Obrzut, John E.; Hynd, George W.
The author reviews implications of the previous four papers on the neuropsychological approach to learning disabilities (ED 161 035-038), notes the importance of an interdisciplinary approach, discusses potential valuable test batteries, and emphasizes the need for appropriate training in neuropsychology psychologists and teachers. (CL)
Morrison, Gale M.; And Others
Sources of variability in identification of children for learning disabilities include teacher bias, peer tolerance, socioeconomic status, and assessment variability. Implications of these variables for research design and sampling are noted. (CL)
Padget, S. Yancey
Specific reading disability/dyslexia is examined as the one type of learning disability for which research results are consistent enough to suggest a model. The implications of this model are considered and three types of learning disabilities are discussed: specific language impairments, specific reading disability/dyslexia, and specific math…
Hill, John W.
Unrecognized learning disabilities in adulthood can also be viewed as concepts fundamental to change. These disabilities may include: (1) not being able to make appropriate choices and decisions; (2) not utilizing strategies such as checking things out with people, and monitoring one's own performance; (3) not being able to transfer learning from…
Smith, Shelley D.; Pennington, Bruce F.
Research in the genetics of behavioral traits, undertaken by family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies, has revealed information on normal variation in cognitive abilities as well as specific learning disabilities (primarily dyslexia). Genetic evaluation of learning disabled students have implications for counseling and recurrence risk…
... be able to go to college and study engineering as he'd hoped? What Are Learning Disabilities? ... some theories as to why they develop, including: Genetic influences. Experts have noticed that learning disabilities tend ...
Sittiprapaporn, Wichian, Ed.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner. Depending on the type and severity of the disability, interventions may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are…
Lyon, G R
Approximately 5% of all public school students are identified as having a learning disability (LD). LD is not a single disorder, but includes disabilities in any of seven areas related to reading, language, and mathematics. These separate types of learning disabilities frequently co-occur with one another and with social skill deficits and emotional or behavioral disorders. Most of the available information concerning learning disabilities relates to reading disabilities, and the majority of children with learning disabilities have their primary deficits in basic reading skills. An important part of the definition of LD is its exclusions: learning disabilities cannot be attributed primarily to mental retardation, emotional disturbance, cultural difference, or disadvantage. Thus, the concept of LD focuses on the notion of a discrepancy between a child's academic achievement and his or her apparent capacity to learn. Recent research indicates, however, that disability in basic reading skills is primarily caused by deficits in phonological awareness, which is independent of any achievement-capacity discrepancy. Deficits in phonological awareness can be identified in late kindergarten and first grade using inexpensive, straightforward testing protocol. Interventions have varying effectiveness, depending largely on the severity of the individual child's disability. The prevalence of learning disability identification has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. The "real" prevalence of LD is subject to much dispute because of the lack of an agreed-upon definition of LD with objective identification criteria. Some researchers have argued that the currently recognized 5% prevalence rate is inflated; others argue that LD is still underidentified. In fact, it appears that there are both sound and unsound reasons for the increase in identification rates. Sound reasons for the increase include better research, a broader definition of disability in reading, focusing on
Wozniak, Robert H.
The implications of Soviet psychoeducational research on learning disabilities (LD) and its relevance to American research and practice are discussed. The first section provides an overview of the general perspective of Soviet special education, with particular reference to LD and its relationship to Soviet psychology and philosophy. The second…
Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.
The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…
Peniston, Lorraine C.
Notes that camp directors and counselors should be familiar with learning disabilities. Defines learning disabilities and explains accommodations of materials, procedures, and equipment; modification of activities; individuals' learned compensation strategies; and communication issues. Sidebar defines types of learning disabilities. (SAS)
Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2012
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) affirms that the construct of learning disabilities represents a valid, unique, and heterogeneous group of disorders, and that recognition of this construct is essential for sound policy and practice. An extensive body of scientific research on learning disabilities continues to support…
Chapman, Melanie; Gledhill, Paul; Jones, Phillip; Burton, Mark; Soni, Saroj
This paper describes the findings of a survey into prescribing of psychotropic medication with adults with learning disabilities in a British city. A self-completion questionnaire was sent to staff in dispersed housing and community learning disability teams to gather information about the number of people prescribed psychoactive medication, the…
Watson, Silvana M. R.; Gable, Robert A.
In this article, we provide an overview of current knowledge on the underlying cognitive deficits associated with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). We highlight difficulties surrounding the identification of MLD that include inconsistency in defining MLD, comorbidity with other disabilities, problems associated with assessment tools and…
Frostig, Marianne; And Others
The following workshop presentations consider learning disabilities: "Educational Goals of the Perceptually Handicapped" by Marianne Frostig, "Remediation of Reading Problems" by Gilbert Schiffman, "Early Identification of Learning Disabilities" by Katrina de Hirsch, and "What Are Some Speech and Hearing…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011
Founded in 1975, the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) is a national committee of representatives of 12 organizations committed to the education and welfare of individuals with learning disabilities. More than 350,000 individuals constitute the membership of the organizations represented by the NJCLD. The NJCLD considers…
Caffrey, Erin; Fuchs, Douglas
We reviewed eight studies that described learning differences between students with learning disabilities (LD) and students with mild mental retardation (MMR). A total of 639 students, 6-20 years old, participated in these studies. Study authors examined students' inductive reasoning and their performance during guided inquiry and more lengthy…
Woodward, J; Noell, J
Designing appropriate content area instruction for secondary students with learning disabilities is a challenging endeavor. Even if these students are mainstreamed into algebra, history, or science classes, special educators are likely to expect only a minimal grasp of the material. To go beyond this, to teach higher order thinking through these subjects, would be regarded by most practitioners as too labor-intensive. The authors of this article argue that, through a comprehensive revision of traditional materials, secondary students with learning disabilities can learn content area subjects--earth science and introductory chemistry, particularly--in an integrated manner. These students can achieve a firm understanding of the subject, as well as learn how to solve complex, domain-specific problems. For this kind of integrated instruction to be feasible, the curriculum must be designed and field-tested by professional curriculum developers.
Skrtic, Thomas M.
The study examined the level of formal reasoning in mathematics of 70 learning disabled (LD) and 30 nonLD students from seventh and eighth grades. A review of previous research led to the hypothesis that mathematics interventions for LD students should involve concrete or pictorial, in addition to symbolic, representations of mathematical…
Grant, Kevin T.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) are part of the largest and most rapidly expanding population of college students (Burgstahler & Moore, 2009; Garrison-Wade & Lehmann, 2009; Foley 2006; Chew, Jensen, & Rosen, 2009; Thomas, 2000). Current estimations show approximately one and a half million college students have a documented…
Cottrell, Joseph M.; Barrett, Courtenay A.
Debate regarding the causes of specific learning disabilities (SLDs), precise definitions of SLDs, and the most effective identification methods has persisted for over 50 years. Two prominent schools of thought regarding SLDs exist: (1) biological perspectives and (2) environmental perspectives. Three identification methods are outlined in the…
Hock, Michael F.
Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level.…
Stanovich, Keith E.
Reactions to H. Lee Swanson's paper "Toward a Metatheory of Learning Disabilities" are outlined, and his arguments are applied to reading disabilities, focusing on the importance of the scientific attitude, the misuse of ecological validity, interpretation of Thomas Kuhn's work, modularity and reading disability, and scientific progress…
Hoy, Cheri; Gregg, Noel
The emerging population of learning disabled college students is presenting a new challenge to college professionals: admission officers, counselors, financial aid personnel, academic advisors, and professors. Learning disablities interfere with the ability to perceive, process, sort, store, or retrieve information regardless of level of…
Shepard, Lorrie A.
The assessment and diagnosis of learning disabilities (LD) in the school is problematic. How do educators determine who is learning disabled? What practices are recommended? The main focus of the paper is on specific, relatively technical points that influence the validity of assessment. Since technical concerns are only one of the factors…
Cramer, Shirley C., Ed.; Ellis, William, Ed.
This book contains papers on learning disabilities based on presentations made at the "Summit on Learning Disabilities: A National Responsibility," held in September 1994. The first section provides an overview and includes "The State of Research" (G. Reid Lyon). The second section focuses on education and includes:…
Hynd, George W.; Obrzut, John E.
Recent research employing more direct measures of central functional asymmetry suggests that a reconceptualization of the notion of cerebral dominance may be in order. A rationale for this reconceptualization is provided and the implications for children with learning disorders is discussed. (Author)
... have trouble generalizing and following multistep directions. 12 Visual perceptual/visual motor deficit. People with this condition mix up ... top] Learning Disabilities Association of America. (n.d.). Visual perceptual/visual motor deficit . Retrieved June 15, 2012, ...
Fitzgerald, Suzanne; Gray, Nicola S.; Snowden, Robert J.
Background: Whether the Flynn effect (the increase in the populations' IQ over time) affects the IQ scores of people with learning disability or borderline learning disability remains unclear. The issue is important as the Flynn effect should alter the number of people eligible for health service resources. A comparison of the Wechsler Adult…
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; And Others
This paper reviews ongoing research designed to specify the cognitive, behavioral, and neuroanatomical phenotypes of specific genetic etiologies of learning disability. The genetic disorders at the focus of the research include reading disability, neurofibromatosis type 1, Tourette syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. Implications for identifying…
Knowledgeable persons within the field frequently criticize definitions of "learning disabilities" for the choice of vocabulary, phrasing and implied ideas. Although there may never be a universally accepted definition, a definition that reflects current research is used in this article to make evident some of the cognitive and…
Slavin, Robert E.
Schools can reduce special-education and remedial instruction costs by helping students succeed in early grades. This article profiles several prevention and early intervention programs, including Success for All, Reading Recovery, Prevention of Learning Disabilities, the Carolina Abecedarian Project, Comer's School Development Program, and…
This collection of articles on gifted learning disabled students begins with an explanation of the philosophy of the Center for Talented Youth at Johns Hopkins University (Maryland), a list of characteristics of gifted disabled students, and three definitions of learning disabilities. The following papers are then provided: "Gifted but…
Pedigree analysis of 12 young adults (9 of whom had learning disabilities) indicated that learning disability (LD) was strongly familial but that the type of disability (reading or math) was not directly inherited. Autoimmune disorders were significantly correlated with LD. In seven of the LD families, adults failed to overcome earlier reading and…
Bellini, James; Royce-Davis, Joanna
Interagency cooperation between special education and vocational rehabilitation (VR) is central to ensuring the continuity of services to young adults with disabilities who are in transition from school to adult living. However, the interface between special education and VR may be complicated by order of selection, an equally binding mandate in federal VR policy to provide priority services to individuals with the most severe disabilities. Because students with learning disabilities are typically perceived as having mild rather than severe disabilities, these youths are most at risk for falling through the cracks in the service landscape once they leave the school setting in states where the VR agency is implementing an order of selection procedure. This article identifies and discusses common impediments to collaborative transition planning for students with learning disabilities that may be intensified when the state VR agency is operating under an order of selection plan. Recommendations are provided to facilitate greater interagency cooperation among schools and VR agencies so that transition planning and implementation for students with learning disabilities is not subverted as a result of the order of selection mandate.
Bacon, Ansley; Walker, Hill M.; Schwartz, Allen A.; O'Hara, David M.; Calkins, Carl; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
The public's increasing demands for greater accountability and a better return on investment from research supported by federal funding requires that organizations studying and solving problems in areas like health, education, disability, and child mental health document the impact of their work. Human service and educational professionals agree…
Fore, Cecil, III; Riser, Susan; Boon, Richard
Cooperative learning is an instructional model that draws extensively on contributions of multiple theorists, including Piaget, Vygotsky, Carroll and other researchers. Many different cooperative learning arrangements have been developed and researched. The most extensively researched and evaluated cooperative learning arrangements is by Robert…
Underpinning the technical gaze that dominates learning disabilities theory and practice is the assumption that learning disabilities are a pathology that resides in the heads of individual students, with the corollary that remedial efforts also focus on what goes on in the heads of students classified as learning disabled. This article begins with a critique of the ideology of individualism that situates individual success and failure in the heads of individuals as a means of introducing an alternative perspective--social constructivism--that locates learning and learning problems in the context of human relations and activity. Extended examples are used to illustrate how the performative aspects of learning disabilities emerge in the context of human relationships. The primary argument developed here is that one cannot be learning disabled on one's own. It takes a complex system of interactions performed in just the right way, at the right time, on the stage we call school to make a learning disability. The article concludes with a brief consideration of the instructional implications of a social constructivist stance.
Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is described as a subtype of specific learning disability where the source of the disability is a difficulty in processing nonverbal information. The child with NLD presents with problems in visual, spatial, and tactile perception but with strengths in rote verbal skills. Traditionally, these children were recognized by their difficulties in arithmetic which presented a stark contrast with their strengths in spelling and decoding text. They also exhibited a split between their verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores with the VIQ being significantly higher than PIQ. Over time, however, diagnostic criteria have evolved and the broadened definition of the NLD syndrome has led many to question the utility and uniqueness of the NLD diagnosis. In addition, shifting diagnostic standards have made research results difficult to replicate. In short, the research to date leaves many unanswered questions about (1) the definition of the NLD syndrome, (2) the pervasiveness of the academic, social and psychopathological difficulties, (3) the source of the NLD syndrome, and (4) the degree to which it overlaps with other conditions. This chapter outlines a brief history of the NLD syndrome, how it is currently conceptualized, and some of the current debate about the unanswered questions above.
Cook, L D
The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and a specific program described.
Walther-Thomas, Chriss; Brownell, Mary
This interview with Mara Sapon-Shevin discusses her interest in students with learning disabilities and giftedness, the negative effects of labeling students, what teachers can do to improve the social climate and peer acceptance in heterogeneous classrooms, and the need for teachers to teach all students as if they are gifted. (CR)
Crystal, Ralph M., Comp.
The report covers issues in the rehabilitation of persons with learning disabilities (LD). Issues raised in an interdisciplinary conference on the rehabilitation needs of adolescents and adults with LD are identified for four areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): (1) definition, assessment, and service delivery (characteristics of effective…
Star, Nonnie; Shadoff, Sander
This guide is designed to assist people with learning disabilities to recognize their disabilities and the connection between learning disabilities and substance abuse. It begins by defining learning disabilities and providing a self-test checklist for common signs and symptoms of learning disabilities. Difficulties with organization, memory,…
Currie, Paula S.; Wadlington, Elizabeth M.
This book is designed to help clinicians and teachers work more effectively with people with learning disabilities and their families. Chapter 1 provides an overview of learning disabilities. It presents commonly accepted medical and educational definitions, prevalence figures, and possible etiological explanations for various disorders. Chapter 2…
Intended for employers, supervisors, and coworkers, the booklet presents guidelines for accommodating learning disabled (LD) employees. An introductory section explains the condition, describing its nature and the range of impairments it includes. Five types of learning disabilities are identified: visual, auditory, motor, tactile, and academic.…
Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill
More people will receive personal budgets to pay for social care services in England. Such people may or may not continue using services such as adult day care centres. Many day centres are under threat of closure. These trends will affect those working in adult day care. This article examines the profile of this workforce, using recent NMDS-SC data and applying multinomial statistical modelling. We identified nearly 6000 adult day care workers, over half supporting adults with learning disability. The results of the analysis show significant variations between the adult day care, residential care and domiciliary workforces. At the personal level, day care workers are significantly older and less ethnically diverse than other workers. They tend to have been working in the sector for longer, and their work patterns are more stable. The findings are discussed within the context of policy changes affecting learning disabilities and social care workforce strategies.
Hearne, Dixon; Stone, Suki
This article notes the failures of traditional deficit models of learning disabilities and considers, instead, possibilities of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. It summarizes findings on talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for schools, and preliminary recommendations…
Jukes, Mark; Aspinall, Susan-Louise
Leadership is seen as critical for the transformation of learning disability services and has been further emphasised since the publication of Transforming Care, the Department of Health's response to the review of events at Winterbourne View. What is clear within learning disability nursing and services is the demand for leadership in the quest for improving the quality and effectiveness of services across health and social care. This article discusses the challenges for the undergraduate learning disability nurse with the recommendation to pursue a framework that promotes and focuses on integrating knowledge transfer into services for people with a learning disability. It explores practice change using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework, and the example of the involvement of service users in practitioner training on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and consent and capacity to consent for treatment.
Clare, I C; Gudjonsson, G H
In order to assess a criminal suspect's ability to make a reliable statement, performance on three measures--interrogative suggestibility, confabulation and acquiescence--may be used. This paper presents preliminary data on these measures for people with mild learning disabilities (Full Scale IQ [FSIQ]: 57-75). It was found that they were more suggestible than their average ability counterparts (FSIQ: 83-111) because they were much more susceptible to 'leading questions'. They also confabulated more and were more acquiescent. Overall, the data emphasized their potential vulnerability to giving erroneous testimony during interrogations.
Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology
Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses
Popp, Rita Ann
The author describes lessons provided for regular class elementary students to help them understand disabilities and disabled persons. Objectives, materials needed, and activities are outlined for six lessons focusing on the following topics: individual differences, wheelchairs; devices that help people walk; amputation, artificial limbs, and…
Matte, Richard R.; Bolaski, Jon A.
Review features of nonverbal learning disabilities in terms of personal, social, and academic manifestations, including deficits in reading comprehension, graphomotor coordination, mathematics, and science. Examines the neuropsychological and learning components associated with developmental right-hemisphere brain syndrome and outlines effective…
Mayes, Susan D.; Calhoun, Susan L.; Crowell, Errin W.
Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children (ages 8-16) referred for learning and/or behavior problems. A learning disability was present in 70 percent of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A learning disability in written expression was two times more common than a learning disability in reading, math,…
Bergman, Marilyn M.
Socialization difficulties encountered by a particular learning disabled adolescent may be related to the type of underlying learning disability. Two subtypes of learning disability are discussed (language disorders and disturbed visual spatial functions) along with implications for problems in development of social skills and for effective…
Lerner, Janet W.
A discussion of the speciality of learning disabilities concludes that what is needed to help the child with learning disabilities is a working arrangement between the fields of education and medicine. (Author/BY)
Vacca, Dorothy M.
Describes characteristics of students with nonverbal learning disorders and offers teachers suggestions for helping them work with students with these disabilities. Includes story of one nonverbal learning-disabled student's school experience. (PKP)
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat
This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…
Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan
The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)
Payne, Mario D., Ed.; Robins, Eve, Ed.
This resource guide is designed to help adults who suspect they have a learning disability gather sufficient information to set realistic goals, achieve those goals, and lead productive lives. The first section, which discusses assessing learning disabilities, includes lists of agencies equipped to help diagnose learning disabilities in adults and…
Underpinning the technical gaze that dominates learning disabilities theory and practice is the assumption that learning disabilities are a pathology that resides in the heads of individual students, with the corollary that remedial efforts also focus on what goes on in the heads of students classified as learning disabled. This article begins…
Kenyon, Elinor; Beail, Nigel; Jackson, Tom
Studies have focused on the experience of diagnosis from the perspectives of parents of children with learning disabilities, but there has been limited methodologically rigorous investigation into the experience for the person themselves. Eight participants were recruited from a range of different backgrounds. Interviews were analysed using…
Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.
Suggests that federal definition of learning disabilities is wrong and represents politically expedient decisions rather than fundamental knowledge about psychology and education. Discusses why federal definition is erroneous. Offers seven recommendations to change the current system of identification and instruction of students with learning…
Anderson, Mary; Weinhouse, Don
Based on experience of having two children with multiple learning disabilities, the author offers strategies for parents to help children experience success and excellence in their education: (1) never limit expectations or predetermine the final outcome; (2) explore all interests and abilities for hidden potential; and (3) include children in…
Heisler, Alice B.
Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)
Krasnoff, Margaret J., Ed.
Presented are ten papers given at a 1974 conference focusing on realistic goals for serving learning disabled children in the decade ahead. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Introduction and Overview of the Problem of the Conference" (W. Cruickshank); "Concepts of Vision in Relation to Perception" (G. Getman); "Motor Activities and…
Roessler, Richard T.; Schriner, Kay Fletcher
Results from an employment concerns questionnaire completed by selected groups of people with disabilities (mental retardation, epilepsy, physical disabilities, learning disabilities, and head injuries) are discussed in terms of public policy and rehabilitation practice implications. Recommendations are couched in behavior analysis terms (i.e.,…
... learning skills, including memory tips from LD Online. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) top ADHD is a ... condition that affects a person’s ability to pay attention, sit still, and follow directions. If you have ...
Cook, Louisa D.
The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and the summer residential program at Goddard College described. (Author)
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly
The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a…
Babbitt, Beatrice C.; Van Vactor, John C.
Presents a case study of a special education teacher candidate with a learning disability in mathematics. Issues discussed include the nature of learning disabilities in adults; possibility of workable interventions at the adult level; implications of these problems in teacher candidates; and implications for teacher education programs. (27…
Leko, Melinda M.; Griffin, Cynthia C.
In a 1986 study published in the "Learning Disability Quarterly," Simmons and Kame'enui examined information found in popular periodicals about learning disabilities (LD) in an effort to understand what people learn about LD from these high-readership sources. After more than 20 years, advances in technology have brought significant…
Accardo, P; Haake, C; Whitman, B
Developmental pediatricians are being consulted by medical school promotion committees with regard to the course of action to be taken with learning-disabled medical students experiencing academic difficulties. Faculty attitude, a difficulty understanding the nature of learning disabilities, appears to be a major contributor to poor medical school performance on the part of learning-disabled adults. Utilizing the sequential-simultaneous information processing model as a simplified introduction to learning disability patterns, the authors argue that recommending intensive remediation of rote spelling and writing skills in students engaged in graduate education represents both a waste of time and a further emotional trauma to these young professionals.
Could learning disability nurses hold the key to a new direction of care and leadership? Jim Blair, writing in Learning Disability Practice, says there must be a response to the inquiry into premature deaths of people with learning disabilities. One way for a new form of leadership could be band 8 nurses practising at consultant level. With their experiences of caring for people with learning disabilities, nurse consultants can shape service delivery and pathways to enhance quality of care, reduce poor practices and avoidable deaths.
Butler, D L
The research described here investigated the effectiveness of an intervention model designed to promote self-regulated and strategic learning: Strategic Content Learning (SCL). In SCL, rather that focusing on teaching students specific cognitive strategies, instruction focuses on supporting students to develop a strategic approach to learning. The study comprised six parallel case studies embedded within a single-group, pre-post design. Each student chose a task of importance to current or future academic work, and individualized support was provided on those tasks. Participants were adults with learning disabilities (5 women and 1 man, ages 18 to 36 years) enrolled in postsecondary education programs. Results indicated, that students' task performance improved. Additionally, gains in metacognitive knowledge about tasks and strategies, increased perceptions of self-efficacy, and shifts in attributional patterns were observed. Most critically, the evidence suggested that students became more self-regulated in their learning: They were active in developing and modifying strategies, they transferred strategies across contexts, and they began to attack noninstructed tasks strategically. The particular suitability of SCL as an intervention for adults with learning disabilities is described, and implications of the findings for research and practice are discussed.
Testa, Renée; Pantelis, Christos; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Our objective was to describe the prevalence, comorbidity, and neuropsychological profiles of children with hoarding and learning disabilities. From 61 children with learning disabilities, 16.4% exhibited hoarding as a major clinical issue. Although children with learning disabilities and hoarding displayed greater rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (30%) as compared to those with learning disabilities without hoarding (5.9%), the majority of patients belonging to the former group did not display obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. When learning disability patients with hoarding were compared to age-, sex-, and IQ-matched learning disability subjects without hoarding, hoarders exhibited a slower learning curve on word list-learning task. In conclusion, salient hoarding behaviors were found to be relatively common in a sample of children with learning disabilities and not necessarily associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, supporting its nosological independence. It is unclear whether underlying cognitive features may play a major role in the development of hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, Baltimore, MD.
The paper presents the position of the National Joint Commission on Learning Disabilities regarding the needs of adults with learning disabilities (LD). Among problems cited are lack of adequate assessment procedures for the population along with inadequate awareness of the social and emotional problems facing adults with LD. Five major…
Dugbartey, A T
There are few empirical studies of the adult outcomes of nonverbal learning disability (NLD). An overwhelming majority of NLD studies has been devoted to the nature of academic difficulties of school children, whereas the few follow-up studies have tended to be limited to college-age young adults. Herein, it is argued that the problems of adults with NLD do not fall solely in academic areas, and that early academic remediation programs might do well to include intervention in emotional and social skills enhancement.
Rivera, Diane Pedrotty, Ed.
This book addresses teaching mathematics to students with learning disabilities, including characteristics and assessment of mathematics learning disabilities, mathematics programming and interventions, and teacher preparation. Chapters include: (1) "Mathematics Education and Students with Learning Disabilities: Instruction" (Diane Pedrotty…
Rider, Barbara A.
The fact that the children with learning disorders had significantly more abnormal reflexes than did the normal children lends empirical support to the theory of minimal neurological impairment as a factor in the etiology of learning disabilities. (Author)
... restrictive environments appropriate for them. This means the teaching environment should be designed to meet a child’s ... children with specific learning disabilities. Dyslexia 5 Special teaching techniques. These can include helping a child learn ...
Patton, James R., Ed.; Polloway, Edward A., Ed.
This collection of 13 essays focuses on the many challenges that adults with learning disabilities face in educational, work, and social settings. The essays are: (1) "Adults with Learning Disabilities: An Emerging Area of Professional Interest and Public Attention" (James R. Patton and Edward A. Polloway); (2) "Adult Development Theories: An…
Included in the training kit for teachers in the area of learning disabilities are materials developed by Project Lighthouse for experimental field usage to test the materials. The problem of educating children with learning disabilities is summarized, as is Piaget's model of logical activity. The major divisions of the text then deal with the…
Stein, Sharon E.; Safran, Stephen P.
This paper summarizes and evaluates the research on the relationship between allergies and learning disabilities. The paper considers definitional and conceptual issues, anecdotal reports, experimental studies, and the Feingold hypothesis. It concludes that the role that allergies play in learning disability is complex and interrelated with other…
Grey House Publishing, 2010
Published for over a decade, this directory continues to be a successful, sought-after resource, providing valuable information to professionals, families, and individuals in the learning disabilities community. Supported by the National Center for Learning Disabilities, this 2011 edition brings together the most up-to-date information on LD…
Loewenstein, Andrea Freud
Various kinds of learning disabilities confronted by Andrea Loewenstein in her school days are mentioned. These days there are learning disabilities of various kinds, though they are reserved for middle-class children, special provisions involving extra time and help are mandated.
Bonnet, Kenneth A.
The mechanisms of both language-based and non-language-based learning disabilities are presented within the framework of central nervous system development and the compromises to that development that arise from genetic, hormonal, antibody, medication, and postnatal compromises. Also reviewed is the need for a taxonomy of learning disabilities.…
Brainard, Suzanne Gage, Ed.
Presented are eight author contributed papers on research needs in the neuropsychological, socio-environmental, and educational aspects of learning disabilities. Issues focused on in the papers and conference include the definition of learning disabilities, the role of screening in prevention or remediation, and whether curriculum should focus on…
Bender, William N., Ed.
This book is written to assist the reader in understanding current thinking in the field of learning disabilities (LD), as well as current practices in that field. Part I describes the characteristics typically associated with LD, and includes the following chapters: "Neurological Basis of Learning Disabilities" (Richard M. Marshall and George W.…
Fletcher, Jack M.; Lyon, G. Reid; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Barnes, Marcia A.
Evidence based and comprehensive, this important work offers a new approach to understanding and intervening with students with learning disabilities. The authors--leading experts in neuropsychology and special education--present a unique model of learning disabilities that integrates the cognitive, neural, genetic, and contextual factors…
David, Karin, Ed.
Six booklets are designed to assist special educators, principals, teachers and parents to find information on how learning disabled and other handicapped children can be placed and taught in the least restrictive environment. Volume I is a catalog of books, articles, references, programs, and projects on mainstreaming and learning disabilities.…
Green, Ravonne A.
This article describes the characteristics of patrons with learning disabilities (LD) and how these characteristics might affect library use. The lack of services for college patrons who have learning disabilities (LD) in this decade is much like the lack of adequate and appropriate services for high school patrons with LD in previous decades. The…
Young, Bonnie J.; Staebler, Bonnie L.
Offers information to assist community college practitioners in meeting the needs of learning disabled students. Reviews definitions of learning disabled, identifies the services that should be provided (e.g., assessment, tutoring, advocacy, advising, career counseling, and social skills training), and lists available information sources. (DMM)
California Community Colleges, Sacramento. High-Tech Center for the Disabled.
This document provides an overview of the California Community Colleges Learning Disabilities Eligibility Model. The model provides a uniform system for identifying adults who are eligible for learning disabilities services within the California Community Colleges. Research for the development of the model included an examination of the clinical…
Owen, Sara; Standen, Penny
Recruitment onto pre-registration learning disability nursing courses has decreased considerably over the last decade. This paper reports the findings of the first stage of a longitudinal study that investigated the factors that influence students to train as learning disability nurses, and those that influence their decision to continue or leave…
Brewer, Vickie R.; Moore, Bartlett D., III; Hiscock, Merrill
This study investigated the incidence of learning disabilities in 105 children (ages 6-18) with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1). Results found that nearly 70% of the subjects were academically deficient and 42% met the criteria for learning disabilities. A low incidence of visuospatial-constructional deficits was also found. (Author/CR)
Whyte, Lillian A.
Describes characteristics of learning disabled teenagers. Describes results of a study of 331 secondary students who completed a self-report inventory showing that childhood learning disability characteristics persist into adolescence, most seriously in the areas of visual perception, fine motor skills, and the ability to write and make spatial…
Rourke, Byron P.; Fuerst, Darren E.
Evidence bearing on the relationships between profiles of neuropsychological assets and deficits, subtypes of learning disabilities, and patterns and degrees of psychosocial functioning is reviewed. Conclusions related to the neurodevelopmental bases of psychosocial functioning in children with nonverbal learning disabilities are emphasized. (SLD)
Vogel, Susan A.; Forness, Steven R.
Reviews literature on possible causes of social functioning deficits in adults with learning disabilities including language disorders, information processing deficits, and behavioral and/or attention problems. Discusses co-occurrence of social functioning deficits with nonverbal learning disability, and effects of educational isolation,…
Payne, Mario D., Ed.; Robins, Eve, Ed.
This guide is designed for adults who suspect or know they have a learning disability and for family and friends who wish to help. It is intended to provide a starting point for gaining information that can lead to obtaining services at the state or local level. It provides information on assessing the problem, a learning disabilities checklist,…
Fabian, Judith J.; Jacobs, Ursula W.
The Canter Background Interference Procedure of the Bender Gestalt Test and the Quick Neurological Screening Test were found to discriminate neurological/organic signs in 23 adolescent learning disabled students. Methodological problems, research needs, and implications for the use of these tests are discussed. (Author)
Ortiz, Alba A., Ed.; Polyzoi, Eleoussa, Ed.
An exploratory and descriptive study is reviewed which examined the identification and placement of 334 limited English proficient Hispanic students (grades 2-5) in learning disability programs. Ss' eligibility folders were examined to determine why they had been referred initially, how they were assessed, and to document the initial placement…
Ho, Fuk-chuen; Siegel, Linda
This paper consists of three studies. The first study aimed to identify sub-types of students with learning disabilities in reading. Based on the dual-route model of reading, words may be read using either a lexical (words are recognized as wholes) or a sub-lexical (words are recognized through grapheme-phoneme correspondence) procedure. Castles…
Gittins, Deborah; Rose, Nikki
An audit was carried out to gain an overview of the profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) population in a local health trust to inform current and future service provision. An overview of the issues faced in developing clear defining criteria is presented. Published definitions of PMLD were used to identify clients from data held on…
Willis, Diane S.
Changes in the living circumstances of people with learning disabilities have seen responsibility for their health become the provenance of paid-and family-carers. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with three family-carers and ten paid-carers. Findings revealed that the role of these carers was undefined, leading to difficulty in…
Dexter, Douglas D.; Park, Youn J.; Hughes, Charles A.
This article presents a meta-analysis of experimental and quasi-experimental studies in which intermediate and secondary students with learning disabilities were taught science content through the use of graphic organizers (GOs). Following an exhaustive search for studies meeting specified selection criteria, 23 standardized mean effect sizes were…
McKenzie, Karen; Michie, Amanda; Murray, Aja; Hales, Charlene
The study assessed the validity of an intellectual disability screening tool, the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ), in three forensic settings: a community intellectual disability forensic service; a forensic in-patient secure unit and a prison, using data for 94 individuals. A significant positive relationship was found between full scale IQ and LDSQ score, indicating convergent validity. Discriminative validity was indicated by, firstly, a significant difference in the LDSQ scores between those with and without an intellectual disability, with those with a diagnosis of intellectual disability, scoring significantly lower. Secondly, a ROC analysis indicated that the sensitivity and specificity of the LDSQ were both above 80%. The screening tool was found to have lower sensitivity in the forensic populations than was obtained in the original community standardisation sample, but had slightly higher specificity. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.
Sparks, Richard L.
Conventional wisdom in education has suggested that students who are classified as learning disabled (LD) will exhibit inordinate difficulties learning a foreign language (FL). Even when not explicitly stated, the notion that those classified as LD have a disability for FL learning is implied. However, while beliefs about this purported disability…
People with learning disabilities have poorer health than the general population and experience health inequalities - partly as a result of problems with accessing health services. Health services have a duty to address health inequalities, by making reasonable adjustments to their services so they are more accessible to people with learning disabilities, but this does not always happen. Failure to make reasonable adjustments can have significant adverse effects for people with learning disabilities and their families. Nurses are well placed to implement reasonable adjustments, many of which are simple to do and can save lives.
Adelman, Pamela B.; Wren, Carol T.
This booklet discusses the nature of learning disabilities and their impact for learning-disabled college students considering attending graduate school or entering the workplace. The information is presented through the personal stories of two learning-disabled young adults, one who was identified as learning disabled in elementary school and the…
Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne
This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.
Bazna, Maysaa; Reid, D. Kim
Learning disabilities education in Kuwait grew from Kuwaiti's wholesale importation of the Western, medical model of disability--a model basically incompatible with Kuwaiti culture. Conflicting factors include its problematic normal/abnormal binary, its assumption that the "deficit" is located in the student and the segregation of…
Impecoven-Lind, Linda S.; Foegen, Anne
Algebra is a gateway to expanded opportunities, but it often poses difficulty for students with learning disabilities. Consequently, it is essential to identify evidence-based instructional strategies for these students. The authors begin by identifying three areas of algebra difficulty experienced by students with disabilities: cognitive…
Lewis, Katherine E.
Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack.…
Lewandowski, Lawrence J.
Four physiological conditions associated with later learning disabilities are noted: Turner Syndrome (a chromosomal abnormality), preterm children with intracranial hemorrhage, children with incompletely developed connecting fibers between the cerebral hemispheres, and children with acquired brain injury. (CL)
Schiffman, Gilbert; And Others
The advantages of using microcomputers, particularly with learning-disabled (LD) students, are pointed out; and an example of a successful program utilizing computers at the Johns Hopkins University is described. (SW)
Bigler, Erin D.; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Howes, Nancy-Louise
Reviews recent neuroradiologic and brain imaging techniques in the assessment of learning disability. Technologies reviewed include computerized tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; electrophysiological and metabolic imaging; computerized electroencepholographic studies of evoked potentials, event-related potentials, spectral analysis, and…
Baum, Susan; Kirschenbaum, Robert
Approaches to working with learning disabled students who are also gifted, talented, or creative are illustrated in the example of a secondary student with special abilities in photography. Several of his photographs and accompanying narratives are included. (CL)
Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W
Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist.
The purpose of this paper was to track the history of learning disabilities and collect intervention theories which might be helpful for adult college students suffering from any number of learning disabilities (LD). There is a vast difference between a learning difficulty and a learning disability; an individual with learning difficulty can learn…
No One Knows is concerned about people with learning disabilities and difficulties who get into trouble with the police and who enter the criminal justice system. The terms 'learning difficulties' and 'learning difficulties' are often used interchangeably to describe people with an intellectual disability, excluding those who, for example, have dyslexia or Asperger syndrome. No One Knows, however, has adopted a more inclusive approach and has included in its remit offenders with learning disabilities as defined by the World Health Organization as well as those with a broader range of learning difficulties. Although there is some discrepancy on prevalence, it is clear that high numbers of people with learning disabilities and difficulties are caught up in the criminal justice system. Once in the criminal justice system it is unlikely that an individual with learning disabilities or difficulties will be identified or that their support needs will be met. This causes difficulties for the individual concerned and for the staff who work with them, who receive little or no training for working with this group of people. The question of whether people with learning disabilities (meaning intellectual disabilities) should be diverted from the criminal justice system is considered.
Learning disabled (LD) (N=16) and non-learning disabled (non-LD) (N=16) college students completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale and were compared with regard to various aspects of self-concept. Mean scores of LD students were higher than those of non-LD subjects on the overall scale and all eight subscales, but differences between group means…
Sparks, Richard L
Recently, talk of a new type of learning disability (LD)--a foreign language learning disability, or FLLD--has made its way into the LD and foreign language (FL) literature. However, no empirical evidence has been published to support the concept of a "disability" for FL learning by those professionals who use the term. In this article, the author takes the position that there is not a distinct "disability" that can be called an FLLD. He reviews several years of research evidence indicating that any proposal for such a distinct entity is problematic. To support his position, he reviews problems with the current definition and diagnostic criteria for LD. He then cites the many difficulties inherent in the development and use of (a) a logically consistent, easily operationalized, and empirically valid definition of and (b) diagnostic criteria for the FLLD concept. The author then discusses how FL learning problems occur along a continuum of very strong to very poor language learners, and he explains how the proponents of an FLLD misuse the concept of FL aptitude. Finally, the author cites implications resulting from the research evidence on FL learning problems and use of the term FLLD.
DeFries, J. C.; And Others
Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…
Humphries, T; Krekewich, K; Snider, L
The presumed sensorimotor basis of the nonverbal learning disability syndrome was investigated among 90 learning disabled boys (M age = 6 yr., 8 mo., SD = 12.2 mo.) with sensory integrative dysfunction. The majority of the boys were Caucasian, lower to middle socioeconomic status, and from urban, English-speaking families. 14% (n = 13) of the boys satisfied core discrepancy criteria for nonverbal learning disability, including both a significantly higher Wechsler Verbal than Performance IQ and a higher standard score in Reading than Arithmetic on the Wide Range Achievement Test. Compared with a control group of 19 boys from the same sample who had no significant discrepancies, boys with nonverbal learning disability had significantly greater weaknesses in space visualization and visuomotor coordination. As predicted, rote verbal memory and syntactical strengths were also exhibited by boys with nonverbal learning disability, but the two groups did not differ significantly.
Force, Crista Marie
beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.
Wooten, Ann M.
The paper reviews literature relating to selective attention in the learning disabled child. Three processes related to the concept of selective attention (as proposed by D. Berlyne) are discussed: attention in learning, attention in remembering, and attention in performance. It is pointed out that verbal mediation, the use of verbal labels to…
Nass, Ruth D.
This review of the male preponderance in the prevalence of learning disabilities examines such factors as gender-related etiology differences and learning style differences; complications of pregnancy and infancy; effects of male hormones on the nervous system; and sex differences in maturity rates. (JDD)
Gore, Robert C.
In fall 1992, Del Mar College (DMC), in Corpus Christi, Texas, offered for the first time a college-level composition class for students clinically diagnosed as learning disabled (LD), with the rationale that if LD students were first grouped together to learn the fundamentals of college-level writing and find success among their peers, they would…
Rowland, Thomas D.; Young, Bonnie Jean
Intended for staff of diagnostic-prescriptive centers, the manual is designed to provide information about the Oregon Model Center for Learning Disabilities. Chapters cover the following topics: factors involved with learning; procedures and organization of the Center; assessment of psychological, educational, and language needs; procedures for…
Representatives of a variety of disciplines concerned with either clinical or research problems in vision and learning disabilities present reviews and reports of relevant research and clinical approaches. Contributions are organized into four broad sections: basic processes, specific disorders, diagnosis of visually based problems in learning,…
Myers, Karen A.
"Who is responsible for developing, ensuring, and assessing learning outcomes--student affairs, academic affairs, or both?" This question yielded a spirited debate between faculty members and student affairs professionals in the author's course Disability in Higher Education and Society. The author was prompted to learn more about this…
Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly
The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a comparison group of children with no learning disabilities to assess their comprehension of humor. The humor test was composed of a joke and cartoon section. No group differences in humor comprehension were found when the NVLD group was defined as having visual-spatial and visual reasoning deficits. However, when the NVLD group was divided into children with and without social perceptual difficulties as defined by a direct measure of social comprehension, significant group differences were found in the levels of humor comprehension. These results support the association of humor comprehension with social perception and lend tentative support to the hypothesis that children with NVLD may not be a homogenous group. Future study directions include further exploration into the nature of the association between humor comprehension and social perception as well as closer examination of the heterogeneity of NVLD.
Cole, Terry Stokes
Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2011
Parents are often worried when their child has learning problems in school. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. Children with learning disabilities can have intelligence in the normal range but the specific learning disability may make teachers and parents concerned about their general…
Backenson, Erica M; Holland, Sara C; Kubas, Hanna A; Fitzer, Kim R; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A; Fraccaro, Rebecca L; Smith, Amanda D; Macoun, Sarah J; Harrison, Gina L; Hale, James B
Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent comprehensive evaluations for learning and/or behavior problems in two Pacific Northwest school districts. Using concordance-discordance model (C-DM) processing strengths and weaknesses SLD identification criteria, results revealed working memory SLD (n = 20), processing speed SLD (n = 30), executive SLD (n = 32), and no disability groups (n = 41). Of the SLD subtypes, repeated measures MANOVA results revealed the processing speed SLD subtype exhibited the greatest psychosocial and adaptive impairment according to teacher behavior ratings. Findings suggest processing speed deficits may be behind the cognitive and psychosocial disturbances found in what has been termed "nonverbal" SLD. Limitations, implications, and future research needs are addressed.
Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris
The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…
O'Hara, David M.; Levy, Judith M.
The article reviews literature pertaining to general effects of a developmentally disabled child on a family with particular emphasis on implications for families with learning disabled children. Covered are aspects of individual and family life cycles during various life stages, sibling adjustment, and intervention approaches with the child and…
May, Alison L; Stone, C Addison
To explore possible reasons for low self-identification rates among undergraduates with learning disabilities (LD), we asked students (38 with LD, 100 without LD) attending two large, public, research-intensive universities to respond to a questionnaire designed to assess stereotypes about individuals with LD and conceptions of ability. Responses were coded into six categories of stereotypes about LD (low intelligence, compensation possible, process deficit, nonspecific insurmountable condition, working the system, and other), and into three categories of conceptions of intelligence (entity, incremental, neither). Consistent with past findings, the most frequent metastereotype reported by individuals in both groups related to generally low ability. In addition, students with LD were more likely to espouse views of intelligence as a fixed trait. As a whole, the study's findings have implications for our understanding of factors that influence self-identification and self-advocacy at the postsecondary level.
Markos, Patricia A.; Strawser, Sherri
This article describes the relationship between learning disabilities (LD) and homelessness. Research describing the connection between disabilities and homelessness has focused on individuals presenting with disabilities such as mental illness, physical disabilities, medical disabilities, or substance abuse. At this time, the presence of LD in…
A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n = 101) and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n = 130) solved…
Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will
In order to gain access to accommodations and services at colleges and universities, students with learning disabilities must provide documentation of their disabilities, and as students with learning disabilities access higher education at increasing rates, the need for documentation of their disabilities and its impact becomes even more…
Feingold, Benjamin F.
The author replies to the article titled "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities" (R. Sieben), and discusses research on the relationship between food additives and hyperactivity, and dietary treatments for learning disabled children. (IM)
Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel
This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
Fahey, David A.
Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)
Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Thompson, Richard E
The aim of the present study was to address how to effectively predict mathematics learning disability (MLD). Specifically, we addressed whether cognitive data obtained during kindergarten can effectively predict which children will have MLD in third grade, whether an abbreviated test battery could be as effective as a standard psychoeducational assessment at predicting MLD, and whether the abbreviated battery corresponded to the literature on MLD characteristics. Participants were 226 children who enrolled in a 4-year prospective longitudinal study during kindergarten. We administered measures of mathematics achievement, formal and informal mathematics ability, visual-spatial reasoning, and rapid automatized naming and examined which test scores and test items from kindergarten best predicted MLD at grades 2 and 3. Statistical models using standardized scores from the entire test battery correctly classified ~80-83 percent of the participants as having, or not having, MLD. Regression models using scores from only individual test items were less predictive than models containing the standard scores, except for models using a specific subset of test items that dealt with reading numerals, number constancy, magnitude judgments of one-digit numbers, or mental addition of one-digit numbers. These models were as accurate in predicting MLD as was the model including the entire set of standard scores from the battery of tests examined. Our findings indicate that it is possible to effectively predict which kindergartners are at risk for MLD, and thus the findings have implications for early screening of MLD.
Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
Marlowe, Mike; And Others
This study investigated the relationship between hair mineral elements and childhood learning disabilities and determined which minerals, if any, separated 26 learning disabled children with 24 normal controls. The learning disabled group had significantly raised hair-lead concentrations. There were also differences in the mean levels of 10 other…
Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie
This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
Kavale, Kenneth A.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Beam, Andrea P.
Unlike other special education categories defined in U.S. law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), the definition of specific learning disability (SLD) has not changed since first proposed in 1968. Thus, although the operational definition of SLD has responded to new knowledge and understanding about the construct, the formal definition…
Parks, A W; Antonoff, S J; Drake, C; Olivier, C; Sedita, J; Weiss, I; Daddi, B
At a time when recognition of the needs of handicapped students is of great concern, many handicapped persons have not yet been identified. Even with the advent of legislation mandating educational equity for all handicapped students, those with specific learning disabilities (SLD) still remain unidentified or unserved by institutions of higher education. In 1979, New York University College of Dentistry instituted a classwide screening and testing program for SLD students. The program sought to identify accepted students "at risk" for SLD through the administration of a two-hour battery of tests designed by learning disabilities specialists. Follow-up in-depth evaluations yielded a 90 percent accuracy rate on correct identification of SLD students based on the screening results. This article presents specific test results, analyses of data, and comparison of self-report measures and suggests educational implications, including suggestions for program accommodations.
MacInnes, Maryhelen; Broman, Clifford L.
It is well established that children and adolescents with learning disabilities are more likely to experience depressed mood than are their peers. Many scholars explain this relationship as resulting from low self-esteem, stress, or social isolation. However, little work has explored whether this relationship continues to exist into young…
Newman, Dennis S.
Focusing on English instruction for mainstreamed learning disabled (LD) high school students, this paper surveys and interprets the literature on the subject, examines specific teaching methods and student study skills that have worked in this area, and reviews the English program proposed by Daniel Fader. Specifically, sections discuss the…
The issue of defining learning disability is considered. Important recent trends in research are reviewed with regard to: intellectual skills, academic retardation, neurological and behavioral dysfunction, and cognitive and interactive processes. Current intervention methods are also briefly described. Available from: Journal of Pediatrics, C.V.…
Pickering, Joyce S.
This article discusses how children with oral and written language disorders can benefit from the Montessori method, especially if the Montessorian is trained to use a Multisensory Structured Language approach. Questions are answered regarding the number of children with learning disabilities, considerations in training the classroom assistant,…
Telzrow, Cathy F.; Bonar, Aimee M.
This article provides an overview of the nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) syndrome and describes appropriate educational strategies. Primary characteristics of NLD and possible indicators are listed. Remedial, compensatory, instructional or therapeutic interventions are listed for psychomotor and perceptual motor deficits, for arithmetic…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
In two experiments, students (10 learning disabled ninth graders and 45 nondisabled seventh graders) were taught the hardness levels of minerals according to either a keyword-pegword mnemonic, a questioning procedure, or free study. Mnemonic students significantly outrecalled both questioning and free-study students regardless of students'…
Lopez, Mike; Clyde-Snyder, Myrtle
Describes the operation of Project HELDS (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) on one campus. Evaluation results showed the use of existing university resources such as tutoring and taping books and lectures had a meaningful impact on the academic achievement of the 27 participants. (JAC)
McKenna, Gregory S.
The primary purpose of this report is to explore within the Canadian context the relationship between Self-Reported Learning Disabilities (SRLD) and low literacy performance using the Canadian portion of the public data set from the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (IALSS). Two primary research questions related to SRLD…
National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.
Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 62 materials for teaching number concepts to learning disabled students at the primary grades. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and…
Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others
The impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled children was explored. Three hypnotic training sessions and instructions for six weeks of daily self-hypnotic practice containing suggestions for imagery related to improvement in these areas were given to 15 children, their…
Intended for parents and professionals, the document contains a listing of books, newsletters, periodicals, and free material on learning disabilities. Publications are listed alphabetically by author or sponsor with entries that usually provide the following information: title, publisher, publisher's address, publication date, cost, and brief…
Nutter, Norma; Safran, Stephen P.
Theory and research indicated that sentence-combining exercises (SCE's) might be effective for improving the writing of learning disabled (LD) pupils. Seven college seniors in special education were trained to implement SCE's naturalistically in tutoring 13 LD pupils in grades 1-6 over a 10 week period, with a control group of 8 seniors tutoring…
Grumbine, Rich; Alden, Peg Brigham
One of the four guiding principles of the National Science Education Standards is simply "science for all students" (NRC 1996). This principle underscores the belief that all students, regardless of race, gender, or disability, should have the opportunity to learn and understand the essential science content described in the Standards. Because of…
Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn
Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…
The need for nurses specifically educated to work with people with learning disabilities has been questioned. RNMH skills allow qualified nurses to give holistic care to their clients. To gain recognition as providing a necessary service, RNMHs must become more active in promoting their work and its outcomes.
Sieben, Robert L.
The author presents a critical review of popular medical treatments for children with learning disabilities, including dietary treatment (food additives theories, brain allergies, hypoglycemia, megavitamin therapy, and trace mineral tests) and neurophysiologic retraining (patterning, sensory integrative therapy, and optometric training). (IM)
SUMMARY 100 cases of learning disability are investigated to study non-intellectual factors associated with it. The study reveals that urban area, middle class, unitary and small family show high incidence. Impaired relationship with the parents is the most significant factor, followed by adverse influences in school. The findings are discussed. PMID:22058476
Shalev, Ruth S.; Manor, Orly; Kerem, Batsheva; Ayali, Mady; Badichi, Navah; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gross-Tsur, Varda
Siblings and parents of 39 children with dyscalculia were assessed for arithmetic, reading, and attention disorders. Findings indicated a familial prevalence of dyscalculia almost tenfold higher than expected for the general population and suggest that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, has a significant familial aggregation,…
MYKLEBUST, HELMER R., ED.
THE FIRST OF A SERIES DEALING WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES FROM A PSYCHONEUROLOGICAL STANDPOINT, THE VOLUME CONTAINS CURRENT DISCUSSIONS AND RESEARCH REPORTS. TEN AUTHORS FROM A VARIETY OF FIELDS CONTRIBUTE CHAPTERS, EACH WITH AN ACCOMPANYING LIST OF REFERENCES. THE EDITOR, H.R. MYKLEBUST, PROVIDES THE OPENING ARTICLE ON "LEARNING…
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Thompson, Richard E.
The aim of the present study was to address how to effectively predict mathematics learning disability (MLD). Specifically, we addressed whether cognitive data obtained during kindergarten can effectively predict which children will have MLD in third grade, whether an abbreviated test battery could be as effective as a standard psychoeducational…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.
The use of the "keyword" method as a tool for improving memory in learning disabled students is explained. The keyword method consists of two stages: an acoustical link stage and a stage in which the student is provided with a picture of the keyword interacting with the appropriate response term. The method can be modified for use in…
Benton, Curtis D., Jr.
In the rebuttal to charges made by Nathan Flax, an optometrist, regarding the joint organizational statement of three medical associations concerning treatment of dyslexia and related learning disabilities, the author discusses the five controversial points and largely reaffirms the statement's conclusions. (MC)
Wiig, Elisabeth H.; Semel, Eleanor M.
Evaluated were language production deficits in 32 learning disabled (LD) adolescents. Ss were administered a battery of subtests containing tasks sensitive to language production difficulties in cognition, convergent and divergent production of semantic units, word retrieval, and retrieval of syntactic structures. Results indicated that speech…
Swanson, H. Lee, Ed.; Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.
Widely regarded as the standard reference in the field, this comprehensive handbook presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the nature and classification of learning disabilities (LD), their causes, and how individuals with these difficulties can be identified and helped to succeed. Best practices are described for supporting student performance…
The paper describes strategies for teaching six different handwriting skills to learning disabled (LD) elementary students. A rationale for each strategy precedes step-by-step procedural descriptions. Strategies in the following areas are described: (1) introducing LD children with motor coordination deficits to alphabetic symbols using sandpaper…
Jung, Dae Young
In the context of the educational system and the nature of special education in South Korea, I describe policy, practice, and research about children with learning disabilities (LD). Recently, the study of LD has attracted professionals from multiple disciplines including general and special education, medicine, psychology, and social work. In…
Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; Stolzenberg, Jonathan
Two discriminant function analyses were conducted to determine the cognitive/educational profile which differentiated 4 groups of 68 elementary/secondary level students: attention deficit disorder (ADD), with and without medication; learning disabilities (LD); and nonhandicapped. By treating the LD and nonmedicated ADD subjects as one group, a…
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Foss, Jean M.
Adolescents with nonverbal learning disabilities are characterized by poor fine graphomotor skills, poor organization, and inaccurate perceptions of social situations. Effective remedial interventions include training students in study skills, writing skills, organizational skills, and social skills, and in ways to plan, risk, and act on their own…
Cornoldi, Cesare; Rigoni, Fiorenza; Tressoldi, Patrizio Emmanuele; Vio, Claudio
A study compared 11 Italian children (ages 7-11) with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) to 49 controls on four tasks requiring visuospatial working memory and visual imagery. Results found the children with NVLD showed deficits in the use of visuospatial working memory and visual imagery. (Author/CR)
Clitheroe, H. C.; And Others
A needs assessment was conducted with clients of the Rehabilitation Center for Brain Dysfunction (Irvine, California) and other local populations of learning-disabled adults. This report discusses the background of the problem addressed by the needs assessment, presents the results of an in-depth analysis of the responses to the survey instrument,…
Vogel, Susan A., Ed.
This collection of papers is designed to provide an overview of validated practices that have been proven effective for children with language learning disabilities, preschool age through adolescence. The first section addresses oral language interventions, in "Preschool Language Intervention in the Classroom: Rationale and Organizational…
Chen, Charles P.; Chan, Janice
Learning disabilities (LDs) describe a number of disorders that affect the way information is acquired, retained, organized, and understood. This article aims to address the critical issue of improving the career well-being of LD youth. It first examines several critical issues that affect LD high school students/youth in their career development.…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…
Hearne, D; Stone, S
The field of learning disabilities, like education in the main, is undergoing calls for reform and restructuring, an upheaval brought on in great part by the forces of opposing paradigms--reductionism and constructivism. In reexamining our past, we must begin to address the failures of traditional deficit models and their abysmally low "cure" rate. Several new theories have arisen that challenge traditional practices in both general and special education classrooms. Particularly influential has been the work of Howard Gardner, whose theory of multiple intelligences calls for a restructuring of our schools to accommodate modes of learning and inquiry with something other than deficit approaches. At least some current research in the field of learning disabilities has begun to focus on creativity and nontraditional strengths and talents that have not been well understood or highly valued by the schools. In this article, we briefly summarize the findings in our search for the talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for the schools, and a beginning set of practical recommendations.
Many people with learning disabilities are frequently excluded from active involvement in research and, as a result, along with researchers, have questioned research processes. These discussions have influenced how research is undertaken by, and with, people who have learning disabilities. Learning disability research is now increasingly framed as inclusive. This article explores the development of inclusive learning disability research by tracing its background and influences, identifying key characteristics and highlighting some of the challenges in its application. It demonstrates how inclusive research can give people with learning disabilities a voice that will help to inform practice.
Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; O'Shea, Eamon
Recent data analysed for Ireland suggest a strong link between disability status and household poverty, while there exists substantial evidence to suggest that disability is highly prevalent among persons of older age. Within this context, this paper estimates the welfare implications of disability for older people in Ireland. We define and estimate models of the private costs borne by households with older persons who have a disability in Ireland, both in general and by severity of illness or condition. Our modelling framework is based on the standard of living approach to estimating the cost of disability. The model quantifies the extra costs of living associated with disability and is estimated by comparing the standard of living of households with and without disabled members at a given income, controlling for other sources of variation. The analysis suggests that the estimated economic cost of disability for older people in Ireland is significant and varies by severity of disability, as well as by household type. The results also suggest that the cost of disability increases in proportionate terms as the number of people in the household decreases. Our results are important when considering the effectiveness of policies that aim to address the economic problems associated with disability for older people, suggesting that current policy in Ireland does not go far enough. They indicate that older people face a double jeopardy through age and disability, which is not reflected in official poverty rates and support the case for the introduction of disability-adjusted poverty payments.
Boyle, C A; Manley, M C; Fleming, G J
This paper demonstrates how oral midazolam can be employed as an alternative method of behaviour management to general anaesthesia for the dental treatment of people with learning disabilities. A range of treatments, from scaling to root canal therapy, can be carried out successfully using the sedation technique outlined. The advantages of sedation include reduced morbidity and mortality. Treatment outcomes are also likely to be improved as root canal therapy and periodontal care can be carried out over a number of visits rather than a single treatment session under general anaesthesia. Oral sedation with midazolam should improve the scope of dental treatment available to patients with disabilities.
Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…
... School psychologists are trained in both education and psychology. They can help to identify students with learning ... 2012, from http://www.nasponline.org/about-school-psychology/who-are-school-psychologists [top] American Speech-Language- ...
Price, Lynda; Patton, James R.
This article explores new connections between the current literature base on adult developmental theory and the field of learning disabilities. Emphasis is on theory and practice in self-determination and adult development. Implications for special education, vocational education, general education, and adult learning are discussed. (Contains…
Bender, W N; Smith, J K
Meta-analysis was used to review the results of 25 studies that compared the classroom behavior of children and adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) to children without learning disabilities. The data were analyzed from several different methodological perspectives. Results showed that both methodologically strong and weak studies demonstrated significant behavioral deficits of children with learning disabilities compared to their nondisabled peers in each of five overall areas: on-task behavior, off-task behavior, conduct disorders, distractibility, and shy/withdrawn behavior. Both observational and teacher rating data demonstrated these differences. Effect sizes for both groups of studies seemed to cluster around 1 standard deviation, suggesting noticeable and educationally significant impairment in the behavior of children with disabilities. Analysis of grade-level effect sizes suggests some explanation for the large number of referrals often witnessed during the elementary school years. Educational implications of these behavioral differences in terms of implications for mainstreaming are discussed.
Tyler, Janet Siantz; Colson, Steven
This paper presents definitions of common pediatric disabilities and information about incidence, causes, diagnosis, common characteristics, complications with educational implications, and multidisciplinary intervention approaches. It covers the following conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, fragile…
There are a number of disabilities that music educators may never encounter among their students in the music classroom; however, all music educators will have students with learning disabilities. Students with learning disabilities may have a variety of "presenting problems" that limit their academic and social success in the music classroom. The…
Cutting, Laurie E.; Clements, Amy M.; Lightman, Andrea D.; Yerby-Hammack, Pamula D.; Denckla, Martha Bridge
The cognitive profiles of children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1) have many similarities to those observed in learning disabilities in the general school population, as well as some distinct features. Approximately 30-65 percent of children with NF-1 have learning disabilities; most commonly, they have language and reading disabilities,…
Marita, Samantha; Hord, Casey
Recent educational policy has raised the standards that all students, including students with disabilities, must meet in mathematics. To examine the strategies currently used to support students with learning disabilities, the authors reviewed literature from 2006 to 2014 on mathematics interventions for students with learning disabilities. The 12…
Gonen, Ayala; Grinberg, Keren
Background: Learning disabilities (LD) are lifelong disabilities that affect all facets of a person's life. Aim: Identifying the relationship between academic students' attitudes toward learning disability, self-image, and selected factors. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 213 students from an academic center in Israel. Two different…
Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.
This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…
Wharry, R E; Kirkpatrick, S W
The purpose of this study was to assess difference in academic performance among myopic, hyperopic, and emmetropic children who were learning disabled. More specifically, myopic children were expected to perform better on mathematical and spatial tasks than would hyperopic ones and that hyperopic and emmetropic children would perform better on verbal measures than would myopic ones. For 439 learning disabled students visual anomalies were determined via a Generated Retinal Reflex Image Screening System. Test data were obtained from school files. Partial support for the hypothesis was obtained. Myopic learning disabled children outperformed hyperopic and emmetropic children on the Key Math test. Myopic children scored better than hyperopic children on the WRAT Reading subtest and on the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty Oral Reading Comprehension, Oral Rate, Flashword, and Spelling subtests, and on the Key Math Measurement and Total Scores. Severity of refractive error significantly affected the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised Full Scale, Performance Scale, Verbal Scale, and Digit Span scores but did not affect any academic test scores. Several other findings were also reported. Those with nonametropic problems scored higher than those without problems on the Key Math Time subtest. Implications supportive of the theories of Benbow and Benbow and Geschwind and Behan were stated.
Dunlap, William P.; And Others
To determine the generalizability of reading expectancy formulas in ascertaining mathematics expectancy levels, correlation coefficients were computed between the scores of 150 Ss (7 to 12 years old) with learning problems on standardized mathematics and reading tests and expectancy scores. Formulas correlated higher with Ss' actual mathematics…
This article offers a review of, and case report on, the treatment of a young adult with a history of severe childhood abuse, dissociative symptoms, and right-hemisphere dysfunction, or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). The core of nonverbal learning disabilities is the inability to synthesize information and create meaning from complex information. Learning is a form of adaptation and disruptions in an individual's meaning-making process. There are major implications for the person's overall adjustment. Trauma is itself complex and often damaging to the survivor's well being. Clinical assessment must take into account a person's cognitive style and possible learning deficits in order to adequately address traumatic material. Therapy must be modified in order to respond to the unique learning style of the NLD client. Finally, and important issue for therapists remains their willingness to broaden their awareness and knowledge base, and shift the treatment paradigm to meet the needs of the client with neurocognitive vulnerabilities. Treating clients with difficult trauma histories' alone, can elicit negative reactions in the therapist. Repeated experiences with a client's mistrust, anger, noncompliance or self-defeating habits are particularly stressful. The neuropsychological perspective can provide a valuable tool in the mastery of those reactions, and in building a context for empathy and a joint narrative.
Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García
In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving.
Agarwal, K N; Agarwal, D K; Upadhyay, S K; Singh, M
In rural primary school children observed for two years, 12.97 per cent of those having IQ greater than or equal to 90 were found to have poor achievement in arithmetic test and teacher's assessment. These learning disabled children had impaired perceptual maturity and conceptual grasp as observed on MISIC (Indian modification of WISC), Bender Gestalt test and Piaget's test. On WISC Bannatyne categories learning disabled children scored highest in verbal conceptualization (similarities, vocabulary, comprehension), followed by spatial (picture completion, object assembly, block design) and sequencing (arithmetic, digit span, coding) abilities. These children on Bender Gestalt test made more errors particularly distortions (distortion of parts, incorrect number of dots, shape of design lost etc). They also showed delayed development on Piagetian tasks class inclusion, conservation (for length, substance, liquid and number) ordinal relation and one to one correspondence. These observations indicate impaired perceptual maturity, conception and information processing deficit.
Jingree, Treena; Finlay, W M L
Over the last decade the UK Government has made proposals to empower individuals with learning disabilities. Strategies have been implemented to reduce institutionalisation and social segregation. Consequently, some learning disability services are being phased out and the focus of care has moved away from institutions and into the community and family domain. Focusing on discourse as a site for social action and identity construction, we used critical discursive psychology to examine focus group discussions between family carers about facilitating the independence of adult family members with learning disabilities. Unlike official UK Government and learning disability services' constructions of empowerment policy, we found that parents invoked empowerment talk: (1) as a resource to construct the facilitation of independence as an abstract, irresponsible, politically correct professional trend; (2) dilemmatically with meritocratic or practical arguments to undermine notions of facilitating choices; and (3) as a resource to construct new service developments as contrary to the preferences of people with learning disabilities. Parents also described individuals with learning disabilities as unable to cope, and drew stark contrasts between their practice and those of service-professionals when expressing concerns about empowerment. We discuss possible implications of such discourses and contrasts on opportunities for empowering individuals with learning disabilities.
Services for people with a learning disability are provided by many sectors of the health and social care economy. These include: social services, health services, voluntary organisations, charities, private care agencies and family carers. Care interventions can take place in a variety of settings, from the client's own home to day care, respite care, educational establishments, workshops, social clubs, luncheon clubs, shared housing and the acute services.
McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual. PMID:22375897
McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual.
Welsh, Cecilia Rose
The purpose of this generic qualitative study was to determine how and to what extent educational programming affects the success of middle school students experiencing the contemporary phenomenon identified as gifted learning disabled (GLD). The research took place within the real-life context of the middle school these GLD students attended.…
Zitani, E. Alfredo
Learning disability is suggested to be a dissociative reaction (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime requiring appropriate theoretical and remedial approaches. Psychoanalytic and learning theory viewpoints are applied to the nature of learning disabilities. Also considered are the relation of anxiety to achievement and hypnosis to…
Wepman, Joseph M.
Presented is a developmental concept of perceptual processing as related to learning disabilities in young children. Learning is seen to involve the interaction of cognitive developmental stages at the preverbal, verbal, and postverbal levels with learning disabilities seen to be due to perceptual handicaps. A model is offered which posits a…
Berryman, Carolyn; Perry, Beverely
Presented are remedial activities for use by the classroom teacher with learning disabled elementary school children in her regular class. An introductory section discusses specific learning deficits, general motor coordination deficits, and behavior manifestations. Offered are 15 generalizations about teaching the learning disabled child such as…
This article gives a short overview of some basic facts about people with learning disabilities. The prevalence (1-3% worldwide) and stability of the incidence are described, as well as the causes and possible medical comorbidities.- People with learning disabilities are at significantly greater risk of developing cognitive and medical problems compared with the average population. Lastly, an overview of actual chronic care costs is given, as well as actual participation possibilities for people with learning disabilities.
This article appraises the report Strengthening the Commitment, which is a UK-wide review of learning disabilities nursing by the UK's four chief nursing officers. Strengthening the Commitment has strategic importance in reviewing progress in the care of people with learning disabilities in the UK. It also has a role in helping to guide future strategies and initiatives addressing the continuing health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities throughout the UK.
Cooper, S A; Collacott, R A
The case of a 20-year-old woman with a histrionic personality disorder is described. She claims to have a mild learning disability, and indeed, is receiving special college education for people with learning disabilities and has a specialist learning disability social worker, despite being of above average intelligence. Aetiologically, her persona is viewed as a psychological defence, rather than a deliberate attempt at deception. A process of 'institutionalization' appears to have occurred and compounded the problems with further regression. Psychiatrists and professionals in allied disciplines should not accept that a person has a learning disability purely because that person tells you that he or she has one.
McKenzie, Karen; Michie, Amanda; Murray, Aja; Hales, Charlene
The study assessed the validity of an intellectual disability screening tool, the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ), in three forensic settings: a community intellectual disability forensic service; a forensic in-patient secure unit and a prison, using data for 94 individuals. A significant positive relationship was found between…
Pieper, Edward L.; Deshler, Donald D.
Forty-three junior high learning disabilities programs were surveyed to identify students either specifically disabled in arithmetic (SLDARITH, N=30) or specifically disabled in reading (SLDREAD, N=30). Three types of data were analyzed: size of LD program and school, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Verbal and Performance scores,…
Lau, Won-Fong K.; Ortega, Karina; Sharkey, Jill
Students with learning disabilities have been found to lack self-awareness about their disability, likely contributing to several challenges they experience, such as social skill deficits. At the same time, there is limited research investigating interventions to effectively increase disability self-awareness among this population. The current…
DeBrosse, Marion, Ed.; And Others
Summarized in the literature review are 161 sources of information on the topic of learning disabilities in secondary school students. Sources are categorized under eight headings: secondary learning disabilities--definition, identification, incidence, and characteristics; educational programing for the secondary learning disabled…
Cornoldi, C; Rigoni, F; Tressoldi, P E; Vio, C
This study reports the observations gathered from 11 children referred to consulting services because of learning difficulties at school and diagnosed with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). These children had an average verbal IQ, but a WISC-R performance IQ lower than the verbal IQ by at least 15 points and experienced difficulties especially in mathematics and drawing. The children completed a battery of four tasks requiring visuospatial working memory and visual imagery: a memory task composed of pictures and their positions (Pictures task), a task that required them to memorize the positions filled in a matrix (Passive Matrix task), a task that required them to imagine a pathway along a matrix (Active Matrix task) and a task that required them to learn groups made up of three words, using a visual interactive imagery strategy (TV task). In comparison to a control group of 49 children, children with NVLD scored lower in all the tasks, showing deficits in the use of visuospatial working memory and visual imagery. By contrasting subgroups of children of different ages in the control group, it was possible to show that some tasks did not show a clear developmental trend. Thus the deficits shown by the children with NVLD cannot simply be attributed to a developmental delay of these children, but seem to reflect a more severe disability.
Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert
Twin studies comparing identical and fraternal twins consistently show substantial genetic influence on individual differences in learning abilities such as reading and mathematics, as well as in other cognitive abilities such as spatial ability and memory. Multivariate genetic research has shown that the same set of genes is largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse cognitive areas. We call these "generalist genes." What differentiates these abilities is largely the environment, especially nonshared environments that make children growing up in the same family different from one another. These multivariate genetic findings of generalist genes and specialist environments have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities and for understanding the brain mechanisms that mediate these effects.
Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…
This article presents a critical review of the term and concept of nonverbal learning disability (NLD). After a brief historical introduction, the article focuses on the apparent rarity of NLD; the hypothesis of the frequent co-occurrence of emotional disorder, depression, and suicide in NLD; the white matter hypothesis as an explanation of the origin of NLD; and the question of NLD as part of a variety of other disorders. It is argued that NLD presents a broad hypothesis, but that there is little evidence to support its use in clinical practice.
Personalized learning models can give each student differentiated learning experiences based on their needs, interests, and strengths, including students with disabilities. Personalized learning can pinpoint specific gaps in student learning, identify where a student is on his or her learning pathway, and provide the appropriate interventions to…
Becoming the parent of a child diagnosed with learning disabilities can have a dramatic impact. Chrissie Rogers, the author of this article, is both a lecturer in education studies at Keele University and the mother of a daughter who has learning disabilities. She argues here that the pressures on mothers to produce "perfect" babies and to meet…
Learning disabled youth in the Child and Young Adult samples of the NLSY79 are "more" likely to graduate from high school than peers with the same measured cognitive ability, a difference that cannot be explained by differences in noncognitive skills, families, or school resources. Instead, I find that learning disabled students graduate…
Dipeolu, Abiola; Reardon, Robert; Sampson, James; Burkhead, Jane
College students with learning disabilities (n=153) and without (n=595) completed the Career Thoughts Inventory. The learning disabilities group had fewer dysfunctional career thoughts, less career decision-making confusion, and less commitment anxiety, but more dysfunctional thoughts related to external conflict. As dysfunctional thoughts…
Lefebvre, R. Craig
Describes the role of the Learning Needs and Evaluation Center at the University of Virginia, which provides diagnostic testing for learning disabilities as well as psychological consultation. Usage trends are discussed as well as coping patterns of LD students. (JAC)
Smith, Gloria B.
Skilled teachers need to structure the instructional process for learning disabled students so that it builds confidence, reduces anxiety, encourages autonomy, and instills a sense of the delight of learning. (Author/DB)
Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep
Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict.
Marriott, Anna; Turner, Sue; Giraud-Saunders, Alison
People with learning disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers, and are less likely to access screening services than the general population. The National Development Team for Inclusion and the Norah Fry Research Centre developed a toolkit and guidance to improve uptake of five national (English) screening programmes (one of which is delivered through local programmes), based on work to improve access by people with learning disabilities in the south west peninsula of the UK. This article describes the findings in relation to the five English screening programmes and suggests ways to improve uptake of cancer screening by people with learning disabilities.
Differences in the learning styles of students with and without learning disabilities (LD) at a distance-learning university were examined. Two hundred and twelve students answered self-report questionnaires on their learning styles. Results revealed that students with LD preferred to use more stepwise processing, including memorizing and…
Horn, Jaime Helena; Moss, Duncan
Research has identified the collective experiences of oppression, stigma and isolation in the lives of people with learning disabilities. Against the backdrop of social and cultural processes that shape and limit the life experiences of people with learning disabilities, the authors are interested in how the individual develops a sense of self and…
Martin, Larry L.; And Others
The report presents a model for appraisal and individualized educational programing for learning disabled children at the School of Education, Auburn University, Alabama. Descriptions by clinic staff of visitations to exemplary models and a summary of a regional conference on learning disabilities introduce the report. The clinic model is…
Dwyer, Kathleen M.
This children's book tells the story of 10-year-old Jimmy who is having problems at school and believes he is stupid. After a parent-teacher conference, he is tested and found to have a learning disability. The book discusses the characteristics of learning disabilities and the help Jimmy receives from a tutor. It concludes with Jimmy performing…
Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.
Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…
San Miguel, Stephanie K.; And Others
This article explores the hypothesis that social skill deficits among children with learning disabilities are associated with high rates of undetected psychiatric diagnoses. The maladaptive social skills patterns of children with specific subtypes of learning disabilities appear to mimic the symptom patterns of children with attention deficit…
Ensminger, E. Eugene, Ed.; Smiley, Lydia R., Ed.
Presented are 11 papers from a seminar entitled Secondary Programs for the Adolescent with Learning Disabilities. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Parent-Adolescent Interaction" (D. Ellis); "The Development of the Adolescent Self-Concept" (M. Smith); "The Self-Concept of the Learning Disabled Adolescent" (B. Lockett); "Brief…
Satz, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M.
Discusses various problems in preschool screening for learning disabilities. Reviews studies which show that, in spite of such problems, early identification of learning disabilities is a viable process. Examines advances in reading theory and research which point to new variables that may enhance the predictive power of early screening devices…
Schwarz, Robin; Terrill, Lynda
This digest reviews what is known about adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners and learning disabilities, suggests ways to identify and assess ESL adults who may have learning disabilities, and offers practical methods for both instruction and teacher training. Topics covered in some detail include identifying and diagnosing learning…
This study examined the unanticipated effects that children with learning disabilities have on the life of their families. Eleven parents of students aged 8 to 16 years old participated in two separate focus group interviews. Findings showed that children with learning disabilities had a range of effects on their families. These included family…
Tindall, Lloyd W.
Strategies and techniques appropriate for providing vocational education and employment to learning-disabled adolescents and adults at both the secondary and postsecondary levels now exist. The first step involves formal and informal activities to appropriately identify learning disabled students. Formal assessments should be conducted by…
Vickers, Melana Zyla
Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are shrouded in secrecy. This paper, "Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia," by Melana Zyla Vickers, examines…
Discusses the major elements of writing process instruction and the positive influence they have on learning-disabled and inner-city high-risk students. Argues that such process-writing programs might serve as a preventative measure for children likely to be categorized as learning disabled in the future. (HTH)
Sams, Kathryn; Collins, Suzanne; Reynolds, Shirley
Background: There is a need to develop and adapt therapies for use with people with learning disabilities who have mental health problems. Aims: To examine the performance of people with learning disabilities on two cognitive therapy tasks (emotion recognition and discrimination among thoughts, feelings and behaviours). We hypothesized that…
Peterson, Patricia; Johnson, Gae; Showalter, Stephen
Students with learning disabilities have significantly lower achievement in math and science than students from the general population. If these students with learning disabilities also are English Learners, the challenges for success in math and science are even more difficult. Teachers need to infuse best practices into their classrooms to…
Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Liljestrom, Marilyn E.
In this survey, approximately 30 teachers chose from a list of 56 behavior descriptors those they thought characterized either the learning disabled or slow-learner/low-achiever populations. Results indicated that, as a group, teachers did not distinguish between learning disabled and other under-achievers on the listed behavioral descriptors,…
Sayeski, Kristin L.
Difficulty with spelling is a perennial challenge for students with learning disabilities. Several decades of research, however, have identified both fundamental linguistic concepts and instructional approaches that, when understood by a teacher, can be applied to teach students with learning disabilities to spell. In this article, a brief history…
Learning disabilities severely deteriorate the life of many NF1 children by limiting their academic achievement, higher education and career choice...However, the pathogenic process for NF1-associated learning disabilities has not been fully understood and an effective +1- therapy is not available
This brief paper summarizes warning signs of learning disabilities in preschool children, elementary school children, and secondary school children. It notes that learning disabilities are presumed to arise from dysfunctions in the brain resulting in significant difficulties in perceiving information, processing and/or remembering information,…
Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.
This report discusses outcomes of a study that conducted telephone interviews with 1,000 adults to investigate their awareness and attitudes toward learning disabilities and attitudinal changes since 1995, to explore parents' recognition of various behaviors or symptoms as indicators of possible learning disabilities, and to determine what level…
Zitani, E. Alfredo
Learning disability is seen to be a dissociative disorder (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime. The shell shock model is explained to focus diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities around the dynamics of the predisposing unconscious conflict, the dynamics in the environment, the mechanism which allows these two conditions to…
Curtis, Mary G.
Dr. Tanis Bryan graduated from Northwestern University during the beginning of the field of learning disabilities. From this beginning, Tanis has provided invaluable insight into the field through her desire to understand the social dimensions of learning disabilities. The author wishes to thank Tanis for her assistance with this interview.
Williams, Val; Ponting, Lisa; Ford, Kerrie; Rudge, Philippa
For people with learning disabilities to have control over their lives, the quality of their support staff matters. This paper reports on an inclusive research study, which used video analysis to study the communication skills of personal assistants (PAs) who worked with people with learning disabilities. The findings reveal some of the fine…
Considerations in estate planning for learning disabled children are presented from the perspective of an individual who is both a lawyer and the parent of a learning disabled child. It is suggested that an important goal for parents is to train the child to be able to deal with his/her financial situation. Early training in the habit of saving…
McMahon, William G.
Increasing numbers of special needs offenders reflect the proportionate growth of the general incarcerated population. Prevention should be aimed at working with local school districts to identify youth with learning problems who may eventually drop out of school. Many of the developmentally disabled and learning disabled persons who end up in the…
How many adults with literacy problems actually have learning disabilities (LD)? Do most adults with severe literacy problems actually have a learning disability? What data exist to support the claims? How is LD being defined? Is the label overused? Is social/economic disadvantage misinterpreted as LD? What technologies and software exist to…
Bond, Rebecca J.; Hurst, Jenni
It is seen as increasingly important for people with learning disabilities to be supported to live independently and manage their own self care, productivity and leisure activities. This qualitative study explored the experiences of nine adults with mild learning disabilities who lived alone with minimal support. Their narratives were analysed…
Anderson, Lisa K.; And Others
Past research has demonstrated a relationship between children's physical attractiveness and their self-esteem. Other research has found that learning disabled children are at risk for having low self-esteem. This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and facial attractiveness in learning disabled children. Subjects were 20 diagnosed…
Kaur, Gurpreet; Scior, Katrina; Wilson, Suzanne
Systemic therapy works not just with the individual but those around them in trying to address difficulties and find ways forward. This approach has received increasing attention in learning disability settings over recent years. To date little is known about the provision of systemic therapy in learning disability services in the UK. This article…
Blackhurst, A. Edward
This article describes how concepts related to the use of technology in education have evolved with particular emphasis on their implications for people with learning disabilities (LD). The article reflects the personal perceptions of the author as a "participant observer" in a variety of activities related to technology applications in special…
Neufeld, Paul; Hoskyn, Maureen
The purpose of this article is to respond to Reid and Valle's article "The Discursive Practice of LD: Implications for Instruction and Parent?School Relations" in this issue. Our response to the discursive analysis is organized around two major themes: (a) the issue of balance in the scholarship on learning disabilities (LD) and (b) the centrality…
Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…
Majumder, Md. Anwarul Azim; Rahman, Sayeeda; D’Souza, Urban JA; Elbeheri, Gad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Huq, M Muzaherul
Learning disabilities (LDs) represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE) institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context. PMID:23745060
Kingston, Karen; Bailey, Carol
This article highlights the inequalities in health-care provision experienced by people with a learning disability, particularly the issue of pain and the barriers people with a learning disability face when trying to have their pain properly recognized and managed. The authors describe the process followed by their learning disability service in producing a pain protocol that attempted to overcome these barriers. They also examine the pain assessment tool that is now used in the authors learning disability service. Lastly, the article considers why a specially designed pain assessment tool was deemed more appropriate than any of the standardized assessment tools available and looks at the reasons why assessment tools should be presented in an accessible format that enables people with a learning disability to alert healthcare professionals to their pain and receive appropriate treatment.
Hershenson, David B.
Notes, when client, counselor, and those in client's relevant environments hold differing conceptions of disability, and hence conflicting expectations of the rehabilitation process, that process may be impeded. Proposes an approach to conceptualizing this potential problem using Hershenson's model of faith, logic, and power as successive…
Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi
Research has documented overlapping and coexisting characteristics of learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). Such concomitance may impact teacher referrals of children at risk for LD which in turn may influence service delivery. Using the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) and the Strengths and…
Lloyd, Jennifer L.; Coulson, Neil S.
Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women…
Price, Lynda; Gerber, Paul J.; Mulligan, Robert
Twenty-five adults with learning disabilities were queried to examine their employment experiences at job entry and in job advancement vis-a-vis the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Results suggest that Title 1 of the ADA is underutilized by individuals with learning disabilities in the workplace. Self-disclosure about disability was rare…
Miller, Christina R.
A qualitative exploration of a service-learning program for high school students with disabilities is presented. Focus groups with (n = 15) students and interviews with (n = 3) service-learning teachers at multiple service-learning sites were conducted to explore the perceptions of students and service-learning teachers regarding the impact of the…
Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Brown, Jason D
Thirty-six children between 9 and 12 years of age were invited to share their ideas on how to socially include classmates with learning or intellectual disabilities at school. Participants generated 80 strategies which were categorized into seven major themes. Thematic categories focused on the need for teachers to intervene in academic and social situations, child-to-child instructional strategies, being supportive, focusing on similarities between children with and without disabilities, modelling appropriate behaviors and intervening in negative interactions, structured inclusive activities, and noninclusive activities. Participants were aware of the challenges experienced by classmates with disabilities, and recognized the need to work with classmates and teachers towards the social inclusion of children with intellectual and learning disabilities. Educational implications are addressed.
The use of ICT in education is becoming increasingly important and has potential advantages to disabled learners if the technologies are appropriately designed, including for accessibility and usability, and used. This paper presents the first sets of recommendations for learning technologies for disabled people aimed at disabled learners, teachers, developers and educational institutions respectively. They were developed as part of the work of the Enable Network for ICT Learning for Disabled People and involved input from both experts and end-users. The concise format facilitates production in a variety of formats and languages for accessibility and wide distribution. The paper discusses the recommendations and their relationship to existing guidelines.
Mangina, Constantine A; Beuzeron-Mangina, Helen
This research pursues the crucial question of the differentiation of preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD, comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities, "Pure" learning disabilities and age-matched normal controls. For this purpose, Topographic Mapping of Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) to a Memory Workload Paradigm with visually presented words, Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance were used. The analysis of Topographic distribution of amplitudes revealed that normal preadolescents were significantly different from "Pure" ADHD (P<0.0001), "Pure" learning disabilities (P<0.0001), and comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities (P<0.0009), by displaying enhanced prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). In contrast, preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD and comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities have shown a marked reduction of prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). As for the "Pure" Learning Disabled preadolescents, very small positivities (P450) in prefrontal and frontal regions were obtained as compared to the other pathological groups. Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload revealed a significant main effect for groups (P<0.00001), Left versus Right (P=0.0029) and sessions (P=0.0136). A significant main effect for the Mangina-Test performance which separated the four groups was found (P<0.000001). Overall, these data support the existence of clear differences and similarities between the pathological preadolescent groups as opposed to age-matched normal controls. The psychophysiological differentiation of these groups, provides distinct biological markers which integrate central, autonomic and neuropsychometric variables by targeting the key features of these pathologies for diagnosis and intervention strategies and by providing knowledge for the understanding of normal neurocognitive processes and functions.
Nelson, Jason M; Harwood, Hannah
This article presents the results of a meta-analysis of the empirical literature on anxious symptomatology among school-aged students with learning disabilities (LD) in comparison to their non-LD peers. Fifty-eight studies met inclusion criteria. Results indicate that students with LD had higher mean scores on measures of anxiety than did non-LD students. The overall effect size was statistically significant and medium in magnitude (d=.61) although substantial heterogeneity of results was found. Moderator effects were examined for informant type, gender, grade, publication status, and identification source. Informant type (i.e., self-, parent, or teacher report) explained a significant amount of variability in the sample of studies, and identification source (i.e., school identified or special school and clinic/hospital identified) approached statistical significance. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed.
Elksnin, L K
Fueled by educational reforms such as the Regular Education Initiative, the inclusion movement, and Goals 2000, speech and language pathologists (SLPs) have explored the use of collaborative consultation in providing integrated service delivery. The implications of classroom-based services are discussed, along with models that have been adopted by SLPs, learning disabilities specialists (LDSs), and classroom teachers. The characteristics of students served, and the areas of speech and language (i.e., language, articulation, fluency, voice) targeted in the classroom, are reviewed. Ways in which SLPs, LDSs, and classroom teachers can collaborate, including collaborative assessment; Individualized Education Program development; teaching listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills; and teaching students the language of the classroom, are described.
Evidence shows that the uptake of cervical screening is much lower in women with learning disabilities compared to other women. A literature review was conducted, including published and unpublished international empirical research, discussion articles and reports written in English from 1990 to October 2007, to identify what factors are preventing women with learning disabilities from accessing cervical screening, and what can be done to encourage uptake. From the literature reviewed, factors that prevent women with learning disabilities from accessing cervical screening fell into the following categories: administration errors; access to a GP; assumptions made by healthcare professionals about women with learning disabilities; perceived difficulties obtaining consent; attitudes of carers; the beliefs and experiences of women themselves; lack of accessible information; and physical difficulties. Findings on how cervical screening uptake can be improved in women with learning disabilities were categorized into: preparation with the women; working in partnership; and encouraging good practice. The literature review showed that there are many factors that may be preventing women with learning disabilities from accessing cervical screening, many of which can be overcome by healthcare professionals adhering to good practice guidelines, thus ensuring that women with learning disabilities have their right to access cervical screening services acknowledged.
A well-educated and trained workforce is undoubtedly crucial to the development of quality care for people with learning disabilities. Notwithstanding this, and unsure as to the need to continue to commission educational programmes for one part of this workforce-pre-registration learning disability nursing-South Central Strategic Health Authority commissioned the Valued People Project to undertake a detailed strategic review of educational commissioning, along with a review of the specialist learning disability health workforce more generally. This project has recently been completed, and provides a unique evidence-based expert evaluation of the future strategic direction of education commissioning and leadership for workforce issues in specialist learning disability services, as well as the wider NHS workforce. This is the first in a series of articles that reports on one aspect of the project: the focus group work undertaken with parents and relatives of people with learning disabilities, and people with learning disabilities themselves, as to the need and type of health workforce needed to support them in the future. The article concludes by identifying the key messages of importance from parents and people with learning disabilities concerning the future specialist and wider NHS workforce.
Hersh, C A; Stone, B J; Ford, L
This study investigated whether students with learning disabilities exhibited learned helpless behavior at a greater rate than their normal achieving peers when confronted with reading failure. Forty-five third grade students from a suburban elementary schools were participants in the study. Thirty of the subjects were classified as having a learning disability (LD) and the remaining 15 subjects were from regular education (RE) classrooms. Fifteen of the students with LD were placed in the treatment group and the remaining fifteen were placed in the control group. All the regular education students were placed in the treatment group. After randomly assigning the students with LD into either a treatment (stressed) group or a control (nonstressed) group, the stressed students were administered a reading instrument in order to measure how they dealt with failure. A one-way ANCOVA was conducted to determine whether significant differences existed between the groups based on their posttest scores. The results indicate that stressed students with LD have a significantly more difficult time recovering from stress than their regular education peers.
The article examines the manner in which the learning-disabled subject is created as an object within contemporary psychiatric discourse by means of a genealogical analysis of the learning-disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It investigates how this pathology was formed historically in the text, what metamorphoses it underwent, and their epistemic significance. First, the theoretical underpinnings of the sociological discourse on DSM are presented, giving a brief background of the DSM status in the Israeli context. Many problematic characteristics in the text are unveiled, by means of critiques from sociology, anthropology and discourse studies. Second, the changing definitions and conceptualizations of learning-disorders in the seven editions of the Manual and the accompanying case studies (1952-2013) are examined. It becomes apparent that the disorders have undergone changes that have enabled the biomedical paradigm to triumph. The implications of these transformations are addressed.
Lightner, Kirsten L.; Kipps-Vaughan, Deborah; Schulte, Timothy; Trice, Ashton D.
We interviewed 42 students with a learning disability attending a large competitive state university about their reasons for seeking disability services (DS) when they did and their transition services in high school. Students who sought services earlier performed better academically than students who postponed seeking services. All but eight…
Price, Lynda A.; Gerber, Paul J.; Mulligan, Robert
This article explored the use of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by individuals with learning disabilities (LD) in the workplace. A review of the extant literature revealed that people with LD were not likely to use the ADA as employees. Moreover, an analysis of selected, commonly used materials regarding transition indicated a lack of…
Shapiro, Joan; Rich, Rebecca
This text provides information on learning disabilities in adults and offers practical ways to compensate. Chapters address: (1) definitions of learning disability; (2) etiology of learning disabilities; (3) our cognitive or thinking systems; (4) different assessment settings and some of the tests used to diagnose a learning disability; (5)…
... it isn't a sickness. Most people with disabilities can - and do - work, play, learn, and enjoy full, healthy lives. Mobility aids and assistive devices can make daily tasks easier. About one in every five people in the United States has a disability. Some people are born with one. Others have ...
Tumminia, Patricia A.; Weinfield, Ann Marie
Nursing education can accommodate learning disabled nursing students if programs are flexible and teaching methods are adjusted to include choice of learning modality, the self-paced learning mastery approach, simulation of patient problem-solving modules, use of the computer to aid record keeping, and testing accommodations. (Author/DB)
Testing organizations have recently been scrutinized because of the perception that affluent, white male students from the northeast are falsely claiming disabilities to gain extended time on standardized tests for college admission. In response to these assertions, the percentage of learning disabled test takers on the SAT I: Reasoning Test is…
Clayton, Jennifer K.
This case study focuses on a teacher who discloses a learning disability to her Principal. Given the teacher's challenges in retention of her content material, the district is faced with how to handle the personnel situation of an employee with a disability. This case raises questions of how to balance the needs and interests of students with the…
Sparks, Richard L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.
This study examined the supporting documentation submitted by students with learning disability (LD) diagnoses. The participants were 210 students who were enrolled in a college support program for students with disabilities at a private liberal arts college. Findings showed that although most students submitted a psychoeducational evaluation,…
Intended for parents, the handbook describes characteristics of learning disabled (LD) children and offers activities that the child can perform in the home to build skill proficiency. It is explained that the activities are designed to relieve the parent and child of constant awareness of the disability, to avoid use of special materials and…
Bell, Tamekia R.
Clients with learning disabilities constitute a cultural group that has not been extensively studied. The professional literature has found that counselors have reported the need for additional training in working with clients with disabilities. This study explored counselors' beliefs and perceived knowledge regarding counseling clients with…
Saloner, Michele R.; Gettinger, Maribeth
Examined the performance of 30 learning disabled and 30 nondisabled children in grades one through seven on the Test of Social Inference (TSI). Results indicated that disabled students obtained lower TSI total scores than did nondisabled students; they also performed relatively lower on TSI items requiring more verbal expression. (NRB)
Guerrera, Claudia Patrizia
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) with learning-disabled (LD) students. Twenty-four students (12 dyads) classified as LD and attending a school for the learning-disabled participated in the study. Students engaged in either a computer-based environment involving BioWorld, a hospital simulation designed to teach biology students problem-solving skills, or a paper-and-pencil version based on the computer program. A hybrid model of learning was adopted whereby students were provided with direct instruction on the digestive system prior to participating in a problem-solving activity. Students worked in dyads and solved three problems involving the digestive system in either a computerized or a paper-and-pencil condition. The experimenter acted as a coach to assist students throughout the problem-solving process. A follow-up study was conducted, one month later, to measure the long-term learning gains. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze three types of data: process data, outcome data, and follow-up data. Results from the process data showed that all students engaged in effective collaboration and became more systematic in their problem solving over time. Findings from the outcome and follow-up data showed that students in both treatment conditions, made both learning and motivational gains and that these benefits were still evident one month later. Overall, results demonstrated that the computer facilitated students' problem solving and scientific reasoning skills. Some differences were noted in students' collaboration and the amount of assistance required from the coach in both conditions. Thus, PBL is an effective learning approach with LD students in science, regardless of the type of learning environment. These results have implications for teaching science to LD students, as well as for future designs of educational software for this population.
De Weerdt, Frauke; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert
Children with reading disabilities (RD, n = 17), mathematical disabilities (MD, n = 22), combined reading and mathematical disabilities (RD + MD, n = 28) and control peers (n = 45) were tested on behavioral inhibition with a Go/no-go task in a picture, letter and digit-modality. In contrast to children without RD, children with RD made…
Meltzer, Lynn J.; And Others
The relationship between juvenile delinquency and learning disabilities has been studied in the context of socioeconomic status, temperament, school success, and peer relationships. To use a process-oriented approach in evaluating cognitive and learning profiles of delinquents and learning disabled adolescents, and to examine the possibility that…
Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.
Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…
Manganello, Robert E.
This article describes several strategies to mitigate the effects of poor time management skills in postsecondary students with learning disabilities. Strategies focus on using a calendar; wearing and/or referring to a wristwatch or clock; and practicing punctuality. (DB)
Millichap, J Gordon
Investigators from the Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, MA, performed a retrospective analysis of 1,587 children referred for a learning disability, and 127 had a focal deficit demonstrated on either a neurologic or neuropsychological evaluation.
Sharp, Linda Schaffner
Project Heroes is a humanities program for learning disabled children which is designed to maximize four principles--appreciation of process, acknowledgement of independence, development of a sense of worth, and skill acquisition. (SB)
Applegate, Anthony J.; Applegate, Mary Dekonty; Turner, Jennifer D.
It takes a literacy leader to save some schools and districts from serious misconceptions about the nature of core reading programs as well as the nature of some reading disabilities. Well-prepared professionals can, by means of their extensive pedagogical repertoire, help districts to avoid compulsive repetition of the same fundamental types of…
People with learning disabilities may have additional healthcare needs compared to the general population, and the NHS faces challenges in addressing these needs. Scotland has many remote and rural communities, and residents of these communities can encounter difficulties in accessing healthcare resources. This article considers Scotland's healthcare policy in relation to remote and rural areas, and how effective it is in meeting the needs of people with learning disabilities in these communities.
Barbot, Baptiste; Krivulskaya, Suzanna; Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L
Differences in learning patterns of vocabulary acquisition in children at risk (+SRD) and not at risk (-SRD) for Specific Reading Disability (SRD) were examined using a microdevelopmental paradigm applied to the multi-trial Foreign Language Learning Task (FLLT; Baddeley et al., 1995). The FLLT was administered to 905 children from rural Chitonga-speaking Zambia. A multi-group Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM) was implemented to study interindividual differences in intraindividual change across trials. Results showed that the +SRD group recalled fewer words correctly in the first trial, learned at a slower rate during the subsequent trials, and demonstrated a more linear learning pattern compared to the -SRD group. This study illustrates the promise of LGCM applied to multi-trial learning tasks, by isolating three components of the learning process (initial recall, rate of learning, and functional pattern of learning). Implications of this microdevelopmental approach to SRD research in low-to-middle income countries are discussed.
Learning problems occur in about 5% of school-aged children. Learning disabilities are specific and life-long but present with different school problems at different ages, depending on such factors as age, medical history, family history, and intelligence quotient. Proper individualized diagnosis and treatment plans are necessary to remediate these problems and to offer adequate coping strategies. Many children who have learning problems can be classified into one of two major categories: the dyslexia group or the nonverbal learning disability group. The role of the medical professional is important to guide parents in the diagnostic and therapeutic process.
Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J
The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing.
Young, Glenn; Gerber, Paul J.
Focuses on environmental issues that affect learning disabilities and provides a rationale for learning disabilities as a public health and economic-risk issue. The link between learning disabilities and poverty and the impact of low birth weight and lead poisoning are discussed. Action steps are provided. (CR)
This digest is derived from Susan Baum's "Being Gifted and Learning Disabled...From Definition to Practical Intervention." The learning disabled gifted are grouped into three categories: identified gifted students who have subtle learning disabilities, unidentified students whose gifts and disabilities may be masked by average…
Bryant, D P; Erin, J; Lock, R; Allan, J M; Resta, P E
A recent trend in the fields of special education, rehabilitation, and technology is the development and implementation of assistive technology (AT) devices and services to assist individuals in compensating for disabilities and/or utilizing functional capabilities to meet environmental demands. AT devices and services have major implications for individuals with learning disabilities (LD) regarding life span issues, environmental and curricular accessibility, and compensatory strategies. Faculty members in higher education who are responsible for designing teacher preparation programs in LD must explore ways to structure curricula, methodologies, and practica to better prepare teachers to work with students who use AT devices to compensate for their specific learning disabilities. The purpose of this article is to describe curriculum design steps and barriers to and solutions for infusing LD teacher preparation programs with assistive technology.
Brookshire, B L; Butler, I J; Ewing-Cobbs, L; Fletcher, J M
In this study the neuropsychological characteristics of thirty-one 6 to 16-year-old children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) were compared to 20 normal siblings and 10 children with arithmetic disabilities (AD) who were comparable in age and socioeconomic status. Unlike the sibling group, neuropsychological profiles of the TS and AD groups were expected to reflect nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). The three groups performed generally within the average range on academic and cognitive measures. Like the AD children, the TS group demonstrated poorer performance on written arithmetic tasks with comparatively better word reading and written word spelling. Unlike the AD group, who demonstrated generalized nonverbal deficiencies, children with TS demonstrated reduced performance on visual-motor and expressive language measures as well as measures of complex cognition. These results are suggestive of an "output" subtype of learning disability and support theories that implicate the mesocortical dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of TS.
Mammarella, Irene C; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gitti, Filippo; Gomez, Claudia; Cornoldi, Cesare
This study aims to investigate the types of difficulty encountered by children with nonverbal (visuospatial) learning disabilities (NLD) during the processing of spatial information derived from descriptions. Two spatial descriptions--one in survey, one in route perspective--and one nonspatial description were orally presented to children aged 9-12 divided in three groups: (i) with NLD (N=12), (ii) with reading disability (RD) (N=11), and (iii) without learning disabilities who served as controls (N=16). Children performed two tasks: sentence verification and location. In the verification task, NLD performed worse in survey text than control and RD groups. Moreover, in the location task NLD were worse than controls in both survey and route descriptions, but significantly poorer than the RD group only in the survey description. The results are discussed considering their implications in understanding the neuropsychological profile of NLD and the processes involved by different types of spatial descriptions.
Lloyd, Jennifer L; Coulson, Neil S
Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women with intellectual disabilities to access cervical screening in order to examine their role in promoting attendance and elucidate potential barriers and facilitators to uptake. Ten participants recruited from a specialist learning disability service completed a semi-structured interview and data were analysed using experiential thematic analysis. Identified individual barriers included limited health literacy, negative attitudes and beliefs and competing demands; barriers attributed to primary care professionals included time pressures, limited exposure to people with intellectual disabilities and lack of appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Attendance at cervical screening was facilitated by prolonged preparation work undertaken by learning disability nurses, helpful clinical behaviours in the primary care context and effective joint working.
This article provides an introduction to theoretical ideas and practices from the so-called "philosophers of difference"--Foucault, Derrida, and Deleuze and Guattari--as an invitation to think differently about the construction of learning disability and to envision new forms of learning. Two key concepts, Foucault's transgression and…
Reichman, Julie; Healey, William C.
A review of research on the relationship of otitis media (ear infection) and learning/language/hearing disorders revealed that incidence of otitis media was twice as common in learning disabled as nonLD students; and that, in general, otitis-prone children scored below controls with frequent evidence of performance deficits. (CL)
Oyler, James D.; Obrzut, John E.; Asbjornsen, Arve E.
The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test, the "Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test" (BTVLT). This multiple trial test was designed to measure memory acquisition,…
Taking public transit can make anyone nervous, especially in a large or medium-sized city where there are many different bus lines going many different places. The author's daughter, Anna, has multiple learning disabilities and may never learn to drive, but she wants to be as independent as possible so the author taught her to ride the bus. This…
Schmidt, Majda; Prah, Alenka; Cagran, Branka
Social skills of students with special needs play a very important role in their successful integration into inclusive learning environments. The aim of present empirical research was to establish whether students with learning disabilities (LD) attending grades 7-9 of regular primary school in Slovenia experience difficulties in social skills…
Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.
Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…
Hashey, Andrew I.; Stahl, Skip
The growing presence of K-12 online education programs is a trend that promises to increase flexibility, improve efficiency, and foster engagement in learning. Students with disabilities can benefit from dynamic online educational environments, but only to the extent that they can access and participate in the learning process. As students with…
Alonso, Lou; And Others
The recent trend in special education toward individualized teaching based on the diagnosis of specific learning disabilities is reviewed. The concern of educators for emphasis on psychoeducational diagnosis to determine learning and behavioral problems, and their remediation, rather than primarily on classification and categorization along…
This paper reports the findings of a study which aimed to explore the learning and behavioral characteristics of students with Learning Disabilities (LDs) in Jordan. Specifically, variables that related to challenging behaviors, school's type, and gender differences were investigated. Four resource room teachers in public and private schools were…
Rhodes, Sharyn S.; Jasinski, Donald R.
The study found that 40 percent of 25 adult alcoholics were found to have had special education, remedial services, or repeated grade failure concurrent with a familial history of alcoholism and current discrepancies indicative of learning disabilities. Results suggest that childhood learning disorders may be related to the development of…
This article discusses the increase in the rate and intensity of child maltreatment, defines the types of maltreatment (physical, sexual, psychological and neglect), their possible effects on learning, and school interventions that can assist the children with learning disabilities. The need for a structured classroom environment is emphasized.…
Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia
The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…
James, Giovanna; Milligan, Jerry L.
Fourteen holistic, meaning-based reading and writing activities appropriate for students with learning disabilities are described, along with the theoretical background of the paradigm. As children experiment, approximate, and discover language naturally and socially, their immersion in authentic spoken and written language facilitates learning to…
This article focuses on understanding the teaching and learning of division from a constructivist perspective. An overview of constructivism is provided, followed by a discussion of division in the context of both computation and word problem solving. Suggestions are provided for teaching students with learning disabilities using a constructivist…
Describes a career development course for learning disabled college students which addresses five major cognitive, affective, and motivational considerations: (1) cognition and attention, (2) reality testing, (3) sense of self, (4) visual imagery, and (5) learned helplessness. Concludes that the course increases students' ability to make mature…
Werner, Emmy E.
This article traces the development of 22 children with learning disabilities and 22 controls at ages 1, 2, 10, 18, and 32 years. Most learning-disabled individuals made a successful adaptation to adult life, with marriage, divorce, and employment rates similar to the cohort as a whole. Clusters of protective factors were identified. (Author/DB)
McGrady, Harold J.; Olson, Don A.
To describe and compare the psychosensory functioning of normal children and children with specific learning disabilities, 62 learning disabled and 68 normal children were studied. Each child was given a battery of thirteen subtests on an automated psychosensory system representing various combinations of auditory and visual intra- and…
National Center for Learning Disabilities, Inc., New York, NY.
This booklet presents three brief papers that summarize three meta-analytic research syntheses of instruction for students with learning disabilities. The first paper is "Intervention Research for Students with Learning Disabilities" by H. Lee Swanson. Findings that resulted from a review of 272 studies are grouped into those on most effective…
Two Decades of Research in Learning Disabilities: Reading Comprehension, Expressive Writing, Problem Solving, Self-Concept. Keys to Successful Learning: A National Summit on Research in Learning Disabilities.
National Center for Learning Disabilities, Inc., New York, NY.
This document presents four brief papers that review and synthesize the research on intervention with students who have learning disabilities (LD). The first paper is "Can School-Based Interventions Enhance the Self-Concept of Students with Learning Disabilities?" (Batya Elbaum and Sharon Vaughn). This review finds that school-based interventions…
Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory, the case study teachers demonstrated characteristics of successful teachers of diverse learners developed by Lynch (2000). Overall, the qualitative findings revealed that the case study teachers were unsure how to provide equitable science teaching practices to all students, particularly to students with learning disabilities. They provided students with a variety of learning experiences that entailed high expectations for all; however, these experiences were similar for all students. Had the teachers fully implemented equitable science teaching practices, students would have had multiple options for taking in the information and making sense of it in each lesson. Teaching that includes using a variety of validated practices that take into account students' individualized learning needs can promote aspects of equitable science teaching practices. Finally, this study provides implications for teacher education programs and professional development programs. As teachers implement science education reform efforts related to equitable science teaching practices, both teacher education programs and professional development programs should include opportunities for teachers to reflect on their beliefs about how students with learning disabilities learn and provide them with a variety of validated teaching practices that will assist them in teaching students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom while implementing science reform efforts.
Ali, K; Zahra, D; Coelho, C; Jones, G; Tredwin, C
Aims To compare the academic performance of undergraduate dental students with known learning disabilities (LDs) to their peers.Methods This study analysed the results of students in applied dental knowledge (ADK) progress tests across four cohorts of dental students. A mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the performance of students with known disability to their peers. ADK test sitting was treated as a repeated measures variable, and the outcome variable of interest was percentage score on the ADK.Results Students' performance data on five ADK test sittings (ADK15, ADK16, ADK17, ADK18, and ADK19) by disability showed a significant main effect of test but no significant effect of disability or any interaction between disability and test.Conclusions This is the first study that explores the academic performance of dental students with a diagnosis of disability. The findings give reassurance to all stakeholders that, within the study population, students with LDs are not disadvantaged in knowledge-based assessments, demonstrating compliance with the legal obligations. Further research is required to explore how generalisable these findings are, as well as assess academic, clinical, and behavioural attributes of students with learning disabilities.
McClimens, Alex; Allmark, Peter
People with severe learning disability are particularly difficult to include in the research process. As a result, researchers may be tempted to focus on those with learning disability who can be included. The problem is exacerbated in this field as the political agenda of inclusion and involvement is driven by those people with learning disability who are the higher functioning. To overcome this we should first detach the notion of consent from ideas about autonomy and think instead of it as a way to avoid wronging others; this fits the original historical use of consent in research. This allows us to think in terms of including participants to the best of their abilities rather than in terms of a threshold of autonomy. Researchers could then use imaginative ways to include the least able and to ensure they are not wronged in research or by exclusion from it.
American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC.
This report summarizes the consensus statements developed by the Learning Disabilities Roundtable (February 2002), a meeting of the 10 member organizations of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities to provide input for the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The Roundtable resulted in defined areas of…
Starrett, Barbara E.; de Boer, Sonja R.; Tollefson, Julie M.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 (IDEA 1997) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004) define specific learning disabilities in a similar manner. "The term "specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in…
Harrison, Scott; Berry, Liz
People with a learning disability have spent decades being excluded from mainstream society and remain almost invisible in our communities, workplaces and in family life. As a result, the health of people with a learning disability is significantly poorer than that of the general population. Despite the many reports and policy recommendations about how to improve the situation, little has been done to address the social exclusion of this group, and their health and wellbeing continue to decline. In a joint effort to challenge exclusion and address the agenda of 'Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century', Warrington Primary Care Trust and Five Boroughs Partnership NHS Trust joined forces at a practical level. Two health visitors have developed a comprehensive programme of socially inclusive health care aimed at engaging people with learning disabilities more fully in their health care and their choices in leading healthy lives. The paper discusses Access All Areas--a comprehensive programme using a public health model of health care where people with learning disabilities are being supported to make healthy choices and, often for the first time, given information in accessible formats to support those choices. Led by health visitors, staff from all agencies involved in the care and support of people with learning disabilities are being trained and engaged in order to raise the standards across organisations and prioritise the health and wellbeing of this marginalised group. Health visitors are leading locally in the implementation of both health improvement and long-term condition strategies.
Patton, J R
Homework is a commonly used school practice. Its importance for students with learning disabilities has increased in recent years as these students have spent more instructional time in inclusive settings where homework is regularly given and as educational reforms have influenced the amount of homework being given. The first part of the article reviews selected issues that relate to using homework with students who have been identified as learning disabled. The major part of the article highlights effective (i.e., empirically validated) and recommended (i.e., suggested in the literature or determined by field-based reports) practices for using homework with this population.
The sexual health of people with learning disabilities raises important management and practice issues for health services, and should be examined in the context of the current policy emphasis on advocacy, person-centred services and social inclusion (Department of Health, 2001). People with learning disabilities may have limited access to mainstream health services, and sexual health and genitourinary medicine (GUM) services are no exception (DoH, 2001; 1998). They are often excluded from society, either because they are 'segregated' within specialist support services in the community or because they live in isolation with carers, and health and social care models do not always join up locally to meet their needs.
Sauter, Diana; Beach, Cheryl
Discusses the usefulness of psychoeducational evaluation in providing career counseling for students with learning disabilities. Describes processes for psychological testing and diagnosis of learning disabilities and the use of results in career planning. (JOW)
Presented at the First National Conference on Learning Disabilities in Ottawa, Canada in October, 1977, the article discusses learning disabilities and their appropriate special educational services in Canada, focusing on the processes of categorization and labeling. (DLS)
Little, Sara S.
This article presents an overview of literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities subtype. The article addresses the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning, generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity. (Author/JDD)
Solan, Harold A.; Springer, Florence E.
The Learning Disabilities Unit of New York's State College of Optometry, providing testing and research for learning disabled adults and children and professional instruction and clinical experience for students of optometry and related fields, is described. (MSE)
Suresh, P A; Sebastian, S
The symptom complex of finger anomia, right-left disorientation, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia constitutes Gerstmann's syndrome. It is mostly described in adults and is caused by acquired lesions of the dominant parietal lobe. It is infrequently described in children with learning disabilities and has been designated developmental Gerstmann's syndrome. Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome goes unnoticed if not specifically sought by clinicians. A detailed evaluation will reveal subtle neurologic deficits, behavioral problems, and neuropsychologic and specific speech and language abnormalities. Ten such patients are reported; six of the children demonstrated improvement with intensive speech training. Early identification and intervention is therefore crucial, and even more important in cultures in which students are required to be biliterate or triliterate, further increasing the constraints on writing. A selective writing, reading, or calculation abnormality in the presence of normal oral communication triggers several interesting possibilities for the brain mechanisms behind normal language processing. Similarly, the association of acalculia with finger anomia and agraphia with right-left disorientation may have specific implications in the neuropsychologic processing of the evolution of calculation and writing. A theoretical possibility of oral and written language processing from the observation of the language behavior of these children is also described.
Haddad, Frederick A.
Results of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) and Bender-Gestalt Test were compared for a sample of learning disabled children that included 24 blacks and 24 whites; mean age 9 years. A significant correlation coefficient was found between the K-ABC Simultaneous Scale and the Bender-Gestalt Test error score. Implications of these…
Sigmon, Scott B.
This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…
Koch, Lynn C.; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan; Wilkins, Melissa J.
Purpose: The enrollment of students with psychiatric disabilities in U.S. postsecondary institutions is on the rise. However, research is lacking in terms of how these students fare in comparison to other students with hidden disabilities (e.g., learning disabilities [LDs], attention deficit disorders [ADDs]) whose enrollment in postsecondary…
Gerber, Paul J.; Batalo, Cecilia G.; Achola, Edwin O.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and its amendments have been in existence for a little more than twenty years. Title One, which pertains to employment, has had a bearing on employment for persons with disabilities, particularly the high incidence category of learning disabilities, who for the most part work in competitive…
Giangreco, Michael F.; Doyle, Mary Beth
Italy has a long history of including students with disabilities in general education classes. Their efforts offer unique perspectives and practices from which other countries may benefit. The article highlights four notable attributes about the Italian approach and discusses implications for American schools.
Staels, Eva; Van den Broeck, Wim
In this study, we examined whether orthographic learning can be demonstrated in disabled readers learning to read in a transparent orthography (Dutch). In addition, we tested the effect of the use of text-to-speech software, a new form of direct instruction, on orthographic learning. Both research goals were investigated by replicating Share's self-teaching paradigm. A total of 65 disabled Dutch readers were asked to read eight stories containing embedded homophonic pseudoword targets (e.g., Blot/Blod), with or without the support of text-to-speech software. The amount of orthographic learning was assessed 3 or 7 days later by three measures of orthographic learning. First, the results supported the presence of orthographic learning during independent silent reading by demonstrating that target spellings were correctly identified more often, named more quickly, and spelled more accurately than their homophone foils. Our results support the hypothesis that all readers, even poor readers of transparent orthographies, are capable of developing word-specific knowledge. Second, a negative effect of text-to-speech software on orthographic learning was demonstrated in this study. This negative effect was interpreted as the consequence of passively listening to the auditory presentation of the text. We clarify how these results can be interpreted within current theoretical accounts of orthographic learning and briefly discuss implications for remedial interventions.
Mammarella, Irene C; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were tested. In all, 15 children with NLD, 15 with RD, and 15 with TD were administered self-report questionnaires to assess different types of anxiety and depression symptoms. Both NLD and RD children reported experiencing more generalized and social anxiety than TD, the NLD children reported more severe anxiety about school and separation than TD, and the children with RD had worse depressive symptoms than those with NLD or TD.
Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.
Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods…
Avazian, Karyn Lorraine Wood
The review of the literature focuses on research assessing the effects of learning disabilities on a child's self-concept. After an introduction, definitions of "learning disabilities" and "self-concept" are offered. The literature on effects of learning disabilities on self-concept in elementary, middle, and high school age children is then…
Lyon, G. Reid, Ed.
This book offers 27 papers addressing critical issues in the assessment of students with all kinds of learning disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Critical Issues in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (G. Reid Lyon); "A Matrix of Decision Points in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (Barbara K. Keogh);…
Rethazi, Maya; Wilson, Anne Keeton
Examined whether Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) could discriminate between learning disabled and normal preadolescents. Tested 43 learning disabled (LD) students and 20 students without learning disabilities. Results indicated that the Achievement score relative to the Mental Processing Composite score was the only measure to…
Mafuba, Kay; Gates, Bob
International studies have shown poor uptake of public health initiatives by people with learning disabilities. In addition, studies have shown that people with learning disabilities experience poor access to public health services. The contribution of community learning disability nurses in meeting the public health needs of people with learning…
Worcester, Lenore Higgins
Two studies explored characteristics of the Franco-American and nonFranco-American learning disabled college student. The first study involving 200 learning disabled college students had four objectives--explore the appropriateness of a self referral model to identify the college learning disabled student, explore the predominant characteristics…
Herron, Daniel; Priest, Helena M.; Read, Sue
Background: There has been an increase in inclusive research in the learning disability field; however, this has not been reflected within learning disability and dementia research, where little is known from the perspective of people with learning disabilities. This paper will define inclusive research, explore reasons for the dearth of inclusive…
Background: It is now expected that projects addressing the lives of people with learning disabilities include people with learning disabilities in the research process. In the past, such research often excluded people with learning disabilities, favouring the opinions of family members, carers and professionals. The inclusion of the voices of…
Lamberg, Catherine Denise
Learning-disabled students face ongoing challenges in higher education. Despite efforts to promote recruitment and retention of students with learning disabilities to trade schools, colleges, and universities, barriers to enrollment and academic achievement persist. Barriers for learning-disabled students are not fully understood and might be…
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
This research aimed to illuminate the experiences of adults with learning disabilities of the reflecting team, in the context of their systemic family therapy. Five adults with learning disabilities were recruited from one community learning disability team. A qualitative design using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was appropriate…
Shaywitz, Sally E.; Holahan, John M.; Freudenheim, Daniele A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Makuch, Robert W.; Shaywitz, Bennett A.
A study involving boys (grades 4-7) who were highly gifted (n=18), low gifted (n=17), had learning disabilities (n=26), and were typical (n=26), found highly gifted boys exhibited levels of behavioral problems similar to those with learning disabilities, whereas low gifted boys had lower levels than boys with learning disabilities. (Contains…
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…
Nasir, N. S.; Snyder, C. R.; Shah, N.; Ross, K. M.
In this article, we theorize the relation between race and schooling and consider the implications for learning. While the body of research on culture and learning has come to define learning as an inherently cultural and social process, scholars have few theoretical tools to help us think about the role of race and racism in relation to students'…
Mallinger, B I
There is a need to determine the extent to which the "Background Interference Procedure" as an adjunct to the Bender-Gestalt can account for criterion variance beyond that level predicted by an optimal battery. Discriminant functions empirically classified subjects into clinical categories of learning disability. A reduced battery of intellective and visual-motor predictors generated two significant functions, accounting for 91% of the variance. The first dimension reflected over-all intellectual functioning, the second, psychomotor skills. Empirical classification accurately categorized 71% of all subjects across five criterion groups. The functions efficiently separated the criteria, but the six Background Interference Procedure predictor variables did not improve prediction. Implications include using the Background Interference Procedure for early screening of learning disabilities and employing discriminant functions for data reduction and construct validation of teachers' and judges' ratings.
Mammarella, Irene C; Pazzaglia, Francesca
Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and visual perception were examined in two groups aged 11-13, one with children displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning disability (NLD) (n = 18) and the other a control group without learning disabilities (n = 18). The two groups were matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. The children were presented with VSWM tests involving visual and spatial-simultaneous processes, and also with a classical visual illusion, a classical ambiguous figure, as well as visual perception tests specifically devised for the present study. Results revealed that performance of children at risk of NLD was worse than controls in some VSWM and in visual perception tests without memory involvement; these latter required comparisons of visual stimuli and locations in space with distractors. Moreover, the two groups differed in perceiving the classical ambiguous figure. Findings are discussed in the light of both theoretical and clinical implications.
Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison
The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on…
Goldey, Ellen S.
Provides an overview of presentations that were included in the Medical Symposium at the 1998 Learning Disabilities Association conference. The symposium addressed vestibular control and eye movement, postural sway and balance, cerebellar dysfunction, the role of the frontal lobe, developmental coordination disorder, and sensory integration…
Swift, Carol; Lewis, Rena B.
Leisure preferences of 51 learning disabled (LD) boys (grades 4-6) were investigated. Results indicated more similarities than differences in leisure choices. LD boys generally prefered the same types of after-school and weekend activities, and the same sports, hobbies, and television shows as their non-LD peers. (Author/CL)
Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…
Quick, Carol; Mandell, Colleen
The relationship between recurrent otitis media (middle ear infection characterized by the presence of middle ear fluid and possibly leading to a temporary conductive hearing loss) and learning disabilities (LD) is examined. Traditional treatment approaches (antibiotic medication and surgery) are reviewed. The definition of LD is presented and the…
Bryan, J. H.; And Others
The "Test Anxiety Scale for Children" and the "Lie Scale for Children" were administered to 60 children, half of whom were defined by schools as learning disabled (LD). LD subjects were more anxious than the nondisabled, and their test anxiety was significantly related to reading and mathematics achievement scores. (Author)
MacIntyre, Robert B.; And Others
The study examined the process by which diagnostic data on children thought to have learning disabilities (LD) are generated and used. Emphasis was placed on the validity of test instruments in common use in the field. Since part of the practical validity of any instrument used to identify an LD child rests on the validity of the LD construct…
Foley, Teresa; Safran, Stephen P.
Exploration of gender-biased language in two editions of learning disabilities textbooks found that the male author's work exhibited a 7:1 ratio of masculine to feminine pronouns, whereas the female author's text showed no significant differences in use of gender-specific pronouns. The male author had increased use of gender-neutral pronouns…
Reynolds, Sharon; Hitchcock, John
The attitudes of adult basic education faculty members toward teaching adults with learning disabilities are likely to influence the success of their students; however, there are no existing survey instruments that measure this construct or the practical knowledge faculty members should have to effectively serve the population. A new survey…
Friend, Marilyn; Bauwens, Jeanne
The article explores characteristics of resistance by general educators to special education consultation programs. It offers teachers of learning disabled students strategies for managing specific types of resistance as well as a general plan for minimizing resistance as well as suggestions for evaluating the impact of resistance management…
Kupper, Lisa, Ed.
This information brief aims to describe common learning disabilities that can cause reading problems and to assist the reader in accessing organizations that can provide appropriate help. The paper begins with a note about the many reasons why a person might have difficulty in developing reading skills. It then presents an article by Larry B.…
In the mid-1970s, Donald Hammill and his colleagues authored three scathing critiques of the two most trusted scientific traditions of learning disability treatment--movement education and psycholinguistic training (Hammill, 1972; Hammill & Larsen, 1974; Hammill, Goodman, & Wiederholt, 1974). These critical reviews of research rejected the older…
Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Carvalho, Kathleen
In this article, the authors assess the evidence related to various instructional styles for teaching reading to children with learning disabilities. Results of the literature review indicate that whole language and direct instruction are the two major approaches to teaching reading. Whole language has proven successful for many students with…
Blalock, Ginger; Patton, James R.
This article on transition for students with learning disabilities (LD) reviews the transition concept from a life-span perspective and considers transition planning, including the role of the planning team, the importance of timing, and forces influencing transition programs. It then provides background information, themes, and highlights for…
An in-service program for secondary learning disabilities teachers was based on three premises: adolescents can be motivated, and instruction can be individualized with innovative curriculum materials; contingency management can improve social conduct and academic achievement; and expensive gadgets and large consulting staffs are not prerequisties…
Judge, Sharon; Watson, Silvana M. R.
Using longitudinal data from the first 6 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the authors examined mathematics achievement and growth trajectories by learning disability (LD) subgroups. The 2-level (time-student) growth curve model showed that lower levels of mathematics achievement were already evident at…
Peckham, Nicholas Guy
In his capacity as a Clinical Psychologist the author provides psychological support to people with learning disabilities living in hospital and in the community. Frequently, the problem behaviour highlighted in referral letters (such as sexualized behaviour, anger management or self-harm) is formulated as relating to a past history of abuse and…
Gumpel, Thomas P.; Sharoni, Varda
We present an analysis of the current state of practice in the diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities (LD) in Israel. Through an examination of the cultural, historical, and demographic background of the country ("deep structures"), we show how a fragmented society has developed; it segregates different ethnicities and social…
Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.
Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities are considered in this 10-chapter volume. Contents include: "Developmental Language Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (Cynthia A. Riccio and George W. Hynd); "Self-Regulated Strategy Development: A Theoretical and Practical Perspective" (Lisa P. Case et al.); "Mapping the…
Maheady, Larry; Maitland, George E.
Experimental attempts at assessing the social perception skills of learning disabled (LD) children are reviewed, along with methodological concerns relative to these experiments, and possible directions for future social perception research. Ten studies that examined LD children's ability to interpret nonverbal cues indicated they performed more…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2007
This paper addresses early identification, services, supports, and intervention for young children, birth through 4 years, who demonstrate delays in development that may place them at risk for later identification as having a learning disability (LD). Such delays include atypical patterns of development in cognition, communication, emergent…
In this paper, the author sidles up to the "problema" of identifying children as having a learning disability (LD) in the USA to ascertain what an analysis of limping characters, limping readers and limping rhythms might teach individuals about justice. In much current educational literature children labelled LD circulate as "maimed individuals"…
Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl
Identifying individuals with specific learning disabilities (SLD) is a complex task, particularly for adult populations. Adult agencies such as vocational rehabilitative services or adult basic education often use different SLD definitions and criteria, are often understaffed, have limited resources, and have a shortage of staff trained on SLD…
Sabornie, Edward J.; And Others
Analysis of the sociometric ratings and status of 50 elementary school students with learning disabilities and 50 nonhandicapped elementary school students (in matched pairs) indicated that the pairs did not differ significantly in assigned status to their peers but did differ significantly in acceptance and rejection received from their shared…
Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.
This volume presents 10 papers on research and methodology in learning and behavioral disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Memory Judgments and Allocation of Study Times in Good and Poor Comprehenders" (Ombretta Papetti et al.); "Diagnostic Spelling Analysis Within Curriculum-Based Measurement: Implications…
Isles, A. R.; Humby, T.
Background: It is now widely acknowledged that there may be a genetic contribution to learning disability and neuropsychiatric disorders, stemming from evidence provided by family, twin and adoption studies, and from explicit syndromic conditions. Recently it has been recognized that in some cases the presentation of genetic syndromes (or discrete…
In these days of the achievement gap, evidence-based practices, and accountability issues, Julie Allan's "Complicating, not explicating: Taking up philosophy in learning disability research" challenges everyone to think seriously about how well the field is meeting the mission of providing for the academic and social needs of students with…
Rabren, Karen; Eaves, Ronald C.; Dunn, Caroline; Darch, Craig
This study investigates the construct of satisfaction as a post-school outcome for students with learning disabilities (LD). More specifically, the effects of postsecondary education or training as well as employment are examined as they contribute to the overall satisfaction of young people with LD, one year after they exit high school. The…
Connections: A Journal of Adult Literacy, 1995
This issue focuses on learning disabilities of adult literacy students. The 11 papers in the journal were developed from research done by the authors at an intensive summer institute in 1994. After an introduction and a description of the summer institute (Martha Merson), the following papers are included: "Lucie: Is She or Isn't She?" (Meryl…
Weis, Robert; Sykes, Lauryn; Unadkat, Devanshi
Many college students receiving accommodations for specific learning disability (SLD) do not meet objective criteria for the disorder. Furthermore, whether students meet criteria depends on the diagnostic decision model used by their clinician. The authors examined whether the relationship between diagnostic model and likelihood of meeting…
Izzo, Margaretha Vreeburg; Murray, Alexa; Priest, Sarah; McArrell, Bianca
Student Learning Communities (SLCs) for high school and college students with disabilities interested in pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees were piloted at a major Midwestern university from 2009 to 2011. Students participated in a series of weekly sessions and/or a residential campus experience as part of a…
This newsletter contains six articles about correctional education for learning-disabled adults. In "Correctional Education: A Worthwhile Investment; An Interview with Steven Steurer," the executive director of the Correctional Education Association (CEA) explains the benefits of correctional education and some of the CEA's efforts to improve the…
Blanton, Gloria H.
The social and emotional development of learning disabled students needs to be addressed in education programming effort. Social skills, which are essential to academic as well as social success, can be taught through such methods as role playing, games, grouping, puppetry, behavior modification, and problem-solving exercises. In addition,…
Dembinski, Raymond J.; Mauser, August J.
Questionnaires were sent to 234 parents of children with learning disabilities to provide parents with an opportunity to react to and evaluate the diagnostic and counseling process they experience in relation to three groups of professionals: physicians, psychologists, and educators. (SBH)
Devens, John S.
Audiological assessments were performed on 20 learning disabled students (6-16 years old). Results of Speech Reception Threshold testing and Discrimination Testing indicated that Ss generally scored lower on discrimination tasks, were more affected by the introduction of noise, and showed a greater variability in discrimination performance than 10…
McClimens, Alex; Brennan, Siobhan; Hargreaves, Pauline
We undertook this project because we believed that hearing loss experienced by the target population was greater than the referral figures suggested. Therefore, we set up a trial service initiative designed to examine the efficacy of different referral routes into audiology services for adults with learning disability. This retrospective analysis…
Bates, Belinda, Ed.
This issue of "Linkages" addresses skills that literacy programs can include in their curriculum to teach self-advocacy to adult learners with learning disabilities. Articles include: "Consumers Empowering Consumers" (Noel Gregg and Cheri Hoy); "Self-Advocacy: Practical Advice to the Adult with LD" (Pat Boyd); "Disclosure: It's a Matter of Choice"…
The author reviews research on early deprivation and neglect and recounts his own experience with children whose dwarfism is attributed to abuse or neglect. The existence of specific learning disability and diminished IQ in many of these children is cited. The author suggests further attention to the problem. (CL)
McGee, David W.
A special unit on savings accounts was incorporated into a program designed to teach learning disabled adolescents skills for becoming self-sufficient adults. Sessions covered concepts and terminology, a brief history of banking, common ways of writing dates on banking forms, the importance of spelling numbers correctly, and the use of savings…
Sills, Caryl K.
Research on learning disabilities in students is reviewed, and classroom techniques for college instruction to support writing among these students are suggested. They include making an extra effort for clear classroom communication, dealing with errors in writing mechanics, helping students achieve coherence, giving hints for planning and…
Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others
Explored the impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled (LD) children. Important predictors of self-esteem improvement were the child's hypnotic susceptibility score and self-hypnotic practice by children and parents. Hypnotherapy is of potential benefit to self-esteem…
This monograph briefly describes a sampling of tools and technologies that can be used by adults with learning disabilities to improve their functional capabilities in employment, educational, or personal settings. Stressed is the importance of evaluating each technology in terms of the individual's unique profile, the function to be performed,…
Marino, Matthew T.; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Basham, James D.
Have you ever bought a computer program that you thought would be great for your struggling students, only to find that it did not work on your school computers, or that your students found it difficult to use? Selecting science software for students with learning and other disabilities can be a challenge. This Idea Bank provides a list of…
Cousins, Candis; Duhl, Leonard
A learning disability is seen as the outcome of a network of forces that include neurophysical, emotional, familial, organizational, political, social, historical, and technological cases. Options for research and development are based on this integrative view, and both "hard" and "soft" technologies must be considered. "Hard" technology refers to…
Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II
The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…
Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi
This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…
Passolunghi, Maria Chiara
Emotional and cognitive factors were examined in 18 children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD), compared with 18 normally achieving children, matched for chronological age, school level, gender and verbal IQ. Working memory, short-term memory, inhibitory processes, speed of processing and level of anxiety in mathematics were assessed…
Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini
Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…
Minskoff, Esther; Allsopp, David
This book presents the "active learner" instructional approach to working with secondary school students with learning disabilities and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This approach combines the diagnostic prescriptive approach with principles of individualization, direct instruction, strategy instruction, and integration of…
Kennedy, Michael J.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were…
Bates, Claire; Terry, Louise; Popple, Keith
Background: Love is important aspect of life, including to people with learning disabilities both historically and more recently. Participants value the companionship, support and social status associated with a partner. Relationships are considered mechanisms to meet certain needs including feeling loved, company, intimacy and enabling…
Higgins, Kyle, Ed.; Boone, Randall, Ed.
This collection of 12 papers addresses the application of various technologies to the education of students with learning disabilities. Also included is a CD-ROM version of the original text, which provides enhancements through digital editing such as hypertext and hypermedia links. The papers included are: (1) "Special Education Technology:…
Kass, Corrine, Ed.
Reported upon is an institute involving 87 participants representing leadership personnel in the field of learning disabilities, held December 3-6, 1969, in Tucson, Arizona. The institute's purpose was to upgrade the leadership personnel through exchange of information on issues in pre- and in-service training programs. Historical background,…
Minimal employable skills, poor work habits, and substance abuse are problems that often result in released female offenders' recidivating within 36 months of their prison release. Recidivism is further compounded when the female offender suffers from a learning disability. Research suggests that correctional education experiences do not address…
This review addresses the characteristics and needs of gifted learning disabled (GLD) and gifted underachieving (GUA) students and provides educational strategies for both groups. A section on the GUA describes these students' unique personal, social, and family characteristics and notes that underachievement is more prevalent among boys than…
Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Zirkel, Perry A.; Danielson, Louis
Specific learning disability (SLD) identification and eligibility practices are evolving and sometimes contentious. This article describes the historical context and current status of the SLD definition, legislation, regulation, and case law related to the identification of students eligible for special education services. The first part traces…
Lyon, Reid; Watson, Bill
A cluster-analysis procedure was used to identify subgroups of children who manifested specific learning disabilities in reading (SLD/R) in terms of performance on a battery of eight language and perceptual tests. Ss included a group of 100 SLD/R children and 50 normal readers (NR)(11- to 12-years-old). (Author)
Hord, Casey; Newton, Jill A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate three elementary mathematics curricula to examine the accessibility for students with learning disabilities (LD) with regards to challenges associated with working memory. We chose to focus on students' experiences when finding the area of composite shapes due to the multiple steps involved for…
Humphries, Thomas W.; Wilson, Anne Keeton
Overreliance on test-based assessment of learning disabilities can produce diagnostic results of questionable validity and prove stigmatizing for the child. An instructional-based model focuses on evaluation of the child's response to teaching. Observation and analysis of the student's reaction yeilds results that are more readily translatable…
Humphries, Thomas W.; Wilson, Anne Keeton
An instructional-based model for evaluating learning disabled students focuses on the child's response to teaching rather than to testing. Observation and analysis of response to regular classroom teaching strategies form the basis of an assessment which yields results that are more readily translatable into practical remedial methods. (Author/CL)
Describes a year-long study of five fifth grade students with learning disabilities with written language deficits that used a specially designed computer program, ROBO-Writer, as a writing tool to assist them in a weekly writing curriculum. Discusses effects on the students' behavior, attitudes, and their written products. (Contains 32…
Tudway, Jeremy A.; Darmoody, Malcolm
Assessment and treatment of adults with learning disabilities who commit sexual offences presents a number of challenges. Much of the professional forensic and psychiatric literature on work with this group concentrates on the development of interventions based on theoretical models of sexual offending originating from the mainstream criminal…
Carlisle, Joanne F.; Andrews, Elizabeth
This study found that mainstreamed fourth- and sixth-grade students with learning disabilities had significant weaknesses on a science curriculum-based assessment relative to nondisabled peers, and they rated themselves and were rated by their teachers more negatively. Mismatches were revealed in the perception of the student and teacher regarding…
Sheridan, Lynnaire; Kotevski, Suzanne
This research examines the learning experience of university students who were tutored by a teacher with quadriplegia mixed type cerebral palsy. It was inspired by Pritchard's [2010. "Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers." "Journal of Social Inclusion" 1 (1): 43-51] argument that the presence of people with a…
Williams, John M.
Learning disabilities are present in 10 percent of the population, and the condition is defined as, "A disorder in basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or use mathematical calculations". In this…
Cole, Emma V.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.
The number of students with learning disabilities (SLD) at postsecondary institutions has tripled over the past three decades and now constitutes about 11% of undergraduate students (Joyce & Rossen, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2013). Research has found that SLD who use accommodations at their postsecondary institution are more…
James, Jessica Everett
Students with specific learning disabilities (SLD), such as emotional disturbances, and speech or language impairment, attending high schools located in the rural Mississippi Delta lack media literacy skills that could impact the student's ability to successfully graduate from high school. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify…
Pennington, Bruce F.
Comprehensively reviews known examples of genetically influenced learning disabilities and speech and language disorders, including familial dyslexia, stuttering, and other speech and language disorders, as well as sex-chromosome anomalies, treated PKU, and minor auto-somal anomalies. (Author/RH)
Payne, Mario D.; Sachs, Rose
Technological solutions have enabled postsecondary students with learning disabilities to compete equally with nondisabled peers in the educational environment. Such solutions have included a variety of educational software, word processing applications, and adaptive technology. Educational software has many benefits over more traditional…
Shevitz, Betty; Weinfeld, Rich; Jeweler, Sue; Barnes-Robinson, Linda
This article describes the Wings Mentor Program in Maryland, a program developed to provide additional support to students with gifts who also have learning disabilities and highly able students who were not succeeding in the classroom. Students realize their creative and intellectual potential when paired with mentors who nurture them. (Contains…
Anderson, C. Wilson, Jr.
The paper describes ways in which parents can help their learning disabled children at home. Suggestions touch upon establishing a set time for evening homework, a consistent place for study, involving fathers in homework, using graph paper to ease arithmetic assignments, considering options for reading assignments, using a duplicate set of books…
Espin, Christine A.; Sindelar, Paul T.
Ninety students in grades six to eight listened to or read written passages and then identified and corrected grammar and syntax errors. Students listening and receiving auditory feedback located more errors than those reading. Learning-disabled students and students matched on reading level identified fewer errors than did students matched on…
Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda
This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused…
Bulgren, Janis A.; Carta, Judith J.
This literature review focuses on methodologies, instruments, and findings from research on the instructional contexts of elementary and secondary students with learning disabilities. The review covers the time that students were engaged in different activities in different settings, interactions between teachers and students, and students'…
This manual reflects the highlights of an urban park study developed and tested over a 6-year period at the Churchill School, an elementary school for children with learning disabilities. This book makes possible an integrated study that develops understandings in natural science and the social studies along with reading, writing, and language…
A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…
Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Schweck, Kelly B.
The Common Core Standards require demonstration of conceptual knowledge of numbers, operations, and relations between mathematical concepts. Supplemental instruction should explicitly guide students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) in these skills. In this article, we illustrate implementation of the concrete-representational-abstract…
Adelman, Kimberly A.; Adelman, Howard S.
The practice of posthumously diagnosing historical figures is discussed. Emphasis is on the unsatisfactory nature of evidence found for those diagnosed as learning-disabled or dyslexic and the possibility of other explanations for identified problems. Posthumous diagnoses of Auguste Rodin, George Patton, Thomas Edison, Woodrow Wilson, and Albert…
Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.
A study involving 244,610 children (ages 6-8) investigated birth risk factors for learning disabilities. Very low birth weight, low 5- minute Apgar score, and low maternal education were associated with highest individual-level risk. Low maternal education, late or no prenatal care, and tobacco use were associated with highest population-level…
This paper describes the once-weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a girl, called Ellie, aged eight at the start of her treatment. Ellie had a learning disability and displayed difficult behaviour at school and at home. In her therapy, Ellie grew in emotional intelligence, more in touch with and able to express her feelings. Her behaviour…
Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen
This paper focusses on the need and benefit of using multimedia applications to cater to the needs of children with learning disabilities. The children with special educational needs found in various schools may face difficulties in acquiring academic skills such as reading, spelling, writing, speaking, understanding, listening, thinking or…
Whang, Paula L.; And Others
Two learning disabled adolescents participated in training sessions designed to improve six social interaction skills (providing and accepting compliments, accepting instruction and criticism from a supervisor, providing constructive criticism, and explaining a problem to a supervisor). Ss increased these skills and generalized them to actual work…
Benson, Nicholas; Newman, Isadore
This article describes how actuarial methods can supplant discrepancy models and augment problem solving and Response to Intervention (RTI) efforts by guiding the process of identifying specific learning disabilities (SLD). Actuarial methods use routinized selection and execution of formulas derived from empirically established relationships to…
Singleton, Sabrina M.; Filce, Hollie Gabler
Research suggests students with learning disabilities often have trouble connecting new and prior knowledge, distinguishing essential and nonessential information, and applying comprehension strategies (DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Vaughn & Edmonds, 2006). Graphic organizers have been suggested as tools educators can use to facilitate critical…
The article outlines six strategies for teaching handwriting to learning disabled elementary students with differing instructional needs. A rationale for the use of each strategy is followed by a step-by-step description of the teaching procedure. Strategy goals include the following: (1) teaching the manuscript alphabet through letter pictures to…
Policies on the inclusion of students with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms have focused attention on how general education teachers perceive these students. Furthermore with specific learning disabilities forming a large group of diverse students, and teachers' attitudes often not changing over the career span, preparing…
Siegel, Linda S.
The accuracy of a risk index, based on reproductive, perinatal, and demographic factors, to predict learning disabilities was tested with full-term and preterm infants (N=156). Socioeconomic status, birth order, and for the preterm group, severity of illness in the perinatal period were the most significant predictors of developmental outcomes.…
Corley, Mary Ann; Taymans, Juliana M.
An emerging theme in professional development for adult literacy program staff over the past decade has been the topic of learning disabilities (LD). As adult educators have come to recognize that the effects of LD can play a significant role in the performance and retention of adult learners, many have sought answers to the following questions:…
The paper focuses on the growth and development of special education for learning disabled children in Chile with particular emphasis on the contribution of child psychiatry and pediatric neurology departments of hospitals and the contribution of universities in training specialists. Initial sections provide a background on primary education in…
Tormanen, Minna R. K.; Takala, Marjatta; Sajaniemi, Nina
This study examined whether audiovisual computer training without linguistic material had a remedial effect on different learning disabilities, like dyslexia and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder). This study applied a pre-test-intervention-post-test design with students (N = 62) between the ages of 7 and 19. The computer training lasted eight weeks…
Behrend, Jean L.
Five primary-grade students identified as learning-disabled benefited from instruction that focused on making sense of mathematics word problems. Examples of student work demonstrate the students' ability to solve a variety of problem types and justify their solutions. (Author/NB)
Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.
The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…
McGregor, Karla K.; Langenfeld, Natalie; Van Horne, Sam; Oleson, Jacob; Anson, Matthew; Jacobson, Wayne
To explore the university experiences of students with learning disabilities (LD), 63,802 responses to the 2014 Student Experience in the Research University Survey were analyzed. Compared to other students, those with self-reported LD (5.96 percent) had difficulty with assignments and had more obstacles caused by nonacademic responsibilities and…
Rourke, Byron P.; Tsatsanis, Katherine D.
This discussion of speech and language development in individuals with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) reviews NLD assets, deficits, and dynamics; the white matter model; manifestations of NLD in neurological dysfunction; psycholinguistic dimensions of NLD in terms of language content, form, and use; developmental considerations in NLD; and…
Rourke, Byron P.; And Others
Presents syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) and model developed to encompass its complex manifestations. Includes history of development of syndrome, types of children in whom its principal features are manifest, hypothesized neurological bases of syndrome, and test of its developmental dimensions. Provides case study and discusses…
Liddell, Glennis A.; Rasmussen, Carmen
The aim of this study was to compare visual and verbal memory in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) using the Children's Memory Scale and to identify the profile of strengths and weaknesses in visual memory abilities. Performance was significantly lower on measures of visual than verbal memory, indicating that children with NLD have…
Comstock, Renee; Kamara, Carol A.
A language/learning disability (LLD) is a disorder that may affect the comprehension and use of spoken or written language as well as nonverbal language, such as eye contact and tone of speech in both adults and children. Most research, treatment, and support resources emphasize childhood LLD, but the problems do not disappear once a person has…
Bellanca, Faye Francesca; Pote, Helen
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression and general learning disabilities (LD) are common difficulties for British primary school children. It has been found that characteristics associated with these difficulties can result in negative attitudes and stigma from other children, causing problems with peer relationships.…
Colbourn, Marlene Jones
A computer based diagnostic system to assist educators in the assessment of learning disabled children aged 8 to 10 years in the area of reading is described and evaluated. The system is intended to guide the diagnosis of reading problems through step by step analysis of available data and requests for additional data. The system provides a…
Ryckman, David B.
Sex differences between 27 learning disabled (LD) girls and 75 LD boys (all elementary school age) were examined on psychological, academic, and cognitive style measures. LD girls were found to be verbally inferior, less capable of abstract thinking, more field dependent, and more impulsive than the boys. (Author/SBH)
Appelget, Jeanne; Matthews, Catherine E.; Hildreth, David P.; Daniel, Michael L.
This article offers a guide to teaching the history of science to students with learning disabilities and provides a lesson template designed to engage students in a specific science event from the past. Activities including hypothesis testing and an historical role-play teach the vocabulary of natural selection and evolution using the landmarked…
Hassan, Abdulhameed S.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.
This study investigated the ability of discriminate variables (perceptual-motor, hyperactivity disorder, neurological and psychological skills) to distinguish between normal (n = 68) and students with learning disabilities (n = 72) in fourth grade. Three instruments were developed: perceptual-motor scale, hyperactivity disorder scale, skills test…
The Internet can be an excellent tool to help people with learning disabilities access relevant and appropriately written information. However, little work has been undertaken to ascertain web design or content preferences for this cohort. This paper examines methods to address this issue. Twenty five participants were presented with three web…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Adolescents becoming formally involved with a juvenile court because of school-related behavior and discipline problems is a phenomenon known as the school-to-prison pipeline. Adolescents with learning disabilities are disproportionately represented within this pipeline. A study was conducted to review the outcomes for a population of youthful…
Bloom, Barbara; Coulter, Karen
Learning disabled adolescents can be helped to make sense of large amounts of material by a systematic study approach that builds on memory strategy. Such a strategy includes building on meaningful associations and recollections and using specific memory aids (such as kinesthetic, visual, and auditory rehearsal). (CL)
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Gischlar, Karen L.
The authors encourage those in the field of school psychology to consider the use of learning disabilities assessment practices in relation to specific American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists ethical codes and in regard to the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association,…
Majsterek, David J.
Intended for teachers of students with learning disabilities, the paper reviews recent trends in research. The importance and the difficulty of keeping up with new developments in the field are noted. Research and theoretical considerations are presented for the following topic areas: definition and identification difficulties (including,…
Cooper, Patricia S.
A total of 55 learning-disabled children ages 8 to 13 years completed a self-esteem measure, and photographs of their faces were rated for attractiveness by adults and peers. Found relationships between children's facial attractiveness and self-esteem and between adult and peer ratings of facial attractiveness. Found no gender differences in…
Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee
Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…
Obrzut, John E.; Mahoney, Emery B.
Dichotic listening (DL) techniques have been used extensively as a non-invasive procedure to assess language lateralization among children with and without learning disabilities (LD), and with individuals who have other auditory system related brain disorders. Results of studies using DL have indicated that language is lateralized in children with…
Chandler, Harry N.; Jones, Karen
The article posits that emotionally disturbed (ED) children routinely are diagnosed as learning disabled (LD), a situation deriving from diagnostic problems and inadequacies of definitions. Among suggestions made for special educators are knowing ED and LD definitions, and becoming assertive as evaluation team members. (MC)
Williams, Peter; Hennig, Christian
Much relevant internet-mediated information is inaccessible to people with learning disabilities because of difficulties in navigating the web. This paper reports on the methods undertaken to determine how information can be optimally presented for this cohort. Qualitative work is outlined where attributes relating to site layout affecting…
Lambie, Glenn W.; Milsom, Amy
Students diagnosed with learning disabilities experience many challenges that school counselors may address through narrative therapy. Narrative therapy is a postmodern, social constructionist approach based on the theoretical construct that individuals create their notions of truth and meaning of life through interpretive stories. This article…
Dinero, Thomas E.; And Others
The responses on the Slingerland Screening Tests for identifying children with specific learning disabilities of 29 learning disabled and 11 nondisabled children in Grade 1 distinguished the two groups, except for copying (near vision). Copying (far vision) and auditory, visual, and kinesthetic perception and discrimination together were the…
Smith, Sally L.
Improve school success for students who have learning disabilities and ADHD with "Academic Clubs," the proven learning-by-doing approach presented in this energizing guidebook. Sally Smith--the highly respected founder of the Lab Schools, where 95% of students with learning problems go on to college--shows elementary school educators how to…
Steele, Sara C.; Watkins, Ruth V.
This study investigated whether children with language learning disability (LLD) differed from typically-developing peers in their ability to learn meanings of novel words presented during reading. Fifteen 9-11-year-old children with LLD and 15 typically-developing peers read four passages containing 20 nonsense words. Word learning was assessed…
Mendez, Laura; Lacasa, Pilar; Matusov, Eugene
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a sociocultural approach to studying disability in educational contexts grounded in the cultural-historical and activity theory approaches. From the sociocultural viewpoint, disability is regarded as being located in particular types of activity systems and learning cultures rather than within an…
Taylor, Donald M.
The purpose of this intrinsic case study was to examine the impact that interactions with parents of children with disabilities might have on 10 graduate students (6 men and 4 women) between the ages of 22 and 32 years (M = 26.7 years, SD = 3.5) enrolled in a 3-week intensive music education course. Participants attended the course, 5 days a week,…
National Center for Learning Disabilities, Inc., New York, NY.
Four videocassettes provide the presentations and discussion of four panels from a 1994 summit on the nation's responsibility in relation to individuals with learning disabilities. Each panel examined issues of research, public policy and legislation, good practices, and consumer interest within its area of concentration. The first panel was on…
Smith, Elizabeth I.
Described are perceptual motor activities in the areas of coordination, agility, strength, balance, and endurance for use with learning disabled children. Provided are a rationale for movement education and definitions of 10 terms such as laterality and endurance. A sequence of activities is provided for the following skills: ball bouncing, rope…
Richman, Lynn C; Wood, Kevin M
This study examined 30 children with hyperlexic reading patterns and average intelligence to determine if established learning disability subtypes could be applied to these children with hyperlexia. Two groups emerged. One type showed language learning disorder patterns with good visual memory. This group also showed a high percentage of phonetic word errors. A second hyperlexic group showed signs of nonverbal learning disorder with visual spatial deficits and impaired visual memory. This latter subgroup showed few phonetic errors with more sight word errors. These findings suggest subtypes of high functioning hyperlexia, one showing language deficits characteristic of dysphasia and one showing patterns similar to visual spatial dyslexia.
Billard, C; de Villèle, A; Sallée, A-S; Delteil-Pinton, F
Inserm French collective expert's report describes sensory disorders screening. However, the causality link with learning disorders remains questionable. In auditory disorders, there are high-level proof recommendations: early and intensive treatment improves language development, at least partially. For visual disorders, consensus conferences recognize their high frequency in learning disorders but there is no proof of a direct causality link. Currently, in learning disorders, orthoptic treatment is not recommended as a specific therapy. In France, despite medical ignorance about orthoptic assessment, absence of reference values and lack of therapy benefits evaluation, orthoptic treatment is usually prescribed, without any objective criteria. This article makes a literature review concerning the link between learning and sensory disorders. It also describes a typical orthoptic assessment with vision and optic musculature evaluation, and reports its results in a prospective comparative study in three populations (controls, dyslexic and Developmental Coordination Disorders [DCD] children). Strabismus or binocular vision disorders are frequent in DCD. Combined ocular motor function is almost constantly disturbed in DCD (90 %), whereas 34 % of dyslexic children and only 13 % of controls are concerned. Visual disorders are therefore present in learning disorders but also in normal population. Orthoptic assessment results must be interpreted in a multidisciplinary evaluation context.
Orr, Ann C.; Hammig, Sara Bachman
One out of every 11 postsecondary undergraduates report having a disability, and students with learning disabilities are the largest and fastest growing subgroup of this population. Although faculty are becoming more comfortable with providing students with learning disabilities accommodations as mandated by federal law, many instructors are using…
Nganji, Julius T.; Brayshaw, Mike; Tompsett, Brian
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how personalisation of learning resources and services can be achieved for students with and without disabilities, particularly responding to the needs of those with multiple disabilities in e-learning systems. The paper aims to introduce ONTODAPS, the Ontology-Driven Disability-Aware Personalised…
Keenan, Walter R.; Shaw, Stan F.
The legal basis for serving students with learning disabilities at the K-12 level is predominantly derived from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This federal law provides for substantive education support for students with learning disabilities through an Individualized Educational Program (IEP). However, because the IDEA…
Chow, Diana; Skuy, Mervyn
Compares performance of children (N=19) with nonverbal language disabilities to a group of children (N=16) with language learning disabilities using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). As hypothesized, children with nonverbal learning disabilities were found to have significantly higher simultaneous successive processing scores.…
This paper is about mothering, young learning disabled people, their sexualised and relationship lives and normalisation--not through the lens of the disabled person, but via a mothers perspective and theoretical discussion. As a mother who has a learning disabled daughter, a feminist and an academic my own mothering experience, my Ph.D. research…
Zera, D A
A dilemma exists regarding the interpretation of learning disabilities. A self-organizing systems (SOS) paradigm suggests widespread, diffuse outcomes, whereas a specific learning disability concept suggests more localized dysfunction. There may be very good reason to doubt the veridicality of the concept of a specific learning disability, not because the construct of learning disabilities itself is a frivolous concept, as some have held, but because the biological or neurological events that underlie a learning disability do not remain focal and constrained only to specific dysfunction. It is important to know whether an identified learning disability remains contained or whether processing disorders might be found in other areas. The assessment profiles of school-age children identified with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), assumed to have primarily right-hemispheric brain dysfunctions, and children with language-based learning disabilities (LLD), assumed to have primarily left-hemispheric brain dysfunctions, were examined to explore learning disabilities using an SOS paradigm. The pilot study reported here is used as an exemplar of how a self-organizing systems paradigm is conceptualized. Although a more comprehensive study is needed to confirm the data, this exemplar suggests that overflow into areas not typically associated with each disability subtype may occur. Concerns regarding ways of determining discrepancy for diagnostic purposes are noted, and remediation strategies designed for specific disabilities are questioned.
Much of what is communicated in the classroom is through nonverbal means. Sending appropriate nonverbal signals, as well as recognizing and interpreting the nonverbal signals of others, are essential features of the learning process. Students' abilities to encode and decode nonverbal communication have the potential to affect all aspects of their…
Moyer, Betsy G.
Described is a music program for students with reading learning disabilites. It is explained that the program was designed to teach fundamental music skills, to teach visual/motor and auditory skills through music activities, and to evaluate the effect of music skill development on language reading skills. The daily routine of music exercises,…