not all, epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially red and processed meat, is associated with increased CRC risk. Potential reasons for the association between high red and processed meat intake and CRC risk include the content of the meat (e.g. protein, heme) and compounds generated by the cooking process (e.g. N-nitroso compounds, heterocyclic amines). These factors can affect the large intestine mucosa with genotoxicity and metabolic disturbances. Increased bacterial fermentation (putrefaction) of undigested protein and production of bacterial metabolites derived from amino acids may affect colon epithelial homeostasis and renewal. This correlates with the fact that most colonic cancers are detected in the distal colon and rectum where protein fermentation actively occurs. However, there are still large controversies on the relationship between red meat consumption and CRC risk. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to enhance the current understanding on the association between high red and processed meat intakes with CRC risk. A principal focus of this review will be to discuss the meat-related components, such as proteins in the meat, heme, N-nitroso compounds, and heterocyclic amines, and the effects they have upon the large intestine mucosa and the intestinal gut microbiota. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in meat by sugar-smoking and dietary exposure assessment in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaun; Kao, Tsai Hua; Chen, Chia Ju; Huang, Chung Wei; Chen, Bing Huei

    2013-08-07

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent an important pollutant in foods and/or the environment. This study aimed to determine the PAH contents in sugar-smoked meat by employing a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) method combined with a GC-MS technique and assess the dietary exposure of PAHs in Taiwan. Results showed that the longer the sugar-smoking duration, the more the total PAH formation. By sugar-smoking for 6 min, the total PAH contents generated in red meat (33.9 ± 3.1-125.5 ± 9.2 ppb) were higher than in poultry meat (19.1 ± 2.0-28.2 ± 1.2 ppb) and seafood (9.1 ± 1.4-31.8 ± 1.8 ppb), with lamb steak containing the largest amount of total PAHs. Most importantly, the highly carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene remained undetected in all of the sugar-smoked meat samples. In addition, the cancer risk due to dietary PAH exposure based on total intake of meat in Taiwan was <2 × 10(-7). This outcome demonstrates that sugar-smoking can be adopted to replace the traditional smoking process with wood as smoke source.

  7. Sex and age differences in meat composition of Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) reared for a short period after capture in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Maki; Souma, Kousaku; Sugo, Kazuki; Araki, Shin-Ichi; Ishizaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Masami; Kasai, Takamasa; Masuko, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Yeso sika deer captured in winter around Lake Akan in Hokkaido were reared for 8-10 months at Tokyo University of Agriculture in Abashiri. Six 1-year-old females and males and six 2-year-old or older (adult) females and males were slaughtered and their carcasses were processed. The chemical composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of the loin were measured. No marked influence of gender or age was noted in the chemical composition of loin. In the mineral contents, significant differences were noted. The potassium and sulfur contents were lower and the sodium content was higher in adult deer meat (P < 0.05, respectively) and the potassium content was higher in male deer meat (P < 0.05). Arsenic, cadmium or lead were not detected. In the unsaturated fatty acid, a significant interaction was detected (P < 0.05), and it was high in 1-year-old female deer meat and low in 1-year-old male deer meat. Significant gender or age differences were noted only in the mineral contents in the loin of deer reared for a short period after capture. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. [Sodium and potassium content of various Chilean foods].

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Araya, C; Farah, M; Zuccarelli, M T; Masson, L

    1981-03-01

    Sodium and potassium contents of 40 high-protein dietary products were determined in order to complete the Table de Composición Química se Alimentos Chilenos (Chemical Composition Table of Chilean Foods). These cations' level must be strictly controlled in diets of many renal and heart patients. In Chile, Nutritionists who are in charge of preparing these diets, do not have a national composition table related to the sodium and potassium content for most of the food products. Samples of fluid cow's milk, dried milk with different fat contents, some cheeses, hen eggs, bovine entrails, some meat derivates and several meat cuts, including bovine, pork, lamb and chicken were studied.

  9. SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN AS A MANAGERIAL PRINCIPLE IN HEALTH CARE: A CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS FROM SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Maijala, Riikka; Eloranta, Sini; Reunanen, Tero; Ikonen, Tuija S

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the characteristics of leadership and management associated with a successful Lean thinking adaptation in healthcare. A systematic literature review was undertaken using electronic databases: PubMed, PubMed Systematic Review, ABI/INFORM, Business Source Complete, Emerald, JBI, and Cinahl. Inclusion criteria were: (i) a description of Lean management or leadership in health care, (ii) a reference to Lean thinking, (iii) a peer-reviewed original research article or a literature review, and (iv) a full text article available in English. Among the 1,754 peer-reviewed articles identified, nine original articles and three systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. Data on informants, methods, and settings were extracted and collated. Content analysis was used to conduct a review of the nine original studies describing and analyzing the success factors of Lean adaptation. The characteristics of leadership and management were analyzed by using the concept of a managerial windshield that divides leadership and management into four ontological dimensions: activities, style, focus, and purpose, each with typical developmental stages of skills and capabilities. The current study has some limitations: some papers from the journals not indexed in the searched databases may have been overlooked and the literature searches were carried out only for a 5-year period. Considering the results using the windshield concept emphasizes the philosophy, principles, and tools of Lean thinking. Lean leadership and management factors in health care were mainly conceptualized as skills and capabilities such as problem solving, making changes occur, empowering, communicating, coaching, supporting, facilitating, being democratic, organizational learning, and organizational success, all of which represented middle-stage or advanced managerial skills and capabilities. A conceptual analysis of systematically reviewed studies of Lean leadership

  10. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults.

  11. Teaching Special Decisions in a Lean Accounting Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Lean accounting has become increasingly important as more and more companies adopt the lean enterprise model or some variation of it. Cost and managerial accounting textbooks continue to use, almost exclusively, models based on standard overhead absorption, which if used in a lean environment will not accurately reflect the benefits from the…

  12. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations-a review.

    PubMed

    Hathwar, Swapna C; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2012-12-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food.

  13. Development of framework for sustainable Lean implementation: an ISM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Jagdish Rajaram; Mantha, S. S.; Rane, Santosh B.

    2014-07-01

    The survival of any organization depends upon its competitive edge. Even though Lean is one of the most powerful quality improvement methodologies, nearly two-thirds of the Lean implementations results in failures and less than one-fifth of those implemented have sustained results. One of the most significant tasks of top management is to identify, understand and deploy the significant Lean practices like quality circle, Kanban, Just-in-time purchasing, etc. The term `bundle' is used to make groups of inter-related and internally consistent Lean practices. Eight significant Lean practice bundles have been identified based on literature reviewed and opinion of the experts. The order of execution of Lean practice bundles is very important. Lean practitioners must be able to understand the interrelationship between these practice bundles. The objective of this paper is to develop framework for sustainable Lean implementation using interpretive structural modelling approach.

  14. Carcass composition and meat quality of equally mature kids and lambs.

    PubMed

    Santos, V A C; Silva, S R; Azevedo, J M T

    2008-08-01

    Carcass composition and meat quality attributes of 55 suckling kids (27 males and 28 females) and 57 suckling lambs (28 males and 29 females) of Portuguese native breeds were investigated. These suckling kid and lamb meats are European meat quality labels produced according to "Cabrito de Barroso- PGI" and "Borrego Terrincho-PDO" specifications, respectively. Female kids were slaughtered at 9.1 +/- 0.36 kg of BW, and male kids were slaughtered at 10.4 +/- 0.37 kg of BW, corresponding to 20.1 and 17.7% of maturity, respectively. Female lambs were slaughtered at 8.6 +/- 0.53 kg of BW, and male lambs were slaughtered at 9.9 +/- 0.23 kg of BW, corresponding to 19.9 and 17.1% of maturity, respectively. At 24 h postmortem, various yield and quality measurements were collected. The left sides of the carcasses were dissected into muscle, subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, and bone. Final pH, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*), carcass measurements, and kidney knob and pelvic fat were also determined. Samples of LM were taken from the lumbar and thoracic cuts for intramuscular and meat quality determinations. At 72 h postmortem, a sample of LM was used for cooking losses and Warner-Bratzler shear force determination. Suckling lambs had greater dressing proportion than suckling kids (P < 0.01). Carcass fatness was not affected by species (P > 0.05), but females had greater kidney knob and pelvic fat proportion than males (P < 0.01). Lambs had greater proportions of the highly valued leg cut and lower proportions of shoulder, anterior rib, and neck cuts than kids. Dissection results indicated that kid carcasses had greater muscle content and lower dissected fat and bone than lambs. Kids had greater (P < 0.001) muscle ultimate pH value than lambs (5.8 +/- 0.02 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.02). Males had greater (P < 0.05) muscle ultimate pH value than females (5.7 +/- 0.02 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.02). The kid meat was significantly lighter (P < 0.05) and less yellow (P < 0.001) than the lamb meat. Kids

  15. Application of lean thinking to health care: issues and observations

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Tom; Bongers, Inge; Janssen, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background Incidents and quality problems are a prime cause why health care leaders are calling to redesign health care delivery. One of the concepts used is lean thinking. Yet, lean often leads to resistance. Also, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting lean premises. In this paper, we present an overview of lean thinking and its application to health care. Development, theory and application of lean thinking to health care Lean thinking evolved from a tool designed to improve operational shop-floor performance at an automotive manufacturer to a management approach with both operational and sociotechnical aspects. Sociotechnical dynamics have until recently not received much attention. At the same time a balanced approach might lead to a situation where operational and sociotechnial improvements are mutually reinforcing. Application to health care has been limited and focussed mainly on operational aspects using original lean tools. A more integrative approach would be to pay more attention to sociotechnical dynamics of lean implementation efforts. Also, the need to use the original lean tools may be limited, because health care may have different instruments and tools already in use that are in line with lean thinking principles. Discussion We believe lean thinking has the potential to improve health care delivery. At the same time, there are methodological and practical considerations that need to be taken into account. Otherwise, lean implementation will be superficial and fail, adding to existing resistance and making it more difficult to improve health care in the long term. PMID:19696048

  16. Substitution of meat and fish with vegetables or potatoes and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne M L; Hansen, Mette D; Tjønneland, Anne; Rimm, Eric B; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-11-01

    Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), whereas vegetable consumption has been found to be protective. The aim of this study was to investigate substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish with vegetables or potatoes for MI prevention. We followed up 29 142 women and 26 029 men in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at baseline. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for MI associated with specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for MI when replacing red meat with vegetables was 0·94 (95 % CI 0·90, 0·98). Replacing fatty fish with vegetables was associated with a higher risk of MI (HR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·45), whereas an inverse, statistically non-significant association was found for lean fish (HR 0·93; 95 % CI 0·83, 1·05). Substituting poultry with vegetables was not associated with risk of MI (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·90, 1·11). Findings for substitution with potatoes were similar to findings for vegetables. Among men, a similar pattern was observed, but the associations were weak and mostly statistically non-significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a lower risk of MI, whereas replacing fatty fish with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a higher risk of MI.

  17. Lean limit phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of flammability limits in the presence of flame interaction, and the existence of negative flame speeds are discussed. Downstream interaction between two counterflow premixed flames of different stoichiometries are experimentally studied. Various flame configurations are observed and quantified; these include the binary system of two lean or rich flames, the triplet system of a lean and a rich flame separated by a diffusion flame, and single diffusion flames with some degree of premixedness. Extinction limits are determined for methane/air and butane/air mixtures over the entire range of mixture concentrations. The results show that the extent of flame interaction depends on the separation distance between the flames which are functions of the mixtures' concentrations, the stretch rate, and the effective Lewis numbers (Le). In particular, in a positively-stretched flow field Le 1 ( 1) mixtures tend to interact strongly (weakly), while the converse holds for flames in a negatively-stretched flow. Also established was the existence of negative flames whose propagation velocity is in the same general direction as that of the bulk convective flow, being supported by diffusion alone. Their existence demonstrates the tendency of flames to resist extinction, and further emphasizes the possibility of very lean or rich mixtures to undergo combustion.

  18. Using Simulation to Explore Lean Manufacturing Implementation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick W.; Krumwiede, Kip R.; Street, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    Lean manufacturing, an outgrowth of the Toyota Production System, has spread far beyond the automobile industry and is seen by many leaders as a key management philosophy in the battle to compete on an international scale. Successful implementation of lean requires that managers and employees be educated in the proper application of lean tools and…

  19. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approach for authentication of meat species from minced meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Kamuni, Veeranna; Muthukumar, Muthupalani; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Kiran, Mohan; Rapole, Srikanth

    2018-02-01

    Fraudulent mislabelling of processed meat products on a global scale that cannot be detected using conventional techniques necessitates sensitive, robust and accurate methods of meat authentication to ensure food safety and public health. In the present study, we developed an in-gel (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 2DE) and OFFGEL-based proteomic method for authenticating raw and cooked water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Caprus hircus) meat and their mixes. The matrix-assisted liquid desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of proteins separated using 2DE or OFFGEL electrophoresis delineated species-specific peptide biomarkers derived from myosin light chain 1 and 2 (MLC1 and MLC2) of buffalo-sheep-goat meat mix in definite proportions at 98:1:1, 99:0.5:0.5 and 99.8:0.1:0.1 that were found stable to resist thermal processing. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approaches are efficient in authenticating meat mixes spiked at minimum 1.0% and 0.1% levels, respectively, in triple meat mix for both raw and cooked samples. The study demonstrated that authentication of meat from a complex mix of three closely related species requires identification of more than one species-specific peptide due to close similarity between their amino acid sequences. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Learning Lean: A Survey of Industry Lean Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliedner, Gene; Mathieson, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined business practitioners' preferences for higher education curricula design in general and for what graduates should know about Lean, or waste-reduction efforts. The authors conducted a Web-based survey and found that practitioners are not as concerned about graduates' possessing specific technical skills as they are about them…

  1. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    PubMed

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P < 0.05) cooked light (breast) meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P < 0.05) for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P < 0.05) and less chewy (P < 0.05) than thighs from free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled

  2. Meat and meat-mutagen intake and pancreatic cancer risk in the NIH-AARP cohort.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Cross, Amanda J; Silverman, Debra T; Schairer, Catherine; Thompson, Frances E; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sinha, Rashmi

    2007-12-01

    Meat intake, particularly red meat, has been positively associated with pancreatic cancer in some epidemiologic studies. Detailed meat-cooking methods and related mutagens formed in meat cooked at high temperatures have not been evaluated prospectively as risk factors for this malignancy. We investigated the association between meat, meat-cooking methods, meat-mutagen intake, and exocrine pancreatic cancer in the NIH-American Association of Retired Persons (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study cohort of 537,302 individuals, aged 50 to 71 years, with complete baseline dietary data (1995-1996) ascertained from a food frequency questionnaire. A meat-cooking module was completed by 332,913 individuals 6 months after baseline. During 5 years of follow-up, 836 incident pancreatic cancer cases (555 men, 281 women) were identified. Four hundred and fifty-nine cases had complete meat module data. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Total, red, and high-temperature cooked meat intake was positively associated with pancreatic cancer among men (fifth versus first quintile: HR, 1.41, 95% CI, 1.08-1.83, P trend = 0.001; HR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.05-1.91, P trend = 0.01; and HR, 1.52, 95% CI, 1.12-2.06, P trend = 0.005, respectively), but not women. Men showed significant 50% increased risks for the highest tertile of grilled/barbecued and broiled meat and significant doubling of risk for the highest quintile of overall meat-mutagenic activity (P trends < 0.01). The fifth quintile of the heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline intake showed a significant 29% (P trend = 0.006) increased risk in men and women combined. These findings support the hypothesis that meat intake, particularly meat cooked at high temperatures and associated mutagens, may play a role in pancreatic cancer development.

  3. Effect of linseed supplementation and slaughter age on meat quality of grazing cross-bred Galician x Burguete foals.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Rubén; Pateiro, Mirian; Crecente, Santiago; Ruiz, Marta; Sarriés, María V; Lorenzo, José M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of finishing diet (control concentrate vs. linseed concentrate) and slaughter age (13 vs. 26 months) on meat and nutritional quality of foal meat. For this study, 46 foals from crossing Galicia Mountain x Burguete breeds were used. The obtained results showed that slaughter age had an influence on chemical composition and colour parameters. Foals slaughtered at the age of 13 months had lower content of intramuscular fat and higher cholesterol contents than those slaughtered at 26 months of age. Regarding colour parameters, older foals showed the highest values of redness and lowest myoglobin contents. Finishing diet had a low effect on the majority of parameters evaluated. Foals fed with linseed presented lower shear force values than those fed with control concentrate. Fatty acid and amino acid contents were hardly influenced by finishing diet, whereas slaughter age effect had a high impact on fatty acid profile. Older animals showed lowest SFA values and n-6/n-3 ratio. Older animals presented the best meat quality. Diet had low effect in meat quality and could be related to the short time during finishing diet was administered and the low amount of linseed in the experimental diet. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. "The largest Lean transformation in the world": the implementation and evaluation of lean in Saskatchewan healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, Leigh; Rotter, Thomas; Stevenson, Katherine; Bath, Brenna; Goodridge, Donna; Harrison, Liz; Dobson, Roy; Sari, Nazmi; Jeffery, Cathy; Bourassa, Carrie; Westhorp, Gill

    2014-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health has committed to a multi-million dollar investment toward the implementation of Lean methodology across the province's healthcare system. Originating as a production line discipline (the Toyota Production System), Lean has evolved to encompass process improvements including inventory management, waste reduction and quality improvement techniques. With an initial focus on leadership, strategic alignment, training and the creation of a supportive infrastructure (Lean promotion offices), the goal in Saskatchewan is a whole health system transformation that produces "better health, better value, better care, and better teams." Given the scope and scale of the initiative and the commitment of resources, it is vital that a comprehensive, longitudinal evaluation plan be implemented to support ongoing decision-making and program design. The nature of the initiative also offers a unique opportunity to contribute to health quality improvement science by advancing our understanding of the implementation and evaluation of complex, large-scale healthcare interventions. The purpose of this article is to summarize the background to Lean in Saskatchewan and the proposed evaluation methods. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  5. Lean oncology: a new model for oncologists.

    PubMed

    Montesarchio, Vincenzo; Grimaldi, Antonio Maria; Fox, Bernard A; Rea, Antonio; Marincola, Francesco M; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2012-04-25

    The history of the term Lean is relatively recent and originates from the Toyota Production System (TPS). The term "Lean" means "thin", which refers to a mental process, operational, productive, no-frills, quick but not hasty, consequential to the previous event. The Lean process flows seamlessly into the result, eliminates unnecessary complications to the effect, prevents unnecessary equipment processes. The idea is to 'do more with less', like using the (few) available resources in the most productive way possible, through the elimination of all types of waste that inevitably accompanies every stage of a production process. Lean management is primarily a management philosophy, a system of values and behaviors that goes beyond the mere application of the instrument and that, once internalized, will form the nucleus of the corporate culture. "Lean Oncology" is a term coined to identify a methodology of care and treatment to cancer patients, consisting on process simplification, streamlining of the organizational and routes of drug treatment, detection and elimination of waste. Its main objective is the centrality of the patient.

  6. Implementation of lean thinking: one health system's journey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Christopher S; Spahlinger, David A; Kin, Jeanne M; Coffey, Richard J; Billi, John E

    2009-08-01

    Lean Thinking is a management philosophy derived from the manufacturing industry, where Toyota has long been the gold standard. Health care organizations have started to apply this approach to patient care. After initial experimentation, the University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) has adopted Lean Thinking as its uniform approach to quality improvement and is striving to become a complete Lean organization. In 2005, the senior leadership selected an initial set of projects in areas that traced the patient's journey across different care settings within our health system. Four of the projects were as follows: orthopedic surgery clinic scheduling, radiation oncology therapy, peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) services, and coordination of care to the outpatient setting. Lean Thinking encourages service providers to focus on value as defined by the customer and the relentless elimination of waste that impedes the flow of value. A series of learning projects were conducted to test whether Lean methods would work at UMHS. The following factors were found to be key to LEAN PROJECT SUCCESS: expert guidance for initial efforts, leadership in the form of clinical champions and senior management support of the improvement work, frontline worker engagement in mapping out "current state" processes, identifying waste and designing an improved "future state," using metrics to develop and track interventions, and defining realistic project scope. As UMHS's experience applying Lean Thinking to our patient care processes has grown, so have support, enthusiasm, and expertise within the organization. UMHS's Lean Thinking system, now known as the Michigan Quality System, has emerged as the core improvement strategy.

  7. Changes in UCP expression in tissues of Zucker rats fed diets with different protein content.

    PubMed

    Masanés, R M; Yubero, P; Rafecas, I; Remesar, X

    2002-09-01

    The effect of dietary protein content on the uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1, 2 and 3 expression in a number of tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats was studied. Thirty-day-old male Zucker lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) rats were fed on hyperproteic (HP, 30% protein), standard (RD, 17% protein) or hypoproteic (LP, 9% protein) diets ad libitum for 30 days. Although dietary protein intake affected the weights of individual muscles in lean and obese animals, these weights were similar. In contrast, huge differences were observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver weights. Lean rats fed on the LP diet generally increased UCP expression, whereas the HP group had lower values. Obese animals, HP and LP groups showed higher UCP expression in muscles, with slight differences in BAT and lower values for UCP3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The mean values of UCP expression in BAT of obese rats were lower than in their lean counterpart, whereas the expression in skeletal muscle was increased. Thus, expression of UCPs can be modified by dietary protein content, in lean and obese rats. A possible thermogenic function of UCP3 in muscle and WAT in obese rats must be taken into account.

  8. Lean healthcare from a change management perspective.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Lisa; Aij, Kjeld Harald; Simons, Frederique Elisabeth; van der Eng, Niels; Ten Have, Wouter Dirk

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - Lean healthcare is used in a growing number of hospitals to increase efficiency and quality of care. However, healthcare organizations encounter problems with the implementation of change initiatives due to an implementation gap: the gap between strategy and execution. From a change management perspective, the purpose of this paper is to increase scientific knowledge regarding factors that diminish the implementation gap and make the transition from the "toolbox lean" toward an actual transformation to lean healthcare. Design/methodology/approach - A cross-sectional study was executed in an operating theatre of a Dutch University Medical Centre. Transformational leadership was expected to ensure the required top-down commitment, whereas team leadership creates the required active, bottom-up behavior of employees. Furthermore, professional and functional silos and a hierarchical structure were expected to impede the workforce flexibility in adapting organizational elements and optimize the entire process flow. Findings - The correlation and regression analyses showed positive relations between the transformational leadership and team leadership styles and lean healthcare implementation. The results also indicated a strong relation between workforce flexibility and the implementation of lean healthcare. Originality/value - With the use of a recently developed change management model, the Change Competence Model, the authors suggest leadership and workforce flexibility to be part of an organization's change capacity as crucial success factor for a sustainable transformation to lean healthcare.

  9. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for meat and meat products preservation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics.

  10. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

  11. [Update on microbiological quality assurance meat and meat products in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Rachidi, H; Latrache, H

    2018-03-01

    Food safety has become an absolute necessity in all countries. As a result, Morocco has taken several measures and actions to develop food safety and food-borne disease control. This study aimed to highlight the level of improvement in the quality assurance of meat and meat products in Morocco. It is based on a non-exhaustive review of the regulatory texts governing food safety in the country, as well as a statistical study on establishments of meat and meat products adopting a self-checking system and approved by the National Office of Sanitary Safety of Food. Morocco has introduced several laws and regulations requiring sanitary control of food products. Also, the number of establishments of meat and meat products adopting a system of self-control and approved by the National Office of Sanitary Safety of Food has improved significantly. It has increased from 58 in 2007 to 273 in 2016. The adoption of self-monitoring systems allows better access to international markets, improved quality of food products and a considerable reduction in microbial contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat does not affect nonheme iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in women.

    PubMed

    Baech, Sussi B; Hansen, Marianne; Bukhave, Klaus; Kristensen, Lars; Jensen, Mikael; Sørensen, Sven S; Purslow, Peter P; Skibsted, Leif H; Sandström, Brittmarie

    2003-01-01

    The effect of increasing cooking temperatures of meat on nonheme iron absorption from a composite meal was investigated. Cysteine-containing peptides may have a role in the iron absorption enhancing effect of muscle proteins. Heat treatment can change the content of sulfhydryl groups produced from cysteine and thereby affect iron absorption. Twenty-one women (25 +/- 3 y) were served a basic meal without meat and two other meals consisting of the basic meal plus 75 g of pork meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120 degrees C. The meals were extrinsically labeled with (55)Fe or (59)Fe. Iron absorption was determined from measurements of whole-body (59)Fe retention and the activity of (55)Fe and (59)Fe in blood samples. Nonheme iron absorptions were 0.9 (0.5-4.0)% (P = 0.06), 0.7 (0.4-3.9)% (P = 0.1) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1)% (P < 0.001) greater when meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120 degrees C, respectively, was added to the basic meal. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat did not impair nonheme iron absorption compared with cooking at 70 degrees C. Because the cysteine content of meat decreased with increasing cooking temperature, this argues against a specific contribution of sulfhydryl groups from cysteine residues in the promotion of nonheme iron absorption by meat proteins.

  13. Efficacy of Alkali-treated Sugarcane Fiber for Improving Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Meat Emulsions with Different Fat Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Setyabrata, Derico; Lee, Yong-Jae; Brad Kim, Yuan H.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion with different fat levels. Crude sugarcane bagasse fiber (CSF) was treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2)) to obtain alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber (ASF). The two types of sugarcane bagasse fiber (CSF and ASF) were incorporated at 2% levels in pork meat emulsions prepared with 5%, 10% and 20% fat levels. Alkaline-treatment markedly increased acid detergent fiber content (p=0.002), but significantly decreased protein, fat, ash and other carbohydrate contents. ASF exhibited significantly higher water-binding capacity, but lower oil-binding and emulsifying capacities than CSF. Meat emulsions formulated with 10% fat and 2% sugarcane bagasse fiber had equivalent cooking loss and textural properties to control meat emulsion (20% fat without sugarcane bagasse fiber). The two types of sugarcane bagasse fiber had similar impacts on proximate composition, cooking yield and texture of meat emulsion at the same fat level, respectively (p>0.05). Our results confirm that sugarcane bagasse fiber could be a functional food ingredient for improving physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion, at 2% addition level. Further, the altered functional properties of alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber had no impacts on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsions, regardless of fat level at 5%, 10% and 20%. PMID:29805281

  14. Efficacy of Alkali-treated Sugarcane Fiber for Improving Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Meat Emulsions with Different Fat Levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Setyabrata, Derico; Lee, Yong-Jae; Brad Kim, Yuan H

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion with different fat levels. Crude sugarcane bagasse fiber (CSF) was treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH 2 )) to obtain alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber (ASF). The two types of sugarcane bagasse fiber (CSF and ASF) were incorporated at 2% levels in pork meat emulsions prepared with 5%, 10% and 20% fat levels. Alkaline-treatment markedly increased acid detergent fiber content ( p =0.002), but significantly decreased protein, fat, ash and other carbohydrate contents. ASF exhibited significantly higher water-binding capacity, but lower oil-binding and emulsifying capacities than CSF. Meat emulsions formulated with 10% fat and 2% sugarcane bagasse fiber had equivalent cooking loss and textural properties to control meat emulsion (20% fat without sugarcane bagasse fiber). The two types of sugarcane bagasse fiber had similar impacts on proximate composition, cooking yield and texture of meat emulsion at the same fat level, respectively ( p >0.05). Our results confirm that sugarcane bagasse fiber could be a functional food ingredient for improving physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion, at 2% addition level. Further, the altered functional properties of alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber had no impacts on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsions, regardless of fat level at 5%, 10% and 20%.

  15. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of...

  16. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of...

  17. Development of an assay for rapid identification of meat from yak and cattle using polymerase chain reaction technique.

    PubMed

    Yin, R H; Bai, W L; Wang, J M; Wu, C D; Dou, Q L; Yin, R L; He, J B; Luo, G B

    2009-09-01

    Yak meat is of good quality with fine texture, high protein and low fat content, and rich in amino acids compared with that of cattle, and it lacks anabolic steroids or other drugs. In general terms, however, the meat yield of yak is relatively low compared with that of the cattle. In order to prevent possible adulteration of yak meat with cattle meat, based on the sequence of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene, a multiplex PCR-based approach was proposed for rapid identification of the meat from yak and cattle using three primers designed in this work. Through the combinatorial usage of three primers with a single reaction set, two fragments of 290 and 159bp were amplified from the cattle meat DNA, whereas only a fragment of 290bp was obtained from the yak meat DNA. Using the assay described, satisfactory amplification was accomplished in the analysis of raw and heat-treated binary meat mixtures of yak/cattle with a detection limit of 0.1% for cattle meat. The technique is fast and straightforward. It might be a useful tool in the quality control of yak meat and meat products.

  18. Antioxidant-rich spice added to hamburger meat during cooking results in reduced meat, plasma, and urine malondialdehyde concentrations1234

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoping; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emerging science has shown the effect of oxidation products and inflammation on atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. Cooking hamburger meat can promote the formation of malondialdehyde that can be absorbed after ingestion. Objective:We studied the effect of an antioxidant spice mixture on malondialdehyde formation while cooking hamburger meat and its effects on plasma and urinary malondialdehyde concentrations. Design: Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 2 kinds of burgers in a randomized order: one burger was seasoned with a spice blend, and one burger was not seasoned with the spice blend. The production of malondialdehyde in burgers and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and urine after ingestion were measured by HPLC. Results:Rosmarinic acid from oregano was monitored to assess the effect of cooking on spice antioxidant content. Forty percent (19 mg) of the added rosmarinic acid remained in the spiced burger (SB) after cooking. There was a 71% reduction in the malondialdehyde concentration (mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.02 μmol/250 g) in the meat of the SBs compared with the malondialdehyde concentration (1.79 ± 0.17 μmol/250 g) in the meat of the control burgers (CBs). The plasma malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly in the CB group as a change from baseline (P = 0.026). There was a significant time-trend difference (P = 0.013) between the 2 groups. Urinary malondialdehyde concentrations (μmol/g creatinine) decreased by 49% (P = 0.021) in subjects consuming the SBs compared with subjects consuming the CBs. Conclusions: The overall effect of adding the spice mixture to hamburger meat before cooking was a reduction in malondialdehyde concentrations in the meat, plasma, and urine after ingestion. Therefore, cooking hamburgers with a polyphenol-rich spice mixture can significantly decrease the concentration of malondialdehyde, which suggests potential health benefits for atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. This trial was registered at

  19. Effects of vitamin E and fish oil inclusion in broiler diets on meat fatty acid composition and on the flavour of a composite sample of breast meat.

    PubMed

    Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2010-08-15

    Enriching poultry meat with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) can increase low population intakes of LC n-3 PUFA, but fishy taints can spoil reheated meat. This experiment determined the effect of different amounts of LC n-3 PUFA and vitamin E in the broiler diet on the fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of the breast meat. Ross 308 broilers (120) were randomly allocated to one of five treatments from 21 to 42 days of age. Diets contained (g kg(-1)) 0, 9 or 18 LC n-3 PUFA (0LC, 9LC, 18LC), and 100, 150 or 200 mg LD-alpha-tocopherol acetate kg(-1) (E). The five diets were 0LC100E, 9LC100E, 18LC100E, 18LC150E, 18LC200E, with four pens per diet, except 18LC100E (eight pens). Breast meat was analysed for fatty acids (uncooked) and sensory analysis by R-index (reheated). LC n-3 PUFA content (mg kg(-1) meat) was 514 (0LC100E) and 2236 (9LC and 18LC). Compared with 0LC100E, meat from 18LC100E and 18LC150E tasted significantly different, while 23% of panellists detected fishy taints in 9LC100E and 18LC200E. Chicken meat can be enriched with nutritionally meaningful amounts of LC n-3 PUFA, but > 100 mg dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate kg(-1) broiler diet is needed to protect reheated meat from oxidative deterioration. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Hepatic steatosis in young lean insulin resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Markou, Athina; Androulakis, Ioannis I; Mourmouris, Christos; Tsikkini, Ageliki; Samara, Christianna; Sougioultzis, Stavros; Piaditis, George; Kaltsas, Gregory

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in young lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insulin resistance (IR). Case control study. Women with PCOS and healthy controls in a metabolic day ward. Seventeen young lean women with PCOS and 17 matched controls were studied prospectively. Fasting blood and a glucose tolerance test. Ovarian and liver ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT) of the liver (women with PCOS only). Anthropometric variables, biochemical and hormonal parameters, and several IR indices were determined. Hepatic lipid content was assessed with ultrasonography and CT of the liver. Women with PCOS had higher androgen levels, and the IR indices, glucose and insulin area under the curve, QUICKI, MATSUDA, and HOMA, compared to controls. In addition to IR, women with PCOS had normal aminotransferase levels, and higher, although within the normal range, alkaline phosphatase levels compared with controls. Women with PCOS had no evidence of NAFLD by either ultrasonography or CT of the liver. Young lean women with PCOS and IR do not have evidence of NAFLD. Because of the presence of IR, follow-up is required to determine whether they are at risk of developing NAFLD. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The future of meat: a qualitative analysis of cultured meat media coverage.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, J N; Shoulders, C W

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to explore the informational themes and information sources cited by the media to cover stories of cultured meat in both the United States and the European Union. The results indicated that cultured meat news articles in both the United States and the European Union commonly discuss cultured meat in terms of benefits, history, process, time, livestock production problems, and skepticism. Additionally, the information sources commonly cited in the articles included cultured meat researchers, sources from academia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), New Harvest, Winston Churchill, restaurant owners/chefs, and sources from the opposing countries (e.g. US use some EU sources and vice versa). The implications of this study will allow meat scientists to understand how the media is influencing consumers' perceptions about the topic, and also allow them to strategize how to shape future communication about cultured meat. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Seal and whale meat: two newly recognized food allergies.

    PubMed

    Moore, Laura M; Rathkopf, Melinda McNeal; Sanner, Carol J; Whisman, Bonnie A; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2007-01-01

    Alaska's marine mammals compose a large portion of the diet of indigenous coastal Alaskan people. Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), inhabitants of the Bering and Beaufort seas along Alaska's western and northern coasts, are 2 of the most important subsistence species, serving as major food sources to the native population. To describe an Inupiaq boy with symptoms consistent with an IgE-mediated food allergy after ingestion of bowhead whale and bearded seal meat. Extracts of cooked bowhead whale and bearded seal were prepared, lyophilized, and evaluated for protein content. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed for each extract, followed by transfer to nitrocellulose and IgE immunoblots. Skin prick testing was conducted using reconstituted extracts of 1:10 wt/vol dilution. Immunoblots revealed serum specific IgE binding with the extracts of bowhead whale and bearded seal meat. Protein bands of approximately 25, 40, 50, and 90 kDa were found in the seal meat. Protein bands of 55 and 90 kDa were found in the whale meat. Skin prick test results were positive to whale and seal extracts with appropriate positive and negative controls. Ten control subjects had negative reactions to both extracts. A patient with moderate anaphylaxis to bowhead whale and bearded seal meat demonstrated serum specific IgE by means of immunoblot and positive skin prick test results. This is the first known reported case of specific IgE to these species.

  3. Effects of high pressure processing on fatty acid composition and volatile compounds in Korean native black goat meat.

    PubMed

    Kang, Geunho; Cho, Soohyun; Seong, Pilnam; Park, Beomyoung; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Donghun; Kim, Youngjun; Kang, Sunmun; Park, Kyoungmi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of high pressure processing (HPP) on fatty acid composition and volatile compounds in Korean native black goat (KNBG) meat. Fatty acid content in KNBG meat was not significantly (p > 0.05) different among the control goats and those subjected HPP. The 9,12-octadecadienoic acid and octadecanoic acid, well-known causes of off-flavors, were detected from meat of some KNBG. A difference between the control and HPP treatment was observed in the discriminated function analysis using an electronic nose. The results suggest that the volatile compounds in KNBG meat were affected by HPP.

  4. Differences in postprandial inflammatory responses to a 'modern' v. traditional meat meal: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Arya, Fatemeh; Egger, Sam; Colquhoun, David; Sullivan, David; Pal, Sebely; Egger, Garry

    2010-09-01

    A low-grade inflammatory response ('metaflammation') has been found to be associated with certain chronic diseases. Proposed inducers of this have been aspects of the modern lifestyle, including newly introduced foods. Plasma TAG, and the inflammatory cytokines C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-alpha and IL-6 were compared in a randomised, cross-over trial using ten healthy subjects before and after eating 100 g of kangaroo, or a 'new' form of hybridised beef (wagyu) separated by about 1 week. Postprandial levels for 1 and 2 h of TAG, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly higher after eating wagyu compared with kangaroo (P = 0.002 for TAG at 1 h, P < 0.001 at 2 h; P < 0.001 for IL-6 and TNF-alpha at 1 and 2 h). CRP was significantly higher 1 h postprandially after wagyu (P = 0.011) and non-significantly higher 2 h postprandially (P = 0.090). We conclude that the metaflammatory reaction to ingestion of a 'new' form of hybridised beef (wagyu) is indicative of a low-grade, systemic, immune reaction when compared with lean game meat (kangaroo). Further studies using isoenergetic intake and isolating fatty acid components of meats are proposed.

  5. Fluorometric determination of nitrite in cured meats.

    PubMed

    Coppola, E D; Wickroski, A F; Hanna, J G

    1975-05-01

    An indirect fluorometric method for determining sodium nitrite in meat products is presented. The extracted sodium nitrite is consumed in a diazotization reaction with a measured excess of sulfanilic acid. Fluorescamine, which acts selectively with primary amines such as sulfanilic acid, is a fluorogenic reagent for the excess amine. The amine consumed, calculated by difference from the total originally present, is directly related to the sodium nitrite content of the sample. Interferences from amino acids and soluble proteins in the meat extract are eliminated by judicious use of a secondary peak in the fluorescence spectra (436 nm excitation, 495 nm fluorescence) combined with measurement at low pH (3.30). The recoveries of sodium nitrite ranged from 83.2 to 99.6% with an average of 93.4 and a standard deviation of +/- 5.28% for 11 determinations.

  6. Benevolent technotopias and hitherto unimaginable meats: Tracing the promises of in vitro meat.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications striving to pinpoint the nature of in vitro meat to unveil the creation of an in vitro meat canon wherein perceived possibilities become taken for granted. Second, I investigate how the promissory discourse is often relatively silent on key aspects of how this technology could remake the world. Wet laboratories, animals and end products become foregrounded at the expense of political economy and the biophysical properties of cultured cells. Thus, questions concerning how funding requirements shape representations of this new technology, together with in vitro meat's particular socio-spatial and socio-ecological implications, become problematically de-emphasized.

  7. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  8. Oxidative stability of the meat of broilers supplemented with rosemary leaves, rosehip fruits, chokeberry pomace, and entire nettle, and effects on performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Loetscher, Y; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2013-11-01

    Prevention of lipid oxidation needs special attention because a high proportion of fatty acids in broiler meat are unsaturated. A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effect of dietary addition of rosemary, chokeberry pomace, rosehip, or nettle in comparison with vitamin E. Male Ross PM3 broilers caged in groups of 6 (4 replicated cages per treatment) were fed a balanced diet supplemented with 25 g/kg of herbal additive, 200 IU of α-tocopheryl acetate/kg, or without supplementation from d 7 to 35. Intake, performance, and with the help of excreta samples, apparent fiber digestibility, ME content, and metabolizability of nitrogen and energy were recorded per cage. Feed was analyzed for total phenols and tocopherols. In each bird (n = 24 per treatment), carcass weight and relative organ weights were recorded, and skin and liver color were assessed. Abdominal fat was analyzed for induction time (h) of lipid oxidation (Rancimat). Breast meat was analyzed for total tocopherol content (mg/kg) and development of TBA reactive substances (TBARS; μg of MDA/kg) over 9 d of storage. Data were subjected to ANOVA considering treatment and, where applicable, storage time. Rosemary supplementation reduced oxidation (TBARS d 9: 201; induction time: 2.48) and elevated tocopherol content (5.72) of the meat compared with control (470, 1.87, and 3.53, respectively). Rosemary-treated birds had a slightly lower carcass weight and a reduced nitrogen and energy metabolizability. Rosehip addition numerically decreased TBARS (319) and enhanced carcass weight (1.71 kg) compared with rosemary-treated birds (1.54 kg). Only a trend in antioxidant activity could be ascribed to chokeberry pomace, although dietary phenolic content was highest. Nettle did not improve oxidative stability (TBARS: 506; induction time: 1.91), although tocopherol content was elevated (6.51). Nettle treatment strongly intensified skin yellowness (b* of 20.6) compared with the control treatment

  9. Influence of turkey meat on residual nitrite in cured meat products.

    PubMed

    Kilic, B; Cassens, R G; Borchert, L L

    2001-02-01

    A response surface experimental design was employed to estimate residual nitrite level at various initial nitrite concentrations, percent turkey meat in the formula, and heat quantity (F) values using a typical wiener as the test system. Pork and mechanically separated turkey were used as the meat ingredients. Residual nitrite and pH were measured at day 1, 7 days, 14 days, and 49 days after processing. Protein, fat, salt, moisture, and CIE (L*a*b*) color values were also determined. Results showed that the effect of turkey meat on residual nitrite level was significant (P < 0.01). An increased amount of turkey meat in the formula resulted in lower residual nitrite levels at a fixed pH. The residual nitrite level was initially proportional to initial nitrite concentration, but it became a nonsignificant factor during longer storage time. Differences in heat quantity had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on residual nitrite level initially. Greater heat quantity