Canino, Frank J.
The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)
McGrady, Harold J.
Presented at the ASHA-AMA 12th Annual Pre-Convention Session on School Health (Chicago, June 21, 1970), the paper discusses children who have a specific learning disability. Terminology is considered and specific learning disability defined. Attention is given to how the learning disabled child is different, the significance of statistical…
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Hill, John W.
Unrecognized learning disabilities in adulthood can also be viewed as concepts fundamental to change. These disabilities may include: (1) not being able to make appropriate choices and decisions; (2) not utilizing strategies such as checking things out with people, and monitoring one's own performance; (3) not being able to transfer learning from…
Sittiprapaporn, Wichian, Ed.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner. Depending on the type and severity of the disability, interventions may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are…
McCarthy, James J.; McCarthy, Joan F.
An attempt to collate basic knowledge concerning learning disabilities, the text discusses the background and definition of learning disabilities, and its identification, etiology, and epidemiology. Guidelines for diagnostic evaluation are presented as are approaches from perceptual motor, developmental, visual, neurophysiological, linguistic, and…
The cognitive approach to education is briefly summarized, and its implications for learning disabilities considered. The approach, which includes the genetic epistemology espoused by J. Piaget and information processing theory, proposes the importance of active involvement and control processes. (CL)
Klassen, Robert M.; Lemon, Kelly; Jahnsen, Diana; Moro, Thomas
This paper explores some of the implications of moving from a traditional discrepancy model of learning disability (LD) to the low achievement model of LD proposed by Siegel and Ladyman in the British Columbia Review of Special Education (2000). We apply two variations of each of the two models of LD definition?the existing discrepancy model and…
Boyle, Joseph R.
Students with learning disabilities lack effective note-taking skills for a variety of reasons. Despite the important role that notes play in helping students to understand lecture content information and serving as documents for later review, many students with learning disabilities are simply not effective note-takers. Many of these students…
Covington, Linda Eastwick
The heterogeneous nature of learning disabilities has led to confusion regarding their definition and their intervention. Although the law protects adults with learning disabilities both in the workplace and classroom, it provides only a broad definition that has been subject to many interpretations. There is a paucity of longitudinal research on…
Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.
The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…
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Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2012
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) affirms that the construct of learning disabilities represents a valid, unique, and heterogeneous group of disorders, and that recognition of this construct is essential for sound policy and practice. An extensive body of scientific research on learning disabilities continues to support…
Chapman, Melanie; Gledhill, Paul; Jones, Phillip; Burton, Mark; Soni, Saroj
This paper describes the findings of a survey into prescribing of psychotropic medication with adults with learning disabilities in a British city. A self-completion questionnaire was sent to staff in dispersed housing and community learning disability teams to gather information about the number of people prescribed psychoactive medication, the…
Sundheim, Suzanne T P V; Voeller, Kytja K S
This article reviews the relationship between different learning disabilities, language disorders, and the psychiatric disorders that are commonly associated with learning disabilities and language disorder: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders, depression, and conduct or antisocial personality disorder. The complex associations between language disorders and specific learning disabilities--dyslexia, nonverbal learning disorder, dyscalculia--and the various psychiatric disorders are discussed. Clinical vignettes are presented to highlight the impact of these disorders on a child's social and psychological development and the importance of early recognition and treatment. PMID:15559896
Watson, Silvana M. R.; Gable, Robert A.
In this article, we provide an overview of current knowledge on the underlying cognitive deficits associated with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). We highlight difficulties surrounding the identification of MLD that include inconsistency in defining MLD, comorbidity with other disabilities, problems associated with assessment tools and…
Hofmeister, Alan M.; Lubke, Margaret
An overview of expert systems technology is presented with emphasis on its current and potential applications to the field of learning disabilities. Characteristics of some expert systems, including reasoning procedures, knowledge base content, and rationale and conclusions, are reviewed. Present applications in the diagnosis of learning problems…
Humes, Charles W.
Examined whether learning-disabled high school students (n=141) had particular personality configuration on Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), whether they had particular vocational interest on Self-Directed Search (SDS) and whether there was relationship between MBTI and SDS scores. On MBTI, students placed predominantly along…
Lindstrom, Jennifer H.
The inclusion of students with learning disabilities (LD) in assessment is deemed critical to improve the quality of educational opportunities for these students and to provide meaningful and useful information about student performance. Mandated inclusion and accountability for progress raise many interesting questions regarding how to fairly,…
Grant, Kevin T.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) are part of the largest and most rapidly expanding population of college students (Burgstahler & Moore, 2009; Garrison-Wade & Lehmann, 2009; Foley 2006; Chew, Jensen, & Rosen, 2009; Thomas, 2000). Current estimations show approximately one and a half million college students have a documented…
Blasi, Joyce F.
Discussed are characteristics of criterion referenced reading tests for use with learning disabled (LD) children, and analyzed are the Basic Educational Skills Inventory (BESI), the Prescriptive Reading Inventory (PRI), and the Cooper-McGuire Diagnostic Work-Analysis Test (CooperMcGuire). Criterion referenced tests are defined; and problems in…
Hock, Michael F.
Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level.…
Cramer, Shirley C., Ed.; Ellis, William, Ed.
This book contains papers on learning disabilities based on presentations made at the "Summit on Learning Disabilities: A National Responsibility," held in September 1994. The first section provides an overview and includes "The State of Research" (G. Reid Lyon). The second section focuses on education and includes: "Preventing Early Reading…
Shepard, Lorrie A.
The assessment and diagnosis of learning disabilities (LD) in the school is problematic. How do educators determine who is learning disabled? What practices are recommended? The main focus of the paper is on specific, relatively technical points that influence the validity of assessment. Since technical concerns are only one of the factors…
Hynd, George W.; Obrzut, John E.
Recent research employing more direct measures of central functional asymmetry suggests that a reconceptualization of the notion of cerebral dominance may be in order. A rationale for this reconceptualization is provided and the implications for children with learning disorders is discussed. (Author)
O'Brien, Gregory; Pearson, Joanne
In this article a short overview is given of the relationship between autism and learning disability. Autism exists with any level of intelligence, but many individuals with autism suffer also from learning disability. Although both disorders show overlap in some behaviours they are different in many aspects. Are they distinct syndromes which influence each other, or do they belong to a broad spectrum of a condition?
Kulkarni, M; Kalantre, S; Upadhye, S; Karande, S; Ahuja, S
Learning disabilities (LD) is one of the important causes of poor academic performance in school going children. Learning disabilities are developmental disorders that usually manifest during the period of normal education. These disabilities create a significant gap between the true potential and day to day performance of an individual. Dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia denote the problem related to reading, writing and mathematics. Perinatal problems are certain neurological conditions, known to be associated with LD; however, genetic predisposition seems to be the most probable etiological factors. Evaluation of a child suspected to be having LD consists of medical examination, vision and hearing test analysis of school performance. The psycho-behaviour assessment and education testing are essential in the process of diagnosis. The experienced persons in the field of LD should interpret the results of such tests. With Individualized Remedial Education Plan (IEP) most children learn to cope up with disability and may get integrated in a regular steam. PMID:11450386
Saenz, Tracy Johnson
The current study was an exploratory study to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and IQ scores in a research sample of students with learning disabilities. Emotional intelligence (EI) may provide information about non-intellective factors in the achievement and adjustment of students with learning disabilities. The…
Hock, Michael F
Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level. In addition, large numbers of adults perform at the lowest skill levels on quantitative tasks. Clearly, significant instructional challenges exist for adults who struggle with literacy issues, and those challenges can be greater for adults with LD. In this article, the literature on adults with LD is reviewed, and evidenced-based instructional practices that significantly narrow the literacy achievement gap for this population are identified. Primary attention is given to instructional factors that have been shown to affect literacy outcomes for adults with LD. These factors include the use of explicit instruction, instructional technology, and intensive tutoring in skills and strategies embedded in authentic contexts.
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; And Others
This paper reviews ongoing research designed to specify the cognitive, behavioral, and neuroanatomical phenotypes of specific genetic etiologies of learning disability. The genetic disorders at the focus of the research include reading disability, neurofibromatosis type 1, Tourette syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. Implications for identifying…
Briney, Marilou S.; Satcher, Jamie
This paper discusses the relationship between students with learning disabilities and delinquency and the implications for the vocational rehabilitation process. Learning disabilities and juvenile delinquency are defined to establish a theoretical and conceptual framework. Four hypotheses that have been proposed to explain why individuals with…
Kavale, Kenneth A.; Forness, Steven R.
This analysis of the politics of learning disabilities finds that the balance between political and scientific aspects of learning disabilities has been disturbed, with political aspects being overly influential. Discussed in detail are the scientific side of learning disabilities, politics as advocacy, politics as ideology (especially Marxism),…
Smith, Jill; Diller, Howard
This book discusses the poor self-image of children with learning disabilities, reviews the history of identifying and serving children with learning disabilities, and addresses the need to serve children who are failing in school but do not qualify as having a learning disability. The book emphasizes the role and responsibility of the school for…
This review reports recent findings about diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, genetics, neuropsychological underpinnings, neuroanatomy, etiology, outcome, and treatment for the following: pervasive developmental disorder, the developmental language disorders, dyslexia, and dyscalculia. In addition, recent findings about neurological correlates, medical causes, and gender effects of learning disabilities are discussed. PMID:8019665
This collection of articles on gifted learning disabled students begins with an explanation of the philosophy of the Center for Talented Youth at Johns Hopkins University (Maryland), a list of characteristics of gifted disabled students, and three definitions of learning disabilities. The following papers are then provided: "Gifted but Learning…
Bacon, Ansley; Walker, Hill M.; Schwartz, Allen A.; O'Hara, David M.; Calkins, Carl; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
The public's increasing demands for greater accountability and a better return on investment from research supported by federal funding requires that organizations studying and solving problems in areas like health, education, disability, and child mental health document the impact of their work. Human service and educational professionals agree…
Fore, Cecil, III; Riser, Susan; Boon, Richard
Cooperative learning is an instructional model that draws extensively on contributions of multiple theorists, including Piaget, Vygotsky, Carroll and other researchers. Many different cooperative learning arrangements have been developed and researched. The most extensively researched and evaluated cooperative learning arrangements is by Robert…
... provides the most current information on research, practice, theory, issues, and trends to broaden understanding and improve quality of life. Learn More If you are a parent or teacher of a child with a learning disability – or have learning disabilities yourself – you are ...
Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is described as a subtype of specific learning disability where the source of the disability is a difficulty in processing nonverbal information. The child with NLD presents with problems in visual, spatial, and tactile perception but with strengths in rote verbal skills. Traditionally, these children were recognized by their difficulties in arithmetic which presented a stark contrast with their strengths in spelling and decoding text. They also exhibited a split between their verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores with the VIQ being significantly higher than PIQ. Over time, however, diagnostic criteria have evolved and the broadened definition of the NLD syndrome has led many to question the utility and uniqueness of the NLD diagnosis. In addition, shifting diagnostic standards have made research results difficult to replicate. In short, the research to date leaves many unanswered questions about (1) the definition of the NLD syndrome, (2) the pervasiveness of the academic, social and psychopathological difficulties, (3) the source of the NLD syndrome, and (4) the degree to which it overlaps with other conditions. This chapter outlines a brief history of the NLD syndrome, how it is currently conceptualized, and some of the current debate about the unanswered questions above. PMID:23622171
Cook, L D
The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and a specific program described.
Higbee, Jeanne L.; And Others
Information on types of learning disabilities (i.e. dyslexia and dyscalculia) is presented to help professionals in the field of higher education learn about how to identify learning disabled (LD) students, appropriate accommodations and modifications, special services, resources for referral, policy implications, and legal issues. Due to improved…
Dudley-Marling, Curtis C.; And Others
A literature review reveals that learning disabled children are more likely than normal achievers to attribute successes, but not failures, to external factors. The implications of locus of control for the field of learning disabilities are discussed in terms of its relation to academic achievement, learned helplessness, and remediation programs.…
Spalding, Norma V.
Information in this paper is presented to help college instructors identify and assist learning disabled (LD) students. The paper first explains what learning disabilities are, emphasizing that while LD students exhibit a discrepancy between apparent learning ability and actual academic achievement, they are not mentally retarded or emotionally…
Watson, Silvana M. R.; Gable, Robert A.; Gear, Sabra B.; Hughes, Kimberly C.
Reading comprehension is a complex skill that places significant demands on students, beginning with elementary school and continuing through the secondary grades. In this article, we provide an overview of possible factors associated with problems in reading comprehension among secondary students with learning disabilities. Discussion underscores…
Crystal, Ralph M., Comp.
The report covers issues in the rehabilitation of persons with learning disabilities (LD). Issues raised in an interdisciplinary conference on the rehabilitation needs of adolescents and adults with LD are identified for four areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): (1) definition, assessment, and service delivery (characteristics of effective…
Star, Nonnie; Shadoff, Sander
This guide is designed to assist people with learning disabilities to recognize their disabilities and the connection between learning disabilities and substance abuse. It begins by defining learning disabilities and providing a self-test checklist for common signs and symptoms of learning disabilities. Difficulties with organization, memory,…
Currie, Paula S.; Wadlington, Elizabeth M.
This book is designed to help clinicians and teachers work more effectively with people with learning disabilities and their families. Chapter 1 provides an overview of learning disabilities. It presents commonly accepted medical and educational definitions, prevalence figures, and possible etiological explanations for various disorders. Chapter 2…
Mid-South Regional Resource Center, Lexington, KY.
This handbook was developed as a resource on learning disabilities (LD) for North Carolina educators. The first section covers guidelines for identifying, diagnosing, and developing services for LD students. The handbook then provides an overview of effective practices for teaching students with learning disabilities and some ideas for structuring…
Barga, N K
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that have contributed to the success of students with learning disabilities (LD) in schools and to explore how these students manage their disabilities from kindergarten through college. The study followed a qualitative research methodology consisting of reviewing academic records and conducting interviews and classroom observations over a 6-month period. The subjects were 9 students with learning disabilities enrolled in a public 4-year university. It was found that the students experienced labeling, stigmatization, and gatekeeping throughout their school years. Furthermore, the students employed a variety of positive and negative coping techniques in an effort to successfully manage their disabilities in school. Positive coping techniques included relying on benefactors, implementing self-improvement techniques, and utilizing particular strategies and management skills to assist with academics. Negative coping techniques were described as "passing" and created tension for the students. Students employed passing techniques to avoid disclosure of their disability and to make it through school. The results of this study have significant implications for school administrators and university educators who provide services for students with LD under current federal laws, and further underscore the need for such students to self-advocate. PMID:8763556
This current response to a reprinted 1968 article by Ray Barsch (EC 602 662) focuses on legal aspects of learning disabilities, especially problems in implementing IDEA (the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and continuing controversies concerning definition, evaluation, instructional intervention, and placement or service delivery…
Sight-Saving Review, 1971
A joint organizational statement on vision and therapy for learning disabilities and dyslexia is presented by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, and the American Association of Ophthalmology. (CB)
Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology
Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses
Popp, Rita Ann
The author describes lessons provided for regular class elementary students to help them understand disabilities and disabled persons. Objectives, materials needed, and activities are outlined for six lessons focusing on the following topics: individual differences, wheelchairs; devices that help people walk; amputation, artificial limbs, and…
Summarizes key themes described in the learning organization literature and discusses ways in which each theme illuminates how schools might be better organized to deliver services for students with disabilities. Addresses organizational learning, knowledge, authentic communication, vision, steward leadership, systems perspective, and…
Stewart, Donald W.
Many postsecondary students who request academic accommodations for learning disabilities actually show no documentable learning disability but a discrepancy between their intellectual ability and their achievement aspirations (i.e., a "yearning disability") rather than a discrepancy between their ability and achievement (i.e., a learning…
Donfrancesco, Renato; Mugnaini, Daniele; Dell'Uomo, Andrea
Many studies on cognitive impulsivity in learning disabled children have been criticized for their methodological limitations, and they have not dealt with the different types of learning disability. The aim of this study was to overcome these limitations and to assess if there was a significant cognitive impulsivity in reading disorder and/or spelling disorder by using the 20-item Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFF20). A total of 110 children (second through eighth grades) were recruited from a cohort of children assessed for the first time in a National Health clinic specialized in the study of specific learning disabilities. In all, 30 dyslexic children and 25 children with spelling disorder (all children without an ADHD comorbidity) were compared with 55 children of a control group on the MMF20 (accuracy and time latency). Results showed that the children with reading disorder were less accurate than the children with spelling disability (p<0.05). Both these groups performed less accurately than the control group. Subjects with dyslexia were faster than both the other groups in response time (p<0.05), clearly showing a significantly higher cognitive impulsivity than the other groups. Hence, data seem to confirm the idea that, similar to ADHD children, dyslexic children have impaired frontal/prefrontal functions. Clinical and treatment implications are discussed. PMID:15981139
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat
This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…
Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan
The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)
Gold, Sandra; Sherry, Lee
A review of research on the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant women supports the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning about the possible negative effects (learning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional liability) of children. (Author/CL)
Rocky Mountain Educational Lab., Inc., Greeley, CO.
The bibliography contains a variety of subject matter focusing on, but not necessarily limited to, the topic of learning disabilities. Included are 351 articles dating from 1959 to 1968, 148 books ranging from 1926 to 1968, 60 booklets from 1956 to 1968, 37 testing materials dating from 1955 to 1967, 42 catalogs from 1967 to 1968, 36 video tapes,…
Dowdy, Carol A.; And Others
This paper describes the definitions, diagnostic criteria, and eligibility criteria used by vocational rehabilitation agencies in serving adults with learning disabilities. The paper emphasizes that the focus of all vocational rehabilitation services is on employment and that counseling is at the core of the service program for persons with…
Kappelman, Murray M.
The author advocates an interdisciplinary team approach to diagnosis and prescription for the elementary school learning disabled (LD) child. Described is a 5-year project, funded under Title VI, operating within 11-18 elementary schools surrounding the University of Maryland Hospital. Biweekly services are offered to participating schools by a…
Kenyon, Elinor; Beail, Nigel; Jackson, Tom
Studies have focused on the experience of diagnosis from the perspectives of parents of children with learning disabilities, but there has been limited methodologically rigorous investigation into the experience for the person themselves. Eight participants were recruited from a range of different backgrounds. Interviews were analysed using…
The author reviews developments in the field of learning disabilities (LD). She traces the emergence of three models or perspectives of the causes and cures of LD: the psychological process model, the behavioral model, and the holistic model, which the author suggests is the model for the 1990's. Trends leading to acceptance of each model are…
Heisler, Alice B.
Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)
Cook, Louisa D.
The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and the summer residential program at Goddard College described. (Author)
Cook, L D
The psychosocial difficulties that usually accompany learning disabilities are examined from a framework of developmental theory, particularly that of Erik Erikson. The implications of this perspective for treatment of adolescents with learning problems is discussed, and a specific program described. PMID:525512
Leko, Melinda M.; Griffin, Cynthia C.
In a 1986 study published in the "Learning Disability Quarterly," Simmons and Kame'enui examined information found in popular periodicals about learning disabilities (LD) in an effort to understand what people learn about LD from these high-readership sources. After more than 20 years, advances in technology have brought significant changes to how…
Could learning disability nurses hold the key to a new direction of care and leadership? Jim Blair, writing in Learning Disability Practice, says there must be a response to the inquiry into premature deaths of people with learning disabilities. One way for a new form of leadership could be band 8 nurses practising at consultant level. With their experiences of caring for people with learning disabilities, nurse consultants can shape service delivery and pathways to enhance quality of care, reduce poor practices and avoidable deaths. PMID:27380709
Silver, Cheryl H; Ruff, Ronald M; Iverson, Grant L; Barth, Jeffrey T; Broshek, Donna K; Bush, Shane S; Koffler, Sandra P; Reynolds, Cecil R
A learning disability (LD) is a neurobiological disorder that presents as a serious difficulty with reading, arithmetic, and/or written expression that is unexpected, given the individual's intellectual ability. A learning disability is not an emotional disorder nor is it caused by an emotional disorder. If inadequately or improperly evaluated, a learning disability has the potential to impact an individual's functioning adversely and produce functional impairment in multiple life domains. When a learning disability is suspected, an evaluation of neuropsychological abilities is necessary to determine the source of the difficulty as well as the areas of neurocognitive strength that can serve as a foundation for compensatory strategies and treatment options.
Testa, Renée; Pantelis, Christos; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Our objective was to describe the prevalence, comorbidity, and neuropsychological profiles of children with hoarding and learning disabilities. From 61 children with learning disabilities, 16.4% exhibited hoarding as a major clinical issue. Although children with learning disabilities and hoarding displayed greater rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (30%) as compared to those with learning disabilities without hoarding (5.9%), the majority of patients belonging to the former group did not display obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. When learning disability patients with hoarding were compared to age-, sex-, and IQ-matched learning disability subjects without hoarding, hoarders exhibited a slower learning curve on word list-learning task. In conclusion, salient hoarding behaviors were found to be relatively common in a sample of children with learning disabilities and not necessarily associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, supporting its nosological independence. It is unclear whether underlying cognitive features may play a major role in the development of hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, Baltimore, MD.
The paper presents the position of the National Joint Commission on Learning Disabilities regarding the needs of adults with learning disabilities (LD). Among problems cited are lack of adequate assessment procedures for the population along with inadequate awareness of the social and emotional problems facing adults with LD. Five major…
Rivera, Diane Pedrotty, Ed.
This book addresses teaching mathematics to students with learning disabilities, including characteristics and assessment of mathematics learning disabilities, mathematics programming and interventions, and teacher preparation. Chapters include: (1) "Mathematics Education and Students with Learning Disabilities: Instruction" (Diane Pedrotty…
Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…
Bonnet, Kenneth A.
The mechanisms of both language-based and non-language-based learning disabilities are presented within the framework of central nervous system development and the compromises to that development that arise from genetic, hormonal, antibody, medication, and postnatal compromises. Also reviewed is the need for a taxonomy of learning disabilities.…
Patton, James R., Ed.; Polloway, Edward A., Ed.
This collection of 13 essays focuses on the many challenges that adults with learning disabilities face in educational, work, and social settings. The essays are: (1) "Adults with Learning Disabilities: An Emerging Area of Professional Interest and Public Attention" (James R. Patton and Edward A. Polloway); (2) "Adult Development Theories: An…
Green, Ravonne A.
This article describes the characteristics of patrons with learning disabilities (LD) and how these characteristics might affect library use. The lack of services for college patrons who have learning disabilities (LD) in this decade is much like the lack of adequate and appropriate services for high school patrons with LD in previous decades. The…
Brewer, Vickie R.; Moore, Bartlett D., III; Hiscock, Merrill
This study investigated the incidence of learning disabilities in 105 children (ages 6-18) with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1). Results found that nearly 70% of the subjects were academically deficient and 42% met the criteria for learning disabilities. A low incidence of visuospatial-constructional deficits was also found. (Author/CR)
Brainard, Suzanne Gage, Ed.
Presented are eight author contributed papers on research needs in the neuropsychological, socio-environmental, and educational aspects of learning disabilities. Issues focused on in the papers and conference include the definition of learning disabilities, the role of screening in prevention or remediation, and whether curriculum should focus on…
Included in the training kit for teachers in the area of learning disabilities are materials developed by Project Lighthouse for experimental field usage to test the materials. The problem of educating children with learning disabilities is summarized, as is Piaget's model of logical activity. The major divisions of the text then deal with the…
Minskoff, Esther H.; And Others
Employers (N=326) from six states were surveyed about their attitudes toward hiring the handicapped in general and the learning disabled in particular. While employers were conditionally willing to make special allowances for handicapped workers, only about one-half stated they would hire learning disabled workers. (Author/JW)
... of that disability. Children being taught in a second language that they are learning sometimes act in ways that are similar to ... account whether a student is bilingual or a second language learner. Below are some common learning disabilities and the signs associated with them: Dyslexia ...
Flexibility and creativity are essential skills for aiding learning-disabled students. In addition, specialized knowledge of specific learning disabilities is essential and will enhance the overall skills of the counselor. The counselor's personal warmth, empathy, and understanding will enhance relationships with the students as well as their…
Fletcher, Jack M.; Lyon, G. Reid; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Barnes, Marcia A.
Evidence based and comprehensive, this important work offers a new approach to understanding and intervening with students with learning disabilities. The authors--leading experts in neuropsychology and special education--present a unique model of learning disabilities that integrates the cognitive, neural, genetic, and contextual factors…
Loewenstein, Andrea Freud
Various kinds of learning disabilities confronted by Andrea Loewenstein in her school days are mentioned. These days there are learning disabilities of various kinds, though they are reserved for middle-class children, special provisions involving extra time and help are mandated.
Pihl, R. O.; Parkes, M.
Hair samples from 31 learning disabled and 22 normal children were analyzed. Significant group differences were determined and a discriminant function was computed which separated the groups with 98 percent accuracy. Elevated lead and cadmium content in the learning disabled group is viewed as being of particular importance. (Author/SL)
Grey House Publishing, 2010
Published for over a decade, this directory continues to be a successful, sought-after resource, providing valuable information to professionals, families, and individuals in the learning disabilities community. Supported by the National Center for Learning Disabilities, this 2011 edition brings together the most up-to-date information on LD…
David, Karin, Ed.
Six booklets are designed to assist special educators, principals, teachers and parents to find information on how learning disabled and other handicapped children can be placed and taught in the least restrictive environment. Volume I is a catalog of books, articles, references, programs, and projects on mainstreaming and learning disabilities.…
Bender, William N., Ed.
This book is written to assist the reader in understanding current thinking in the field of learning disabilities (LD), as well as current practices in that field. Part I describes the characteristics typically associated with LD, and includes the following chapters: "Neurological Basis of Learning Disabilities" (Richard M. Marshall and George W.…
Young, Bonnie J.; Staebler, Bonnie L.
Offers information to assist community college practitioners in meeting the needs of learning disabled students. Reviews definitions of learning disabled, identifies the services that should be provided (e.g., assessment, tutoring, advocacy, advising, career counseling, and social skills training), and lists available information sources. (DMM)
Woods, Paula A.; And Others
Conducted survey of state universities (N=13) offering comprehensive services for learning-disabled college students to determine learning disability program characteristics. Found most institutions offered basic support services but of varying quality. Found respondent inconsistencies in identification, assessment, and diagnosis of learning…
Fabian, Judith J.; Jacobs, Ursula W.
The Canter Background Interference Procedure of the Bender Gestalt Test and the Quick Neurological Screening Test were found to discriminate neurological/organic signs in 23 adolescent learning disabled students. Methodological problems, research needs, and implications for the use of these tests are discussed. (Author)
Tagg, Lisa; Kenny, Gerard
Parents who have learning difficulties pose profound questions to the philosophy and practice of family nursing. Failure to recognise how care delivery needs to change in the context of parents with a learning disability can perpetuate discrimination and inequalities for adults and their children. In this paper we explore the neglected topic of adults who have learning disabilities and the problems they face when they become parents. We examine the issue of the rights of adults with learning disabilities and illustrate that when these rights are not upheld they increase the vulnerability of the adults and their children. The implications of these issues are highlighted in the context of children's nursing practice. PMID:16544798
Willis, Diane S.
Changes in the living circumstances of people with learning disabilities have seen responsibility for their health become the provenance of paid-and family-carers. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with three family-carers and ten paid-carers. Findings revealed that the role of these carers was undefined, leading to difficulty in…
Ho, Fuk-chuen; Siegel, Linda
This paper consists of three studies. The first study aimed to identify sub-types of students with learning disabilities in reading. Based on the dual-route model of reading, words may be read using either a lexical (words are recognized as wholes) or a sub-lexical (words are recognized through grapheme-phoneme correspondence) procedure. Castles…
Dexter, Douglas D.; Park, Youn J.; Hughes, Charles A.
This article presents a meta-analysis of experimental and quasi-experimental studies in which intermediate and secondary students with learning disabilities were taught science content through the use of graphic organizers (GOs). Following an exhaustive search for studies meeting specified selection criteria, 23 standardized mean effect sizes were…
Ortiz, Alba A., Ed.; Polyzoi, Eleoussa, Ed.
An exploratory and descriptive study is reviewed which examined the identification and placement of 334 limited English proficient Hispanic students (grades 2-5) in learning disability programs. Ss' eligibility folders were examined to determine why they had been referred initially, how they were assessed, and to document the initial placement…
Gittins, Deborah; Rose, Nikki
An audit was carried out to gain an overview of the profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) population in a local health trust to inform current and future service provision. An overview of the issues faced in developing clear defining criteria is presented. Published definitions of PMLD were used to identify clients from data held on…
Sparks, Richard L.
Conventional wisdom in education has suggested that students who are classified as learning disabled (LD) will exhibit inordinate difficulties learning a foreign language (FL). Even when not explicitly stated, the notion that those classified as LD have a disability for FL learning is implied. However, while beliefs about this purported disability…
Scott-Little, Catherine; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Frelow, Victoria Stebbins; Reid, Jeanne
Early learning guidelines (ELGs)--documents that describe the skills, characteristics, and dispositions adults seek to foster in young children--are increasingly common. Although less prevalent than ELGs for 3- and 4-year-old children, ELGs for infants and toddlers have been developed in more than half of the 50 states. Given this momentum, a…
Recent changes in legislation (IDEA) have implications for the changing role of the school psychologist, specifically in the evaluation of students with learning disabilities. There is a need to examine the attitudes and practices of school psychologists regarding specific learning disability identification as there is little consistency in how…
... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities..., criteria for determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in §...
People with learning disabilities have poorer health than the general population and experience health inequalities - partly as a result of problems with accessing health services. Health services have a duty to address health inequalities, by making reasonable adjustments to their services so they are more accessible to people with learning disabilities, but this does not always happen. Failure to make reasonable adjustments can have significant adverse effects for people with learning disabilities and their families. Nurses are well placed to implement reasonable adjustments, many of which are simple to do and can save lives.
Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…
Impecoven-Lind, Linda S.; Foegen, Anne
Algebra is a gateway to expanded opportunities, but it often poses difficulty for students with learning disabilities. Consequently, it is essential to identify evidence-based instructional strategies for these students. The authors begin by identifying three areas of algebra difficulty experienced by students with disabilities: cognitive…
Hayes, Cheryl W.
The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…
Lewis, Katherine E.
Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack.…
Lewandowski, Lawrence J.
Four physiological conditions associated with later learning disabilities are noted: Turner Syndrome (a chromosomal abnormality), preterm children with intracranial hemorrhage, children with incompletely developed connecting fibers between the cerebral hemispheres, and children with acquired brain injury. (CL)
Bigler, Erin D.; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Howes, Nancy-Louise
Reviews recent neuroradiologic and brain imaging techniques in the assessment of learning disability. Technologies reviewed include computerized tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; electrophysiological and metabolic imaging; computerized electroencepholographic studies of evoked potentials, event-related potentials, spectral analysis, and…
How can nurses meet the healthcare needs of people with learning disabilities in the community? Solutions include addressing communication difficulties and issues of consent, and developing professionals' education. PMID:27484571
Fabbro, F; Masutto, C
The authors' experience derives from over 10 years of study of the neuropsychological characteristics of children with learning disabilities (LD) who were referred to a public children's hospital. Some sociocultural and linguistic aspects of children with learning disabilities in Italy, and in particular in the northeastern Friuli-Venetia-Julia region, are described. The role of bilingualism and the type of grapheme-phoneme correspondence in "standard" Italian are discussed in relation to learning disabilities. Legislative aspects, the roles of the school, hospitals, public field services, and private institutes, as well as the concern of parents of children with LD, are alos taken into account. According to the authors, Italy's major deficiencies with respect to the question of learning disabilities are (a) lack of a systematic study of the problem in order to increase general knowledge, (b) insufficient training of teachers and rehabilitators, and (c) inadequate legislation.
... frustrated with schoolwork, which can lead to low self-esteem, depression, and other problems. 1 Usually, experts work ... with a learning disability may struggle with low self-esteem, frustration, and other problems. Mental health professionals can ...
Harrington, Stuart A.
Successful transition programs for students with learning disabilities have some common elements: job-related academic instruction, interpersonal skills development, vocational education, and follow-along counseling after formal schooling ends. (SK)
A study involving 30 learning disabled and 30 normally achieving grade four girls suggested that helplessness effects may be stronger for learning disabled than for normally achieving children. Comparison to an earlier study with grade four boys suggested the possibility of sex differences regarding effectiveness of helplessness alleviation…
Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W
Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist. PMID:15495544
The purpose of this paper was to track the history of learning disabilities and collect intervention theories which might be helpful for adult college students suffering from any number of learning disabilities (LD). There is a vast difference between a learning difficulty and a learning disability; an individual with learning difficulty can learn…
No One Knows is concerned about people with learning disabilities and difficulties who get into trouble with the police and who enter the criminal justice system. The terms 'learning difficulties' and 'learning difficulties' are often used interchangeably to describe people with an intellectual disability, excluding those who, for example, have dyslexia or Asperger syndrome. No One Knows, however, has adopted a more inclusive approach and has included in its remit offenders with learning disabilities as defined by the World Health Organization as well as those with a broader range of learning difficulties. Although there is some discrepancy on prevalence, it is clear that high numbers of people with learning disabilities and difficulties are caught up in the criminal justice system. Once in the criminal justice system it is unlikely that an individual with learning disabilities or difficulties will be identified or that their support needs will be met. This causes difficulties for the individual concerned and for the staff who work with them, who receive little or no training for working with this group of people. The question of whether people with learning disabilities (meaning intellectual disabilities) should be diverted from the criminal justice system is considered.
DeFries, J. C.; And Others
Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…
Gore, Robert C.
In fall 1992, Del Mar College (DMC), in Corpus Christi, Texas, offered for the first time a college-level composition class for students clinically diagnosed as learning disabled (LD), with the rationale that if LD students were first grouped together to learn the fundamentals of college-level writing and find success among their peers, they would…
Nass, Ruth D.
This review of the male preponderance in the prevalence of learning disabilities examines such factors as gender-related etiology differences and learning style differences; complications of pregnancy and infancy; effects of male hormones on the nervous system; and sex differences in maturity rates. (JDD)
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
In two experiments, learning disabled junior high school students learned definitions of 14 vocabulary words either according to a pictorial mnemonic strategy (the "keyword method") or via principles of direct instruction. Results showed that the keyword method was substantially more effective even when keyword students were required to generate…
Force, Crista Marie
beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.
Manners, Paula Jean; Russ, Marina
This article is about the feelings of powerlessness that professionals feel to cure learning disability and to answer questions such as "why do I have a learning disability?". We describe how Emma showed us through role play what it was like to have learning difficulties. This article is interesting to people with learning disabilities because…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2011
Parents are often worried when their child has learning problems in school. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. Children with learning disabilities can have intelligence in the normal range but the specific learning disability may make teachers and parents concerned about their general…
... Cognitive Difﬁculties in NF1 Common Cognitive Difﬁculties Visual Perception Skills Language Executive Functions Attention Motor Skills If ... handwriting. 11 COMMON COGNITIVE DIFFICULTIES IN NF1 Visual Perception Behavior Language Disabilities Motor Skills Attention Executive Functions ...
Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris
The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…
Ruggeri-Stevens, Geoff; Goodwin, Susan
Purpose: The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the "Learning to Work" project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's…
Markos, Patricia A.; Strawser, Sherri
This article describes the relationship between learning disabilities (LD) and homelessness. Research describing the connection between disabilities and homelessness has focused on individuals presenting with disabilities such as mental illness, physical disabilities, medical disabilities, or substance abuse. At this time, the presence of LD in…
Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will
In order to gain access to accommodations and services at colleges and universities, students with learning disabilities must provide documentation of their disabilities, and as students with learning disabilities access higher education at increasing rates, the need for documentation of their disabilities and its impact becomes even more…
A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n = 101) and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n = 130) solved…
Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Thompson, Richard E.
The aim of the present study was to address how to effectively predict mathematics learning disability (MLD). Specifically, we addressed whether cognitive data obtained during kindergarten can effectively predict which children will have MLD in third grade, whether an abbreviated test battery could be as effective as a standard psychoeducational assessment at predicting MLD, and whether the abbreviated battery corresponded to the literature on MLD characteristics. Participants were 226 children who enrolled in a 4-year prospective longitudinal study during kindergarten. We administered measures of mathematics achievement, formal and informal mathematics ability, visual-spatial reasoning, and rapid automatized naming and examined which test scores and test items from kindergarten best predicted MLD at grades 2 and 3. Statistical models using standardized scores from the entire test battery correctly classified ~80–83 percent of the participants as having, or not having, MLD. Regression models using scores from only individual test items were less predictive than models containing the standard scores, except for models using a specific subset of test items that dealt with reading numerals, number constancy, magnitude judgments of one-digit numbers, or mental addition of one-digit numbers. These models were as accurate in predicting MLD as was the model including the entire set of standard scores from the battery of tests examined. Our findings indicate that it is possible to effectively predict which kindergartners are at risk for MLD, and thus the findings have implications for early screening of MLD. PMID:20084182
Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel
This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
Feingold, Benjamin F.
The author replies to the article titled "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities" (R. Sieben), and discusses research on the relationship between food additives and hyperactivity, and dietary treatments for learning disabled children. (IM)
Fahey, David A.
Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)
Defines learning disabilities and delineates characteristics of learning disabled students. Outlines steps to be taken by college geography departments for students who enroll in introductory-level geography classes. (SLM)
Pardeck, J T
People with psychiatric disabilities are often victims of job discrimination. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 makes it very clear that job discrimination based on a psychiatric impairment is illegal. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) reports that psychiatric disability is one of the leading causes why persons file discrimination complaints. Given this situation, an analysis is offered of what constitutes a psychiatric disability under the ADA. An overview, an analysis, and examples of the kinds of accommodations employers can be expected to provide people with psychiatric disabilities are offered. The policy and practice implications of the employment provisions (Title I) in the area of psychiatric disabilities are presented.
Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.
Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie
This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
Jordan, Nancy C., Ed.; Goldsmith-Phillips, Josephine, Ed.
This collection of original papers synthesizes research on learning disabilities in school-age children, with the theme of connecting learning disabilities research with assessment and practice. The volume begins with a paper by Howard S. Adelman titled "Learning Disabilities: On Interpreting Research Translations." Part I of the collection then…
Reynolds, Sharon L.; Johnson, Jerry D.; Salzman, James A.
The extant literature offers little to describe the processes for screening students in adult basic education (ABE) programs for potential learning disabilities, referring adult students for diagnostic assessment, or barriers to obtaining diagnostic assessment for a learning disability. Without current documentation of a learning disability, ABE…
Marlowe, Mike; And Others
This study investigated the relationship between hair mineral elements and childhood learning disabilities and determined which minerals, if any, separated 26 learning disabled children with 24 normal controls. The learning disabled group had significantly raised hair-lead concentrations. There were also differences in the mean levels of 10 other…
Sparks, Richard L.
Recently, talk of a new type of learning disability (LD)--a foreign language learning disability, or FLLD--has made its way into the LD and foreign language (FL) literature. However, no empirical evidence has been published to support the concept of a "disability" for FL learning by those professionals who use the term. In this article, the author…
Peniston, Lorraine C.
This book provides specific suggestions for ways to make accommodations and modify leisure activities to enable and encourage the participation of individuals with learning disabilities. The following chapters include: (1) "An Introduction"; (2) "Learning Disabilities," which describes types of learning disabilities, guidelines in assessing…
Mays, Francine; Imel, Susan
An overview of learning disabilities in adults is presented to aid in detection, diagnosis, and instruction. Following a description of learning disabilities in general, and the occurrence in adults in particular, nine observable characteristics of learning-disabled adults are discussed: (1) vision problems; (2) extraneous vocal sounds; (3)…
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with §...
The fact sheet provides basic information on postsecondary educational services for learning disabled (LD) adults. The handicap of learning disability is described and a brief checklist of typical characteristics of the learning disabled adult is provided. A discussion of options after high school precedes information on types of programs for LD…
The article describes eight children's books that, although not specifically about learning disabled children, still recreate what it is like to be small, different, or alone. The article further cites examples of children's classics (such as "Alice in Wonderland" and "Charlotte's Web" that portray children at odds with their environment. (CL)
MYKLEBUST, HELMER R., ED.
THE FIRST OF A SERIES DEALING WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES FROM A PSYCHONEUROLOGICAL STANDPOINT, THE VOLUME CONTAINS CURRENT DISCUSSIONS AND RESEARCH REPORTS. TEN AUTHORS FROM A VARIETY OF FIELDS CONTRIBUTE CHAPTERS, EACH WITH AN ACCOMPANYING LIST OF REFERENCES. THE EDITOR, H.R. MYKLEBUST, PROVIDES THE OPENING ARTICLE ON "LEARNING…
The increase in the number of slow learners and children with learning disabilities in schools in Africa has become a major issue and concern. The situation is reflected in various school-leaving examinations, where an average of 30 percent of the results are below average or failures each year. Although there are no statistical records available…
Fulk, Barbara J. Mushinski; And Others
This study with 56 learning-disabled adolescents found that intensive generalization training specific to the development of complex mnemonic strategies was demonstrably more effective in recall at 1-day and 2-week intervals than a rehearsal condition. No added advantage was gained by adding attribution training to the mnemonic generalization…
Bursuck, William D.; Epstein, Michael H.
A survey of 66 experts in learning disabilities (LD) found treatment maintenance, generalization, and assessment and remediation of academic problems ranked highest as research priorities. Analysis of two leading LD journals found current topics to include academic assessment and remediation, while ignoring generalization and maintenance of…
Presents findings from several sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. Examines vitamin therapy in learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. Concludes that holistic approach to treatment is needed and that vitamin therapy, if proven…
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Forgrave, Karen E.
Discusses three technological innovations that hold promise for middle and high school students with learning disabilities in reading and writing: speech synthesis programs (text-to-speech); organizational software; and voice recognition software. Examines advantages and disadvantages of each. Outlines considerations for the successful adoption of…
Dannenbring, Gary L.; Lanning-Ventura, Suzanne
The study examined the academic growth of students (N=326) identified as learning disabled since 1981 in a 9-county area of Iowa. All students in the study had been given at least one academic achievement test twice and the second testing was at least 90 days but not more than 1095 days after the first testing. The basic measure of growth was the…
Intended for parents and professionals, the document contains a listing of books, newsletters, periodicals, and free material on learning disabilities. Publications are listed alphabetically by author or sponsor with entries that usually provide the following information: title, publisher, publisher's address, publication date, cost, and brief…
Rourke, Byron P.
Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…
Sieben, Robert L.
The author presents a critical review of popular medical treatments for children with learning disabilities, including dietary treatment (food additives theories, brain allergies, hypoglycemia, megavitamin therapy, and trace mineral tests) and neurophysiologic retraining (patterning, sensory integrative therapy, and optometric training). (IM)
Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn
Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…
This paper discusses the characteristics, identification, and curriculum needs of gifted students who also have learning disabilities. Three different subgroups of twice-exceptional students are described: (1) students who have been identified as gifted yet are exhibiting difficulties in school; (2) students identified as having learning…
Longo, Judith A.
Defines learning disabled (LD) and discusses problems related to the identification and accommodation of LD students on college campuses. Reviews approaches that have been taken to modify instructional practices and possible solutions to meeting the needs of LD students. Addresses considerations in college selection. (DMM)
MacInnes, Maryhelen; Broman, Clifford L.
It is well established that children and adolescents with learning disabilities are more likely to experience depressed mood than are their peers. Many scholars explain this relationship as resulting from low self-esteem, stress, or social isolation. However, little work has explored whether this relationship continues to exist into young…
In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…
Swanson, H. Lee, Ed.; Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.
Widely regarded as the standard reference in the field, this comprehensive handbook presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the nature and classification of learning disabilities (LD), their causes, and how individuals with these difficulties can be identified and helped to succeed. Best practices are described for supporting student performance…
Lowey, Elizabeth L.
Suggests a project in creative stitchery, with yarn and burlap, as a way to relax learning disabled students and to help them with fine motor coordination, directionality, and self-image. Methods, objectives, and benefits of the project are listed. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (SJL)
Vogel, Susan A., Ed.; Reder, Stephen, Ed.
This book deals with the long-neglected problem of learning disabilities (LDs) and the relationship of LDs to difficulties in the acquisition of literacy. Its 17 chapters are divided into 5 sections that begin with an opener to help the reader identify the main themes and content of each chapter in the section. Four chapters in Section I address…
Lopez, Mike; Clyde-Snyder, Myrtle
Describes the operation of Project HELDS (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) on one campus. Evaluation results showed the use of existing university resources such as tutoring and taping books and lectures had a meaningful impact on the academic achievement of the 27 participants. (JAC)
Wirths, Claudine G.; Leonard, Steven
A project of the University of Maryland has developed a driver education curriculum for the learning disabled. Several states are making efforts to improve driver education, including rewriting materials and providing oral tests for drivers' licenses. Options for future safety programs include parent-student seminars, multidiscipline teaching, and…
Jung, Dae Young
In the context of the educational system and the nature of special education in South Korea, I describe policy, practice, and research about children with learning disabilities (LD). Recently, the study of LD has attracted professionals from multiple disciplines including general and special education, medicine, psychology, and social work. In…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.
The use of the "keyword" method as a tool for improving memory in learning disabled students is explained. The keyword method consists of two stages: an acoustical link stage and a stage in which the student is provided with a picture of the keyword interacting with the appropriate response term. The method can be modified for use in vocabulary…
National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.
Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 62 materials for teaching number concepts to learning disabled students at the primary grades. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
In two experiments, students (10 learning disabled ninth graders and 45 nondisabled seventh graders) were taught the hardness levels of minerals according to either a keyword-pegword mnemonic, a questioning procedure, or free study. Mnemonic students significantly outrecalled both questioning and free-study students regardless of students'…
Benton, Curtis D., Jr.
In the rebuttal to charges made by Nathan Flax, an optometrist, regarding the joint organizational statement of three medical associations concerning treatment of dyslexia and related learning disabilities, the author discusses the five controversial points and largely reaffirms the statement's conclusions. (MC)
Chen, Charles P.; Chan, Janice
Learning disabilities (LDs) describe a number of disorders that affect the way information is acquired, retained, organized, and understood. This article aims to address the critical issue of improving the career well-being of LD youth. It first examines several critical issues that affect LD high school students/youth in their career development.…
Brigham, Frederick J.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mastropieri, Margo A.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) are increasingly expected to master content in the general education curriculum, making the need for effective instructional supports more important than ever before. Science is a part of the curriculum that can be particularly challenging to students with LD because of the diverse demands it places on…
Cahan, Sorel; Fono, Dafna; Nirel, Ronit
The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disabilities has been suggested by Rutter and Yule as an improvement of the well-known and much criticized achievement-intelligence discrepancy definition, whereby the examinee's predicted reading attainment is substituted for the intelligence score in the discrepancy expression. Even though the regression-based discrepancy definition has been with us for more than 30 years, critical examination of this approach is scarce. This article fills this lacuna by examining the implications of two variables in the model on the diagnosis of learning disabilities: (a) the effect of predictive validity on the proportion of examinees identified as learning disabled, and (b) the effect of the predictor's identity on the identity of the examinees diagnosed with learning disabilities. Implications of these effects concerning the validity of the regression-based discrepancy model and of the results of its implementation are discussed.
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…
Barnartt, Sharon N
This article examines the demands which have been made in the over 800 US protests this author has analyzed. Some demands are cross-disability, meaning they could apply to people with all types of impairments; these include demands for rights and accessibility in all domains. Other demands are disability-specific: they apply to people with specific types of impairments, ranging from mobility impairments to developmental disabilities. Many demands have been related to services, which can be either cross-disability or disability-specific. The paper examines the implications of these demands for social work practice. These include that disability be de-stigmatized by practitioners, that people with disabilities have choices, that they have control over their services, and that all aspects of social work practice be accessible to people with any type of disability.
Hearne, D; Stone, S
The field of learning disabilities, like education in the main, is undergoing calls for reform and restructuring, an upheaval brought on in great part by the forces of opposing paradigms--reductionism and constructivism. In reexamining our past, we must begin to address the failures of traditional deficit models and their abysmally low "cure" rate. Several new theories have arisen that challenge traditional practices in both general and special education classrooms. Particularly influential has been the work of Howard Gardner, whose theory of multiple intelligences calls for a restructuring of our schools to accommodate modes of learning and inquiry with something other than deficit approaches. At least some current research in the field of learning disabilities has begun to focus on creativity and nontraditional strengths and talents that have not been well understood or highly valued by the schools. In this article, we briefly summarize the findings in our search for the talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for the schools, and a beginning set of practical recommendations.
Hearne, D; Stone, S
The field of learning disabilities, like education in the main, is undergoing calls for reform and restructuring, an upheaval brought on in great part by the forces of opposing paradigms--reductionism and constructivism. In reexamining our past, we must begin to address the failures of traditional deficit models and their abysmally low "cure" rate. Several new theories have arisen that challenge traditional practices in both general and special education classrooms. Particularly influential has been the work of Howard Gardner, whose theory of multiple intelligences calls for a restructuring of our schools to accommodate modes of learning and inquiry with something other than deficit approaches. At least some current research in the field of learning disabilities has begun to focus on creativity and nontraditional strengths and talents that have not been well understood or highly valued by the schools. In this article, we briefly summarize the findings in our search for the talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for the schools, and a beginning set of practical recommendations. PMID:7673790
Many people with learning disabilities are frequently excluded from active involvement in research and, as a result, along with researchers, have questioned research processes. These discussions have influenced how research is undertaken by, and with, people who have learning disabilities. Learning disability research is now increasingly framed as inclusive. This article explores the development of inclusive learning disability research by tracing its background and influences, identifying key characteristics and highlighting some of the challenges in its application. It demonstrates how inclusive research can give people with learning disabilities a voice that will help to inform practice.
Price, Lynda A.; Gerber, Paul J.
Previous findings on employer knowledge about learning disabilities were compared to 25 employers from Pennsylvania and Virginia. Findings indicate that employers are continuing to make efforts to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 regulations but have little knowledge or experience with it in terms of learning disabilities.…
Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…
... the details of a story's plot or a classroom lecture Reading and comprehending material Learning words to ... stories to the child? Observe the child during classroom activities. Evaluate the child's ability to understand verbal ...
... School psychologists are trained in both education and psychology. They can help to identify students with learning ... 2012, from http://www.nasponline.org/about-school-psychology/who-are-school-psychologists [top] American Speech-Language- ...
Cutting, Laurie E.; Clements, Amy M.; Lightman, Andrea D.; Yerby-Hammack, Pamula D.; Denckla, Martha Bridge
The cognitive profiles of children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1) have many similarities to those observed in learning disabilities in the general school population, as well as some distinct features. Approximately 30-65 percent of children with NF-1 have learning disabilities; most commonly, they have language and reading disabilities,…
There are a number of disabilities that music educators may never encounter among their students in the music classroom; however, all music educators will have students with learning disabilities. Students with learning disabilities may have a variety of "presenting problems" that limit their academic and social success in the music classroom. The…
Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.
This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…
Tyler, Janet Siantz; Colson, Steven
This paper presents definitions of common pediatric disabilities and information about incidence, causes, diagnosis, common characteristics, complications with educational implications, and multidisciplinary intervention approaches. It covers the following conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, fragile…
Dunlap, William P.; And Others
To determine the generalizability of reading expectancy formulas in ascertaining mathematics expectancy levels, correlation coefficients were computed between the scores of 150 Ss (7 to 12 years old) with learning problems on standardized mathematics and reading tests and expectancy scores. Formulas correlated higher with Ss' actual mathematics…
Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García
In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving. PMID:15493468
Taylor, G; Pearson, J; Cook, H
An outreach program developed in England by the Merton and Sutton Community and Family Planning Services is effectively addressing the unmet reproductive health needs of women with learning disabilities. A specially trained community health nurse visits prospective clients at their residence and, through use of teaching aids, demonstrates breast self-examination and condom use and explains what will take place at the upcoming clinic visit. Of the 125 learning disabled women who used this program during its first 18 months of operation, only three had previously accessed the community's family planning services. 50% of services provided to this population were annual well-woman checks, 20% related to contraception, and 30% were for counseling on concerns such as domestic violence. Most of these women required a specialized approach that would not have been forthcoming from a generic family planning service or a general practitioner.
Fletcher, T V; Kaufman de Lopez, C K
Given the worldwide trend toward the integration of children with special needs into the general school system, and the Program for Educational Modernization (1989-1994) in Mexico, Mexican educators have had to reassess the politics of special education, focusing on different service delivery models. One model, Integrated Groups, which has been functioning since the 1970s and is primarily for children with learning and language disabilities, is described. New legislation recently enacted recognizes and encourages the collaboration of general education and special education to meet the needs of all children. During the school year 1994-1995, the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP; the Mexican centralized public school system) is piloting, in Mexico City, a proposal for the integration of children into the general classroom. This new model of service delivery is designed to provide greater site-based approaches to the education of individuals with learning disabilities.
This article offers a review of, and case report on, the treatment of a young adult with a history of severe childhood abuse, dissociative symptoms, and right-hemisphere dysfunction, or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). The core of nonverbal learning disabilities is the inability to synthesize information and create meaning from complex information. Learning is a form of adaptation and disruptions in an individual's meaning-making process. There are major implications for the person's overall adjustment. Trauma is itself complex and often damaging to the survivor's well being. Clinical assessment must take into account a person's cognitive style and possible learning deficits in order to adequately address traumatic material. Therapy must be modified in order to respond to the unique learning style of the NLD client. Finally, and important issue for therapists remains their willingness to broaden their awareness and knowledge base, and shift the treatment paradigm to meet the needs of the client with neurocognitive vulnerabilities. Treating clients with difficult trauma histories' alone, can elicit negative reactions in the therapist. Repeated experiences with a client's mistrust, anger, noncompliance or self-defeating habits are particularly stressful. The neuropsychological perspective can provide a valuable tool in the mastery of those reactions, and in building a context for empathy and a joint narrative. PMID:9742317
Scheepers, M; Duff, M; Baddeley, P; Cooper, M; Hoghton, M; Harrison, J
Those with a learning disability previously cared for in institutions have now been discharged into smaller community homes. This has meant that an increased burden has been placed on general practitioners (GPs) to evaluate and treat those who have symptoms that may be difficult to interpret. This report presents the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in those still awaiting discharge and discusses the possible symptoms that GPs may encounter. PMID:11127173
During the 1970s, vitamins and vitamin therapy became household words. Vitamin therapy, better known as "orthomolecular psychiatry," is both appealing and very popular. The question that must be asked is: Does this popularity and appeal validate this form of therapy? This paper presents findings from various sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. The following categories are examined: learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. PMID:2963502
Learning Disabilities Association of America, 2010
This White Paper project was undertaken to address the Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA) concerns regarding the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004 statutory and regulatory requirements for the identification of Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD), and the subsequent U. S. Department of…
Jingree, Treena; Finlay, W M L
Over the last decade the UK Government has made proposals to empower individuals with learning disabilities. Strategies have been implemented to reduce institutionalisation and social segregation. Consequently, some learning disability services are being phased out and the focus of care has moved away from institutions and into the community and family domain. Focusing on discourse as a site for social action and identity construction, we used critical discursive psychology to examine focus group discussions between family carers about facilitating the independence of adult family members with learning disabilities. Unlike official UK Government and learning disability services' constructions of empowerment policy, we found that parents invoked empowerment talk: (1) as a resource to construct the facilitation of independence as an abstract, irresponsible, politically correct professional trend; (2) dilemmatically with meritocratic or practical arguments to undermine notions of facilitating choices; and (3) as a resource to construct new service developments as contrary to the preferences of people with learning disabilities. Parents also described individuals with learning disabilities as unable to cope, and drew stark contrasts between their practice and those of service-professionals when expressing concerns about empowerment. We discuss possible implications of such discourses and contrasts on opportunities for empowering individuals with learning disabilities.
McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual. PMID:22375897
Shogren, Karrie A.; Bovaird, James A.; Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
Previous research has suggested differences in the locus of control (LOC) orientations of students with intellectual disability, learning disabilities, and no disabilities, although this research has been characterized by methodological limitations. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of LOC orientations in students with…
Wood, Karen D.; And Others
Discusses the definition of cooperative learning; cooperative-learning groups and learning disabilities; cooperative-learning methods used in reading and in writing; and perspectives on cooperative-learning groups. (RS)
Reichert, Jacqueline A.
Ninety teachers of students with learning disabilities were asked their opinions on one of three research-based interventions for learning disabilities: Cooperative Learning, Story Retelling and School-Home Notes (Rathvon, 1999). The purpose of the study was to measure teacher acceptance ratings of these interventions and whether teacher…
Zitani, E. Alfredo
Learning disability is suggested to be a dissociative reaction (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime requiring appropriate theoretical and remedial approaches. Psychoanalytic and learning theory viewpoints are applied to the nature of learning disabilities. Also considered are the relation of anxiety to achievement and hypnosis to…
Seitz, Sandy; Scheerer, Jan
Designed for community college educators, this paper provides an overview of the characteristics and problems of the learning disabled adult and offers strategies for both teaching and learning. Following introductory remarks, the paper provides definitions of learning disability and discusses the symptoms, psychological effects, and incidence of…
Waber, Deborah P.
Experts have yet to reach consensus about what a learning disability is, how to determine if a child has one, and what to do about it. Leading researcher and clinician Deborah Waber offers an alternative to the prevailing view of learning disability as a problem contained within the child. Instead, she shows how learning difficulties are best…
Chermak, Gail D.; Burgerud, Donna M.
Thirty elementary school children in regular, gifted, and learning disabled-gifted programs were examined on three receptive language tests. Analysis of variance indicated that the "Token Test for Children" differentiated learning disabled-gifted, and the "Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude, Verbal Absurdities Subtest" differentiated gifted…
Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen
This article focusses on the review of research studies done on the area of learning disabilities and the need to conduct more research studies in this area. School children are seen to have different types of learning difficulties with regard to academics. Children with learning disability, who occupy the largest number receiving special…
The study presents teaching techniques for use with elementary learning disabled students which utilize right brain simultaneous (as opposed to sequential or left brain) learning processes. It also describes a 15-week classroom project utilizing selected techniques with 11 learning disabled children in grades 2 through 6. The literature review and…
This article appraises the report Strengthening the Commitment, which is a UK-wide review of learning disabilities nursing by the UK's four chief nursing officers. Strengthening the Commitment has strategic importance in reviewing progress in the care of people with learning disabilities in the UK. It also has a role in helping to guide future strategies and initiatives addressing the continuing health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities throughout the UK.
This article gives a short overview of some basic facts about people with learning disabilities. The prevalence (1-3% worldwide) and stability of the incidence are described, as well as the causes and possible medical comorbidities.- People with learning disabilities are at significantly greater risk of developing cognitive and medical problems compared with the average population. Lastly, an overview of actual chronic care costs is given, as well as actual participation possibilities for people with learning disabilities.
Lau, Won-Fong K.; Ortega, Karina; Sharkey, Jill
Students with learning disabilities have been found to lack self-awareness about their disability, likely contributing to several challenges they experience, such as social skill deficits. At the same time, there is limited research investigating interventions to effectively increase disability self-awareness among this population. The current…
McKenzie, Karen; Michie, Amanda; Murray, Aja; Hales, Charlene
The study assessed the validity of an intellectual disability screening tool, the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ), in three forensic settings: a community intellectual disability forensic service; a forensic in-patient secure unit and a prison, using data for 94 individuals. A significant positive relationship was found between…
Egly, Nancy J.; And Others
The manual presents an overview of the career development process for college students with language learning disabilities (LD). A systematic problem solving process is advocated beginning with job selection and preparation and continuing through retirement. Such a process can help the LD adult to identify personal strengths and weaknesses,…
Powell, Lynda; And Others
An observational measurement system was used to examine the interaction of 14 learning disabled (LD) students (12-15 years old) and their teachers. Interactions were compared with those of 16 non LD students (12-16 years old). It was hypothesized that LDs would have fewer interactions with their teachers and that the proportion of negative…
Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…
Ross, Jovita Martin
The author examines continuing questions that impede educators' understanding of learning disabilities and reviews concerns expressed by those involved with education of learning disabled adults. She touches on diagnosis of learning disabilities, vocational counseling, and strategies for intervention. (CH)
Price, L A; Gerber, P J
The impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 on the American workplace is examined. The findings of a previous study (Gerber, 1992) on employer knowledge about learning disabilities are compared to current findings. Important themes and employer beliefs and practices that were consistent in employer responses are described. Although employers are continuing to make efforts to comply with the regulations of the ADA, they still have relatively little knowledge or experience with it in terms of learning disabilities.
Dipeolu, Abiola; Reardon, Robert; Sampson, James; Burkhead, Jane
College students with learning disabilities (n=153) and without (n=595) completed the Career Thoughts Inventory. The learning disabilities group had fewer dysfunctional career thoughts, less career decision-making confusion, and less commitment anxiety, but more dysfunctional thoughts related to external conflict. As dysfunctional thoughts…
Becoming the parent of a child diagnosed with learning disabilities can have a dramatic impact. Chrissie Rogers, the author of this article, is both a lecturer in education studies at Keele University and the mother of a daughter who has learning disabilities. She argues here that the pressures on mothers to produce "perfect" babies and to meet…
Learning disabled youth in the Child and Young Adult samples of the NLSY79 are "more" likely to graduate from high school than peers with the same measured cognitive ability, a difference that cannot be explained by differences in noncognitive skills, families, or school resources. Instead, I find that learning disabled students graduate from high…
Personalized learning models can give each student differentiated learning experiences based on their needs, interests, and strengths, including students with disabilities. Personalized learning can pinpoint specific gaps in student learning, identify where a student is on his or her learning pathway, and provide the appropriate interventions to…
Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep
Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict.
Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep
Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752
Marriott, Anna; Turner, Sue; Giraud-Saunders, Alison
People with learning disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers, and are less likely to access screening services than the general population. The National Development Team for Inclusion and the Norah Fry Research Centre developed a toolkit and guidance to improve uptake of five national (English) screening programmes (one of which is delivered through local programmes), based on work to improve access by people with learning disabilities in the south west peninsula of the UK. This article describes the findings in relation to the five English screening programmes and suggests ways to improve uptake of cancer screening by people with learning disabilities.
Differences in the learning styles of students with and without learning disabilities (LD) at a distance-learning university were examined. Two hundred and twelve students answered self-report questionnaires on their learning styles. Results revealed that students with LD preferred to use more stepwise processing, including memorizing and…
Dwyer, Kathleen M.
This children's book tells the story of 10-year-old Jimmy who is having problems at school and believes he is stupid. After a parent-teacher conference, he is tested and found to have a learning disability. The book discusses the characteristics of learning disabilities and the help Jimmy receives from a tutor. It concludes with Jimmy performing…
Freund, Lisa A.
Learning-disabled students deficient in classification and categorization require specific instruction in these skills. Use of a classification/categorization instructional model improved the questioning strategies of 60 learning-disabled students, aged 10 to 12. The use of similar models is discussed as a basis for instruction in science, social…
Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities, Washington, DC.
The report to Congress by the Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities, required by the Health Research Extension Act of 1985, Public Law 99-158, provides a review and assessment of Federal research priorities, activities, and findings regarding learning disabilities. Included in the report is information on (1) the number of persons…
Curtis, Mary G.
Dr. Tanis Bryan graduated from Northwestern University during the beginning of the field of learning disabilities. From this beginning, Tanis has provided invaluable insight into the field through her desire to understand the social dimensions of learning disabilities. The author wishes to thank Tanis for her assistance with this interview.
Rodgers, Jackie; Lipscombe, Jo; Santer, Miriam
Background: Menstruation appears to be problematic for women with learning disabilities, yet there has been little quantitative research on their experiences, or comparisons with other groups of women. This paper considers the nature and extent of menstrual problems experienced by women with learning disabilities. Methods: The data reported here…
Newcomer, Phyllis L.; Magee, Patricia
This study examined the extent to which learning disabled students scored poorly on a reading readiness test administered when they entered school, the incidence of undiagnosed oral language deficits among these learning disabled children, and the predictive relationships between reading readiness skills and components of oral language. (Author/MV)
Peterson, Patricia; Johnson, Gae; Showalter, Stephen
Students with learning disabilities have significantly lower achievement in math and science than students from the general population. If these students with learning disabilities also are English Learners, the challenges for success in math and science are even more difficult. Teachers need to infuse best practices into their classrooms to…
This study examined the unanticipated effects that children with learning disabilities have on the life of their families. Eleven parents of students aged 8 to 16 years old participated in two separate focus group interviews. Findings showed that children with learning disabilities had a range of effects on their families. These included family…
Zitani, E. Alfredo
Learning disability is seen to be a dissociative disorder (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime. The shell shock model is explained to focus diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities around the dynamics of the predisposing unconscious conflict, the dynamics in the environment, the mechanism which allows these two conditions to…
San Miguel, Stephanie K.; And Others
This article explores the hypothesis that social skill deficits among children with learning disabilities are associated with high rates of undetected psychiatric diagnoses. The maladaptive social skills patterns of children with specific subtypes of learning disabilities appear to mimic the symptom patterns of children with attention deficit…
Competence in algebra is linked to access to higher education, employment in better-paying jobs, and, increasingly, the ability to earn a high school diploma. For many students with learning disabilities, developing proficiency in algebra represents a challenging, but necessary goal. Teachers of students with learning disabilities need access to…
Gajar, Anna; And Others
The paper summarizes four presentations made by members of the Pennsylvania State University Program for Learning Disabled (LD) students. An initial section considers the definition of LD and reviews a study on diagnosing LD in 12 undergraduates. The existence of a foreign language disability in students with good attitudes toward learning a…
Goodman, Joan F.; And Others
In response to an earlier article on foreign language learning disabilities in college students, the article reports on a similar study using the Modern Language Aptitude Test and concludes that, as yet, tests are not adequate to determine a disability affecting foreign language learning. (DB)
Williams, Val; Ponting, Lisa; Ford, Kerrie; Rudge, Philippa
For people with learning disabilities to have control over their lives, the quality of their support staff matters. This paper reports on an inclusive research study, which used video analysis to study the communication skills of personal assistants (PAs) who worked with people with learning disabilities. The findings reveal some of the fine…
Martin, Larry L.; And Others
The report presents a model for appraisal and individualized educational programing for learning disabled children at the School of Education, Auburn University, Alabama. Descriptions by clinic staff of visitations to exemplary models and a summary of a regional conference on learning disabilities introduce the report. The clinic model is…
Horn, Jaime Helena; Moss, Duncan
Research has identified the collective experiences of oppression, stigma and isolation in the lives of people with learning disabilities. Against the backdrop of social and cultural processes that shape and limit the life experiences of people with learning disabilities, the authors are interested in how the individual develops a sense of self and…
Long, Cynthia D.
Discusses the accommodation of college students with learning disabilities, focusing on the increasing incidence (or overdiagnosis) of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, applicable federal legislation, and leveling the academic playing field for students with learning disabilities. Argues that professors should provide recommended…
Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.
Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…
Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.
This report discusses outcomes of a study that conducted telephone interviews with 1,000 adults to investigate their awareness and attitudes toward learning disabilities and attitudinal changes since 1995, to explore parents' recognition of various behaviors or symptoms as indicators of possible learning disabilities, and to determine what level…
Daniels, Roberta R.; And Others
Difficulties inherent in the dual classification of gifted and learning disabled are analyzed, and research on the issue is reviewed. The Creative Problem Solving (CPS) Model is used to identify problems in service provision for gifted/learning disabled students. Areas of concern are listed and then expanded by using the five steps of the CPS…
Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.
Intended to help educators develop a philosophy and understanding for working with learning disabled adults, this document consists of an introduction, 11 chapters, a 76-item bibliography, materials and resource suggestions, and three appendices. The introduction provides an overview of learning disabled adults. The chapters include (1)…
The paper reviews the programmatic efforts of the Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) targeted for learning disabled delinquents. The history of research projects with this population is traced, and current grant programs designed to make key officials aware of learning disabilities are reviewed. The need for training and…
Ostertag, Bruce A.; Baker, Ronald E.
In spring 1982, a study was conducted of the programs and services for learning disabled average (LDA) students offered by California community colleges. The study sought to ascertain program characteristics, the means by which colleges identified adult students with specific learning disabilities, and the assessment tools used. Questionnaires…
Tyner, Polly, Ed.
This special newsletter issue on learning disabilities and juvenile justice includes statistics indicating unfavorable outcomes for many individuals with learning disabilities, presents findings of the Incarcerated Youth Task Force Report, and describes five successful programs for teaching reading. Articles include: "Parents Don't Care!--Or Do…
Ohler, Denise L.; And Others
Compared levels of career maturity between college students (n=76) with and without learning disabilities and investigated factors associated with career maturity. Few differences in career maturity were found. However, different predictors of career maturity for the two groups emerged. Students with learning disabilities who received more…
Kaur, Gurpreet; Scior, Katrina; Wilson, Suzanne
Systemic therapy works not just with the individual but those around them in trying to address difficulties and find ways forward. This approach has received increasing attention in learning disability settings over recent years. To date little is known about the provision of systemic therapy in learning disability services in the UK. This article…
McIntyre, Curtis W.; And Others
Twelve learning disabled (LD), 12 learning disabled hyperactive (LDH) and 12 hyperactive (H) boys (6-11 years old) participated in an investigation of selective attention. Ss were asked to search for a target letter embedded within an array of noise letters. Two variations were included: one involving a simultaneous search for four possible target…
Adelman, Pamela B.; Vogel, Susan A.
This literature review examines 10 areas related to employment of adults with learning disabilities: transitions to work, obtaining employment, type of employment, rate of employment, wages, job satisfaction, job success, effect of learning disabilities on work, compensatory strategies, and employer perceptions. Methodological issues, emergent…
Erion, R. Joel
Children are generally identified as learning disabled as a result of their achievement and perceptual skills below an expectancy level which is based on mental age, grade level and/or chronological age. Despite its usefulness, Maturity is infrequently considered. The ages at entrance to school of a group of 67 learning disabled (LD) students…
A large percent of the population is affected by learning disabilities, which significantly impacts individuals and families. Much research has been done to identify effective ways to best help the students with learning disabilities. One of the more promising strategies is the use of visual supports to enhance these students' understanding…
Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Watt, Sarah J.; Therrien, William J.
As a growing number of students with learning disabilities (LD) receive science instruction in general education settings, students with LD continue to perform significantly lower than their non-disabled peers. The shift from textbook-driven instruction to inquiry-based approaches to science learning supports students who struggle with reading.…
Sayeski, Kristin L.
Difficulty with spelling is a perennial challenge for students with learning disabilities. Several decades of research, however, have identified both fundamental linguistic concepts and instructional approaches that, when understood by a teacher, can be applied to teach students with learning disabilities to spell. In this article, a brief history…
Bond, Rebecca J.; Hurst, Jenni
It is seen as increasingly important for people with learning disabilities to be supported to live independently and manage their own self care, productivity and leisure activities. This qualitative study explored the experiences of nine adults with mild learning disabilities who lived alone with minimal support. Their narratives were analysed…
Hutchinson, Nancy L.
Career counseling in secondary schools is important for all students, but it is especially critical for students with learning disabilities. This digest describes how making developmental career counseling a focus in secondary schools contributes to the success of youth with learning disabilities in post-school employment. These students show…
Sams, Kathryn; Collins, Suzanne; Reynolds, Shirley
Background: There is a need to develop and adapt therapies for use with people with learning disabilities who have mental health problems. Aims: To examine the performance of people with learning disabilities on two cognitive therapy tasks (emotion recognition and discrimination among thoughts, feelings and behaviours). We hypothesized that…
Majumder, Md. Anwarul Azim; Rahman, Sayeeda; D’Souza, Urban JA; Elbeheri, Gad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Huq, M Muzaherul
Learning disabilities (LDs) represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE) institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context. PMID:23745060
Neufeld, Paul; Hoskyn, Maureen
The purpose of this article is to respond to Reid and Valle's article "The Discursive Practice of LD: Implications for Instruction and Parent?School Relations" in this issue. Our response to the discursive analysis is organized around two major themes: (a) the issue of balance in the scholarship on learning disabilities (LD) and (b) the centrality…
Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…
Hughes, C A; Suritsky, S K
The notes of 30 university students with learning disabilities (LD) and 30 nondisabled university students were compared on the number of cued and noncued information units recorded and the number and type of abbreviations used. Results showed that the university students with LD performed significantly lower on all variables. Implications for practitioners are provided and future research discussed.
Blackhurst, A. Edward
This article describes how concepts related to the use of technology in education have evolved with particular emphasis on their implications for people with learning disabilities (LD). The article reflects the personal perceptions of the author as a "participant observer" in a variety of activities related to technology applications in special…
Boyden, Paul; Muniz, Michelle; Laxton-Kane, Martha
In line with "Valuing People Now: A New Three-Year Strategy for People with Learning Disabilities" (Department of Health, 2009), this article details a service evaluation for a learning disability-child and adolescent mental health service (LD-CAMHS) in Chesterfield, North Derbyshire. The aim of the project was to produce a set of…
Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi
Research has documented overlapping and coexisting characteristics of learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). Such concomitance may impact teacher referrals of children at risk for LD which in turn may influence service delivery. Using the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) and the Strengths and…
Lloyd, Jennifer L.; Coulson, Neil S.
Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women…
Price, Lynda; Gerber, Paul J.; Mulligan, Robert
Twenty-five adults with learning disabilities were queried to examine their employment experiences at job entry and in job advancement vis-a-vis the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Results suggest that Title 1 of the ADA is underutilized by individuals with learning disabilities in the workplace. Self-disclosure about disability was rare…
Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Brown, Jason D
Thirty-six children between 9 and 12 years of age were invited to share their ideas on how to socially include classmates with learning or intellectual disabilities at school. Participants generated 80 strategies which were categorized into seven major themes. Thematic categories focused on the need for teachers to intervene in academic and social situations, child-to-child instructional strategies, being supportive, focusing on similarities between children with and without disabilities, modelling appropriate behaviors and intervening in negative interactions, structured inclusive activities, and noninclusive activities. Participants were aware of the challenges experienced by classmates with disabilities, and recognized the need to work with classmates and teachers towards the social inclusion of children with intellectual and learning disabilities. Educational implications are addressed. PMID:23909587
Knight, S J L; Regan, R
Learning disability (LD) is a very common, lifelong and disabling condition, affecting about 3% of the population. Despite this, it is only over the past 10-15 years that major progress has been made towards understanding the origins of LD. In particular, genetics driven advances in technology have led to the unequivocal demonstration of the importance of genome imbalance in the aetiology of idiopathic LD (ILD). In this review we provide an overview of these advances, discussing technologies such as multi-telomere FISH and array CGH that have already emerged as well as new approaches that show diagnostic potential for the future. The advances to date have highlighted new considerations such as copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) that can complicate the interpretation of genome imbalance and its relevance to ILD. More importantly though, they have provided a remarkable approximately 15-20% improvement in diagnostic capability as well as facilitating genotype/phenotype correlations and providing new avenues for the identification and understanding of genes involved in neurocognitive function.
O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Jenkins, Joseph R.
The experience of students with learning disabilities during cooperative learning reading lessons with peers without disabilities was studies ovr the course of 2 years. In the first year of research observations were conducted in one elementary school. Twelve children with mild disabilities and 12 students who were average in performance were…
The use of ICT in education is becoming increasingly important and has potential advantages to disabled learners if the technologies are appropriately designed, including for accessibility and usability, and used. This paper presents the first sets of recommendations for learning technologies for disabled people aimed at disabled learners, teachers, developers and educational institutions respectively. They were developed as part of the work of the Enable Network for ICT Learning for Disabled People and involved input from both experts and end-users. The concise format facilitates production in a variety of formats and languages for accessibility and wide distribution. The paper discusses the recommendations and their relationship to existing guidelines. PMID:26294448
Van den Broeck, Wim
In this article, I argue that the regression-based discrepancy method used in the diagnosis of learning disabilities is invalid because it is inconsistent with the underlying underachievement concept of which it is intended to be the operationalization. I mathematically demonstrate that the regression-based discrepancy method largely reflects achievement-specific determinants, thereby defeating its own object of describing aptitude-achievement discrepancies. The implications for research examining the role of intelligence in learning disabilities are outlined.
Mangina, Constantine A; Beuzeron-Mangina, Helen
This research pursues the crucial question of the differentiation of preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD, comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities, "Pure" learning disabilities and age-matched normal controls. For this purpose, Topographic Mapping of Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) to a Memory Workload Paradigm with visually presented words, Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance were used. The analysis of Topographic distribution of amplitudes revealed that normal preadolescents were significantly different from "Pure" ADHD (P<0.0001), "Pure" learning disabilities (P<0.0001), and comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities (P<0.0009), by displaying enhanced prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). In contrast, preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD and comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities have shown a marked reduction of prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). As for the "Pure" Learning Disabled preadolescents, very small positivities (P450) in prefrontal and frontal regions were obtained as compared to the other pathological groups. Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload revealed a significant main effect for groups (P<0.00001), Left versus Right (P=0.0029) and sessions (P=0.0136). A significant main effect for the Mangina-Test performance which separated the four groups was found (P<0.000001). Overall, these data support the existence of clear differences and similarities between the pathological preadolescent groups as opposed to age-matched normal controls. The psychophysiological differentiation of these groups, provides distinct biological markers which integrate central, autonomic and neuropsychometric variables by targeting the key features of these pathologies for diagnosis and intervention strategies and by providing knowledge for the understanding of normal neurocognitive processes and functions.
KIDD, J. ROBY
IN THE FIRST OF TWO ADDRESSES GIVEN IN INDIA ON THE IMPLICATIONS OF CONTINUOUS LEARNING, J. ROBY KIDD DEFINES LIFELONG EDUCATION AS EMBRACING ALL PURPOSEFUL, PLANNED EDUCATION, FORMAL OR INFORMAL, FROM EARLY CHILDHOOD TO OLD AGE. SUCH EDUCATION IS DISCUSSED AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING AND IMPROVING EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND THE QUALITY OF SOCIETY,…
Hersh, C A; Stone, B J; Ford, L
This study investigated whether students with learning disabilities exhibited learned helpless behavior at a greater rate than their normal achieving peers when confronted with reading failure. Forty-five third grade students from a suburban elementary schools were participants in the study. Thirty of the subjects were classified as having a learning disability (LD) and the remaining 15 subjects were from regular education (RE) classrooms. Fifteen of the students with LD were placed in the treatment group and the remaining fifteen were placed in the control group. All the regular education students were placed in the treatment group. After randomly assigning the students with LD into either a treatment (stressed) group or a control (nonstressed) group, the stressed students were administered a reading instrument in order to measure how they dealt with failure. A one-way ANCOVA was conducted to determine whether significant differences existed between the groups based on their posttest scores. The results indicate that stressed students with LD have a significantly more difficult time recovering from stress than their regular education peers. PMID:8707471
Price, Lynda A.; Gerber, Paul J.; Mulligan, Robert
This article explored the use of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by individuals with learning disabilities (LD) in the workplace. A review of the extant literature revealed that people with LD were not likely to use the ADA as employees. Moreover, an analysis of selected, commonly used materials regarding transition indicated a lack of…
The article examines the manner in which the learning-disabled subject is created as an object within contemporary psychiatric discourse by means of a genealogical analysis of the learning-disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It investigates how this pathology was formed historically in the text, what metamorphoses it underwent, and their epistemic significance. First, the theoretical underpinnings of the sociological discourse on DSM are presented, giving a brief background of the DSM status in the Israeli context. Many problematic characteristics in the text are unveiled, by means of critiques from sociology, anthropology and discourse studies. Second, the changing definitions and conceptualizations of learning-disorders in the seven editions of the Manual and the accompanying case studies (1952-2013) are examined. It becomes apparent that the disorders have undergone changes that have enabled the biomedical paradigm to triumph. The implications of these transformations are addressed. PMID:26956872
... Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.309 Determining the existence of a specific learning disability. (a) The group described in § 300.306 may determine that a child has a specific learning disability, as... the identification of a specific learning disability, using appropriate assessments, consistent...
Kumar, S. Praveen; Raja, B. William Dharma
Children with learning disabilities are found in most schools. Learning disability is a widespread issue in today's society. A learning-disabled child is one whose achievement is less than his expected level of achievement despite having average or above average intelligence. Learning disability is nothing but a condition that affects the ability…
Fetzer, Erin A.
A review of learning disabilities in gifted children provides definitions of "learning disabilities" and "giftedness", a classification of gifted students with learning disabilities, the importance of a multidimensional approach to identifying students with gifts/learning disabilities, characteristics, programming guidelines, teaching strategies,…
Garinis, Angela C; Glattke, Theodore; Cone-Wesson, Barbara K
The presentation of contralateral noise during the recording of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) reduces the amplitude of the TEOAE in normally-hearing adults. This is known as TEOAE suppression. The present study investigated TEOAE suppression in 18 adults with learning disabilities (LDs) compared to 18 adults without LDs. TEOAEs were elicited by 60 dB p.e. SPL clicks and were suppressed by the presentation of 60 dB SPL contralateral broadband noise. Suppression was measured as a change in the overall TEOAE response amplitude, and also analysed in 2-ms epochs representing different TEOAE frequency-response bands. A significant interaction was evident between group type and ear tested. Participants in the control group had right ear dominance for the suppression effect, whereas the left ear was found to be dominant for the LD group. These findings suggest a mechanism of the medial olivary cochlear bundle and efferent auditory pathway that differs in those with LD compared to those with typical learning abilities.
De Weerdt, Frauke; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert
Children with reading disabilities (RD, n = 17), mathematical disabilities (MD, n = 22), combined reading and mathematical disabilities (RD + MD, n = 28) and control peers (n = 45) were tested on behavioral inhibition with a Go/no-go task in a picture, letter and digit-modality. In contrast to children without RD, children with RD made…
Wiener, Judith; Harris, P. J.
A study of 90 learning-disabled and 94 nonlearning-disabled students, aged 9-12, found that the peer status of subjects was related to their social behavior and to their placement in the school system. These findings lend support for Judith Wiener's Reciprocity Model of Peer Status. (Author/JDD)
Plapinger, Donald; Sikora, Darryn
This paper presents a case study that used an interdisciplinary diagnostic approach to determine whether a hearing-impaired nine-year-old child had a learning disability and to determine the type of disability. The assessment included medical examination, gross and fine motor skills, psychological functioning, mental processing and achievement,…
Clayton, Jennifer K.
This case study focuses on a teacher who discloses a learning disability to her Principal. Given the teacher's challenges in retention of her content material, the district is faced with how to handle the personnel situation of an employee with a disability. This case raises questions of how to balance the needs and interests of students with the…
Menard, Jessica; Wilson, Alexander M.
This study investigated whether students with reading disabilities (RD) showed greater regression in reading skills than did non-RD students over the summer vacation. The RD group consisted of 30 students in grades 4 to 6 from a private school for students with learning disabilities and a comparison group of 30 average readers in grades 4 to 6…
Forer, Ruth K.; Keogh, Barbara K.
Learning disabled subjects functioned on both the cognitive and perceptual sections of a Time Understanding Inventory at a level three grades below their CA grade placement equivalent, suggesting that their lack of mastery of time concepts represented a generalized rather than specific disability. (KW)
Sparks, Richard L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.
This study examined the supporting documentation submitted by students with learning disability (LD) diagnoses. The participants were 210 students who were enrolled in a college support program for students with disabilities at a private liberal arts college. Findings showed that although most students submitted a psychoeducational evaluation,…
Stolz, Katherine A.
This instrumental case study employed a qualitative approach to explore ways that partnerships were built on a large, decentralized campus to support the seamless learning for students with disabilities. The number of college students with disabilities is increasing today, yet higher education lacks coordinated systems that provide a coherent…
Patterson, Margaret Becker
This study identifies adult education program characteristics associated with learning disability (LD) prevalence through statistical analyses of data from a single U.S. state (Kansas). Data indicate that several variables at the adult education (AE) program level are linked to LD prevalence, including disability incidence, educational background…
Bell, Tamekia R.
Clients with learning disabilities constitute a cultural group that has not been extensively studied. The professional literature has found that counselors have reported the need for additional training in working with clients with disabilities. This study explored counselors' beliefs and perceived knowledge regarding counseling clients with…
Reis, Sally M.; Colbert, Robert
School counselors work individually and with other educators to meet the developmental needs of all students, including those with special needs or disabilities. In this article, the results of qualitative research are summarized involving comparative case studies of university students who were both academically talented and learning disabled.…
Intended for parents, the handbook describes characteristics of learning disabled (LD) children and offers activities that the child can perform in the home to build skill proficiency. It is explained that the activities are designed to relieve the parent and child of constant awareness of the disability, to avoid use of special materials and…
Abreu-Ellis, Carla; Ellis, Jason; Hayes, Richard
This paper discusses the results of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) administered to college students in order to identify similarities and differences between time of diagnosis of a learning disability and the development of learning strategies related to will, self-regulation, and skill components. Findings indicate that early…
Guerrera, Claudia Patrizia
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) with learning-disabled (LD) students. Twenty-four students (12 dyads) classified as LD and attending a school for the learning-disabled participated in the study. Students engaged in either a computer-based environment involving BioWorld, a hospital simulation designed to teach biology students problem-solving skills, or a paper-and-pencil version based on the computer program. A hybrid model of learning was adopted whereby students were provided with direct instruction on the digestive system prior to participating in a problem-solving activity. Students worked in dyads and solved three problems involving the digestive system in either a computerized or a paper-and-pencil condition. The experimenter acted as a coach to assist students throughout the problem-solving process. A follow-up study was conducted, one month later, to measure the long-term learning gains. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze three types of data: process data, outcome data, and follow-up data. Results from the process data showed that all students engaged in effective collaboration and became more systematic in their problem solving over time. Findings from the outcome and follow-up data showed that students in both treatment conditions, made both learning and motivational gains and that these benefits were still evident one month later. Overall, results demonstrated that the computer facilitated students' problem solving and scientific reasoning skills. Some differences were noted in students' collaboration and the amount of assistance required from the coach in both conditions. Thus, PBL is an effective learning approach with LD students in science, regardless of the type of learning environment. These results have implications for teaching science to LD students, as well as for future designs of educational software for this population.
Taymans, Juliana M.; Swanson, H. Lee; Schwarz, Robin L.; Gregg, Noel; Hock, Michael; Gerber, Paul J.
Findings from "Learning to Achieve: A Review of the Research Literature on Serving Adults With Learning Disabilities" will inform a new professional development program to be offered to practitioners and others working with adults with learning disabilities (LD). The six topics covered in the review--assessment, English language learners,…
Sharp, Linda Schaffner
Project Heroes is a humanities program for learning disabled children which is designed to maximize four principles--appreciation of process, acknowledgement of independence, development of a sense of worth, and skill acquisition. (SB)
Weisgerber, Robert A.; Rubin, David P.
Basic principles of effective software implementation with learning disabled students are discussed. A prototype software package is described that is specifically designed to help develop discriminatory skills in recognizing letter shapes and letter combinations. (JW)
Describes a six-credit course to prepare learning disabled students for technical writing. During the course, students develop an increased level of metacognition, computer literacy, and an understanding of choice theory. (JOW)
Vallecorsa, Ada L.; And Others
This article describes a process-oriented writing program for use with learning-disabled students at all grade levels. Strategies for helping students at the planning stage, the drafting stage, and the evaluation and revision stage are offered. (DB)
Rosenberg, B S; Gaier, E L
The Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory (CSEI) was administered to 23 Ss diagnosed to have learning disabilities, and normally achieving seventh graders (N = 70) to investigate: a) whether differences exist between the self-esteem of the adolescent with learning disabilities and the normally achieving adolescent, b) the dimensions of self concept in which these differences occur, and c) the relationship between self concept and the number of years in the special classroom for the adolescent with learning disabilities. The data were fitted to a 2 X 2 (ability X school) fixed effects non-orthogonal multivariate analysis of variance model. A significant difference (p less than .05) in "social self-peer" self concept favoring the "normally" achieving S's was found. A trend was evidenced for more negative "general self" and "school-academic" self concepts for the learning disabilities sample. Number of years in the special class did not appear associated with self concept as measured by the CSEI.
A recurring theme within the literature is gaps in the delivery of services for people with a learning disability living in the community. These gaps occur between health professionals, primary and secondary care and specialisms within nursing. Gaps also exist between social service policy and implementation, health and social care. Recent national and local reports have sought to address these issues by promoting ways for health and social services to work in partnership. The theme of health promotion is highlighted in all these documents, but implementation of health promotion has been firmly placed within the boundaries of primary care. This poses a dilemma for primary care: does the primary care team or a more specialist community learning disability team provide better care for people with a learning disability? This article summarizes strategies and policies within the literature and difficulties that need to be considered when offering a service to people with a learning disability. PMID:11927898
McIntyre, Curtis W.; And Others
To test the suggestion that a deficit in selective attention is characteristic of learning disabled (LD) but not hyperactive (H) children, 72 students (12 LDH, 12 H, and 36 normal Ss) were timed on visual search tasks. (Author)
People with learning disabilities may have additional healthcare needs compared to the general population, and the NHS faces challenges in addressing these needs. Scotland has many remote and rural communities, and residents of these communities can encounter difficulties in accessing healthcare resources. This article considers Scotland's healthcare policy in relation to remote and rural areas, and how effective it is in meeting the needs of people with learning disabilities in these communities.
The oral health of people with learning disabilities is often compromised, which has a deleterious effect on their well-being. This article explores the need for specialist intervention. Barriers to effective care are scrutinised and potential solutions are suggested. As many people with learning disabilities are reliant upon their carers for the maintenance of their oral health, the article concludes with an analysis of advice to carers.
Shalev, R S; Manor, O; Kerem, B; Ayali, M; Badichi, N; Friedlander, Y; Gross-Tsur, V
Whereas current evidence attests to a genetic component in the etiology of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the role of genetics in developmental dyscalculia (DC). The objective of this study was to determine the familial aggregation of DC. Siblings and parents of children with DC were assessed for arithmetic, reading and attention disorders. The criteria for DC were an IQ higher than 85, poor performance in arithmetic, and a significant discrepancy between arithmetic achievement and IQ. The study group was composed of 39 children with DC, 21 mothers, 22 fathers, 90 siblings, and 16 second-degree relatives. We found that 66% of mothers, 40% of fathers, 53% of siblings, and 44% of second-degree relatives had DC. The intraclass correlation between the sib pairs was .27. A 95% confidential interval (CI) for the prevalence of DC among siblings of DC probands (see Note 1) ranged from 40% to 64%, indicating a familial prevalence almost tenfold higher than expected for the general population. IQ and attention problems were not risk factors for DC. We conclude that DC, like other learning disabilities, has a significant familial aggregation, suggesting a role for genetics in the evolution of this disorder. PMID:15497272
Young, Glenn; Gerber, Paul J.
Focuses on environmental issues that affect learning disabilities and provides a rationale for learning disabilities as a public health and economic-risk issue. The link between learning disabilities and poverty and the impact of low birth weight and lead poisoning are discussed. Action steps are provided. (CR)
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Barry, Melissa; Brueggeman, Amber; Cavanagh, Sarah; Devine, Katie; Hekimoglu, Linda; Vess, Sarah
The Individuals with Disabilities Act (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act; IDEIA, 2004) has been reauthorized, and new parameters for defining learning disabilities (LD) have been established that provide more flexibility for corresponding state and local regulations. The field now has a unique opportunity to shape the…
The identification and diagnosis of a learning disability in the college student are complex tasks. They constitute important tasks when we realize that 720,000 college students (6 percent, if we assume that there are 12 million in college today) may be learning disabled ( Astin 1983). It is evident that children with learning disabilities are at risk for psychological and social problems in adolescence and young adulthood ( Bellak 1979; Crabtree 1981; Cruikshank et al. 1980; Horowitz 1981). There is a risk that the learning disability will not be identified, and, hence, the problem will be treated as only a psychogenic one. Unfortunately, this will tend to contribute not only to the student's feelings of guilt, stupidity, and inability to change but also to the clinician's sense of frustration. The description of the learning disabled college student and the two-step identification process in this chapter provides guidelines to aid understanding of these issues. Most colleges have not yet come to grips with what it means to have learning disabled students in terms of teaching, academic evaluation, diagnosis, and college counseling. To do so is important not only because of recent laws that guarantee equal educational opportunity for these students but also because a learning disability, whether overt or covert, can profoundly affect a person's educational and psychosocial development. It has often been said that the capacity to love and work is the foundation for the healthy adult. It is easy to see how academic learning is the work of the college student and educational success or failure is linked integrally to self-esteem and self-love.
Lloyd, Jennifer L; Coulson, Neil S
Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women with intellectual disabilities to access cervical screening in order to examine their role in promoting attendance and elucidate potential barriers and facilitators to uptake. Ten participants recruited from a specialist learning disability service completed a semi-structured interview and data were analysed using experiential thematic analysis. Identified individual barriers included limited health literacy, negative attitudes and beliefs and competing demands; barriers attributed to primary care professionals included time pressures, limited exposure to people with intellectual disabilities and lack of appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Attendance at cervical screening was facilitated by prolonged preparation work undertaken by learning disability nurses, helpful clinical behaviours in the primary care context and effective joint working.
Treloar, L L
Despite the author's experiences as a nurse and parent of a young adult with physical disabilities, the author had much to learn about the culture surrounding disability. The contemporary "minority-group" model for disability replaces a medical model that views people with disabilities in need of remediation. Disability rights advocates often criticize health professionals, citing erroneous assumptions and failure to understand the perspectives of disabled persons. The author illustrates applications for clinical practice by health professionals with excerpts from a qualitative study that explored the spiritual experiences of adults with physical disabilities and family members as well as their responses to lived experience with disability.
Schmidt, Majda; Prah, Alenka; Cagran, Branka
Social skills of students with special needs play a very important role in their successful integration into inclusive learning environments. The aim of present empirical research was to establish whether students with learning disabilities (LD) attending grades 7-9 of regular primary school in Slovenia experience difficulties in social skills…
Taking public transit can make anyone nervous, especially in a large or medium-sized city where there are many different bus lines going many different places. The author's daughter, Anna, has multiple learning disabilities and may never learn to drive, but she wants to be as independent as possible so the author taught her to ride the bus. This…
Oyler, James D.; Obrzut, John E.; Asbjornsen, Arve E.
The authors of this current study compared the memory performance of adolescent students with specific reading disabilities (RD) with that of typical adolescent readers on a newly developed verbal learning test, the "Bergen-Tucson Verbal Learning Test" (BTVLT). This multiple trial test was designed to measure memory acquisition, retention,…
Washington Univ., Seattle.
This brief paper considers ways in which people with learning disabilities can benefit from both mainstream and specialized computer hardware and software. First, definitions are provided of terminology, including terms such as dysgraphia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia, non-verbal learning disorder, and dyslexia. Discussion of the role of assistive…
This paper reports the findings of a study which aimed to explore the learning and behavioral characteristics of students with Learning Disabilities (LDs) in Jordan. Specifically, variables that related to challenging behaviors, school's type, and gender differences were investigated. Four resource room teachers in public and private schools were…
Hashey, Andrew I.; Stahl, Skip
The growing presence of K-12 online education programs is a trend that promises to increase flexibility, improve efficiency, and foster engagement in learning. Students with disabilities can benefit from dynamic online educational environments, but only to the extent that they can access and participate in the learning process. As students with…
Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.
Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…
This article provides an introduction to theoretical ideas and practices from the so-called "philosophers of difference"--Foucault, Derrida, and Deleuze and Guattari--as an invitation to think differently about the construction of learning disability and to envision new forms of learning. Two key concepts, Foucault's transgression and Deleuze and…
Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia
The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…
This article discusses the increase in the rate and intensity of child maltreatment, defines the types of maltreatment (physical, sexual, psychological and neglect), their possible effects on learning, and school interventions that can assist the children with learning disabilities. The need for a structured classroom environment is emphasized.…
Silver, Archie A.
The paper describes Florida's SEARCH and TEACH program designed to prevent learning disabilities and their emotional consequences in children. SEARCH, a scanning test to identify kindergarten children at risk for problems with academic learning, is based upon the importance of age appropriate functions of spatial orientation and temporal…
Searching the Web with Google to find information about technology and learning disabilities produces more than a thousand links. This creates a dilemma for educators who want to learn about current technology-based ideas for use with students with special needs. You may be a technology coordinator, staff developer, or administrator looking for…
Alonso, Lou; And Others
The recent trend in special education toward individualized teaching based on the diagnosis of specific learning disabilities is reviewed. The concern of educators for emphasis on psychoeducational diagnosis to determine learning and behavioral problems, and their remediation, rather than primarily on classification and categorization along…
Smith, Sean J.; Basham, James D.
With the growth in blended and fully online K-12 instruction, all students, including those with disabilities, are finding online learning a viable option to address learner variability. Personalized learning or the individualized education program appears to align well with the many features of blended and fully online instruction. The purpose of…
Peck, D G
This paper will primarily examine four concepts: emotional learning disabilities, adolescence, self-esteem, and the social-psychological concept of "significant others." Problems of definition will be discussed, with a literature review, and an attempt will be made to integrate all four of the above-mentioned concepts. The emphasis will be in applying a sociological perspective to an educational and growing problem: how do we (sic) educate students with some type of learning disability? What, if any, extra-curricular factors potentially affect in school learning behavior(s) of adolescents?
A scheme of classification is suggested for physicians faced with clinicians' numerous and varied prescriptions for remedial management of children with learning disabilities. Three explanatory models of the causes of learning disability -- the difference, deficit and delay models -- and two strategies of management -- the process-oriented and goal-oriented -- are delineated. Remedial methods are classified according to their implicit explanatory model and the clinician's adherence to the process-oriented or goal-oriented approach. A pragmatic conservative, goal-oriented strategy is advocated, in which individualized instruction is tailored to the child's current abilities and learning requirements. PMID:1201543
Brody, L E; Mills, C J
Many people have difficulty comprehending that a child can be gifted and also have learning disabilities. As a result, children with special needs that result from both their high abilities and their learning problems are rarely identified and are often poorly served. This article explores the current policies and practices with regard to defining, identifying, and educating this population. Recommendations are included that would help ensure that students who are gifted and have learning disabilities receive the intervention needed to help them achieve their full potential.
Schere, R A; Richardson, E; Bialer, I
An operational definition of "learning disabilities" is presented from the standpoint that classificatory psychoeducational definitions must ultimately relate to educational processes. Thus the condition should be described in terms of abilities crucial to educational achievement, and noneducational criteria should not be employed. It is pointed out that the most generally accepted current definition--which identifies children as "learning-disabled" on the basis of behavioral criteria, while excluding others because of etiological and other nonbehavioral factors--overlooks functional similarities among such groups as educable mentally retarded and and emotionally disturbed children. These similarities warrant the inclusion under the rubric of "learning-disabled" of some children who may also be grouped within other diagnostic categories. Consequently, the profferred definition is based on a primary concern with day-to-day learning and management issues. Concepts subtended by the definition are operationally defined, and its relationship to programming is discussed.
Werner, Emmy E.
This article traces the development of 22 children with learning disabilities and 22 controls at ages 1, 2, 10, 18, and 32 years. Most learning-disabled individuals made a successful adaptation to adult life, with marriage, divorce, and employment rates similar to the cohort as a whole. Clusters of protective factors were identified. (Author/DB)
Karande, Sunil; Sholapurwala, Rukhshana; Kulkarni, Madhuri
Specific learning disability (dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia) afflicts 5-15% of school-going children. Over the last decade; awareness about this invisible handicap has grown in India. However, much needs to be done to ensure that each afflicted child gets an opportunity to achieve his or her full academic potential in regular mainstream schools. In order to achieve this ideal scenario, all regular classroom teachers should be sensitized to suspect, and trained to screen for this disability when the child is in primary school. School managements should become proactive to set up resource rooms and employ special educators to ensure that these children receive regular and affordable remedial education; and be diligent in ensuring that these children get the mandatory provisions both during school and board examinations. Once specific learning disability is recognized as a disability by the Government of India, these children with the backing of the Right to Education Act, would be able to benefit significantly. PMID:21813921
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Determining the existence of a specific learning... Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.309 Determining the existence of a specific learning disability. (a) The group described in § 300.306 may determine that a child has a specific learning disability,...
Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory, the case study teachers demonstrated characteristics of successful teachers of diverse learners developed by Lynch (2000). Overall, the qualitative findings revealed that the case study teachers were unsure how to provide equitable science teaching practices to all students, particularly to students with learning disabilities. They provided students with a variety of learning experiences that entailed high expectations for all; however, these experiences were similar for all students. Had the teachers fully implemented equitable science teaching practices, students would have had multiple options for taking in the information and making sense of it in each lesson. Teaching that includes using a variety of validated practices that take into account students' individualized learning needs can promote aspects of equitable science teaching practices. Finally, this study provides implications for teacher education programs and professional development programs. As teachers implement science education reform efforts related to equitable science teaching practices, both teacher education programs and professional development programs should include opportunities for teachers to reflect on their beliefs about how students with learning disabilities learn and provide them with a variety of validated teaching practices that will assist them in teaching students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom while implementing science reform efforts.
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the specific viewpoint of the disability rights social movement of people with physical disabilities to other conditions such as intellectual disabilities,…
People who have a learning disability are vulnerable to poverty. Given that poverty has a negative impact on mental and physical health, this should be an area of concern for learning disability nurses. Historically, however, this is an area of practice which has not received much attention. It is important that learning disability nurses are aware of the impact which poverty can have on the lives of their clients and that they incorporate this understanding into their practice. Interventions which can be implemented at the level of individual clients, groups and society to tackle poverty and its effects are proposed. It is concluded that, at present, little is known about the extent to which such a perspective underpins practice or about the extent to which poverty is addressed in pre- and post- registration educational courses. The need for further research and development is noted.
Hoover, J J
This article discusses an area of education for students with learning disabilities that is often neglected. The topic of study skills education, although not new to education in general, has only recently been emphasized in the literature for students with handicaps. An overview of the study skill proficiency (or lack of it) of students with learning disabilities is provided, followed by the presentation of 15 student study skill strategies designed to assist students in their use of various study skills. These strategies may be employed appropriately and effectively with many students with learning disabilities provided that individual needs and abilities are considered. The article concludes with a discussion about the implementation of a study skills program, including guidelines to follow in this process. PMID:2769066
Starrett, Barbara E.; de Boer, Sonja R.; Tollefson, Julie M.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 (IDEA 1997) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004) define specific learning disabilities in a similar manner. "The term "specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in…
Weis, Robert; Sykes, Lauryn; Unadkat, Devanshi
Many college students receiving accommodations for specific learning disability (SLD) do not meet objective criteria for the disorder. Furthermore, whether students meet criteria depends on the diagnostic decision model used by their clinician. The authors examined whether the relationship between diagnostic model and likelihood of meeting objective criteria is moderated by students' postsecondary institution. They administered a comprehensive psychoeducational battery to 98 undergraduates receiving accommodations for SLD at 2-year public colleges, 4-year public universities, and 4-year private colleges. Most 4-year public university students failed to meet objective criteria for SLD. In contrast, most 4-year private college students met objective criteria based on significant ability-achievement discrepancies, and most 2-year public college students met objective criteria based on normative deficits in achievement and cognitive processing. Students who met objective criteria also differed significantly in degree of academic impairment. The authors' findings indicate qualitative differences in SLD across postsecondary settings and have implications for the identification and mitigation of SLD in college students. PMID:21421937
Presented at the First National Conference on Learning Disabilities in Ottawa, Canada in October, 1977, the article discusses learning disabilities and their appropriate special educational services in Canada, focusing on the processes of categorization and labeling. (DLS)
Solan, Harold A.; Springer, Florence E.
The Learning Disabilities Unit of New York's State College of Optometry, providing testing and research for learning disabled adults and children and professional instruction and clinical experience for students of optometry and related fields, is described. (MSE)
Sauter, Diana; Beach, Cheryl
Discusses the usefulness of psychoeducational evaluation in providing career counseling for students with learning disabilities. Describes processes for psychological testing and diagnosis of learning disabilities and the use of results in career planning. (JOW)
... processes information. They do not reflect a person's intelligence. Also, they are not the same as learning problems due to intellectual or developmental disabilities, or emotional, vision, hearing, or motor skills problems. Learning disabilities ...
Reviews approaches for identification and diagnosis of specific learning disabilities and assessment strategies for elucidating functional and vocational deficits associated with specific learning disabilities. Discusses recommendations for provision of comprehensive assessment services. (Author/CM)
Giangreco, Michael F.; Doyle, Mary Beth
Italy has a long history of including students with disabilities in general education classes. Their efforts offer unique perspectives and practices from which other countries may benefit. The article highlights four notable attributes about the Italian approach and discusses implications for American schools.
Gerber, Paul J.; Batalo, Cecilia G.; Achola, Edwin O.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and its amendments have been in existence for a little more than twenty years. Title One, which pertains to employment, has had a bearing on employment for persons with disabilities, particularly the high incidence category of learning disabilities, who for the most part work in competitive…
Haddad, Frederick A.
Results of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) and Bender-Gestalt Test were compared for a sample of learning disabled children that included 24 blacks and 24 whites; mean age 9 years. A significant correlation coefficient was found between the K-ABC Simultaneous Scale and the Bender-Gestalt Test error score. Implications of these…
Sigmon, Scott B.
This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…
Mammarella, Irene C; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were tested. In all, 15 children with NLD, 15 with RD, and 15 with TD were administered self-report questionnaires to assess different types of anxiety and depression symptoms. Both NLD and RD children reported experiencing more generalized and social anxiety than TD, the NLD children reported more severe anxiety about school and separation than TD, and the children with RD had worse depressive symptoms than those with NLD or TD.
Staels, Eva; Van den Broeck, Wim
In this study, we examined whether orthographic learning can be demonstrated in disabled readers learning to read in a transparent orthography (Dutch). In addition, we tested the effect of the use of text-to-speech software, a new form of direct instruction, on orthographic learning. Both research goals were investigated by replicating Share's self-teaching paradigm. A total of 65 disabled Dutch readers were asked to read eight stories containing embedded homophonic pseudoword targets (e.g., Blot/Blod), with or without the support of text-to-speech software. The amount of orthographic learning was assessed 3 or 7 days later by three measures of orthographic learning. First, the results supported the presence of orthographic learning during independent silent reading by demonstrating that target spellings were correctly identified more often, named more quickly, and spelled more accurately than their homophone foils. Our results support the hypothesis that all readers, even poor readers of transparent orthographies, are capable of developing word-specific knowledge. Second, a negative effect of text-to-speech software on orthographic learning was demonstrated in this study. This negative effect was interpreted as the consequence of passively listening to the auditory presentation of the text. We clarify how these results can be interpreted within current theoretical accounts of orthographic learning and briefly discuss implications for remedial interventions. PMID:23686998
Gerber, Paul J.; Batalo, Cecilia G.; Achola, Edwin O.
The impact of employment laws pertaining to individuals with learning disabilities in Canada and dyslexia in the UK were investigated via the extant research literature. Currently, there is very little research in this area despite Canada and the UK having laws in effect for decades. Surprisingly, their laws have been revamped despite an absence…
Learning disabilities (LD) has been recognized as a category of special education in Taiwanese law since 1984, and policies ensure educational services for children and youth who have LD. The official definition and identification criteria established in Taiwan's laws closely correspond with those of the United States, but practice differs,…
Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.
Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods…
Bradley, Renee, Ed.; Danielson, Louis, Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.
This volume on the identification of learning disabilities (LD) offers chapters that provide comprehensive reviews of the research evidence underlying different aspects of LD and was the product of a 2001 general conference followed up by a small research forum. Contributors include researchers, parents, practitioners, and administrators. A final…
Zirkel, Perry A.
Compared to students from affluent public and prep schools, few inner-city students receive extra time or other accommodations when taking high-stakes tests. The growth in "false positives" among affluent youth may partly stem from nonspecific definitions under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Fairness is being undermined. (MLH)
Siegel, S; Gaylord-Ross, R
This follow-up study examines the employment success of young adults with learning and other mild disabilities. The study questioned the employee with disabilities, his or her parents, and the employer on a number of vocationally related items. A four-factor model is advanced to explain job success. The factors include job match and accommodation, social acceptance, work attitude, and special services. Participants in a total of 41 job situations were queried with 38 completed triads (employee with mild disability, employer, family). The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data. Although an aggregate of the four factors correlated significantly (p less than .01), job match proved to have the most significant (p less than .01) relationship with the outcome variable. The results are interpreted in light of the need to deliver and understand the types of supported employment services for adults with mild disabilities.
This directory is designed to provide access to appropriate remedial resources offered by or through private schools for children (from ages 2-22) with specific learning disabilities. The directory lists 305 schools in three sections: (1) private schools for students with learning disabilities; (2) schools that have a learning disability program…
Herron, Daniel; Priest, Helena M.; Read, Sue
Background: There has been an increase in inclusive research in the learning disability field; however, this has not been reflected within learning disability and dementia research, where little is known from the perspective of people with learning disabilities. This paper will define inclusive research, explore reasons for the dearth of inclusive…
Learning disability is a complex phenomenon to understand. There are many connotations of learning disabilities thus even today it creates confusion in the mind of the general public and the professionals. Learning disability is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written…
This study was designed to identify predictors of behavioural disorders in children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in the United Arab Emirates public school system. It examined the relative contributions of child characteristic (i.e. presence of learning disability, gender, age), parents' socio-demographics…
Mafuba, Kay; Gates, Bob
International studies have shown poor uptake of public health initiatives by people with learning disabilities. In addition, studies have shown that people with learning disabilities experience poor access to public health services. The contribution of community learning disability nurses in meeting the public health needs of people with learning…
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
Evans, Mary K.
This dissertation presents the results of a meta-analysis of the empirical literature on delinquent behavior among children with learning disabilities in comparison to their non-learning disabled peers. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria and results indicated that children with learning disabilities (n = 3,202) have higher mean scores on…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This paper was developed as a result of a 1999 conference on substance abuse and learning disabilities. An introductory chapter urges early identification of learning disabilities and appropriate treatment for both problems when they co-exist. The second chapter discusses the differences between learning disabilities and behavioral disorders, the…
This research aimed to illuminate the experiences of adults with learning disabilities of the reflecting team, in the context of their systemic family therapy. Five adults with learning disabilities were recruited from one community learning disability team. A qualitative design using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was appropriate…
Lamberg, Catherine Denise
Learning-disabled students face ongoing challenges in higher education. Despite efforts to promote recruitment and retention of students with learning disabilities to trade schools, colleges, and universities, barriers to enrollment and academic achievement persist. Barriers for learning-disabled students are not fully understood and might be…
Lyon, G. Reid, Ed.
This book offers 27 papers addressing critical issues in the assessment of students with all kinds of learning disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Critical Issues in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (G. Reid Lyon); "A Matrix of Decision Points in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (Barbara K. Keogh);…
Bireley, Marlene; And Others
A body of psychoeducational data were gathered on 11 children (ages 8-14) who were gifted and learning disabled. Results from brain imaging and vision testing for hyperacuity and contrast sensitivity suggest that the interaction of high ability and learning disability results in brain and vision patterns unique to the learning-disabled/gifted…
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…
Lovett, Benjamin J; Sparks, Richard L
Much has been written about gifted students with learning disabilities, but there have been few large-scale empirical investigations, and the concept has proven controversial. The authors reviewed the available empirical literature on these students, focusing on (a) the criteria by which the students were identified and (b) the students' performance on standardized tests of ability and achievement. In addition, the test scores of these students were aggregated to determine typical performance levels. A total of 46 empirical articles were reviewed, and major findings included wide variability in identification criteria across studies, frequent reliance on dubious methods of learning disability identification, and a lack of academic impairment among the identified students. Implications for the "gifted/LD" category are discussed. PMID:22057201
The lifelong process of career development poses special challenges for people with learning disabilities (LD). Literature on employment issues for adults with LD frames on-the-job problems in terms of individual deficits or recasts the issues as a function of the significant societal barriers faced by those who do not fit the norm. Research on…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Adolescents becoming formally involved with a juvenile court because of school-related behavior and discipline problems is a phenomenon known as the school-to-prison pipeline. Adolescents with learning disabilities are disproportionately represented within this pipeline. A study was conducted to review the outcomes for a population of youthful…
Sheridan, Lynnaire; Kotevski, Suzanne
This research examines the learning experience of university students who were tutored by a teacher with quadriplegia mixed type cerebral palsy. It was inspired by Pritchard's [2010. "Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers." "Journal of Social Inclusion" 1 (1): 43-51] argument that the presence of people with a…
Although most learning disabled (LD) adult learners have a strong desire to enhance their writing skills, many obstacles hinder their success. Characteristics of LD students found in their writing or actions include the following: frustration; poor study/note taking skills; test anxiety; lack of social skills; a difficult time following oral…
Freund, Lisa Ann
The effects of two instructional methods on the questioning strategies of 40 10- to 12-year-old learning disabled children were investigated. Results indicated that both the question formulation instruction and the cognitive modeling/self-verbalization instruction were effective in improving their questioning concerning novel problems. (Author/DB)
MacIntyre, Robert B.; And Others
The study examined the process by which diagnostic data on children thought to have learning disabilities (LD) are generated and used. Emphasis was placed on the validity of test instruments in common use in the field. Since part of the practical validity of any instrument used to identify an LD child rests on the validity of the LD construct…
Harth, Robert; Burns, Carol
This study investigated the vocational outcomes for a group of young adults with multiple learning disabilities who attended a two-year post-secondary program. One hundred graduates of the program representing the first 15 years of the program participated in the study. Results indicated that large numbers of graduates were employed in both full…
Goldey, Ellen S.
Provides an overview of presentations that were included in the Medical Symposium at the 1998 Learning Disabilities Association conference. The symposium addressed vestibular control and eye movement, postural sway and balance, cerebellar dysfunction, the role of the frontal lobe, developmental coordination disorder, and sensory integration…
Tomblin, J. Bruce
Research on learning disabilities (LD) depends upon a conceptual framework that specifies what it should explain, what kinds of data are needed, and how these data are to be arranged in order to provide a meaningful explanation. An argument is made that LD are no different in this respect than any other form of human illness. In this article, a…
Singleton, Sabrina M.; Filce, Hollie Gabler
Research suggests students with learning disabilities often have trouble connecting new and prior knowledge, distinguishing essential and nonessential information, and applying comprehension strategies (DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Vaughn & Edmonds, 2006). Graphic organizers have been suggested as tools educators can use to facilitate critical…
Lewis, Rena B.
Surveys the current status of assistive technology for individuals with learning disabilities and considers future promises and potential problems. A model is presented for conceptualizing assistive technology in terms of the types of barriers it helps to surmount. Efficacy research is reviewed for word processing, computer-based instruction,…
Waldie, Karen; Spreen, Otfried
Sixty-five subjects diagnosed as learning disabled and reporting police contact by the median age of 18 were interviewed at age 25. Analysis on parent and subject variables correctly classified 75% of subjects into persisting and nonpersisting delinquent groups and revealed that personality characteristics such as impulsivity and poor judgment…
Minimal employable skills, poor work habits, and substance abuse are problems that often result in released female offenders' recidivating within 36 months of their prison release. Recidivism is further compounded when the female offender suffers from a learning disability. Research suggests that correctional education experiences do not…
Williams, Peter; Hennig, Christian
Much relevant internet-mediated information is inaccessible to people with learning disabilities because of difficulties in navigating the web. This paper reports on the methods undertaken to determine how information can be optimally presented for this cohort. Qualitative work is outlined where attributes relating to site layout affecting…
Edwards, Joseph S.
Available from: Psychonomic Society, 1108 W. 34th Street, Austin, Texas 78705. Studied with 10 learning disabled children (5-9 years old) was the development of self-management skills without direct teacher supervision through the use of operant reinforcement procedures. (IM)
Jones, Vita L.
Schools and classrooms, if well conceived, can serve as protective environments for the positive development of African American students with learning disabilities (LD) (Keogh & Weisner, 1993). Many African American students who lack resiliency often struggle with life's challenges and may be predisposed to negative outcomes in life, so the focus…
McGregor, Karla K.; Langenfeld, Natalie; Van Horne, Sam; Oleson, Jacob; Anson, Matthew; Jacobson, Wayne
To explore the university experiences of students with learning disabilities (LD), 63,802 responses to the 2014 Student Experience in the Research University Survey were analyzed. Compared to other students, those with self-reported LD (5.96 percent) had difficulty with assignments and had more obstacles caused by nonacademic responsibilities and…
This literature review and primary qualitative research explores therapeutic role from the perspective of Community Learning Disability Nurses. Semi-structured interviews, based on Critical Incident Technique ("Psychol Bull", 51, 1954, 327), and descriptive phenomenological methodology were adopted to elicit data amenable to systematic content…
In these days of the achievement gap, evidence-based practices, and accountability issues, Julie Allan's "Complicating, not explicating: Taking up philosophy in learning disability research" challenges everyone to think seriously about how well the field is meeting the mission of providing for the academic and social needs of students with…
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Gischlar, Karen L.
The authors encourage those in the field of school psychology to consider the use of learning disabilities assessment practices in relation to specific American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists ethical codes and in regard to the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association,…
Hassan, Abdulhameed S.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.
This study investigated the ability of discriminate variables (perceptual-motor, hyperactivity disorder, neurological and psychological skills) to distinguish between normal (n = 68) and students with learning disabilities (n = 72) in fourth grade. Three instruments were developed: perceptual-motor scale, hyperactivity disorder scale, skills test…
Devens, John S.
Audiological assessments were performed on 20 learning disabled students (6-16 years old). Results of Speech Reception Threshold testing and Discrimination Testing indicated that Ss generally scored lower on discrimination tasks, were more affected by the introduction of noise, and showed a greater variability in discrimination performance than 10…
Witzel, Bradley S.; Riccomini, Paul J.; Schneider, Elke
Students with learning disabilities struggle to acquire essential mathematical concepts and skills, especially at the secondary level. One effective approach to improving secondary math performance supported by research is the concrete-to-representational-to-abstract (CRA) sequence of instruction. Although CRA is an evidenced-based instructional…
Fulk, Barbara Mushinski
This article describes instructional procedures for helping students with learning disabilities become more effective mnemonic keyword strategy users. The procedures involve providing a rationale, providing explicit strategy-attribution instruction, modeling strategy use with think-alouds, providing verbal practice, providing guided practice with…
McLoone, Barbara B.; And Others
Effects of two types of memory strategy instruction--mnemonic or directed rehearsal--on the vocabulary acquisition of 60 seventh and eighth grade learning disabled students were compared. Among results were that subjects instructed in the mnemonic method significantly outperformed subjects instructed in the direct rehearsal strategy. (Author/DB)
Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Zirkel, Perry A.; Danielson, Louis
Specific learning disability (SLD) identification and eligibility practices are evolving and sometimes contentious. This article describes the historical context and current status of the SLD definition, legislation, regulation, and case law related to the identification of students eligible for special education services. The first part traces…
This publication contains self-esteem exercises and a learning disabilities (LD) curriculum for students with LD in adult basic education programs. The 37 student exercises are designed to build the self-esteem of students with LD. They include self-evaluations, profiles, and checklists. Topics covered are success, decision making, problem…
Harper, Gregory F.; Maheady, Larry
Peer-mediated instruction holds particular promise as an effective educational strategy for children with learning disabilities. When properly implemented, peer-mediated instructional approaches permit active engagement, frequent opportunities to respond, immediate error correction, prompt feedback on the correctness of responses, and motivational…
Isles, A. R.; Humby, T.
Background: It is now widely acknowledged that there may be a genetic contribution to learning disability and neuropsychiatric disorders, stemming from evidence provided by family, twin and adoption studies, and from explicit syndromic conditions. Recently it has been recognized that in some cases the presentation of genetic syndromes (or discrete…
Hord, Casey; Newton, Jill A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate three elementary mathematics curricula to examine the accessibility for students with learning disabilities (LD) with regards to challenges associated with working memory. We chose to focus on students' experiences when finding the area of composite shapes due to the multiple steps involved for…
The paper focuses on the growth and development of special education for learning disabled children in Chile with particular emphasis on the contribution of child psychiatry and pediatric neurology departments of hospitals and the contribution of universities in training specialists. Initial sections provide a background on primary education in…
Dunn, Michael W.
A debate exists in the research community about replacing the traditional IQ/achievement discrepancy method for learning disability identification with a "response-to-intervention model". This new assessment paradigm uses a student's level of improvement with small-group or individual programming to determine a possible need for classification and…
Wilson, Cynthia L.; Sindelar, Paul T.
This study compared the effectiveness of 3 procedures for teaching 62 elementary students with learning disabilities to identify the correct algorithm in solving addition and subtraction word problems. The group receiving strategy teaching and sequencing practice problems and the group receiving strategy teaching only scored higher than…
Pennington, Bruce F.
Comprehensively reviews known examples of genetically influenced learning disabilities and speech and language disorders, including familial dyslexia, stuttering, and other speech and language disorders, as well as sex-chromosome anomalies, treated PKU, and minor auto-somal anomalies. (Author/RH)
Mesler, Judith Lee
Learning-disabled students in an after-school program were provided with remedial instruction using precision teaching. The instructional program sought to increase performance of five students (grades 4-8) in specific academic skills by 50%. Skills included, among others, spelling, capitalization and punctuation, reading, and multiplication. The…
Lambie, Glenn W.; Milsom, Amy
Students diagnosed with learning disabilities experience many challenges that school counselors may address through narrative therapy. Narrative therapy is a postmodern, social constructionist approach based on the theoretical construct that individuals create their notions of truth and meaning of life through interpretive stories. This article…
Lovett, Benjamin J.; Lewandowski, Lawrence J.
More than 20 years ago, psychologists first described gifted students with learning disabilities (LD). In the past decade, several sets of identification criteria have been proposed for this population. Many of the suggested assessment practices are unsupported by research in psychoeducational assessment, and some have been directly contradicted…
Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; And Others
This paper examines cognitive processing problems associated with attention deficit disorders (ADD) and their relationship to learning disabilities in elementary and secondary students. Children with ADD, medicated (N=20) and unmedicated (N=21), were compared on the Raven test of Progressive Matrices and other tests with children who had been…
Obrzut, John E.; Mahoney, Emery B.
Dichotic listening (DL) techniques have been used extensively as a non-invasive procedure to assess language lateralization among children with and without learning disabilities (LD), and with individuals who have other auditory system related brain disorders. Results of studies using DL have indicated that language is lateralized in children with…
The author reviews research on early deprivation and neglect and recounts his own experience with children whose dwarfism is attributed to abuse or neglect. The existence of specific learning disability and diminished IQ in many of these children is cited. The author suggests further attention to the problem. (CL)
Barrows, Thomas S.; And Others
A detailed explicit definition of learning disability (LD) is presented in terms of the diagnostic procedures and decision points used in identifying that category among a group of juvenile delinquent and control group adolescent males. The described procedures include a review of existing records, interviews, and diagnostic assessments.…
Cole, Emma V.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.
The number of students with learning disabilities (SLD) at postsecondary institutions has tripled over the past three decades and now constitutes about 11% of undergraduate students (Joyce & Rossen, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2013). Research has found that SLD who use accommodations at their postsecondary institution are more…
Kennedy, Michael J.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were…
Higgins, Kyle, Ed.; Boone, Randall, Ed.
This collection of 12 papers addresses the application of various technologies to the education of students with learning disabilities. Also included is a CD-ROM version of the original text, which provides enhancements through digital editing such as hypertext and hypermedia links. The papers included are: (1) "Special Education Technology:…
Adelman, Kimberly A.; Adelman, Howard S.
The practice of posthumously diagnosing historical figures is discussed. Emphasis is on the unsatisfactory nature of evidence found for those diagnosed as learning-disabled or dyslexic and the possibility of other explanations for identified problems. Posthumous diagnoses of Auguste Rodin, George Patton, Thomas Edison, Woodrow Wilson, and Albert…
This newsletter contains six articles about correctional education for learning-disabled adults. In "Correctional Education: A Worthwhile Investment; An Interview with Steven Steurer," the executive director of the Correctional Education Association (CEA) explains the benefits of correctional education and some of the CEA's efforts to improve the…
Cornett-Devito, Myrna M.; Worley, David W.
Based on prior research and theory, we propose a conceptual definition of instructional communication that is holistic, transactional, expansive, and assessable. Second, we extend instructional communication research to test this definition by engaging students with learning disabilities (SWLDs) in interviews and focus groups, employing a…
Macomber, Janet A.
This paper describes an experiment with background material designed to promote problem (learning disabled) employees as human resources rather than rejects. The material is presented in the form of the transcript of a fictional advisory committee meeting attended by the human resources manager, assistant corporate counsel, training director, line…
Background: There is very little research on how and when siblings understand that they have a brother or sister with a learning disability. Research regarding young children's understanding of intelligence, suggests that they may not develop a clear understanding of ability until about 7 years of age. Method: Through interviewing parents and then…
Brody, Linda E.; Mills, Carol J.
Explores current policies and practices concerning the definition, identification, and educational needs of students who are both gifted and learning disabled. Recommendations stress the need for less rigid definitions and cutoff scores for program eligibility and the provision of a wide variety of settings (resource rooms, special classes) and…
This paper describes the once-weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a girl, called Ellie, aged eight at the start of her treatment. Ellie had a learning disability and displayed difficult behaviour at school and at home. In her therapy, Ellie grew in emotional intelligence, more in touch with and able to express her feelings. Her behaviour…
Reynolds, Sharon; Hitchcock, John
The attitudes of adult basic education faculty members toward teaching adults with learning disabilities are likely to influence the success of their students; however, there are no existing survey instruments that measure this construct or the practical knowledge faculty members should have to effectively serve the population. A new survey…
Blanton, Gloria H.
The social and emotional development of learning disabled students needs to be addressed in education programming effort. Social skills, which are essential to academic as well as social success, can be taught through such methods as role playing, games, grouping, puppetry, behavior modification, and problem-solving exercises. In addition,…
McClimens, Alex; Brennan, Siobhan; Hargreaves, Pauline
We undertook this project because we believed that hearing loss experienced by the target population was greater than the referral figures suggested. Therefore, we set up a trial service initiative designed to examine the efficacy of different referral routes into audiology services for adults with learning disability. This retrospective analysis…
Appelget, Jeanne; Matthews, Catherine E.; Hildreth, David P.; Daniel, Michael L.
This article offers a guide to teaching the history of science to students with learning disabilities and provides a lesson template designed to engage students in a specific science event from the past. Activities including hypothesis testing and an historical role-play teach the vocabulary of natural selection and evolution using the landmarked…
Kolligian, John, Jr.; Sternberg, Robert J.
The article describes the triarchic theory of human intelligence, which is composed of three subtheories: componential, experiential, and contextual. Deficient cognitive strategies and inadequate knowledge in certain domains may result from the inability of the learning disabled to selectively encode, compare, and combine information, or from an…
Gregg, Noel, Ed.; And Others
This book contains 16 chapters dealing with services for adults with learning disabilities (LDs). "Adults with LDs" (Noel Gregg, Carolyn Phillips) questions whether the prevalent paradigm that advocates the self-contained individual is an obstacle to adults with LDs. "Paradigms" (Noel Gregg, Beth Ferri) describes theories that have contributed to…
Judge, Sharon; Watson, Silvana M. R.
Using longitudinal data from the first 6 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the authors examined mathematics achievement and growth trajectories by learning disability (LD) subgroups. The 2-level (time-student) growth curve model showed that lower levels of mathematics achievement were already evident at…
James, Jessica Everett
Students with specific learning disabilities (SLD), such as emotional disturbances, and speech or language impairment, attending high schools located in the rural Mississippi Delta lack media literacy skills that could impact the student's ability to successfully graduate from high school. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify…
Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini
Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…
This monograph briefly describes a sampling of tools and technologies that can be used by adults with learning disabilities to improve their functional capabilities in employment, educational, or personal settings. Stressed is the importance of evaluating each technology in terms of the individual's unique profile, the function to be performed,…
Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda
This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused…
Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison
The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on…
Stanovich, Keith E.
This commentary supports Linda Siegel's challenge to the learning disabilities field (in EC221505) to produce data indicating that dyslexic readers differ from other poor readers in their cognitive processing, educational prognosis, and response to treatment. The commentary also points out that the existence of Matthew effects reinforces Siegel's…
Twenty primary-aged students with learning disabilities were tutored by nondisabled students in grades 3-6. Tutored students' performance on single-digit addition facts improved compared to a no-treatment control group. There were no significant differences between two tutoring procedures: a counting-on approach and a rote-memorization approach.…
Beirne-Smith, Mary; Deck, Mary D.
Four-year colleges and universities (N=184) offering special programs for post-secondary students with learning disabilities were surveyed. Results related to students served, assessment and referral procedures used, academic and nonacademic services offered, and procedures employed for staff training are discussed in this article. (Author)
Levine, Eleanor; Fineman, Carol
The Prescriptive Profile Procedure (PPP) attempts to provide teachers of learning disabled elementary school children with a procedure of individualized diagnosis and educational prescription which encompasses strengths and weaknesses in prerequisite skills, basic school subjects, and behavioral factors. A competency statement and six to 12…
Renick, Mari Jo
The study examined the manner in which self perceptions of learning disabled (LD) children (1) develop in relation to growing social awareness and (2) differ among groups of LD students who are segregated from normally achieving students for varying amounts of their instructional time. Eighty-seven children (in grades 3 though 8) had been placed…
In the mid-1970s, Donald Hammill and his colleagues authored three scathing critiques of the two most trusted scientific traditions of learning disability treatment--movement education and psycholinguistic training (Hammill, 1972; Hammill & Larsen, 1974; Hammill, Goodman, & Wiederholt, 1974). These critical reviews of research rejected the older…
Hughes, Charles A.; Suritsky, Sharon K.
Research indicates that students with learning disabilities may experience significant difficulty with taking notes during teacher lectures. Approaches for helping students include task accommodations (such as taping the lectures or purchasing notes) and notetaking skill/strategy instruction (such as paraphrasing, outlining, using abbreviations,…
Deshler, Donald D.
Historically, most of the professional literature in the field as well as federal funding initiatives in research and program development have been directed at younger students with learning disabilities (LD). The prevailing assumption (or hope) has been that if intervention took place at a young age, many of the manifestations of the learning…
Johnson, Donald H.; Johnson, Leah J.
The booklet discusses research on characteristics and remediation approaches for children with learning disabilities (LD). Initial sections consider definitions, prevalence and causes of LD, while a fourth chapter reviews such LD characteristics as attention disorders, visual-perceptual difficulties, and memory disorders. Also considered are…
The increase in the rate and intensity of child maltreatment within the last decade is worrisome. In 1996, 44 out of every 1,000 youths under the age of eighteen were maltreated (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998). Special educators should consider the possible effects of maltreatment on children with learning disabilities. When…
Bailey, Shelley Henthorne
Post-secondary education is a path that many individuals take after high school. For students with learning disabilities, post-secondary education is an attainable goal regardless of the academic difficulties they may face. In order to make a successful transition to postsecondary education, it is necessary that students, as well as parents are…
Sapir, Selma G.
This document describes the development of an instrument to identify and diagnose developmental deficits at age 5 and the planning of a deficit centered training curriculum to prevent learning disabilities. An evaluation of the effectiveness of this curriculum, based on measures of the children's developmental growth and their academic achievement…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Patterson, Margaret Becker
This study of 311 adult education learners found 29% self-reported having a specific learning disability (SLD). Significant differences in demographic, academic, and life experience variables between the adult learners with and without SLD included prior participation in special education, having both an SLD diagnosis and a high school diploma,…
Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.
Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities are considered in this 10-chapter volume. Contents include: "Developmental Language Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (Cynthia A. Riccio and George W. Hynd); "Self-Regulated Strategy Development: A Theoretical and Practical Perspective" (Lisa P. Case et al.); "Mapping the…
Renick, Mari Jo
To examine learning disabled children's intrinsic-extrinsic motivational orientation to their schoolwork, 90 LD students in grades 3-7 were administered the Scale of Instrinsic vs. Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom and the Perceived Competence Scale for Children. Items were read to the students and a short interview based on the students'…
Connections: A Journal of Adult Literacy, 1995
This issue focuses on learning disabilities of adult literacy students. The 11 papers in the journal were developed from research done by the authors at an intensive summer institute in 1994. After an introduction and a description of the summer institute (Martha Merson), the following papers are included: "Lucie: Is She or Isn't She?" (Meryl…
Koehler, Jennifer L.
Given the increasing number of students with learning disabilities attending postsecondary educational institutions, it is essential to determine the factors which may play a predictive role in postsecondary education in order to inform educational practices and interventions prior to high school graduation. As such, the primary aim of the current…
Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi
This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…
Ostertag, Bruce A.; And Others
During the 1980's, a series of studies have been conducted to examine assessment strategies, teaching methodologies, core services, and delivery systems for Learning Disabled Average (LDA) adults in California's community colleges. Study findings included the following: (1) between 1981-82 and 1985-86, the number of formal programs for LDA adults…
Nee, Elizabeth A.
The increasing number of students with learning disabilities (SLDs) attending higher education institutions is well documented (Brinkerhoff, McGuire, & Shaw, 2002; Goodnough, 2011; Hasselbring & Glaser, 2000; Raskind, & Higgins, 1999). E-texts are considered a reasonable accommodation and may help improve reading and comprehension…
Madaus, Joseph W.
Limited research exists related to the employment outcomes of adults with learning disabilities (LD) who graduate from postsecondary institutions. The current study presents the results of a followup investigation of 500 graduates with LD from three universities in the United States. Results indicated that levels of full-time employment,…
Madaus, Joseph W.; Zhao, Jiarong; Ruban, Lilia
Because of its significant impact on overall life satisfaction, employment satisfaction is one marker for determining successful adult outcomes. The present investigation reports the perceptions of employment satisfaction for 500 graduates with learning disabilities from three postsecondary institutions. The graduates reported high levels of…
Rowley, Joan E.
Self esteem in the learning disabled (LD) child is considered in terms of family, school, and peer influences. A review of the literature points out that the LD child seems to have a greater need than the normal child for parental support which helps to establish high self esteem. Performance, and not potential, appears to be the more important…
This paper describes a range of research studies relating to learning disabilities in India during the last two decades. Attention is called to the existence of many different languages within India. Standardized and teacher-made tools have been developed for assessment and remediation purposes. The paper ends by making some suggestions for further research.
Izzo, Margaretha Vreeburg; Murray, Alexa; Priest, Sarah; McArrell, Bianca
Student Learning Communities (SLCs) for high school and college students with disabilities interested in pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees were piloted at a major Midwestern university from 2009 to 2011. Students participated in a series of weekly sessions and/or a residential campus experience as part of a…
Weis, Robert; Sykes, Lauryn; Unadkat, Devanshi
Many college students receiving accommodations for specific learning disability (SLD) do not meet objective criteria for the disorder. Furthermore, whether students meet criteria depends on the diagnostic decision model used by their clinician. The authors examined whether the relationship between diagnostic model and likelihood of meeting…
Arehole, Shalini; And Others
Simultaneous recordings of auditory brainstem and middle latency responses were obtained in both vertex-ipsilateral and vertex-contralateral derivations in 22 children, ages 8-12. For specific recording conditions, the latencies of middle latency responses differ significantly between children with and without learning disabilities, offering…
Friedman, Douglas L.; And Others
Variability of attention to task and its relation to instructional contexts for learning disabled (LD) children was investigated. Subjects were 24 mainstreamed elementary grade LD children. The children's behaviors relating to academic engagement and the situational contexts in which they occurred were observed and coded in both the regular class…
Algozzine, Bob; And Others
The study analyzed communication performance of tenth grade learning disabled (LD) students (N=1,098) on the Florida State Student Assessment Test-II (a minimum competency test). LD students demonstrated better literal communication skills and poorer interpretive and written communication skills. Employers (N=240) also supported the importance of…
Pasta, Tiziana; Mendola, Manuela; Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura Elvira; Gastaldi, Francesca Giovanna Maria
Introduction: The literature highlights that pupils with Specific Learning Disability (SLD) often reveal a poor meta-cognitive system, with low levels of attribution to internal factors like diligence and personal skill, and high levels of attribution to external factors like ease of task, luck or help from others. Methods: This study aims to…
Osterag, Bruce A.; Graves, Anne
Microcomputer software can provide excellent drill and practice, simulations, and problem-solving. Yet, software developers often have designed elaborate graphics and unique characters in lieu of sound instructional programming. Many instructional programs for learning-disabled students do not provide appropriate reading levels, the opportunity to…
Rabren, Karen; Eaves, Ronald C.; Dunn, Caroline; Darch, Craig
This study investigates the construct of satisfaction as a post-school outcome for students with learning disabilities (LD). More specifically, the effects of postsecondary education or training as well as employment are examined as they contribute to the overall satisfaction of young people with LD, one year after they exit high school. The…
Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee
Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…
Buttner, Gerhard; Hasselhorn, Marcus
Students with difficulties in specific cognitive processes and academic achievement with otherwise normal levels of intellectual functioning are classified as having a learning disability (LD). In spite of extensive recent research in a number of disciplines, controversial debate continues with regard to several issues. To reconcile some of them…
This manual reflects the highlights of an urban park study developed and tested over a 6-year period at the Churchill School, an elementary school for children with learning disabilities. This book makes possible an integrated study that develops understandings in natural science and the social studies along with reading, writing, and language…
Case, Rod E.; Taylor, Shanon S.
The population of children in the United States who require English as a second language (ESL) instruction increases every year. Among this diverse group of learners, which now exceeds four million, are learning disabled students. Their evaluation for special education services presents significant challenges to ESL, general education, and special…
Sleeter, Christine E.
In response to Kavale and Forness (EC 630 380), this article, rooted in the author's experiences as a learning disabilities teacher, discusses assumptions of the original article concerning social critiques and Marxism; diagnosis and classification for research or for pedagogy; validity of constructs and instruments for mental retardation; and…
Nelson, Jason M.; Harwood, Hannah
This article presents the results of a meta-analysis of the empirical literature on anxious symptomatology among school-aged students with learning disabilities (LD) in comparison to their non-LD peers. Fifty-eight studies met inclusion criteria. Results indicate that students with LD had higher mean scores on measures of anxiety than did non-LD…
Seidel, John F.; Vaughn, Sharon
This study sought to determine differences in expressed attitudes of social alienation between 20 learning-disabled (LD) school completers and 17 LD school dropouts. Results indicated that dropouts felt more socially alienated toward classmates and teachers than school completers did. Risk models for LD school dropouts should include social…
Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Carvalho, Kathleen
In this article, the authors assess the evidence related to various instructional styles for teaching reading to children with learning disabilities. Results of the literature review indicate that whole language and direct instruction are the two major approaches to teaching reading. Whole language has proven successful for many students with…
Test, David W.; Heward, William L.
Eight learning disabled males (16 to 17 years old) participated in a driver education unit via a visual response system, allowing students greater response and feedback. After the conclusion of the unit, all Ss scored above the criterion established by the Digest of Ohio Motor Vehicle Laws. (CL)
Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…
Manhattan Adult Learning and Resource Center, KS.
This document is designed to help adult educators understand and meet the needs of adults with learning disabilities (ALDs). A research-substantiated rationale for remedial instruction for ALDs is presented in the introduction. Selected terms are defined, and common characteristics of ALDs are examined. Basic assumptions regarding adult learning…
Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Daryl
Identifying individuals with specific learning disabilities (SLD) is a complex task, particularly for adult populations. Adult agencies such as vocational rehabilitative services or adult basic education often use different SLD definitions and criteria, are often understaffed, have limited resources, and have a shortage of staff trained on SLD…
Romano, Joan M.; Bellack, Alan S.
Cognitive social skills were assessed in 22 learning disabled (LD), 18 behavior problem, and 20 control boys in grades 7-9. Measures included an interview tapping social knowledge, self-reported behavior, generation of alternative solutions to social problems, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Vocabulary Scale. Sociometric…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 2007
This paper addresses early identification, services, supports, and intervention for young children, birth through 4 years, who demonstrate delays in development that may place them at risk for later identification as having a learning disability (LD). Such delays include atypical patterns of development in cognition, communication, emergent…
Swanson, Elizabeth A.
This article synthesizes previous research studies examining reading instruction for students with learning disabilities (LD) through classroom observation methods. An extensive search of the research literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded 21 observation studies. Findings revealed that reading instruction for students with LD is generally of low…
Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen
This paper focusses on the need and benefit of using multimedia applications to cater to the needs of children with learning disabilities. The children with special educational needs found in various schools may face difficulties in acquiring academic skills such as reading, spelling, writing, speaking, understanding, listening, thinking or…
Burdette, Paula J.; Greer, Diana L.
While research has been conducted on parental involvement in K-12 online learning, none of this research relates specifically to the parents of students with disabilities. Thus, researchers developed a survey around the following constructs: parental roles, instruction and assessment, communication and support from the school, and parental…
Carter, John L.; Russell, Harold L.
The report covers a series of investigations on the effects of biofeedback/muscle relaxation training on the academic achievement of learning disabled (LD) students. In the first study, 32 LD elementary school students made gains in all measures except arithmetic following electromyograph biofeedback/relaxation treatment. Implementation of the…
McPhail, Jean C.
High school students with learning disabilities (LD), low achievement, or average achievement responded, several times daily, to questions concerning levels of affect, activation, cognitive efficiency, self-esteem, motivation, and feedback from others. LD students reported feeling more positive and active than the other groups during school hours;…
Bates, Belinda, Ed.
This issue of "Linkages" addresses the need for adult literacy programs to go beyond teaching basic academic skills to adults with learning disabilities to teaching skills in goal setting, problem solving, and self-advocacy that will assist adult learners in their transition into the workforce. Articles include: "Transition: Adult Literacy and…
Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.
The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…
Tudway, Jeremy A.; Darmoody, Malcolm
Assessment and treatment of adults with learning disabilities who commit sexual offences presents a number of challenges. Much of the professional forensic and psychiatric literature on work with this group concentrates on the development of interventions based on theoretical models of sexual offending originating from the mainstream criminal…
A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…
Candler, Ann C.; Hildreth, Bertina L.
Attention is given to the characteristics, identification, and remediation of language disorders frequently associated with learning-disabled students. Characteristics include off-target responding, inaccurate word selection, neologisms, referent errors, topic closure, and sequencing difficulties. Remediation involves self-concept building,…
Candler, Ann C.; Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick
A review of the research on learning-disabled students suggests that these students often exhibit language deficits that are not readily obvious. These language deficits create problems in understanding social interactions and written and oral directions as well as problems in expressing ideas both orally and in written form. The term language…
Peniston, Lorraine C.
Most college students, whether they have learning disabilities or not, experience numerous difficulties in time management. They become easily distracted, do not set priorities, try to accomplish too much, procrastinate, use poor study techniques, or underestimate the amount of time required for a task. This paper outlines some symptoms and…
Fais, Laurie; Wanderman, Richard
The paper describes the application of a computer-assisted writing program in a special high school for learning disabled and dyslexic students and reports on a study of the program's effectiveness. Particular advantages of the Macintosh Computer for such a program are identified including use of the mouse pointing tool, graphic icons to identify…
Colbourn, Marlene Jones
A computer based diagnostic system to assist educators in the assessment of learning disabled children aged 8 to 10 years in the area of reading is described and evaluated. The system is intended to guide the diagnosis of reading problems through step by step analysis of available data and requests for additional data. The system provides a…
Majsterek, David J.
Intended for teachers of students with learning disabilities, the paper reviews recent trends in research. The importance and the difficulty of keeping up with new developments in the field are noted. Research and theoretical considerations are presented for the following topic areas: definition and identification difficulties (including,…
Dodd, John M.; And Others
Surveyed 32 master's degree programs in rehabilitation counseling to determine inclusion of curriculum content on learning disabilities before 1981 and alterations in curriculum after 1981 when eligibility for vocational rehabilitation services through state and federal vocational rehabilitation systems were extended to persons with learning…