Science.gov

Sample records for learning skill acquisition

  1. Online Learning Communities: Enhancing Undergraduate Students' Acquisition of Information Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Flores, Noraida; Wang, Ling

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of online learning communities (OLC) on enhancing the undergraduate students' acquisition of information skills. OLC was compared with online tutorials and one-shot face-to-face sessions designed to facilitate students' information skill acquisition. Data were gathered through multiple…

  2. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  3. Feedforward Self-Modeling Enhances Skill Acquisition in Children Learning Trampoline Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Vertes, Kelly; Rymal, Amanda M.; Martini, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM) video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined. PMID:21779270

  4. Feedforward self-modeling enhances skill acquisition in children learning trampoline skills.

    PubMed

    Ste-Marie, Diane M; Vertes, Kelly; Rymal, Amanda M; Martini, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM) video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined.

  5. From "Story" to Argument: The Acquisition of Academic Writing Skills in an Open-Learning Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley-Maidment, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Examines the acquisition of academic writing skills by adult students studying by distance learning in the United Kingdom. Results indicate that the text-based nature of distance leaning affects both the way in which students acquire writing skills and the development of their identity as academic writers. Differences in the learning process were…

  6. Skill learning in mirror reading: how repetition determines acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ofen-Noy, N; Dudai, Y; Karni, A

    2003-07-01

    Practice makes perfect, but the role of repetitions in skill learning is not yet fully understood. For example, given a similar number of trials on a given task, it is debated whether repeating and non-repeating items are learned by the same neural process. When one is given training with both types of items--does one learn two separate skills, or only one? Here we show, using a mirror reading task, that practice trials with trial-unique words, and practice trials with repeated words, count towards learning to a different degree. There was no interaction between the time-course of learning repeated and unique words even within the same individuals given mixed training. While repeated words were learned faster than unique words, the repetitions-dependent gains diminished with training beyond a small number of repetitions. Moreover, the gains in performance could not be accounted for solely by the number of repetitions, as assumed by power-law models of learning; rather, the passage of time was a critical factor. Finally, our results suggest that although both repeated and new words were learned by both declarative and procedural memory mechanisms, even a single repetition of specific words could lead to the establishment of a selective differential representation in memory. The results are compatible with the notion of a repetition-sensitive process, triggered by specific repeating events. This 'repetition counter' may be a critical trigger for the effective formation of procedural as well as some type of declarative memory.

  7. The acquisition of integrated science process skills in a web-based learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2004-01-01

    Web-based learning is becoming prevalent in science learning. Some use specially designed programs, while others use materials available on the Internet. This qualitative case study examined the process of acquisition of integrated science process skills, particularly the skill of controlling variables, in a web-based learning environment among grade 5 children. Data were gathered primarily from children's conversations and teacher-student conversations. Analysis of the data revealed that the children acquired the skill in three phases: from the phase of recognition to the phase of familiarization and finally to the phase of automation. Nevertheless, the acquisition of the skill only involved the acquisition of certain subskills of the skill of controlling variables. This progression could be influenced by the web-based instructional material that provided declarative knowledge, concrete visualization and opportunities for practise.

  8. The differential consolidation of perceptual and motor learning in skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hallgató, Emese; Győri-Dani, Dóra; Pekár, Judit; Janacsek, Karolina; Nemeth, Dezso

    2013-04-01

    Implicit skill learning is an unconscious way of learning which underlies not only motor but also cognitive and social skills. This form of learning is based on both motor and perceptual information. Although many studies have investigated the perceptual and motor components of "online" skill learning, the effect of consolidation on perceptual and motor characteristics of skill learning has not been studied to our knowledge. In our research we used a sequence learning task to determine if consolidation had the same or different effect on the perceptual and the motor components of skill acquisition. We introduced a 12-h (including or not including sleep) and a 24-h (diurnal control) delay between the learning and the testing phase with AM-PM, PM-AM, AM-AM and PM-PM groups, in order to examine whether the offline period had differential effects on perceptual and motor learning. Although both perceptual and motor learning were significant in the testing phase, results showed that motor knowledge transfers more effectively than perceptual knowledge during the offline period, irrespective of whether sleep occurred or not and whether there was a 12- or 24-h delay period between the learning and the testing phase. These results have important implications for the debate concerning perceptual/motor learning and the role of sleep in skill acquisition.

  9. The Impact of Individual Differences and Learning Context on Strategic Skill Acquisition and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Young Woo; Doane, Stephanie M.; Garrison, Teena

    2006-01-01

    How individual differences in cognitive ability influence acquisition and transfer of strategic comparison skills was examined as a function of learning difficulty. Using a cognitive test battery, we classified forty-nine participants into three cognitive ability groups. Participants in each group were trained to compare similar (difficult…

  10. Phases of learning: How skill acquisition impacts cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Tenison, Caitlin; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, John R

    2016-06-01

    This fMRI study examines the changes in participants' information processing as they repeatedly solve the same mathematical problem. We show that the majority of practice-related speedup is produced by discrete changes in cognitive processing. Because the points at which these changes take place vary from problem to problem, and the underlying information processing steps vary in duration, the existence of such discrete changes can be hard to detect. Using two converging approaches, we establish the existence of three learning phases. When solving a problem in one of these learning phases, participants can go through three cognitive stages: Encoding, Solving, and Responding. Each cognitive stage is associated with a unique brain signature. Using a bottom-up approach combining multi-voxel pattern analysis and hidden semi-Markov modeling, we identify the duration of that stage on any particular trial from participants brain activation patterns. For our top-down approach we developed an ACT-R model of these cognitive stages and simulated how they change over the course of learning. The Solving stage of the first learning phase is long and involves a sequence of arithmetic computations. Participants transition to the second learning phase when they can retrieve the answer, thereby drastically reducing the duration of the Solving stage. With continued practice, participants then transition to the third learning phase when they recognize the problem as a single unit and produce the answer as an automatic response. The duration of this third learning phase is dominated by the Responding stage.

  11. Augmented Reality M-Learning to Enhance Nursing Skills Acquisition in the Clinical Skills Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Bernard M.; Jackson, Cathryn; Wilson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a pilot research project designed to explore if new mobile augmented reality (AR) technologies have the potential to enhance the learning of clinical skills in the lab. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory action-research-based pilot study was undertaken to explore an initial proof-of-concept design in…

  12. Acquisition and improvement of human motor skills: Learning through observation and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iba, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.

  13. Learning and Individual Differences: An Ability/Information-Processing Framework for Skill Acquisition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    A program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition is reviewed. An integrative framework for information-processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is reviewed, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Experimental manipulations were used to…

  14. Specificity of learning a sport skill to the visual condition of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Jalil; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Salehi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The authors' main purpose was to determine whether learning of a real-world sport skill (basketball free throws) is specific to the sources of afferent visual information available during practice. Twenty-eight male high school students (inexperienced in the experimental task) were randomly assigned to a full vision or target only vision group. Participants trained under full vision or target only condition for 15 sessions. Following training, in immediate tests, they were examined under full vision and then under target only conditions. Ten days later, in delayed tests, they performed the task under full vision and then under target only conditions. Results showed both groups performed the task similarly across the experimental period. Interestingly, it was found that immediate and delayed retention performance is specific to the training visual context. The groups' performances dropped significantly when we tested them at a visual condition that differed from what they had experienced while learning the task. Performance of the task seemed to have integrated with the visual information available during the task acquisition. These findings provide evidence for the specificity of practice hypothesis in the field of motor learning and control.

  15. Conception of Learning and Clinical Skill Acquisition in Undergraduate Exercise Science Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nathan; Chuter, Vivienne; Rooney, Kieron

    2013-01-01

    Learning clinical skills presents a novel experience for undergraduate students, particularly when it comes to preparing for skill assessment. Compared with the thousands of hours of practice believed to be necessary for the development of motor skill expertise (1), these students have significantly limited exposure time. Furthermore, effective…

  16. Acquisition of Visual Perceptual Skills from Worked Examples: Learning to Interpret Electrocardiograms (ECGs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berge, Kees; van Gog, Tamara; Mamede, Silvia; Schmidt, Henk G.; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that for acquiring problem-solving skills, instruction consisting of studying worked examples is more effective and efficient for novice learners than instruction consisting of problem-solving. This study investigated whether worked examples would also be a useful instructional format for the acquisition of visual perceptual…

  17. Automatic Skill Acquisition in Reinforcement Learning Agents Using Connection Bridge Centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Parham; Shiri, Mohammad Ebrahim; Entezari, Negin

    Incorporating skills in reinforcement learning methods results in accelerate agents learning performance. The key problem of automatic skill discovery is to find subgoal states and create skills to reach them. Among the proposed algorithms, those based on graph centrality measures have achieved precise results. In this paper we propose a new graph centrality measure for identifying subgoal states that is crucial to develop useful skills. The main advantage of the proposed centrality measure is that this measure considers both local and global information of the agent states to score them that result in identifying real subgoal states. We will show through simulations for three benchmark tasks, namely, "four-room grid world", "taxi driver grid world" and "soccer simulation grid world" that a procedure based on the proposed centrality measure performs better than the procedure based on the other centrality measures.

  18. Psychomotor skills acquisition of novice learners: a case for contextual learning.

    PubMed

    DeBourgh, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    Deficiencies in procedural competency compromise patient safety and the quality of care provided. Educators in prelicensure nursing programs are challenged to design effective instruction to develop psychomotor skills abilities among novice learners. Highly contextualized learning and frequent opportunities for performance rehearsal promote knowledge retention and procedural competence. The author discusses data from an evaluation study that explored students' perceptions of the effectiveness of skills instruction and suggests strategies for curricular integration and effective instruction.

  19. Modeling the Distinct Phases of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R.

    2016-01-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from…

  20. HOW MANY REPETITIONS OF CHILD CARE SKILLS ARE REQUIRED FOR HEALTH WORKER STUDENTS TO ACHIEVE PROFICIENCY? LEARNING CURVE PATTERNS IN CHILD CARE SKILLS ACQUISITION

    PubMed Central

    Emami Moghadam, Zahra; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Abadi, Fatemeh Sardar; Pour, Parastoo Majidi; Davoudi, Malihe; Banafsheh, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The vulnerability of children under 5 years old requires paying more attention to the health of this group. In the Iranian health care system, health workers are the first line of human resources for health care in rural areas. Because most health workers begin working in conditions with minimal facilities, their clinical qualifications are crucial. The aim of this study was to determine the number of repetitions of child care skills, required for health worker students to achieve proficiency based on the learning curve. Methods: A time series research design was used. Participants in this study were first year health worker students enrolled in three health schools in 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of demographic information and a checklist evaluating the health worker students’ clinical skills proficiency for child care. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) using descriptive and inferential statistics including Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. Results: Learning curve patterns in child care skills acquisition showed that for less than 20 and between 20 to 29 times, the level of skill acquisition had an upward slope. Between 30- 39 the learning curve was descending, however the slope became ascending once more and then it leveled off (with change of less than 5%). Conclusion: It seems that 40 repetitions of child care skills are sufficient for health worker students to achieve proficiency. This suggests that time, resources and additional costs for training health worker students’ trainees can be saved by this level of repetition. PMID:26622199

  1. Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…

  2. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Grigoriadis, J; Trulsson, M; Svensson, P; Svensson, K G

    2015-10-15

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor skill. Hence, the aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that repeated splitting of a food morsel during a short-term training with an oral fine motor task would result in increased performance and optimization of jaw movements, in terms of reduction in duration of various phases of the jaw movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30 min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw movement during the task were recorded. The precision of task performance improved significantly after training (22% mean deviation from ideal split after vs. 31% before; P<0.001). There was a significant decrease in the total duration of jaw movements during the task after the training (1.21 s total duration after vs. 1.56 s before; P<0.001). Further, when the jaw movements were divided into different phases, the jaw opening phase and contact phase were significantly shorter after training than before training (P=0.001, P=0.002). The results indicate that short-term training of an oral fine motor task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation that takes place after a successful prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:26162238

  3. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Grigoriadis, J; Trulsson, M; Svensson, P; Svensson, K G

    2015-10-15

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor skill. Hence, the aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that repeated splitting of a food morsel during a short-term training with an oral fine motor task would result in increased performance and optimization of jaw movements, in terms of reduction in duration of various phases of the jaw movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30 min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw movement during the task were recorded. The precision of task performance improved significantly after training (22% mean deviation from ideal split after vs. 31% before; P<0.001). There was a significant decrease in the total duration of jaw movements during the task after the training (1.21 s total duration after vs. 1.56 s before; P<0.001). Further, when the jaw movements were divided into different phases, the jaw opening phase and contact phase were significantly shorter after training than before training (P=0.001, P=0.002). The results indicate that short-term training of an oral fine motor task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation that takes place after a successful prosthetic rehabilitation.

  4. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Modeling the distinct phases of skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R

    2016-05-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from calculation to retrieval). In the current study, we use hidden Markov modeling to identify transitions in the learning process. This method accounts for the gradual speedup in problem solving and also uncovers abrupt changes in reaction time, which reflect changes in the cognitive processes that participants are using to solve math problems. We find that as participants practice solving math problems they transition through 3 distinct learning states. Each learning state shows some speedup with practice, but the major speedups are produced by transitions between learning states. In examining and comparing the behavioral and neurological profiles of each of these states, we find parallels with the 3 phases of skill acquisition proposed by Fitts and Posner (1967): a cognitive, an associative, and an autonomous phase. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26551626

  6. Modeling the distinct phases of skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R

    2016-05-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from calculation to retrieval). In the current study, we use hidden Markov modeling to identify transitions in the learning process. This method accounts for the gradual speedup in problem solving and also uncovers abrupt changes in reaction time, which reflect changes in the cognitive processes that participants are using to solve math problems. We find that as participants practice solving math problems they transition through 3 distinct learning states. Each learning state shows some speedup with practice, but the major speedups are produced by transitions between learning states. In examining and comparing the behavioral and neurological profiles of each of these states, we find parallels with the 3 phases of skill acquisition proposed by Fitts and Posner (1967): a cognitive, an associative, and an autonomous phase. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Distance Learning and Skill Acquisition in Engineering Sciences: Present State and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potkonjak, Veljko; Jovanovic, Kosta; Holland, Owen; Uhomoibhi, James

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an improved concept of software-based laboratory exercises, namely a Virtual Laboratory for Engineering Sciences (VLES). Design/methodology/approach: The implementation of distance learning and e-learning in engineering sciences (such as Mechanical and Electrical Engineering) is still far behind…

  8. The Relationship between an Online Synchronous Learning Environment and Knowledge Acquisition Skills and Traits: The Blackboard Collaborate Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Politis, John; Politis, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Online learning is becoming more attractive to perspective students because it offers them greater accessibility, convenience and flexibility to study at a reduced cost. While these benefits may attract prospective learners to embark on an online learning environment there remains little empirical evidence relating the skills and traits of…

  9. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge. PMID:27037454

  10. Neuroplasticity subserving motor skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Eran; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent years have seen significant progress in our understanding of the neural substrates of motor skill learning. Advances in neuroimaging provide new insight into functional reorganization associated with the acquisition, consolidation and retention of motor skills. Plastic changes involving structural reorganization in gray and white matter architecture that occurs over shorter time periods than previously thought have been documented as well. Data from experimental animals provided crucial information on plausible cellular and molecular substrates contributing to large-scale reorganization underlying skill acquisition in humans. Here, we review findings demonstrating functional and structural plasticity across different spatial and temporal scales that mediate motor skill learning, while identifying converging areas of interest, and possible avenues for future research. PMID:22078504

  11. Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills within Food Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

    2005-01-01

    One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve…

  12. Learning Road Safety Skills in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…

  13. Brain lateralisation and motor learning: selective effects of dominant and non-dominant hand practice on the early acquisition of throwing skills.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Weigelt, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Findings from neurosciences indicate that the two brain hemispheres are specialised for the processing of distinct movement features. How this knowledge can be useful in motor learning remains unclear. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of initial practice with the dominant vs non-dominant hand on the acquisition of novel throwing skills. Within a transfer design two groups practised a novel motor task with the same amount of practice on each hand, but in opposite hand-order. In Experiment 1, participants acquired the position throw in basketball, which places high demands on throwing accuracy. Participants practising this task with their non-dominant hand first, before changing to the dominant hand, showed better skill acquisition than participants practising in opposite order. In Experiment 2 participants learned the overarm throw in team handball, which requires great throwing strength. Participants initially practising with their dominant hand benefited more from practice than participants beginning with their non-dominant hand. These results indicate that spatial accuracy tasks are learned better after initial practice with the non-dominant hand, whereas initial practice with the dominant hand is more efficient for maximum force production tasks. The effects are discussed in terms of brain lateralisation and bilateral practice schedules.

  14. Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills Within Food Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

    2005-12-01

    One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve them and secondly, to have a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions in food. Until 3 years ago the learning situation for this module was inefficient for both teachers and students. For this learning situation a staff/student ratio of 1/25 was experienced to be insufficient: the level of student frustration was high and many students could not finish the tasks within the scheduled time. To make this situation more efficient for both students and teachers and to lower the level of frustration, digital learning material was designed. The main characteristic of this learning material is that it provides just-in-time information, such as feedback, hints and links to background information. The material was evaluated in three case studies in a normal educational setting ( n = 22, n = 31, n = 33). The results show that now frustration of students is low, the time in classes is efficiently used, and the staff/student ratio of 1/25 is indeed sufficient. A staff student ratio of around 1/40 is now regarded as realistic.

  15. Is Three-Dimensional Videography the Cutting Edge of Surgical Skill Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Victoria A.; Brandt, Michael G.; Moore, Corey C.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The process of learning new surgical technical skills is vital to the career of a surgeon. The acquisition of these new skills is influenced greatly by visual-spatial ability (VSA) and may be difficult for some learners to rapidly assimilate. In many cases, the role of VSA on the acquisition of a novel technical skill has been explored; however,…

  16. Learning tactile skills through curious exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Leo; Oddo, Calogero M.; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Förster, Alexander; Carrozza, Maria C.; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    We present curiosity-driven, autonomous acquisition of tactile exploratory skills on a biomimetic robot finger equipped with an array of microelectromechanical touch sensors. Instead of building tailored algorithms for solving a specific tactile task, we employ a more general curiosity-driven reinforcement learning approach that autonomously learns a set of motor skills in absence of an explicit teacher signal. In this approach, the acquisition of skills is driven by the information content of the sensory input signals relative to a learner that aims at representing sensory inputs using fewer and fewer computational resources. We show that, from initially random exploration of its environment, the robotic system autonomously develops a small set of basic motor skills that lead to different kinds of tactile input. Next, the system learns how to exploit the learned motor skills to solve supervised texture classification tasks. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of autonomous acquisition of tactile skills on physical robotic platforms through curiosity-driven reinforcement learning, overcomes typical difficulties of engineered solutions for active tactile exploration and underactuated control, and provides a basis for studying developmental learning through intrinsic motivation in robots. PMID:22837748

  17. Pushing Typists Back on the Learning Curve: Contributions of Multiple Linguistic Units in the Acquisition of Typing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Logan, Gordon D.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the way people acquire and control skilled performance in the context of typewriting. Typing skill was degraded by changing the location of a key (target key) while retaining the locations of other keys to disable an association between the letter and the key. We conducted 4 experiments: Experiment 1 demonstrated…

  18. Using Questions To Facilitate Motor Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, G. William; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a dental teaching strategy that promotes acquisition of psychomotor skills through use of metacognition and problem-solving. In five steps, questions are asked to guide the learner through a sequence of discriminations leading to recognition of problems and solutions. Clearly defined criteria in a sequence reflecting procedure are…

  19. Modeling Parallelization and Flexibility Improvements in Skill Acquisition: From Dual Tasks to Complex Dynamic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taatgen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Emerging parallel processing and increased flexibility during the acquisition of cognitive skills form a combination that is hard to reconcile with rule-based models that often produce brittle behavior. Rule-based models can exhibit these properties by adhering to 2 principles: that the model gradually learns task-specific rules from instructions…

  20. Implicit learning and acquisition of music.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Implicit learning is a core process for the acquisition of a complex, rule-based environment from mere interaction, such as motor action, skill acquisition, or language. A body of evidence suggests that implicit knowledge governs music acquisition and perception in nonmusicians and musicians, and that both expert and nonexpert participants acquire complex melodic, harmonic, and other features from mere exposure. While current findings and computational modeling largely support the learning of chunks, some results indicate learning of more complex structures. Despite the body of evidence, more research is required to support the cross-cultural validity of implicit learning and to show that core and more complex music theoretical features are acquired implicitly. PMID:23060126

  1. Motor skill acquisition strategies for rehabilitation of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Stevans, J; Hall, K G

    1998-09-01

    Evidence supporting the early use of exercise for the treatment of low back pain continues to grow. We must keep in mind, however, that motor skill learning and exercise are not synonymous. If rehabilitation goals are limited to the improvement of physical parameters (ie., strength, flexibility, endurance), the opportunity to help patients improve the performance of functional activities will be missed. The motor learning literature suggests several strategies for facilitating the acquisition of a motor skill: transfer-appropriate processing, the contextual interference effect, and repetitive self-evaluation. These techniques will cognitively challenge patients, helping them gain skills more quickly and retain them longer. By incorporating these methods into the rehabilitation program, patients will better transfer what they have learned from the rehabilitation environment to their everyday functional activities. PMID:9742473

  2. Delayed motor skill acquisition in kindergarten children with language impairment.

    PubMed

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Strulovich-Schwartz, Orli; Julius, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and consolidation of a new grapho-motor symbol into long-term memory was studied in 5-year-old children with language impairment (LI) and peers matched for age and visual-motor integration skills. The children practiced the production of a new symbol and were tested 24h and two weeks post-practice day. Differences in performance speed emerged between the groups: children with LI showed a later onset of rapid learning in the practice phase, and only the comparison group exhibited delayed, consolidation, gains 24h post-training. At two weeks post-training, children with LI improved, closing the gap in performance speed. Speed-accuracy trade-off was characteristic of speed improvements in LI. These results indicate atypical and delayed acquisition in children with LI, and support the view that deficient skill acquisition in LI goes beyond the language system.

  3. Development of Different Forms of Skill Learning throughout the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of complex motor, cognitive, and social skills, like playing a musical instrument or mastering sports or a language, is generally associated with implicit skill learning (SL). Although it is a general view that SL is most effective in childhood, and such skills are best acquired if learning starts early, this idea has rarely been…

  4. A Constraints-Led Perspective to Understanding Skill Acquisition and Game Play: A Basis for Integration of Motor Learning Theory and Physical Education Praxis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Ian; Chow, Jia Yi; Davids, Keith; Hammond, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: In order to design appropriate environments for performance and learning of movement skills, physical educators need a sound theoretical model of the learner and of processes of learning. In physical education, this type of modelling informs the organisation of learning environments and effective and efficient use of practice time. An…

  5. Problem Based Learning Technique and Its Effect on Acquisition of Linear Programming Skills by Secondary School Students in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakhanu, Shikuku Beatrice; Musasia, Amadalo Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The topic Linear Programming is included in the compulsory Kenyan secondary school mathematics curriculum at form four. The topic provides skills for determining best outcomes in a given mathematical model involving some linear relationship. This technique has found application in business, economics as well as various engineering fields. Yet many…

  6. The Role of Physical Management and Handling in Facilitating Skills Acquisition and Learning by People with Severe and Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Roger J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Training in appropriate physical management and handling procedures for caregivers of four children with severe and multiple disabilities found positive effects on the children's orientation, communication, and social interaction skills. The importance of appropriate physical managing and handling in natural environments for enhancement of…

  7. An investigation into sonography student experiences of simulation teaching and learning in the acquisition of clinical skills

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Technological developments are impacting on many aspects of life, including education. One particular area of technology where there is growing interest within higher education institutions (HEIs) offering healthcare training is the use of simulators. The literature shows diverging views on the role of simulated learning in healthcare and further evaluation is needed to explore the quality of learning opportunities that are offered, and their effectiveness in the preparation of students for clinical practice. A qualitative study was undertaken, using interviews to explore the experiences of a group of sonography students after interacting with an ultrasound simulator. Simulation was positively evaluated by students in this study. The findings confirm that simulated learning enables students to be interactive learners rather than being passive recipients of knowledge. Simulated learning provides learning opportunities in a risk free environment, which reduces stress for the student and potential harm to patients. Confidence levels were increased, thereby improving future clinical scanning experiences for both the student and their patients. Suggestions were made for the more effective integration of simulated learning into the curriculum. Continued research into simulation, teaching and learning practices needs to occur if we are to ensure maximum advantage of the simulation experience. PMID:27433215

  8. Psychomotor Skill Acquisition in the Technical Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PaDelford, Harry

    Psychomotor skills need to be taught in technical education courses. Some students can be taught more easily than others, depending on their physical attributes. These attributes are speed, steadiness, perception, dexterity, agility/flexibility, endurance, equilibrium/balance, strength, and coordination. Before students attempt to learn vocational…

  9. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance

    PubMed Central

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes. PMID:25202292

  10. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes.

  11. Teaching Skill Acquisition and Development in Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Lucinda J; Hoover, Terry E; Giusti, Lola; Booth, Mark T; Mahdavi, Elham

    2016-08-01

    Development of dental faculty members is paramount to providing outstanding education and role modeling for students. With the large number of second career educators in dental schools, an efficient method of acquiring teaching skills is important for new faculty members. Knowing the skill progression and learning experiences identified by dental educators of varying rank may lead to more efficient, effective faculty development. The aims of this study were to identify the perceptions of a group of faculty members about the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and learning experiences that contribute to developing teaching expertise and to compare and contrast the perceptions of new and more senior faculty members on these subjects. The Dreyfus skill acquisition continuum of novice to expert performance was used as a construct reference. The study used a mixed-methods approach in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently in an electronic survey of faculty members at one U.S. dental school. Of the 492 total faculty members, 80 survey responses were received, for a 16% response rate. Open coding and analysis of responses revealed some common themes. Building rich content knowledge and learning varied methodologies for teaching and assessment, supported by an awareness of peer role models, were perceived to be features of early growth. Content prioritization, clarity, and customization appropriate for the learner characterized mid growth. As theorized in the Dreyfus model, more experienced faculty members described a fluid, less structured teaching process, increased reflection, and appreciation of the strength of the educational community. The results of this study may help increase dental educators' understanding of teaching skill acquisition and inform faculty development and support.

  12. Teaching Skill Acquisition and Development in Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Lucinda J; Hoover, Terry E; Giusti, Lola; Booth, Mark T; Mahdavi, Elham

    2016-08-01

    Development of dental faculty members is paramount to providing outstanding education and role modeling for students. With the large number of second career educators in dental schools, an efficient method of acquiring teaching skills is important for new faculty members. Knowing the skill progression and learning experiences identified by dental educators of varying rank may lead to more efficient, effective faculty development. The aims of this study were to identify the perceptions of a group of faculty members about the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and learning experiences that contribute to developing teaching expertise and to compare and contrast the perceptions of new and more senior faculty members on these subjects. The Dreyfus skill acquisition continuum of novice to expert performance was used as a construct reference. The study used a mixed-methods approach in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently in an electronic survey of faculty members at one U.S. dental school. Of the 492 total faculty members, 80 survey responses were received, for a 16% response rate. Open coding and analysis of responses revealed some common themes. Building rich content knowledge and learning varied methodologies for teaching and assessment, supported by an awareness of peer role models, were perceived to be features of early growth. Content prioritization, clarity, and customization appropriate for the learner characterized mid growth. As theorized in the Dreyfus model, more experienced faculty members described a fluid, less structured teaching process, increased reflection, and appreciation of the strength of the educational community. The results of this study may help increase dental educators' understanding of teaching skill acquisition and inform faculty development and support. PMID:27480710

  13. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lakhani, Bimal; Borich, Michael R.; Jackson, Jacob N.; Wadden, Katie P.; Peters, Sue; Villamayor, Anica; MacKay, Alex L.; Vavasour, Irene M.; Rauscher, Alexander; Boyd, Lara A.

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements) using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus). In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults. PMID:27293906

  14. Striatal volume predicts level of video game skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Neider, Mark B; Prakash, Ruchika S; Voss, Michelle W; Graybiel, Ann M; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-11-01

    Video game skills transfer to other tasks, but individual differences in performance and in learning and transfer rates make it difficult to identify the source of transfer benefits. We asked whether variability in initial acquisition and of improvement in performance on a demanding video game, the Space Fortress game, could be predicted by variations in the pretraining volume of either of 2 key brain regions implicated in learning and memory: the striatum, implicated in procedural learning and cognitive flexibility, and the hippocampus, implicated in declarative memory. We found that hippocampal volumes did not predict learning improvement but that striatal volumes did. Moreover, for the striatum, the volumes of the dorsal striatum predicted improvement in performance but the volumes of the ventral striatum did not. Both ventral and dorsal striatal volumes predicted early acquisition rates. Furthermore, this early-stage correlation between striatal volumes and learning held regardless of the cognitive flexibility demands of the game versions, whereas the predictive power of the dorsal striatal volumes held selectively for performance improvements in a game version emphasizing cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical basis for the superiority of training strategies that promote cognitive flexibility and transfer to untrained tasks.

  15. Predictors of the Acquisition and Portability of Transferable Skills: A Longitudinal Portuguese Case Study on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The basis for this longitudinal study was to find the predictors of transferable skills acquisition and portability among university sophomore students. The method employed was the path analysis using as variables: (1) the theoretical framework of transferable skills representations (Evers and Rush in "Manag Learn" 27(4):275-300, 1996;…

  16. An evaluation of progressively increasing intertrial intervals on the acquisition and generalization of three social skills.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Monica T; Hanley, Gregory P

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of different intertrial intervals (ITIs; time between programmed learning opportunities) on the acquisition and generalization of 2 preschoolers' social skills. Independent and generalized skills were observed only when the daily ITI was gradually increased from short to progressively longer intervals.

  17. An Evaluation of Progressively Increasing Intertrial Intervals on the Acquisition and Generalization of Three Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Monica T.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of different intertrial intervals (ITIs; time between programmed learning opportunities) on the acquisition and generalization of 2 preschoolers' social skills. Independent and generalized skills were observed only when the daily ITI was gradually increased from short to progressively longer intervals. (Contains 1 figure…

  18. Skill Acquisition in Physical Education: A Speculative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wayne W.

    2011-01-01

    How we learn motor skills has always been of interest to physical educators. Contemporary conceptual frameworks about motor skill learning draw from earlier behavioral and cognitive psychology learning theories. As a point of departure this paper foregrounds complexity theorizing, arguing that skill is contingent upon the performer's physical and…

  19. Abilities and Skill Acquisition: A Latent Growth Curve Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Wittmann, Werner W.; Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between abilities and skill acquisition has been the subject of numerous controversies in psychology. However, while most researchers implicitly or explicitly accept the idea that abilities and skill acquisition should be related, empirical research has failed to provide evidence for a consistently strong correlation between the…

  20. Contributors to Undergraduates' Perception of Skill Acquisition across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Andreia; Steffgen, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between the amount of years of study and the perception of skill acquisition through indicators of students' satisfaction with the course program. It was hypothesized that the more years students spend at the university, the higher their perception of skill acquisition and that factors related to the course…

  1. Acquisition of Eye-hand Coordination Skills for Videoendoscopic Surgery

    PubMed

    Tsai; Heinrichs

    1994-08-01

    Evaluation of eye-hand coordination skills in relation to experiential human factors may lead to improved instruction for videoendoscopic surgical skills acquisition. Twenty-nine subjects (medical students or residents in surgical specialties) volunteered to perform three exercises of increasing complexity in an "inanimate" trainer system that simulated the eye-hand coordination tasks inherent in a laboratory videoendoscopic surgical environment. Fourteen subjects participated in a biweekly practice program of 4 weeks duration using an inanimate trainer. Fifteen subjects had no practice on the laparoscopic trainer during the 4 weeks. Both groups were tested after demonstration on three exercises at the beginning and end of a 4 week period and all performed the procedures in solitude. Both groups of subjects increased performance levels (time and accuracy) over the four weeks, but improvement was significantly greater for the practicing subjects. After eight sessions, convergence of performance levels was observed, but plateauing of performance levels was not evident, even with the simple paradigms evaluated. To investigate what factors contribute to learning, subjects were assessed with respect to their surgical experiences, personality, and self-evaluated motor skills. Subjects with prior endoscopic surgical experience, interest in mechanical activities (as measured by the Strong Interest Inventory), or regular engagement in video game play tended to be more skillful initially, but demonstrated less improvement in performance levels after practice than subjects who had lower levels of experience, interest, or video game play. Manual dexterity (as measured by the Purdue Pegboard Manual Dexterity Test) was positively related to the degree of observed improvement. We conclude that "inanimate" videoendoscopic paradigms offer relatively inexpensive and useful training exercises for acquiring basic eye-hand coordination skills. Relevance for animate laboratory skills

  2. Connectionist reinforcement learning of robot control skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Rui; Nunes, Urbano; de Almeida, A. T.

    1998-07-01

    Many robot manipulator tasks are difficult to model explicitly and it is difficult to design and program automatic control algorithms for them. The development, improvement, and application of learning techniques taking advantage of sensory information would enable the acquisition of new robot skills and avoid some of the difficulties of explicit programming. In this paper we use a reinforcement learning approach for on-line generation of skills for control of robot manipulator systems. Instead of generating skills by explicit programming of a perception to action mapping they are generated by trial and error learning, guided by a performance evaluation feedback function. The resulting system may be seen as an anticipatory system that constructs an internal representation model of itself and of its environment. This enables it to identify its current situation and to generate corresponding appropriate commands to the system in order to perform the required skill. The method was applied to the problem of learning a force control skill in which the tool-tip of a robot manipulator must be moved from a free space situation, to a contact state with a compliant surface and having a constant interaction force.

  3. Serial pattern learning during skilled walking.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas G; Winter, Shawn S; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2012-03-01

    Rats possess a rich repertoire of sequentially organized, natural behaviors. It is possible that these natural behaviors may reflect implicit learning or relatively fixed movement patterns. The present study was conducted to determine whether factors known to influence implicit learning produce similar effects on the acquisition of skilled walking. Three groups of rats were trained to cross a horizontal ladder with rungs spaced according to three different levels of complexity. All training and testing were performed under dark conditions to assess the influence of non-visual modalities on skilled walking. Although all groups' performance improved throughout training, pattern complexity influenced the rate of improvement. In addition, performance during a probe session provided further evidence that each group encoded the rung spacing pattern experienced during training to create an internal representation. These observations demonstrate that the engram established during repetitive training represents either the temporal or spatial characteristics of rung spacing. These findings indicate that implicit learning contributes to the acquisition of natural sequential behaviors. Furthermore, serial pattern learning of rung spacing provides a novel task to determine sensory and motor contributions to the consolidation of skilled movement. PMID:22744781

  4. Lateral dominance as a factor in learning selected motor skills.

    PubMed

    Tyler, R W

    1971-09-01

    Lateral dominance, as determined by tests of eye, hand, and foot preference, was investigated as a factor in motor skill acquisition. 3 groups of Ss, classified as right dominant, crossed dominant, or mixed dominant, practiced 3 motor skills for 18 practice sessions. All 3 groups showed significant learning of the 3 motor skills; however, there was no significant difference among the groups in performance or in rate of improvement on the skills. It was concluded that Ss displaying different dominance patterns, as defined in this study, appear equally capable of learning selected new motor skills. PMID:23947378

  5. Enhancing cricket batting skill: implications for biomechanics and skill acquisition research and practice.

    PubMed

    Portus, Marc R; Farrow, Damian

    2011-11-01

    This review synthesises the biomechanical and skill acquisition/sport expertise literature focused on the skill of cricket batting. The literature is briefly reviewed and the major limitations, challenges, and suggested future research directions are outlined. This is designed to stimulate researchers to enhance the understanding of cricket batting biomechanics and skill acquisition and in turn assist cricket coaches develop efficacious batting skill development programmes. An interdisciplinary approach between biomechanists and skill acquisition specialists is advocated to further knowledge of the underlying processes and mechanisms of cricket batting expertise. Issues such as skill measurement, practice design, ball machines, skill transfer, the impact of Twenty/20 cricket, video simulation, and skill decomposition are discussed. The ProBatter ball machine systems are introduced along with suggestions for best practice approaches for coaches when designing batting skill development programmes.

  6. Rethinking theory and practice: pre-registration student nurses experiences of simulation teaching and learning in the acquisition of clinical skills in preparation for practice.

    PubMed

    Hope, Angela; Garside, Joanne; Prescott, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK) simulation learning has been recognised in the form of a regulatory agreement that may replace hours from clinical practice. This integration has become an embedded feature of the pre-registration nursing programme at a University in the North of England, along with strategic investment in staff and simulation suites developed to underpin this curriculum change albeit in the absence of sparse empirical evidence, hence the rationale for the study which was designed to explore the relationship between simulation, theory and practice. The study features a thematic analysis of evaluation questionnaires from pre-registration student nurses (n=>500) collected over a 2 year period which informed subsequent focus group interviews to explore the themes in more detail. Consistent data findings were the students' positive response to simulation as a learning approach facilitating the application of theory in a safe controlled environment. Students reported that they felt prepared for practice, recognising that simulated learning improved their humanistic and problem solving abilities as well as the development of psychomotor, technical skills, and overall confidence. The theory-practice gap is a recurring narrative in the nursing literature, the findings of this study recognises that simulation offers an opportunity to enact the integration of theory and practice illuminating this relationship in a controlled environment thus, reinforcing the theory-practice relationship for nursing students.

  7. Modeling in learning two volleyball skills.

    PubMed

    Zetou, Eleni; Tzetzis, George; Vernadakis, Nikos; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2002-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the influence of two different types of modeling and knowledge of performance on acquisition and retention of two volleyball skills (set and serve). Participants were 63 boys and 53 girls in elementary school, whose mean age was 11.7 yr. (SD=.5). The children were randomly assigned into two groups given the same practice method for 16 practice sessions (8 for the set and 8 for the serve) but different types of modeling. Some participants observed a videotape of an expert model performing the skills, and the second group observed a videotaped replay of their own performance. Verbal cues were provided simultaneously with the videotaped demonstration. The first group improved set and serve skills more on acquisition and on the retention test than the second group. This improvement was present when scores and form were evaluated. Modeling plus instructional cues seemed to improve children's learning of two volleyball skills (set and serve), and this procedure is suggested for use by practitioners. PMID:12186234

  8. Neural Plasticity in Speech Acquisition and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yue

    2007-01-01

    Neural plasticity in speech acquisition and learning is concerned with the timeline trajectory and the mechanisms of experience-driven changes in the neural circuits that support or disrupt linguistic function. In this selective review, we discuss the role of phonetic learning in language acquisition, the "critical period" of learning, the agents…

  9. Skill Acquisition and the Loss of Appropriate Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2004-01-01

    The five-stage skill-acquisition model developed by Stuart Dreyfus is revisited as an integral part of culture acquisition. This examination sheds light on the role intuitive knowledge plays during the 4th and 5th stages. When modern technology becomes universal and detaches itself from culture, this intuitive knowledge changes. This accounts for…

  10. Skill Acquisition: Compilation of Weak-Method Problem Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    According to the ACT theory of skill acquisition, cognitive skills are encoded by a set of productions, which are organized according to a hierarchical goal structure. People solve problems in new domains by applying weak problem-solving procedures to declarative knowledge they have about this domain. From these initial problem solutions,…

  11. How to Understand Skill Acquisition in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Vegard Fusche

    2004-01-01

    A crucial task for sport research is to understand and explain the processes and conditions underlying skillful motor behavior. One way to account for these processes and conditions is to describe and analyze the distinct stages a learner goes through when acquiring a skill. This article starts by elaborating one of the most dominant…

  12. Effects of contextual interference on acquisition and retention of three volleyball skills.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laura L; French, Karen E

    2007-12-01

    Manipulating the organization of practice conditions, through contextual interference, was identified as a method to promote motor skill acquisition by Brady in 1998. The generalizability of this learning effect is questionable and the amount of repetition versus the amount of change in task presentation requires investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore explanations for the performance of learners practicing the AAHPERD volleyball skills test when the change in task presentation varied. High school students were randomly assigned to blocked, random, and random-blocked practice groups. While all groups significantly improved all skills during acquisition, there was no support for the contextual interference effect. Potential explanations might be dependent upon the learners' skill and the complexity of the task to be learned. Further research is warranted examining contextual interference effect on practice organization at levels of difficulty appropriate to facilitate cognitive processing of task-related information. PMID:18229542

  13. A cross-level units-of-analysis approach to individual differences in skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Eyring, J D; Johnson, D S; Francis, D J

    1993-10-01

    A recent multiple-stage model posits that the individual-difference factors influencing performance vary depending on skill acquisition stage (P. L. Ackerman, 1989, 1990). In the current study, the authors examine the effect of ability in early skill acquisition and extend earlier research by examining the roles of self-efficacy and task familiarity. Furthermore, learning-curve modeling with multilevel models is used to alleviate prior analytical problems. Subjects (N = 115) performed an air traffic control simulation task. Nonlinear learning-curve parameters were estimated for each subject using a negative exponential model (see D. R. Rogosa & J. B. Willett, 1985). Cognitive ability, self-efficacy, and task familiarity were then used to predict learning-curve parameters: learning-rate constant and asymptotic performance. Results revealed that ability, self-efficacy, and familiarity predicted the learning-rate constant, whereas self-efficacy predicted asymptotic performance.

  14. Study Skills and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Ference; Svensson, Lennart

    1976-01-01

    The series of research studies contained in this project emphasize the central position of the learning process in research into teaching. The main studies under the project were based on four sets of material collected in the course of three academic years. A number of supplementary collections and processings of other material were also…

  15. Practice, instruction and skill acquisition in soccer: challenging tradition.

    PubMed

    Williams, A Mark; Hodges, Nicola J

    2005-06-01

    The acquisition of soccer skills is fundamental to our enjoyment of the game and is essential to the attainment of expertise. Players spend most of their time in practice with the intention of improving technical skills. However, there is a lack of scientific research relating to the effective acquisition of soccer skills, especially when compared with the extensive research base on physiological aspects of performance. Current coaching practice is therefore based on tradition, intuition and emulation rather than empirical evidence. The aim of this review is to question some of the popular beliefs that guide current practice and instruction in soccer. Empirical evidence is presented to dispel many of these beliefs as myths, thereby challenging coaches to self-reflect and critically evaluate contemporary doctrine. The review should inform sports scientists and practitioners as to the important role that those interested in skill acquisition can play in enhancing performance at all levels of the game.

  16. Insights from Skill Acquisition Theory for Grammar Activity Sequencing and Design in Foreign Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…

  17. The Effect of Letter Training on the Acquisition of Word Reading Skills. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Douglas G.

    Two experiments aimed at extending the principles of paired-associates learning transfer to the acquisition of reading skills are reported. Approximately 15 first graders were randomly assigned to each of the 10 treatment conditions. In the first experiment, four types of letter training were compared to two control conditions. The experimental…

  18. The Effects of Teacher Instructional Efficacy on Mathematical Skill Acquisition: The Students Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yack, Dennis R.; Shaw, Eugene R.

    2007-01-01

    Teacher instructional efficacy is an essential part of the mathematics learning process. When a mathematics teacher possesses a high level of instructional efficacy they can effectively influence a mathematics student's skill acquisition. This researcher examined what extent 5th-grade mathematics students perceive teacher instructional efficacy to…

  19. "Alligator Eats Cookie": Acquisition of Writing and Reading Skills by Deaf Children Using the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinz, Philip M.; Nelson, Keith E.

    1985-01-01

    Reports research which investigated the effects of microcomputer technology on the acquisition of writing and reading skills in 32 deaf children. The learning mechanism underlying the instructional system used is responsive, interactional and exploratory, reflective of the way most children acquire a first language. (SED)

  20. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  1. The Effectiveness of Online Instructional Videos in the Acquisition and Demonstration of Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Rehabilitation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Darren; Higgins, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of instructional videos to teach clinical skills is an ever growing area of e-learning based upon observational learning that is cited as one of the most basic yet powerful learning strategies. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of online instructional videos for the acquisition and demonstration of cognitive,…

  2. Quiet eye training: the acquisition, refinement and resilient performance of targeting skills.

    PubMed

    Vine, Samuel J; Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    How we learn and refine motor skills in the most effective manner and how we prevent performance breakdown in pressurised or demanding circumstances are among the most important questions within the sport psychology and skill acquisition literature. The quiet eye (QE) has emerged as a characteristic of highly skilled perceptual and motor performance in visually guided motor tasks. Defined as the final fixation that occurs prior to a critical movement, over 70 articles have been published in the last 15 years probing the role that the QE plays in underpinning skilled performance. The aim of this review is to integrate research findings from studies examining the QE as a measure of visuomotor control in the specific domain of targeting skills; motor skills requiring an object to be propelled to a distant target. Previous reviews have focused primarily on the differences in QE between highly skilled performers and their less skilled counterparts. The current review aims to discuss contemporary findings relating to 1. The benefits of QE training for the acquisition and refinement of targeting skills; 2. The effects of anxiety upon the QE and subsequent targeting skill performance and 3. The benefits of QE training in supporting resilient performance under elevated anxiety. Finally, potential processes through which QE training proffers this advantage, including improved attentional control, response programming and external focus, will be discussed and directions for future research proposed.

  3. Effect of practice procedure on skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Dunham, P; Dunham, T; Dunham, T A

    1988-04-01

    49 children in Grade 1 in an isolated community were assessed on their form and skill in making a basket for a one-step basketball lay-up following practice using a pseudoshaping, specific, or schema procedure. Analysis gave a significant form effect but no difference in success of making baskets.

  4. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Statton, Matthew A; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  5. Adaptive Virtual Reality Training to Optimize Military Medical Skills Acquisition and Retention.

    PubMed

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Best, Bradley J; Kim, Jong Wook; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Ritter, Frank E

    2016-05-01

    The Department of Defense has pursued the integration of virtual reality simulation into medical training and applications to fulfill the need to train 100,000 military health care personnel annually. Medical personnel transitions, both when entering an operational area and returning to the civilian theater, are characterized by the need to rapidly reacquire skills that are essential but have decayed through disuse or infrequent use. Improved efficiency in reacquiring such skills is critical to avoid the likelihood of mistakes that may result in mortality and morbidity. We focus here on a study testing a theory of how the skills required for minimally invasive surgery for military surgeons are learned and retained. Our adaptive virtual reality surgical training system will incorporate an intelligent mechanism for tracking performance that will recognize skill deficiencies and generate an optimal adaptive training schedule. Our design is modeling skill acquisition based on a skill retention theory. The complexity of appropriate training tasks is adjusted according to the level of retention and/or surgical experience. Based on preliminary work, our system will improve the capability to interactively assess the level of skills learning and decay, optimizes skill relearning across levels of surgical experience, and positively impact skill maintenance. Our system could eventually reduce mortality and morbidity by providing trainees with the reexperience they need to help make a transition between operating theaters. This article reports some data that will support adaptive tutoring of minimally invasive surgery and similar surgical skills. PMID:27168575

  6. Exploring the Influencing Factors in Students' Acquisition of Manipulative Skills during Transition from Primary to Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadzil, Hidayah Mohd; Saat, Rohaida Mohd

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the contributing factors that influence students' acquisition of manipulative skills. Incompetence in manipulative skills in science at a primary level may impede science learning at secondary school. Thus, to confront these issues, an in-depth study was conducted. The research involved 10 primary school students who were…

  7. Computer Based Instruction of Professional Psychological Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ouwerkerk, R. J.; Hoebe, M. N.; Oldersma, F. L.; Meijman, T. F.; van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, K. I.

    The developments in information technology and multimedia give new opportunities to increase the efficiency and quality of skills education. This paper presents three applications developed in the Netherlands to enhance professional skills learning in different areas of psychology: (1) BioPsy, an application developed to teach and train the…

  8. Computer Enhanced Problem Solving Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of interactive educational software that was designed to enhance critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving in a university psychology course. Piagetian and computer learning perspectives are explained; the courseware package, PsychWare, is described; and the use of heuristics and algorithms in…

  9. Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer

    In a pilot project, Vance-Granville Community College in North Carolina and a local roofing manufacturer jointly developed the SKILL (Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning) training program. The 63 employees enrolled in the voluntary program thus far have received weekly instruction in functional, learning, and computer skills, as well as…

  10. Skill Acquisition Measures (SAM). Elementary Mathematics Level IV. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster City School District, PA.

    The Skill Acquisition Measures (SAM) were designed by the Lancaster (Pennsylvania) School District as criterion referenced tests for mathematics. This manual consists of copies of the student test forms for level 4, with additional information for the teacher's use. Each of the test items is presented with the correct answers and the criteria for…

  11. Prosodic Awareness Skills and Literacy Acquisition in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defior, Sylvia; Gutierrez-Palma, Nicolas; Cano-Marin, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    There has been very little research in Spanish on the potential role of prosodic skills in reading and spelling acquisition, which is the subject of the present study. A total of 85 children in 5th year of Primary Education (mean age 10 years and 9 months) performed tests assessing memory, stress awareness, phonological awareness, reading and…

  12. The Acquisition of Robust and Flexible Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taatgen, Niels A.; Huss, David; Dickison, Daniel; Anderson, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a model of skill acquisition that incorporates elements of both traditional models and models based on embedded cognition by striking a balance between top-down and bottom-up control. A knowledge representation is used in which pre- and postconditions are attached to actions. This model captures improved performance due to…

  13. Delayed Motor Skill Acquisition in Kindergarten Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Strulovich-Schwartz, Orli; Julius, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and consolidation of a new grapho-motor symbol into long-term memory was studied in 5-year-old children with language impairment (LI) and peers matched for age and visual-motor integration skills. The children practiced the production of a new symbol and were tested 24 h and two weeks post-practice day. Differences in performance…

  14. Cognitive Skill Acquisition through a Meta-Knowledge Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reopen the discourse on cognitive skill acquisition to focus on the interactive effect of differences in cognitive construct and instructional format. Reports an examination of the contextual issues involved in understanding the interactivity of instructional conditions and cognitive style as a meta-knowledge…

  15. Computer Skills Acquisition: A Review and Future Directions for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.

    A review of past research on training employees for computer-mediated work leads to the development of theory and propositions concerning the relationship between different variables, such as: (1) individual factors; (2) task and person-computer interface; (3) characteristics of training design for the acquisition of computer skills; and (4) the…

  16. Development of Learning to Learn Skills in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hotulainen, Risto; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    In Finland, schools' effectiveness in fostering the development of transversal skills is evaluated through large-scale learning to learn (LTL) assessments. This article presents how LTL skills--general cognitive competences and learning-related motivational beliefs--develop during primary school and how they predict pupils' CPS skills at the end…

  17. No Childhood Advantage in the Acquisition of Skill in Using an Artificial Language Rule

    PubMed Central

    Ferman, Sara; Karni, Avi

    2010-01-01

    A leading notion is that language skill acquisition declines between childhood and adulthood. While several lines of evidence indicate that declarative (“what”, explicit) memory undergoes maturation, it is commonly assumed that procedural (“how-to”, implicit) memory, in children, is well established. The language superiority of children has been ascribed to the childhood reliance on implicit learning. Here we show that when 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and young adults were provided with an equivalent multi-session training experience in producing and judging an artificial morphological rule (AMR), adults were superior to children of both age groups and the 8-year-olds were the poorest learners in all task parameters including in those that were clearly implicit. The AMR consisted of phonological transformations of verbs expressing a semantic distinction: whether the preceding noun was animate or inanimate. No explicit instruction of the AMR was provided. The 8-year-olds, unlike most adults and 12-year-olds, failed to explicitly uncover the semantic aspect of the AMR and subsequently to generalize it accurately to novel items. However, all participants learned to apply the AMR to repeated items and to generalize its phonological patterns to novel items, attaining accurate and fluent production, and exhibiting key characteristics of procedural memory. Nevertheless, adults showed a clear advantage in learning implicit task aspects, and in their long-term retention. Thus, our findings support the notion of age-dependent maturation in the establishment of declarative but also of procedural memory in a complex language task. In line with recent reports of no childhood advantage in non-linguistic skill learning, we propose that under some learning conditions adults can effectively express their language skill acquisition potential. Altogether, the maturational effects in the acquisition of an implicit AMR do not support a simple notion of a language skill learning

  18. No childhood advantage in the acquisition of skill in using an artificial language rule.

    PubMed

    Ferman, Sara; Karni, Avi

    2010-10-27

    A leading notion is that language skill acquisition declines between childhood and adulthood. While several lines of evidence indicate that declarative ("what", explicit) memory undergoes maturation, it is commonly assumed that procedural ("how-to", implicit) memory, in children, is well established. The language superiority of children has been ascribed to the childhood reliance on implicit learning. Here we show that when 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and young adults were provided with an equivalent multi-session training experience in producing and judging an artificial morphological rule (AMR), adults were superior to children of both age groups and the 8-year-olds were the poorest learners in all task parameters including in those that were clearly implicit. The AMR consisted of phonological transformations of verbs expressing a semantic distinction: whether the preceding noun was animate or inanimate. No explicit instruction of the AMR was provided. The 8-year-olds, unlike most adults and 12-year-olds, failed to explicitly uncover the semantic aspect of the AMR and subsequently to generalize it accurately to novel items. However, all participants learned to apply the AMR to repeated items and to generalize its phonological patterns to novel items, attaining accurate and fluent production, and exhibiting key characteristics of procedural memory. Nevertheless, adults showed a clear advantage in learning implicit task aspects, and in their long-term retention. Thus, our findings support the notion of age-dependent maturation in the establishment of declarative but also of procedural memory in a complex language task. In line with recent reports of no childhood advantage in non-linguistic skill learning, we propose that under some learning conditions adults can effectively express their language skill acquisition potential. Altogether, the maturational effects in the acquisition of an implicit AMR do not support a simple notion of a language skill learning advantage

  19. Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Literature. [and] Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carolyn M.

    1998-01-01

    Article 1 reviews literature on psychomotor skill acquisition, finding inconclusive research based on a positivist approach. Article 2 reviews theories of skill acquisition. Both reviews will be used to evaluate a skills center for nurses that is based on a constructivist approach. (SK)

  20. The Dreyfus model of clinical problem-solving skills acquisition: a critical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Context The Dreyfus model describes how individuals progress through various levels in their acquisition of skills and subsumes ideas with regard to how individuals learn. Such a model is being accepted almost without debate from physicians to explain the ‘acquisition’ of clinical skills. Objectives This paper reviews such a model, discusses several controversial points, clarifies what kind of knowledge the model is about, and examines its coherence in terms of problem-solving skills. Dreyfus' main idea that intuition is a major aspect of expertise is also discussed in some detail. Relevant scientific evidence from cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience is reviewed to accomplish these aims. Conclusions Although the Dreyfus model may partially explain the ‘acquisition’ of some skills, it is debatable if it can explain the acquisition of clinical skills. The complex nature of clinical problem-solving skills and the rich interplay between the implicit and explicit forms of knowledge must be taken into consideration when we want to explain ‘acquisition’ of clinical skills. The idea that experts work from intuition, not from reason, should be evaluated carefully. PMID:20563279

  1. Acquisition of smoking refusal skills in junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Katz, R C; Robisch, C M; Telch, M J

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a smoking prevention program on the acquisition of refusal skills among junior high school students. Two conditions were compared: one in which the subjects participated in a videotaped training program on resisting pressures to smoke, and the other an untreated control group. As predicted, the results showed significant improvement in the skill training group, while the untreated controls showed no change relative to their pretest performance. These findings suggest that smoking prevention programs which focus on resisting social pressures can enhance the young person's ability to say "no" to smoking. PMID:2728956

  2. Diazepam and learning: assessment of acquisition deficits.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, J V; Mewaldt, S P; Ghoneim, M M; Berie, J L

    1982-07-01

    Subjects treated with diazepam (0.3 mg/kg) showed significant reductions in performance on multiple-trial free recall, paired-associate learning, and serial learning tasks compared to placebo control subjects. The free recall task showed the largest drug effect with diazepam subjects failing in six acquisition trials to attain the level of performance achieved by placebo subjects on the first trial. Serial position curves in the serial learning task were changed by the diazepam treatment from their usual skewed form to symmetrical functions. Results indicate that diazepam exerts its greatest memory influence on the acquisition of new information.

  3. Characterization of motor skill and instrumental learning time scales in a skilled reaching task in rat.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Manuel M; Ringer, Thomas; Schulz, Jörg B; Dichgans, Johannes; Luft, Andreas R

    2004-12-01

    Successful motor skill learning requires repetitive training interrupted by rest periods. In humans, improvement occurs within and between training sessions reflecting fast and slow components of motor learning [Karni A, Meyer G, Rey-Hipolito C, Jezzard P, Adams MM, Turner R, et al. The acquisition of skilled motor performance: fast and slow experience-driven changes in primary motor cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:861-8]. Here, these components are characterized in male and female rats using a model of skilled forelimb reaching and are compared to time scales of instrumental learning. Twenty female and 14 male adult Long-Evans rats were pre-trained to operate a motorized door (via a sensor in the opposite cage wall) to access a food pellet by tongue. Latencies between pellet removal and door opening were recorded as measures of instrumental learning. After criterion performance was achieved, skilled forelimb reaching was requested by increasing the pellet-window distance to 1.5cm. Reaching success was recorded per trial. Mean latencies decreased exponentially over sessions and no improvement within-session was found. Skill learning over eight training sessions followed an exponential course in females and a sigmoid course in males. Females acquired the skill significantly faster than males starting at higher baseline levels (P < 0.001) but reaching similar plateaus. Within-session improvement was found during the sessions 1-3 in females and 1-4 in males. Performance at the end of session 1 was not carried over to session 2. Learning curves of individual animals were highly variable. These findings confirm in rat that motor skill learning has fast and slow components. No within-session improvement is seen in instrumental learning.

  4. Acquisition of a High-precision Skilled Forelimb Reaching Task in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zemmar, Ajmal; Kast, Brigitte; Lussi, Karin; Luft, Andreas R; Schwab, Martin E

    2015-06-22

    Movements are the main measurable output of central nervous system function. Developing behavioral paradigms that allow detailed analysis of motor learning and execution is of critical importance in order to understand the principles and processes that underlie motor function. Here we present a paradigm to study movement acquisition within a daily session of training (within-session) representing the fast learning component and primary acquisition as well as skilled motor learning over several training sessions (between-session) representing the slow learning component and consolidation of the learned task. This behavioral paradigm increases the degree of difficulty and complexity of the motor skill task due to two features: First, the animal realigns its body prior to each pellet retrieval forcing renewed orientation and preventing movement execution from the same angle. Second, pellets are grasped from a vertical post that matches the diameter of the pellet and is placed in front of the cage. This requires a precise grasp for successful pellet retrieval and thus prevents simple pulling of the pellet towards the animal. In combination with novel genetics, imaging and electrophysiological technologies, this behavioral method will aid to understand the morphological, anatomical and molecular underpinnings of motor learning and memory.

  5. Learner-Controlled Self-Observation is Advantageous for Motor Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Vertes, Kelly A.; Law, Barbi; Rymal, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    There were two main objectives of this research. First, we wanted to examine whether video feedback of the self (self-observation) was more effective for motor skill learning when the choice to view the video was provided to the learner (learner-controlled, LC) as opposed to an experimenter-controlled (EC) delivery. Secondly, we explored whether there were differences in the self-regulatory processes of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, as well as perceived choice between the LC and EC conditions. Two groups (LC and EC) of children (M age of 11.2 years; SD = 1.89) attempted to learn a progression of trampoline skills during a 2-day acquisition phase in which video self-observation was available. The second acquisition day was followed by a no self-observation retention test 1 day later. It was hypothesized that, during retention, the LC group would be more self-efficacious about their ability to progress through the trampoline skills, show greater intrinsic motivation and perceived choice, and go further in skill progression than the EC group. Analysis of the acquisition data showed the LC group had greater increases in self-efficacy as compared to the EC group. Results of the retention test showed that the participants in the LC group obtained higher scores on the intrinsic motivation and perceived choice measures and had higher skill progression scores as compared to the EC group. Regression analysis showed that group assignment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of the physical performance benefits noted in retention. These findings are discussed within Zimmerman’s (2004) self-regulation of learning model. PMID:23355826

  6. A New Learning and Skills Landscape? The Central Role of the Learning and Skills Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Steer, Richard; Hodgson, Ann; Spours, Ken; Edward, Sheila; Finlay, Ian

    2005-01-01

    This is the first paper from a project which is part of the Economic and Social Research Council's programme of research into "Teaching and learning". The project, entitled "The impact of policy on learning and inclusion in the new learning and skills sector", explores what impact the efforts to create a single learning and skills system are…

  7. Mental and physical practice schedules in acquisition and retention of novel timing skills .

    PubMed

    Overdorf, Virginia; Page, Stephen J; Schweighardt, Ray; McGrath, Robert E

    2004-08-01

    Research has indicated that random physical practice of a motor skill enhances effects of long-term learning more than blocked practice. Moreover, the use of mental rehearsal coupled with physical practice has been shown to accelerate motor skill acquisition in many different contexts and is better than no practice at all. Others have found that some mental rehearsal strategies are better than others for maximizing performance. This study examined how combinations of mental and physical practice schedules affected the learning of a coincidence timing task. 30 college students were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups involving combinations of imagery and physical practice. Three tasks were utilized, each involving a particular speed (slow, medium, fast) on the Bassin Anticipation Timer. Conclusions were based on a three-way analysis of variance, using type of mental practice, type of physical practice, and sex as between-group factors, conducted separately for acquisition and retention trials. Type of physical practice was significantly related to performance. On the acquisition trials, random practice was associated with larger mean errors than blocked practice; however, the reverse was true for retention trials. There was no significant effect of type of mental practice in either the acquisition or retention phase. Sex was significantly related to performance for the retention trials only, where the 15 men made smaller errors than the 15 women.

  8. Parietal damage impairs learning of a visuomotor tracking skill.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Damasio, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the consequences of damage to the parietal lobe for learning a visuomotor tracking skill. Thirty subjects with a single unilateral brain lesion (13 with and 17 without parietal damage) and 23 demographically comparable healthy subjects performed the Rotary Pursuit task. For each group, time on target increased significantly across the four learning blocks. Subjects with parietal lesions had smaller improvements on the Rotary Pursuit from the 1st to the 4th block than subjects with lesions in other brain areas and healthy comparison subjects. The improvements on task performance from the 1st to the 2nd and from the 1st to the 3rd learning blocks were similar between groups. The parietal lobe appears to play an important role in the acquisition of a new visuomotor tracking skill, in particular during a relatively late phase of learning. PMID:26536523

  9. Parietal damage impairs learning of a visuomotor tracking skill.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Damasio, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the consequences of damage to the parietal lobe for learning a visuomotor tracking skill. Thirty subjects with a single unilateral brain lesion (13 with and 17 without parietal damage) and 23 demographically comparable healthy subjects performed the Rotary Pursuit task. For each group, time on target increased significantly across the four learning blocks. Subjects with parietal lesions had smaller improvements on the Rotary Pursuit from the 1st to the 4th block than subjects with lesions in other brain areas and healthy comparison subjects. The improvements on task performance from the 1st to the 2nd and from the 1st to the 3rd learning blocks were similar between groups. The parietal lobe appears to play an important role in the acquisition of a new visuomotor tracking skill, in particular during a relatively late phase of learning.

  10. Interaction of memory systems during acquisition of tool knowledge and skills in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shumita; Park, Norman W; Roy, Eric A; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that different aspects of tool knowledge are mediated by different memory systems. It is believed that tool attributes (e.g., function, color) are represented as declarative memory while skill learning is supported by procedural memory. It has been proposed that other aspects (e.g., skilled tool use) may rely on an interaction of both declarative and procedural memory. However, the specific form of procedural memory underlying skilled tool use and the nature of interaction between declarative and procedural memory systems remain unclear. In the current study, individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls were trained over 2 sessions, 3 weeks apart, to use a set of novel complex tools. They were also tested on their ability to recall tool attributes as well as their ability to demonstrate grasp and use of the tools to command. Results showed that, compared to controls, participants with PD showed intact motor skill acquisition and tool use to command within sessions, but failed to retain performance across sessions. In contrast, people with PD showed equivalent recall of tool attributes and tool grasping relative to controls, both within and across sessions. Current findings demonstrate that the frontal-striatal network, compromised in PD, mediates long-term retention of motor skills. Intact initial skill learning raises the possibility of compensation from declarative memory for frontal-striatal dysfunction. Lastly, skilled tool use appears to rely on both memory systems which may reflect a cooperative interaction between the two systems. Current findings regarding memory representations of tool knowledge and skill learning may have important implications for delivery of rehabilitation programs for individuals with PD.

  11. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  12. Acquisition of Motor and Cognitive Skills through Repetition in Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Magallón, Sara; Narbona, Juan; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    Background Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience. Methods The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC). Ninety TDC children aged 6–12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance. Results TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task. Conclusions These findings indicate that three consecutive trials at a procedural task increased speed and efficiency, and that age affected basal performance in motor-cognitive procedures. PMID:27384671

  13. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  14. A Formative Study Investigating the Acquisition of Early Reading Skills among High School English Language Learners Beginning to Read English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Athene Cooper

    2012-01-01

    A formative design experiment methodology was employed to investigate the acquisition of early reading skills for high school English language learners (ELLs) beginning to read English. A fundamental challenge facing high school ELLs entering schools in the United States for the first time is learning how to read. While there is considerable…

  15. The Effects of Word Box Instruction on Acquisition, Generalization, and Maintenance of Decoding and Spelling Skills for First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Kanotz, Brittany; Rouse, Christina A.; Sawyer, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implementing word boxes as a supplemental instruction method on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of word identification and spelling. Word box intervention consists of using manipulatives to learn phonological decoding skills. The participants were three African-American urban first graders…

  16. Acquisition and Retention of Quantitative Communication Skills in an Undergraduate Biology Curriculum: Long-Term Retention Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Cary D.; Ashley, David C.; Rushin, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some of the effects of a nontraditional, experimental learning approach designed to improve rapid acquisition and long-term retention of quantitative communication skills (QCS) such as descriptive and inferential statistics, hypothesis formulation, experimental design, data characteristics, and data…

  17. Use of classroom "clickers" to promote acquisition of advanced reasoning skills.

    PubMed

    DeBourgh, Gregory A

    2008-03-01

    Use of classroom response systems (a.k.a. "clickers" or "audience polling systems") are growing in popularity among faculty in colleges and universities. When used by faculty in a strategic instructional design, clickers can raise the level of participation and the effectiveness of interaction, promote engagement of students in active learning, foster communication to clarify misunderstanding and incorrect thinking, and provide a method to instructionally embed assessment as a learning activity rather than reliance on the traditional approach of summative assessment for assigning grades. This article describes the use of clicker technology in a baccalaureate nursing program to promote acquisition and application of advanced reasoning skills. Methods are suggested for embedding formative assessment and the tactical use of questioning as feedback and a powerful learning tool. Operational aspects of clickers technology are summarized and students' perceptions and satisfaction with use of this teaching and learning technology are described.

  18. Mobile Learning: Using Application "Auralbook" to Learn Aural Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi Wai Jason

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effectiveness of using mobile devices such as iPhone/iPad/android phone/tablet to facilitate mobile learning in aural skills. The application "Auralbook" was designed in 2011 by an engineer/musician to use mobile devices to learn aural skills. This application enables students to sing, record, clap and…

  19. Teamwork Skills Assessment for Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…

  20. A dual process account of coarticulation in motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashvin; Barto, Andrew G; Fagg, Andrew H

    2013-01-01

    Many tasks, such as typing a password, are decomposed into a sequence of subtasks that can be accomplished in many ways. Behavior that accomplishes subtasks in ways that are influenced by the overall task is often described as "skilled" and exhibits coarticulation. Many accounts of coarticulation use search methods that are informed by representations of objectives that define skilled. While they aid in describing the strategies the nervous system may follow, they are computationally complex and may be difficult to attribute to brain structures. Here, the authors present a biologically- inspired account whereby skilled behavior is developed through 2 simple processes: (a) a corrective process that ensures that each subtask is accomplished, but does not do so skillfully and (b) a reinforcement learning process that finds better movements using trial and error search that is not informed by representations of any objectives. We implement our account as a computational model controlling a simulated two-armed kinematic "robot" that must hit a sequence of goals with its hands. Behavior displays coarticulation in terms of which hand was chosen, how the corresponding arm was used, and how the other arm was used, suggesting that the account can participate in the development of skilled behavior. PMID:24116847

  1. Re-embodiment: incorporation through embodied learning of wheelchair skills.

    PubMed

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2011-05-01

    In this article, the notion of re-embodiment is developed to include the ways that rearrangement and renewals of body schema take place in rehabilitation. More specifically, the embodied learning process of acquiring wheelchair skills serves as a starting point for fleshing out a phenomenological understanding of incorporation of assistive devices. By drawing on the work of Merleau-Ponty, the reciprocal relation between acquisition habits and incorporation of instruments is explored in relation to the learning of wheelchair skills. On the basis of this, it is argued that through learning to manoeuvre the wheelchair, a reversible relation between is established between the moving body-subject and the wheelchair. In this sense, re-embodiment involves a gestalt switch from body image to body schema. PMID:20865328

  2. Totally Model-Free Learned Skillful Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Stuart E.

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes a neural-network-based explanation of how a brain might acquire intuitive expertise. The explanation is intended merely to be suggestive and lacks many complexities found in even lower animal brains. Yet significantly, even this simplified brain model is capable of explaining the acquisition of simple skills without developing…

  3. Enhancing Autonomous L2 Vocabulary Learning Focusing on the Development of Word-Level Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyoda, Etsuko

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviewed studies in word-level processing skills and related areas, and profiled how the development of L2 word recognition and integration skills would contribute to autonomous "kango" (Chinese originated words or words created from Chinese originated words) vocabulary learning. Despite the fact that the acquisition of a…

  4. Evaluating a skills centre: the acquisition of psychomotor skills in nursing--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Knight, C M

    1998-08-01

    In 1994, as a result of both programme evaluations which identified students' fears and apprehensions about their practical ability, and a review of the literature on skill acquisition, experiential skills teaching was resumed within the faculty. Having invested considerable finance into the reconstruction of a skills centre to teach skills, it is now imperative that its use be formally evaluated. Part of the evaluative process includes a review of the empirical literature on the acquisition of psychomotor skills in nursing. This paper summarizes this review.

  5. Learning and teaching motor skills in regional anesthesia: a different perspective.

    PubMed

    Slater, Reuben J; Castanelli, Damian J; Barrington, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature on learning in regional anesthesia broadly covers the rate of skill acquisition and the structure of educational programs. A complementary body of literature spanning psychology to medical education can be found describing skill acquisition in other fields. Concepts described in this literature have direct application to the teaching of regional anesthesia. This review introduces a selection of these complementary educational concepts, applying them to ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia skills education. Key educational concepts presented in this article can be divided into 3 sections, namely, how residents acquire manual skills, how tutors teach, and type of feedback.

  6. Demonstrator skill modulates observational aversive learning.

    PubMed

    Selbing, Ida; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Learning to avoid danger by observing others can be relatively safe, because it does not incur the potential costs of individual trial and error. However, information gained through social observation might be less reliable than information gained through individual experiences, underscoring the need to apply observational learning critically. In order for observational learning to be adaptive it should be modulated by the skill of the observed person, the demonstrator. To address this issue, we used a probabilistic two-choice task where participants learned to minimize the number of electric shocks through individual learning and by observing a demonstrator performing the same task. By manipulating the demonstrator's skill we varied how useful the observable information was; the demonstrator either learned the task quickly or did not learn it at all (random choices). To investigate the modulatory effect in detail, the task was performed under three conditions of available observable information; no observable information, observation of choices only, and observation of both the choices and their consequences. As predicted, our results showed that observable information can improve performance compared to individual learning, both when the demonstrator is skilled and unskilled; observation of consequences improved performance for both groups while observation of choices only improved performance for the group observing the skilled demonstrator. Reinforcement learning modeling showed that demonstrator skill modulated observational learning from the demonstrator's choices, but not their consequences, by increasing the degree of imitation over time for the group that observed a fast learner. Our results show that humans can adaptively modulate observational learning in response to the usefulness of observable information.

  7. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  8. Confidence-based progress-driven self-generated goals for skill acquisition in developmental robots

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Hung; Luciw, Matthew; Förster, Alexander; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    A reinforcement learning agent that autonomously explores its environment can utilize a curiosity drive to enable continual learning of skills, in the absence of any external rewards. We formulate curiosity-driven exploration, and eventual skill acquisition, as a selective sampling problem. Each environment setting provides the agent with a stream of instances. An instance is a sensory observation that, when queried, causes an outcome that the agent is trying to predict. After an instance is observed, a query condition, derived herein, tells whether its outcome is statistically known or unknown to the agent, based on the confidence interval of an online linear classifier. Upon encountering the first unknown instance, the agent “queries” the environment to observe the outcome, which is expected to improve its confidence in the corresponding predictor. If the environment is in a setting where all instances are known, the agent generates a plan of actions to reach a new setting, where an unknown instance is likely to be encountered. The desired setting is a self-generated goal, and the plan of action, essentially a program to solve a problem, is a skill. The success of the plan depends on the quality of the agent's predictors, which are improved as mentioned above. For validation, this method is applied to both a simulated and real Katana robot arm in its “blocks-world” environment. Results show that the proposed method generates sample-efficient curious exploration behavior, which exhibits developmental stages, continual learning, and skill acquisition, in an intrinsically-motivated playful agent. PMID:24324448

  9. Learning: Statistical Mechanisms in Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    The grammatical structure of human languages is extremely complex, yet children master this complexity with apparent ease. One explanation is that we come to the task of acquisition equipped with knowledge about the possible grammatical structures of human languages—so-called "Universal Grammar". An alternative is that grammatical patterns are abstracted from the input via a process of identifying reoccurring patterns and using that information to form grammatical generalizations. This statistical learning hypothesis receives support from computational research, which has revealed that even low level statistics based on adjacent word co-occurrences yield grammatically relevant information. Moreover, even as adults, our knowledge and usage of grammatical patterns is often graded and probabilistic, and in ways which directly reflect the statistical makeup of the language we experience. The current chapter explores such evidence and concludes that statistical learning mechanisms play a critical role in acquisition, whilst acknowledging holes in our current knowledge, particularly with respect to the learning of `higher level' syntactic behaviours. Throughout, I emphasize that although a statistical approach is traditionally associated with a strongly empiricist position, specific accounts make specific claims about the nature of the learner, both in terms of learning mechanisms and the information that is primitive to the learning system. In particular, working models which construct grammatical generalizations often assume inbuilt semantic abstractions.

  10. Motor skill learning requires active central myelination.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Ian A; Ohayon, David; Li, Huiliang; de Faria, Joana Paes; Emery, Ben; Tohyama, Koujiro; Richardson, William D

    2014-10-17

    Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) are formed continuously in the healthy adult brain. In this work, we study the function of these late-forming cells and the myelin they produce. Learning a new motor skill (such as juggling) alters the structure of the brain's white matter, which contains many OLs, suggesting that late-born OLs might contribute to motor learning. Consistent with this idea, we show that production of newly formed OLs is briefly accelerated in mice that learn a new skill (running on a "complex wheel" with irregularly spaced rungs). By genetically manipulating the transcription factor myelin regulatory factor in OL precursors, we blocked production of new OLs during adulthood without affecting preexisting OLs or myelin. This prevented the mice from mastering the complex wheel. Thus, generation of new OLs and myelin is important for learning motor skills. PMID:25324381

  11. Framework for robot skill learning using reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingzi; Zhao, Mingyang

    2003-09-01

    Robot acquiring skill is a process similar to human skill learning. Reinforcement learning (RL) is an on-line actor critic method for a robot to develop its skill. The reinforcement function has become the critical component for its effect of evaluating the action and guiding the learning process. We present an augmented reward function that provides a new way for RL controller to incorporate prior knowledge and experience into the RL controller. Also, the difference form of augmented reward function is considered carefully. The additional reward beyond conventional reward will provide more heuristic information for RL. In this paper, we present a strategy for the task of complex skill learning. Automatic robot shaping policy is to dissolve the complex skill into a hierarchical learning process. The new form of value function is introduced to attain smooth motion switching swiftly. We present a formal, but practical, framework for robot skill learning and also illustrate with an example the utility of method for learning skilled robot control on line.

  12. Intelligent tutoring system for clinical reasoning skill acquisition in dental students.

    PubMed

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2009-10-01

    Learning clinical reasoning is an important core activity of the modern dental curriculum. This article describes an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for clinical reasoning skill acquisition. The system is designed to provide an experience that emulates that of live human-tutored problem-based learning (PBL) sessions as much as possible, while at the same time permitting the students to participate collaboratively from disparate locations. The system uses Bayesian networks to model individual student knowledge and activity, as well as that of the group. Tutoring algorithms use the models to generate tutoring hints. The system incorporates a multimodal interface that integrates text and graphics so as to provide a rich communication channel between the students and the system, as well as among students in the group. Comparison of learning outcomes shows that student clinical reasoning gains from the ITS are similar to those obtained from human-tutored sessions.

  13. Gaze-contingent training enhances perceptual skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Donghyun; Mann, David L; Abernethy, Bruce; Poolton, Jamie M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a gaze-contingent manipulation that displayed either (a) a moving window (clear central and blurred peripheral vision), (b) a moving mask (blurred central and clear peripheral vision), or (c) full (unrestricted) vision. During the training, participants watched video clips of basketball play and at the conclusion of each clip made a decision about to which teammate the player in possession of the ball should pass. A further control group watched unrelated videos with full vision. The effects of training were assessed using separate tests of decision-making skill conducted in a pretest, posttest, and 2-week retention test. The accuracy of decision making was greater in the posttest than in the pretest for all three intervention groups when compared with the control group. Remarkably, training with blurred peripheral vision resulted in a further improvement in performance from posttest to retention test that was not apparent for the other groups. The type of training had no measurable impact on the visual search strategies of the participants, and so the training improvements appear to be grounded in changes in information pickup. The findings show that learning with impaired peripheral vision offers a promising form of training to support improvements in perceptual skill. PMID:26824639

  14. Gaze-contingent training enhances perceptual skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Donghyun; Mann, David L; Abernethy, Bruce; Poolton, Jamie M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a gaze-contingent manipulation that displayed either (a) a moving window (clear central and blurred peripheral vision), (b) a moving mask (blurred central and clear peripheral vision), or (c) full (unrestricted) vision. During the training, participants watched video clips of basketball play and at the conclusion of each clip made a decision about to which teammate the player in possession of the ball should pass. A further control group watched unrelated videos with full vision. The effects of training were assessed using separate tests of decision-making skill conducted in a pretest, posttest, and 2-week retention test. The accuracy of decision making was greater in the posttest than in the pretest for all three intervention groups when compared with the control group. Remarkably, training with blurred peripheral vision resulted in a further improvement in performance from posttest to retention test that was not apparent for the other groups. The type of training had no measurable impact on the visual search strategies of the participants, and so the training improvements appear to be grounded in changes in information pickup. The findings show that learning with impaired peripheral vision offers a promising form of training to support improvements in perceptual skill.

  15. Learning Discussion Skills Through Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Gene; Stanford, Barbara Dodds

    This book provides a sequence of 10 skill-building games and follow-up activities (beginning with "Getting Acquainted" and ending with "Arriving at a Consensus") designed to give students necessary practice in proper discussion techniques. Fifteen remedial exercises to treat such weaknesses as extreme aggressiveness or a habit of straying from the…

  16. Mathematical Games: Skill + Luck = Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, John

    2008-01-01

    Left to their own devices, many students are happy to work within their comfort zone of skill and understanding, a level where they are confident that they will achieve regular success. The job of the classroom teacher is to help students reach beyond this and to help them make this level their new comfort zone. Clearly, teachers need to employ a…

  17. Contextual interference in complex bimanual skill learning leads to better skill persistence.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Lisa; Swinnen, Stephan P; Beets, Iseult A M

    2014-01-01

    The contextual interference (CI) effect is a robust phenomenon in the (motor) skill learning literature. However, CI has yielded mixed results in complex task learning. The current study addressed whether the CI effect is generalizable to bimanual skill learning, with a focus on the temporal evolution of memory processes. In contrast to previous studies, an extensive training schedule, distributed across multiple days of practice, was provided. Participants practiced three frequency ratios across three practice days following either a blocked or random practice schedule. During the acquisition phase, better overall performance for the blocked practice group was observed, but this difference diminished as practice progressed. At immediate and delayed retention, the random practice group outperformed the blocked practice group, except for the most difficult frequency ratio. Our main finding is that the random practice group showed superior performance persistence over a one week time interval in all three frequency ratios compared to the blocked practice group. This study contributes to our understanding of learning, consolidation and memory of complex motor skills, which helps optimizing training protocols in future studies and rehabilitation settings. PMID:24960171

  18. A Study on Students Acquisition of IT Knowledge and Its Implication on M-Learning

    PubMed Central

    Balavivekanandhan, A.; Arulchelvan, S.

    2015-01-01

    The boom in mobile technology has seen a dramatic rise in its usage. This has led to usage of mobiles even in the academic context for further learning. Although the advantages of m-learning (mobile learning) are visible, studies are required to address the aspects that shape its virtual expectations. The acceptance of mobile technology relies mostly on how the students feel about mobile technology fitting into their requirements. Yet, in spite of the significance in the potential of m-learning, research studies have only inadequate data to identify the factors that influence their decision to adapt the mobile technology for the purpose of learning. To deal with this space, the present study was undertaken to correlate the IT skills of students with their impact on their acceptance of m-learning. The research study found that the perceived usability along with the usefulness of m-learning impacts the association between IT expertise and the objective of learners' acceptance of m-learning. A survey of 892 students from Engineering, Arts, and Science Colleges found that IT skills influence student's acquisition of m-learning technology. Specialized and advanced skills in mobile technology along with basic skills play a significant role in influencing a student to accept m-learning. But no specific substantiation has been established to support the statement that highly developed IT skills have influenced the students to accept m-learning. PMID:26576451

  19. Soft Skills at the Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakir, Roselina

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education,…

  20. Using the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition to Describe and Interpret Skill Acquisition and Clinical Judgment in Nursing Practice and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Three studies using the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition were conducted over a period of 21 years. Nurses with a range of experience and reported skillfulness were interviewed. Each study used nurses' narrative accounts of actual clinical situations. A subsample of participants were observed and interviewed at work. These studies extend the…

  1. Acquisition of Skill Proficiency Over Multiple Sessions of a Novel Rover Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, S. L.; DeDios,Y. E.; MacDougall, H. G.; Moore, S. T.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    surface operations and what countermeasures are needed. Learning Objective: The use of a motion-based simulation to investigate decrements in the proficiency to operate pressurized rovers during early surface operations of space exploration missions, along with the acquisition of skill proficiency needed during the preflight phase of the mission.

  2. Modeling social learning of language and skills.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Paul; Haasdijk, Evert

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of social learning of both language and skills, while assuming—insofar as possible—strict autonomy, virtual embodiment, and situatedness. This model is built by integrating various previous models of language development and social learning, and it is this integration that, under the mentioned assumptions, provides novel challenges. The aim of the article is to investigate what sociocognitive mechanisms agents should have in order to be able to transmit language from one generation to the next so that it can be used as a medium to transmit internalized rules that represent skill knowledge. We have performed experiments where this knowledge solves the familiar poisonous-food problem. Simulations reveal under what conditions, regarding population structure, agents can successfully solve this problem. In addition to issues relating to perspective taking and mutual exclusivity, we show that agents need to coordinate interactions so that they can establish joint attention in order to form a scaffold for language learning, which in turn forms a scaffold for the learning of rule-based skills. Based on these findings, we conclude by hypothesizing that social learning at one level forms a scaffold for the social learning at another, higher level, thus contributing to the accumulation of cultural knowledge.

  3. The Bounds of Adult Language Acquisition: Blocking and Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…

  4. Motor imagery-based skill acquisition disrupted following rTMS of the inferior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; Keeler, Laura T; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of motor tasks, has promise as a therapy in post-stroke rehabilitation. The potential effectiveness of MI is attributed to the facilitation of plasticity in numerous brain regions akin to those recruited for physical practice. It is suggested, however, that MI relies more heavily on regions commonly affected post-stroke, including left hemisphere parietal regions involved in visuospatial processes. However, the impact of parietal damage on MI-based skill acquisition that underlies rehabilitation remains unclear. Here, we examine the contribution of the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) to MI using inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and an MI-based implicit sequence learning (ISL) paradigm. Participants (N = 27) completed the MI-based ISL paradigm after receiving continuous theta burst stimulation to the left IPL (TMS), or with the coil angled away from the scalp (sham). Reaction time differences (dRT) and effect sizes between implicit and random sequences assessed success of MI-based learning. Mean dRT for the sham group was 36.1 ± 28.2 ms (d = 0.71). Mean dRT in the TMS group was 7.7 ± 38.5 ms (d = 0.11). These results indicate that inhibition of the left IPL impaired MI-based learning. We conclude that the IPL and likely the visuospatial processes it mediates are critical for MI performance and thus MI-based skill acquisition or learning. Ultimately, these findings have implications for the use of MI in post-stroke rehabilitation.

  5. Effect on Movement Selection of an Evolving Sensory Representation: A Multiple Controller Model of Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Barto, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    Change in behavior and neural activity in skill acquisition suggests that control is transferred from cortical planning areas (e.g., the prefrontal cortex, PFC) to the basal ganglia (BG). Planning has large computational and representational requirements but requires little experience with a task. The BG are thought to employ a simpler control scheme and reinforcement learning; these mechanisms rely on extensive experience. Many theoretical accounts of behavior in the face of uncertainty invoke planning mechanisms that explicitly take uncertainty into account. We suggest that the simpler mechanisms of the BG can also contribute to the development of behavior under such conditions. We focus on learning under conditions in which sensory information takes time to resolve, e.g., when a poorly perceived goal stimulus takes non-negligible time to identify. It may be advantageous to begin acting quickly under uncertainty — possibly via decisions that are suboptimal for the actual goal — rather than to wait for sensory information to fully resolve. We present a model of skill acquisition in which control is transferred, with experience, from a planning controller (denoted A), corresponding to the PFC, to a simpler controller (B), corresponding to the BG. We apply our model to a task in which a learning agent must execute a series of actions to achieve a goal (selected randomly at each trial from a small set). Over the course of a trial, the agent's goal representation evolves from representing all possible goals to only the selected goal. A is restricted to select movements only when goal representation is fully resolved. Model behavior is similar to that observed in humans accomplishing similar tasks. Thus, B can by itself account for the development of behavior under an evolving sensory representation, suggesting that the BG can contribute to learning and control under conditions of uncertainty. PMID:19595991

  6. Individualized Learning Skills Curriculum Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckee Meadows Community Coll., Sparks, NV.

    The Truckee Meadows Community College curriculum development project was designed to enhance the success of underprepared college students aspiring to succeed in the college's occupational and general educational programs. Initial plans called for (1) the development of individualized learning and basic skills modules; (2) creation of an…

  7. Conditions of Practice in Perceptual Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memmert, D.; Hagemann, N.; Althoetmar, R.; Geppert, S.; Seiler, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses three experiments with different kinds of training conditions to investigate the "easy-to-hard" principle, context interference conditions, and feedback effects for learning anticipatory skills in badminton. Experiment 1 (N = 60) showed that a training program that gradually increases the difficulty level has no advantage over the…

  8. Learning Skills Centre--Department Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Pat

    This report on an internal evaluation, which was conducted for developmental purposes, describes services provided at the Learning Skills Centres (LSC) on three separate campuses of Grant MacEwan Community College, in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). The key questions of the evaluation addressed student and staff awareness of the existence of the LSC;…

  9. Self-Modeling and Cognitive Skill Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.; Hanson, Antoinette R.

    This experiment investigated self-modeling among 60 children, enrolled in grades 3 and 4, during cognitive skill learning. Children received training on addition and subtraction of fractions. Subjects in one condition (mastery self-model) were videotaped while successfully solving problems and viewed their tapes. Children in the progress…

  10. Factors Influencing the Acquisition of Employability Skills by Students of Selected Technical Secondary School in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dania, Jovinia; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to assess the acquisition of employability skills by vocational students in Malaysia. A total of 214 students participated in the study. We used the SCANS instrument to assess vocational students' employability skills. The overall mean of vocational secondary students' employability skills was 3.81 (SD = 0.34).…

  11. Observational practice benefits are limited to perceptual improvements in the acquisition of a novel coordination skill.

    PubMed

    Maslovat, Dana; Hodges, Nicola J; Krigolson, Olav E; Handy, Todd C

    2010-07-01

    There is disagreement about the effectiveness of observational practice for the acquisition of novel coordination skills and the type of processes involved in observation of novel movements. In this study, we examined learning of a bimanual 90 degrees phase offset through comparisons of three groups; physical practice, observational practice and no practice (n = 12/group). Groups were compared before and after practice on perception and production scans of the practised pattern. The observation group was yoked to the physical group such that observers watched repeated demonstrations of a learning model. Although there were no positive effects of observational practice for physical performance measures, the observation group did not differ from the physical practice group and was more accurate than controls on perceptual discrimination measures after practice. We concluded that observation of a novel bimanual movement can aid perception but that physical practice is necessary for immediate physical performance benefits. These results are discussed in terms of cognitive mediation models of motor skill learning. PMID:20496059

  12. An Attempt to Measure Presentation Skill Acquisition Using Peer and Self-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Morone, Mieko; Sato, Atsuko; Ohno, Isao; Ohkawara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Tsuneyoshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Azuma, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    In six-year pharmacy education programs, humanistic education is now regarded as more important than ever, and we are working to incorporate active learning methods into a variety of subjects. Because performance evaluations are by their nature subjective, it is difficult to ensure the validity of any given assessment. Fifth-year students at Tohoku Pharmaceutical University learn case and prescription analysis in problem-based learning tutorials. As part of this curriculum, 20 presentation and discussion meetings over the course of 10 weeks are held, with approximately 100 students making presentations two or more times each. With regard to the presentation skills that students are expected to acquire, we instructed them to conduct peer evaluations and analyzed the evaluation results for 863 students conducted between 2012 and 2014. From the results, it was found that peer evaluation scores improved between the first and second evaluations for 70% to 86% of students, and furthermore that students who received lower scores in their first evaluations increased their scores correspondingly in the second. In addition, while 87% of students responded positively in the presentation skill acquisition self-evaluations conducted after the completion of the program, there was no correlation between the results of self-evaluation and peer evaluation. It was suggested that many students were able to cultivate an eye for criticism by evaluating other students and gain confidence by becoming aware of their own growth through repeated presentations. PMID:27374967

  13. Primary School Teachers' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are very important in problem solving. It is important to develop these skills from the first years of school. Thus, it is essential that primary school teachers master self-regulated learning skills and they know how to develop these skills in their pupils. In this article, we present the results of a research…

  14. Influence of self-controlled feedback on learning a serial motor skill.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soowoen; Ali, Asif; Kim, Wonchan; Kim, Jingu; Choi, Sungmook; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Self-controlled feedback on a variety of tasks are well established as effective means of facilitating motor skill learning. This study assessed the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance of a serial motor skill. The task was to learn the sequence of 18 movements that make up the Taekwondo Poomsae Taegeuk first, which is the first beginner's practice form learned in this martial art. Twenty-four novice female participants (M age=27.2 yr., SD=1.8) were divided into two groups. All participants performed 16 trials in 4 blocks of the acquisition phase and 20 hr. later, 8 trials in 2 blocks of the retention phase. The self-controlled feedback group had significantly higher performance compared to the yoked-feedback group with regard to acquisition and retention. The results of this study may contribute to the literature regarding feedback by extending the usefulness of self-controlled feedback for learning a serial skill.

  15. Early language acquisition: Statistical learning and social learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2003-10-01

    Infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns in language input, and exposure to them alters phonetic perception. Our recent data indicate that first-time exposure to a foreign language at 9 months of age results in learning after only 5 h, suggesting a process that is fairly automatic, given natural language input. At the same time, it appears that early phonetic learning from natural language may be constrained by the need for social interaction. Our work demonstrates that infants learn phonetically when exposed to a live, but not a pre-recorded, speaker. This talk will focus on statistical learning in a social context and develop the thesis that this combination provides an ideal situation for the acquisition of a natural language.

  16. The 'dark side' and 'bright side' of personality: when too much conscientiousness and too little anxiety are detrimental with respect to the acquisition of medical knowledge and skill.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a 'dark side' and those generally viewed as negative can have a 'bright side' depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a 'dark side' reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a 'bright side' enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning 'backbone', whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be

  17. Variability of Practice and Contextual Interference in Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Hall, K. G.; Magill, R. A.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning benefits in multiple-task learning situations are a result of contextual interference or of schema enhancement related to the amount of variability in the practice session. Two experiments were designed that replicated and extended the experiment reported by Wulf and Schmidt (1988). In a 2 (same vs. different relative time) x 2 (blocked vs. random practice schedule) design, 48 right-handed subjects were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A tapping task was employed that required a right-handed tap of three small brass plates arranged in a diamond pattern. Each segment had a specific time requirement. Target times and response times were provided on a computer screen directly in front of the subject. Each subject participated in two acquisition sessions (i.e., 198 practice trials) and was tested for learning on several different retention and transfer tests. In Experiment 2, a control group was added that received no acquisition phase. Results of both experiments showed a typical contextual interference effect, with depressed scores by the random groups during acquisition but significantly better scores than the blocked groups on several retention and transfer tests. Certain characteristics of the tests were found to influence the demonstration of the practice schedule effects. These results were consistent with predictions from Magill and Hall (1990) that the learning benefits of contextual interference are more likely to occur when skill variations are from different classes of movement and that the amount of variability in practice is more influential when the to-be-learned tasks are parameter modifications of the same generalized motor program. PMID:12529226

  18. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: A Plea for Syncretism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the apparent opposition between the concepts of language learning and language acquisition in the context of adult second-language study. Proposes that these two concepts are mutually supportive, not mutually exclusive. Demonstrates how the implications of learning vs. acquisition can be integrated into a communicative…

  19. Information and psychomotor skills knowledge acquisition: A student-customer-centered and computer-supported approach.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Anita; Tobin, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will discuss coupling commercial and customized computer-supported teaching aids to provide BSN nursing students with a friendly customer-centered self-study approach to psychomotor skill acquisition.

  20. Basic practical skills teaching and learning in undergraduate medical education – a review on methodological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Daniela; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Practical skills are an essential part of physicians’ daily routine. Nevertheless, medical graduates’ performance of basic skills is often below the expected level. This review aims to identify and summarize teaching approaches of basic practical skills in undergraduate medical education which provide evidence with respect to effective students’ learning of these skills. Methods: Basic practical skills were defined as basic physical examination skills, routine skills which get better with practice, and skills which are also performed by nurses. We searched PubMed with different terms describing these basic practical skills. In total, 3467 identified publications were screened and 205 articles were eventually reviewed for eligibility. Results: 43 studies that included at least one basic practical skill, a comparison of two groups of undergraduate medical students and effects on students’ performance were analyzed. Seven basic practical skills and 15 different teaching methods could be identified. The most consistent results with respect to effective teaching and acquisition of basic practical skills were found for structured skills training, feedback, and self-directed learning. Simulation was effective with specific teaching methods and in several studies no differences in teaching effects were detected between expert or peer instructors. Multimedia instruction, when used in the right setting, also showed beneficial effects for basic practical skills learning. Conclusion: A combination of voluntary or obligatory self-study with multimedia applications like video clips in combination with a structured program including the possibility for individual exercise with personal feedback by peers or teachers might provide a good learning opportunity for basic practical skills. PMID:27579364

  1. Emerging Tacts and Selections from Previous Learned Skills: A Comparison between Two Types of Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-González, Luis Antonio; Cereijo-Blanco, Noelia; Carnerero, José Julio

    2014-01-01

    Naming consists of tacting an object and selecting it upon hearing its name as a result of emergence. After acquiring naming, children learn object-name relations more quickly and, hence, it is an important achievement in development. We studied the acquisition of the two skills that define naming, using two procedures, in seven typically…

  2. Maintenance of skills for today's family physician: the SAGE approach to physician learning.

    PubMed

    Oh, Robert C; Junnila, Jennifer L; Seehusen, Dean A; Edwards, John A; Runkle, Guy P

    2005-12-01

    Physicians need practical ways to maintain and augment clinical skills after residency training. The problem is amplified when a physician encounters a new practice environment that requires retraining in particular skills. With their broad scope of practice, family physicians are especially prone to deterioration of infrequently used skills. The SAGE model for lifelong learning provides a simple solution for today's military family physicians. Scan, assess, gather, and experience are four key steps physicians should take when maintaining or upgrading clinical skills. This approach allows physicians to identify available resources and to develop action plans to improve skills. Supervisors must encourage physicians to be honest in self-assessment of patient care skills and should support the acquisition of improved skills. System-based solutions, in keeping with suggestions from the Institute of Medicine, are introduced.

  3. Body Learning: Examining the Processes of Skill Learning in Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Richard; Pickard, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This paper was stimulated by the authors' attempt to understand the process of skill learning in dance. Its stimulus was a period of fieldwork based at the Royal Ballet School in London, and subsequent discussions with the school's teachers and with academic colleagues about how it was that the young dancers developed their characteristic set of…

  4. Assessments of "Learning-Related Skills" and "Interpersonal Skills" Constructs within Early Childhood Environments in Singapore"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sok Mui; Rodger, Sylvia; Brown, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Social skills are necessary for developing successful relationships and promoting learning. "Interpersonal skills" (IPS) are needed for maintaining friendships while "learning-related skills" (LRS) are required for positive classroom behaviours. In this study, we investigated the construct validity of LRS and IPS within two existing assessments:…

  5. The Effects of Reinforcement Magnitude on Skill Acquisition for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Amber R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of reinforcement magnitude on skill acquisition during discrete-trial training. After conducting a magnitude preference assessment, we compared acquisition during conditions with large and small magnitudes of edible reinforcement to a praise-only condition. Although all participants showed a preference for the…

  6. Evaluating and Auditing a Community College Learning Skills Center Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Barbara Cohen; And Others

    The Learning Skills Center (LSC) at Los Angeles City College is an individualized learning laboratory which offers assistance to students in communication skills and quantitative skills, and provides tutoring in all college-level courses. ISC's programs are diagnostic and prescriptive, and services are available to students on both voluntary and…

  7. Statistical Learning Is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one's environment, plays a role in young children's acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from…

  8. Visual Skills and Chinese Reading Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis of Correlation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ling-Yan; Guo, Jian-Peng; Richman, Lynn C.; Schmidt, Frank L.; Gerken, Kathryn C.; Ding, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper used meta-analysis to synthesize the relation between visual skills and Chinese reading acquisition based on the empirical results from 34 studies published from 1991 to 2011. We obtained 234 correlation coefficients from 64 independent samples, with a total of 5,395 participants. The meta-analysis revealed that visual skills as a…

  9. A Disciplinary Perspective of Competency-Based Training on the Acquisition of Employability Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boahin, Peter; Hofman, Adriaan

    2013-01-01

    In the changing global economy, employability skills increasingly are the focus of vocational education and training institutions. This paper explores the effect of academic disciplines, students' background characteristics and industry training on the acquisition of employability skills through competency-based training. A significant…

  10. The Ethical Implications of the Five-Stage Skill-Acquisition Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Hubert L.; Dreyfus, Stuart E.

    2004-01-01

    We assume that acting ethically is a skill. We then use a phenomenological description of five stages of skill acquisition to argue that an ethics based on principles corresponds to a beginner's reliance on rules and so is developmentally inferior to an ethics based on expert response that claims that, after long experience, the ethical expert…

  11. A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

  12. Development of Teaching Expertise Viewed through the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Lucinda J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore development of skill acquisition in dental education, utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum. By identifying what skill progression may be recognized in the expert dental educator and what experiences appear to influence this growth, the knowledge gained may inform more efficient, effective faculty support,…

  13. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  14. Fostering Spatial Skill Acquisition by General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Deborah; Tyson, Julian; Nieswandt, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The study of chemistry requires the understanding and use of spatial relationships, which can be challenging for many students. Prior research has shown that there is a need to develop students' spatial reasoning skills. To that end, this study implemented guided activities designed to strengthen students' spatial skills, with the aim of improving…

  15. Reduced asymmetry in motor skill learning in left-handed compared to right-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert L; Kantak, Shailesh S

    2016-02-01

    Hemispheric specialization for motor control influences how individuals perform and adapt to goal-directed movements. In contrast to adaptation, motor skill learning involves a process wherein one learns to synthesize novel movement capabilities in absence of perturbation such that they are performed with greater accuracy, consistency and efficiency. Here, we investigated manual asymmetry in acquisition and retention of a complex motor skill that requires speed and accuracy for optimal performance in right-handed and left-handed individuals. We further determined if degree of handedness influences motor skill learning. Ten right-handed (RH) and 10 left-handed (LH) adults practiced two distinct motor skills with their dominant or nondominant arms during separate sessions two-four weeks apart. Learning was quantified by changes in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function measured at baseline and one-day retention. Manual asymmetry was evident in the RH group but not the LH group. RH group demonstrated significantly greater skill improvement for their dominant-right hand than their nondominant-left hand. In contrast, for the LH group, both dominant and nondominant hands demonstrated comparable learning. Less strongly-LH individuals (lower EHI scores) exhibited more learning of their dominant hand. These results suggest that while hemispheric specialization influences motor skill learning, these effects may be influenced by handedness. PMID:26638046

  16. Reduced asymmetry in motor skill learning in left-handed compared to right-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert L; Kantak, Shailesh S

    2016-02-01

    Hemispheric specialization for motor control influences how individuals perform and adapt to goal-directed movements. In contrast to adaptation, motor skill learning involves a process wherein one learns to synthesize novel movement capabilities in absence of perturbation such that they are performed with greater accuracy, consistency and efficiency. Here, we investigated manual asymmetry in acquisition and retention of a complex motor skill that requires speed and accuracy for optimal performance in right-handed and left-handed individuals. We further determined if degree of handedness influences motor skill learning. Ten right-handed (RH) and 10 left-handed (LH) adults practiced two distinct motor skills with their dominant or nondominant arms during separate sessions two-four weeks apart. Learning was quantified by changes in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function measured at baseline and one-day retention. Manual asymmetry was evident in the RH group but not the LH group. RH group demonstrated significantly greater skill improvement for their dominant-right hand than their nondominant-left hand. In contrast, for the LH group, both dominant and nondominant hands demonstrated comparable learning. Less strongly-LH individuals (lower EHI scores) exhibited more learning of their dominant hand. These results suggest that while hemispheric specialization influences motor skill learning, these effects may be influenced by handedness.

  17. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning. PMID:20817131

  18. Gender and Technology in the Liberal Arts: Aptitudes, Attitudes, and Skills Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Terry; Ryan, Peter; Chao, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Studies in gender have offered many reasons for the differing attitudes and skill levels that male and female undergraduate students possess when it comes to learning technology skills. Male and female students have differing learning styles influenced by such experiential factors as biology, historical inequalities, inconsistent political rights,…

  19. Towards Machine Learning of Motor Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    Autonomous robots that can adapt to novel situations has been a long standing vision of robotics, artificial intelligence, and cognitive sciences. Early approaches to this goal during the heydays of artificial intelligence research in the late 1980s, however, made it clear that an approach purely based on reasoning or human insights would not be able to model all the perceptuomotor tasks that a robot should fulfill. Instead, new hope was put in the growing wake of machine learning that promised fully adaptive control algorithms which learn both by observation and trial-and-error. However, to date, learning techniques have yet to fulfill this promise as only few methods manage to scale into the high-dimensional domains of manipulator robotics, or even the new upcoming trend of humanoid robotics, and usually scaling was only achieved in precisely pre-structured domains. In this paper, we investigate the ingredients for a general approach to motor skill learning in order to get one step closer towards human-like performance. For doing so, we study two major components for such an approach, i.e., firstly, a theoretically well-founded general approach to representing the required control structures for task representation and execution and, secondly, appropriate learning algorithms which can be applied in this setting.

  20. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    PubMed

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements. PMID:23726036

  1. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    PubMed

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements.

  2. Simultaneous Prompting: An Instructional Strategy for Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Rebecca E.; Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Errorless learning is an instructional approach designed to eliminate and/or reduce the number of errors students produce in traditional trial-and-error approaches (Mueller, Palkovic, & Maynard, 2007). Various response prompting strategies are employed to produce errorless learning. Simultaneous prompting is an errorless learning strategy that has…

  3. Analogy learning and the performance of motor skills under pressure.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wing Kai; Maxwell, Jon P; Masters, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of analogical instruction, relative to explicit instruction, for the acquisition of a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under pressure was investigated using a modified (seated) basketball shooting task. Differences in attentional resource allocation associated with analogy and explicit learning were also examined using probe reaction times (PRT). Access to task-relevant explicit (declarative) knowledge was assessed. The analogy and explicit learning groups performed equally well during learning and delayed retention tests. The explicit group experienced a drop in performance during a pressured transfer test, relative to their performance during a preceding retention test. However, the analogy group's performance was unaffected by the pressure manipulation. Results from PRTs suggested that both groups allocated equal amounts of attentional resources to the task throughout learning and test trials. Analogy learners had significantly less access to rules about the mechanics of their movements, relative to explicit learners. The results are interpreted in the context of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory and Masters's (1992) theory of reinvestment.

  4. Learning the manifold of quality ultrasound acquisition.

    PubMed

    El-Zehiry, Noha; Yan, Michelle; Good, Sara; Fang, Tong; Zhou, S Kevin; Grady, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound acquisition is a challenging task that requires simultaneous adjustment of several acquisition parameters (the depth, the focus, the frequency and its operation mode). If the acquisition parameters are not properly chosen, the resulting image will have a poor quality and will degrade the patient diagnosis and treatment workflow. Several hardware-based systems for autotuning the acquisition parameters have been previously proposed, but these solutions were largely abandoned because they failed to properly account for tissue inhomogeneity and other patient-specific characteristics. Consequently, in routine practice the clinician either uses population-based parameter presets or manually adjusts the acquisition parameters for each patient during the scan. In this paper, we revisit the problem of autotuning the acquisition parameters by taking a completely novel approach and producing a solution based on image analytics. Our solution is inspired by the autofocus capability of conventional digital cameras, but is significantly more challenging because the number of acquisition parameters is large and the determination of "good quality" images is more difficult to assess. Surprisingly, we show that the set of acquisition parameters which produce images that are favored by clinicians comprise a 1D manifold, allowing for a real-time optimization to maximize image quality. We demonstrate our method for acquisition parameter autotuning on several live patients, showing that our system can start with a poor initial set of parameters and automatically optimize the parameters to produce high quality images.

  5. Learning the manifold of quality ultrasound acquisition.

    PubMed

    El-Zehiry, Noha; Yan, Michelle; Good, Sara; Fang, Tong; Zhou, S Kevin; Grady, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound acquisition is a challenging task that requires simultaneous adjustment of several acquisition parameters (the depth, the focus, the frequency and its operation mode). If the acquisition parameters are not properly chosen, the resulting image will have a poor quality and will degrade the patient diagnosis and treatment workflow. Several hardware-based systems for autotuning the acquisition parameters have been previously proposed, but these solutions were largely abandoned because they failed to properly account for tissue inhomogeneity and other patient-specific characteristics. Consequently, in routine practice the clinician either uses population-based parameter presets or manually adjusts the acquisition parameters for each patient during the scan. In this paper, we revisit the problem of autotuning the acquisition parameters by taking a completely novel approach and producing a solution based on image analytics. Our solution is inspired by the autofocus capability of conventional digital cameras, but is significantly more challenging because the number of acquisition parameters is large and the determination of "good quality" images is more difficult to assess. Surprisingly, we show that the set of acquisition parameters which produce images that are favored by clinicians comprise a 1D manifold, allowing for a real-time optimization to maximize image quality. We demonstrate our method for acquisition parameter autotuning on several live patients, showing that our system can start with a poor initial set of parameters and automatically optimize the parameters to produce high quality images. PMID:24505657

  6. Workplace Learning Curriculum Guides. Volume VIII: Enhanced Basic Skills--Listening Skills, Communications, Speech, Self-Esteem, Individual Workplace Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver.

    This volume, the last of a series of eight curriculum guides compiled by the Colorado Workplace Learning Initiative: 1991-92, contains 11 workplace literacy courses on enhanced basic skills including listening skills, communications, speech, self-esteem, and individual workplace skills. Introductory materials include a table of contents and a list…

  7. Acquiring Psychomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padelford, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)

  8. Evaluating a skills centre: learning psychomotor skills--a review of the theory.

    PubMed

    Knight, C M

    1998-08-01

    The formal teaching of skills based on the theoretical principles of skill acquisition has, so far, been practised by teachers responsible for preparing students for their first adult clinical placement on the diploma programme. Whether teachers on other programmes are using similar models of skill acquisition has been surveyed, and the results are presently being analysed. This approach to teaching skills within the context of the Skills Centre is also being evaluated. However, as indicated in the introduction to this paper, it is important to develop and implement the theoretical foundations for skills teaching before any evaluative research on it can take place (Chen 1986). Now these foundations are in place, the evaluative strategy can proceed.

  9. The Skilled Counselor Training Model: Skills Acquisition, Self-Assessment, and Cognitive Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Cassandra; Packman, Jill; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the Skilled Counselor Training Model (SCTM; M. H. Smaby, C. D. Maddux, E. Torres-Rivera, & R. Zimmick, 1999) in teaching counseling skills and in fostering counselor cognitive complexity. Counselor trainees who completed the SCTM had better counseling skills and higher levels of cognitive complexity than…

  10. Evaluator Skill Acquisition: Linking Educational Experiences to Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey conducted in an attempt to examine evaluators' perceptions of the contributions that different educational experiences make to the development of their evaluation skill sets. Self-identified new and graduate student evaluators were asked to describe their evaluation training experiences and to indicate…

  11. Digital Skills Acquisition: Future Trends among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify future trends and barriers that will either facilitate or impede the narrowing of the digital skills divide among older adults during the next 10 years. Methodology: To address the research questions, this study used a modified version of the Delphi process using a panel of experts who…

  12. Skill Acquisition and Perception Change of Counselor Candidates During Practicum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Daniel J.; And Others

    The practicum is designed to provide supervised experience in the development of well trained counselors. A study at the University of Illinois using 10 post-master's degree students enrolled in a one semester supervised practicum investigated the relationship between the practicum and: (1) the development of counselor skills of empathy, warmth…

  13. Relating Skill Acquisition to Science Classroom Teaching Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotten, D. R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Treatment and control groups were used to test the effectiveness of a written instructional program in basic and integrated process skills. Findings revealed that the treatment group achieved higher than the control group on six of eight process measures following the experiment. In addition, subjects from the treatment group asked fewer closed…

  14. Community of Inquiry Method and Language Skills Acquisition: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Abdul Shakhour Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the effectiveness of community of inquiry method in preparing students to develop listening and speaking skills in a sample of junior secondary school students in Borno state, Nigeria. A sample of 100 students in standard classes was drawn in one secondary school in Maiduguri metropolis through stratified random sampling…

  15. Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Dentistry: An Experimental Teaching Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, William F., Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A traditional method of teaching psychomotor skills in a preclinical restorative dentistry laboratory course was compared with an experimental method. The experimental group was taught using a guided systematic approach that relied on detailed checklists and exhaustive faculty feedback. (Author/MLW)

  16. An Information-Processing Approach to Skill Acquisition: Movement Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaeth-Arnold, Ree K.

    This document examines how subjects accomplish the task of matching movements to the characteristics of the performance environment. Literature pertaining to this topic is reviewed from the areas of time/motion study of industrial tasks, timing of coincidence-anticipation tasks, and cinematographic analysis of motor skill performance. A research…

  17. Strategy Selection and Use during Classification Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Raymond, William D.; Healy, Alice F.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined 3 variables affecting accuracy, response time, and reports of strategy use in a binary classification skill task. In Experiment 1, higher rule cue salience, allowing faster rule application, produced higher aggregate rule use than lower rule cue salience. After participants were pretrained on the relevant classification…

  18. Participatory Evaluation of an Educational Game for Social Skills Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…

  19. Perceptual and motor learning underlies human stick-balancing skill.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwee-Yum; O'Dwyer, Nicholas; Halaki, Mark; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the acquisition of skill in balancing a stick (52 cm, 34 g) on the fingertip in nine participants using three-dimensional motion analysis. After 3.5 h of practice over 6 wk, the participants could more consistently balance the stick for longer durations with greatly reduced magnitude and speed of stick and finger movements. Irrespective of level of skill, the balanced stick behaved like a normal noninverted pendulum oscillating under greater-than-gravity torque with simple harmonic motion about a virtual pivot located at the radius of gyration above the center of mass. The control input parameter was the magnitude ratio between the torque applied on the stick by the participant and the torque due to gravity. The participants utilized only a narrow range of this parameter, which did not change with practice, to rotate the stick like a linear mass-spring system. With increased skill, the stick therefore maintained the same period of oscillation but showed marked reductions in magnitude of both oscillation and horizontal translation. Better balancing was associated with 1) more accurate visual localization of the stick and proprioceptive localization of the finger and 2) reduced cross-coupling errors between finger and stick movements in orthogonal directions; i.e., finger movements in the anteroposterior plane became less coupled with stick tip movements in the mediolateral plane, and vice versa. Development of this fine motor skill therefore depended on perceptual and motor learning to provide improved estimation of sensorimotor state and precision of motor commands to an unchanging internal model of the rotational dynamics.

  20. Learning a unimanual motor skill by partial commissurotomy patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P; Campbell, R; Marshall, J C; Zaidel, D W

    1990-09-01

    A series of motor tests on four Chinese partial commissurotomy patients is reported. The single-stage commissurotomy in all four patients included the anterior commissures and two-thirds or four-fifths section of the corpus callosum with sparing of the splenium. There was no demonstrable ability to transfer hand posture in these patients. This was the major evidence for functional deconnexion. A newly learned task of one-hand knotting revealed right hand impairment in all four patients. There was no dyspraxia in the right hand for over-learned object-handling tasks in these patients. It is suggested that there might be right hemisphere specialisation for the initial acquisition of unimanual object-handling skills and that the spared callosal fibres in the splenium alone are insufficient to mediate task control under these conditions. This is supported by the finding that one of these patients, who was the only one who had a right parietal lesion, was unable to perform the newly learned task with either hand.

  1. Learning a unimanual motor skill by partial commissurotomy patients.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y P; Campbell, R; Marshall, J C; Zaidel, D W

    1990-01-01

    A series of motor tests on four Chinese partial commissurotomy patients is reported. The single-stage commissurotomy in all four patients included the anterior commissures and two-thirds or four-fifths section of the corpus callosum with sparing of the splenium. There was no demonstrable ability to transfer hand posture in these patients. This was the major evidence for functional deconnexion. A newly learned task of one-hand knotting revealed right hand impairment in all four patients. There was no dyspraxia in the right hand for over-learned object-handling tasks in these patients. It is suggested that there might be right hemisphere specialisation for the initial acquisition of unimanual object-handling skills and that the spared callosal fibres in the splenium alone are insufficient to mediate task control under these conditions. This is supported by the finding that one of these patients, who was the only one who had a right parietal lesion, was unable to perform the newly learned task with either hand. Images PMID:2246661

  2. The effects of differential reinforcement of unprompted responding on the skill acquisition of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Amanda M; Carr, James E

    2009-01-01

    The recommendation to reserve the most potent reinforcers for unprompted responses during acquisition programming has little published empirical support for its purported benefits (e.g., rapid acquisition, decreased errors, and decreased prompt dependence). The purpose of the current investigation was to compare the delivery of high-quality reinforcers exclusively following unprompted responses (differential reinforcement) with the delivery of high-quality reinforcers following both prompted and unprompted responses (nondifferential reinforcement) on the skill acquisition of 2 children with autism. Results indicated that both were effective teaching procedures, although the differential reinforcement procedure was more reliable in producing skill acquisition. These preliminary findings suggest that the differential reinforcement of unprompted responses may be the most appropriate default approach to teaching children with autism.

  3. Impasse-driven tutoring for reactive skill acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Johnson, W. Lewis

    1993-01-01

    We are interested in developing effective performance-oriented training for the operation of systems that are used for monitor and control purposes. We have focused on one such system, the communications Link Monitor and Control (LMC) system used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which is a worldwide system for navigating, tracking and communicating with unmanned interplanetary spacecraft. The tasks in this domain are procedural in nature and require reactive, goal-oriented skills; we have previously described a cognitive model for problem solving that accounts for both novice and expert levels of behavior as well as how skill is acquired. Our cognitive modeling work in this task domain led us to make a number of predictions about tutoring that have influenced the design of the system described in this paper.

  4. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition and retention of fundamental motor skills.

    PubMed

    Wegman, E

    1999-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of three practice models (repetitions, random, and combined) on the acquisition and retention of fundamental motor skills. 54 girls in Grade 4 were randomly assigned to the three different practice groups who practiced three skills of ball rolling, racket striking, and ball kicking. All subjects received pretests posttests, and a 3-wk, retention test. Performance was significantly improved during practice in the three groups for the three skills. The repetitions group performed better than the other two groups at the end of practice. The contextual interference effect in retention was only shown for the racket-striking skill, in which the random group was significantly better than the repetitions and the combined groups. An attempt was made to attribute that specific result to the special characteristics of the striking skill in this study as an open skill with which subjects had a previous experience. PMID:10214642

  5. Improving Students' Interpersonal Skills through Experiential Small Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kay Lesley; Hyde, Sarah J.; McPherson, Kerstin B. A.; Simpson, Maree D.

    2016-01-01

    Health professional students must be equipped with the skills necessary to interact with patients. Effective interpersonal skills are difficult to both learn and teach, requiring development, practise and evaluation in both educational and clinical settings. In professions such as physiotherapy, traditional approaches to teaching these skills have…

  6. Learning and Skills for Neighbourhood Renewal: A Policy Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Dierdre; Taylor, Sue, Ed.

    A policy review examined the extent to which changes to the post-16 learning and skills policy environment, particularly in relation to further education (FE) colleges, were likely to support neighborhood renewal-related knowledge and skills development. It focused particularly on the development of skills and knowledge needed by regeneration…

  7. Rural women with chronic illness: computer use and skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann; Hill, Wade G

    2005-01-01

    Chronically ill rural women must manage complex illness without easy access to health care resources including support and health information. The Women to Women project is a technology-based program with an overarching aim to assist rural women in the day-to-day management of their illnesses. An important aspect of the Women to Women program is teaching the women how to use the Internet to meet their support and informational needs. The purposes of this article are to examine changes in 1) the level of computer skills, 2) degree of comfort in using the computer, and 3) knowledge of Internet functions for the participants in the Women to Women computer-based intervention. Results of the initial analysis of data from 63 women (intervention group n = 29, control group n = 34) indicate that women participating in the intervention reported greater computer skills and computer comfort and greater knowledge of specific aspects of Internet use than women in the control group. These findings were further strengthened considering that intervention and control group differentials were sustained 8 months after the end of the women's participation in the computer intervention. With the attainment of computer and Internet skills, it is expected that these rural women will have a sustained ability to access quality Internet information that will allow them to better manage and adapt to their chronic illnesses. PMID:16165009

  8. Impact of social problem-solving training on aggressive boys: skill acquisition, behavior change, and generalization.

    PubMed

    Guevremont, D C; Foster, S L

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the impact of social problem-solving training on the behavior of five aggressive boys. Acquisition of problem-solving skills and changes in classroom behavior were evaluated using multiple-baseline designs within and across subjects. A generalization-programming procedure to promote the use of problem-solving skills in the natural environment was introduced across children in multiple-baseline fashion. Direct observation and behavior ratings were used to evaluate the treatment. Results indicated that each subject acquired the problem-solving skills at levels comparable to well-adjusted peers. Only one child showed behavioral improvement coincident with problem-solving skill acquisition. Three others showed moderate behavior change after the generalization-programming procedure was introduced. Only one child's gains on teacher ratings were maintained at the 6-month followup. The results suggest that cognitive-behavioral treatment of childrens' aggressive behavior may produce changes of limited magnitude and durability.

  9. Neural modularity helps organisms evolve to learn new skills without forgetting old skills.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kai Olav; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks are organized critically affects their learning dynamics. In this paper, we test whether catastrophic forgetting can be reduced by evolving modular neural networks. Modularity intuitively should reduce learning interference between tasks by separating functionality into physically distinct modules in which learning can be selectively turned on or off. Modularity can further improve learning by having a reinforcement learning module separate from sensory processing modules, allowing learning to happen only in response to a positive or negative reward. In this paper, learning takes place via neuromodulation, which allows agents to selectively change the rate of learning for each neural connection based on environmental stimuli (e.g. to alter learning in specific locations based on the task at hand). To produce modularity, we evolve neural networks with a cost for neural connections. We show that this connection cost technique causes modularity, confirming a previous result, and that such sparsely connected, modular networks have higher overall performance because they learn new skills faster while retaining old skills more and because they have a separate reinforcement learning module. Our results suggest (1) that encouraging modularity in neural networks may help us overcome the long-standing barrier of networks that cannot learn new skills without forgetting old ones, and (2) that one benefit of the modularity ubiquitous in the brains of natural animals might be to

  10. Active Learning: Learning a Motor Skill Without a Coach

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Vincent S.; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-01-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are “active learners”: we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  11. Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-08-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  12. Psychomotor skills learning under chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, C A; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Abraini, J H

    1999-09-29

    Psychomotor deficits are a prominent feature in subjects exposed to hypoxia. Eight subjects exposed to chronic hypoxia during a simulated climb to 8848 m (Everest-Comex 97) were investigated using both a simple psychomotor task (Purdue pegboard) and two complex psychomotor tasks including a recognition task of either a color stimulus (high semantic level) or an abstract sign (low semantic level). Exposure to hypoxic stress mainly produced psychomotor skills learning deficits compared to control study, with greater deficits in the complex psychomotor task. The pattern of results suggests disruptions of motor strategic process. Our data further suggest that the relative strength of implicit or automatic memory processes associated with semantic information processing may increase when disturbances occur in brain functions.

  13. Speech and Nonspeech Sequence Skill Learning in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc; Saint-Cyr, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies compared the speech and nonspeech sequence skill learning of nine persons who stutter (PWS) and nine matched fluent speakers (PNS). Sequence skill learning was defined as a continuing process of stable improvement in speed and/or accuracy of sequencing performance over practice and was measured by comparing PWS's and PNS's performance…

  14. Social Skills Deficits in Learning Disabilities: The Psychiatric Comorbidity Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel, Stephanie K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that social skill deficits among children with learning disabilities are associated with high rates of undetected psychiatric diagnoses. The maladaptive social skills patterns of children with specific subtypes of learning disabilities appear to mimic the symptom patterns of children with attention deficit…

  15. Development of the Self-Directed Learning Skills Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for assessing high school students' self-directed learning skills. Based on a literature review and data obtained from similar instruments, all skills related to self-directed learning were identified. Next, an item pool was prepared and administered to 255 students from various…

  16. The Learning and Skills Sector: The Emerging Agenda. FEDA Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Development Agency, London (England).

    Britain's new Learning and Skills Bill focuses on learners', not providers', interests. The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) opens up funding for voluntary and community bodies, and organizations from outside education, and has a duty to encourage employers to participate in the provision of post-16 education and training. Local education…

  17. The Integration of Learning Skills into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert; And Others

    Red Deer College's (RDC) efforts to integrate learning skills into the college curriculum are described in three papers. First, Glynis Wilson Boultbee defines learning skills (e.g., listening, viewing, reading, memorizing, asking questions, preparing for and writing exams, taking notes, researching, problem solving, and writing); attitudinal…

  18. Augmented kinematic feedback from haptic virtual reality for dental skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Haddawy, Peter; Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Jittimanee, Pannapa; Viratket, Piyanuch

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a haptic virtual reality system for dental skill training. In this study we examined several kinds of kinematic information about the movement provided by the system supplement knowledge of results (KR) in dental skill acquisition. The kinematic variables examined involved force utilization (F) and mirror view (M). This created three experimental conditions that received augmented kinematic feedback (F, M, FM) and one control condition that did not (KR-only). Thirty-two dental students were randomly assigned to four groups. Their task was to perform access opening on the upper first molar with the haptic virtual reality system. An acquisition session consisted of two days of ten trials of practice in which augmented kinematic feedback was provided for the appropriate experimental conditions after each trial. One week after, a retention test consisting of two trials without augmented feedback was completed. The results showed that the augmented kinematic feedback groups had larger mean performance scores than the KR-only group in Day 1 of the acquisition and retention sessions (ANOVA, p<0.05). The apparent differences among feedback groups were not significant in Day 2 of the acquisition session (ANOVA, p>0.05). The trends in acquisition and retention sessions suggest that the augmented kinematic feedback can enhance the performance earlier in the skill acquisition and retention sessions. PMID:21123503

  19. Initial Skill Acquisition of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion: A New Perspective.

    PubMed

    Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; Lamoth, Claudine J; Veeger, Dirkjan Hej; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into cyclic motor learning processes, hand rim wheelchair propulsion is a suitable cyclic task, to be learned during early rehabilitation and novel to almost every individual. To propel in an energy efficient manner, wheelchair users must learn to control bimanually applied forces onto the rims, preserving both speed and direction of locomotion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique during the initial stage of motor learning. Therefore, 70 naive able-bodied men received 12-min uninstructed wheelchair practice, consisting of three 4-min blocks separated by 2 min rest. Practice was performed on a motor-driven treadmill at a fixed belt speed and constant power output relative to body mass. Energy consumption and the kinetics of propulsion technique were continuously measured. Participants significantly increased their mechanical efficiency and changed their propulsion technique from a high frequency mode with a lot of negative work to a longer-slower movement pattern with less power losses. Furthermore a multi-level model showed propulsion technique to relate to mechanical efficiency. Finally improvers and non-improvers were identified. The non-improving group was already more efficient and had a better propulsion technique in the first block of practice (i.e., the fourth minute). These findings link propulsion technique to mechanical efficiency, support the importance of a correct propulsion technique for wheelchair users and show motor learning differences.

  20. Training hospital providers in basic CPR skills in Botswana: Acquisition, retention and impact of novel training techniques☆

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, Peter A.; Sutton, Robert M.; Tsima, Billy; Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Shilkofski, Nicole; Boulet, John R.; Davis, Amanda; Kestler, Andrew M.; Church, Kasey K.; Niles, Dana E.; Irving, Sharon Y.; Mazhani, Loeto; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Globally, one third of deaths each year are from cardiovascular diseases, yet no strong evidence supports any specific method of CPR instruction in a resource-limited setting. We hypothesized that both existing and novel CPR training programs significantly impact skills of hospital-based healthcare providers (HCP) in Botswana. Methods HCP were prospectively randomized to 3 training groups: instructor led, limited instructor with manikin feedback, or self-directed learning. Data was collected prior to training, immediately after and at 3 and 6 months. Excellent CPR was prospectively defined as having at least 4 of 5 characteristics: depth, rate, release, no flow fraction, and no excessive ventilation. GEE was performed to account for within subject correlation. Results Of 214 HCP trained, 40% resuscitate ≥1/month, 28% had previous formal CPR training, and 65% required additional skills remediation to pass using AHA criteria. Excellent CPR skill acquisition was significant (infant: 32% vs. 71%, p < 0.01; adult 28% vs. 48%, p < 0.01). Infant CPR skill retention was significant at 3 (39% vs. 70%, p < 0.01) and 6 months (38% vs. 67%, p < 0.01), and adult CPR skills were retained to 3 months (34% vs. 51%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, low cognitive score and need for skill remediation, but not instruction method, impacted CPR skill performance. Conclusions HCP in resource-limited settings resuscitate frequently, with little CPR training. Using existing training, HCP acquire and retain skills, yet often require remediation. Novel techniques with increased student: instructor ratio and feedback manikins were not different compared to traditional instruction. PMID:22561463

  1. Learn, see, practice, prove, do, maintain: an evidence-based pedagogical framework for procedural skill training in medicine.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Taylor; White, Marjorie; Zaveri, Pavan; Chang, Todd; Ades, Anne; French, Heather; Anderson, JoDee; Auerbach, Marc; Johnston, Lindsay; Kessler, David

    2015-08-01

    Acquisition of competency in procedural skills is a fundamental goal of medical training. In this Perspective, the authors propose an evidence-based pedagogical framework for procedural skill training. The framework was developed based on a review of the literature using a critical synthesis approach and builds on earlier models of procedural skill training in medicine. The authors begin by describing the fundamentals of procedural skill development. Then, a six-step pedagogical framework for procedural skills training is presented: Learn, See, Practice, Prove, Do, and Maintain. In this framework, procedural skill training begins with the learner acquiring requisite cognitive knowledge through didactic education (Learn) and observation of the procedure (See). The learner then progresses to the stage of psychomotor skill acquisition and is allowed to deliberately practice the procedure on a simulator (Practice). Simulation-based mastery learning is employed to allow the trainee to prove competency prior to performing the procedure on a patient (Prove). Once competency is demonstrated on a simulator, the trainee is allowed to perform the procedure on patients with direct supervision, until he or she can be entrusted to perform the procedure independently (Do). Maintenance of the skill is ensured through continued clinical practice, supplemented by simulation-based training as needed (Maintain). Evidence in support of each component of the framework is presented. Implementation of the proposed framework presents a paradigm shift in procedural skill training. However, the authors believe that adoption of the framework will improve procedural skill training and patient safety.

  2. Effects of contextual interference and conditions of movement task on acquisition, retention, and transfer of motor skills by women.

    PubMed

    Jarus, T; Wughalter, E H; Gianutsos, J G

    1997-02-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate varying conditions of contextual interference within two different conditions of movement tasks during acquisition on the acquisition and retention of a computerized task and transfer to a functional skill. Performance of head movements was conducted under open- or closed-task conditions and with random or blocked schedules of practice. Analysis indicated that learning under the open-task condition resulted in better retention and transfer than the closed-task condition. It is suggested that increasing the within-trial variability in the open-task condition produced a contextual interference effect. In this regard, support for Battig's predictions is provided by the current findings in that the high variability present during the open-task condition was more beneficial for retention and transfer than the low variability present during the closed-task condition. Differences between random and blocked schedules of practice on the retention and transfer data were not statistically significant. PMID:9132708

  3. The Development of Instruments to Measure Motivational Interviewing Skill Acquisition for School-Based Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Jason W.; Lee, Jon; Frey, Andy J.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.

    2014-01-01

    As specialized instructional support personnel begin learning and using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques in school-based settings, there is growing need for context-specific measures to assess initial MI skill development. In this article, we describe the iterative development and preliminary evaluation of two measures of MI skill adapted…

  4. Teaching the Dance Class: Strategies to Enhance Skill Acquisition, Mastery and Positive Self-Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainwaring, Lynda M.; Krasnow, Donna H.

    2010-01-01

    Effective teaching of dance skills is informed by a variety of theoretical frameworks and individual teaching and learning styles. The purpose of this paper is to present practical teaching strategies that enhance the mastery of skills and promote self-esteem, self-efficacy, and positive self-image. The predominant thinking and primary research…

  5. Essential Learning Skills in Vocational Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document provides basic skill performance expectations for all Oregon students by the end of grade 11 to be incorporated into 15 vocational programs. (Exceptions are that in technology education, the skills identified are only for grade 8; in home economics, the identified skills are for grades 8 and 11.) The skills, which are in reading,…

  6. Skill Acquisition in Ski Instruction and the Skill Model's Application to Treating Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duesund, Liv; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2004-01-01

    The Dreyfus skill model has a wide range of applications to various domains, including sport, nursing, engineering, flying, and so forth. In this article, the authors discuss the skill model in connection with two different research projects concerning ski instruction and treating anorexia nervosa. The latter project has been published but not in…

  7. Which is the best intrinsic motivation signal for learning multiple skills?

    PubMed

    Santucci, Vieri G; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Humans and other biological agents are able to autonomously learn and cache different skills in the absence of any biological pressure or any assigned task. In this respect, Intrinsic Motivations (i.e., motivations not connected to reward-related stimuli) play a cardinal role in animal learning, and can be considered as a fundamental tool for developing more autonomous and more adaptive artificial agents. In this work, we provide an exhaustive analysis of a scarcely investigated problem: which kind of IM reinforcement signal is the most suitable for driving the acquisition of multiple skills in the shortest time? To this purpose we implemented an artificial agent with a hierarchical architecture that allows to learn and cache different skills. We tested the system in a setup with continuous states and actions, in particular, with a kinematic robotic arm that has to learn different reaching tasks. We compare the results of different versions of the system driven by several different intrinsic motivation signals. The results show (a) that intrinsic reinforcements purely based on the knowledge of the system are not appropriate to guide the acquisition of multiple skills, and (b) that the stronger the link between the IM signal and the competence of the system, the better the performance.

  8. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation.

    PubMed

    Metzen, Jan H; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  9. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation

    PubMed Central

    Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265

  10. The Acquisition of Key Executive Skills and Attitudes Required for International Business in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlee, Brian

    This study used a multimethod research technique to examine the acquisition of key executive skills and attitudes required for success in the international business arena. Following a review of the literature, the report presents the results of responses by a panel of 36 international business experts from Canada, Mexico, and the United States to…

  11. Working Memory Capacity in Preschool Children Contributes to the Acquisition of School Relevant Precursor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressler, Anna-Lena; Krajewski, Kristin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether preschool children with limitations in the visual or phonological working memory are disadvantaged in the acquisition of school relevant precursor skills at school entry. A sample of 92 children was divided into three subgroups depending on their performance in visual and phonological working…

  12. Teaching Methods Effectiveness and the Acquisition of Psycho-Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikulayo, Philomena Bolaji

    An experimental study was conducted to discover the relative effectiveness of five different instructional strategies on the acquisition of four psycho-motor skills associated with four physical sports (continuous volleying in volleyball, zig-zag dribbling in field hockey, headstand in gymnastics, and sail long jump in athletics). The subjects…

  13. Perception of Teachers and Administrators on the Teaching Methods That Influence the Acquisition of Generic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audu, R.; Bin Kamin, Yusri; Bin Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Bin Saud, Muhammad Sukri; Hamid, Mohd. Zolkifli Abd.

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to identify the most significant teaching methods that influence the acquisition of generic skills of mechanical engineering trades students at technical college level. Descriptive survey research design was utilized in carrying out the study. One hundred and ninety (190) respondents comprised of mechanical engineering…

  14. Criterion-Referenced Measurement (CRM) in the Initial Acquisition of a Psychomotor Skill with Exceptional Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhich, Dolores

    1976-01-01

    Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) in the initial acquisition of the psychomotor skill of typewriting demonstrated speed gains from 8 hours of instruction distributed over a 6-week interval for 4 male adolescent underachievers of above- and below-average intelligence. (Author)

  15. An intelligent tutoring system for the investigation of high performance skill acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Regian, J. Wesley

    1991-01-01

    The issue of training high performance skills is of increasing concern. These skills include tasks such as driving a car, playing the piano, and flying an aircraft. Traditionally, the training of high performance skills has been accomplished through the use of expensive, high-fidelity, 3-D simulators, and/or on-the-job training using the actual equipment. Such an approach to training is quite expensive. The design, implementation, and deployment of an intelligent tutoring system developed for the purpose of studying the effectiveness of skill acquisition using lower-cost, lower-physical-fidelity, 2-D simulation. Preliminary experimental results are quite encouraging, indicating that intelligent tutoring systems are a cost-effective means of training high performance skills.

  16. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and Skill Deficit: The Role of Open Distance Learning (ODL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Mamta; Jena, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Skills acquisition is vital for any economic growth, particularly in an era of economic and technological changes. The need for skill development is a vital challenge, foremost for a developing nation, such as India. Therefore, vocational education and training (VET) is a direct means of providing workers with skills more relevant to their…

  17. An Experimental Study of Interventions for the Acquisition and Retention of Motivational Interviewing Skills among Probation Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asteris, Mark M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the differences in Motivational Interviewing (MI) skill acquisition and retention among probation officers. This study had a randomized, experimental, pretest-posttest control group design using the MITI 3.1.1 and the VASE-R to measure MI skill acquisition and retention. A random sample (n = 24) of probation…

  18. Learning leadership skills in practice through quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Gamble, James; Vaux, Emma

    2014-02-01

    The development of leadership skills in doctors in training is essential to support both their professional development and the future supply of clinical leaders the NHS so desperately needs. There is, however, limited opportunity in current training programmes for trainees to learn and develop these skills, and what opportunity there is has often focused on management rather than leadership skills. Involvement in trainee-led supported quality improvement projects can teach these skills. We summarise the current limitations in leadership training and discuss how the College's 'Learning To Make a Difference' programme, and others like it, are helping to teach leadership.

  19. Critical Learning Skills for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha; Morgan, Anita

    2013-01-01

    A survey addressing critical skills for business students was developed and disseminated. Sixteen critical skills (such as critical thinking and time management) were identified as skills that need to be acquired in order for business students to be successful in their advanced courses and careers. The survey was disseminated and taken by several…

  20. Implicit Statistical Learning and Language Skills in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Dongsun; Rudoy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Implicit statistical learning in 2 nonlinguistic domains (visual and auditory) was used to investigate (a) whether linguistic experience influences the underlying learning mechanism and (b) whether there are modality constraints in predicting implicit statistical learning with age and language skills. Method: Implicit statistical learning…

  1. Students' Experiences of Learning Manual Clinical Skills through Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Eva; Silen, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and…

  2. How can surgical training benefit from theories of skilled motor development, musical skill acquisition and performance psychology?

    PubMed

    McCaskie, Andrew W; Kenny, Dianna T; Deshmukh, Sandeep

    2011-05-01

    Trainee surgeons must acquire expert status in the context of reduced hours, reduced operating room time and the need to learn complex skills involving screen-mediated techniques, computers and robotics. Ever more sophisticated surgical simulation strategies have been helpful in providing surgeons with the opportunity to practise, but not all of these strategies are widely available. Similarities in the motor skills required in skilled musical performance and surgery suggest that models of music learning, and particularly skilled motor development, may be applicable in training surgeons. More attention should be paid to factors associated with optimal arousal and optimal performance in surgical training - lessons learned from helping anxious musicians optimise performance and manage anxiety may also be transferable to trainee surgeons. The ways in which the trainee surgeon moves from novice to expert need to be better understood so that this process can be expedited using current knowledge in other disciplines requiring the performance of complex fine motor tasks with high cognitive load under pressure.

  3. Effect of different external attention of focus instruction on learning of golf putting skill.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Mohsen; McMorris, Terry; Sproule, John

    2011-10-01

    The effect of different sources of external attentional focus on learning a motor skill was assessed in the present study. 30 students (12 men, 18 women) participated voluntarily and were divided, according to type of external focus, into target, club swing, and target-club swing groups. The task was a golf putting skill. The target focus group attended to the target (hole), the club swing focus group attended to the execution of the club's swing, and the target-club swing focus group attended to both. All participants performed 50 trials of the putting skill in the acquisition phase and 10 trials in the 24-hr. delayed retention phase. The dependent variable was the error in the putting skill measured as the distance from the hole to the ball after each strike. Results showed the target-club swing focus group had better scores in the acquisition and retention phases than the other groups. It was concluded that external focus instruction helped the learners to integrate target cue with action cue and is more effective in skill learning than other external-focus instructions. These results support the claims of ecological psychology theorists concerning the effects of external focus of attention. PMID:22185080

  4. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    PubMed

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  5. Study skills and the education of students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hoover, J J

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses an area of education for students with learning disabilities that is often neglected. The topic of study skills education, although not new to education in general, has only recently been emphasized in the literature for students with handicaps. An overview of the study skill proficiency (or lack of it) of students with learning disabilities is provided, followed by the presentation of 15 student study skill strategies designed to assist students in their use of various study skills. These strategies may be employed appropriately and effectively with many students with learning disabilities provided that individual needs and abilities are considered. The article concludes with a discussion about the implementation of a study skills program, including guidelines to follow in this process. PMID:2769066

  6. Social Skills and Peer Acceptance: Effects of a Social Learning Method for Training Verbal Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.

    The purpose of this study was to see if a social learning method for training verbal social skills might influence the social effectiveness of third grade children with low peer acceptance. Children were trained in three verbal skills: asking questions of peers; leading peers (e.g., offering useful suggestions or directions); and, offering…

  7. The Soft-Skills Learning Triangle: A Learning Model for Supporting Online Management & Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Soft-skills Learning Triangle (SLT)--a model created to help coaches, mentors, and educators understand how web-technologies can be used to support management learning and soft-skills development. SLT emerged as part of a larger action-learning research project--the NewMindsets Management Education…

  8. Is Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Feasible to EFL Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    For learning English as a foreign language, the efficiency of the approach of incidental vocabulary acquisition depends on the word frequency and text coverage. However, the statistics of English corpus reveals that English is a language that has a large vocabulary size but a low word frequency as well as text coverage, which is obviously not in…

  9. Linking Infants' Distributional Learning Abilities to Natural Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Heugten, Marieke; Johnson, Elizabeth K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the link between distributional patterns in the input and infants' acquisition of non-adjacent dependencies. In two Headturn Preference experiments, Dutch-learning 24-month-olds (but not 17-month-olds) were found to track the remote dependency between the definite article "het" and the diminutive suffix "-je" while no such…

  10. Metaphors for Learning: Cognitive Acquisition versus Social Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmholdt, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed expressions of cognitive "acquisition" and social "participation" metaphors for learning in the practice of support people in an information and communication technology company department of 100 employees. Findings show the support people's practice is characterized by interplay between these two metaphors. (SLD)

  11. Training Versus Instructions in the Acquisition of Cognitive Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Claire E.; And Others

    Three studies were performed to investigate the effects of training versus instructions in the acquisition of cognitive learning strategies. Groups of undergraduate students were taught to use one or more strategies. The amount and type of training differed for each of the experimental groups. Strategies taught included the method of loci,…

  12. Influence of self-controlled feedback on learning a serial motor skill.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soowoen; Ali, Asif; Kim, Wonchan; Kim, Jingu; Choi, Sungmook; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Self-controlled feedback on a variety of tasks are well established as effective means of facilitating motor skill learning. This study assessed the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance of a serial motor skill. The task was to learn the sequence of 18 movements that make up the Taekwondo Poomsae Taegeuk first, which is the first beginner's practice form learned in this martial art. Twenty-four novice female participants (M age=27.2 yr., SD=1.8) were divided into two groups. All participants performed 16 trials in 4 blocks of the acquisition phase and 20 hr. later, 8 trials in 2 blocks of the retention phase. The self-controlled feedback group had significantly higher performance compared to the yoked-feedback group with regard to acquisition and retention. The results of this study may contribute to the literature regarding feedback by extending the usefulness of self-controlled feedback for learning a serial skill. PMID:25914937

  13. The acquisition of skilled motor performance: Fast and slow experience-driven changes in primary motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Karni, Avi; Meyer, Gundela; Rey-Hipolito, Christine; Jezzard, Peter; Adams, Michelle M.; Turner, Robert; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    1998-01-01

    Behavioral and neurophysiological studies suggest that skill learning can be mediated by discrete, experience-driven changes within specific neural representations subserving the performance of the trained task. We have shown that a few minutes of daily practice on a sequential finger opposition task induced large, incremental performance gains over a few weeks of training. These gains did not generalize to the contralateral hand nor to a matched sequence of identical component movements, suggesting that a lateralized representation of the learned sequence of movements evolved through practice. This interpretation was supported by functional MRI data showing that a more extensive representation of the trained sequence emerged in primary motor cortex after 3 weeks of training. The imaging data, however, also indicated important changes occurring in primary motor cortex during the initial scanning sessions, which we proposed may reflect the setting up of a task-specific motor processing routine. Here we provide behavioral and functional MRI data on experience-dependent changes induced by a limited amount of repetitions within the first imaging session. We show that this limited training experience can be sufficient to trigger performance gains that require time to become evident. We propose that skilled motor performance is acquired in several stages: “fast” learning, an initial, within-session improvement phase, followed by a period of consolidation of several hours duration, and then “slow” learning, consisting of delayed, incremental gains in performance emerging after continued practice. This time course may reflect basic mechanisms of neuronal plasticity in the adult brain that subserve the acquisition and retention of many different skills. PMID:9448252

  14. Enhancing College Students' Life Skills through Project Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurdinger, Scott; Qureshi, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether life skills could be developed in a Project Based Learning (PBL) course. The participants were students enrolled in a graduate level PBL course. The same 35-question survey was given to students at the beginning and end of the course, and students were asked to rank their life skills using a Likert scale. Additionally,…

  15. Degradation of learned skills. A review and annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardlin, G. R.; Sitterley, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of the literature dealing with the retention of learned skills is presented. Basic effects of task type, training, retention interval, and recall variables are discussed, providing a background against which more recent literature dealing with operational spaceflights tasks is compared and assessed. Detailed and summary abstracts of research reports having particular relevance to the problem of spaceflight skill retention are provided.

  16. Writing to Learn Writing Skills--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Antonio S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a case study in which the main objective is to understand how engineering students can improve their writing skills, regarding spelling and syntax, when taught specifically on these issues. The methodology Writing To Learn is applied in two courses and, making use of the written texts, the students' writing skills are assessed…

  17. Visual Spatial Skill: A Consequence of Learning to Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Zhou, Yanling; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Does learning to read influence one's visual skill? In Study 1, kindergartners from Hong Kong, Korea, Israel, and Spain were tested on word reading and a task of visual spatial skill. Chinese and Korean kindergartners significantly outperformed Israeli and Spanish readers on the visual task. Moreover, in all cultures except Korea, good readers…

  18. A Vocationally Oriented Skills Center for Remedial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, John

    1977-01-01

    A learning skills center was set up in Flint Hills Area Vocational-Technical School, Emporia, Kansas, to provide remedial instruction in basic skills leading to student success in the regular vocational program. Group instruction, individualized instruction, and multimedia aids are used to help the participants (high school students and adults)…

  19. Using Blended Learning in Developing Student Teachers Teaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Abanmy, Fahad AbdulAziz; Hussein, Hisham Barakat; Al Saadany, Mohammed Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    The research aims to determine the effectiveness of using blended learning Approach in developing student teachers teaching skills, and defining teaching skills that confront students of teachers college at King Saud University need it. The research uses the Quasi- Experimental approach, with four experimental groups (Mathematics (21)--Science…

  20. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  1. The Testing Effect on Skills Learning Might Last 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromann, C. B.; Bohnstedt, C.; Jensen, M. L.; Ringsted, C.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent study we found that testing as a final activity in a skills course increases the learning outcome compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing. Whether this testing effect measured as skills performance can be demonstrated on long-term basis is not known. The research question was: does testing as a final activity in a…

  2. The effect of surgery and intracerebral injections on motor skill learning in rats: results from a database analysis.

    PubMed

    Schubring-Giese, M; Luft, A R; Hosp, J A

    2016-10-15

    Male Long-Evans rats are often used to investigate neural mechanisms of learning in the motor system. Successful acquisition of a skilled motor task is influenced by various variables such as animal supplier and batch membership. In this retrospective analysis of our laboratory database, we investigate how head and brain surgery as well as intracerebral injections that were performed to address particular scientific questions affect motor learning. Overall, invasive interventions (n=90) slow the acquisition of a skilled-reaching task when compared to naïve animals (n=184; P=0.01). With respect to subgroups, this detrimental effect widely differs between particular procedures: whereas epidural implantations of thin-film electrode arrays and punctual injection through pre-implanted cannulas into primary motor cortex (M1) do not interfere with learning, skill acquisition is slowed after chronic infusion using osmotic minipumps into M1 and skill acquisition is lastingly impaired after bilateral cannula implantation within the dorsal striatum. In line with previous reports, breeder-specific differences could be observed in the analysis of the overall population. In summary, interventions may impair learning-behavior in an unpredictable fashion. Thus, a comparison of behavioral data to a naïve population is recommended to be aware of these drawbacks. PMID:27457136

  3. Does Concept-Mapping Strategy Work for Everyone? The Levels of Generativity and Learners' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kyu Yon; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Grabowski, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of concept-mapping strategies with three different generativity levels (expert-generated concept map, partially learner-generated concept map, fully learner-generated concept map) on knowledge acquisition. Interaction between learners' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills and different levels of…

  4. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Panouillères, Muriel T N; Tofaris, George K; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2016-01-01

    Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific) similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms that underpin the

  5. Individual and social learning processes involved in the acquisition and generalization of tool use in macaques

    PubMed Central

    Macellini, S.; Maranesi, M.; Bonini, L.; Simone, L.; Rozzi, S.; Ferrari, P. F.; Fogassi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Macaques can efficiently use several tools, but their capacity to discriminate the relevant physical features of a tool and the social factors contributing to their acquisition are still poorly explored. In a series of studies, we investigated macaques' ability to generalize the use of a stick as a tool to new objects having different physical features (study 1), or to new contexts, requiring them to adapt the previously learned motor strategy (study 2). We then assessed whether the observation of a skilled model might facilitate tool-use learning by naive observer monkeys (study 3). Results of study 1 and study 2 showed that monkeys trained to use a tool generalize this ability to tools of different shape and length, and learn to adapt their motor strategy to a new task. Study 3 demonstrated that observing a skilled model increases the observers' manipulations of a stick, thus facilitating the individual discovery of the relevant properties of this object as a tool. These findings support the view that in macaques, the motor system can be modified through tool use and that it has a limited capacity to adjust the learnt motor skills to a new context. Social factors, although important to facilitate the interaction with tools, are not crucial for tool-use learning. PMID:22106424

  6. Resolving cognitive dissonance by acquisition of self-organizational skills may decrease drug-resistant seizures — A case report

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J.; Reiter, Joel M.; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2014-01-01

    A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a “broken” self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed. PMID:25667872

  7. Resolving cognitive dissonance by acquisition of self-organizational skills may decrease drug-resistant seizures - A case report.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J; Reiter, Joel M; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2014-01-01

    A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a "broken" self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed.

  8. The ‘Dark Side’ and ‘Bright Side’ of Personality: When Too Much Conscientiousness and Too Little Anxiety Are Detrimental with Respect to the Acquisition of Medical Knowledge and Skill

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J. Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a ‘dark side’ and those generally viewed as negative can have a ‘bright side’ depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a ‘dark side’ reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a ‘bright side’ enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning ‘backbone’, whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on

  9. Performance Assessment of Counseling Skills Based on Specific Theories: Acquisition, Retention and Transfer to Actual Counseling Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefle, Scott; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Packman, Jill; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to determine if (a) students trained to demonstrate specific skills learn these skills and transfer them to actual counseling sessions; (b) mastery of counseling skills differs by students' adherence to one of four general counseling theories; (c) mastery of counseling skills is related to counseling goal…

  10. Learning Clinical Skills: An Interprofessional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeth, Della; Nicol, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    In a clinical skills center, nurses, doctors, and specialists helped nursing and medical students develop clinical and communication skills in the context of holistic patient care. Two aspects of the format received high ratings: realistic patient scenarios and interdisciplinary team teaching. (SK)

  11. Language Skills: Questions for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paran, Amos

    2012-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the changes in teaching the four language skills in the past 15 years. It focuses on two main changes for each skill: understanding spoken language and willingness to communicate for speaking; product, process, and genre approaches and a focus on feedback for writing; extensive reading and literature for reading; and…

  12. Work-Based Learning and Academic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Katherine L.; Moore, David Thornton; Bailey, Thomas R.

    1999-01-01

    A study tested the claim that work-based learning can have positive effects on academic learning. Data were obtained through interviews with faculty, staff, students, and employers, and observation of classroom-based links to the work-based learning components at three sites involved in a work-based learning project. At the three sites, a total of…

  13. Prerequisite Skills That Support Learning through Video Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Dickson, Chata A.; Martineau, Meaghan; Ahearn, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tasks that require delayed discriminations such as delayed imitation and delayed matching to sample on acquisition of skills using video modeling. Twenty-nine participants with an ASD diagnosis were assessed on a battery of tasks including both immediate and delayed imitation and…

  14. Acquisition, learning, or development of language? Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" revisited.

    PubMed

    López Ornat, Susana; Gallo, Pilar

    2004-11-01

    In 1957, Skinner, in his "Verbal Behavior", proposed an explanation on how a language is learned. In 1959, Chomsky strongly argued the non-learnability of language, establishing in the field of developmental psycholinguistics the substitution of the term "learning" for that of "acquisition". Currently, the constructivist models describe language acquisition as a process of ontogenetic, gradual, complex, and adaptive change. This new theoretical framework has been especially useful for rereading Verbal Behavior because it facilitates recovering the Skinnerian learning mechanisms. This can be observed in the recent research trends that recapture reinforcement and imitation (echoic responses), although they are now located in the initial phases of the process and are included in a cognitive dynamic that, by gradually increasing its complexity, can achieve grammar. The new constructivist theoretical framework, by retrieving the functional and referential aspects of language, can also take advantage of the classic Skinnerian proposal about the pragmatic types of verbal behavior, providing it with new meaning.

  15. The NIE Conference on Basic Mathematical Skills and Learning (Euclid, Ohio, October 4-6, 1975). Volume I: Contributed Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    In October 1975 a conference was convened in Euclid, Ohio, by the Basic Skills Group of the National Institute of Education (NIE). Thirty-three participants presented position papers addressing two major questions: (1) What are basic mathematical skills and learning? (2) What are the major problems related to children's acquisition of basic…

  16. Perspectives on learning styles in motor and sport skills.

    PubMed

    Fuelscher, Ian Tobias; Ball, Kevin; Macmahon, Clare

    2012-01-01

    We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximize training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner's preferred mode (e.g., visual, verbal) of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines.

  17. Perspectives on Learning Styles in Motor and Sport Skills

    PubMed Central

    Fuelscher, Ian Tobias; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2011-01-01

    We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximize training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner’s preferred mode (e.g., visual, verbal) of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines. PMID:22416240

  18. Students' experiences of learning manual clinical skills through simulation.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Eva; Silén, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Håkan

    2013-03-01

    Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and thoughts about their learning through simulation skills training. The study was designed for an educational setting at a clinical skills centre. Ten third-year undergraduate nursing students performed urethral catheterisation, using the virtual reality simulator UrecathVision™, which has haptic properties. The students practised in pairs. Each session was videotaped and the video was used to stimulate recall in subsequent interviews. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis from interviews resulted in three themes: what the students learn, how the students learn, and the simulator's contribution to the students' learning. Students learned manual skills, how to perform the procedure, and professional behaviour. They learned by preparing, watching, practising and reflecting. The simulator contributed by providing opportunities for students to prepare for the skills training, to see anatomical structures, to feel resistance, and to become aware of their own performance ability. The findings show that the students related the task to previous experiences, used sensory information, tested themselves and practised techniques in a hands-on fashion, and reflected in and on action. The simulator was seen as a facilitator to learning the manual skills. The study design, with students working in pairs combined with video recording, was found to enhance opportunities for reflection. PMID:22395307

  19. Tracing the trajectory of skill learning with a very large sample of online game players.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Tom; Dewar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we analyzed data from a very large sample (N = 854,064) of players of an online game involving rapid perception, decision making, and motor responding. Use of game data allowed us to connect, for the first time, rich details of training history with measures of performance from participants engaged for a sustained amount of time in effortful practice. We showed that lawful relations exist between practice amount and subsequent performance, and between practice spacing and subsequent performance. Our methodology allowed an in situ confirmation of results long established in the experimental literature on skill acquisition. Additionally, we showed that greater initial variation in performance is linked to higher subsequent performance, a result we link to the exploration/exploitation trade-off from the computational framework of reinforcement learning. We discuss the benefits and opportunities of behavioral data sets with very large sample sizes and suggest that this approach could be particularly fecund for studies of skill acquisition.

  20. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  1. Curriculum Sequencing and the Acquisition of Clock-Reading Skills among Chinese and Flemish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burny, Elise; Valcke, Martin; Desoete, Annemie; Van Luit, Johannes E. Hans

    2013-01-01

    The present study addresses the impact of the curriculum on primary school children's acquisition of clock-reading knowledge from analog and digital clocks. Focusing on Chinese and Flemish children's clock-reading knowledge, the study is about whether the differences in sequencing of learning and instruction opportunities--as defined by the…

  2. Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

  3. Cooperative Learning: A Pedagogy to Improve Students' Generic Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantine, Joan; Larres, Patricia McCourt

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is two-fold. First, it provides guidance to educators and trainers on establishing a cooperative learning environment. Second, it examines final-year undergraduate accounting students' opinions on the effectiveness of a cooperative learning environment in delivering generic skills for their future professional…

  4. Plugging a Gap? Soft Skills Courses and Learning for Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedon, Elisabet; Tett, Lyn

    2013-01-01

    Governments across Europe have been encouraged by the European Union (EU) to take measures to upskill their workforce to ensure growth and social inclusion. Low-skilled workers are particular targets and learning providers and employers are expected to provide learning opportunities for them. However, research shows that those with low skills…

  5. Developing Learning Skills Through Library Services, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Zella, Comp.

    Compiled from a 1980 survey requesting library science guides for elementary and secondary schools, this booklet contains numerous learning activity examples from 36 states which are presented in three main sections. The introduction contains the preface and strategies for teaching learning skills. The major part of the document focuses on using…

  6. Social Skills of Slovenian Primary School Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Majda; Prah, Alenka; Cagran, Branka

    2014-01-01

    Social skills of students with special needs play a very important role in their successful integration into inclusive learning environments. The aim of present empirical research was to establish whether students with learning disabilities (LD) attending grades 7-9 of regular primary school in Slovenia experience difficulties in social skills…

  7. Developing a Scale for Constructivist Learning Environment Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, M. Cevat

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The success of creating a constructivist learning environment is directly related to teachers' management abilities and therefore scales that evaluate those skills are essential to the process. Given the importance of this subject, the development of scales that address all aspects of the constructivist learning environment…

  8. Learning Climate and Work Group Skills in Care Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerberg, Kristina; Hauer, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The overall aim of the present study was to investigate the learning climate and work group skills perceived by managers and their subordinates in the municipal elderly care, prior to a development project. The specific research questions were: Are managers' and their subordinates' perceptions of the learning climate related? and Does the…

  9. Skills for Support: Personal Assistants and People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Val; Ponting, Lisa; Ford, Kerrie; Rudge, Philippa

    2010-01-01

    For people with learning disabilities to have control over their lives, the quality of their support staff matters. This paper reports on an inclusive research study, which used video analysis to study the communication skills of personal assistants (PAs) who worked with people with learning disabilities. The findings reveal some of the fine…

  10. Cooperative Learning and Soft Skills Training in an IT Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogy of higher education is shifting from passive to active and deep learning. At the same time, the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) are demanding soft skills training. Thus, in designing an IT course, we devised group teaching projects where students learn to work with…

  11. Improving Social Skills through the Use of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollman, Lucinda; Morgan, Catherine; Pergler, Jennifer; Russell, William; Watts, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project is to improve student social skills through the use of cooperative learning, in order to develop a positive classroom environment that is conducive to learning. The action research project will involve approximately 95 students, 95 parents, and 200 teachers. It is the intent of the teacher researchers to…

  12. Sleep-Dependent Learning and Motor-Skill Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew P.

    2004-01-01

    Learning of a procedural motor-skill task is known to progress through a series of unique memory stages. Performance initially improves during training, and continues to improve, without further rehearsal, across subsequent periods of sleep. Here, we investigate how this delayed sleep-dependent learning is affected when the task characteristics…

  13. Can Robots Help the Learning of Skilled Actions?

    PubMed Central

    Reinkensmeyer, David J.; Patton, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Learning to move skillfully requires that the motor system adjusts muscle commands based on ongoing performance errors, a process influenced by the dynamics of the task being practiced. Recent experiments from our laboratories show how robotic devices can temporarily alter task dynamics in ways that contribute to the motor learning experience, suggesting possible applications in rehabilitation and sports training. PMID:19098524

  14. Thinking & Learning Skills: What Do We Expect of Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.; Ryan, Susan; Weeks, Sandra; Alpert, Alan; Schwols, Amitra; Moore, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive study identifies the thinking and learning skills--such as good decision-making strategies and monitoring one's own learning progress--that students should acquire, as described in standards documents from state departments of education, from national subject-area organizations, and from organizations concerned about adequate…

  15. Learning by Leaps and Bounds. Why Motor Skills Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2008-01-01

    This new column about young children's movement and learning will offer practical ideas for teachers in the March, July, and November issues. In this column, she focuses on the role of teachers in helping young children learn motor skills. (Lists 4 resources and 1 online resource.)

  16. Nonlinear pedagogy: an effective approach to cater for individual differences in learning a sports skill.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miriam Chang Yi; Chow, Jia Yi; Komar, John; Tan, Clara Wee Keat; Button, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Learning a sports skill is a complex process in which practitioners are challenged to cater for individual differences. The main purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach for learning a sports skill. Twenty-four 10-year-old females participated in a 4-week intervention involving either a Nonlinear Pedagogy (i.e.,manipulation of task constraints including equipment and rules) or a Linear Pedagogy (i.e., prescriptive, repetitive drills) approach to learn a tennis forehand stroke. Performance accuracy scores, movement criterion scores and kinematic data were measured during pre-intervention, post-intervention and retention tests. While both groups showed improvements in performance accuracy scores over time, the Nonlinear Pedagogy group displayed a greater number of movement clusters at post-test indicating the presence of degeneracy (i.e., many ways to achieve the same outcome). The results suggest that degeneracy is effective for learning a sports skill facilitated by a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach. These findings challenge the common misconception that there must be only one ideal movement solution for a task and thus have implications for coaches and educators when designing instructions for skill acquisition. PMID:25140822

  17. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  18. Modularity and hierarchical organization of action programs in human acquisition of graphic skills.

    PubMed

    Manoel, Edison de J; Basso, Luciano; Correa, Umberto C; Tani, Go

    2002-12-25

    If motor or action programs become modules with practice their defining features (e.g. relative timing) should remain relatively invariant in new tasks. To test this hypothesis 24 adults practiced a graphic skill over 100 trials and were transferred to a more complex task enclosing the practiced figure. The data acquired by a digital tablet resulted in total movement and total pause times to draw the figure indicating skill acquisition and variability measures of relative timing and pause time and sequencing referring to features that identify a module. Being transferred to a more complex task did not lead to significant increases in the time to perform the criterion figure embedded in the new pattern. Modularity was evidenced by the stability of relative timing and sequencing shown in the performance of the criterion figure. Hence, it might be that action programs become modules that are then hierarchically organized to form more complex skills.

  19. Genetic variation in dopamine-related gene expression influences motor skill learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y; Chen, M; Forssberg, H; Diaz Heijtz, R

    2013-08-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic basis, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders and developmental coordination disorder, involve deficits in fine motor skills. This phenotype may depend on heritable variation in components of the dopamine (DA) system, which is known to play a critical role in motor skill learning. In this study, we took advantage of two inbred strains of mice (BALB/c and C57BL/6) that differ markedly in the number of midbrain DA neurons in order to investigate the influence of such naturally occurring genetic variation on the acquisition and performance of fine motor skills. Gene expression analysis of midbrain, frontal cortex and striatum showed significant differences in the expression of presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic (DAergic) markers (e.g. tyrosine hydroxylase, DA transporter, DA D4 receptor, DA D5 receptor and DARPP-32) between these two strains. BALB/c mice had lower learning rate and performance scores in a complex skilled reaching task when compared with C57BL/6 mice. A negative correlation was found between the motor learning rate and level of DARPP-32 mRNA expression in the frontal cortex contralateral to the trained forelimb. The rate of motor learning was also negatively correlated with the levels of DARPP-32 and DA D1 receptor mRNAs in the striatum. Our results suggest that genetically driven variation in frontostriatal DAergic neurotransmission is a major contributor to individual differences in motor skill learning. Moreover, these findings implicate the D1R/cAMP/DARPP-32 signaling pathway in those neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with fine motor skill deficits.

  20. Innovative Pedagogies in Higher Education to Become Effective Teachers of 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Learning and Innovations Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    As today's graduates engage with the demands of the current Knowledge Age, the skills that they need to succeed in their lives after college, or any other institution of higher learning, are 21st century skills rather than 20th century skills. Kivunja (2014) calls this "the new learning paradigm" (p.85). Unfortunately, those skills are…

  1. Skill acquisition in parents of children with developmental disabilities: interaction between skill type and instructional format.

    PubMed

    Lerma, D C; Swiezy, N; Perkins-Parks, S; Roane, H S

    2000-01-01

    A variety of instructional formats have been used to teach parents of children with developmental disabilities how to implement treatments for problem behavior. Although several authors have suggested that the efficacy of various instructional methods might depend on the type of skill taught to parents, no studies have been designed to systematically explore this potential interaction. In this preliminary study, three parents who requested outpatient services for treatment of their children's problem behavior were taught to implement multiple treatment components. Therapists employed the most cost-efficient method first (i.e., written and verbal instructions) to teach prescribed behavior management strategies (e.g., differential reinforcement). If the parent's behavior failed to meet a performance criterion, feedback was included in training sessions. The efficacy of verbal and written instructions varied across different components of the child's treatment program.

  2. Systems in Development: Motor Skill Acquisition Facilitates Three-Dimensional Object Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    How do infants learn to perceive the backs of objects that they see only from a limited viewpoint? Infants' 3-dimensional object completion abilities emerge in conjunction with developing motor skills--independent sitting and visual-manual exploration. Infants at 4.5 to 7.5 months of age (n = 28) were habituated to a limited-view object and tested…

  3. Effects of Peer Mediated Instruction with Task Cards on Motor Skill Acquisition in Tennis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter; Madou, Bob; Vergauwen, Lieven; Behets, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the motor skill effects of a peer teaching format by means of task cards with a teacher-centered format. Tennis performance of eighth grade students (n = 55) was measured before and after a four week intervention period in a regular physical education program. Results show that peer mediated learning with task cards…

  4. Walking the bridge: Nursing students' learning in clinical skill laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ewertsson, Mona; Allvin, Renée; Holmström, Inger K; Blomberg, Karin

    2015-07-01

    Despite an increasing focus on simulation as a learning strategy in nursing education, there is limited evidence on the transfer of simulated skills into clinical practice. Therefore it's important to increase knowledge of how clinical skills laboratories (CSL) can optimize students' learning for development of professional knowledge and skills, necessary for quality nursing practice and for patient safety. Thus, the aim was to describe nursing students' experiences of learning in the CSL as a preparation for their clinical practice. Interviews with 16 students were analysed with content analysis. An overall theme was identified - walking the bridge - in which the CSL formed a bridge between the university and clinical settings, allowing students to integrate theory and practice and develop a reflective stance. The theme was based on categories: conditions for learning, strategies for learning, tension between learning in the skills laboratory and clinical settings, and development of professional and personal competence. The CSL prepared the students for clinical practice, but a negative tension between learning in CSL and clinical settings was experienced. However, this tension may create reflection. This provides a new perspective that can be used as a pedagogical approach to create opportunities for students to develop their critical thinking. PMID:25892366

  5. Walking the bridge: Nursing students' learning in clinical skill laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ewertsson, Mona; Allvin, Renée; Holmström, Inger K; Blomberg, Karin

    2015-07-01

    Despite an increasing focus on simulation as a learning strategy in nursing education, there is limited evidence on the transfer of simulated skills into clinical practice. Therefore it's important to increase knowledge of how clinical skills laboratories (CSL) can optimize students' learning for development of professional knowledge and skills, necessary for quality nursing practice and for patient safety. Thus, the aim was to describe nursing students' experiences of learning in the CSL as a preparation for their clinical practice. Interviews with 16 students were analysed with content analysis. An overall theme was identified - walking the bridge - in which the CSL formed a bridge between the university and clinical settings, allowing students to integrate theory and practice and develop a reflective stance. The theme was based on categories: conditions for learning, strategies for learning, tension between learning in the skills laboratory and clinical settings, and development of professional and personal competence. The CSL prepared the students for clinical practice, but a negative tension between learning in CSL and clinical settings was experienced. However, this tension may create reflection. This provides a new perspective that can be used as a pedagogical approach to create opportunities for students to develop their critical thinking.

  6. A Learning Module for BA Students to Develop ICT Skills for Their Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platteaux, Hervé; Hoein, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This case illustrates the process of developing a learning module to support BA students in their use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools in their learning. At the university where this case occurred, the skill level of ICT use among students in a learning context was very heterogeneous. The E-learning Competency Centre, or…

  7. Study Motor Skill Learning by Single-pellet Reaching Tasks in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Chien; Gilmore, Anthony; Zuo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Reaching for and retrieving objects require precise and coordinated motor movements in the forelimb. When mice are repeatedly trained to grasp and retrieve food rewards positioned at a specific location, their motor performance (defined as accuracy and speed) improves progressively over time, and plateaus after persistent training. Once such reaching skill is mastered, its further maintenance does not require constant practice. Here we introduce a single-pellet reaching task to study the acquisition and maintenance of skilled forelimb movements in mice. In this video, we first describe the behaviors of mice that are commonly encountered in this learning and memory paradigm, and then discuss how to categorize these behaviors and quantify the observed results. Combined with mouse genetics, this paradigm can be utilized as a behavioral platform to explore the anatomical underpinnings, physiological properties, and molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. PMID:24637358

  8. Unpacking the Information, Media, and Technology Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Put simply, "Teaching our students so that they become well-equipped with the 21st century skills is the new learning paradigm" (Kivunja, 2014b, p. 85). These skills fall into four domains which the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) identify as the Traditional Core Skills, the Learning and Innovation Skills, the Career and Life…

  9. An especial skill: Support for a learned parameters hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Gavin; Hodges, Nicola J; Kennedy, Rodney; Hanlon, Michael; Williams, A Mark

    2010-05-01

    We tested the 'learned parameters' hypothesis as an explanation of the 'especial skill effect'. Outcome attainment and movement kinematics were recorded for 10 expert and 10 novice players performing basketball free-throw shots at five distances (11-19 ft) with a regular and heavy weight basketball. As predicted, experts performed better than expected relative to the regression equation at the 15 ft, free-throw line with the regular basketball, supporting the 'especial skill effect'. This effect was not present for the experts when shooting with the heavy ball. Novices did not show an advantage at the free-throw line when performing with either ball. Although the outcome attainment scores support the 'learned parameters' hypotheses, kinematic analysis failed to identify differences in the movement pattern for the especial skill, suggesting that these skills (i.e., shooting at different distances) are not governed by separate motor programs.

  10. Expansion Policy of Secondary Technical Education as a Correlate to the Acquisition of Basic Technical Skills by Students in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efande, Lyonga John

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the relationship between the expansion of secondary Technical Education on the acquisition of technical skills by students. Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has been expanding quantitatively yearly without paying enough attention to its adverse effect on quality and the acquisition of the…

  11. Learning Basic Surgical Skills through Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvennoinen, Minna; Helfenstein, Sacha; Ruoranen, Minna; Saariluoma, Pertti

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based surgical training simulators are instrumental in skill-based training and performance measurement. However, to date, the educational employment of these tools lacks empirically founded insights and effective practical guidelines. This study examined surgical residents during computer-based simulator training of basic laparoscopic…

  12. Learning Teamwork Skills in University Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sancho-Thomas, Pilar; Fuentes-Fernandez, Ruben; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2009-01-01

    University courses about computer programming usually seek to provide students not only with technical knowledge, but also with the skills required to work in real-life software projects. Nowadays, the development of software applications requires the coordinated efforts of the members of one or more teams. Therefore, it is important for software…

  13. Learning Leadership Skills in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    For middle school students, the essence of 21st-century leadership development is being "in influence" versus being "in control." A core student leadership skill involves listening intently to others, framing others' concerns, and advancing the other person's interests. Creating contexts in which middle school…

  14. Lifelong Learning: Skills and Online Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Russell F.; Hsiung, Bob C.; Hales, Deborah J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Advances in information technology enable the practicing psychiatrist's quest to keep up-to-date with new discoveries in psychiatry, as well as to meet recertification requirements. However, physicians' computer skills do not always keep up with technology, nor do they take advantage of online search and continuing education services.…

  15. How Students Develop Online Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Alan R.

    2007-01-01

    More and more, adult learners are finding the convenience and flexibility of online learning a match for their learning goals and busy lifestyles. Online degree programs, courses, and virtual universities targeting adult learners have proliferated in the past decade. Although students can easily locate an online course or degree program that's…

  16. Learning by Teaching: Developing Transferable Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stollhans, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    "Learning by teaching" (German: "Lernen durch Lehren," commonly abbreviated as "LdL") is a teaching and learning approach which was developed by the French language teacher Jean-Pol Martin in German schools in the 1980s (Martin, 1985). The method sees students in the role of the teacher, and enhances their learning…

  17. Distinguishing Online and Face-to-Face Learning: Acquisition, Learning, and Online Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Abigail A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the type of training currently available to potential online instructors in order to generate a graduate-level degree program design effectively offering online pedagogy. Current online teacher training is largely based on acquisition of technological skills, such as mastering the operational components of a platform…

  18. The contextual interference effect in acquisition of dart-throwing skill tested on a transfer test with extended trials.

    PubMed

    Meira, C M; Tani, G

    2001-06-01

    Previous studies of contextual interference have shown that practicing several motor skills randomly (high contextual interference) facilitates retention and transfer in comparison to practicing the same tasks in a blocked order (low contextual interference). However, many studies have not supported this phenomenon in motor learning, and some researchers have questioned whether the effect can be tested by using only a few trials on the transfer test. The present study used a different methodological approach in which the number of test trials was increased to assess whether the contextual interference effect is sustained over an extended number of trials in the transfer phase. Undergraduate students (N=32) were randomly allocated to either a blocked or random group. The participants practiced 80 acquisition trials in the dart-throwing task from distances of 300 cm and 420 cm, using two different grips. The transfer test after a 10-min. interval consisted of 40 trials with a new grip at a distance of 360 cm. The results did not support the contextual interference effect since there were no significant differences between groups on transfer. These findings suggest that the contextual interference effect may not be a global learning phenomenon which can be generalized to all learning situations. PMID:11453223

  19. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  20. Open-ended category learning for language acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra Lopes, Luis; Chauhan, Aneesh

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the need to support language-based communication between robots and their human users, as well as grounded symbolic reasoning, this paper presents a learning architecture that can be used by robotic agents for long-term and open-ended category acquisition. To be more adaptive and to improve learning performance as well as memory usage, this learning architecture includes a metacognitive processing component. Multiple object representations and multiple classifiers and classifier combinations are used. At the object level, the main similarity measure is based on a multi-resolution matching algorithm. Categories are represented as sets of known instances. In this instance-based approach, storing and forgetting rules optimise memory usage. Classifier combinations are based on majority voting and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. All learning computations are carried out during the normal execution of the agent, which allows continuous monitoring of the performance of the different classifiers. The measured classification successes of the individual classifiers support an attentional selection mechanism, through which classifier combinations are dynamically reconfigured and a specific classifier is chosen to predict the category of a new unseen object. A simple physical agent, incorporating these learning capabilities, is used to test the approach. A long-term experiment was carried out having in mind the open-ended nature of category learning. With the help of a human mediator, the agent incrementally learned 68 categories of real-world objects visually perceivable through an inexpensive camera. Various aspects of the approach are evaluated through systematic experiments.

  1. Self-directed practice schedule enhances learning of suturing skills

    PubMed Central

    Safir, Oleg; Williams, Camille K.; Dubrowski, Adam; Backstein, David; Carnahan, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background Most preoperative surgical training programs experience challenges with the availability of expert surgeons to teach trainees. Some research suggests that trainees may benefit from being allowed to actively shape their learning environments, which could alleviate some of the time and resource pressures in surgical training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-directed or prescribed practice schedules (random or blocked) on learning suturing skills. Methods Participants watched an instructional video for simple interrupted, vertical mattress and horizontal mattress suturing then completed a pretest to assess baseline skills. Participants were assigned to 1 of 4 practice groups: self-directed practice schedule, prescribed blocked practice schedule, prescribed random practice schedule or matched to the self-directed group (control). Practice of the skill was followed by a delayed (1 h) posttest. Improvement from pretest to posttest was determined based on differences in performance time and expert-based assessments. Results Analyses revealed a significant effect of group for difference in performance time of the simple interrupted suture. Random practice did not show the expected advantage for skill learning, but there was an advantage of self-directed practice. Conclusion Self-directed practice schedules may be desirable for optimal learning of simple technical skills, even when expert instruction is available. Instructors must also take into account the interaction between task difficulty and conditions of practice to develop ideal training environments. PMID:24284153

  2. Reinforcement learning of motor skills with policy gradients.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Autonomous learning is one of the hallmarks of human and animal behavior, and understanding the principles of learning will be crucial in order to achieve true autonomy in advanced machines like humanoid robots. In this paper, we examine learning of complex motor skills with human-like limbs. While supervised learning can offer useful tools for bootstrapping behavior, e.g., by learning from demonstration, it is only reinforcement learning that offers a general approach to the final trial-and-error improvement that is needed by each individual acquiring a skill. Neither neurobiological nor machine learning studies have, so far, offered compelling results on how reinforcement learning can be scaled to the high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces of humans or humanoids. Here, we combine two recent research developments on learning motor control in order to achieve this scaling. First, we interpret the idea of modular motor control by means of motor primitives as a suitable way to generate parameterized control policies for reinforcement learning. Second, we combine motor primitives with the theory of stochastic policy gradient learning, which currently seems to be the only feasible framework for reinforcement learning for humanoids. We evaluate different policy gradient methods with a focus on their applicability to parameterized motor primitives. We compare these algorithms in the context of motor primitive learning, and show that our most modern algorithm, the Episodic Natural Actor-Critic outperforms previous algorithms by at least an order of magnitude. We demonstrate the efficiency of this reinforcement learning method in the application of learning to hit a baseball with an anthropomorphic robot arm.

  3. Reinforcement learning of motor skills with policy gradients.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Autonomous learning is one of the hallmarks of human and animal behavior, and understanding the principles of learning will be crucial in order to achieve true autonomy in advanced machines like humanoid robots. In this paper, we examine learning of complex motor skills with human-like limbs. While supervised learning can offer useful tools for bootstrapping behavior, e.g., by learning from demonstration, it is only reinforcement learning that offers a general approach to the final trial-and-error improvement that is needed by each individual acquiring a skill. Neither neurobiological nor machine learning studies have, so far, offered compelling results on how reinforcement learning can be scaled to the high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces of humans or humanoids. Here, we combine two recent research developments on learning motor control in order to achieve this scaling. First, we interpret the idea of modular motor control by means of motor primitives as a suitable way to generate parameterized control policies for reinforcement learning. Second, we combine motor primitives with the theory of stochastic policy gradient learning, which currently seems to be the only feasible framework for reinforcement learning for humanoids. We evaluate different policy gradient methods with a focus on their applicability to parameterized motor primitives. We compare these algorithms in the context of motor primitive learning, and show that our most modern algorithm, the Episodic Natural Actor-Critic outperforms previous algorithms by at least an order of magnitude. We demonstrate the efficiency of this reinforcement learning method in the application of learning to hit a baseball with an anthropomorphic robot arm. PMID:18482830

  4. Time series analysis of knowledge of results effects during motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, J R; Simmons, R W; Spray, J A

    1991-03-01

    Time series analysis was used to investigate the hypothesis that during acquisition of a motor skill, knowledge of results (KR) information is used to generate a stable internal referent about which response errors are randomly distributed. Sixteen subjects completed 50 acquisition trials of each of three movements whose spatial-temporal characteristics differed. Acquisition trials were either blocked, with each movement being presented in series, or randomized, with the presentation of movements occurring in random order. Analysis of movement time data indicated the contextual interference effect reported in previous studies was replicated in the present experiment. Time series analysis of the acquisition trial data revealed the majority of individual subject response patterns during blocked trials were best described by a model with a temporarily stationary, internal reference of the criterion and systematic, trial-to-trial variation of response errors. During random trial conditions, response patterns were usually best described by a "White-noise" model. This model predicts a permanently stationary, internal reference associated with randomly distributed response errors that are unaffected by KR information. These results are not consistent with previous work using time series analysis to describe motor behavior (Spray & Newell, 1986). PMID:2028084

  5. Family Generated and Delivered Social Story Intervention: Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization of Social Skills in Youths with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcay-Gül, Seray; Tekin-Iftar, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) family members were able to learn to write a social story and deliver social story intervention to teach social skills to their children (age 12 to 16) with ASD, (b) youths with ASD acquired and maintained the targeted social skills and generalized these skills across novel situations. Multiple…

  6. Motor Skill Learning, Retention, and Control Deficits in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pendt, Lisa Katharina; Reuter, Iris; Müller, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance. PMID:21760898

  7. Influence of the workplace on learning physical examination skills

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital clerkships are considered crucial for acquiring competencies such as diagnostic reasoning and clinical skills. The actual learning process in the hospital remains poorly understood. This study investigates how students learn clinical skills in workplaces and factors affecting this. Methods Six focus group sessions with 32 students in Internal Medicine rotation (4–9 students per group; sessions 80–90 minutes). Verbatim transcripts were analysed by emerging themes and coded independently by three researchers followed by constant comparison and axial coding. Results Students report to learn the systematics of the physical examination, gain agility and become able to recognise pathological signs. The learning process combines working alongside others and working independently with increasing responsibility for patient care. Helpful behaviour includes making findings explicit through patient files or during observation, feedback by abnormal findings and taking initiative. Factors affecting the process negatively include lack of supervision, uncertainty about tasks and expectations, and social context such as hierarchy of learners and perceived learning environment. Conclusion Although individual student experiences vary greatly between different hospitals, it seems that proactivity and participation are central drivers for learning. These results can improve the quality of existing programmes and help design new ways to learn physical examination skills. PMID:24678562

  8. Problem solving in nursing practice: application, process, skill acquisition and measurement.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J D; While, A E; Fitzpatrick, J M

    1993-06-01

    This paper analyses the role of problem solving in nursing practice including the process, acquisition and measurement of problem-solving skills. It is argued that while problem-solving ability is acknowledged as critical if today's nurse practitioner is to maintain effective clinical practice, to date it retains a marginal place in nurse education curricula. Further, it has attracted limited empirical study. Such an omission, it is argued, requires urgent redress if the nursing profession is to meet effectively the challenges of the next decade and beyond.

  9. Research on knowledge representation, machine learning, and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Bruce G.

    1987-01-01

    Research in knowledge representation, machine learning, and knowledge acquisition performed at Knowledge Systems Lab. is summarized. The major goal of the research was to develop flexible, effective methods for representing the qualitative knowledge necessary for solving large problems that require symbolic reasoning as well as numerical computation. The research focused on integrating different representation methods to describe different kinds of knowledge more effectively than any one method can alone. In particular, emphasis was placed on representing and using spatial information about three dimensional objects and constraints on the arrangement of these objects in space. Another major theme is the development of robust machine learning programs that can be integrated with a variety of intelligent systems. To achieve this goal, learning methods were designed, implemented and experimented within several different problem solving environments.

  10. Learning To Learn: 15 Vocabulary Acquisition Activities. Tips and Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, William R.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…

  11. Modes of knowledge acquisition and retrieval in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Poznanski, Yael; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conceptualize artificial grammar learning (AGL) in terms of two orthogonal dimensions--the mode of knowledge acquisition and the mode of knowledge retrieval--as was done by Perlman and Tzelgov (2006) for sequence learning. Experiment 1 was carried out to validate our experimental task; Experiments 2-4 tested, respectively, performance in the intentional, incidental, and automatic retrieval modes, for each of the three modes of acquisition. Furthermore, signal detection theory (SDT) was used as an analytic tool, consistent with our assumption that the processing of legality-relevant information involves decisions along a continuous dimension of fluency. The results presented support the analysis of AGL in terms of the proposed dimensions. They also indicate that knowledge acquired during training may include many aspects of the presented stimuli (whole strings, relations among elements, etc.). The contribution of the various components to performance depends on both the specific instruction in the acquisition phase and the requirements of the retrieval task. PMID:20063258

  12. Modes of knowledge acquisition and retrieval in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Poznanski, Yael; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conceptualize artificial grammar learning (AGL) in terms of two orthogonal dimensions--the mode of knowledge acquisition and the mode of knowledge retrieval--as was done by Perlman and Tzelgov (2006) for sequence learning. Experiment 1 was carried out to validate our experimental task; Experiments 2-4 tested, respectively, performance in the intentional, incidental, and automatic retrieval modes, for each of the three modes of acquisition. Furthermore, signal detection theory (SDT) was used as an analytic tool, consistent with our assumption that the processing of legality-relevant information involves decisions along a continuous dimension of fluency. The results presented support the analysis of AGL in terms of the proposed dimensions. They also indicate that knowledge acquired during training may include many aspects of the presented stimuli (whole strings, relations among elements, etc.). The contribution of the various components to performance depends on both the specific instruction in the acquisition phase and the requirements of the retrieval task.

  13. Effects of Feedback Frequency and Timing on Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of Speech Skills in Acquired Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Robin, Donald A.; Maas, Edwin; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Schmidt, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined speech skill learning in persons with apraxia of speech (AOS). Motor-learning research shows that delaying or reducing the frequency of feedback promotes retention and transfer of skills. By contrast, immediate or frequent feedback promotes temporary performance enhancement but interferes with retention and transfer.…

  14. Acquisition of diagnostic and surgical skills in otorhinolaryngology: a comparison of France and Germany.

    PubMed

    Oker, Natalie; Escabasse, Virginie; Al-Otaibi, Naif; Coste, Andre; Albers, Andreas E

    2015-11-01

    With the coalescing of the European countries, among many others, official initiatives have been launched to propose minimum requirements for Otolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery (ORL) specialty training by creating an European log book. This study was initiated to assess and compare the acquisition of basic medical key diagnostic and surgical skills by residents and recent ORL specialists in France (FRA) and Germany (GER) and to determine whether gender-specific differences exist. For this, an anonymous questionnaire with questions to basic medical, diagnostic and surgical procedures specific to ORL was developed. 120 FRA and 125 GER questionnaires were returned from participants with a median training experience of 4 years. The female to male ratio was 1.3:1 and 78% of respondents were residents and 22% recent specialists. Concerning diagnostic procedures, there was no significant overall difference. Germans performed better in basic medical skills, while study participants from FRA had performed surgical procedures significantly more often in a more independent manner than German respondents in the areas of otology, rhinology and head and neck. Only in septoplasty, as part of rhinology, the Germans had a light advantage compared to the French. No difference was found for trauma surgery. No gender-specific difference became apparent. Taken together, in FRA, ORL training is far more surgically orientated than in GER. It remains unclear at what time, the Germans may catch up with their skills. Initiatives should be taken in GER to secure an adequate acquisition of surgical skill and experience to maintain a high level of ORL-specific competence.

  15. Cognitive predictors of skill acquisition on social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Uçok, Alp; Cakir, Sibel; Duman, Zekiye Cetinkaya; Dişcigil, Aysun; Kandemir, Pinar; Atli, Hatice

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between social problem solving ability, clinical features and cognitive functions, and determine the predictors of benefit from social problem solving training in 63 patients with schizophrenia. We administered Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Digit Span Test, Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS). Only BPRS-positive symptoms subscale was negatively related to AIPSS on linear regression analysis. After the completion of the pretest, the patients were randomized to either problem solving training (n = 32) or control groups (n = 31). Patients in training group received 6 weeks problem solving training in-group modality, and those in control group were treated as usual. We readministered AIPSS at the end of 6 weeks. There were significant changes from pretest to posttest on AIPSS-total, AIPSS-receiving skills, and AIPSS-processing skills score in training group but not in control group. The number of correct answers in WCST and CPT hit rate were the predictors of post-training AIPSS scores in training group. Our findings suggest that skill acquisition on social problem solving is related with cognitive flexibility and sustained attention.

  16. A longitudinal study of employment and skill acquisition among individuals with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Dawn L; Collins, Michael D; Dodder, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation, especially the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, generated the closure of institutions for people with disabilities and inclusion into community residences and employment. It has been well documented that individuals with developmental disabilities often experience difficulties with employment including both obtaining and maintaining jobs, and many researchers have looked for ways to make employment more successful [McConkey, R. & Mezza F. (2001). Employment aspirations of people with learning disabilities attending day centers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5(4), 309-318; Stevens, G. (2002). Employers' perceptions and practice in the employability of disabled people: a survey of companies in south east UK. Disability and Society, 17(7), 779-796; Capella, M., Roessler, R., & Hemmeria, K. (2002). Work-related skills awareness in high-school students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 33(2), 17-23; Ingraham, K., Rahimi, M., Tsang, H., Chan, F., & Oulvey, E. (2001). Work support groups in state vocational rehabilitation agency settings: a case study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills, 5(1), 6-21; Gosling, V. & Cotterill, L. (2000). An employment project as a route to social inclusion for people with learning difficulties? Disability and Society, 15(7), 1001-1018; Neitupski, J. & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (2000). A systematic process for carving supported employment positions for people with severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 12(2), 103-119]. While research has accumulated that has examined predictors of successful employment, this research assessed longitudinal outcomes of employment. Data were obtained from an existing data set of all known persons receiving services from the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (N=2760). Results indicated that as people moved to employment, scores on adaptive skills increased, that as people moved

  17. Recontextualizing Dance Skills: Overcoming Impediments to Motor Learning and Expressivity in Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Karin, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The process of transmitting ballet’s complex technique to young dancers can interfere with the innate processes that give rise to efficient, expressive and harmonious movement. With the intention of identifying possible solutions, this article draws on research across the fields of neurology, psychology, motor learning, and education, and considers their relevance to ballet as an art form, a technique, and a training methodology. The integration of dancers’ technique and expressivity is a core theme throughout the paper. A brief outline of the historical development of ballet’s aesthetics and training methods leads into factors that influence dancers’ performance. An exploration of the role of the neuromotor system in motor learning and the acquisition of expert skills reveals the roles of sensory awareness, imagery, and intention in cuing efficient, expressive movement. It also indicates potentially detrimental effects of conscious muscle control, explicit learning and persistent naïve beliefs. Finally, the paper presents a new theory regarding the acquisition of ballet skills. Recontextualization theory proposes that placing a problematic task within a new context may engender a new conceptual approach and/or sensory intention, and hence the genesis of new motor programs; and that these new programs may lead to performance that is more efficient, more rewarding for the dancer, more pleasing aesthetically, and more expressive. From an anecdotal point of view, this theory appears to be supported by the progress of many dancers at various stages of their dancing lives. PMID:27047437

  18. Recontextualizing Dance Skills: Overcoming Impediments to Motor Learning and Expressivity in Ballet Dancers.

    PubMed

    Karin, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The process of transmitting ballet's complex technique to young dancers can interfere with the innate processes that give rise to efficient, expressive and harmonious movement. With the intention of identifying possible solutions, this article draws on research across the fields of neurology, psychology, motor learning, and education, and considers their relevance to ballet as an art form, a technique, and a training methodology. The integration of dancers' technique and expressivity is a core theme throughout the paper. A brief outline of the historical development of ballet's aesthetics and training methods leads into factors that influence dancers' performance. An exploration of the role of the neuromotor system in motor learning and the acquisition of expert skills reveals the roles of sensory awareness, imagery, and intention in cuing efficient, expressive movement. It also indicates potentially detrimental effects of conscious muscle control, explicit learning and persistent naïve beliefs. Finally, the paper presents a new theory regarding the acquisition of ballet skills. Recontextualization theory proposes that placing a problematic task within a new context may engender a new conceptual approach and/or sensory intention, and hence the genesis of new motor programs; and that these new programs may lead to performance that is more efficient, more rewarding for the dancer, more pleasing aesthetically, and more expressive. From an anecdotal point of view, this theory appears to be supported by the progress of many dancers at various stages of their dancing lives. PMID:27047437

  19. Improving Grasp Skills Using Schema Structured Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Grupen, ROderic A.; Fagg, Andrew H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the control-based approach to robotics, complex behavior is created by sequencing and combining control primitives. While it is desirable for the robot to autonomously learn the correct control sequence, searching through the large number of potential solutions can be time consuming. This paper constrains this search to variations of a generalized solution encoded in a framework known as an action schema. A new algorithm, SCHEMA STRUCTURED LEARNING, is proposed that repeatedly executes variations of the generalized solution in search of instantiations that satisfy action schema objectives. This approach is tested in a grasping task where Dexter, the UMass humanoid robot, learns which reaching and grasping controllers maximize the probability of grasp success.

  20. Assessing cognitive therapy skills comprehension, acquisition, and use by means of an independent observer version of the Skills of Cognitive Therapy (SoCT-IO).

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory K; Thase, Michael E; Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Borman, Patricia D; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the adaptation and psychometric properties of the Skills for Cognitive Therapy (SoCT) measure for use by an independent observer (SoCT-IO) who rates the cognitive therapy (CT) skill acquisition, comprehension, and use by depressed adults and (b) to compare ratings of CT skill comprehension, acquisition, and use by independent observers to those by patients and therapists. Like the other SoCT versions, the SoCT-IO consists of 8 items that assess patients' comprehension, acquisition, and use of cognitive and behavioral skills for managing depressive symptoms, using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Four experienced raters (2 doctoral-level CT therapists and 2 bachelor-level nontherapists) used the SoCT-IO to rate 80 CT videotapes from both mid and later sessions in acute-phase CT from a randomized controlled trial for outpatients with recurrent major depression. The SoCT-IO ratings showed excellent internal consistency reliability and moderately high interrater reliability. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by convergence of the SoCT-IO with 2 other versions of the SoCT, 1 completed by therapists (SoCT-O) and the other by patients (SoCT-P). SoCT-IO ratings evidenced good predictive validity: Independent observers' ratings of patient CT skills midphase in therapy predicted treatment response even when the predictive effects of SoCT ratings by therapists and patients were controlled. The SoCT-IO is a psychometrically sound measure of CT skill comprehension, acquisition and use for rating outpatients with recurrent depression. The clinical utility and implications for using the SoCT-IO as a measure of CT skills acquisition are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Knowledge acquisition and interface design for learning on demand systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Wayne A.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid changes in our world precipitated by technology have created new problems and new challenges for education and training. A knowledge 'explosion' is occurring as our society moves toward a service oriented economy that relies on information as the major resource. Complex computer systems are beginning to dominate the workplace, causing alarming growth and change in many fields. The rapidly changing nature of the workplace, especially in fields related to information technology, requires that our knowledge be updated constantly. This characteristic of modern society poses seemingly unsolvable instructional problems involving coverage and obsolescence. The sheer amount of information to be learned is rapidly increasing, while at the same time some information becomes obsolete in light of new information. Education, therefore, must become a lifelong process that features learning of new material and skills as needed in relation to the job to be done. Because of the problems cited above, the current model of learning in advance may no longer be feasible in our high-technology world. In many cases, learning in advance is impossible because there are simply too many things to learn. In addition, learning in advance can be time consuming, and often results in decontextualized knowledge that does not readily transfer to the work environment. The large and growing discrepancy between the amount of potentially relevant knowledge available and the amount a person can know and remember makes learning on demand an important alternative to current instructional practices. Learning on demand takes place whenever an individual must learn something new in order to perform a task or make a decision. Learning on demand is a promising approach for addressing the problems of coverage and obsolescence because learning is contextualized and integrated into the task environment rather than being relegated to a separate phase that precedes work. Learning on demand allows learners

  2. Patients with Parkinson's disease learn to control complex systems-an indication for intact implicit cognitive skill learning.

    PubMed

    Witt, Karsten; Daniels, Christine; Daniel, Victoria; Schmitt-Eliassen, Julia; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther

    2006-01-01

    Implicit memory and learning mechanisms are composed of multiple processes and systems. Previous studies demonstrated a basal ganglia involvement in purely cognitive tasks that form stimulus response habits by reinforcement learning such as implicit classification learning. We will test the basal ganglia influence on two cognitive implicit tasks previously described by Berry and Broadbent, the sugar production task and the personal interaction task. Furthermore, we will investigate the relationship between certain aspects of an executive dysfunction and implicit learning. To this end, we have tested 22 Parkinsonian patients and 22 age-matched controls on two implicit cognitive tasks, in which participants learned to control a complex system. They interacted with the system by choosing an input value and obtaining an output that was related in a complex manner to the input. The objective was to reach and maintain a specific target value across trials (dynamic system learning). The two tasks followed the same underlying complex rule but had different surface appearances. Subsequently, participants performed an executive test battery including the Stroop test, verbal fluency and the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). The results demonstrate intact implicit learning in patients, despite an executive dysfunction in the Parkinsonian group. They lead to the conclusion that the basal ganglia system affected in Parkinson's disease does not contribute to the implicit acquisition of a new cognitive skill. Furthermore, the Parkinsonian patients were able to reach a specific goal in an implicit learning context despite impaired goal directed behaviour in the WCST, a classic test of executive functions. These results demonstrate a functional independence of implicit cognitive skill learning and certain aspects of executive functions.

  3. Patients with Parkinson's disease learn to control complex systems-an indication for intact implicit cognitive skill learning.

    PubMed

    Witt, Karsten; Daniels, Christine; Daniel, Victoria; Schmitt-Eliassen, Julia; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther

    2006-01-01

    Implicit memory and learning mechanisms are composed of multiple processes and systems. Previous studies demonstrated a basal ganglia involvement in purely cognitive tasks that form stimulus response habits by reinforcement learning such as implicit classification learning. We will test the basal ganglia influence on two cognitive implicit tasks previously described by Berry and Broadbent, the sugar production task and the personal interaction task. Furthermore, we will investigate the relationship between certain aspects of an executive dysfunction and implicit learning. To this end, we have tested 22 Parkinsonian patients and 22 age-matched controls on two implicit cognitive tasks, in which participants learned to control a complex system. They interacted with the system by choosing an input value and obtaining an output that was related in a complex manner to the input. The objective was to reach and maintain a specific target value across trials (dynamic system learning). The two tasks followed the same underlying complex rule but had different surface appearances. Subsequently, participants performed an executive test battery including the Stroop test, verbal fluency and the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). The results demonstrate intact implicit learning in patients, despite an executive dysfunction in the Parkinsonian group. They lead to the conclusion that the basal ganglia system affected in Parkinson's disease does not contribute to the implicit acquisition of a new cognitive skill. Furthermore, the Parkinsonian patients were able to reach a specific goal in an implicit learning context despite impaired goal directed behaviour in the WCST, a classic test of executive functions. These results demonstrate a functional independence of implicit cognitive skill learning and certain aspects of executive functions. PMID:16806313

  4. The Relative Effectiveness of Various Instructional Approaches During the Performance and Learning of Motor Skills.

    PubMed

    Gredin, Viktor; Williams, A Mark

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the relative effectiveness of explicit internal-oriented instructions, explicit external-oriented instructions, and unguided discovery learning on the performance, acquisition, and learning of a motor skill using novice youth soccer players. Thirty-seven players (age = 9.9 ± 0.7 years) underwent 3 × 30 trials of instruction-specific blocks of practice. The accuracy of lofted soccer kicks was assessed under practice conditions (prior to and after the practice period and after each practice block) and transfer conditions (prior to and after the practice period). Our findings indicated that generalized explicit instructions have detrimental effects on performance, whereas the benefits of unguided discovery learning increase with the amount of practice undertaken and when performing under transfer conditions.

  5. Developing a Workplace Skills Course: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holter, Norma C.; Kopka, Donald J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of a multidisciplinary cornerstone business course focused on communication, teamwork, problem solving, professional demeanor, research, ethics, and diversity. Discusses lessons learned: change itself raises obstacles, appropriate faculty are crucial, and time frame and course content should not be overly ambitious. (SK)

  6. Isolated teenagers, cooperative learning, and the training of social skills.

    PubMed

    Mesch, D; Lew, M; Johnson, D W; Johnson, R

    1986-07-01

    The effects of individual and group contingencies on the achievement and social integration of isolated, learning-disabled students were studied. Five socially isolated and withdrawn eighth-grade students in foreign-language and math classes were subjects. The choice of working alone or in a group with no academic contingency (i.e., bonus points) was compared with working in cooperative learning groups with a group-academic contingency (i.e., bonus points), a group-academic contingency with social-skills training, and a group-academic contingency in combination with a social-skills contingency (i.e., bonus points). The results indicated that the combination of group-academic and social-skills contingencies produced in the socially isolated and withdrawn students the highest rates of appropriate social interaction with peers, acceptance and liking by peers, positive attitudes toward the subject area, and achievement. PMID:3761218

  7. Learning Intercultural Communication Skills with Virtual Humans: Feedback and Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, H. Chad; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Core, Mark G.; Auerbach, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In the context of practicing intercultural communication skills, we investigated the role of fidelity in a game-based, virtual learning environment as well as the role of feedback delivered by an intelligent tutoring system. In 2 experiments, we compared variations on the game interface, use of the tutoring system, and the form of the feedback.…

  8. Recognising Women's Skill. EAE647 Non-Formal Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Eva; Leonard, Helen

    The material in this monograph is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Non-Formal Learning, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). It is designed to raise issues relating to skill definition. "Choosing a Worker or How Good Are Your Job Descriptions?" explores why interpersonal or…

  9. Learning Innovations in Colorado: Life Skills Activities K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This handbook was created by 138 Colorado educators statewide to provide their colleagues with exciting ideas for infusing life skills into the school curriculum. This handbook offers a wide variety of practical learning experiences for elementary through high school level students in three broad categories: career development; independent living;…

  10. Enhancing Argumentative Writing Skill through Contextual Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasani, Aceng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe the influence of contextual learning model and critical thinking ability toward argumentative writing skill on university students. The population of the research was 147 university students, and 52 university students were used as sample with multi stage sampling. The results of the research indicate that; group of…

  11. Helping While Learning: A Skilled Group Helper Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaby, Marlowe H.; Tamminen, Armas W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a developmental group training workshop for training experienced counselors to do group counseling. Discusses stages of training including exploration, understanding, and action, which can help counselors learn helping skills for counseling that can often transfer to their own interpersonal lives and interactions with others. (JAC)

  12. Workplace Learning Curriculum Guides. Volume V: Functional Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver.

    This volume, one of a series of eight curriculum guides compiled by the Colorado Workplace Learning Initiative: 1991-92, includes five courses on functional skills for a workplace literacy curriculum. Introductory materials include a table of contents, a list of the curriculum topics covered in each guide, and a section called "Hello Computer"…

  13. Early Boost and Slow Consolidation in Motor Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motor skill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as…

  14. Neural Substrates of Cognitive Skill Learning in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, M. H.; Dagher, A.; Panisset, M.; Doyon, J.

    2008-01-01

    While cognitive skill learning is normally acquired implicitly through frontostrial circuitry in healthy individuals, neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) do so by activating alternate, intact brain areas associated with explicit memory processing. To further test this hypothesis, 10 patients with PD and 12…

  15. Skills, Learning Styles and Success of First-Year Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfinch, Judy; Hughes, Moira

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between students' confidence in their generic skills on entry to university, their learning styles and their academic performance in first year. Research based on a large cohort of Scottish undergraduates found that students generally entered university feeling very confident that they already possessed…

  16. Developing Media Literacy Skills for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jessica Everett

    2014-01-01

    Students with specific learning disabilities (SLD), such as emotional disturbances, and speech or language impairment, attending high schools located in the rural Mississippi Delta lack media literacy skills that could impact the student's ability to successfully graduate from high school. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify…

  17. Nonverbal Social Interaction Skills of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini

    2008-01-01

    Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…

  18. Notetaking Skills and Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Charles A.; Suritsky, Sharon K.

    1993-01-01

    Research indicates that students with learning disabilities may experience significant difficulty with taking notes during teacher lectures. Approaches for helping students include task accommodations (such as taping the lectures or purchasing notes) and notetaking skill/strategy instruction (such as paraphrasing, outlining, using abbreviations,…

  19. Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Teresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

  20. Secondary School Pupils' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana; Balogh, Timea

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research on 258 secondary school pupils' (10-15 years old, 5th-8th grades) self-regulated learning skills as self-efficacy, self-judgement, self-reaction and their interest for studying Mathematics.

  1. Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencel, Ilke Evin

    2015-01-01

    Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…

  2. The Temporal Dynamics of Strategy Execution in Cognitive Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajic, Daniel; Rickard, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    The transition from algorithmic to memory-based performance is a core component of cognitive skill learning. There has been debate about the temporal dynamics of strategy execution, with some models assuming a race (i.e., independent, capacity unconstrained parallel processing) between algorithm and retrieval, and others assuming a choice…

  3. An Active, Collaborative Approach to Learning Skills in Flow Cytometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D.; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N.; Röhrig, Kimberley J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow…

  4. Assessment of Cognitive Social Skills in Learning Disabled Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Joan M.; Bellack, Alan S.

    Cognitive social skills were assessed in 22 learning disabled (LD), 18 behavior problem, and 20 control boys in grades 7-9. Measures included an interview tapping social knowledge, self-reported behavior, generation of alternative solutions to social problems, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Vocabulary Scale. Sociometric…

  5. Fact, Feeling, Fantasy: An Integrative Approach to Learning Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Charles A.; Nathan-Fasten, Lynn

    Both the cognitive and affective domains of learning may be combined in an integrative model of education which joins awareness of values, feelings, and self with the knowledge and skills necessary for expression and communication. This manual consists of four fantasy exercises which help to develop awareness of personal events, as well as…

  6. Promoting Global Literacy Skills through Technology- Infused Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared, Ed.; Mbae, Justus G., Ed.; Ngigi, Simon K., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing internationalization of today's classrooms calls for learning institutions to prepare students for success in an interdependent and technologically-advanced world. Faculty who are competent in multiple 21st century skills are best equipped to engage students in curricula that are relevant, transformative, and engaging across content…

  7. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    PubMed

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Hervé; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  8. Linking GABA and glutamate levels to cognitive skill acquisition during development.

    PubMed

    Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Krause, Beatrix; King, Andrew J; Near, Jamie; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2015-11-01

    Developmental adjustments in the balance of excitation and inhibition are thought to constrain the plasticity of sensory areas of the cortex. It is unknown however, how changes in excitatory or inhibitory neurochemical expression (glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)) contribute to skill acquisition during development. Here we used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to reveal how differences in cortical glutamate vs. GABA ratios relate to face proficiency and working memory abilities in children and adults. We show that higher glutamate levels in the inferior frontal gyrus correlated positively with face processing proficiency in the children, but not the adults, an effect which was independent of age-dependent differences in underlying cortical gray matter. Moreover, we found that glutamate/GABA levels and gray matter volume are dissociated at the different maturational stages. These findings suggest that increased excitation during development is linked to neuroplasticity and the acquisition of new cognitive skills. They also offer a new, neurochemical approach to investigating the relationship between cognitive performance and brain development across the lifespan. PMID:26350618

  9. Laparoscopic Suturing Skills Acquisition: A Comparison Between Laparoscopy-Exposed and Laparoscopy-Naive Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Tseten; Misra, Mahesh C.; Prakash, Pradeep; Rajan, Karthik; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga K.; Kumar, Subodh; Goswami, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic suturing is a difficult skill to master but can be acquired with extensive training outside the operating room. This study was done with the primary aim of assessing whether prior exposure to laparoscopic surgery helped trainees in acquiring laparoscopic suturing skills more quickly than trainees with no prior exposure to laparoscopic surgery. Materials and Methods: Twenty laparoscopy-exposed and 20 laparoscopy-naïve surgeons performed 5 laparoscopic gastrojejunostomies each on a phantom porcine model. The performance was evaluated for operation time, overall anastomotic score (calculated by adding scores of anastomotic leak, size of the anastomosis, suture placement, and mucosal approximation), and the level of difficulty. The performance at the beginning of training (baseline) was compared to the performance at the end of training. Results: All participants showed statistically significant improvement in operation time, overall anastomotic score, and difficulty level. Laparoscopy-exposed surgeons had a significantly better operation time than laparoscopy-naïve surgeons at the beginning of training; however, the difference became insignificant by the end of training. The difference in overall anastomotic score was not significant between laparoscopy-exposed and naïve-surgeons. Laparoscopy-exposed surgeons showed significant improvements in anastomotic leak rate and size of the anastomosis, whereas laparoscopy naïve surgeons showed improvements in all the parameters, although these were not significant statistically. Conclusion: Training improves the laparoscopic suturing skills of laparoscopy-exposed as well as laparoscopy-naïve surgeons. Prior experience in laparoscopic surgery does not seem to influence the acquisition of laparoscopic suturing skills as laparoscopic-naïve surgeons manage to catch up with the skills of the laparoscopy-exposed surgeons. PMID:23484575

  10. Relationships among process skills development, knowledge acquisition, and gender in microcomputer-based chemistry laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Carla Repsher

    This study investigated how instruction in MBL environments can be designed to facilitate process skills development and knowledge acquisition among high school chemistry students. Ninety-eight college preparatory chemistry students in six intact classes were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: MBL with enhanced instruction in Macroscopic knowledge, MBL with enhanced instruction in Microscopic knowledge, and MBL with enhanced instruction in Symbolic knowledge. Each treatment group completed a total of four MBL titrations involving acids and bases. After the first and third titrations, the Macroscopic, Microscopic and Symbolic groups received enhanced instruction in the Macroscopic, Microscopic and Symbolic modes, respectively. During each titration, participants used audiotapes to record their verbal interactions. The study also explored the effects of three potential covariates (age, mathematics background, and computer usage) on the relationships among the independent variables (type of enhanced instruction and gender) and the dependent variables (science process skills and knowledge acquisition). Process skills were measured via gain scores on a standardized test. Analysis of Covariance eliminated age, mathematics background, and computer usage as covariates in this study. Analysis of Variance identified no significant effects on process skills attributable to treatment or gender. Knowledge acquisition was assessed via protocol analysis of statements made by the participants during the four titrations. Statements were categorized as procedural, observational, conceptual/analytical, or miscellaneous. Statement category percentages were analyzed for trends across treatments, genders, and experiments. Instruction emphasizing the Macroscopic mode may have increased percentages of observational and miscellaneous statements and decreased percentages of procedural and conceptual/analytical statements. Instruction emphasizing the Symbolic mode may have

  11. Learning and generalization components of morphological acquisition by children with specific language impairment: is there a functional relation?

    PubMed

    Swisher, L; Snow, D

    1994-12-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have particular difficulty acquiring bound morphemes. To determine whether these morphological deficits spring from impairments of rule-induction or memory (storage/access) skills, 25 preschool-age children with normal language (NL) and 25 age-matched children with SLI were presented with a novel vocabulary and novel bound-morpheme learning task. A chi square analysis revealed that the children with SLI had significantly lower vocabulary learning levels than NL children. In addition, there was tentative evidence that a dependency relationship existed in some children between success in vocabulary learning and proficiency in generalizing a trained bound morpheme to untrained vocabulary stems. These findings are predicted by the storage/access but not the rule-induction theory of specific language impairment. They suggest that intervention targeting bound-morpheme skills acquisition in children with SLI might include attention to vocabulary development.

  12. Acquisition of effector-specific and effector-independent components of sequencing skill.

    PubMed

    Berner, Michael P; Hoffman, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In a serial reaction time task, participants practiced a repeating sequence with 1 hand. In interleaved blocks, they responded to random sequences with the other hand. Experiment 1 was composed of 5 sessions, each consisting of 30 blocks. Intermanual transfer, reflecting a hand-independent component of sequence knowledge, increased across session. A smaller but significant, nontransferable, and hand-specific component was evident in each session and did not increase with practice. Experiment 2 comprised only 1 session. Uninterrupted practice (no interleaved random blocks) improved hand-independent sequence learning in comparison with interrupted practice (as implemented in Experiment 1), whereas hand-specific sequence learning was unaffected by this between-subjects manipulation. These findings suggest separate mechanisms for effector-independent sequence learning and effector-specific acquisition of optimized response coarticulation. PMID:19073469

  13. Attentional focus in complex skill learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, G; McNevin, N H; Fuchs, T; Ritter, F; Toole, T

    2000-09-01

    Experiment 1 examined whether it is more advantageous to direct learners' attention to the external effects of their movements relative to other external cues. Two groups of participants hit tennis balls at a target, with one group focusing on the ball coming toward them (antecedent) and the other group focusing on the ball leaving the racket (effect). The effect group demonstrated more effective learning. Experiment 2 examined whether it is more beneficial if the movement effect is related to the movement technique, relative to other movement effects (e.g., outcome). Two groups of participants hit golf balls at a target. The attention of these groups was directed to the club or the ball trajectory, respectively. The club group showed more effective learning than the target group, suggesting that focusing on technique-related effects is more effective. PMID:10999260

  14. Demonstration as a rate enhancer to changes in coordination during early skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Horn, Robert R; Williams, A Mark; Hayes, Spencer J; Hodges, Nicola J; Scott, Mark A

    2007-03-01

    We compared the nature and rate of change in intra-limb coordination in participants who observed a video model (model) with those who practised based on verbal guidance only (control). Sixteen male novices threw a ball towards a target with maximal velocity using a back-handed, reverse baseball pitch. Participants in the model group immediately changed their intra-limb relative motion to more closely resemble the model's relative motion pattern. This new coordination pattern, and concomitant changes in ball speed, was maintained throughout acquisition, without further change. In contrast, the control group showed no change in coordination or ball speed across acquisition. Our findings suggest that demonstrations act as a rate enhancer, conveying an immediate movement solution that is adopted early in acquisition. A model may constrain the learner to perceive and imitate the model's relative motion pattern as suggested by Scully and Newell (1985). The stability of this new movement pattern questions accounts of learning, which suggest that prescriptive, directed learning may result in the "soft assembly" of an inaccurate and temporary movement solution.

  15. The effect of behavioral preferences on skill acquisition in determining unspecified, suitable action patterns to control humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Taiki; Watanabe, Tetsuyou

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of behavioral preferences on learning efficiency when attempting to determine unspecified, but suitable action sequences for unfamiliar tasks. The goal of this research was to develop a skill acquisition support system for the elderly to aid them in using unfamiliar IT products, particularly those of welfare systems. Here, behavioral preference is defined as the type of action sequences that people would prefer to adopt for completing unfamiliar tasks. To achieve this goal, this research investigated the action sequences of participants when they attempt to control the posture of an unfamiliar humanoid robot with an unfamiliar controller. The participants were assigned the task of making the humanoid stand on one foot. Machine-learning-based methods were presented for analyzing the behavioral preferences. The analysis results indicate that participants having behavioral preferences of adopting random action sequences can complete the task in a much shorter time, compared to participants having a behavioral preference of adopting action sequences similar to those of previous actions.

  16. Effects of mental practice in novice learners in a serial positioning skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thábata V B; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Marinho, Nádia; Shea, John B; Raisbeck, Louisa D; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2014-10-01

    The effects of mental practice in novices were investigated. University students (N = 60) performed a serial aiming task, distributed in 5 groups of 12: mental practice, physical practice, mental-physical practice (first mental then physical practice), physical-mental practice (first physical then mental practice), and a control group that only performed the tests. Participants transported three tennis balls among six containers in a pre-established sequence in a target time. In the acquisition phase and retention test (24 hr. later), the task was the same; in the transfer test, 5 min. after the acquisition phase, sequence and time changed. Six trials were performed in the acquisition phase, and each test consisted of 9 trials. The performance measures were absolute error, constant error, and variable error; a t test and a two-way ANOVA were used to compare the acquisition phase and tests, respectively. Physical practice and both groups of combined conditions presented better performance in tests than the mental practice and control groups. Mental practice without motor experience in the task did not improve motor learning. Prior physical performance is desirable before conducting mental practice. PMID:25202997

  17. Learned Attention in Adult Language Acquisition: A Replication and Generalization Study and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates associative learning explanations of the limited attainment of adult compared to child language acquisition in terms of learned attention to cues. It replicates and extends Ellis and Sagarra (2010) in demonstrating short- and long-term learned attention in the acquisition of temporal reference in Latin. In Experiment 1,…

  18. The Effect of a Token Reinforcement Program on the Sight Word Acquisition Rate of Learning Disabled Students in a Rural School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Monty; Feldman, David

    Two intermediate elementary grade level learning disabled students deficient in reading skills participated in a study to explore the efficacy of utilizing a token reinforcement program combined with behavioral contracting to increase the acquisition rate of sight vocabulary. Word recognition behavioral data were collected by measuring the time…

  19. Promoting higher order thinking skills using inquiry-based learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhuri, G. V.; S. S. N Kantamreddi, V.; Goteti, L. N. S. Prakash

    2012-05-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in chemistry. Laboratory exercises are designed based on Bloom's taxonomy and a just-in-time facilitation approach is used. A pre-laboratory discussion outlining the theory of the experiment and its relevance is carried out to enable the students to analyse real-life problems. The performance of the students is assessed based on their ability to perform the experiment, design new experiments and correlate practical utility of the course module with real life. The novelty of the present approach lies in the fact that the learning outcomes of the existing experiments are achieved through establishing a relationship with real-world problems.

  20. Improving Undergraduates' Critical Thinking Skills through Peer-learning Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    Critical thinking skills are among the primary learning outcomes of undergraduate education, but they are rarely explicitly taught. Here I present a two-fold study aimed at analyzing undergraduate students' critical thinking and information literacy skills, and explicitly teaching these skills, in an introductory Planetary Science course. The purpose of the research was to examine the students' information-filtering skills and to develop a short series of peer-learning workshops that would enhance these skills in both the students' coursework and their everyday lives. The 4 workshops are designed to be easily adaptable to any college course, with little impact on the instructor's workload. They make use of material related to the course's content, enabling the instructor to complement a pre-existing syllabus while explicitly teaching students skills essential to their academic and non-academic lives. In order to gain an understanding of undergraduates' existing information-filtering skills, I examined the material that they consider to be appropriate sources for a college paper. I analyzed the Essay 1 bibliographies of a writing-based introductory Planetary Science course for non-majors. The 22 essays cited 135 (non-unique) references, only half of which were deemed suitable by their instructors. I divided the sources into several categories and classified them as recommended, recommended with caution, and unsuitable for this course. The unsuitable sources ranged from peer-reviewed journal articles, which these novice students were not equipped to properly interpret, to websites that cannot be relied upon for scientific information (e.g., factoidz.com, answersingenesis.org). The workshops aim to improve the students' information-filtering skills by sequentially teaching them to evaluate search engine results, identify claims made on websites and in news articles, evaluate the evidence presented, and identify specific correlation/causation fallacies in news articles

  1. Acquisition process of typing skill using hierarchical materials in the Japanese language.

    PubMed

    Ashitaka, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, using a new keyboard layout with only eight keys, we conducted typing training for unskilled typists. In this task, Japanese college students received training in typing words consisting of a pair of hiragana characters with four keystrokes, using the alphabetic input method, while keeping the association between the keys and typists' finger movements; the task was constructed so that chunking was readily available. We manipulated the association between the hiragana characters and alphabet letters (hierarchical materials: overlapped and nonoverlapped mappings). Our alphabet letter materials corresponded to the regular order within each hiragana word (within the four letters, the first and third referred to consonants, and the second and fourth referred to vowels). Only the interkeystroke intervals involved in the initiation of typing vowel letters showed an overlapping effect, which revealed that the effect was markedly large only during the early period of skill development (the effect for the overlapped mapping being larger than that for the nonoverlapped mapping), but that it had diminished by the time of late training. Conversely, the response time and the third interkeystroke interval, which are both involved in the latency of typing a consonant letter, did not reveal an overlapped effect, suggesting that chunking might be useful with hiragana characters rather than hiragana words. These results are discussed in terms of the fan effect and skill acquisition. Furthermore, we discuss whether there is a need for further research on unskilled and skilled Japanese typists.

  2. Mastering Surgical Skills Through Simulation-Based Learning: Practice Makes One Perfect

    PubMed Central

    Khunger, Niti; Kathuria, Sushruta

    2016-01-01

    Simulation-based learning in surgery is a learning model where an environment similar to real life surgical situation is created for the trainee to learn various surgical skills. It can be used to train a new operator as well to assess his skills. This methodology helps in repetitive practice of surgical skills on nonliving things so that the operator can be near-perfect when operating on a live patient. Various models are available for learning different dermatosurgery skills. PMID:27081246

  3. Mastering Surgical Skills Through Simulation-Based Learning: Practice Makes One Perfect.

    PubMed

    Khunger, Niti; Kathuria, Sushruta

    2016-01-01

    Simulation-based learning in surgery is a learning model where an environment similar to real life surgical situation is created for the trainee to learn various surgical skills. It can be used to train a new operator as well to assess his skills. This methodology helps in repetitive practice of surgical skills on nonliving things so that the operator can be near-perfect when operating on a live patient. Various models are available for learning different dermatosurgery skills. PMID:27081246

  4. Reinforcing Communication Skills While Registered Nurses Simultaneously Learn Course Content: A Response to Learning Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen nursing students participated in Integrated Skills Reinforcement, an approach that reinforces writing, reading, speaking, and listening skills while students learn course content. Pre-/postassessment of writing showed that 93% achieved writing improvement. All students agreed that the approach improved understanding of course content, a…

  5. Facilitating Self-Regulated Learning Skills and Achievement with a Strategic Content Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Monica L.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Whether out of financial concerns for student retention or altruistic goals involving facilitating successful learning, efforts are being made to ensure college student success beyond chance independent study skills. Students often lack effective self-regulatory skills and study strategies necessary for success in college. With guidance through…

  6. Simulation-Based Education with Mastery Learning Improves Paracentesis Skills

    PubMed Central

    Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Cohen, Elaine R.; Vozenilek, John A.; O'Connor, Lanty M.; McGaghie, William C.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracentesis is a commonly performed bedside procedure that has the potential for serious complications. Therefore, simulation-based education for paracentesis is valuable for clinicians. Objective To assess internal medicine residents' procedural skills before and after simulation-based mastery learning on a paracentesis simulator. Methods A team with expertise in simulation and procedural skills developed and created a high fidelity, ultrasound-compatible paracentesis simulator. Fifty-eight first-year internal medicine residents completed a mastery learning-based intervention using the paracentesis simulator. Residents underwent baseline skill assessment (pretest) using a 25-item checklist. Residents completed a posttest after a 3-hour education session featuring a demonstration of the procedure, deliberate practice, ultrasound training, and feedback. All residents were expected to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) at posttest, the key feature of mastery learning. We compared pretest and posttest checklist scores to evaluate the effect of the educational intervention. Residents rated the training sessions. Results Residents' paracentesis skills improved from an average pretest score of 33.0% (SD  =  15.2%) to 92.7% (SD  =  5.4%) at posttest (P < .001). After the training intervention, all residents met or exceeded the MPS. The training sessions and realism of the simulation were rated highly by learners. Conclusion This study demonstrates the ability of a paracentesis simulator to significantly improve procedural competence. PMID:23451302

  7. Visual illusions can facilitate sport skill learning.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Wulf, Gabriele; Maquestiaux, François

    2015-06-01

    Witt, Linkenauger, and Proffitt (Psychological Science, 23, 397-399, 2012) demonstrated that golf putting performance was enhanced when the hole was surrounded by small circles, making it look larger, relative to when it was surrounded by large circles, making it look smaller. In the present study, we examined whether practicing putting with small or large surrounding circles would have not only immediate effects on performance, but also longer-lasting effects on motor learning. Two groups of nongolfers practiced putting golf balls to a 10.4-cm circle ("hole") from a distance of 2 m. Small or large circles were projected around the hole during the practice phase. Perception of hole size was affected by the size of the surrounding circles. Also, self-efficacy was higher in the group with the perceived larger hole. One day after practice, participants performed the putting task, but without visual illusions (i.e., a retention test). Putting accuracy in retention was greater for the group that had practiced with the perceived larger hole. These findings suggest that the apparently larger target led to the more effective learning outcome. PMID:25316049

  8. Transfer of Complex Skill Learning from Virtual to Real Rowing

    PubMed Central

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Koch, Claudio; Crivelli, Francesco; van Raai, Mark; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Simulators are commonly used to train complex tasks. In particular, simulators are applied to train dangerous tasks, to save costs, and to investigate the impact of different factors on task performance. However, in most cases, the transfer of simulator training to the real task has not been investigated. Without a proof for successful skill transfer, simulators might not be helpful at all or even counter-productive for learning the real task. In this paper, the skill transfer of complex technical aspects trained on a scull rowing simulator to sculling on water was investigated. We assume if a simulator provides high fidelity rendering of the interactions with the environment even without augmented feedback, training on such a realistic simulator would allow similar skill gains as training in the real environment. These learned skills were expected to transfer to the real environment. Two groups of four recreational rowers participated. One group trained on water, the other group trained on a simulator. Within two weeks, both groups performed four training sessions with the same licensed rowing trainer. The development in performance was assessed by quantitative biomechanical performance measures and by a qualitative video evaluation of an independent, blinded trainer. In general, both groups could improve their performance on water. The used biomechanical measures seem to allow only a limited insight into the rowers' development, while the independent trainer could also rate the rowers' overall impression. The simulator quality and naturalism was confirmed by the participants in a questionnaire. In conclusion, realistic simulator training fostered skill gains to a similar extent as training in the real environment and enabled skill transfer to the real environment. In combination with augmented feedback, simulator training can be further exploited to foster motor learning even to a higher extent, which is subject to future work. PMID:24376518

  9. Transfer of complex skill learning from virtual to real rowing.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Koch, Claudio; Crivelli, Francesco; van Raai, Mark; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Simulators are commonly used to train complex tasks. In particular, simulators are applied to train dangerous tasks, to save costs, and to investigate the impact of different factors on task performance. However, in most cases, the transfer of simulator training to the real task has not been investigated. Without a proof for successful skill transfer, simulators might not be helpful at all or even counter-productive for learning the real task. In this paper, the skill transfer of complex technical aspects trained on a scull rowing simulator to sculling on water was investigated. We assume if a simulator provides high fidelity rendering of the interactions with the environment even without augmented feedback, training on such a realistic simulator would allow similar skill gains as training in the real environment. These learned skills were expected to transfer to the real environment. Two groups of four recreational rowers participated. One group trained on water, the other group trained on a simulator. Within two weeks, both groups performed four training sessions with the same licensed rowing trainer. The development in performance was assessed by quantitative biomechanical performance measures and by a qualitative video evaluation of an independent, blinded trainer. In general, both groups could improve their performance on water. The used biomechanical measures seem to allow only a limited insight into the rowers' development, while the independent trainer could also rate the rowers' overall impression. The simulator quality and naturalism was confirmed by the participants in a questionnaire. In conclusion, realistic simulator training fostered skill gains to a similar extent as training in the real environment and enabled skill transfer to the real environment. In combination with augmented feedback, simulator training can be further exploited to foster motor learning even to a higher extent, which is subject to future work. PMID:24376518

  10. Cognitive abilities as precursors of the early acquisition of mathematical skills during first through second grades.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, M Chiara; Mammarella, Irene C; Altoe, Gianmarco

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study was designed to investigate precursors of mathematics achievement in children. A total of 72 children were tested at both the beginning and end of first and second grades on measures of the following cognitive abilities: phonology, counting skills, short-term memory, working memory, and verbal and performance IQ. Path analysis models revealed differences in the variables predicting mathematics skills of first and second graders. Specifically, in first graders both short-term and working memory measures mediated the role of verbal IQ in predicting mathematics skills. Also, there was a direct relationship between performance IQ and mathematics at first grade. In contrast, in the longitudinal model, working memory measured both in first and second grades predicted mathematics achievement, whereas the relationship between performance IQ and mathematics disappeared. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that mathematics learning is predicted not by phonology or counting skills and that working memory is a plausible mediator in predicting mathematics achievement in primary school age children. PMID:18473198

  11. Video capture on student-owned mobile devices to facilitate psychomotor skills acquisition: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Objective : We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods : Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results : Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions : Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high. PMID:23957324

  12. Video capture on student-owned mobile devices to facilitate psychomotor skills acquisition: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Objective : We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods : Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results : Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions : Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high.

  13. Video capture on student-owned mobile devices to facilitate psychomotor skills acquisition: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high. PMID:23957324

  14. Local traditions in gorilla manual skill: evidence for observational learning of behavioral organization.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Richard W; Hobaiter, Catherine; Klailova, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    Elaborate manual skills of food processing are known in several species of great ape; but their manner of acquisition is controversial. Local, "cultural" traditions show the influence of social learning, but it is uncertain whether this includes the ability to imitate the organization of behavior. Dispute has centered on whether program-level imitation contributes to the acquisition of feeding techniques in gorillas. Here, we show that captive western gorillas at Port Lympne, Kent, have developed a group-wide habit of feeding on nettles, using two techniques. We compare their nettle processing behavior with that of wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda. Both populations are similar in their repertoires of action elements, and in developing multi-step techniques for food processing, with coordinated asymmetric actions of the hands and iteration of parts of a process as "subroutines". Crucially, however, the two populations deal in different ways with the special challenges presented by nettle stings, with consistently different organizations of action elements. We conclude that, while an elaborate repertoire of manual actions and the ability to develop complex manual skills are natural characteristics of gorillas, the inter-site differences in nettle-eating technique are best explained as a consequence of social transmission. According to this explanation, gorillas can copy aspects of program organization from the behavior of others and they use this ability when learning how to eat nettles, resulting in consistent styles of processing by most individuals at each different site; like other great apes, gorillas have the precursor abilities for developing culture.

  15. Interference effects between memory systems in the acquisition of a skill.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Cohen, Henri

    2016-10-01

    There is now converging evidence that the declarative memory system (hippocampus dependent) contributes to sequential motor learning in concert with the procedural memory system (striatum dependent). Because of the competition for shared neuronal resources, introducing a declarative memory task can impair learning of a new motor sequence and interference may occur during the procedural consolidation process. Here, we investigated the extent to which interference effects between memory systems are seen at the retrieval phase of skill learning. Healthy participants were assigned to a control (n = 15) or a declarative condition (n = 15) and trained on a sequence of finger movements (FOS task). Both groups showed similar improvement at the end of the practice session on the first day. Twenty-four hours later, controls were tested solely on the FOS task, while subjects in the declarative condition first engaged in a visuospatial task. Additional offline gains in performance were observed only in the control condition. The introduction of a visuospatial memory task just before retrieval of the motor skill was sufficient to eliminate these gains. This suggests that interference between procedural and declarative memory systems may also occur during subsequent motor recall. It is proposed that the interference effects are linked, in part, to the spatial nature of the motor and declarative tasks, which specifically depends upon hippocampal involvement.

  16. Foresight Group Roundtable: Fresh Thinking for Learning and Skills. Centre for Innovation in Learning--Positioning Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Creating a fertile space for debate and ideas in order to drive innovation in learning and skills is integral to LSN's (Learning and Skills Network's) mission. To achieve this LSN has pioneered a new approach to making learning work from classroom to boardroom--and created the Centre for Innovation in Learning. This new, independent think tank…

  17. Acquisition and Maintenance of Endoscopic Skills: Developing an endoscopic dexterity training system for anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Marsland, Colin P; Robinson, Brian J; Chitty, Chris H; Guy, Bernard J

    2003-01-01

    The acquisition and maintenance of essential psychomotor skills that are only required sporadically is a significant problem in medical training and practice. It is of particular relevance to anesthesiologists with regard to fibreoptic intubation, a technique that may be under-utilized despite its central role in the management of the difficult airway. Dexterity deficit due to current training models, dexterity decay due to lack of practice, and situational stress related to the clinical environment may combine to impede effective training and confident use of endoscopes in airway management. An educational resource (DexterÔ) has been developed to overcome these problems. Dexter is a non-anatomical, endoscopic dexterity training system designed to encourage practice and help establish and maintain a state of procedural readiness, even if clinical exposure to difficult airway situations is sporadic. PMID:27175419

  18. Modularity and hierarchical organization of action programs in children's acquisition of graphic skills.

    PubMed

    Manoel, Edison de J; Dantas, Luiz; Gimenez, Roberto; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa

    2011-10-01

    The organization of actions is based on modules in memory as a result of practice, easing the demand of performing more complex actions. If this modularization occurs, the elements of the module must remain invariant in new tasks. To test this hypothesis, 35 children, age 10 yr., practiced a graphic criterion task on a digital tablet and completed a complex graphic task enclosing the previous one. Total movement and pause times to draw the figure indicated skill acquisition. A module was identified by the variability of relative timing, pause time, and sequencing. Total movement to perform the criterion task did not increase significantly when it was embedded in the more complex task. Modularity was evidenced by the stability of relative timing and pause time and sequencing. The spatial position of new elements did not perturb the module, so the grammar of action may still have been forming.

  19. Examining neural correlates of skill acquisition in a complex videogame training program

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ruchika S.; De Leon, Angeline A.; Mourany, Lyla; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W.; Boot, Walter R.; Basak, Chandramallika; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of complex skills is a universal feature of human behavior that has been conceptualized as a process that starts with intense resource dependency, requires effortful cognitive control, and ends in relative automaticity on the multi-faceted task. The present study examined the effects of different theoretically based training strategies on cortical recruitment during acquisition of complex video game skills. Seventy-five participants were recruited and assigned to one of three training groups: (1) Fixed Emphasis Training (FET), in which participants practiced the game, (2) Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), in which participants practiced using a combination of part-task training and variable priority training, or (3) a Control group that received limited game play. After 30 h of training, game data indicated a significant advantage for the two training groups relative to the control group. The HVT group demonstrated enhanced benefits of training, as indexed by an improvement in overall game score and a reduction in cortical recruitment post-training. Specifically, while both groups demonstrated a significant reduction of activation in attentional control areas, namely the right middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, participants in the control group continued to engage these areas post-training, suggesting a sustained reliance on attentional regions during challenging task demands. The HVT group showed a further reduction in neural resources post-training compared to the FET group in these cognitive control regions, along with reduced activation in the motor and sensory cortices and the posteromedial cortex. Findings suggest that training, specifically one that emphasizes cognitive flexibility can reduce the attentional demands of a complex cognitive task, along with reduced reliance on the motor network. PMID:22615690

  20. Learning About Self: Leadership Skills for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Moodie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    As public health practitioners and as clinicians we are taught to care for our patients, and for our community members. But how much do we teach and learn about how to lead, manage and care for our colleagues, our team members and ourselves? This paper emphasizes the need for leadership learning and teaching to become an essential element of the practice of public health. The paper presents the author’s perspective on the leadership skills required for public health and describes a five-day intensive course designed to enable participants to develop these skills over time. The paper briefly covers leadership definitions, styles and types and key leadership skills. It mainly focuses on the design and ethos of the course, skills self-assessment, group interaction and methods for developing and refining leadership skills. The course uses a collaborative learning approach where the power differential between teachers, facilitators, guests and participants is minimized. It is based on creating an environment where any participant can reveal his or her stories, successes, failures, preferences and dislikes in a safe manner. It encourages continual, constructive individual reflection, self-assessment and group interaction. The course is aimed at the practice of public health leadership, with a particular emphasis on the leadership of self, of knowing oneself, and of knowing and understanding colleagues retrospectively as well as prospectively. The most important outcome is the design and implementation of participants’ own plans for developing and nurturing their leadership skills. Significance for public health The nature of public health is changing rapidly and increasing in complexity. These changes include major shifts in the burden of disease and the insatiable demands of clinical medicine swamping those of public health. Public health practitioners have failed over many years to systematically ensure that leadership and management skills are essential parts of

  1. Learning About Self: Leadership Skills for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Rob

    2016-04-26

    As public health practitioners and as clinicians we are taught to care for our patients, and for our community members. But how much do we teach and learn about how to lead, manage and care for our colleagues, our team members and ourselves? This paper emphasizes the need for leadership learning and teaching to become an essential element of the practice of public health. The paper presents the author's perspective on the leadership skills required for public health and describes a five-day intensive course designed to enable participants to develop these skills over time. The paper briefly covers leadership definitions, styles and types and key leadership skills. It mainly focuses on the design and ethos of the course, skills self-assessment, group interaction and methods for developing and refining leadership skills. The course uses a collaborative learning approach where the power differential between teachers, facilitators, guests and participants is minimized. It is based on creating an environment where any participant can reveal his or her stories, successes, failures, preferences and dislikes in a safe manner. It encourages continual, constructive individual reflection, self-assessment and group interaction. The course is aimed at the practice of public health leadership, with a particular emphasis on the leadership of self, of knowing oneself, and of knowing and understanding colleagues retrospectively as well as prospectively. The most important outcome is the design and implementation of participants' own plans for developing and nurturing their leadership skills. Significance for public healthThe nature of public health is changing rapidly and increasing in complexity. These changes include major shifts in the burden of disease and the insatiable demands of clinical medicine swamping those of public health. Public health practitioners have failed over many years to systematically ensure that leadership and management skills are essential parts of public

  2. Learning About Self: Leadership Skills for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Rob

    2016-04-26

    As public health practitioners and as clinicians we are taught to care for our patients, and for our community members. But how much do we teach and learn about how to lead, manage and care for our colleagues, our team members and ourselves? This paper emphasizes the need for leadership learning and teaching to become an essential element of the practice of public health. The paper presents the author's perspective on the leadership skills required for public health and describes a five-day intensive course designed to enable participants to develop these skills over time. The paper briefly covers leadership definitions, styles and types and key leadership skills. It mainly focuses on the design and ethos of the course, skills self-assessment, group interaction and methods for developing and refining leadership skills. The course uses a collaborative learning approach where the power differential between teachers, facilitators, guests and participants is minimized. It is based on creating an environment where any participant can reveal his or her stories, successes, failures, preferences and dislikes in a safe manner. It encourages continual, constructive individual reflection, self-assessment and group interaction. The course is aimed at the practice of public health leadership, with a particular emphasis on the leadership of self, of knowing oneself, and of knowing and understanding colleagues retrospectively as well as prospectively. The most important outcome is the design and implementation of participants' own plans for developing and nurturing their leadership skills. Significance for public healthThe nature of public health is changing rapidly and increasing in complexity. These changes include major shifts in the burden of disease and the insatiable demands of clinical medicine swamping those of public health. Public health practitioners have failed over many years to systematically ensure that leadership and management skills are essential parts of public

  3. Learning formative skills of nursing practice in an accelerated program.

    PubMed

    McNiesh, Susan; Benner, Patricia; Chesla, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe how students in an accelerated master's degree entry program experientially learned the practice of nursing. One research question examined in this study was: What formative experiences did students identify as helping them develop and differentiate their clinical practice? Data from clinical observations and a combination of small group and individual interviews were collected and analyzed using interpretive phenomenological methods. Students identified formative skills learned through the independent care of a patient as pivotal in their identity and agency development. By experiencing the responsibility and action from within the body and from within concrete situations, students developed a new understanding that changed their embodied ways of perceiving and orienting to the situation, as well as their skills and sense of agency.

  4. A Simulated Learning Environment for Teaching Medicine Dispensing Skills

    PubMed Central

    Styles, Kim; Sewell, Keith; Trinder, Peta; Marriott, Jennifer; Maher, Sheryl; Naidu, Som

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop an authentic simulation of the professional practice dispensary context for students to develop their dispensing skills in a risk-free environment. Design. A development team used an Agile software development method to create MyDispense, a web-based simulation. Modeled on virtual learning environments elements, the software employed widely available standards-based technologies to create a virtual community pharmacy environment. Assessment. First-year pharmacy students who used the software in their tutorials, were, at the end of the second semester, surveyed on their prior dispensing experience and their perceptions of MyDispense as a tool to learn dispensing skills. Conclusion. The dispensary simulation is an effective tool for helping students develop dispensing competency and knowledge in a safe environment. PMID:26941437

  5. The learning of motor skills: sports science and ergonomics perspectives.

    PubMed

    Annett, J

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes some of the common origins of ergonomics and sports science in the UK with particular reference to research on motor learning. Attention is drawn to the value of analytical methods developed by ergonomists in deriving training prescriptions and their relationship with conventional learning theory is discussed. The cognitive revolution, which in the last 25 years has changed the face of psychology, has also had its impact on ergonomics and basic research on motor skills. The role of cognitive processes in motor learning is being reassessed and there is a renewed interest in topics such as verbal instruction, imitation, imagery, and mental practice which to earlier generations of behavioural scientists appeared beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The paper outlines some recent research into the role of imagery in motor learning illustrating these new approaches.

  6. Learning Communities: Strengthening Lifelong Learning through Practice. A Demos/Learning and Skills Development Agency Seminar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Development Agency, London (England).

    This paper details the work of Demos and the Learning and Skills Development Agency to examine how new institutional structures for supporting lifelong learning can develop in ways that best support community-based learning activities in the United Kingdom. Three seminar background papers and notes are provided, each followed by seminar notes.…

  7. Count Me in: The Role of Action Learning in Making Learning and Skills Provision More Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Gill

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the role of action learning in a national programme of research and development. The aim of the programme was to improve provision for disabled learners in the learning and skills sector by supporting providers in implementing the requirements of the Disability Discrimination Act (2002). Practitioners worked on a wide range…

  8. Inter-Life: A Novel, Three-Dimensional, Virtual Learning Environment for Life Transition Skills Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Alison M.; Lally, Vic; Sclater, Madeleine; Parussel, Karla

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from one of the first empirical research studies which has investigated the impact of Inter-Life; a novel three-dimensional immersive virtual learning environment, on learning and development of social and educational life transition skills in a group of looked after and accommodated children. Drawing on social…

  9. Using Adult Learning Principles as a Framework for Learning ICT Skills Needed for Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyitayo, Oduronke Temitope

    2013-01-01

    Students in higher institutions need to carry out research projects. The focus of this paper explores a model to help students learn ICT skills needed for research projects. Generally students go through the "long and hard route" to learn and use ICT resources because they do not know how to do it. The paper explores the Adult Learning…

  10. Center of pressure and the projection of the time-course of sitting skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Joshua L; Harbourne, Regina T; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    A normal time-course for the acquisition of sitting is essential. A delay in sitting may affect other developmental milestones, resulting in deficiencies in overall skill. Therefore, our aim was to identify variables whose measures at the very beginning of sitting would allow for the projection of the evolution of the sitting skill. Center of pressure data were collected from the postural sway of twenty-six typically developing infants while sitting on a force platform with a beginning ability to sit upright. Spatial, temporal and frequency variables of postural sway were obtained from both the medial/lateral and anterior/posterior directions of sway. Discriminant function analysis was conducted to identify potential predictors of the duration between onset and fully independent sitting. Gender (p=0.025), median frequency (p=0.006), and correlation dimension (p=0.002) were identified to be predictive of grouping with 73.1% correct classification of the participating infants into short, mid, and long delay groups. In conclusion, measures taken at the earliest stage of sitting may allow the projection of the time-course to achieve independent sitting for typical infants. This approach may be useful for monitoring typical development.

  11. Interpersonal Skills Training I: The Nature of Skill Acquisition and Its Implications for Training Design and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Catherine T.; Butcher, David J.

    1983-01-01

    The authors discuss the different methods of interpersonal skills training, focusing on the most commonly applied method, that of role playing used in a skills workshop context. (MEAD Subscriptions, CSML, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YX, England) (SSH)

  12. Enhancing practice teachers' knowledge and skills using collaborative action learning sets.

    PubMed

    Haydock, Deborah; Evers, Jean

    2014-06-01

    This research project was designed to enhance the critical thinking and problem-solving skills of practice teachers (PTs) and promote role modelling to specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN) students. This paper explores the impact of action learning sets (ALS) on the trainee PT role and associated students and stakeholders. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed by eight trainee PTs and three focus groups were held consisting of trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and students. Three focus groups for the trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and allocated students were held. Findings are presented in relation to three themes: knowledge, skills and role modelling in practice; dedicated practice teacher development; and ALS in practice. Data analysis demonstrated that the PTs valued the dedicated module and ALS enhanced their knowledge and skills. These skills were role modelled to students to guide reflection and knowledge acquisition. All participants intended to develop ALS as part of continued professional development. The paper concludes with recommendations to improve the educational development of both trainee and experienced PTs through the integration of ALS as part of PT development.

  13. Teaching basic life support skills using self-directed learning, a self-instructional video, access to practice manikins and learning in pairs.

    PubMed

    Done, Mary Louise; Parr, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Applying adult learning principles in healthcare education is increasingly recognised as useful and effective. We designed and evaluated an educational package for medical student basic life support (BLS) skills that placed the responsibility of skill acquisition with the learner. The package provided hardcopy and web based information, an in-house produced audio-video tape demonstrating BLS, and open access to manikins in a Skills Centre where the students learnt in pairs. Students determined when they were ready to be assessed. This assessment was performed by two independent observers using the Resuscitation Council (UK) BLS assessment sheet. Two groups, comprising in total 51 fourth year medical students were assessed, 47 were found to be competent in performing BLS on their first assessment. Of the remaining four, three were assessed as competent after further self-directed learning and retesting. Only one student required personal tutoring prior to success. Self-directed learning is a successful method of mastering BLS. Where failure occurred, it was due to inadequate student learning in the Skills Centre. The importance of practice needs emphasis in future use of the programme, as does the virtual guarantee of success, if all steps are followed. A similar programme could be devised for other technical skills. PMID:11886735

  14. Situated cognition and cognitive apprenticeship: a model for teaching and learning clinical skills in a technologically rich and authentic learning environment.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Norman N; Jarvis, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of a range of diverse clinical skills is a central feature of the pre-registration nursing curriculum. Prior to exposure to clinical practice, it is essential that learners have the opportunity to practise and develop such skills in a safe and controlled environment under the direction and supervision of clinical experts. However, the competing demands of the HE nursing curriculum coupled with an increased number of learners have resulted in a reduced emphasis on traditional apprenticeship learning. This paper presents an alternative model for clinical skills teaching that draws upon the principles of cognitive apprenticeship [Collins, A., Brown, J.S., Newman, S., 1989. Cognitive Apprenticeship: teaching the crafts of reading, writing and mathematics. In: Resnick, L.B. (Ed.) Knowing. Learning and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, pp. 453-494] and situated cognition within a technologically rich and authentic learning environment. It will show how high quality DVD materials illustrating clinical skills performed by expert practitioners have been produced and used in conjunction with CCTV and digital recording technologies to support learning within a pedagogic framework appropriate to skills acquisition. It is argued that this model not only better prepares the student for the time they will spend in the practice setting, but also lays the foundation for the development of a clinically competent practitioner with the requisite physical and cognitive skills who is fit for purpose [UKCC, 1999. Fitness for Practice: The UKCC Commission for Nursing and Midwifery Education. United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing Midwifery and Health Visiting, London].

  15. Moving Between Discourses: From Learning-As-Acquisition To Learning-As-Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfard, Anna

    2009-11-01

    In this paper I address the question of how to talk about learning so as to be able to cope with at least some of the longstanding quandaries and to arrive at new insights. After a very brief historical review, I concentrate on two basic metaphors for learning in which current educational research seems to be grounded: the metaphors of learning-as-acquisition and of learning-as-participation. After stating the importance of both of these approaches and arguing that researches should be adjusting their leading metaphors to the questions they ask, I present my own choice: a brand of participationist discourse which is grounded in the vision of thinking as a form of communication and of physics and mathematics as types of discourses. The usefulness of the proposed way of talking about learning is then illustrated with the help of empirical materials taken from my recent study on a 7th grade class just introduced to negative numbers.

  16. Translational studies exploring neuroplasticity associated with motor skill learning and the regulatory role of the dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys; Forssberg, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders associated with lifelong motor impairment and disability. Current intervention programmes aim to capitalize on the neuroplasticity of the undamaged part of the brain to improve motor functions, by engaging individuals in active motor learning and training. In this review, we highlight recent animal studies (1) exploring cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to neuroplasticity during motor training, (2) assessing the functional role of the mesocortical dopaminergic system in motor skill learning, and (3) exploring the impact of naturally occurring genetic variation in dopamine-related gene expression on the acquisition and performance of fine motor skills. Finally, the potential influence of the dopamine system on the outcome of motor learning interventions in cerebral palsy is discussed. PMID:25690110

  17. First Language Acquisition as a Guide for Theories of Learning and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    1994-01-01

    Articulates general principles of learning based on research of the earliest periods of language acquisition in childhood. The principles are meant to be suggestive and to contribute to the development of a first language acquisition-based theory of learning. (78 references) (MDM)

  18. Assessment of Language Learners' Strategies: Do They Prefer Learning or Acquisition Strategies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate learning and acquisition strategies used by second/foreign language learners. This study is a comparative investigation of learning and acquisition strategies of successful and less successful language learners. The main question of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between the learners'…

  19. Attendance, Performance and the Acquisition of Early Literacy Skills: A Comparison of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, John; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Helmer, Janet; Oteng, Georges; Lea, Tess; Bartlett, Claire; Smith, Heather; Emmett, Sue

    2010-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of a web-based early literacy intervention, ABRACADABRA, a small exploratory study was conducted over one term in three primary schools in the Northern Territory. Of particular concern was the relationship between attendance and the acquisition of early literacy skills of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. Using the…

  20. Continuing Medical Education-Driven Skills Acquisition and Impact on Improved Patient Outcomes in Family Practice Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Nicholas; Goldstein, Laurence D.; Tekanoff, Rory A.

    2000-01-01

    Family practitioners (n=474) accompanied by their patients were trained in injection techniques to treat osteoarthritis. Pre- and postsession assessments showed that physicians felt comfortable with the new technique, skill acquisition occurred in a supportive setting for physicians and patients, and many patients experienced significant health…

  1. A Comparison of the Acquisition of Play Skills Using Instructor-Created Video Models and Commercially Available Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palechka, Gail; MacDonald, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    We compared the effects of a commercially-available children's video relative to an instructor-created video model on the acquisition of play skills with three children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Each participant was exposed to one commercially-available video model for one play scenario and one instructor-created video for a…

  2. Evidence for the Utility of a Photovoice Task as an Empathic Skill Acquisition Strategy among Counselors-in-Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii

    2013-01-01

    An instructional technique derived from photovoice was compared with a didactic approach for empathic skill acquisition among 38 master's-level counselors-in-training. Participants in the photovoice condition demonstrated marked improvements in quality of empathic statements compared with those receiving didactic lecture. Considerations for…

  3. Socio-Emotional Skills, Behavior Problems, and Spanish Competence Predict the Acquisition of English among English Language Learners in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for…

  4. The Effects of Live Music as the Discriminative Stimulus and Reinforcer on the Skill Acquisition of Learners with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Melanie D.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders are challenged with memory and language deficits that impact their skills acquisition (Martin, Klusek, Estigarriba, & Roberts, 2009; Turner & Alborz, 2003). The value of music when applied as an antecedent and a reinforcer has long been established to address such memory and language deficits…

  5. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers’ interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3 months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R2 = 0.36) and verbal mental age (R2 = 0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R2 = 0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age. PMID:25398893

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Handwriting Skills in Pre-Schoolers: The Acquisition of Syllable Oriented Programming Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler Vilageliu, Olga; Kandel, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the relevance of the syllable as a programming unit in handwriting production, both in adults and elementary school children. This longitudinal study focuses on the acquisition of writing skills in a group of preschoolers. It examines how and when the syllable structure of the word starts regulating motor programming in…

  7. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  8. How to Study the Influence of Intensity of Treatment on Generalized Skill and Knowledge Acquisition in Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Seven empirical studies from this special issue and an overview chapter are reviewed to illustrate several points about studying the possible effects of treatment intensity manipulations on generalized skill or knowledge acquisition in students with disabilities. First, we make a case in favor of studying intensity as separate from complexity and…

  9. Technological Supports for Onsite and Distance Education and Students' Perceptions of Acquisition of Thinking and Team-Building Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Morin, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares students' perceptions of support provided in the acquisition of various thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the various activities, resources and technologies (ART) integrated into an upper level Distributed Computing (DC) course. The findings indicate that students perceived strong support for their acquisition…

  10. The Role of Executive Attention in the Acquisition of Mathematical Skills for Children in Grades 2 through 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Berrigan, Lindsay; Vendetti, Corrie; Kamawar, Deepthi; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of executive attention, which encompasses the common aspects of executive function and executive working memory, in children's acquisition of two aspects of mathematical skill: (a) knowledge of the number system (e.g., place value) and of arithmetic procedures (e.g., multi-digit addition) and (b) arithmetic fluency (i.e.,…

  11. Socio-emotional skills, behavior problems, and Spanish competence predict the acquisition of English among English language learners in poverty.

    PubMed

    Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language, cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills were followed through kindergarten. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Spanish-speaking preschoolers with greater initiative, self-control, and attachment and fewer behavior problems at age 4 were more successful in obtaining English proficiency by the end of kindergarten compared to those initially weaker in these skills, even after controlling for cognitive/language skills and demographic variables. Also, greater facility in Spanish at age 4 predicted the attainment of English proficiency. Social and behavioral skills and proficiency in Spanish are valuable resources for low-income English language learners during their transition to school. PMID:24911567

  12. Socio-emotional skills, behavior problems, and Spanish competence predict the acquisition of English among English language learners in poverty.

    PubMed

    Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language, cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills were followed through kindergarten. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Spanish-speaking preschoolers with greater initiative, self-control, and attachment and fewer behavior problems at age 4 were more successful in obtaining English proficiency by the end of kindergarten compared to those initially weaker in these skills, even after controlling for cognitive/language skills and demographic variables. Also, greater facility in Spanish at age 4 predicted the attainment of English proficiency. Social and behavioral skills and proficiency in Spanish are valuable resources for low-income English language learners during their transition to school.

  13. Breeder and batch-dependent variability in the acquisition and performance of a motor skill in adult Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    O'Bryant, Amber J; Allred, Rachel P; Maldonado, Monica A; Cormack, Lawrence K; Jones, Theresa A

    2011-10-10

    Reaching tasks are popular tools for investigating the neural mechanisms of motor skill learning and recovery from brain damage in rodents, but there is considerable unexplained variability across studies using these tasks. We investigated whether breeder, batch effects, experimenter, time of year, weight and other factors contribute to differences in the acquisition and performance of a skilled reaching task, the single pellet retrieval task, in adult male Long-Evans hooded rats. First, we retrospectively analyzed task acquisition and performance in rats from different breeding colonies that were used in several studies spanning a 3 year period in our laboratory. Second, we compared reaching variables in age-matched rats from different breeders that were trained together as a batch by the same experimenters. All rats had received daily training on the reaching task until they reached a criterion of successful reaches per attempt. We found significant breeder-dependent differences in learning rate and final performance level. This was found even when age-matched rats from different breeders were trained together by the same experimenters. There was also significant batch-to-batch variability within rats from the same breeder trained by the same experimenter. Other factors, including weight, paw preference and the experimenter, were not as strong or consistent in their contributions to differences across studies. The breeder and batch effects found within the same rat strain may reflect genetic and environmental influences on the neural substrates of motor skill learning. This is an important consideration when comparing baseline performance across studies and for controlling variability within studies.

  14. Effects of Situated Learning on Students' Knowledge Acquisition: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of situated learning on students' knowledge acquisition by investigating the influence of individual differences in such learning. Seventy-nine graduates were recruited from an educational department and were assigned to situated learning and traditional learning based on a randomized block design. Results…

  15. Student Learning through Service Learning: Effects on Academic Development, Civic Responsibility, Interpersonal Skills and Practical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hébert, Ali; Hauf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Although anecdotal evidence and research alike espouse the benefits of service learning, some researchers have suggested that more rigorous testing is required in order to determine its true effect on students. This is particularly true in the case of academic development, which has been inconsistently linked to service learning. It has been…

  16. Benefits of using a hybrid problem-based learning curriculum to improve long-term learning acquisition in undergraduate biology education.

    PubMed

    Carrió, Mar; Agell, Laia; Baños, Josep Eladi; Moyano, Elisabeth; Larramona, Pilar; Pérez, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    Although problem-based learning (PBL) has been used for over 40 years, with many studies comparing the benefits of PBL versus other educational approaches, little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hybrid PBL (H-PBL) curricula. Here we aimed to compare the learning outcomes of two groups of undergraduate biology students working towards a bachelor's degree: one group used an H-PBL approach, while the second used a lecture-based learning (LBL) approach. Specifically, the H-PBL group used a PBL module with interdisciplinary problems, which represented 20% of the entire curriculum. The main outcomes of evaluation were the long-term acquisition of factual knowledge and the problem-solving skills at the end of the bachelor's degree. The sample included 85 students, 39 in the H-PBL group and 46 in the LBL group. We found that an H-PBL curriculum can improve the students' learning outcomes such as long-term knowledge acquisition, problem solving skills and generic competences. PMID:27302468

  17. Attitudes of medical students toward communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Fawaz S.; Alsaeedi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To explore medical students’ attitudes towards communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia and to examine impact of socio-demographic variables on the attitudes towards learning these skills. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sample of medical students were recruited from Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the second semester (January-May 2014). Participants were all year 2 (197 students) and year 5 (151 students). The study utilize the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to measure students’ attitudes toward communication skills learning. The response rate was 93.9%. Results: The study showed that Taif medical students hold highly positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitude score (PAS) was significantly higher in level 5 students, older age group. Conclusion: Significant positive attitude toward learning communication skills clearly observed in target group. Students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be higher level and older age. PMID:27381541

  18. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Panouillères, Muriel T. N.; Tofaris, George K.; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2016-01-01

    Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific) similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms that underpin the

  19. Practice Schedule and the Learning of Motor Skills in Children and Adults: Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Gentile, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how motor skills are learned influences how one teaches effective motor skill attainment. Educators must ask, "Does repetitive practice of the same task make for better performance or does contextual variability (random practice) offer some benefit when learning motor skills?" Studies on the effects of Contextual Interference may…

  20. Relationships between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Ewing, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationships between 4-H volunteer leader competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Using a descriptive-correlational research, the study reported found significant relationships between leadership competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Regression analysis revealed that two variables--skills and…

  1. Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education: Employability, Transferable Skills and Learning for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallows, Stephen, Ed.; Steven, Christine, Ed.

    This book addresses issues related to the skills agenda in higher education, focusing on key skills, employability skills, transferable skills, and core skills. The chapters provide a practical guide to the ways skills can be effectively integrated into courses and institutions. The chapters are: (1) "The Skills Agenda" (Stephen Fallows and…

  2. Tracing the trajectory of skill learning with a very large sample of online game players.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Tom; Dewar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we analyzed data from a very large sample (N = 854,064) of players of an online game involving rapid perception, decision making, and motor responding. Use of game data allowed us to connect, for the first time, rich details of training history with measures of performance from participants engaged for a sustained amount of time in effortful practice. We showed that lawful relations exist between practice amount and subsequent performance, and between practice spacing and subsequent performance. Our methodology allowed an in situ confirmation of results long established in the experimental literature on skill acquisition. Additionally, we showed that greater initial variation in performance is linked to higher subsequent performance, a result we link to the exploration/exploitation trade-off from the computational framework of reinforcement learning. We discuss the benefits and opportunities of behavioral data sets with very large sample sizes and suggest that this approach could be particularly fecund for studies of skill acquisition. PMID:24379154

  3. Frequency of provision of knowledge of performance on skill acquisition in older persons.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcelo E S; Souza, Marina G T X; Basso, Luciano; Monteiro, Carlos B M; Corrêa, Umberto C; Santos, Suely

    2014-01-01

    The provision of feedback is a crucial factor for the evolution of the learner's performance. It is known that the knowledge of performance has the function of guiding the learner's attention to critical aspects of the movement pattern. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of frequency of knowledge of performance (KP) during the acquisition of the basketball free throw in older persons. Sixty active individuals (men and women) aged 60-69 years of age, divided into three experimental groups received KP in 100, 66, and 33% of their attempts during three practice sessions totaling 90 trials. The task was the basketball free throw. Volunteers were asked to conduct tests of immediate retention, 24 h retention, and 24 h transfer test, after the last practice session. During the acquisition phase, the volunteers received KP on the movement pattern on the previous attempt, which was obtained from a qualitative hierarchical checklist of the free throw (14 items). Sessions were recorded in order to confirm whether volunteers were able to score throughout sessions. ANOVA indicated that all individuals showed an improved performance in the retention and transfer tests. But the KP frequency of 66% was superior in both qualitative (movement pattern) and quantitative (score) measurements throughout the trials (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion older persons seem to need an optimal KP frequency supply during the learning process.

  4. EQClinic: a platform for learning communication skills in clinical consultations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfeng; Scott, Karen M.; Lim, Renee L.; Taylor, Silas; Calvo, Rafael A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Doctors’ verbal and non-verbal communication skills have an impact on patients’ health outcomes, so it is important for medical students to develop these skills. Traditional, non-verbal communication skills training can involve a tutor manually annotating a student's non-verbal behaviour during patient–doctor consultations, but this is very time-consuming. Tele-conference systems have been used in verbal communication skills training. Methods We describe EQClinic, a system that enables verbal and non-verbal communication skills training during tele-consultations with simulated patients (SPs), with evaluation exercises promoting reflection. Students and SPs can have tele-consultations through the tele-consultation component. In this component, SPs can provide feedback to students through a thumbs-up/ thumbs-down tool and a comments box. EQClinic automatically analyses communication features in the recorded consultations, such as facial expressions, and provides graphical representations. Our 2015 pilot study investigated whether EQClinic helped students be aware of their non-verbal behaviour and improve their communication skills, and evaluated the usability of the platform. Students received automated feedback, and SP and tutor evaluations, and then completed self-assessment and reflection questionnaires. Results Eight medical students and three SPs conducted 13 tele-consultations using EQClinic. More students paid attention to their non-verbal communication and students who were engaged in two consultations felt more confident in their second consultation. Students rated the system positively, felt comfortable using it (5.9/7), and reported that the structure (5.4/7) and information (5.8/7) were clear. This pilot provides evidence that EQClinic helps, and positively influences, medical students practise their communication skills with SPs using a tele-conference platform. Discussion It is not easy to improve non-verbal communication skills in a

  5. [Motor asymmetry and learning new skills in animals].

    PubMed

    Budilin, S Iu; Pletneva, E V; Ioffe, M E; Arsen'ev, G N

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between the ability to learn new motor skills and preference to the right or left front paw when performing manipulation movements in rats. As a new skill used the Morris water maze, in which the animals are initially trained to detect platform hidden under water at the swim of the sector of the opposite platform, and then when sailing from sectors on the left or the right of the platform. Preference paw was determined by using the taking of animal food from a narrow horizontal tube and, accordingly, the rats were divided into left-handedness and right-handedness. We found that when changing the place of launch, that is the first voyage from the left or right of the sector, are right-handed, unlike left-handed, spent significantly more time to find the platform. PMID:25713870

  6. Learning to Study: Study Skills/Study Strategies. Book H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangrum, Charles T., II

    This workbook is one of a series that provides students with examples of location skills, organizational skills, interpretation skills, retention skills, test-taking skills, rate skills, and study strategies. Location skills include locating general reference sources and reviewing the card catalog system and the Dewey decimal system.…

  7. On the whats and hows of retrieval in the acquisition of a simple skill.

    PubMed

    Wenger, M J

    1999-09-01

    Two general views on the role of memory in cognitive skills--an instance-based theory and an associative perspective--were compared with respect to their general assumptions about the information involved and the processes that operate on that information. Characteristics of memory information were examined in terms of predictions for transfer to various stimulus forms as a function of 2 types of learning conditions. Characteristics of memory processes were examined using a set of general process models. Results of 4 experiments indicate that (a) neither theoretical perspective was capable of accounting for all the observed transfer effects, indicating needed refinements to informational assumptions, and that (b) 1 class of process assumptions was consistently supported, whereas other classes were consistently contradicted, indicating a general set of process characteristics that can be used in further model development.

  8. Use of the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" to Identify Social Skill Acquisition Deficits: A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Scott, Katherine; Paxton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and initially validate the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" (ISP-SS), a novel brief social skills assessment method intended for use at Tier 2. Participants included 54 elementary school teachers and their 243 randomly selected students. Teachers rated students on two rating…

  9. Developmental changes in the role of different metalinguistic awareness skills in Chinese reading acquisition from preschool to third grade.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tong-Qi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bao-Guo; Liu, Ying; Weng, Xu-Chu; Wydell, Taeko N

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed.

  10. Effects of different practice conditions on acquisition, retention, and transfer of soccer skills by 9-year-old schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Vera, Juan Granda; Alvarez, José Carlos Barbero; Medina, Mariano Montilla

    2008-04-01

    This study was designed to examine effects of three practice models, blocked, variable, and combined, on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of new motor skills. 67 subjects (M age = 9.5 yr., SD = .3) from the fourth year of primary school (31 boys and 26 girls) were assigned at random to three different practice groups (Blocked = 22, Variable = 23, Combined = 22) to study acquisition of two skills, dribbling a soccer ball and kicking a soccer ball at a stationary target using the dominant foot. All participants received a pretest and posttest, a transfer test, and a retention test 2 wk. later. Analysis showed significant improvement after practice of kicking skills by the three groups but not in the dribbling skills, for which only the combined practice group showed any notable improvement. At the end of acquisition, the combined practice group had significantly better performance on the dribbling task than the other two groups. However, the only differences noted in performance of kicking the ball with the dominant foot were by combined practice and blocked groups. PMID:18556901

  11. Effects of different practice conditions on acquisition, retention, and transfer of soccer skills by 9-year-old schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Vera, Juan Granda; Alvarez, José Carlos Barbero; Medina, Mariano Montilla

    2008-04-01

    This study was designed to examine effects of three practice models, blocked, variable, and combined, on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of new motor skills. 67 subjects (M age = 9.5 yr., SD = .3) from the fourth year of primary school (31 boys and 26 girls) were assigned at random to three different practice groups (Blocked = 22, Variable = 23, Combined = 22) to study acquisition of two skills, dribbling a soccer ball and kicking a soccer ball at a stationary target using the dominant foot. All participants received a pretest and posttest, a transfer test, and a retention test 2 wk. later. Analysis showed significant improvement after practice of kicking skills by the three groups but not in the dribbling skills, for which only the combined practice group showed any notable improvement. At the end of acquisition, the combined practice group had significantly better performance on the dribbling task than the other two groups. However, the only differences noted in performance of kicking the ball with the dominant foot were by combined practice and blocked groups.

  12. Hidden Markov model approach to skill learning and its application to telerobotics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. . Robotics Inst. Univ. of Akron, OH . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Xu, Y. . Robotics Inst.); Chen, C.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the problem of how human skill can be represented as a parametric model using a hidden Markov model (HMM), and how an HMM-based skill model can be used to learn human skill. HMM is feasible to characterize a doubly stochastic process--measurable action and immeasurable mental states--that is involved in the skill learning. The authors formulated the learning problem as a multidimensional HMM and developed a testbed for a variety of skill learning applications. Based on ''the most likely performance'' criterion, the best action sequence can be selected from all previously measured action data by modeling the skill as an HMM. The proposed method has been implemented in the teleoperation control of a space station robot system, and some important implementation issues have been discussed. The method allows a robot to learn human skill certain tasks and to improve motion performance.

  13. Effects of a Peer-Mediated Literacy Based Behavioral Intervention on the Acquisition and Maintenance of Daily Living Skills in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Michael P.; Honsberger, Christine; Cadette, Jessica; Honsberger, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents with disabilities do not independently perform the daily living skills needed to be successful in typical community environments. Literacy Based Behavioral Interventions have been effective in promoting skill acquisition and maintenance in some learners, but have yet to be implemented to teach basic self-care skills. Also, LBBIs…

  14. Learning and Skills: Opportunities or Threats for Disabled Learners? FEDA Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Jackie, Ed.

    Challenges will be created by proposed changes to post-school education and training for people with learning difficulties and disabilities. Two important bills have been proposed. The Learning and Skills Bill (LSB) changes the whole architecture of the post-school education and training sector. LSB sets up the Learning and Skills Council (LSC)…

  15. Note-Taking Skills of Middle School Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    For middle school students with learning disabilities (LD), one major component of learning in content area classes, such as science, involves listening to lectures and recording notes. Lecture learning and note-taking are critical skills for students to succeed in these classes. Despite the importance of note-taking skills, no research has been…

  16. The Role of Visual Learning in Improving Students' High-Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiyn, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Various concepts have been introduced to improve students' analytical thinking skills based on problem based learning (PBL). This paper introduces a new concept to increase student's analytical thinking skills based on a visual learning strategy. Such a strategy has three fundamental components: a teacher, a student, and a learning process. The…

  17. Development of a Learning Model for Enhancing Social Skills on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traisorn, Rattanaporn; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Chano, Jiraporn

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this study were: 1) to study the situation, problems and needs for a learning model to enhance the social skills of sixth grade students; 2) to develop a learning model that would address those needs; 3) to study the effectiveness of that learning model; 4) to compare performance on pretests and posttests of social skills; and 5) to…

  18. The theory-practice gap and skill acquisition: an issue for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Scully, Natashia Josephine

    2011-01-01

    Matching textbook descriptions of clinical situations with the reality of practice is an ongoing problem faced by members of the nursing profession and is commonly referred to as the "theory-practice gap". This ubiquitous gap is inevitably encountered by all nurses at various times; yet it is widely agreed that it is student nurses--given their novice, rule governed status--who find themselves in the midst of the theory-practice void. This paper will discuss the nature of the theory-practice gap and skill acquisition, in relation to a personal experience of mine as an undergraduate nursing student, and its significance in relation to student anxiety levels, nurse education (specifically the roles of the classroom teacher and clinical educators), teaching methods and the responsibility of the student to become accountable for their own education. I intend to communicate how my personal situation was dealt with and evaluate that experience in relation to current nursing literature. Ultimately, this discussion will demonstrate the value of reflection underpinning the development of competency in nursing and its role in bridging the theory-practice gap. PMID:21706997

  19. Exposure to Repetitive Tasks Induces Motor Changes Related to Skill Acquisition and Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kietrys, David M.; Barr, Ann E; Barbe, Mary F

    2013-01-01

    This study elucidates exposure-response relationships between repetitive tasks, inflammation and motor changes with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Using a rat model of reaching and handle-pulling, we examined effects of performing a high repetition low force (HRLF), low repetition high force (LRHF), or high repetition high force (HRHF) task (2 h/day, 3 days/wk, 12 wks) on reach rate and force, percent success, duration of participation and grip strength. Reach rate and reach force improved with HRLF, and percent success increased in all groups in week 9, and HRLF and HRHF in week 12, indicative of skill acquisition. Duration and grip strength showed force-dependent declines with task performance. A subset of HRHF rats received ibuprofen in weeks 5–12. Ibuprofen significantly improved reach rate, reach force and duration in treated rats, indicative of an inflammatory influence on reach performance. Ibuprofen improved percent successful reaches in week 9, although this increase was not sustained. However, declines in grip strength, a nocifensive behavior, were not prevented by ibuprofen. Examination of cervical spinal cords of untreated and ibuprofen treated HRHF rats showed increased IL-1beta, an inflammatory cytokine, in neurons. These findings suggest that only a preventive intervention could have addressed all motor declines. PMID:22087754

  20. The theory-practice gap and skill acquisition: an issue for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Scully, Natashia Josephine

    2011-01-01

    Matching textbook descriptions of clinical situations with the reality of practice is an ongoing problem faced by members of the nursing profession and is commonly referred to as the "theory-practice gap". This ubiquitous gap is inevitably encountered by all nurses at various times; yet it is widely agreed that it is student nurses--given their novice, rule governed status--who find themselves in the midst of the theory-practice void. This paper will discuss the nature of the theory-practice gap and skill acquisition, in relation to a personal experience of mine as an undergraduate nursing student, and its significance in relation to student anxiety levels, nurse education (specifically the roles of the classroom teacher and clinical educators), teaching methods and the responsibility of the student to become accountable for their own education. I intend to communicate how my personal situation was dealt with and evaluate that experience in relation to current nursing literature. Ultimately, this discussion will demonstrate the value of reflection underpinning the development of competency in nursing and its role in bridging the theory-practice gap.

  1. Phonetic diversity, statistical learning, and acquisition of phonology.

    PubMed

    Pierrehumbert, Janet B

    2003-01-01

    In learning to perceive and produce speech, children master complex language-specific patterns. Daunting language-specific variation is found both in the segmental domain and in the domain of prosody and intonation. This article reviews the challenges posed by results in phonetic typology and sociolinguistics for the theory of language acquisition. It argues that categories are initiated bottom-up from statistical modes in use of the phonetic space, and sketches how exemplar theory can be used to model the updating of categories once they are initiated. It also argues that bottom-up initiation of categories is successful thanks to the perception-production loop operating in the speech community. The behavior of this loop means that the superficial statistical properties of speech available to the infant indirectly reflect the contrastiveness and discriminability of categories in the adult grammar. The article also argues that the developing system is refined using internal feedback from type statistics over the lexicon, once the lexicon is well-developed. The application of type statistics to a system initiated with surface statistics does not cause a fundamental reorganization of the system. Instead, it exploits confluences across levels of representation which characterize human language and make bootstrapping possible.

  2. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off.

    PubMed

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  3. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  4. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off.

    PubMed

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play.

  5. Reconciling genetic evolution and the associative learning account of mirror neurons through data-acquisition mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lotem, Arnon; Kolodny, Oren

    2014-04-01

    An associative learning account of mirror neurons should not preclude genetic evolution of its underlying mechanisms. On the contrary, an associative learning framework for cognitive development should seek heritable variation in the learning rules and in the data-acquisition mechanisms that construct associative networks, demonstrating how small genetic modifications of associative elements can give rise to the evolution of complex cognition.

  6. L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

  7. Effects of health facilitator performance and attendance at training sessions on the acquisition of tobacco refusal skills among multi-ethnic, high-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elder, J P; Woodruff, S I; Sallis, J F; de Moor, C; Edwards, C; Wildey, M B

    1994-06-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a psycho-social tobacco use prevention intervention with a refusal skills training component on the refusal skills of high-risk adolescents, and investigated skill acquisition as related to subject demographics, performance of health facilitators and attendance at skills training sessions. Tobacco refusal skills were assessed for a group (n = 389) of high-risk, seventh-grade students participating as intervention and control subjects in Project SHOUT, a large tobacco use prevention program in the San Diego area. In addition, subject demographics, ratings of health facilitator performance and information about subjects' attendance at skills training sessions were collected. Subjects' responses to audiotaped peer offers of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco were coded for content and quality. Greater tobacco refusal skills among intervention subjects was hypothesized. Further health facilitator performance, attendance at training sessions and subject demographics were thought to be related to skill acquisition. High-risk intervention subjects gave significantly higher quality tobacco-refusal responses than did controls, although the differences between means were small. Results suggested that Hispanic adolescents were particularly receptive to the refusal skills training. The association between health facilitator performance and skill acquisition varied by subject ethnicity, as did the relationship between attendance at training sessions and skill acquisition. PMID:10150446

  8. Developing Social Work Professional Judgment Skills: Enhancing Learning in Practice by Researching Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: to discuss the value of practice-based research as a basis for enhancing learning and teaching in social work and, as an illustration of this, to present the findings of a preliminary qualitative research study into social work students' development of professional judgment skills. The research was conducted…

  9. Recognition of Tacit Skills: Sustaining Learning Outcomes in Adult Learning and Work Re-Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Kersh, Natasha; Kontiainen, Seppo

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on the project "Recognition of Tacit Skills and Knowledge in Work Re-entry" carried out as a part of the ESRC-funded Research Network "Improving Incentives to Learning in the Workplace". The network aims to contribute to improved practice among a wide range of practitioners. The study has investigated the part played by tacit…

  10. Changes in Students' Use of Lifelong Learning Skills during a Problem-Based Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joanna C.

    2005-01-01

    In a climate of continual change and innovation, lifelong learning is a critical professional development objective which has a direct impact on organizations' effectiveness and ability to compete and innovate. To help learners continually upgrade their skills and knowledge so they can effectively address emerging organizational and professional…

  11. Learning to "See" Less than Nothing: Putting Perceptual Skills to Work for Learning Numerical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Jessica M.; Blair, Kristen P.; Bofferding, Laura; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    How can children's natural perceptuo-motor skills be harnessed for teaching and learning mathematical structure? We address this question in the case of the integers. Existing research suggests that adult mental representations of integers recruit perceptuo-motor functionalities involving symmetry. Building on these findings, we designed a…

  12. Cognitive processing and motor skill learning in motor-handicapped teenagers: effects of learning method.

    PubMed

    Deviterne, Dominique; Gauchard, Gerome C; Lavisse, Dominique; Perrin, Philippe P

    2007-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficiency of a motor skill learning method intended to promote learning course personalization through an increase in cognitive processing deployment in motor-handicapped persons. Thirty-three secondary school students volunteered to participate in an archery motor skill learning session, 11 motor-handicapped (MH(1)) and 11 able-bodied (AB) teenagers following a standard learning method, and 11 motor-handicapped teenagers following a cognitive enriched learning method (MH(2)) based on the use of an individually written and illustrated document. The results showed that MH(1) displayed lower performances than AB, both in terms of the mental representations of the movements expected and performed and of efficiency of the movement. On the other hand, MH(2) performances were higher than MH(1) for all these parameters, and similar to those of AB at the end of the learning session. Personalization of the learning course allowed optimization of the learning potential in motor-handicapped teenagers to resolve the difficulties inherent to their handicap.

  13. Learning Profiles and the "Skills Gap" in Four Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis of Schooling and Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine

    2014-01-01

    Educational access in developing countries has improved significantly in recent years, but less evidence is available on learning and learning progress in comparative perspective. This paper employs data from Young Lives to examine levels and trends in cognitive skill development and the links to enrolment in school across the four study countries…

  14. Learning to use working memory: a reinforcement learning gating model of rule acquisition in rats.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Kevin; Becker, Nadine; Jones, Matthew W; Bogacz, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    Learning to form appropriate, task-relevant working memory representations is a complex process central to cognition. Gating models frame working memory as a collection of past observations and use reinforcement learning (RL) to solve the problem of when to update these observations. Investigation of how gating models relate to brain and behavior remains, however, at an early stage. The current study sought to explore the ability of simple RL gating models to replicate rule learning behavior in rats. Rats were trained in a maze-based spatial learning task that required animals to make trial-by-trial choices contingent upon their previous experience. Using an abstract version of this task, we tested the ability of two gating algorithms, one based on the Actor-Critic and the other on the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA) algorithm, to generate behavior consistent with the rats'. Both models produced rule-acquisition behavior consistent with the experimental data, though only the SARSA gating model mirrored faster learning following rule reversal. We also found that both gating models learned multiple strategies in solving the initial task, a property which highlights the multi-agent nature of such models and which is of importance in considering the neural basis of individual differences in behavior. PMID:23115551

  15. Learning to use working memory: a reinforcement learning gating model of rule acquisition in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Kevin; Becker, Nadine; Jones, Matthew W.; Bogacz, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    Learning to form appropriate, task-relevant working memory representations is a complex process central to cognition. Gating models frame working memory as a collection of past observations and use reinforcement learning (RL) to solve the problem of when to update these observations. Investigation of how gating models relate to brain and behavior remains, however, at an early stage. The current study sought to explore the ability of simple RL gating models to replicate rule learning behavior in rats. Rats were trained in a maze-based spatial learning task that required animals to make trial-by-trial choices contingent upon their previous experience. Using an abstract version of this task, we tested the ability of two gating algorithms, one based on the Actor-Critic and the other on the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA) algorithm, to generate behavior consistent with the rats'. Both models produced rule-acquisition behavior consistent with the experimental data, though only the SARSA gating model mirrored faster learning following rule reversal. We also found that both gating models learned multiple strategies in solving the initial task, a property which highlights the multi-agent nature of such models and which is of importance in considering the neural basis of individual differences in behavior. PMID:23115551

  16. Constructive, Self-Regulated, Situated, and Collaborative Learning: An Approach for the Acquisition of Adaptive Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Corte, Erik

    2012-01-01

    In today's learning society, education must focus on fostering adaptive competence (AC) defined as the ability to apply knowledge and skills flexibly in different contexts. In this article, four major types of learning are discussed--constructive, self-regulated, situated, and collaborative--in relation to what students must learn in order to…

  17. Does Video Gaming Affect Orthopaedic Skills Acquisition? A Prospective Cohort-Study

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Chetan; Sugand, Kapil; Anjum, Sharika; Vivekanantham, Sayinthen; Akhtar, Kash; Gupte, Chinmay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that there is a positive correlation between the extent of video gaming and efficiency of surgical skill acquisition on laparoscopic and endovascular surgical simulators amongst trainees. However, the link between video gaming and orthopaedic trauma simulation remains unexamined, in particular dynamic hip screw (DHS) stimulation. Objective To assess effect of prior video gaming experience on virtual-reality (VR) haptic-enabled DHS simulator performance. Methods 38 medical students, naïve to VR surgical simulation, were recruited and stratified relative to their video gaming exposure. Group 1 (n = 19, video-gamers) were defined as those who play more than one hour per day in the last calendar year. Group 2 (n = 19, non-gamers) were defined as those who play video games less than one hour per calendar year. Both cohorts performed five attempts on completing a VR DHS procedure and repeated the task after a week. Metrics assessed included time taken for task, simulated flouroscopy time and screw position. Median and Bonett-Price 95% confidence intervals were calculated for seven real-time objective performance metrics. Data was confirmed as non-parametric by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for independent data whilst the Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used for paired data. A result was deemed significant when a two-tailed p-value was less than 0.05. Results All 38 subjects completed the study. The groups were not significantly different at baseline. After ten attempts, there was no difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in any of the metrics tested. These included time taken for task, simulated fluoroscopy time, number of retries, tip-apex distance, percentage cut-out and global score. Conclusion Contrary to previous literature findings, there was no correlation between video gaming experience and gaining competency on a VR DHS simulator. PMID:25333959

  18. Learning difficulties or learning English difficulties? Additional language acquisition: an update for paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language.

  19. Problem-Based Learning in Instrumentation: Synergism of Real and Virtual Modular Acquisition Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonclercq, A.; Biest, A. V.; De Cuyper, K.; Leroy, E.; Martinez, D. L.; Robert, F.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an instrumentation course, a problem-based learning framework was selected for laboratory instruction. Two acquisition chains were designed to help students carry out realistic instrumentation problems. The first tool is a virtual (simulated) modular acquisition chain that allows rapid overall understanding of the main problems in…

  20. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  1. Project-Based Learning Using Discussion and Lesson-Learned Methods via Social Media Model for Enhancing Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewpanich, Chaiwat; Piriyasurawong, Pallop

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to 1) develop the project-based learning using discussion and lesson-learned methods via social media model (PBL-DLL SoMe Model) used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student, and 2) evaluate the PBL-DLL SoMe Model used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student.…

  2. Does Practice Make Perfect? The Relationship Between Self-Reported Treatment Homework Completion and Parental Skill Acquisition and Child Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jocelyn O; Jent, Jason F; Weinstein, Allison; Davis, Eileen M; Brown, Tasha M; Cruz, Laura; Wavering, Hannah

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the rate and type of parent-reported homework completion is associated with parent-report of child behavior outcomes, number of sessions to master parental skills as measured by therapist observation, and length of treatment in Parent-child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Sixty-two parent-child dyads (primary caregiver: Mage=36.35years, female 95.20%, 81.60% White, 59.57% Hispanic; child Mage=4.22years; child gender male 64.50%) who completed PCIT were included in the study. A within-subjects hierarchical regression statistical design was used to examine the impact of parent report of homework completion on treatment processes and outcomes. A higher rate of self-reported homework completion was predictive of parental mastery of skill acquisition in fewer sessions and treatment completion in fewer sessions. Parent report of homework completion rate was not related to changes in child disruptive behavior after controlling for child behavior at baseline. Current study findings reinforce the importance of having parents regularly practice PCIT skills outside of session in order to decrease treatment length and facilitate the acquisition of parenting skills, which may reduce family burdens associated with attending a weekly treatment. PMID:27423169

  3. The history of imitation in learning theory: the language acquisition process.

    PubMed

    Kymissis, E; Poulson, C L

    1990-09-01

    The concept of imitation has undergone different analyses in the hands of different learning theorists throughout the history of psychology. From Thorndike's connectionism to Pavlov's classical conditioning, Hull's monistic theory, Mowrer's two-factor theory, and Skinner's operant theory, there have been several divergent accounts of the conditions that produce imitation and the conditions under which imitation itself may facilitate language acquisition. In tracing the roots of the concept of imitation in the history of learning theory, the authors conclude that generalized imitation, as defined and analyzed by operant learning theorists, is a sufficiently robust formulation of learned imitation to facilitate a behavior-analytic account of first-language acquisition.

  4. How to Study the Influence of Intensity of Treatment on Generalized Skill and Knowledge Acquisition in Students with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Seven empirical studies from this special issue and an overview chapter are reviewed to illustrate several points about studying the possible effects of treatment intensity manipulations on generalized skill or knowledge acquisition in students with disabilities. First, we make a case in favor of studying intensity as separate from complexity and expense of treatment. Second, we encourage researchers to define dependent variables in a way that allows us to determine whether treatment intensity effects on child skills and knowledge are highly generalized versus potentially context bound. Third, we acknowledge that effects of treatment intensity on generalized knowledge and skills likely vary according to student characteristics. Finally, we discuss important research design and measurement issues that are relevant to isolating the likely conditional effects of treatment intensity on generalized outcomes. PMID:25914513

  5. An active, collaborative approach to learning skills in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N; Röhrig, Kimberley J

    2016-06-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow cytometry listmode output (FCS) files and asked to design a gating strategy to diagnose patients with different hematological malignancies on the basis of their immunophenotype. A separate cohort of research trainees was given uncompensated data files on which they performed their own compensation, calculated the antibody staining index, designed a sequential gating strategy, and quantified rare immune cell subsets. Student engagement, confidence, and perceptions of flow cytometry were assessed using a survey. Competency against the learning outcomes was assessed by asking students to undertake tasks that required understanding of flow cytometry dot plot data and gating sequences. The active, collaborative approach allowed students to achieve learning outcomes not previously possible with traditional teaching formats, for example, having students design their own gating strategy, without forgoing essential outcomes such as the interpretation of dot plots. In undergraduate students, favorable perceptions of flow cytometry as a field and as a potential career choice were correlated with student confidence but not the ability to perform flow cytometry data analysis. We demonstrate that this new pedagogical approach to teaching flow cytometry is beneficial for student understanding and interpretation of complex concepts. It should be considered as a useful new method for incorporating complex data analysis tasks such as flow cytometry into curricula.

  6. Children's Acquisition of Phonology: The Learning of Acoustic Stimuli?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, John L.

    This paper takes issue with the position that children's phoneme acquisition schedule is dictated primarily by auditory perceptual factors and suggests the alternative position that ease of production accounts for age of acquisition. It is felt that perceptual theory cannot adequately explain phonological development, e.g. three-year-olds produce…

  7. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  8. Designing On-Demand Education for Simultaneous Development of Domain-Specific and Self-Directed Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taminiau, E. M. C.; Kester, L.; Corbalan, G.; Spector, J. M.; Kirschner, P. A.; Van Merriënboer, J. J. G.

    2015-01-01

    On-demand education enables individual learners to choose their learning pathways according to their own learning needs. They must use self-directed learning (SDL) skills involving self-assessment and task selection to determine appropriate pathways for learning. Learners who lack these skills must develop them because SDL skills are prerequisite…

  9. Cortico-Cortical Interactions during Acquisition and Use of a Neuroprosthetic Skill

    PubMed Central

    Wander, Jeremiah D.; Sarma, Devapratim; Johnson, Lise A.; Fetz, Eberhard E.; Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Darvas, Felix

    2016-01-01

    A motor cortex-based brain-computer interface (BCI) creates a novel real world output directly from cortical activity. Use of a BCI has been demonstrated to be a learned skill that involves recruitment of neural populations that are directly linked to BCI control as well as those that are not. The nature of interactions between these populations, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we employed a data-driven approach to assess the interaction between both local and remote cortical areas during the use of an electrocorticographic BCI, a method which allows direct sampling of cortical surface potentials. Comparing the area controlling the BCI with remote areas, we evaluated relationships between the amplitude envelopes of band limited powers as well as non-linear phase-phase interactions. We found amplitude-amplitude interactions in the high gamma (HG, 70–150 Hz) range that were primarily located in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe, near the controlling site, and non-linear phase-phase interactions involving multiple frequencies (cross-frequency coupling between 8–11 Hz and 70–90 Hz) taking place over larger cortical distances. Further, strength of the amplitude-amplitude interactions decreased with time, whereas the phase-phase interactions did not. These findings suggest multiple modes of cortical communication taking place during BCI use that are specialized for function and depend on interaction distance. PMID:27541829

  10. Cortico-Cortical Interactions during Acquisition and Use of a Neuroprosthetic Skill.

    PubMed

    Wander, Jeremiah D; Sarma, Devapratim; Johnson, Lise A; Fetz, Eberhard E; Rao, Rajesh P N; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Darvas, Felix

    2016-08-01

    A motor cortex-based brain-computer interface (BCI) creates a novel real world output directly from cortical activity. Use of a BCI has been demonstrated to be a learned skill that involves recruitment of neural populations that are directly linked to BCI control as well as those that are not. The nature of interactions between these populations, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we employed a data-driven approach to assess the interaction between both local and remote cortical areas during the use of an electrocorticographic BCI, a method which allows direct sampling of cortical surface potentials. Comparing the area controlling the BCI with remote areas, we evaluated relationships between the amplitude envelopes of band limited powers as well as non-linear phase-phase interactions. We found amplitude-amplitude interactions in the high gamma (HG, 70-150 Hz) range that were primarily located in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe, near the controlling site, and non-linear phase-phase interactions involving multiple frequencies (cross-frequency coupling between 8-11 Hz and 70-90 Hz) taking place over larger cortical distances. Further, strength of the amplitude-amplitude interactions decreased with time, whereas the phase-phase interactions did not. These findings suggest multiple modes of cortical communication taking place during BCI use that are specialized for function and depend on interaction distance. PMID:27541829

  11. Social Work and Law Interdisciplinary Service Learning: Increasing Future Lawyers' Interpersonal Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Stephanie K.; Quiring, Stephanie Q.; Harris, Evan; Hagan, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Social workers and attorneys both interact with persons from diverse backgrounds every day, yet although interpersonal skills are an essential focus of social work education, these skills are not addressed in legal education. Interdisciplinary courses in which social workers and lawyers learn interpersonal skills together and have an opportunity…

  12. Skills-Based Learning for Reproducible Expertise: Looking Elsewhere for Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of adult skills-based learning, adult education researchers continue to ignore effective interdisciplinary skills-based methods. Prominent researchers dismiss empirically supported teaching guidelines, preferring situational, emancipatory methods with no demonstrable effect on skilled performance or reproducible expertise.…

  13. Assessing Teamwork Skills for Assurance of Learning Using CATME Team Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughry, Misty L.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Woehr, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Colleges of business must meet assurance of learning requirements to gain or maintain AACSB accreditation under the new standards adopted April 8, 2013. Team skills are among the most important skills desired by recruiters, yet employers and scholars perceive that team skills are frequently deficient in college graduates. This article describes…

  14. Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

    2012-01-01

    When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

  15. The Impact of an Innovative Instructional Intervention on the Acquisition of Oral Presentation Skills in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2009-01-01

    The present study focuses on the design and development of an instructional approach to develop oral presentation skills. The theoretical base builds on the social cognitive perspective, and self-regulated learning. The aim of the study is to investigate whether the design of a multimedia-based instructional format--comprising of a standardised…

  16. Medical Students Learning Communication Skills in a Second Language

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Muhammad J.; Major, Stella; Mirza, Deen M.; Prinsloo, Engela A. M.; Osman, Ossama; Amiri, Leena; McLean, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Communications skills (CS) training for medical interviewing is increasingly being conducted in English at medical schools worldwide. In this study, we sought to identify whether Arabic-speaking medical students experienced difficulty with the different components of the CS training that were conducted in English. Methods: Individual third-year preclinical medical students (N = 45) were videotaped while interviewing simulated patients. Each student assessed his/her performance on a 13-item (5-point scale) assessment form, which was also completed by the tutor and other students in the group. Results: Of the 13 components of their CS training, tutors awarded the lowest marks for students’ abilities to express empathy, ask about patients’ feelings, use transition statements, ask about functional impact, and elicit patients’ expectations (P <0.001). Conclusion: The expression of empathy and the ability to elicit patients’ feelings and expectations are difficult to develop in medical students learning CS in a second language. PMID:23573389

  17. Motor Skill Learning Is Associated with Phase-Dependent Modifications in the Striatal cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32 Signaling Pathway in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Forssberg, Hans; Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys

    2015-01-01

    Abundant evidence points to a key role of dopamine in motor skill learning, although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used a skilled-reaching paradigm to first examine changes in the expression of the plasticity-related gene Arc to map activity in cortico-striatal circuitry during different phases of motor skill learning in young animals. In the early phase, Arc mRNA was significantly induced in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), cingulate cortex, primary motor cortex, and striatum. In the late phase, expression of Arc did not change in most regions, except in the mPFC and dorsal striatum. In the second series of experiments, we studied the learning-induced changes in the phosphorylation state of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32k Da (DARPP-32). Western blot analysis of the phosphorylation state of DARPP-32 and its downstream target cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the striatum revealed that the early, but not late, phase of motor skill learning was associated with increased levels of phospho-Thr34-DARPP-32 and phospho-Ser133-CREB. Finally, we used the DARPP-32 knock-in mice with a point mutation in the Thr34 regulatory site (i.e., protein kinase A site) to test the significance of this pathway in motor skill learning. In accordance with our hypothesis, inhibition of DARPP-32 activity at the Thr34 regulatory site strongly attenuated the motor learning rate and skilled reaching performance of mice. These findings suggest that the cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32 signaling pathway is critically involved in the acquisition of novel motor skills, and also demonstrate a dynamic shift in the contribution of cortico-striatal circuitry during different phases of motor skill learning. PMID:26488498

  18. Sequence Skill Learning in Persons Who Stutter: Implications for Cortico-Striato-Thalamo-Cortical Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2007-01-01

    The basal ganglia and cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical connections are known to play a critical role in sequence skill learning and increasing automaticity over practice. The current paper reviews four studies comparing the sequence skill learning and the transition to automaticity of persons who stutter (PWS) and fluent speakers (PNS) over…

  19. Cognitive Skills in Internet-Supported Learning Environments in Higher Education: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate Bekele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    How did Internet-supported learning environments (ISLE) impact students' critical thinking (CT) and problem solving (PS) skills in higher education? What specific indicators have been used to measure CT? What types of problems and learning approaches were chosen to assess PS skills? This paper qualitatively reviewed studies published in academic…

  20. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…