Science.gov

Sample records for lecheras al inicio

  1. Asociación de la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea al inicio del embarazo y riesgo de gastrosquisis en la descendencia: un estudio de casos-controles

    PubMed Central

    Cánovas-Conesa, A.; Gomariz-Peñalver, V.; Sánchez-Sauco, M.F.; Vega, D.C. Jaimes; Ortega-García, J.A.; García, M.J. Aranda; Marín, J.L. Delgado; Ascanio, A. Trujillo; Hernández, F. López; Jimenez, J.I. Ruiz; de Paco Matallana, C.; Soldin, O.P.; Solís, M. Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Objetivos El objetivo de este estudio fue estudiar la asociación de la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea materna al inicio del embarazo y el riesgo de gastrosquisis en la descendencia. Métodos Estudio de casos-control. 11 casos incidentes de gastrosquisis en la Región de Murcia de 2007 a 2012 y 34 controles concurrentes. Cuestionario validado de Frecuencia Alimentaria (CFA) sobre la dieta periconcepcional de 98 ítems realizado ‘cara a cara’ en el momento del diagnóstico. Factores confundidores: tabaquismo, expositión a cannabis/marihuana, edad materna y paterna, índice de masa corporal, ingresos económicos y nivel de estudios. Estudio descriptivo y regresión logística multivariable. Resultados Las madres de niños con gastrosquisis son más jóvenes (20,8 años; IC 95% 17,3–24,2) y su dieta tiene un menor aporte calórico, de grasas saturadas y monoinsaturadas y de proteínas que los controles. Odds Ratio (OR) en el modelo multivariable controlado por los factores confundidores: edad materna (años) 0,70 (IC95% 0,51–0,96); ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (oleico, g) 0,79 (IC95% 0,65–0,97) y consumo de vegetales (raciones/semana) 0,70 (IC95% 0,48–1,00). Conclusiones Una dieta materna rica en ácido oleico y productos vegetales podría contribuir a prevenir el riesgo de oclusión vascular de las arterias onfalomesentéricas, disminuyendo el riesgo de gastrosquisis. PMID:23833926

  2. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  3. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  4. Familial ALS

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Genes linked to ALS susceptibility are being identified at an increasing rate owing to advances in molecular genetic technology. Genetic mechanisms in ALS pathogenesis appear to exert major effects in ~10% of patients, but genetic factors at some level may be important components of disease risk in most ALS patients. Identification of gene variants associated with ALS has informed concepts of the pathogenesis of ALS, aided the identification of therapeutic targets, facilitated research to develop new ALS biomarkers, and supported the establishment of clinical diagnostic tests for ALS-linked genes. Translation of this knowledge to ALS therapy development is ongoing. PMID:26515623

  5. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  6. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the

  7. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Educators Search English Español Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) KidsHealth / For Kids / Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS) What's ... with ALS in the 1930s. What Happens in ALS? ALS damages motor neurons in the brain and ...

  8. All About ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... by storm with videos of people pouring ice water on themselves for the Ice Bucket Challenge. The worldwide phenomenon raised awareness—and millions of research dollars—for a fatal disease called ALS. ALS ...

  9. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  10. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    in the region and apparently “showed brilliance in this regard through his perfect memorization , clever understanding, persistence, and patience...Taliban’s officials quietly left the capital without informing 73 Vernie Liebl, “Al-Qaida on the US Invasion of Afghanistan in Their Own Words ,” Small Wars... memorization . A talented and charismatic orator, he also used to deliver eulogies and `Id sermons. As to `Abdallah Sa`id al-Libi, his profile is similar

  11. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    Lou Gehrig disease; ALS; Upper and lower motor neuron disease; Motor neuron disease ... One out of 10 cases of ALS is due to a genetic defect. The cause is unknown in most other cases. In ALS, motor nerve cells (neurons) waste away ...

  12. Al Basrah, Iraq

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Al Basrah, Iraq Sensor: L7 ETM+ Acquisition Date: April 4, 2003 Path/Row: 166/39 Lat/Long: 30.486/47.811 Smoke drifts south in this image of Al Basrah, located in southeastern Iraq. The green circles from the center to the left of the image represent irrigated crops.

  13. MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... new ALS diagnoses and their families. I Remember Running , by Darcy Wakefield, De Capo Press, 2005 Learning ... twist your hand back up between your shoulder blades. • Neck stretch: Lower your ear to your shoulder ...

  14. Rub al Khali, Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-08-08

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Rub al Khali, one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula; it includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

  15. ALS superbend magnet performance

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Steve; Zbasnik, John; Byrne, Warren

    2001-12-10

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been engaged in the design, construction and testing of four superconducting dipoles (Superbends) that are installed in three arcs of the Advanced Light Source (ALS), with the fourth magnet as a spare. This represents a major upgrade to the ALS providing an enhanced flux and brightness at photon energies above 10 keV. In preparation for installation, an extensive set of tests and measurements have been conducted to characterize the magnetic and cryogenic performance of the Superbends and to fiducialize them for accurate placement in the ALS storage ring. The magnets are currently installed, andmore » the storage ring is undergoing final commissioning. This paper will present the results of magnetic and cryogenic testing.« less

  16. Fosetyl-al

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) Chemical Assessment Summary U.S . Environmental Protection Agency National Center for Environmental Assessment This IRIS Summary has been removed from the IRIS database and is available for historical reference purposes . ( July 2016 ) Fosetyl - al ; CASRN

  17. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-05-09

    Al Jazirah also Gezira is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. This image was acquired December 25, 2006 by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  18. Proton irradiation studies on Al and Al5083 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharya, M.; Gupta, A. Dutta; Sarkar, Apu; Dhar, S.; Mitra, M. K.; Mukherjee, P.

    2017-10-01

    The change in the microstructural parameters and microhardness values in 6.5 MeV proton irradiated pure Al and Al5083 alloy samples have been evaluated using different model based techniques of X-ray diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRD) and microindendation techniques. The detailed line profile analysis of the XRD data showed that the domain size increases and saturates with irradiation dose both in the case of Al and Al5083 alloy. The corresponding microstrain values did not show any change with irradiation dose in the case of the pure Al but showed an increase at higher irradiation doses in the case of Al5083 alloy. The microindendation results showed that unirradiated Al5083 alloy has higher hardness value compared to that of unirradiated pure Al. The hardness increased marginally with irradiation dose in the case of Al5083, whereas for pure Al, there was no significant change with dose.

  19. Synthesizing (ZrAl3 + AlN)/Mg-Al composites by a 'matrix exchange' method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tong; Li, Zengqiang; Hu, Kaiqi; Han, Mengxia; Liu, Xiangfa

    2018-06-01

    A method named 'matrix exchange' to synthesize ZrAl3 and AlN reinforced Mg-Al composite was developed in this paper. By inserting Al-10ZrN master alloy into Mg matrix and reheating the cooled ingot to 550 °C, Al and Mg atoms diffuse to the opposite side. As a result, liquid melt occurs once the interface areas reach to proper compositions. Then dissolved Al atoms react with ZrN, leading to the in-situ formation of ZrAl3 and AlN particles, while the Al matrix is finally replaced by Mg. This study provides a new insight for preparing Mg composites.

  20. Mowafak Al-Jassim | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Mowafak Al-Jassim Photo of Mowafak Al-Jassim Mowafak Al-Jassim Group Research Manager III-Materials researcher and advancing to a principal scientist and a technical manager. His research group has contributed numerous international conferences. Research Interests His research interests include the multiscale

  1. Statins: Do They Cause ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    Statins: Do they cause ALS? Do statins cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. ... D. Ingre C, et al. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Clinical Epidemiology. 2015; 7:181. Riva N, et ...

  2. 27Al MQMAS of the δ-Al 13-Keggin

    DOE PAGES

    Pilgrim, C. D.; Callahan, J. R.; Colla, C. A.; ...

    2017-01-20

    Here, one-dimensional 27Al, 23Na Magic-Angle-Spinning (MAS) NMR and 27Al Multiple-Quantum Magic-Angle-Spinning NMR (MQMAS) measurements are reported for the δ-isomer of the Al 13 Keggin structure at high spinning speed and 14.1 T field. Values for the CQ and η parameters are on the same scale as those seen in other isomers of the Al 13 structure. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed for comparison to the experimental fits using the B3PW91/6-31+G* and PBE0/6-31+G* levels of theory, with the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM).

  3. Morton et al. Reply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms could lead to up-regulation of dry-season photosynthesis in Amazon forests, including canopy phenology and illumination geometry. We specifically tested two mechanisms for phenology-driven changes in Amazon forests during dry-season months, and the combined evidence from passive optical and lidar satellite data was incompatible with large net changes in canopy leaf area or leaf reflectance suggested by previous studies. We therefore hypothesized that seasonal changes in the fraction of sunlit and shaded canopies, one aspect of bidirectional reflectance effects in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, could alter light availability for dry-season photosynthesis and the photosynthetic capacity of Amazon forests without large net changes in canopy composition. Subsequent work supports the hypothesis that seasonal changes in illumination geometry and diffuse light regulate light saturation in Amazon forests. These studies clarify the physical mechanisms that govern light availability in Amazon forests from seasonal variability in direct and diffuse illumination. Previously, in the debate over light limitation of Amazon forest productivity, seasonal changes in the distribution of light within complex Amazon forest canopies were confounded with dry-season increases in total incoming photosynthetically active radiation. In the accompanying Comment, Saleska et al. do not fully account for this confounding effect of forest structure on photosynthetic capacity.

  4. Interfacial characterization of Al-Al thermocompression bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, N., E-mail: nishantmalik1987@gmail.com; SINTEF ICT, Department of Microsystems and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 124 Blindern, N-0314 Oslo; Carvalho, P. A.

    2016-05-28

    Interfaces formed by Al-Al thermocompression bonding were studied by the transmission electron microscopy. Si wafer pairs having patterned bonding frames were bonded using Al films deposited on Si or SiO{sub 2} as intermediate bonding media. A bond force of 36 or 60 kN at bonding temperatures ranging from 400–550 °C was applied for a duration of 60 min. Differences in the bonded interfaces of 200 μm wide sealing frames were investigated. It was observed that the interface had voids for bonding with 36 kN at 400 °C for Al deposited both on Si and on SiO{sub 2}. However, the dicing yield was 33% for Al onmore » Si and 98% for Al on SiO{sub 2}, attesting for the higher quality of the latter bonds. Both a bond force of 60 kN applied at 400 °C and a bond force of 36 kN applied at 550 °C resulted in completely bonded frames with dicing yields of, respectively, 100% and 96%. A high density of long dislocations in the Al grains was observed for the 60 kN case, while the higher temperature resulted in grain boundary rotation away from the original Al-Al interface towards more stable configurations. Possible bonding mechanisms and reasons for the large difference in bonding quality of the Al films deposited on Si or SiO{sub 2} are discussed.« less

  5. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  6. Seguridad Laboral al Usar Pesticidas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Para proteger a la gente que trabaja con pesticidas y quienes laboran en áreas tratadas con pesticidas; para educar al personal médico y al público acerca de cómo reconocer y tratar las enfermedades relacionadas a los pesticidas.

  7. The Evolution of Al Qaeda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    Al Qaeda is a product of the forces of globalization. Increasing access to global finances , international travel, and sophisticated technology is...evolution. Al Qaeda is a product of the forces of globalization. Increasing access to global finances , international travel, and sophisticated technology...75 Finance

  8. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinghang

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, suchmore » as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth

  9. Reply to Gopalswamy et al.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    The comment of Gopalswamy et al. (thereafter GMY) relates to a letter discussing coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary ejecta and geomagnetic storms. GMY contend that Cane et al. incorrectly identified ejecta (interplanetary CMEs) and hypothesize that this is because Cane et al. fail to understand how to separate ejecta from "shock sheaths" when interpreting solar wind and energetic particle data sets. They (GMY) are wrong be cause the relevant section of the paper was concerned with the propagation time to 1 AU of any potentially geoeffective structures caused by CMEs, i.e. upstream compression regions with or without shocks, or ejecta. In other words, the travel times used by Cane et al. were purposefully and deliberately distinct from ejecta travel times (except for those slow ejecta, approx. 30% of their events, which generated no upstream features), and no error in identification was involved. The confusion of GMY stems from the description did not characterize the observations sufficiently clearly.

  10. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  11. Combustion synthesis of AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pan; Xiao, Guoqing; Ding, Donghai; Ren, Yun; Yang, Shoulei; Lv, Lihua; Hou, Xing

    2018-05-01

    Using of Al and B2O3 powders as starting materials, and Mg-Al alloy as additives, AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures were successfully fabricated via combustion synthesis method in Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. The effect of different amount of Mg-Al alloy on the phase compositions and morphology of the combustion products was investigated. The results revealed that AlB2 and Al2O3 increased, whereas Al decreased with the content of Mg-Al alloy increasing. The impurities MgAl2O4 and AlB12 would exist in the sample with adding of 18 wt% Mg-Al alloy. Interestingly, FESEM/TEM/EDS results showed that AlB2 nanowires were observed in the products when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 6 wt% and 12 wt%. The more AlB2 nanowires can be found as the content of Mg-Al alloy increased. And the yield of AlB2 nanowires with the diameter of about 200 nanometers (nm) and the length up to several tens of micrometers (μm) in the combustion product is highest when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 12 wt%. The vapor, such as Mg-Al (g), B2O2 (g), AlO (g) and Al2O (g), produced during the process of combustion synthesis, reacted with each other to yield AlB2 nanowires by vapor-solid (VS) mechanism and the corresponding model was also proposed.

  12. Wadi Al Dawasir, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-20

    In the middle of the Arabian desert the city Green Oasis Wadi Al Dawasir is being developed as a new urban center for the Wadi Al Dawasir region of Saudi Arabia, as shown in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft. Huge solar fields supply the entire city and the surrounding region with energy. Hundreds of circular agricultural fields are fed by center pivot irrigation apparatus, drawing water from subterranean aquifers. The image was acquired March 30, 2013, covers an area of 30 x 45 km, and is located at 20.2 degrees north, 44.8 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20077

  13. ASK Talks with Al Diaz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Alphonso; OKeefe, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Following the release of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) Report, Alphonso (Al) Diaz, Goddard Center director, was asked by NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe to head up the Agency's response. The Diaz team, as it came to be known, was changed with making sure the CAIB Report did not become another dusty volume on a shelf of old Agency reviews.

  14. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  15. 3-Dimensional Microstructure of Al-Al3Ti Alloy Severely Deformed by ECAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hisashi; Hishikawa, Takahisa; Makino, Yuuki; Kunimine, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yoshimi

    Microstructure of Al-Al3Ti alloy deformed by Equal-Channel-Angular Pressing (ECAP) is 3-dimensionally investigated. Especially, distribution of Al3Ti particles is focused in this study. The Al-Al3Ti alloy has coarse Al3Ti platelet particles in α-Al matrix. When the Al-Al3Ti alloy is deformed by ECAP under route A, fine Al3Ti platelet particles are observed. These Al3Ti platelet particles are aligned along to deformation axis, and its plane normal is perpendicular to the deformation axis. On the other hand, Al-Al3Ti alloy ECAPed under route Bc forms several groups consisted of fine Al3Ti platelet particles. Moreover, longitudinal size of the Al3Ti particle groups is close to that of initial Al3Ti particles with 4-pass ECAP specimen. These distribution behaviors of the Al3Ti particle can be explained by plastic flow of α-Al matrix. Finally, it is concluded that distribution of Al3Ti particle in Al-Al3Ti alloy by ECAP is controlled by plastic deformation of α-Al matrix.

  16. Molecular dynamics study of Al and Ni 3Al sputtering by Al clusters bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurkin, Eugeni E.; Kolesnikov, Anton S.

    2002-06-01

    The sputtering of Al and Ni 3Al (1 0 0) surfaces induced by impact of Al ions and Al N clusters ( N=2,4,6,9,13,55) with energies of 100 and 500 eV/atom is studied at atomic scale by means of classical molecular dynamics (MD). The MD code we used implements many-body tight binding potential splined to ZBL at short distances. Special attention has been paid to model dense cascades: we used quite big computation cells with lateral periodic and damped boundary conditions. In addition, long simulation times (10-25 ps) and representative statistics (up to 1000 runs per each case) were considered. The total sputtering yields, energy and time spectrums of sputtered particles, as well as preferential sputtering of compound target were analyzed, both in the linear and non-linear regimes. The significant "cluster enhancement" of sputtering yield was found for cluster sizes N⩾13. In parallel, we estimated collision cascade features depending on cluster size in order to interpret the nature of observed non-linear effects.

  17. Response to Lefebvre et al.

    PubMed

    Takeda, K; Kou, I; Kawakami, N; Yasuhiko, Y; Ogura, Y; Imagawa, E; Miyake, N; Matsumoto, N; Sudo, H; Kotani, T; Nakamura, M; Matsumoto, M; Watanabe, K; Ikegawa, S

    2017-11-01

    Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a common vertebral malformation with incidence of up to 1 of 1000 births worldwide. Recently, TBX6 has been reported as the first disease gene for CS: about 10% of CS patients are compound heterozygotes of rare null mutations and a common haplotype composed by 3 SNPs in TBX6. Lefebvre et al in this journal reported that 2 patients with spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD), a rare skeletal dysplasia affecting spine and ribs also have TBX6 mutations: 1 carried the microdeletion and a rare missense variant, and another 2 rare missense variants. We investigated the pathogenicity of the 3 missense variants in SCD by a luciferase assay. The results were negative for the proposal of Lefebvre et al. We consider these 2 SCD patients are more probably compound heterozygotes of null mutations and a common risk haplotype just as CS patients with TBX6 mutations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Erratum: Hansen et al (2014).

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    In the article by Hansen AW, Dahl-Petersen I, Helge JW, et al, "Validation of an Internet-Based Long Version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Danish Adults Using Combined Accelerometry and Heart Rate Monitoring," in J Phys Act Health, 11(3), p. 654, the DOI was listed incorrectly (10.1123/jpah.2012-0040a). This error has been fixed. The publisher apologizes for the error.

  19. ESTRATEGIAS PARA HACER EL MEJOR USO DE LA PROTEINA EN RACIONES PARA VACAS LECHERAS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy cows utilize feed CP with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more N in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rumen is the most effective way...

  20. Nuevas Perspectivas en la Efficiencia del Uso Nirogeno en Vaca Lecheras

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy cows utilize feed crude protein (CP) with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more nitrogen (N) in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rume...

  1. Stem cells therapy for ALS.

    PubMed

    Mazzini, Letizia; Vescovi, Angelo; Cantello, Roberto; Gelati, Maurizio; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowledge on the molecular basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) having quickly progressed over the last few years, such discoveries have not yet translated into new therapeutics. With the advancement of stem cell technologies there is hope for stem cell therapeutics as novel treatments for ALS. We discuss in detail the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells in preclinical and clinical works. Moreover, we address many open questions in clinical translation. SC therapy is a potentially promising new treatment for ALS and the need to better understand how to develop cell-based experimental treatments, and how to implement them in clinical trials, becomes more pressing. Mesenchymal stem cells and neural fetal stem cells have emerged as safe and potentially effective cell types, but there is a need to carry out appropriately designed experimental studies to verify their long-term safety and possibly efficacy. Moreover, the cost-benefit analysis of the results must take into account the quality of life of the patients as a major end point. It is our opinion that a multicenter international clinical program aime d at fine-tuning and coordinating transplantation procedures and protocols is mandatory.

  2. Response to Lisovski et al.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David

    2018-01-01

    Lisovski et al. [1] describe the widely recognized limitations of light-level geolocator data for identifying short-distance latitudinal movements, recommend that caution be used when interpreting such data, intimated that we did not use such caution and argued that environmental shading likely explained the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) movements described in our 2015 report [2] . Lisovski et al. [1] conclude that the bird movements we reported could not be disentangled from estimation error in stationary animals caused by environmental shading. We argue that, to the contrary, these hypotheses can easily be disentangled because the premise that environmental shading caused synchronous and parallel error among geolocators is false. With their assertion that our location estimates could be biased by >3,500 km on a day with no observable local sources of shading, Lisovski et al. [1] have taken a position of incredulity toward all geolocator-based animal movement data published to date.

  3. Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. J.; Yu, T. J.; Lu, H. M.; Yuan, G. C.; Shen, B.; Zhang, G. Y.

    2013-10-01

    Using modified k.p perturbation method, the optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) are studied. It is found that change of wavefunction overlaps between conduction band and valance subbands of heavy hole, light hole, and crystal-field split off hole is different. Such difference leads to the overturn of polarization degree and modulates optical polarization properties as well width and strain vary. This prompts that changing wavefunction overlaps of electron and hole can lead to a way to modulate optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN QWs, on no condition that valence band order changes.

  4. Effect of AlB2 on the P-threshold in Al-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuying; Liu, Xiangfa

    2018-06-01

    The nucleation of primary Si in Al-Si alloys has been investigated in this work. It was found that there was a threshold concentration of P, below which AlP can not heterogeneous nucleate primary Si in Al-12 wt%Si alloy. AlB2 can not nucleate primary Si directly, but the presence of AlB2 may assist the nucleation of AlP leading to the nucleation of primary Si particles. In addition, with addition of AlB2, the nucleation efficiency of AlP can be improved in Al-18 wt%Si alloy. The orientation relationship between AlB2 and AlP has been calculated, and the adsorption model for AlB2 and AlP was proposed in this work.

  5. FTD and ALS: genetic ties that bind.

    PubMed

    Orr, Harry T

    2011-10-20

    Curiously, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), seemingly disparate neurodegenerative disorders, can be inherited together. Two groups (DeJesus-Hernandez et al. and Renton et al.) show that the long sought after ALS/FTD mutation on chromosomal region 9p is a hexanucleotide expansion in C90RF72. These studies, plus a study on X-linked ALS/FTD, provide molecular starting points for identifying pathways that link ALS and FTD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ab initio modeling of zincblende AlN layer in Al-AlN-TiN multilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Yadav, S. K.; Wang, J.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2016-06-13

    An unusual growth mechanism of metastable zincblende AlN thin film by diffusion of nitrogen atoms into Al lattice is established. Using first-principles density functional theory, we studied the possibility of thermodynamic stability of AlN as a zincblende phase due to epitaxial strains and interface effect, which fails to explain the formation of zincblende AlN. We then compared the formation energetics of rocksalt and zincblende AlN in fcc Al through direct diffusion of nitrogen atoms to Al octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials. Furthermore, the formation of a zincblende AlN thin film is determined to be a kinetically driven process, not a thermodynamicallymore » driven process.« less

  7. NiAl-base composite containing high volume fraction of AlN for advanced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan (Inventor); Whittenbeger, John D. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy has a NiAl matrix and greater than about 13 volume percent fine particles of AlN within the matrix. The particles preferably have a diameter from about 15 nanometers to about 50 nanometers. The particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy may be prepared by cryomilling prealloyed NiAl in liquid nitrogen using grinding media having a diameter of from about 2 to 6 mm at an impeller speed of from about 450 RPM to about 800 RPM. The cryomilling may be done for a duration of from about 4 hours to about 20 hours to obtain a cryomilled powder. The cryomilled powder may be consolidated to form the particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy. The particulate reinforced alloy can further include a toughening alloy. The toughening alloy may include NiCrAlY, FeCrAlY, and FeAl.

  8. Nanoporous Al sandwich foils using size effect of Al layer thickness during Cu/Al/Cu laminate rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hailiang; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, A. Kiet; Li, Huijun; Godbole, Ajit; Kong, Charlie

    2018-06-01

    The roll bonding technique is one of the most widely used methods to produce metal laminate sheets. Such sheets offer interesting research opportunities for both scientists and engineers. In this paper, we report on an experimental investigation of the 'thickness effect' during laminate rolling for the first time. Using a four-high multifunction rolling mill, Cu/Al/Cu laminate sheets were fabricated with a range of thicknesses (16, 40, 70 and 130 μm) of the Al layer. The thickness of the Cu sheets was a constant 300 μm. After rolling, TEM images show good bonding quality between the Cu and Al layers. However, there are many nanoscale pores in the Al layer. The fraction of nanoscale pores in the Al layer increases with a reduction in the Al layer thickness. The finite element method was used to simulate the Cu/Al/Cu rolling process. The simulation results reveal the effect of the Al layer thickness on the deformation characteristics of the Cu/Al/Cu laminate. Finally, we propose that the size effect of the Al layer thickness during Cu/Al/Cu laminate rolling may offer a method to fabricate 'nanoporous' Al sandwich laminate foils. Such foils can be used in electromagnetic shielding of electrical devices and noisy shielding of building.

  9. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka The Monotheism and Jihad Group, aka The al-Zarqawi Network, aka al-Tawhid, aka Tanzim Qa`idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of al-Jihad... Rivers, aka al-Qaida of Jihad Organization in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka al- Qaida Group of Jihad in...

  10. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  11. Consoer et al PFOS dataset

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This ScienceHub entry was developed for the published paper: Consoer et al., 2016, Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 35:717-727. Individual rainbow trout were exposed to PFOS by bolus injection (elimination studies) or by adding PFOS to incoming water (branchial uptake studies). The trout were fitted with indwelling catheters and urinary cannulae to permit periodic collection of blood and urine. Additional sampling was conducted to evaluate PFOS uptake from and elimination to respired water. Data obtained from each fish was evaluated using a clearance-volume pharmacokinetic model. Modeled kinetic parameters were then averaged to develop summary statistics which were used as a basis for interpreting modeled results and making comparisons to a previous study of rainbow trout exposed to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; Consoer et al., 2014, Aquat. Toxicol. 156:65-73). The results of this study, combined with that of the previous PFOA study, suggest that PFOA is a substrate for renal transporters in fish while glomerular filtration alone may be sufficient to explain the observed renal elimination of PFOS. These findings demonstrate that models developed to predict the bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids by fish must account for differences in renal clearance of individual compounds.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Consoer, D., A. Hoffman , P. Fitzsimmons , P. Kosia

  12. Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the Jardas Al Abid area, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, northeast Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Qot, Gamal M.; Abdulsamad, Esam O.

    2016-09-01

    The Upper Cenomanian-Turonian succession exposed at Jardas al'Abid area consists mainly of carbonates with siliciclastic intercalations. This succession is subdivided lithostratigraphically into: Qasr al'Abid (Late Cenomanian) and Al Baniyah (Late Cenomanian-Coniacian) formations. This sequence is relatively rich in macrofossil assemblages especially bivalves, gastropods, and echinoids with rare ammonites. Based on the first occurrence (FO) and last occurrence (LO) of some index species of these macrofossil groups, an integrated biostratigraphic framework has been constructed. The studied Cenomanian-Turonian sequence is subdivided biostratigraphically into three ammonite biozones; Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides Total Range Zone, Choffaticeras segne Total Range Zone, and Coilopoceras requienianum Total Range Zone. Based on the rest of macrofossil assemblages other than the ammonites, eight biozones were recognized; Mecaster batnensis Total Range Zone, Ceratostreon flabellatum-Neithea dutrugei Acme Zone, Costagyra olisiponensis Acme Zone, Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesicularis vesiculosa Acme Zone, Mytiloides labiatus Total Range Zone = Mecaster turonensis Acme Zone, Rachiosoma rectilineatum-Curvostrea rouvillei-Tylostoma (T.) globosum Assemblage Zone, Radiolites sp.-Apricardia? matheroni Total Range Zone, and Nerinea requieniana Total Range Zone. Most of the proposed biozones are recorded for the first time from Libya. The integration among these biozones as well as local and inter-regional correlation of the biozones have been discussed. The stage boundaries of the studied stratigraphic intervals are discussed, where the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary is delineated at the last occurrence (LO) of Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat), while the Turonian/Coniacian boundary is delineated arbitrary being agree with the LO of the Turonian fauna.

  13. Epitaxial growth of Al9Ir2 intermetallic compound on Al(100): Mechanism and interface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadok, J.; Pussi, K.; Šturm, S.; Ambrožič, B.; Gaudry, É.; de Weerd, M.-C.; Fournée, V.; Ledieu, J.

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of Ir adatoms on Al(100) has been investigated under various exposures and temperature conditions. The experimental and theoretical results reveal a diffusion of Ir adatoms within the Al(100) surface selvedge already at 300 K. Above 593 K, two domains of a (√{5 }×√{5 }) R 26 .6∘ phase are identified by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. This phase corresponds to the initial growth of an Al9Ir2 compound at the Al(100) surface. The Al9Ir2 intermetallic domains are terminated by bulklike pure Al layers. The structural stability of Al9Ir2 (001) grown on Al(100) has been analyzed by density functional theory based calculations. Dynamical LEED analysis is consistent with an Ir adsorption leading to the growth of an Al9Ir2 intermetallic compound. We propose that the epitaxial relationship Al9Ir2(001 ) ∥Al (100) and Al9Ir2[100 ] ∥Al [031 ]/[013 ] originates from a matching of Al atomic arrangements present both on Al(100) and on pure Al(001) layers present in the Al9Ir2 compound. Finally, the interface between Al9Ir2 precipitates and the Al matrix has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy measurements. The cross-sectional observations are consistent with the formation of Al9Ir2 (001) compounds. These measurements indicate an important Ir diffusion within Al(100) near the surface region. The coherent interface between Al9Ir2 and the Al matrix is sharp.

  14. Al Qaeda: A Modern Day Lernaean Hydra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    This small organization carries out devastating attacks by successfully conducting Netwar campaigns. Netwar enables Al Qaeda to finance , coordinate...for command and control (C2), training, propaganda, finance and recruiting. The information revolution has allowed Al Qaeda to organize in highly...presence in Afghanistan, Al Qaeda has assisted the insurgency through financing , recruiting and limited military operations from their safe haven in

  15. Cyclic oxidation resistance of a reaction milled NiAl-AlN composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon recent mechanical property tests a NiAl-AlN composite produced by cryomilling has very attractive high temperature strength. This paper focuses on the oxidation resistance of the NiAl-AlN composite at 1473 and 1573 K as compared to that of Ni-47Al-0.15Zr, one of the most oxidation resistant intermetallics. The results of cyclic oxidation tests show that the NiAl-AlN composite has excellent properties although not quite as good as those of Ni-47Al-0.15Zr. The onset of failure of the NiAl-AlN was unique in that it was not accompanied by a change in scale composition from alumina to less protective oxides. Failure in the composite appears to be related to the entrapment of AlN particles within the alumina scale.

  16. Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama (QTVR)

    This panoramic image, dubbed 'Rub al Khali,' was acquired by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the plains of Meridiani during the period from the rover's 456th to 464th sols on Mars (May 6 to May 14, 2005). Opportunity was about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater' at a place known informally as 'Purgatory Dune.'

    The rover was stuck in the dune's deep fine sand for more than a month. 'Rub al Khali' (Arabic translation: 'the empty quarter') was chosen as the name for this panorama because it is the name of a similarly barren, desolate part of the Saudi Arabian desert on Earth.

    The view spans 360 degrees. It consists of images obtained in 97 individual pointings of the panoramic camera. The camera took images with five camera filters at each pointing. This 22,780-by-6,000-pixel mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters admitting light wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers.

    Lighting varied during the nine sols it took to acquire this panorama, resulting in some small image seams within the mosaic. These seams have been smoothed in sky parts of the mosaic to better simulate the vista that a person would see if able to view it all at the same time on Mars.

    Opportunity's tracks leading back to the north (center of the panorama) are a reminder of the rover's long trek from Endurance Crater. The deep ruts dug by Opportunity's wheels as it became stuck in the sand appear in the foreground. The crest and trough of the last ripple the rover crossed before getting stuck is visible in the center. These wind-formed sand features are only about 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) tall. The crest of the actual ripple where the rover got stuck can be seen just to the right of center. The tracks and a few other places on and near ripple crests can

  17. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  18. Instandhaltungsmanagement als Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo

    Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.

  19. Magnetism of Al-substituted magnetite reduced from Al-hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.; Heslop, David; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum-substituted magnetite (Al-magnetite) reduced from Al-substituted hematite or goethite (Al-hematite or Al-goethite) is an environmentally important constituent of magnetically enhanced soils. In order to characterize the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite, two series of Al-magnetite samples were synthesized through reduction of Al-hematite by a mixed gas (80% CO2 and 20% CO) at 395°C for 72 h in a quartz tube furnace. Al-magnetite samples inherited the morphology of their parent Al-hematite samples, but only those transformed from Al-hematite synthesized at low temperature possessed surficial micropores, which originated from the release of structural water during heating. Surface micropores could thus serve as a practical fingerprint of fire or other high-temperature mineralogical alteration processes in natural environments, e.g., shear friction in seismic zones. In addition, Al substitution greatly affects the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite. For example, coercivity (Bc) increases with increasing Al content and then decreases slightly, while the saturation magnetization (Ms), Curie temperature (Tc), and Verwey transition temperature (Tv) all decrease with increasing Al content due to crystal defect formation and dilution of magnetic ions caused by Al incorporation. Moreover, different trends in the correlation between Tc and Bc can be used to discriminate titanomagnetite from Al-magnetite, which is likely to be important in environmental and paleomagnetic studies, particularly in soil.

  20. Piezo-tunnel effect in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafael, R.; Puyoo, E.; Malhaire, C.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the electrical transport in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions under mechanical stress is investigated in the perspective to use them as strain sensors. The metal/insulator/metal junctions are elaborated with a low temperature process (≤200 °C) fully compatible with CMOS back-end-of-line. The conduction mechanism in the structure is found to be Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, and efforts are made to extract the relevant physical parameters. Gauge factors up to -32.5 were found in the fabricated devices under tensile stress. Finally, theoretical mechanical considerations give strong evidence that strain sensitivity in Al/Al2O3/Al structures originates not only from geometrical deformations but also from the variation of interface barrier height and/or effective electronic mass in the tunneling oxide layer.

  1. Development of Al2O3 fiber-reinforced Al2O3-based ceramics.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nemoto, Kimiya

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a tape casting technique to develop an Al2O3 fiber-reinforced Al2O3-based ceramic material (Al2O3-fiber/Al2O3 composite) into a new type of dental ceramic. The Al2O3-based ceramic used a matrix consisting of 60 wt% Al2O3 powder and 40 wt% SiO2-B2O3 powder. The prepreg sheets of Al2O3-fiber/Al2O3 composite (in which uniaxially aligned Al2O3 fibers were infiltrated with the Al2O3-based matrix) were fabricated continuously using tape casting technique with a doctor blade system. Multilayer preforms of Al2O3-fiber/Al2O3 composite sheets were then sintered at a maximum temperature of 1000 degrees C under an atmospheric pressure in a furnace. The results showed that the shrinkage and bending properties of Al2O3-fiber/Al2O3 composite exceeded those of unreinforced Al2O3--hence demonstrating the positive effects of fiber reinforcement. In conclusion, the tape casting technique has been utilized to successfully develop a new type of dental ceramic material.

  2. Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films synthesized by annealing of (Ti+Al)/AlN multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cabioch, Thierry, E-mail: Thierry.cabioch@univ-poitiers.fr; Alkazaz, Malaz; Beaufort, Marie-France

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Epitaxial thin films of the MAX phase Ti{sub 2}AlN are obtained by thermal annealing. • A new metastable (Ti,Al,N) solid solution with the structure of α-T is evidenced. • The formation of the MAX phase occurs at low temperature (600 °C). - Abstract: Single-phase Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films were obtained by annealing in vacuum of (Ti + Al)/AlN multilayers deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering onto single-crystalline (0001) 4H-SiC and (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. In-situ X-ray diffraction experiments combined with ex-situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observations reveal that interdiffusion processes occur in the multilayer at amore » temperature of ∼400 °C leading to the formation of a (Ti, Al, N) solid solution, having the hexagonal structure of α-Ti, whereas the formation of Ti{sub 2}AlN occurs at 550–600 °C. Highly oriented (0002) Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films can be obtained after an annealing at 750 °C.« less

  3. Seltzer_et_al_2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset supports the modeling study of Seltzer et al. (2016) published in Atmospheric Environment. In this study, techniques typically used for future air quality projections are applied to a historical 11-year period to assess the performance of the modeling system when the driving meteorological conditions are obtained using dynamical downscaling of coarse-scale fields without correcting toward higher resolution observations. The Weather Research and Forecasting model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model are used to simulate regional climate and air quality over the contiguous United States for 2000-2010. The air quality simulations for that historical period are then compared to observations from four national networks. Comparisons are drawn between defined performance metrics and other published modeling results for predicted ozone, fine particulate matter, and speciated fine particulate matter. The results indicate that the historical air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled meteorology are typically within defined modeling performance benchmarks and are consistent with results from other published modeling studies using finer-resolution meteorology. This indicates that the regional climate and air quality modeling framework utilized here does not introduce substantial bias, which provides confidence in the method??s use for future air quality projections.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Seltzer, K., C

  4. Growth and stress-induced transformation of zinc blende AlN layers in Al-AlN-TiN multilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; ...

    2015-12-18

    We report that AlN nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-AlN). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-AlN is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-AlN to wurzite AlN phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-AlN.

  5. Al-Qaeda Core: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    near-simultaneous bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in August 1998 that killed 224 people and wounded more than 5,000; the October...Yemeni Al-Qaeda members attempted unsuccessfully to bomb the USS The Sullivans, anchored in Yemen’s port of Aden. But ten months later, Al-Qaeda... bombing of a synagogue in Tunisia, Al-Qaeda operatives carried out major attacks in Casablanca (May 16, 2003), Istanbul (December 20, 2003), Madrid

  6. Orientation relationship of eutectoid FeAl and FeAl2.

    PubMed

    Scherf, A; Kauffmann, A; Kauffmann-Weiss, S; Scherer, T; Li, X; Stein, F; Heilmaier, M

    2016-04-01

    Fe-Al alloys in the aluminium range of 55-65 at.% exhibit a lamellar microstructure of B2-ordered FeAl and triclinic FeAl 2 , which is caused by a eutectoid decomposition of the high-temperature Fe 5 Al 8 phase, the so-called ∊ phase. The orientation relationship of FeAl and FeAl 2 has previously been studied by Bastin et al. [ J. Cryst. Growth (1978 ▸), 43 , 745] and Hirata et al. [ Philos. Mag. Lett. (2008 ▸), 88 , 491]. Since both results are based on different crystallographic data regarding FeAl 2 , the data are re-evaluated with respect to a recent re-determination of the FeAl 2 phase provided by Chumak et al. [ Acta Cryst. (2010 ▸), C 66 , i87]. It is found that both orientation relationships match subsequent to a rotation operation of 180° about a 〈112〉 crystallographic axis of FeAl or by applying the inversion symmetry of the FeAl 2 crystal structure as suggested by the Chumak data set. Experimental evidence for the validity of the previously determined orientation relationships was found in as-cast fully lamellar material (random texture) as well as directionally solidified material (∼〈110〉 FeAl || solidification direction) by means of orientation imaging microscopy and global texture measurements. In addition, a preferential interface between FeAl and FeAl 2 was identified by means of trace analyses using cross sectioning with a focused ion beam. On the basis of these habit planes the orientation relationship between the two phases can be described by ([Formula: see text]01) FeAl || (114)[Formula: see text] and [111] FeAl || [1[Formula: see text]0][Formula: see text]. There is no evidence for twinning within FeAl lamellae or alternating orientations of FeAl lamellae. Based on the determined orientation and interface data, an atomistic model of the structure relationship of Fe 5 Al 8 , FeAl and FeAl 2 in the vicinity of the eutectoid decomposition is derived. This model is analysed with respect to the strain which has to be

  7. Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  8. Referral bias in ALS epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Piccininni, Marco; Arcuti, Simona; Chiò, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Rooney, James; Zoccolella, Stefano; Couratier, Philippe; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2018-01-01

    Despite concerns about the representativeness of patients from ALS tertiary centers as compared to the ALS general population, the extent of referral bias in clinical studies remains largely unknown. Using data from EURALS consortium we aimed to assess nature, extent and impact of referral bias. Four European ALS population-based registries located in Ireland, Piedmont, Puglia, Italy, and Limousin, France, covering 50 million person-years, participated. Demographic and clinic characteristics of ALS patients diagnosed in tertiary referral centers were contrasted with the whole ALS populations enrolled in registries in the same geographical areas. Patients referred to ALS centers were younger (with difference ranging from 1.1 years to 2.4 years), less likely to present a bulbar onset, with a higher proportion of familial antecedents and a longer survival (ranging from 11% to 15%) when compared to the entire ALS population in the same geographic area. A trend for referral bias is present in cohorts drawn from ALS referral centers. The magnitude of the possible referral bias in a particular tertiary center can be estimated through a comparison with ALS patients drawn from registry in the same geographic area. Studies based on clinical cohorts should be cautiously interpreted. The presence of a registry in the same area may improve the complete ascertainment in the referral center.

  9. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-27

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  10. Decoding ALS: From Genes to Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J. Paul; Brown, Robert H.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2017-01-01

    Preface Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and uniformly fatal neurodegenerative disease. A plethora of genetic factors underlying ALS have now been identified that drive motor neuron degeneration, increase susceptibility to the disease, or influence the rate of progression. Emerging themes include dysfunction in RNA metabolism and protein homeostasis, with specific defects in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and impaired dynamics of ribonucleoprotein bodies such as RNA granules that assemble through the process of liquid-liquid phase separation. Extraordinary recent progress in understanding the biology of ALS provides new grounds for optimism that meaningful therapies for ALS will be identified. PMID:27830784

  11. Referral bias in ALS epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Benoit; Piccininni, Marco; Arcuti, Simona; Chiò, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Rooney, James; Zoccolella, Stefano; Couratier, Philippe; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite concerns about the representativeness of patients from ALS tertiary centers as compared to the ALS general population, the extent of referral bias in clinical studies remains largely unknown. Using data from EURALS consortium we aimed to assess nature, extent and impact of referral bias. Methods Four European ALS population-based registries located in Ireland, Piedmont, Puglia, Italy, and Limousin, France, covering 50 million person-years, participated. Demographic and clinic characteristics of ALS patients diagnosed in tertiary referral centers were contrasted with the whole ALS populations enrolled in registries in the same geographical areas. Results Patients referred to ALS centers were younger (with difference ranging from 1.1 years to 2.4 years), less likely to present a bulbar onset, with a higher proportion of familial antecedents and a longer survival (ranging from 11% to 15%) when compared to the entire ALS population in the same geographic area. Conclusions A trend for referral bias is present in cohorts drawn from ALS referral centers. The magnitude of the possible referral bias in a particular tertiary center can be estimated through a comparison with ALS patients drawn from registry in the same geographic area. Studies based on clinical cohorts should be cautiously interpreted. The presence of a registry in the same area may improve the complete ascertainment in the referral center. PMID:29659621

  12. Interdiffusion in U 3Si-Al, U 3Si 2-Al, and USi-Al dispersion fuels during irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hofman, Gerard L.

    2011-03-01

    Uranium-silicide compound fuel dispersion in an Al matrix is used in research and test reactors worldwide. Interaction layer (IL) growth between fuel particles and the matrix is one of performance issues. The interaction layer growth data for U 3Si, U 3Si 2 and USi dispersions in Al were obtained from both out-of-pile and in-pile tests. The IL is dominantly U(AlSi) 3 from out-of-pile tests, but its (Al + Si)/U ratio from in-pile tests is higher than the out-of-pile data, because of amorphous behavior of the ILs. IL growth correlations were developed for U 3Si-Al and U 3Si 2-Al. The IL growth rates were dependent on the U/Si ratio of the fuel compounds. During irradiation, however, the IL growth rates did not decrease with the decreasing U/Si ratio by fission. It is reasoned that transition metal fission products in the IL compensate the loss of U atoms by providing chemical potential for Al diffusion and volume expansion by solid swelling and gas bubble swelling. The addition of Mo in U 3Si 2 reduces the IL growth rate, which is similar to that of UMo alloy dispersion in a silicon-added Al matrix.

  13. Microstructural and Phase Composition Differences Across the Interfaces in Al/Ti/Al Explosively Welded Clads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczek, Dagmara Malgorzata; Chulist, Robert; Litynska-Dobrzynska, Lidia; Lopez, Gabriel Alejandro; Wierzbicka-Miernik, Anna; Schell, Norbert; Szulc, Zygmunt; Wojewoda-Budka, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The microstructure and phase composition of Al/Ti/Al interfaces with respect to their localization were investigated. An aluminum-flyer plate exhibited finer grains located close to the upper interface than those present within the aluminum-base plate. The same tendency, but with a higher number of twins, was observed for titanium. Good quality bonding with a wavy shape and four intermetallic phases, namely, TiAl3, TiAl, TiAl2, and Ti3Al, was only obtained at the interface closer to the explosive material. The other interface was planar with three intermetallic compounds, excluding the metastable TiAl2 phase. As a result of a 100-hour annealing at 903 K (630 °C), an Al/TiAl3/Ti/TiAl3/Al sandwich was manufactured, formed with single crystalline Al layers. A substantial difference between the intermetallic layer thicknesses was measured, with 235.3 and 167.4 µm obtained for the layers corresponding to the upper and lower interfaces, respectively. An examination by transmission electron microscopy of a thin foil taken from the interface area after a 1-hour annealing at 825 K (552 °C) showed a mixture of randomly located TiAl3 grains within the aluminum. Finally, the hardness results were correlated with the microstructural changes across the samples.

  14. Aluminium (Al) speciation in serum and urine after subcutaneous venom immunotherapy with Al as adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Michalke, Bernhard; Kramer, Matthias F; Brehler, Randolf

    2018-02-21

    Aluminium is associated with disorders and is the commonly used vaccine adjuvant. Understanding the mechanisms of how Al is transported, metabolized or of its toxicity depends on the knowledge of Al-interactions with bioligands, i.e. Al-species. Al-speciation in serum is difficult because of low concentration and the risk of exogenous Al contamination. Furthermore, Al-measurements may be hampered according to various interferences. This study aims for developing quality controlled protocols for reliable Al- and Al-species determination and for investigating probable differences in Al (-speciation) after Al-containing subcutaneous immunotherapy (SIT). Sample donors were recruited either for the control group ("class-0", they never had been treated with SIT containing an Al-depot extract) or for the SIT-group ("class-1", they previously had been treated with SIT for insect venom allergy with an Al-depot extract). Blood was drawn for medical reasons and serum prepared. Additionally, some sample donors collected 24-h-urine. They had been informed (and they consented) about the scientific use of their samples. The study was approved by the ethic committee of the "Medical Association Westphalia-Lippe" and of the University of Münster, evaluating the study positively (No. 2013-667-f-S). We applied quality controlled sample preparation and interference-free Al detection by ICP sectorfield-mass spectrometry. Al-species were analysed using size-exclusion-chromatography-ICP-qMS. Al-concentrations or speciation in urine samples showed no differences between class-0 and class-1. Al-citrate was the main uric Al-species. In serum elevated Al-concentrations were found for both classes, with class-1 samples being significantly higher than class-0 (p = 0.041), but class-0 samples being approximately 10-fold too high compared to reference values from non-exposed persons. We identified gel-monovettes as contamination source. In contamination-free samples from HNO 3 -prewashed gel

  15. Presymptomatic ALS genetic counseling and testing

    PubMed Central

    Stanislaw, Christine; Reyes, Eliana; Hussain, Sumaira; Cooley, Anne; Fernandez, Maria Catalina; Dauphin, Danielle D.; Michon, Sara-Claude; Andersen, Peter M.; Wuu, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable advances in our understanding of the genetic contributions to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have sparked discussion and debate about whether clinical genetic testing should routinely be offered to patients with ALS. A related, but distinct, question is whether presymptomatic genetic testing should be offered to family members who may be at risk for developing ALS. Existing guidelines for presymptomatic counseling and testing are mostly based on small number of individuals, clinical judgment, and experience from other neurodegenerative disorders. Over the course of the last 8 years, we have provided testing and 317 genetic counseling sessions (including predecision, pretest, posttest, and ad hoc counseling) to 161 first-degree family members participating in the Pre-Symptomatic Familial ALS Study (Pre-fALS), as well as testing and 75 posttest counseling sessions to 63 individuals with familial ALS. Based on this experience, and the real-world challenges we have had to overcome in the process, we recommend an updated set of guidelines for providing presymptomatic genetic counseling and testing to people at high genetic risk for developing ALS. These recommendations are especially timely and relevant given the growing interest in studying presymptomatic ALS. PMID:27194384

  16. Sporadic and hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Siddique, Teepu

    2015-04-01

    Genetic discoveries in ALS have a significant impact on deciphering molecular mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration. The identification of SOD1 as the first genetic cause of ALS led to the engineering of the SOD1 mouse, the backbone of ALS research, and set the stage for future genetic breakthroughs. In addition, careful analysis of ALS pathology added valuable pieces to the ALS puzzle. From this joint effort, major pathogenic pathways emerged. Whereas the study of TDP43, FUS and C9ORF72 pointed to the possible involvement of RNA biology in motor neuron survival, recent work on P62 and UBQLN2 refocused research on protein degradation pathways. Despite all these efforts, the etiology of most cases of sporadic ALS remains elusive. Newly acquired genomic tools now allow the identification of genetic and epigenetic factors that can either increase ALS risk or modulate disease phenotype. These developments will certainly allow for better disease modeling to identify novel therapeutic targets for ALS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  18. Durability Assessment of TiAl Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2008-01-01

    The durability of TiAl is a prime concern for the implementation of TiAl into aerospace engines. Two durability issues, the effect of high temperature exposure on mechanical properties and impact resistance, have been investigated and the results are summarized in this paper. Exposure to elevated temperatures has been shown to be detrimental to the room temperature ductility of gamma alloys with the most likely mechanisms being the ingress of interstitials from the surface. Fluorine ion implantation has been shown to improve the oxidation resistance of gamma alloys, and ideally it could also improve the environmental embrittlement of high Nb content TiAl alloys. The effect of F ion implantation on the surface oxidation and embrittlement of a third generation, high Nb content TiAl alloy (Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C) were investigated. Additionally, the ballistic impact resistance of a variety of gamma alloys, including Ti-48Al-2Cr- 2Nb, Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, ABB-2, ABB-23, NCG359E, 95A and Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C was accessed. Differences in the ballistic impact properties of the various alloys will be discussed, particularly with respect to their manufacturing process, microstructure, and tensile properties.

  19. Photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties of Al based MOFs: MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH{sub 2}(Al)

    SciTech Connect

    An, Yang; Li, Huiliang; Liu, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yyliu@sdu.edu.cn

    Two Al based MOFs (MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH{sub 2} (Al)) were synthesized, and their photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water were investigated. Different from the ligand to metal charge transfer process previously reported, we proposes a new photocatalytic mechanism based on electron tunneling according to the results of theoretical calculation, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectra. The organic linkers absorb photons, giving rise to electrons and holes. Then, the photogenerated electrons tunnel through the AlO{sub 6}-octahedra, which not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activitymore » of Al based MOFs. - Graphical abstract: The photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water of two Al based MOFs were investigated. A new photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on electron tunneling according to the results of both theoretical calculation and steady state, time resolved fluorescence spectra. The electron tunneling process not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs.« less

  20. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  1. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  2. Response of rice to Al stress and identification of quantitative trait Loci for Al tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian Feng; Shen, Renfang; Zhao, Zhuqing; Wissuwa, Matthias; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Ebitani, Takeshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2002-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) shows the highest tolerance to Al toxicity among small-grain cereal crops, however, the mechanisms and genetics responsible for its high Al tolerance are not yet well understood. We investigated the response of rice to Al stress using the japonica variety Koshihikari in comparison to the indica variety Kasalath. Koshihikari showed higher tolerance at various Al concentrations than Kasalath. The Al content in root apexes was less in Koshihikari than in Kasalath, suggesting that exclusion mechanisms rather than internal detoxification are acting in Koshihikari. Al-induced secretion of citrate was observed in both Koshihikari and Kasalath, however, it is unlikely to be the mechanism for Al tolerance because there was no significant difference in the amount of citrate secreted between Koshihikari and Kasalath. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Al tolerance were mapped in a population of 183 backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from a cross of Koshihikari and Kasalath. Three putative QTLs controlling Al tolerance were detected on chromosomes 1, 2 and 6. Kasalath QTL alleles on chromosome 1 and 2 reduced Al tolerance but increased tolerance on chromosome 6. The three QTLs explained about 27% of the phenotypic variation in Al tolerance. The existence of QTLs for Al tolerance was confirmed in substitution lines for corresponding chromosomal segments.

  3. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Al cation induces aggregation of serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-07-15

    Al cation is known to induce protein fibrillation and causes several neurodegenerative disorders. We report the spectroscopic, thermodynamic analysis and AFM imaging for the Al cation binding process with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Hydrophobicity played a major role in Al-protein interactions with more hydrophobic b-LG forming stronger Al-protein complexes. Thermodynamic parameters ΔS, ΔH and ΔG showed Al-protein bindings occur via hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts for b-LG, while van der Waals and H-bonding interactions prevail in HSA and BSA adducts. AFM clearly indicated that aluminum cations are able to force BSA and b-LG into larger or more robust aggregates than HSA, with HSA 4±0.2 (SE, n=801) proteins per aggregate, for BSA 17±2 (SE, n=148), and for b-LG 12±3 (SE, n=151). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced major alterations of protein conformations with the order of perturbations b-LG>BSA>HSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on sputter-deposited AlN templates with epitaxial AlN/AlGaN superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lu; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Yun; Yan, Jianchang; Zhang, Lian; Ai, Yujie; Guo, Yanan; Ni, Ruxue; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sputter-deposited AlN templates upon sapphire substrates. An AlN/AlGaN superlattices structure is inserted as a dislocation filter between the LED structure and the AlN template. The full width at half maximum values for (0002) and (10 1 bar 2) X-ray rocking curves of the n-type Al0.56Ga0.44N layer are 513 and 1205 arcsec, respectively, with the surface roughness of 0.52 nm. The electron concentration and mobility measured by Hall measurement are 9.3 × 1017cm-3 and 54 cm2/V·s at room temperature, respectively. The light output power of a 282-nm LED reaches 0.28 mW at 20 mA with an external quantum efficiency of 0.32%. And the values of leakage current and forward voltage of the LEDs are ∼3 nA at -10 V and 6.9 V at 20 mA, respectively, showing good electrical performance. It is expected that the cost of the UV-LED can be reduced by using sputter-deposited AlN template.

  6. Atomistic Modeling of RuAl and (RuNi) Al Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gargano, Pablo; Mosca, Hugo; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of RuAl and RuAlNi alloys, using the BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is performed. The lattice parameter and energy of formation of B2 RuAl as a function of stoichiometry and the lattice parameter of (Ru(sub 50-x)Ni(sub x)Al(sub 50)) alloys as a function of Ni concentration are computed. BFS based Monte Carlo simulations indicate that compositions close to Ru25Ni25Al50 are single phase with no obvious evidence of a miscibility gap and separation of the individual B2 phases.

  7. [Lessons from Guam ALS/PDC study].

    PubMed

    Asao, Hirano

    2007-11-01

    An extraordinarily high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) affecting the native population was discovered on the island of Guam a half century ago. Guam ALS is identical to classic ALS clinically and pathologically while PDC is marked by progressive parkinsonism and dementia. The unusual histological finding in these fetal neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of numerous neurofibrillary tangles in a selective topographic distribution unassociated with senile plaques. There have been remarkable advances in field of age-associated neurodegenerative disease after our initial study of Guam cases. Four noteworthy topics are presented in this communication. 1) Clinically, the coexistence of parkinsonism and dementia was frequently recognized in Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. Some other new disease entities characterized by coexistence of parkinsonism and dementia have been reported. These include progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. 2) Neuropathologically, abundant neurofibrillary tangles unassociated with senile plaques were demonstrated in many diseases such as aftermath of boxing and tangle-only dementia. Furthermore, tau-positive structures were recognized not only in neurons but in glial cells in certain diseases. Tauopathy is one of the current hot research subjects. 3) Familial aggregation of Guam ALS patients provoked investigation of familial ALS elsewhere. Familial motor neuron disease with SOD1 mutation is the target of worldwide intense investigation at the present time. SOD1 gene mutation is, however, not found in Guam ALS. 4) The most striking findings of the Guam study is the gradual decline in the incidence of ALS on Guam during a quarter century and virtual disappearance of new patients. This may be linked to a remarkable change in environment and life style of the Chamorro population. The etiology of ALS is still unknown and

  8. Al6H18: A baby crystal of γ-AlH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, B.; Kandalam, Anil K.; Xu, Jing; Ding, Y. H.; Sierka, M.; Bowen, K. H.; Schnöckel, H.

    2012-10-01

    Using global-minima search methods based on the density functional theory calculations of (AlH3)n (n = 1-8) clusters, we show that the growth pattern of alanes for n ≥ 4 is dominated by structures containing hexa-coordinated Al atoms. This is in contrast to the earlier studies where either linear or ring structures of AlH3 were predicted to be the preferred structures in which the Al atoms can have a maximum of five-fold coordination. Our calculations also reveal that the Al6H18 cluster, with its hexa-coordination of the Al atoms, resembles the unit-cell of γ-AlH3, thus Al6H18 is designated as the "baby crystal." The fragmentation energies of the (AlH3)n (n = 2-8) along with the dimerization energies for even n clusters indicate an enhanced stability of the Al6H18 cluster. Both covalent (hybridization) and ionic (charge) contribution to the bonding are the driving factors in stabilizing the isomers containing hexa-coordinated Al atoms.

  9. Formation of epitaxial Al 2O 3/NiAl(1 1 0) films: aluminium deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykhach, Y.; Moroz, V.; Yoshitake, M.

    2005-02-01

    Structure of epitaxial Al 2O 3 layers formed on NiAl(1 1 0) substrates has been studied by means of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The elucidated structure was compared to the model suggested for 0.5 nm-thick Al 2O 3 layers [K. Müller, H. Lindner, D.M. Zehner, G. Ownby, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 25 (1990) 1130; R.M. Jaeger, H. Kuhlenbeck, H.J. Freund, Surf. Sci. 259 (1991) 235]. The stepwise growth of Al 2O 3 film, involving deposition and subsequent oxidation of aluminium onto epitaxial 0.5 nm-thick Al 2O 3 layers, has been investigated. Aluminium was deposited at room temperature, whereas its oxidation took place during annealing at 1070 K. The Al 2O 3 thickness was monitored by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). It was found that Al 2O 3 layer follows the structure of 0.5 nm thick Al 2O 3 film, although a tilting of Al 2O 3(1 1 1) surface plane with respect to NiAl(1 1 0) surface appeared after Al deposition.

  10. Optical, structural, and nuclear scientific studies of AlGaN with high Al composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tse Yang; Chung, Yee Ling; Li, Lin; Yao, Shude; Lee, Y. C.; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Ferguson, Ian T.; Lu, Weijie

    2010-08-01

    AlGaN epilayers with higher Al-compositions were grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on (0001) sapphire. Trimethylgallium (TMGa), trimethylaluminium (TMAl) and NH3 were used as the source precursors for Ga, Al, and N, respectively. A 25 nm AlN nucleation layer was first grown at low-temperature of 590 °C at 300 Torr. Followed, AlxGa1-xN layers were grown at 1080 °C on low-temperature AlN nucleation layers. The heterostructures were characterized by a series of techniques, including x-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), photoluminescence (PL), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman scattering. Precise Al compositions were determined through XRD, RBS, and SEM combined measurements. Room Temperature Raman Scattering spectra shows three major bands from AlGaN alloys, which are AlN-like, A1 longitudinal optical (LO) phonon modes, and E2 transverse optical (TO) band, respectively, plus several peak comes from the substrate. Raman spectral line shape analysis lead to an optical determination of the electrical property free carrier concentration of AlGaN. The optical properties of AlGaN with high Al composition were presented here.

  11. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  12. Fabrication of Al/Mg/Al Composites via Accumulative Roll Bonding and Their Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jinfeng; Liu, Mingxing; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Yonghao; Li, Yusheng; Cao, Yang; Zhu, Yuntian

    2016-01-01

    Al(1060)/Mg(AZ31)/Al(1060) multilayered composite was successfully produced using an accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process for up to four cycles at an elevated temperature (400 °C). The microstructure evolution of the composites and the bonding characteristics at the interfaces between Al and Mg layers with increasing ARB cycles were characterized through optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the grains of Al and Mg layers were significantly refined and Al3Mg2 and Al12 Mg17 intermetallic compound layers formed at the Al/Mg bonding interfaces. The strength increased gradually and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) reached a maximum value of about 240 MPa at the third pass. Furthermore, the strengthening mechanism of the composite was analyzed based on the fracture morphologies. PMID:28774072

  13. A Rechargeable Al/S Battery with an Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Hu, Junkai; Han, Fudong; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Pearse, Alex J; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W; Gaskell, Karen J; Noked, Malachi; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-08-16

    Aluminum metal is a promising anode material for next generation rechargeable batteries owing to its abundance, potentially dendrite-free deposition, and high capacity. The rechargeable aluminum/sulfur (Al/S) battery is of great interest owing to its high energy density (1340 Wh kg(-1) ) and low cost. However, Al/S chemistry suffers poor reversibility owing to the difficulty of oxidizing AlSx . Herein, we demonstrate the first reversible Al/S battery in ionic-liquid electrolyte with an activated carbon cloth/sulfur composite cathode. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and microscopic results suggest that sulfur undergoes a solid-state conversion reaction in the electrolyte. Kinetics analysis identifies that the slow solid-state sulfur conversion reaction causes large voltage hysteresis and limits the energy efficiency of the system. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Multidisciplinary ALS care improves quality of life in patients with ALS.

    PubMed

    Van den Berg, J P; Kalmijn, S; Lindeman, E; Veldink, J H; de Visser, M; Van der Graaff, M M; Wokke, J H J; Van den Berg, L H

    2005-10-25

    To examine the effect of multidisciplinary ALS care on the quality-of-life (QoL) in patients with ALS and their caregivers. In a cross-sectional study, 208 patients with ALS and their caregivers were interviewed. QoL was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and two visual analogue scales (VAS). Criteria for multidisciplinary ALS care were: an ALS team headed by a consultant in rehabilitation medicine and consisting of at least a physical therapist, occupational therapist, speech pathologist, dietician and a social worker; use of the Dutch ALS consensus guidelines for ALS care; and at least six incident ALS patients per year. Clinical characteristics and functional loss of the 133 patients receiving multidisciplinary ALS care and the 75 patients receiving general ALS care were similar. The percentage of patients with adequate aids and appliances was higher in those with multidisciplinary ALS care (93.1 vs 81.3%, p = 0.008), whereas the number of visits to professional caregivers was similar in both groups. Patients in the multidisciplinary ALS care group had a better mental QoL on the SF-36 Mental Summary Score than those in the general care group (p = 0.01). The difference in QoL was most pronounced in the domains of Social Functioning and Mental Health, and was independent of the presence of aids and appliances. No significant differences were found in the SF-36 Physical Summary Score, VAS, or in QoL of caregivers of patients with ALS. High standard of care improves mental quality-of-life in patients with ALS.

  15. ALS-Plus Syndrome: Non-Pyramidal Features in a Large ALS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, Leo; Vandriel, Shannon; Elman, Lauren; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Powers, John; Boller, Ashley; Wood, Elisabeth McCarty; Woo, John; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autopsy studies show widespread pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but clinical surveys of multisystem disease in ALS are rare. We investigated ALS-Plus syndrome, an understudied group of patients with clinical features extending beyond pyramidal and neuromuscular systems with or without cognitive/behavioral deficits. Methods In a large, consecutively-ascertained cohort of 550 patients with ALS, we documented atypical clinical manifestations. Genetic screening for C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansions was performed in 343 patients, and SOD1, TARDBP, and VCP were tested in the subgroup of patients with a family history of ALS. Gray matter and white matter imaging was available in a subgroup of 30 patients. Results Seventy-five (13.6%) patients were identified with ALS-Plus syndrome. We found disorders of ocular motility, cerebellar, extrapyramidal and autonomic functioning. Relative to those without ALS-Plus, cognitive impairment (8.0% vs 2.9%, p=0.029), bulbar-onset (49.3% vs 23.2%, p<0.001), and pathogenic mutations (20.0% vs 8.4%, p=0.015) were more than twice as common in ALS-Plus. Survival was significantly shorter in ALS-Plus (29.66 months vs 42.50 months, p=0.02), regardless of bulbar-onset or mutation status. Imaging revealed significantly greater cerebellar and cerebral disease in ALS-Plus compared to those without ALS-Plus. Conclusions ALS-Plus syndrome is not uncommon, and the presence of these atypical features is consistent with neuropathological observations that ALS is a multisystem disorder. ALS-Plus syndrome is associated with increased risk for poor survival and the presence of a pathogenic mutation. PMID:25086858

  16. Superbend era begins swiftly at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2001-11-29

    The successful installation and commissioning of high-field superconducting bend magnets (superbends) in three curved sectors of ALS storage ring was the first time the magnet lattice of an operating synchrotron light source has been retrofitted in this fundamental way. As a result, the ALS now offers an expanded spectral range well into the hard x-ray region without compromising either the number of undulators or their high brightness in the soft x-ray region for which the ALS design was originally optimized. In sum, when the superbend-enhanced ALS started up for user operations in October 2001, it marked the beginning of amore » new era in its history.« less

  17. 12th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1999-12-17

    Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a sessionmore » comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future.« less

  18. Substitutional alloy of Ce and Al

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiao-Shi; Ding, Yang; Mao, Wendy L.; Luo, Wei; Blomqvist, Andreas; Ahuja, Rajeev; Yang, Wenge; Shu, Jinfu; Sinogeikin, Stas V.; Meng, Yue; Brewe, Dale L.; Jiang, Jian-Zhong; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2009-01-01

    The formation of substitutional alloys has been restricted to elements with similar atomic radii and electronegativity. Using high-pressure at 298 K, we synthesized a face-centered cubic disordered alloy of highly dissimilar elements (large Ce and small Al atoms) by compressing the Ce3Al intermetallic compound >15 GPa or the Ce3Al metallic glass >25 GPa. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Ce L3-edge absorption spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations revealed that the pressure-induced Kondo volume collapse and 4f electron delocalization of Ce reduced the differences between Ce and Al and brought them within the Hume-Rothery (HR) limit for substitutional alloying. The alloy remained after complete release of pressure, which was also accompanied by the transformation of Ce back to its ambient 4f electron localized state and reversal of the Kondo volume collapse, resulting in a non-HR alloy at ambient conditions. PMID:19188608

  19. Cd ion implantation in AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, S. M. C.; Franco, N.; Alves, E.; Lorenz, K.

    2012-10-01

    AlN thin films were implanted with cadmium, to fluences of 1 × 1013 and 8 × 1014 at/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C under flowing nitrogen. Although implantation damage in AlN is known to be extremely stable the crystal could be fully recovered at low fluences. At high fluences the implantation damage was only partially removed. Implantation defects cause an expansion of the c-lattice parameter. For the high fluence sample the lattice site location of the ions was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channelling Spectrometry. Cd ions are found to be incorporated in substitutional Al sites in the crystal and no significant diffusion is seen upon thermal annealing. The observed high solubility limit and site stability are prerequisite for using Cd as p-type dopant in AlN.

  20. Pike International, LLC et al. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pike International LLC, et al. (the Company) is located in New Haven, Connecticut. The Complaint involves the lease of, and renovation activities conducted at, property constructed prior to 1978, located in New Haven, Connecticut.

  1. The evolving genetic risk for sporadic ALS.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Summer B; Downie, Jonathan M; Tsetsou, Spyridoula; Feusier, Julie E; Figueroa, Karla P; Bromberg, Mark B; Jorde, Lynn B; Pulst, Stefan M

    2017-07-18

    To estimate the genetic risk conferred by known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated genes to the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (SALS) using variant allele frequencies combined with predicted variant pathogenicity. Whole exome sequencing and repeat expansion PCR of C9orf72 and ATXN2 were performed on 87 patients of European ancestry with SALS seen at the University of Utah. DNA variants that change the protein coding sequence of 31 ALS-associated genes were annotated to determine which were rare and deleterious as predicted by MetaSVM. The percentage of patients with SALS with a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene was calculated. An odds ratio analysis was performed comparing the burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS vs 324 normal controls. Nineteen rare nonsynonymous variants in an ALS-associated gene, 2 of which were found in 2 different individuals, were identified in 21 patients with SALS. Further, 5 deleterious C9orf72 and 2 ATXN2 repeat expansions were identified. A total of 17.2% of patients with SALS had a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene. The genetic burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS as predicted by MetaSVM was significantly higher than in normal controls. Previous analyses have identified SALS-predisposing variants only in terms of their rarity in normal control populations. By incorporating variant pathogenicity as well as variant frequency, we demonstrated that the genetic risk contributed by these genes for SALS is substantially lower than previous estimates. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. 17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2004-11-29

    It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio.

  3. Al-26 losses from weathered chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of Al-26 and noble gases were conducted in a study of samples of two heavily weathered meteorites. The analyses were performed in accordance with procedures described by Cressy (1970) and by Herzog and Cressy (1974). The analytic data are presented in tables. Evidence is presented which implicates weathering as the most probable cause of the observed variation of Al-26 and the rare gas contents.

  4. Protein Aggregation Inhibitors for ALS Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    mechanisms of neuronal degeneration remain unknown in ALS, it has been postulated that protein misfolding and aggregation may be an early event that...our best compounds from last year at different doses in the ALS mouse model, and investigating possible mechanisms of action of the compounds...attachment of groups for pull-down mechanism of action experiments. Table 1. SAR studies of substituted pyrazolones. Entry R1 R2 EC50 (M) a

  5. Clinical trials for neuroprotection in ALS.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, G; Carlesi, C; Pasquali, L; Piazza, S; Pietracupa, S; Fornai, F; Ruggieri, S; Murri, L

    2010-07-01

    Owing to uncertainty on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. Here we review some of the recent advances in the search for disease-modifying drugs for ALS based on their putative neuroprotective effetcs. A number of more or less established agents have recently been investigated also in ALS for their potential role in neuroprotection and relying on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant or antiapoptotic strategies. Among them Talampanel, beta-lactam antibiotics, Coenzyme Q10, and minocycline have been investigated. Progress has also been made in exploiting growth factors for the treatment of ALS, partly due to advances in developing effective delivery systems to the central nervous system. A number of new therapies have also been identified, including a novel class of compounds, such as heat-shock protein co-inducers, which upregulate cell stress responses, and agents promoting autophagy and mitochondriogenesis, such as lithium and rapamycin. More recently, alterations of mRNA processing were described as a pathogenic mechanism in genetically defined forms of ALS, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations. This knowledge is expected to improve our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism in ALS and developing more effective therapies.

  6. The fecal microbiome of ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Brenner, David; Hiergeist, Andreas; Adis, Carolin; Mayer, Benjamin; Gessner, André; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative motor neuron disease accompanied by both systemic and central nervous system-specific inflammation as well as deregulated energy metabolism. These potential pathogenetic factors have recently been found to mutually interact with the gut microbiota, raising the hypothesis of a link between microbiome alterations and ALS pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to assess whether ALS is associated with an altered composition of the fecal microbiota. We compared the fecal microbiota of 25 ALS patients with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy persons using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Confounding factors and secondary disease effects on the microbiome were minimized by selection of patients without dysphagia, gastrostomy, noninvasive ventilation, or reduced body mass index. Comparing the 2 carefully matched groups, the diversity and the abundance of the bacterial taxa on the different taxonomic levels as well as PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes were almost indistinguishable. Significant differences between ALS patients and healthy controls were only observed with regard to the overall number of microbial species (operational taxonomic units) and in the abundance of uncultured Ruminococcaceae. Conclusively, ALS patients do not exhibit a substantial alteration of the gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of metallic Al and Al/Zn alloys in MSWI bottom ash by alkaline treatment.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Dongxing; Poon, Chi Sun

    2018-02-15

    In order to reduce the leaching of pollutants and remove the Al and Zn/Al alloy from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA), an optimized alkaline pre-treatment procedure was developed in this study. The influences of alkaline conditions on the removal rate of Al and Zn/Al alloy were investigated, including [OH] - concentration, temperature, particle size, liquid/solid ratio and treatment duration. The experimental results showed that the optimized alkaline pre-treatment conditions to efficiently remove the Al and Zn/Al alloy was by using a minimum of 1.0mol/l [OH] - , at 55°C and with a minimal liquid/solid ratio of 5. The removal rate of Al and Zn/Al alloy followed an S-shape curve, in which the slow beginning stage was attributed to the protection of the oxidation layer and the quenched product around the Al and Al/Zn alloy. After 3h of the optimized alkaline pre-treatment, the leaching of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn of the treated MSWIBA was reduced by more than 90% of that of the original MSWIBA. The alkali-silica reaction test further indicated that the expansion of concrete prepared with the pre-treated MSWIBA was significantly reduced and there was no macro-crack or spalling damage on the surface of the tested specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperature dependence of the dielectric response of anodized Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2003-03-01

    The temperature dependence of capacitance, CM, and conductance, GM, of Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors with Cu, Ag, and Au electrodes has been measured between 100 and 340 K at seven frequencies between 10 kHz and 1 MHz. Al2O3 films between 15 and 64 nm thick were formed by anodizing evaporated Al films in borate-glycol or borate-H2O electrolyte. The interface capacitance at the Al2O3-metal interface, CI, which is in series with the capacitance CD due to the Al2O3 dielectric, is determined from plots of 1/CM versus insulator thickness. CI is not fixed for a given metal-insulator interface but depends on the vacuum system used to deposit the metal electrode. CI is nearly temperature independent. When CI is taken into account the dielectric constant of Al2O3 determined from capacitance measurements is ˜8.3 at 295 K. The dielectric constant does not depend on anodizing electrolyte, insulator thickness, metal electrode, deposition conditions for the metal electrode or measurement frequency. By contrast, GM of Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors depends on both the deposition conditions of the metal and on the metal. For Al-Al2O3-Cu capacitors, GM is larger for capacitors with large values of 1/CI that result when Cu is evaporated in an oil-pumped vacuum system. For Al-Al2O3-Ag capacitors, GM does not depend on the Ag deposition conditions.

  9. On the Solar Stimuli That Initiate Makkah Al Mukaramah, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah And Jeddah Flash Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfaki, H.; Yousef, S.; Mawad, Ramy; Algafari, Y. H. O.; Amer, M.; Abdel-Sattar, W.

    2017-12-01

    Severe solar events manifested as highly energetic X-Ray events accompanied by coronal mass ejections ( CMEs) and proton flares caused flash floods in Makkah Al-Mukaramah, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah and Jeddah. In the case of the 20 January 2005 CME that initiated severe flash on the 22 of January. it is shown that the CME lowered the pressure in the polar region and extended the low pressure regime to Saudi Arabia passing by the Mediterranean. Such passage accelerated evaporation and caused Cumulonimbus clouds to form and discharge flash floods over Makkah Al-Mukaramah. On the other hand, solar forcing due coronal holes have a different technique in initiating flash floods. The November 25 2009 and the 13-15 January 2011 Jeddah flash floods are attributed to prompt events due to fast solar streams emanated from two coronal holes that arrived the Earth on 24 November 2009 and 13 January 2011. We present evidences that those streams penetrated the Earth's magnetosphere and hit the troposphere at the western part of the Red Sea, dissipated their energy at 925mb geopotential height and left two hot spots. It follows that the air in the hot spots expanded and developed spots of low pressure air that spread over the Red Sea to its eastern coast. Accelerated evaporation due to reduced pressure caused quick formation of Cumulonimbus clouds that caused flash floods over Makkah Al-Mukaramah and Jeddah.

  10. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  11. Effects of Al(III) and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules. PMID:22163924

  12. Impact of the 26mAl(p, γ) reaction to galactic 26Al yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, D.; Shimizu, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Abe, K.; Beliuskina, O.; Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Chen, A. A.; Ge, Z.; Hayakawa, S.; Imai, N.; Iwasa, N.; Kim, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, M. J.; Kubono, S.; Kwag, M. S.; Liang, J.; Moon, J. Y.; Nishimura, S.; Oka, S.; Park, S. Y.; Psaltis, A.; Teranishi, T.; Ueno, Y.; Yang, L.

    2018-04-01

    Astrophysical observables that are directly linked to nuclear physics inputs provide critical and stringent constraints on nucleosynthetic models. As 26Al was the first specific radioactivity observed in the Galaxy, its origin has fascinated the nuclear astrophysics community for nearly forty years. Despite extensive research, the precise origins of 26Al remain elusive. At present, the sum of all putative stellar contributions generally overestimates the 26Al mass in the interstellar medium. Among the many reactions that influence the yield of 26Al, radiative proton capture on its isomer 26mAl is one of the least constrained reactions by experimental data. To this end, we developed a 26Al isomeric beam and performed proton elastic scattering to search for low-spin states in 27Si. The experimental method and the preliminary results of this on-going study will be presented.

  13. Atomistic simulation of Al-graphene thin film growth on polycrystalline Al substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lan; Zhu, Yongchao; Li, Na; Rong, Yan; Xia, Huimin; Ma, Huizhong

    2018-03-01

    The growth of Al-Graphene composite coatings on polycrystalline Al substrate was investigated by using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Unlike the diffusion behaviors on single crystal surface, most of adatoms were easily bound by the steps on polycrystalline Al surface, owing to the local accelerated energy. Both Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barriers and the steering effect backed up the volmer-weber growth mode, which was consistent with the dynamic growth process observed in the deposit. The morphology of composite coatings was significantly affected by graphene flakes. Enrichment of graphene flakes gave rise to an increase of the local thickness, and graphene flakes only existed in Al grain boundaries. The size of Al grains in the composite coating visibly decreased when compared with that in the pure Al coating. This grain refinement and the mechanical property can be reinforced by the increase of graphene flakes.

  14. Potential skin involvement in ALS: revisiting Charcot's observation - a review of skin abnormalities in ALS.

    PubMed

    Paré, Bastien; Gros-Louis, François

    2017-07-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed. Thus, the skin could be of interest in the study of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes skin changes reported in the literature over the years and discusses about a novel in vitro ALS tissue-engineered skin model, derived from patients, for the study of ALS.

  15. The lowest ionization potentials of Al2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states (X 2 sigma g + and A 2 pi u) of Al2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) X 2 sigma g +) of the Al2 X 3 pi u ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) A 2 pi u) occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of Al3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an Al2 ground electronic state assignment of 3 sigma g -, but the separation between the two lowest states of Al2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3 pi u.

  16. Depolarization currents in Al 2O 3 and MgAl 2O 4 oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalhaes, R. P. M.; Rocha, M. S.; de Souza, S. S.; Blak, A. R.

    2004-06-01

    In the present work, dipole defects in γ-irradiated and thermally treated samples of Al 2O 3 and MgAl 2O 4 oxides are investigated, applying the thermally stimulated depolarisation currents technique (TSDC). The TSDC spectra of MgAl 2O 4 doped with Fe 2+, Fe 3+, Co 2+, Cr 3+ and Mn 2+ show four bands at 130 K, 160 K, 250 K and 320 K, and the spectra of Al 2O 3 doped with Mg 2+, Cr 3+ and Fe 3+ show bands between 230 K and 260 K. It has been observed that the bands at 130 K, 160 K and 250 K in MgAl 2O 4 spinel and that the 230 K and 240 K bands in Al 2O 3 are related to dipole defects. The other bands are possibly related to different types of charge storage mechanisms (space-charge and interfacial polarisation) or deal with distributions in activation energies and/or in relaxation times. A thermal decrease of the TSDC bands for heat treatments above 1000 K has been observed. In MgAl 2O 4 spinel, the 250 K band could be recovered after γ-irradiation and the two dipole peaks in Al 2O 3 were partially recovered. Thermal treatments affect the dipole aggregation processes in both oxides. Optical absorption (AO) results indicate that the presence of bands of water molecules in the infrared region obstructs the appearance of the TSDC bands in both Al 2O 3 and MgAl 2O 4. The 250 K peak in MgAl 2O 4 was correlated to V-type centres and the 250 K peak in Al 2O 3 to a substitutional Mg 2+ ion near a trapped hole localised on an adjacent oxygen ion.

  17. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  18. Assessing behavioural changes in ALS: cross-validation of ALS-specific measures.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Grau, Marta; Costello, Emmet; O'Connor, Sarah; Elamin, Marwa; Burke, Tom; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-07-01

    The Beaumont Behavioural Inventory (BBI) is a behavioural proxy report for the assessment of behavioural changes in ALS. This tool has been validated against the FrSBe, a non-ALS-specific behavioural assessment, and further comparison of the BBI against a disease-specific tool was considered. This study cross-validates the BBI against the ALS-FTD-Q. Sixty ALS patients, 8% also meeting criteria for FTD, were recruited. All patients were evaluated using the BBI and the ALS-FTD-Q, completed by a carer. Correlational analysis was performed to assess construct validity. Precision, sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the BBI when compared to the ALS-FTD-Q, were obtained. The mean score of the whole sample on the BBI was 11.45 ± 13.06. ALS-FTD patients scored significantly higher than non-demented ALS patients (31.6 ± 14.64, 9.62 ± 11.38; p < 0.0001). A significant large positive correlation between the BBI and the ALS-FTD-Q was observed (r = 0.807, p < 0.0001), and no significant correlations between the BBI and other clinical/demographic characteristics indicate good convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. 72% of overall concordance was observed. Precision, sensitivity, and specificity for the classification of severely impaired patients were adequate. However, lower concordance in the classification of mild behavioural changes was observed, with higher sensitivity using the BBI, most likely secondary to BBI items which endorsed behavioural aspects not measured by the ALS-FTD-Q. Good construct validity has been further confirmed when the BBI is compared to an ALS-specific tool. Furthermore, the BBI is a more comprehensive behavioural assessment for ALS, as it measures the whole behavioural spectrum in this condition.

  19. Influence of AlN(0001) Surface Reconstructions on the Wettability of an Al/AlN System: A First-Principle Study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junhua; Liu, Yang; Ning, Xiao-Shan

    2018-05-11

    A successful application of a hot dip coating process that coats aluminum (Al) on aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramics, revealed that Al had a perfect wettability to the ceramics under specific circumstances, which was different from previous reports. In order to elucidate the mechanism that controlled the supernormal wetting phenomenon during the dip coating, a first-principle calculation of an Al(111)/AlN(0001) interface, based on the density functional theory (DFT), was employed. The wettability of the Al melt on the AlN(0001) surface, as well as the effect that the surface reconstruction of AlN and the oxygen adsorption had on Al for the adhesion and the wettability of the Al/AlN system, were studied. The results revealed that a LCM (laterally contracted monolayer) reconstruction could improve the adhesion and wettability of the system. Oxygen adsorption on the free surface of Al decreased the contact angle, because the adsorption reduced of the surface tension of Al. A prefect wetting was obtained only after some of the oxygen atoms adsorbed on the free surface of Al. The supernormal wetting phenomenon came from the surface reconstruction of the AlN and the adsorption of oxygen atoms on the Al melt surface.

  20. Ultrafast decay of hot phonons in an AlGaN/AlN/AlGaN/GaN camelback channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, J. H.; Wu, M.; Morkoç, H.; Liberis, J.; Šermukšnis, E.; Ramonas, M.; Matulionis, A.

    2011-11-01

    A bottleneck for heat dissipation from the channel of a GaN-based heterostructure field-effect transistor is treated in terms of the lifetime of nonequilibrium (hot) longitudinal optical phonons, which are responsible for additional scattering of electrons in the voltage-biased quasi-two-dimensional channel. The hot-phonon lifetime is measured for an Al0.33Ga0.67N/AlN/Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN heterostructure where the mobile electrons are spread in a composite Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN channel and form a camelback electron density profile at high electric fields. In accordance with plasmon-assisted hot-phonon decay, the parameter of importance for the lifetime is not the total charge in the channel (the electron sheet density) but rather the electron density profile. This is demonstrated by comparing two structures with equal sheet densities (1 × 1013 cm-2), but with different density profiles. The camelback channel profile exhibits a shorter hot-phonon lifetime of ˜270 fs as compared with ˜500 fs reported for a standard Al0.33Ga0.67N/AlN/GaN channel at low supplied power levels. When supplied power is sufficient to heat the electrons > 600 K, ultrafast decay of hot phonons is observed in the case of the composite channel structure. In this case, the electron density profile spreads to form a camelback profile, and hot-phonon lifetime reduces to ˜50 fs.

  1. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liming; Liu, Fei; Zhu, Meili

    2014-01-01

    Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated. PMID:28788508

  2. High temperature deformation of NiAl and CoAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    The high temperature mechanical properties of the aluminides are reviewed with respect to their potential as high temperature structural materials. It is shown that NiAl and CoAl are substantially stronger than the pure metals Ni and Co at high temperatures and approach the strength of some superalloys, particularly when those superalloys are tested in "weak" directions. The factors that limit and control the high temperature strengths of NiAl and CoAl are examined to provide a basis for the development of intermetallic alloys of this type.

  3. Processing of In-Situ Al-AlN Metal Matrix Composites via Direct Nitridation Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    to prepare the aluminum melts with desired chemical compositions. Table 1. Chemical compositions of the starting materials. Alloy Mg Fe Cr Si Ni Al...Al 0.001 0.11 0.001 0.04 0.005 bal. Alloy Al Fe Cr Si Ni Mg Mg 0.01 0.12 0.001 0.03 0.006 bal. The ingots were initially cut to chunks with...hours. Figure 26 shows the optical micrographs obtained from the ingots after nitridation reaction of the alloys initially containing Al- 5wt .% Si

  4. Ohmic contacts to Al-rich AlGaN heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Douglas, E. A.; Reza, S.; Sanchez, C.; ...

    2017-06-06

    Due to the ultra-wide bandgap of Al-rich AlGaN, up to 5.8 eV for the structures in this study, obtaining low resistance ohmic contacts is inherently difficult to achieve. A comparative study of three different fabrication schemes is presented for obtaining ohmic contacts to an Al-rich AlGaN channel. Schottky-like behavior was observed for several different planar metallization stacks (and anneal temperatures), in addition to a dry-etch recess metallization contact scheme on Al 0.85Ga 0.15N/Al 0.66Ga 0.34N. However, a dry etch recess followed by n +-GaN regrowth fabrication process is reported as a means to obtain lower contact resistivity ohmic contacts onmore » a Al 0.85Ga 0.15N/Al 0.66Ga 0.34N heterostructure. In conclusion, specific contact resistivity of 5×10 -3 Ω cm 2 was achieved after annealing Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization.« less

  5. Fabrication of SiC-Particles-Shielded Al Spheres upon Recycling Al/SiC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madarasz, D.; Budai, I.; Kaptay, G.

    2011-06-01

    Wettability of liquid A359 alloy on SiC particles under molten salt NaCl-KCl-NaF is found at 180 deg, meaning that SiC particles prefer the molten salt phase against the Al phase or the Al/molten salt interface. Thus, this molten salt can be used for recycling, i.e., to separate the phases in the SiC reinforced Al matrix composites. If the separation process is interrupted, Al droplets (submillimeter solidified powder) can be produced, stabilized/surrounded by a monolayer of shielding SiC particles.

  6. Chemical failure modes of AlQ3-based OLEDs: AlQ3 hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Knox, John E; Halls, Mathew D; Hratchian, Hrant P; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2006-03-28

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III), AlQ3, is used in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as an electron-transport material and emitting layer. The reaction of AlQ3 with trace H2O has been implicated as a major failure pathway for AlQ3-based OLEDs. Hybrid density functional calculations have been carried out to characterize the hydrolysis of AlQ3. The thermochemical and atomistic details for this important reaction are reported for both the neutral and oxidized AlQ3/AlQ3+ systems. In support of experimental conclusions, the neutral hydrolysis reaction pathway is found to be a thermally activated process, having a classical barrier height of 24.2 kcal mol(-1). First-principles infrared and electronic absorption spectra are compared to further characterize AlQ3 and the hydrolysis pathway product, AlQ2OH. The activation energy for the cationic AlQ3 hydrolysis pathway is found to be 8.5 kcal mol(-1) lower than for the neutral reaction, which is significant since it suggests a role for charge imbalance in promoting chemical failure modes in OLED devices.

  7. Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP): An Al Qaeda Affiliate Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    Underwear Bombing ” and an unsuccessful 2010 plan to put parcel bombs on U.S.-bound airplanes. AQAP also seeks to inspire “lone jihad” attacks in the... bomb -maker,5 and Sudanese national Ibrahim al-Qosi, a former bookkeeper for Osama Bin Laden.6 Below the emir are regional commanders and heads of...5 “Profile: Al-Qaeda ‘ Bomb Maker’ Ibrahim al-Asiri,” BBC News, July 4, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-11662143. See also al-Asiri

  8. Synthesis of core-shell AlOOH hollow nanospheres by reacting Al nanoparticles with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Bakina, O. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled AlOOH nanosheets by oxidizing Al nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of Al transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow AlOOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the Al oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic Al accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of Al from the particle interior and the deposition of AlOOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized AlOOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers.

  9. From Snow to Hill to ALS: An epidemiological odyssey in search of ALS causation.

    PubMed

    Armon, Carmel

    2018-05-21

    Establishing mechanisms of disease causation in neurodegenerative diseases has long seemed to be beyond the pale of traditional epidemiological tools. Establishing a plausible mechanism for initiation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has appeared a particularly elusive goal. This review shows that a likely mechanism for ALS initiation may be inferred by applying classical methods of epidemiological inference. Advances in characterizing the biology of ALS suggest that most cases of ALS are cortically-generated, part of the ALS-FTD spectrum, with focal onset and spread by contiguity within the motor super-network. Evidence-based methods identified the most credible exogenous risk factor - smoking. AB Hill's nine viewpoints to inferring causation from association were invoked. The most likely mechanism consistent with smoking being a risk factor for ALS was inferred: cumulative DNA damage, akin to cumulative somatic mutations in carcinogenesis. Focal onset supports the concept that these changes, occurring in a single cell, may trigger the cascade leading to clinical ALS. The plausibility of this mechanism was affirmed by its coherence/consistency with other observations in sporadic, familial and western Pacific ALS. Application of traditional epidemiological reasoning suggests that cumulative DNA damage may contribute to disease onset in ALS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic studies of ALS cases in ALS-SMA families.

    PubMed

    Corcia, Philippe; Vourc'h, Patrick; Blasco, Helene; Couratier, Philippe; Dangoumau, Audrey; Bellance, Remi; Desnuelle, Claude; Viader, Fausto; Pautot, Vivien; Millecamps, Stephanie; Bakkouche, Salah; Salachas, FranÇois; Andres, Christian R; Meininger, Vincent; Camu, William

    2018-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are the most frequent motor neuron disorders in adulthood and infancy, respectively. There is a growing literature supporting common pathophysiological patterns between those disorders. One important clinical issue for that is the co-occurrence of both diseases within a family. To collect families in which ALS and SMA patients co-exist and describe the phenotype and the genotype of ALS patients. Nine families with co-occurrence of SMA and ALS have been gathered over the last 15 years. Epidemiological, phenotype and genetic status were collected. Out of the nine families, six corresponded to the criteria of familial ALS (FALS). Clinical data were available for 11 patients out of the 15 ALS cases. Mean age of onset was 58.5 years, site of onset was lower limbs in nine cases (81.8%), median duration was 22 months. Four ALS patients carried a mutation: three mutations in SOD1 gene (G147N in two cases and one with E121G) and one repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene. Three patients had abnormal SMN1 copy numbers. While the high proportion of familial history of ALS cases in these ALS-SMA pedigrees could have suggested that these familial clusters of the two most frequent MND rely on a genetic background, we failed to exclude that this occurred by chance.

  11. Chemical trend of superconducting transition temperature in hole-doped delafossite of CuAlO2, AgAlO2 and AuAlO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Akitaka; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    We have performed the first-principles calculations about the superconducting transition temperature Tc of hole-doped delafossite CuAlO2, AgAlO2 and AuAlO2. Calculated Tc are about 50 K (CuAlO2), 40 K (AgAlO2) and 3 K(AuAlO2) at maximum in the optimum hole-doping concentration. The low Tc of AuAlO2 is attributed to the weak electron-phonon interaction caused by the low covalency and heavy atomic mass.

  12. Characterization of N-polar AlN in GaN/AlN/(Al,Ga)N heterostructures grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haoran; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Bonef, Bastien; Keller, Stacia; Wienecke, Steven; Speck, James S.; Denbaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-11-01

    In GaN/(Al,Ga)N high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT), AlN interlayer between GaN channel and AlGaN barrier suppresses alloy scattering and significantly improves the electron mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. While high concentrations of gallium were previously observed in Al-polar AlN interlayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, the N-polar AlN (Al x Ga1-x N) films examined by atom probe tomography in this study exhibited aluminum compositions (x) equal to or higher than 95% over a wide range of growth conditions. The also investigated AlN interlayer in a N-polar GaN/AlN/AlGaN/ S.I. GaN HEMT structure possessed a similarly high x content.

  13. ALS and Frontotemporal Dysfunction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Achi, Eugene Y.; Rudnicki, Stacy A.

    2012-01-01

    Though once believed to be a disease that was limited to the motor system, it is now apparent that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be associated with cognitive changes in some patients. Changes are consistent with frontotemporal dysfunction, and may range from mild abnormalities only recognized with formal neuropsychological testing, to profound frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Executive function, behavior, and language are the most likely areas to be involved. Screening helpful in detecting abnormalities includes verbal or categorical fluency, behavioral inventories filled out by the caregiver, and evaluation for the presence of depression and pseudobulbar affect. Patients with cognitive dysfunction have shortened survival and may be less compliant with recommendations regarding use of feeding tubes and noninvasive ventilation. Evolving knowledge of genetic and pathological links between ALS and FTD has allowed us to better understand the overlapping spectrum of ALS and FTD. PMID:22919484

  14. Monoclonal IgM-related AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Milani, Paolo; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2016-06-01

    Monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM)-related light chain (AL) amyloidosis, which accounts for 5%-7% of all AL amyloidosis cases, is a distinct clinical entity that poses specific challenges to clinicians. Several studies reported that although there is a substantial overlap, the pattern of organ involvement is peculiar, with higher frequencies of lung, lymph nodes, and peripheral nervous system involvement. A recent collaborative study from three European referral centers, defined that cardiac involvement, advanced Mayo disease stage, neuropathic, and liver involvement were independent factors that had impact on survival in IgM-AL amyloidosis patients. Once the diagnosis of amyloidosis is made, correct amyloid typing is necessary to design appropriate therapy and follow-up. Treatment is focused on the suppression of the clone, and fast reduction of the circulating free light chains. New drugs targeting the amyloid deposits will be used in combination with anti-clone therapies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. [Al-Biruni--a universal scientist].

    PubMed

    Kujundzić, E; Masić, I

    1999-01-01

    Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others.

  16. Studies of Al-Ti Alloys by SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, K.; Atici, Y.; Keşlİ Oǧlu, K.; Yaşar, E.

    2007-04-01

    Al-Ti (1, 2 wt. %) alloys were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM observations and energy-dispersive x-ray analyses (EDX) showed that the phase structure of Al-Ti (1 %) alloy at 165 μm/s is composed of Al matrix and C, Ni, Fe and Si particles and the Al-Ti (1 %) alloys at 16 and 8 μm/s have only the Al matrix and C particles. It was also found that the Al-Ti (2 %) form the Al matrix and intermetallic TiAl.

  17. Distribution and size of lava shields on the Al Haruj al Aswad and the Al Haruj al Abyad Volcanic Systems, Central Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshaafi, Abdelsalam; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2017-05-01

    The Al Haruj Volcanic Province (AHVP) consists of two distinct volcanic systems. In the north is the system of Al Haruj al Aswad, covering an area of 34,200 km2, while in the south the system of Al Haruj al Abyad, covering an area of 7,850 km2. The systems have produced some 432 monogenetic volcanoes, primarily scoria (cinder) cones, lava shields, and maars. The density distribution of the volcanoes in each system, plotted as eruption points or sites, has a roughly elliptical surface expression, suggesting similar plan-view geometry of the magma sources, here suggested as deep-seated reservoirs. More specifically, the Al Haruj al Aswad magma reservoir has major and minor axes of 210 km and 119 km, respectively, and an area of 19,176 km2, the corresponding figures for the Haruj al Abyad reservoir being 108 km and 74 km, for the axes, and 6209 km2 for the area. We measured 55 lava shields on the AHVP. They are mostly restricted to the northern and southern parts of AHVP and date from late Miocene to (at least) the end of Pleistocene, while some may have been active into Holocene. In fact, although primarily monogenetic, some of the lava shields show evidence of (possibly Holocene) fissure eruptions in the summit parts. The early lava shields tend to be located at the edges of volcanic systems and with greater volumes than later (more central) shields. The average lava shield basal diameter is 4.5 km and height 63 m. There is strong linear correlation between lava shield volume and basal area, the coefficient of determination (R2) being about 0.75. When 22 Holocene Icelandic lava shields are added to the dataset, for comparison, the correlation between volume and basal area becomes R2 = 0.95. Numerical models suggest that the local stress fields favoured rupture and dyke injection at the margins of the source reservoirs during late Miocene - early Pliocene, in agreement with the distribution of the early, large-volume shields.

  18. Defect structures in ordered intermetallics; grain boundaries and surfaces in FeAl, NiAl, CoAl and TiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutasa, Batsirai Manyara

    Ordered intermetallics based on transition metal aluminides have been proposed as structural materials for advanced aerospace applications. The development of these materials, which have the advantages of low density and high operating temperatures, have been focused on the aluminides of titanium, nickel and iron. Though these materials exhibit attractive properties at elevated temperatures, their utilization is limited due to their propensity for low temperature fracture and susceptibility to decreased ductility due to environmental effects. A major embrittlement mechanism at ambient temperatures in these aluminides has been by the loss of cohesive strength at the interfaces (intergranular failure). This study focuses on this mechanism of failure, by undertaking a systematic study of the energies and structures of specific grain boundaries in some of these compounds. The relaxed atomistic grain boundary structures in B2 aluminides, FeAl, NiAl and CoAl and L10 gamma-TiAl were investigated using molecular statics and embedded atom potentials in order to explore general trends for a series of B2 compounds as well as TiAl. The potentials used correctly predict the proper mechanism of compositional disorder of these compounds. Using these potentials, point defects, free surface energies and various grain boundary structures of similar energies in three B2 compounds, FeAl, NiAl and CoAl were studied. These B2 alloys exhibited increasing anti-phase boundary energies respectively. The misorientations chosen for detailed study correspond to the Sigma5(310) and Sigma5(210) boundaries. These boundaries were investigated with consideration given to possible variations in the local chemical composition. The effects of both boundary stoichiometry and bulk stoichiometry on grain boundary energetics were also considered. Defect energies were calculated for boundaries contained in both stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric bulk. The surface energies for these aluminides were also

  19. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  20. AlN based piezoelectric micromirror.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jian; Li, Qi; Feng, Chuhuan; Li, Wei; Yu, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Aiming to pursue a micromirror possessing many desired characteristics, such as linear control, low power consumption, fast response, and easy fabrication, a new piezoelectric actuation strategy is presented. Different from conventional piezoelectric actuation cases, we first propose using AlN film as the active layer for actuating the micromirror. Owing to its good CMOS compatible deposition and patterning techniques, the AlN based piezoelectric micromirror has been successfully fabricated with a modified silicon-on-insulator-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) process. At the same time, various mirror movement modes operating at high frequencies and excellent linear relationship between the movement and the control signal both have been experimentally demonstrated.

  1. An Alternative Perspective on von Winterfeldt et al.'s (1997) Test of Consequence Monotonicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Regenwetter, Michel; Niederee, Reinhard; Heyer, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    D. von Winterfeldt, N.-K. Chung, R. D. Luce, and Y. Cho (see record 1997-03378-008) provided several tests for consequence monotonicity of choice or judgment, using certainty equivalents of gambles. The authors reaxiomatized consequence monotonicity in a probabilistic framework and reanalyzed von Winterfeldt et al.'s main experiment via a…

  2. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  3. Electronic structures of Al-Si clusters and the magic number structure Al8Si4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ning; Su, Mingzhi; Chen, Hongshan

    2018-02-01

    The low-energy structures of Al8Sim (m = 1-6) have been determined by using the genetic algorithm combined with density functional theory and the Second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) models. The results show that the close-packed structures are preferable in energy for Al-Si clusters and in most cases there exist a few isomers with close energies. The valence molecular orbitals, the orbital level structures and the electron localisation function (ELF) consistently demonstrate that the electronic structures of Al-Si clusters can be described by the jellium model. Al8Si4 corresponds to a magic number structure with pronounced stability and large energy gap; the 40 valence electrons form closed 1S21P61D102S21F142P6 shells. The ELF attractors also suggest weak covalent Si-Si, Si-Al and Al-Al bonding, and doping Si in aluminium clusters promotes the covalent interaction between Al atoms.

  4. Preparation, deformation, and failure of functional Al-Sn and Al-Sn-Pb nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noskova, N. I.; Vil'Danova, N. F.; Filippov, Yu. I.; Churbaev, R. V.; Pereturina, I. A.; Korshunov, L. G.; Korznikov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in the structure, hardness, mechanical properties, and friction coefficient of Al-30% Sn, Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb (wt %) alloys subjected to severe plastic deformation by equal-channel angular pressing (with a force of 40 tonne) and by shear at a pressure of 5 GPa have been studied. The transition into the nanocrystalline state was shown to occur at different degrees of plastic deformation. The hardness exhibits nonmonotonic variations, namely, first it increases and subsequently decreases. The friction coefficient of the Al-30% Sn, Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys quenched from the melt was found to be 0.33; the friction coefficients of these alloys in the submicrocrystalline state (after equal-channel angular pressing) equal 0.24, 0.32, and 0.35, respectively. The effect of disintegration into nano-sized powders was found to occur in the Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys after severe plastic deformation to ɛ = 6.4 and subsequent short-time holding.

  5. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  6. NEK1 genetic variability in a Belgian cohort of ALS and ALS-FTD patients.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung Phuoc; Van Mossevelde, Sara; Dillen, Lubina; De Bleecker, Jan L; Moisse, Matthieu; Van Damme, Philip; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic impact of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk gene never in mitosis gene a-related kinase 1 (NEK1) in a Belgian cohort of 278 patients with ALS (n = 245) or ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD, n = 33) and 609 control individuals. We identified 2 ALS patients carrying a loss-of-function (LOF) mutation, p.Leu854Tyrfs*2 and p.Tyr871Valfs*17, that was absent in the control group. A third LOF variant p.Ser1036* was present in 2 sibs with familial ALS but also in an unrelated control person. Missense variants were common in both patients (3.6%) and controls (3.0%). The missense variant, p.Arg261His, which was previously associated with ALS risk, was detected with a minor allele frequency of 0.90% in patients compared to 0.33% in controls. Taken together, NEK1 LOF variants accounted for 1.1% of patients, although interpretation of pathogenicity and penetrance is complicated by the observation of occasional LOF variants in unaffected individuals (0.16%). Furthermore, enrichment of additional ALS gene mutations was observed in NEK1 carriers, suggestive of a "second hit" model were NEK1 variants may modify disease presentation of driving mutations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Burden of rare variants in ALS genes influences survival in familial and sporadic ALS.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shirley Yin-Yu; Hsu, Jacob Shujui; Teo, Kay-Cheong; Li, Yan; Kung, Michelle H W; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Chan, Danny; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Li, Miaoxin; Sham, Pak-Chung; Ho, Shu-Leong

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variants are implicated in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it is unclear whether the burden of rare variants in ALS genes has an effect on survival. We performed whole genome sequencing on 8 familial ALS (FALS) patients with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation and whole exome sequencing on 46 sporadic ALS (SALS) patients living in Hong Kong and found that 67% had at least 1 rare variant in the exons of 40 ALS genes; 22% had 2 or more. Patients with 2 or more rare variants had lower probability of survival than patients with 0 or 1 variant (p = 0.001). After adjusting for other factors, each additional rare variant increased the risk of respiratory failure or death by 60% (p = 0.0098). The presence of the rare variant was associated with the risk of ALS (Odds ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.61, p = 0.03), and ALS patients had higher rare variant burden than controls (MB, p = 0.004). Our findings support an oligogenic basis with the burden of rare variants affecting the development and survival of ALS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Genyornis Egg: Response to Miller et al.'s commentary on Grellet-Tinner et al., 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Spooner, Nigel A.; Handley, Warren D.; Worthy, Trevor H.

    2017-04-01

    Williams (1981) and Williams and Rich (1991) attributed Australian Quaternary fossil eggshell that differed from that of emu Dromaius novaehollandiae to the extinct bird Genyornis newtoni without any osteological or embryonic support. Such association by proximity or abundance mirrors the case of the mistaken association of oviraptor eggs to Protoceratops in the 1920's by Andrews (Grellet-Tinner and Makovicky, 2006). No other candidate species was considered, and this attribution has been unchallenged and followed by everyone thereafter. Much research has been done on this Australian eggshell, with one result being that the extinction of the parent of this eggshell is the most well documented for a taxon in Australia (e.g., Miller et al., 1999, 2005). Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016) raised several problems with the identity of the eggshell Williams (1981) attributed to Genyornis newtoni and suggested that extinct megapodes of the genus Progura were the more likely layer of this eggshell type, therein referred to as ;putative Genyornis oological material; (PGOM). Miller et al. (2017) challenged our hypothesis stating that ;Based on the dimensions of the reconstructed Spooner Egg,Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016)argue that PGOM is too small for a bird with the body mass estimated for Genyornis (168-275 kg) … …[and] …. None of the additional PGOM observations reported byGrellet-Tinner et al. (2016)are inconsistent with a Genyornis parent;. Here we take the opportunity to respond to their critique, the basis of which resolves into a few points, which we address in turn.

  9. Polarization and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in anodized Al-Al2O3-Au diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2000-06-01

    Polarization in anodic Al2O3 films is measured by using quasi-dc current-voltage (I-V) curves of Al-Al2O3-Au diodes. A reproducible polarization state is established by applying a negative voltage to the Au electrode of a rectifying Al-Al2O3-Au diode. The difference between subsequent I-V curves with Au positive is a measure of polarization in the sample. The magnitude of polarization charge in Al2O3 depends on the anodizing electrolyte. Al2O3 films formed in H2O-based electrolytes have approximately ten times the polarization charge of Al2O3 films formed in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte. Anodizing conditions that produce greater polarizing charge in anodic Al2O3 result in voltage-time curves during anodization under galvanostatic conditions that are nonlinear. Anodic films with greater polarizing charge also have a greater apparent interface capacitance which is independent of Al2O3 thickness. I-V curves of Al-Al2O3-Au diodes for increasing voltage are dominated by polarization. I-V curves for decreasing voltage are reproducible and parallel but depend on the maximum current and voltage reached during the measurement. There is no single current corresponding to a given voltage. I-V curves for decreasing voltage are analyzed assuming that the conduction mechanism is Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling. There is a qualitative difference between the FN tunneling parameters for Al2O3 films formed in H2O-based electrolytes and those formed in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte. For the former the value of the exponential term in the FN analysis increases as the value of maximum voltage and current in an I-V characteristic increases, while the value of the pre-exponential term is nearly constant. For the latter, the exponential term is nearly constant as maximum voltage and current increase, but the pre-exponential term decreases by about 5 decades. Thus polarization charge incorporated during formation of anodized Al2O3 strongly affects the formation of the insulating

  10. CVD Fiber Coatings for Al2O3/NiAl Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Daniel E.

    1995-01-01

    While sapphire-fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide (Al2O3/NiAl) composites are an attractive candidate for high-temperature structures, the significant difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the NiAl matrix and the sapphire fiber creates substantial residual stresses in the composite. This study seeks to produce two fiber-coating systems with the potential to reduce the residual stresses in the sapphire/NiAl composite system. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to produce both the compensating and compliant-fiber coatings for use in sapphire/NiAl composites. A special reactor was designed and built to produce the FGM and to handle the toxic nickel precursors. This process was successfully used to produce 500-foot lengths of fiber with coating thicknesses of approximately 3 microns, 5 microns, and 10 microns.

  11. Grain refinement of 7075Al alloy microstructures by inoculation with Al-Ti-B master alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotea, V.; Juhasz, J.; Cadar, F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to bring some clarification on grain refinement and modification of high strength alloys used in aerospace technique. In this work it was taken into account 7075 Al alloy, and the melt treatment was carried out by placing in the form of master alloy wire ternary AlTiB the casting trough at 730°C. The morphology of the resulting microstructures was characterized by optical microscopy. Micrographs unfinished and finished with pre-alloy containing ternary Al5Ti1B evidence fine crystals, crystal containing no columnar structure and highlights the size of the dendrites, and intermetallic phases occurring at grain boundaries in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. It has been found that these intermetallic compounds are MgZn2 type. AlTiB master alloys finishing ensures a fine eutectic structure, which determines the properties of hardware and improving the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys used in aeronautical engineering.

  12. Al-centered icosahedral ordering in Cu46Zr46Al8 bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. Z.; Hui, X.; Chen, G. L.; Liu, Z. K.

    2009-03-01

    Icosahedral short-range order, of which Al atoms are caged in the center of icosahedra with Cu and Zr atoms being the vertices, has been evidenced in the Cu46Zr46Al8 glassy structure by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. These Al-centered clusters distribute irregularly in the three-dimensional space and form a "backbone" structure of the Cu46Zr46Al8 glass alloy. It is suggested that this kind of local structural feature is attributed to the requirement of efficient dense packing and the chemical affinity between Zr-Zr, Zr-Al, and Cu-Zr atoms. Our calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. The Existence of a Designer Al=Al Double Bond in the LiAl2 H4- Cluster Formed by Electronic Transmutation.

    PubMed

    Lundell, Katie A; Zhang, Xinxing; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Bowen, Kit H

    2017-12-22

    The Al=Al double bond is elusive in chemistry. Herein we report the results obtained via combined photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio studies of the LiAl 2 H 4 - cluster that confirm the formation of a conventional Al=Al double bond. Comprehensive searches for the most stable structures of the LiAl 2 H 4 - cluster have shown that the global minimum isomer I possesses a geometric structure which resembles that of Si 2 H 4 , demonstrating a successful example of the transmutation of Al atoms into Si atoms by electron donation. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum discovered the coexistence of two isomers in the ion beam, including the one with the Al=Al double bond. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  15. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  16. Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar ALS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ball, Laura J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech…

  17. SPI measurements of Galactic 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, R.; Knödlseder, J.; Lichti, G. G.; Kretschmer, K.; Schanne, S.; Schönfelder, V.; Strong, A. W.; von Kienlin, A.; Weidenspointner, G.; Winkler, C.; Wunderer, C.

    2003-11-01

    The precision measurement of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from Galactic 26Al is one of the goals of the SPI spectrometer on INTEGRAL with its Ge detector camera. We aim for determination of the detailed shape of this gamma-ray line, and its variation for different source regions along the plane of the Galaxy. Data from the first part of the core program observations of the first mission year have been inspected. A clear detection of the 26Al line at =~ 5-7 sigma significance demonstrates that SPI will deepen 26Al studies. The line intensity is consistent with expectations from previous experiments, and the line appears narrower than the 5.4 keV FWHM reported by GRIS, more consistent with RHESSI's recent value. Only preliminary statements can be made at this time, however, due to the multi-component background underlying the signal at =~ 40 times higher intensity than the signal from Galactic 26Al.

  18. Joint SSRTNet/ALS-MES Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Shuh, David; Van Hove, Michel

    2001-11-30

    This joint workshop brought together experimentalists and theorists interested in synchrotron radiation and highlighted subjects relevant to molecular environmental science (MES). The strong mutual interest between the participants resulted in joint sessions on the first day, followed by more specialized parallel sessions on the second day. Held in conjunction with the Advanced Light Source (ALS) Users' Association Annual Meeting at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), the Synchrotron Radiation Research Theory Network (SRRTNet) workshop was co-organized by Michel Van Hove (Berkeley Lab and University of California, Davis) and Andrew Canning (Berkeley Lab), while David Shuh (Berkeley Lab) organized themore » ALS-MES workshop. SRRTNet is a global network that promotes the interaction of theory and experiment (http://www.cse.clrc.ac.uk/Activity/SRRTnet). The ALS-MES project is constructing Beamline 11.0.2.1-2, a new soft x-ray beamline for MES investigations at photon energies from 75 eV to 2 keV, to provide photons for wet spectroscopy end stations and an upgraded scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM). The ALS-MES beamline and end stations will be available for users in the late fall of 2002.« less

  19. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  20. U-ALS: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…

  1. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  2. Hopkins in the A/L

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-18

    View of Mike Hopkins, Expedition 38 Flight Engineer (FE), during remove and replace (R&R) of Hard Upper Torso (HUT) of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), in the airlock (A/L) during preparation for EVA-24. Photo was taken during Expedition 38. Image was released by astronaut on Twitter.

  3. Data used in Xu et al., 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mercury emissions data from anthropogenic sources as described in Xu et al., 2016.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Xu, X., N. Liu, M. Landis, X. Feng, and G. Qiu. Characteristics and distributions of atmospheric mercury emitted from anthropogenic sources in Guiyang, southwestern China. Acta Geochimica. Springer, Heidelburg, GERMANY, 1-11, (2016).

  4. Doping effects on UPd 2Al 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geibel, C.; Schank, C.; Jährling, F.; Buschinger, B.; Grauel, A.; Lühmann, T.; Gegenwart, P.; Helfrich, R.; Reinders, P. H. P.; Steglich, F.

    1994-04-01

    We present first results of a doping study on the U site on UPd 2Al 3. These results give further support for a tetravalent uranium configuration and an induced type of antiferromagnetic ordering. They confirm the importance of an unperturbed electronic configuration for both antiferromagnetic long-range ordering and heavy-fermion superconductivity. Implications for the interaction between both phenomena are discussed.

  5. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  6. Hughes et al.: Science or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, L. Anthony; Siegel, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The Hughes et al. paper is critiqued generally and in specific areas. The weak nature of the authors' empirical work is discussed along with their enigmatic writing and vague and incorrect use of references, and their simultaneous use of sweeping statements of opinion and narrow analytical focus. This review examines the authors' errors…

  7. A reply to King et al

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Swanson; Jerry F. Franklin; Robert L. Beschta; Charles M. Crisafulli; Dominick A. DellaSala; Richard Hutto; David Lindenmayer; Frederick J. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    King et al are correct in their assessment of an increase in research and management interest in early successional stages after disturbance. But their claim that “... the conservation status of species that depend on early successional forest is now widely appreciated by natural resource management agencies” merits further reflection. Etc.

  8. Al Eskan disease: Persian Gulf syndrome.

    PubMed

    Korényi-Both, A L; Korényi-Both, A L; Juncer, D J

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the potential relationship between Al Eskan disease and the Persian Gulf syndrome. Al Eskan disease, reported in Military Medicine in 1992, is a novel and previously unreported condition triggered by the exceptionally fine sand dust of the Central and Eastern Saudi Arabian peninsula. We repeat our study of the pathogenesis of Al Eskan disease to include the ultrastructural and microanalytical study of the sand, aerobiological studies of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the etiology, symptoms, and prevalence of the disease. We conclude that immunodepression resulting from the continued presence of sand particles less than 1 micron in diameter in the lungs and bodies of Persian Gulf veterans explains not only the symptoms of the hyperegic lung condition of phase I and the symptoms of phase II of Al Eskan disease, but also provides an important clue to a common factor in most cases of Persian Gulf illnesses. We include a discussion of most of the commonly suspected agents in the Persian Gulf syndrome. In this case, we conclude that each of these factors, such as oil well fires, old-world diseases, or depleted uranium, are probably adjuvant or contributing causes. The only common exposure that would lead to recognition of the Persian Gulf syndrome as a single medical condition, rather than a catch-all phrase for unrelated conditions, appears to be exposure to the ubiquitous, fine sand of the area, and a resulting immunosuppression that is aggravated by opportunistic infections and other nonmicrobial ailments.

  9. Bierman {ital et al.}Reply:

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.

    1997-05-01

    reply to the Comment by C.H.Dasso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,XXX(1997). A Reply to the Comment by C.H. Dasso and J. Fern{acute a}ndez-Niello. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. 75 FR 26813 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12155 and 12156] Alabama Disaster AL-00029 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama (FEMA-1908-DR), dated 05/03/2010. Incident: Severe...

  11. 78 FR 22361 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00049

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13530 and 13531] Alabama Disaster AL-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated 04/04/2013. Incident: Severe Storms...

  12. 75 FR 26814 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00031

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12157 and 12158] Alabama Disaster AL-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Alabama (FEMA- 1908-DR), dated 05...

  13. 76 FR 27141 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12545 and 12546] Alabama Disaster AL-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama (FEMA-1971-DR), dated 04/28/2011. Incident: Severe...

  14. 75 FR 474 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 11988 and 11989] Alabama Disaster AL-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Alabama (FEMA- 1866-DR), dated 12...

  15. 78 FR 26100 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13547 and 13548] Alabama Disaster AL-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated 04/23/2013. Incident: Severe Storms...

  16. 77 FR 60003 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00044

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13317 and 13318] Alabama Disaster AL-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Alabama (FEMA- 4082-DR), dated 09...

  17. 77 FR 7227 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13002 and 13003] Alabama Disaster AL-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama (FEMA-4052-DR), dated 02/01/2012. Incident: Severe...

  18. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13443 and 13444] Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of ALABAMA dated 01/10/2013. Incident: Severe Storms and...

  19. ALS syndrome in patients with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashok; Berger, Joseph R

    2006-01-15

    A viral etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been proposed because of the selective vulnerability of motor neurons to certain viruses. During the last 20 years, at least 19 cases of ALS or ALS-like disease have been reported in HIV-1 (HIV) seropositive individuals. To describe two cases of clinically definite ALS in patients with HIV infection and to review the previously reported cases of HIV-associated ALS syndrome. A multidisciplinary ALS center and Neuro-AIDS clinic at a tertiary care university hospital. We investigated and prospectively monitored two patients who had developed clinically definite ALS by El Escorial criteria several years after acquiring the HIV infection. The previously reported cases of ALS or ALS-like disease in patients with HIV infection were reviewed for comparison and contrast with the characteristics of sporadic ALS. The clinical course of ALS in our two HIV seropositive individuals mirrored that of classical sporadic ALS. A review of previously described 19 patients with ALS syndrome revealed clinically definite ALS in 4 cases and clinically probable or possible ALS in 15. ALS commenced at different stages of the HIV disease; in 7 patients, HIV infection was discovered contemporaneously with diagnosis of ALS. CD4+ T cell count ranged from 2 to 560 cells/mm3. Three (1 definite ALS) of the fatal cases were studied at autopsy and all exhibited pathology outside the motor neuron pool. Unlike our patients, 7 of 8 patients with HIV-associated ALS syndrome receiving HAART demonstrated at least partial recovery of their motor deficit. ALS-like syndrome can occur in association with HIV infection; however, the causal relationship remains uncertain. Patients with ALS syndrome related to HIV infection are generally younger in age and often demonstrate pathology outside the motor neuron system. Patients with HIV-associated ALS syndrome may improve following antiretroviral therapy. An aggressive HAART regimen to reduce viral load

  20. Al-Mg isotopic evidence for episodic alteration of Ca-Al-rich inclusions from Allende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, T. J.; Guan, Y.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2007-08-01

    Textures, mineral assemblages, and Al-Mg isotope systematics indicate a protracted, episodic secondary mineralization history for Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Detailed observations from one type B1 CAI, one B2, one compact type A (CTA), and one fluffy type A (FTA) indicate that these diverse types of CAIs are characterized by two distinct textural and mineralogic types of secondary mineralization: (1) grossular-rich domains, concentrated along melilite grain boundaries in CAI interiors, and (2) feldspathoid-bearing domains, confined mostly to CAI margins just interior to the Wark-Lovering rim sequence. The Al-Mg isotopic compositions of most secondary minerals in the type B1 CAI, and some secondary minerals in the other CAIs, show no resolvable excesses of 26Mg, whereas the primary CAI phases mostly yield correlated excesses of 26Mg with increasing Al/Mg corresponding to "canonical" initial 26Al/27Al ˜ 4.5-5 × 10-5. These secondary minerals formed at least 3 Ma after the primary CAI minerals. All but two analyses of secondary minerals from the fluffy type-A CAI define a correlated increase in 26Mg/24Mg with increasing Al/Mg, yielding (26Al/27Al)0 = (4.9 ± 2.8) × 10-6. The secondary minerals in this CAI formed 1.8-3.2 Ma after the primary CAI minerals. In both cases, the timing of secondary alteration is consistent with, but does not necessarily require, alteration in an asteroidal setting. One grossular from the type B2 CAI, and several grossular and secondary feldspar analyses from the compact type A CAI, have excesses of 26Mg consistent with initial 26Al/27Al ˜ 4.5 × 10-5. Especially in the compact type A CAI, where 26Mg/24Mg in grossular correlates with increasing Al/Mg, these 26Mg excesses are almost certainly due to in situ decay of 26Al. They indicate a nebular setting for formation of the grossular. The preservation of these diverse isotopic patterns indicates that heating on the Allende parent body was not pervasive enough to reset isotopic

  1. Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Edge Junctions for Distributed Mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, R. S.; Lichtenberger, A. W.; Tong, C. E.; Blundell, R.; Pan, S.-K.; Kerr, A. R.

    We have fabricated high quality Nb/Al-oxide/Al/Nb edge junctions using a Nb/SiO/sub 2/ bi-layer film as the base electrode, suitable for use as traveling wave mixers. An edge is cut in the bi-layer with an ion gun at a 45 degree angle using a photoresist mask. The wafer is then cleaned in-situ with a physical ion gun clean followed by the deposition of a thin Al (a1) film, which is then thermally oxidized, an optional second Al (a2) layer, and a Nb counter electrode. It was found that devices with an a2 layer resulted in superior electrical characteristics, though proximity effects increased strongly with a2 thickness. The counter electrode is defined with an SF/sub 6/+N/sub 2/ reactive ion etch, using the Al barrier layer as an etch stop. The Al barrier layer is then either removed with an Al wet etch to isolate the individual devices, or the devices are separated with an anodization process. Various ion gun cleaning conditions have been examined; in addition, both wet and plasma etch bi-layer edge surface pre-treatments were investigated. It was found that edge junctions with large widths (i.e., those more suitable for traveling wave mixers) typically benefited more from such treatments. Initial receiver results at 260 GHz have yielded a DSB noise temperature of 60 K.

  2. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al, Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  3. An epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-jabal Al-gharbi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Manal Z M; El-Mabrouk, Khamis; Ewis, Ashraf A

    2013-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to Al-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in Al-jabal Al-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at Al-jabal Al-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed.

  4. An Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; El-Mabrouk, Khamis

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to Al-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in Al-jabal Al-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at Al-jabal Al-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed. PMID:23467624

  5. Al Ghazali's Thoughts on Islamic Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barni, Mahyuddin; Mahdany, Diny

    2017-01-01

    Al Ghazali lived in the Islamic golden age when all the fields of education flourished. There have been many studies of al-Ghazali's thoughts, yet, further and deeper examination from various perspective is needed to get objective and actual thoughts of Al-Ghazali. In al Ghazali's time, there was no term of curriculum, however, the concept emerged…

  6. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangyan; Wu, Yongzhao; Liu, Qun; Li, Rongguang; Su, Yong

    2017-03-01

    The 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr coatings is prepared by slurry process and vacuum diffusion, and the hot corrosion behavior of the stainless steel with/without the coatings is studied under the condition of Na2SO4 film at 950 °C in air. Results show that the corrosion kinetics of stainless steel, the stainless steel with Al-Si coating and the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating follow parabolic laws in several segments. After 24 h corrosion, the sequence of the mass gain for the three alloys is the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating < the stainless steel with Al-Si coating < the stainless steel without any coating. The corrosion products of the three alloys are layered. Thereinto, the corrosion products of stainless steel without coating are divided into two layers, where the outside layer contains a composite of Fe2O3 and FeO, and the inner layer is Cr2O3. The corrosion products of the stainless steel with Al-Si coating are also divided into two layers, of which the outside layer mainly consists of Cr2O3, and the inner layer is mainly SiO2. The corrosion film of the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating is thin and dense, which combines well with substrate. Thereinto, the outside layer is mainly Cr2O3, and the inside layer is Al2O3. In the matrix of all of the three alloys, there exist small amount of sulfides. Continuous and protective films of Cr2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 form on the surface of the stainless steel with Al-Si and Al-Si-Cr coatings, which prevent further oxidation or sulfide corrosion of matrix metals, and this is the main reason for the much smaller mass gain of the two alloys than that of the stainless steel without any coatings in the 24 h hot corrosion process.

  7. Revisiting Deng et al.'s Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Hwang, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chun-Wei; Li, Chuan-Ming

    2011-09-01

    The multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol [Deng et al. in Chin. Phys. Lett. 23: 1084-1087, 2006] is revisited in this study. It is found that the performance of Deng et al.'s protocol can be much improved by using the techniques of block-transmission and decoy single photons. As a result, the qubit efficiency is improved 2.4 times and only one classical communication, a public discussion, and two quantum communications between each agent and the secret holder are needed rather than n classical communications, n public discussions, and 3n/2 quantum communications required in the original scheme.

  8. Structures and stabilities of Al(n) (+), Al(n), and Al(n) (-) (n=13-34) clusters.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Andrés; López, José M

    2009-02-14

    Putative global minima of neutral (Al(n)) and singly charged (Al(n) (+) and Al(n) (-)) aluminum clusters with n=13-34 have been located from first-principles density functional theory structural optimizations. The calculations include spin polarization and employ the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof to describe exchange-correlation electronic effects. Our results show that icosahedral growth dominates the structures of aluminum clusters for n=13-22. For n=23-34, there is a strong competition between decahedral structures, relaxed fragments of a fcc crystalline lattice (some of them including stacking faults), and hexagonal prismatic structures. For such small cluster sizes, there is no evidence yet for a clear establishment of the fcc atomic packing prevalent in bulk aluminum. The global minimum structure for a given number of atoms depends significantly on the cluster charge for most cluster sizes. An explicit comparison is made with previous theoretical results in the range n=13-30: for n=19, 22, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30 we locate a lower energy structure than previously reported. Sizes n=32, 33 are studied here for the first time by an ab initio technique.

  9. Solidification processing of intermetallic Nb-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Preston P.; Oliver, Ben F.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    Several Nb-Al alloys, including single-phase NbAl3 and the eutectic of Nb2Al and NbAl3, were prepared either by nonconsumable arc melting in Ar or by zone processing in He following initial induction melting and rod casting, and the effect of the solidification route on the microstructure and room-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys was investigated. Automated control procedures and melt conditions for directional solidification of NbAl3 and the Nb2Al/Nb3Al eutectic were developed; high purity and stoichiometry were obtained. The effects of ternary additions of Ti and Ni are described.

  10. Pressure induced coordination change of Al in silicate melts from Al K edge XANES of high pressure NaAlSi2O6-NaAlSi3O8 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dien; Secco, R. A.; Bancroft, G. M.; Fleet, M. E.

    Aluminum K-edge XANES spectra of high pressure and high temperature (4.4 GPa and 1575°C) glasses along the NaAlSi2O6 (Jd)-NaAlSi3O8 (Ab) join are reported using synchrotron radiation, and shown to provide direct experimental evidence for the pressure-induced coordination change of Al. Five- and six-fold coordinated Al (5Al and 6Al), characterized by Al K-edge positions at 1567.8 and 1568.7 eV, respectively, first appear in glass of composition Jd60Ab40 and increase in proportion progressively with increasing Jd content. The end-member jadeite glass contains about 6% of each of 5Al and 6Al. The present direct measurements confirm literature suggestions for the important role of Al in controlling viscosity and diffusion in mantle melts.

  11. Valence subband coupling effect on polarization of spontaneous emissions from Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huimin; Yu, Tongjun; Yuan, Gangcheng; Jia, Chuanyu; Chen, Genxiang; Zhang, Guoyi

    2012-12-03

    The optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) were investigated using the theoretical model based on the k·p method. Numerical results show that there is valence subband coupling which can influence the peak emission wavelength and emission intensity for TE and TM polarization components from Al-rich AlGaN/AlN QWs. Especially the valence subband coupling could be strong enough when CH1 is close to HH1 and LH1 subbands to modulate the critical Al content switching dominant emissions from TE to TM polarization. It is believed that the valence subband coupling may give important influence on polarization properties of spontaneous emissions and should be considered in designing high efficiency AlGaN-based ultraviolet (UV) LEDs.

  12. Beyond al-Qaeda. Part 1. The Global Jihadist Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    of Western Converts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 CHAPTER FOUR Al-Qaeda’s Finances ...terrorists associated with al-Qaeda. (See pp. 44–47.) Al-Qaeda’s Finances Al-Qaeda has also modified the way it moves funds around the globe. Before...and Anthony Davis. Within RAND we cannot fail to acknowledge the important contributions to our understanding of al-Qaeda finances made by the RAND

  13. Bulk Al-Al3Zr composite prepared by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion for high-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkhorshid, E.; Enayati, M. H.; Sabooni, S.; Karimzadeh, F.; Paydar, M. H.

    2017-08-01

    Bulk Al/Al3Zr composite was prepared by a combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and hot extrusion processes. Elemental Al and Zr powders were milled for up to 10 h and heat treated at 600°C for 1 h to form stable Al3Zr. The prepared Al3Zr powder was then mixed with the pure Al powder to produce an Al-Al3Zr composite. The composite powder was finally consolidated by hot extrusion at 550°C. The mechanical properties of consolidated samples were evaluated by hardness and tension tests at room and elevated temperatures. The results show that annealing of the 10-h-milled powder at 600°C for 1 h led to the formation of a stable Al3Zr phase. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results confirmed that the formation of Al3Zr began with the nucleation of a metastable phase, which subsequently transformed to the stable tetragonal Al3Zr structure. The tension yield strength of the Al-10wt%Al3Zr composite was determined to be 103 MPa, which is approximately twice that for pure Al (53 MPa). The yield stress of the Al/Al3Zr composite at 300°C is just 10% lower than that at room temperature, which demonstrates the strong potential for the prepared composite to be used in high-temperature structural applications.

  14. Rechargeable Al/Cl2 battery with molten AlCl4/-/ electrolyte.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Giner, J.; Burrows, B.

    1972-01-01

    A molten salt system based on Al- and Cl2 carbon electrodes, with an AlCl3 alkali chloride eutectic as electrolyte, offers promise as a rechargeable, high energy density battery which can operate at a relatively low temperature. Electrode kinetic studies showed that the electrode reactions at the Al anode were rapid and that the observed passivation phenomena were due to the formation at the electrode surface of a solid salt layer resulting from concentration changes on anodic or cathodic current flow. It was established that carbon electrodes were intrinsically active for chlorine reduction in AlCl3-alkali chloride melts. By means of a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters were determined.

  15. Room-Temperature Quantum Ballistic Transport in Monolithic Ultrascaled Al-Ge-Al Nanowire Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Sistani, Masiar; Staudinger, Philipp; Greil, Johannes; Holzbauer, Martin; Detz, Hermann; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2017-08-09

    Conductance quantization at room temperature is a key requirement for the utilizing of ballistic transport for, e.g., high-performance, low-power dissipating transistors operating at the upper limit of "on"-state conductance or multivalued logic gates. So far, studying conductance quantization has been restricted to high-mobility materials at ultralow temperatures and requires sophisticated nanostructure formation techniques and precise lithography for contact formation. Utilizing a thermally induced exchange reaction between single-crystalline Ge nanowires and Al pads, we achieved monolithic Al-Ge-Al NW heterostructures with ultrasmall Ge segments contacted by self-aligned quasi one-dimensional crystalline Al leads. By integration in electrostatically modulated back-gated field-effect transistors, we demonstrate the first experimental observation of room temperature quantum ballistic transport in Ge, favorable for integration in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor platform technology.

  16. Al Speciation in Silicate Melts: AlV a new Network Former?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuville, D. R.; Florian, P.; de Ligny, D.; Montouillout, V.; Massiot, D.

    2009-05-01

    The first human glasses were made 3500 BC. It was essentially sodo-lime silicate glass. To improve the chemical resistance, the thermal properties and increase the viscosity it is interesting to add aluminum in these silicates. But what is the speciation of the aluminum and how it varies according to the chemical composition and to the temperature? The aluminum appears essentially in four or five fold coordination in glasses and melts melted. The proportion of [5]Al varies according to the alkaline or to the earth-alkaline content and to the temperature. We shall present in a first part the influence of the network-modifier on the proportion of [5]Al and then we shall present some new results of absorption of high-temperature using NMR and XANES spectroscopy at the Al K-edge. Finally, from glass transition temperature measurements we propose to explain that [5]Al can be a new network former.

  17. Two-Phase Eutectic Growth in Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senninger, Oriane; Peters, Matthew; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2018-02-01

    The microstructure developed by two-phase lamellar eutectics (α ) -(θ {-Al}2{Cu}) in Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Ag alloys is analyzed. A model of two-phase eutectic growth in multicomponent alloys is used to determine the scaling law of the eutectic microstructure using the alloy thermophysical properties. The application of the model to these alloys shows that the addition of Ag to Al-Cu alloys does not significantly change the length scale of the microstructure, which is in agreement with previous experimental studies. This is explained by the combined phenomena of the decrease in interface energies with the addition of Ag and the superheating of the (α ) phase interface induced by the Ag composition profile.

  18. Al nanogrid electrode for ultraviolet detectors.

    PubMed

    Ding, G; Deng, J; Zhou, L; Gan, Q; Hwang, J C M; Dierolf, V; Bartoli, F J; Mazuir, C; Schoenfeld, W V

    2011-09-15

    Optical properties of Al nanogrids of different pitches and gaps were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation predicted that surface plasmons at the air/Al interface would enhance ultraviolet transmission through the subwavelength gaps of the nanogrid, making it an effective electrode on GaN-based photodetectors to compensate for the lack of transparent electrode and high p-type doping. The predicted transmission enhancement was verified by confocal scanning optical microscopy performed at 365 nm. The quality of the nanogrids fabricated by electron-beam lithography was verified by near-field scanning optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the results, the pitch and gap of the nanogrids can be optimized for the best trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmission at different wavelengths. Based on different cutoff wavelengths, the nanogrids can also double as a filter to render photodetectors solar-blind.

  19. DFT study of Al doped armchair SWCNTs

    SciTech Connect

    Dhiman, Shobhna, E-mail: s-dhiman@hotmail.com; Rani, Anita; Kumar, Ranjan

    2016-05-23

    Electronic properties of endohedrally doped armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a chain of six Al atoms have been studied using ab-initio density functional theory. We investigate the binding energy/atom, ionization potential, electron Affinity and Homo-Lumo gap of doped armchair SWNTs from (4,4) to (6,6) with two ends open. BE/dopant atom and ionization potential is maximum for (6, 6) doped armchair carbon nanotube; suggest that it is more stable than (4, 4) and (5, 5) doped tubes. HOMO - LUMO gap of Al doped arm chair carbon nanotubes decreases linearly with the increase in diameter of the tube. This showsmore » that confinement induce a strong effect on electronic properties of doped tubes. These combined systems can be used for future nano electronics. The ab–initio calculations were performed with SIESTA code using generalized gradient approximation (GGA).« less

  20. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L.

    1997-04-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, andmore » wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.« less

  1. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Adenosine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Ana M; Rei, Nádia; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2018-01-01

    In the present review we discuss the potential involvement of adenosinergic signaling, in particular the role of adenosine receptors, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Though the literature on this topic is not abundant, the information so far available on adenosine receptors in animal models of ALS highlights the interest to continue to explore the role of these receptors in this neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, all motor neurons affected in ALS are responsive to adenosine receptor ligands but interestingly, there are alterations in pre-symptomatic or early symptomatic stages that mirror those in advanced disease stages. Information starts to emerge pointing toward a beneficial role of A 2A receptors (A 2A R), most probably at early disease states, and a detrimental role of caffeine, in clear contrast with what occurs in other neurodegenerative diseases. However, some evidence also exists on a beneficial action of A 2A R antagonists. It may happen that there are time windows where A 2A R prove beneficial and others where their blockade is required. Furthermore, the same changes may not occur simultaneously at the different synapses. In line with this, it is not fully understood if ALS is a dying back disease or if it propagates in a centrifugal way. It thus seems crucial to understand how motor neuron dysfunction occurs, how adenosine receptors are involved in those dysfunctions and whether the early changes in purinergic signaling are compensatory or triggers for the disease. Getting this information is crucial before starting the design of purinergic based strategies to halt or delay disease progression.

  2. Laughter, crying and sadness in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Thakore, Nimish J; Pioro, Erik P

    2017-01-01

    Background Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is prevalent in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but there is limited information on its associations and course. Objectives Explore prevalence, associations, course and manifestations of PBA in outpatient cohort of patients with ALS and examine its relationship to depression. Methods Self-reported measures of PBA and depression (Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively) were obtained from consecutive patients with ALS using tablet devices in waiting rooms (Knowledge Program). Results PBA (CNS-LS ≥13) was seen in 209/735 patients (28.4%). PBA was associated with bulbar onset and dysfunction, upper motor neuron dysfunction, cognitive impairment, depression and lower quality of life. A multivariable model that included lower bulbar and gross motor subscores, female gender, younger age and shorter duration of disease predicted PBA with 74% accuracy. CNS-LS scores increased only slowly with time. Women with PBA reported more crying than men. Crying (but not laughter) correlated with depression, and crying was associated with poorer quality of life. Exploratory factor analysis of pooled questions of CNS-LS and PHQ-9 identified three underlying factors (laughter, crying and depression) loaded on appropriate questions of the respective instruments. Conclusion This study identifies associations of PBA and additionally finds PBA (especially crying-predominant PBA) more prevalent in women with ALS. Although the two self-report instruments (CNS-LS and PHQ-9) discriminate well between PBA and depression, there is significant overlap between depression and crying in PBA. Studies of PBA should stratify for gender, examine crying and laughter as separate outcomes and adjust for depression. PMID:28572273

  3. Laughter, crying and sadness in ALS.

    PubMed

    Thakore, Nimish J; Pioro, Erik P

    2017-10-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is prevalent in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but there is limited information on its associations and course. Explore prevalence, associations, course and manifestations of PBA in outpatient cohort of patients with ALS and examine its relationship to depression. Self-reported measures of PBA and depression (Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively) were obtained from consecutive patients with ALS using tablet devices in waiting rooms (Knowledge Program). PBA (CNS-LS ≥13) was seen in 209/735 patients (28.4%). PBA was associated with bulbar onset and dysfunction, upper motor neuron dysfunction, cognitive impairment, depression and lower quality of life. A multivariable model that included lower bulbar and gross motor subscores, female gender, younger age and shorter duration of disease predicted PBA with 74% accuracy. CNS-LS scores increased only slowly with time. Women with PBA reported more crying than men. Crying (but not laughter) correlated with depression, and crying was associated with poorer quality of life. Exploratory factor analysis of pooled questions of CNS-LS and PHQ-9 identified three underlying factors (laughter, crying and depression) loaded on appropriate questions of the respective instruments. This study identifies associations of PBA and additionally finds PBA (especially crying-predominant PBA) more prevalent in women with ALS. Although the two self-report instruments (CNS-LS and PHQ-9) discriminate well between PBA and depression, there is significant overlap between depression and crying in PBA. Studies of PBA should stratify for gender, examine crying and laughter as separate outcomes and adjust for depression. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. NQRS Data for AlDO2 [Al(OD)O] (Subst. No. 0032)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for AlDO2 [Al(OD)O] (Subst. No. 0032)

  5. Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI): An Al-Qaeda Affiliate Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    a comparative methodology that included eight case studies on groups affiliated or associated with Al-Qaeda. These case studies were then used as a... methodology that included eight case studies on groups affiliated or associated with Al-Qaeda. These case studies were then used as a dataset for cross...Case Study Zack Gold With contributions from Pamela G. Faber October 2017 This work was performed under Federal Government

  6. Three-Dimensional FIB/EBSD Characterization of Irradiated HfAl3-Al Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Zilong; Guillen, Donna Post; Harris, William

    2016-09-01

    A thermal neutron absorbing material, comprised of 28.4 vol% HfAl3 in an Al matrix, was developed to serve as a conductively cooled thermal neutron filter to enable fast flux materials and fuels testing in a pressurized water reactor. In order to observe the microstructural change of the HfAl3-Al composite due to neutron irradiation, an EBSD-FIB characterization approach is developed and presented in this paper. Using the focused ion beam (FIB), the sample was fabricated to 25µm × 25µm × 20 µm and mounted on the grid. A series of operations were carried out repetitively on the sample top surface tomore » prepare it for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). First, a ~100-nm layer was removed by high voltage FIB milling. Then, several cleaning passes were performed on the newly exposed surface using low voltage FIB milling to improve the SEM image quality. Last, the surface was scanned by Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) to obtain the two-dimensional image. After 50 to 100 two-dimensional images were collected, the images were stacked to reconstruct a three-dimensional model using DREAM.3D software. Two such reconstructed three-dimensional models were obtained from samples of the original and post-irradiation HfAl3-Al composite respectively, from which the most significant microstructural change caused by neutron irradiation apparently is the size reduction of both HfAl3 and Al grains. The possible reason is the thermal expansion and related thermal strain from the thermal neutron absorption. This technique can be applied to three-dimensional microstructure characterization of irradiated materials.« less

  7. Application of Al-2La-1B Grain Refiner to Al-10Si-0.3Mg Casting Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Lijun; Pan, Ye; Lu, Tao; Li, Chenlin; Pi, Jinhong; Sheng, Ningyue

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the application and microstructure refining effect of an Al-2La-1B grain refiner in Al-10Si-0.3Mg casting alloy. Compared with the traditional Al-5Ti-1B refiner, Al-2La-1B refiner shows better performances on the grain refinement of Al-10Si-0.3Mg alloy. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggests that the crystallite structure features of LaB6 are beneficial to the heterogeneous nucleation of α-Al grains. Regarding the mechanical performances, tensile properties of Al-10Si-0.3Mg casting alloy are prominently improved, due to the refined microstructures.

  8. Superbends expand the scope of Berkeley's ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, David S.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Tamura, Lori S.

    2002-01-22

    While the ALS has turned out to be a world-leader in providing beams of soft X-rays -- indeed, furnishing these beams remains its core mission -- there has nonetheless been a steadily growing demand from synchrotron radiation users for harder X-rays with higher photon energies. The clamor has been strongest from protein crystallographers whose seemingly insatiable appetite for solving structures of biological macromolecules could not be satisfied by the number of crystallography beamlines available worldwide. But how to provide these X-rays in a cost-effective way without disrupting the thriving research programs of the existing ALS users was the problem. Superconductingmore » bend magnets (superbends) provided the answer for the ALS, which adopted a proposal to replace some of the normal combined-function (gradient) magnets in the curved arcs of the storage ring with superconducting dipoles that could generate higher magnetic fields and thus synchrotron light with a higher critical energy.« less

  9. Microplastic flow in SIC/AL composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, N.; Arsenault, R.J.

    Experimentally it has been determined that if a composite containing a reinforcement which has a different (in general lower) thermal coefficient of expansion as compared to the matrix, then upon cooling from the processing or annealing temperature, plastic relaxation of the misfit strain will occur. Also, experimentally it has been shown that as the size of the reinforcement is increased, i.e., from small spheres to large spheres, there is a decrease in the summation of the effective plastic strain in the matrix. In other words there is a decrease in the average dislocation density in the matrix. However, if themore » shape of the reinforcement is changed from spherical to short fiber to continuous filament, then the dislocation density increases. This experimental data is obtained at a constant volume fraction. A very simple model of plastic relaxation based on prismatic punching of dislocations from the interface can account for the decrease in the dislocation density with an increase reinforcement size, and the increase in dislocation density when changing the shape from a sphere to a continuous filament. A FEM analysis of the shape factor is also capable of predicting the correct trend. However, at present the continuum mechanics methods that have been investigated can not predict the size dependence. A simple model to explain the size effect in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiAl composites based on the deformation characteristics of NiAl will be discussed.« less

  10. Diet and dietetics in al-Andalus.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Huetos-Solano, Maria D; García-Lorda, Pilar; Bulló, Mònica

    2006-08-01

    Al-Andalus society (711-1492) based its idea of health on the wisdom of Classical Greece, the Hippocratic-Galenic theories, as well as the Persian and Hindu cultures. The twelfth century in al-Andalus is considered to be the most prolific period for works of a scientific and technical nature. At the time, the main treatises on dietetics were written and this science reached its widest expression with such leading figures as Ibn Wāfīd, Avenzoar, Averroes and Maimonides, whose works revealed the first scientific knowledge on the nutritional processes of the human body. Diet was regarded as being essential for health and the prevention of disease. Dietary guidelines were written for different age groups, different body types and different seasons of the year. The amount of food to be ingested, the number of meals recommended and the order in which the food should be consumed were all issues that were discussed. A variety of foods were thought to have medicinal properties, some of which are known today. The diet in al-Andalus was varied and very probably made a substantial contribution to the origin of the present-day Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, wholemeal cereals, fruit and vegetables, fish, lamb, poultry, nuts and spices. We also find that many of the terms in current use in diet and agriculture are a living testimony to the Arabic influence, as are many of the dishes of our varied Mediterranean gastronomy.

  11. Reply to Comment by Nishimura Et Al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozer, F. S.; Hull, A.; Lejosne, S.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Nishimura et al. (2010, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1193186, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA016876, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JA018242, and in their comment, hereafter called N18) have suggested that chorus waves interact with equatorial electrons to produce pulsating auroras. We agree that chorus can scatter electrons >10 keV, as do Time Domain Structures (TDSs). Lower-energy electrons occurring in pulsating auroras cannot be produced by chorus, but such electrons are scattered and accelerated by TDS. TDSs often occur with chorus and have power in their spectra at chorus frequencies. Thus, the absence of power at low frequencies is not evidence that TDSs are absent, as an example shows. Through examination of equatorial electric field waveforms and electron pitch angle distributions measured on the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites (in place of examining field and particle spectra, as done by Nishimura et al.), we show that chorus cannot produce the field-aligned electrons associated with pulsating auroras in the Nishimura et al. (2010, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1193186) events, but TDSs can. Equatorial field-aligned electron distributions associated with pulsating auroras and created by TDS in the absence of chorus or any other wave at the equator are also shown.

  12. Serrated yielding in Al-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; McShane, H.B.

    1993-05-01

    Serrated yielding (SY) during tensile testing has been observed in Al-Li alloys, both in the binary and the commercial quaternary alloys, in single crystal as well as polycrystalline materials. Serrated yielding is commonly explained by a dynamic strain aging (DSA) model developed by McCormick and van den Beukel. All the solute elements present in Al-Li alloys, viz., Mg, Cu and Li are known to give DSA and SY. Several researchers believe the DSA to be the cause of SY and they attribute the disappearance of SY simply to the removal of solute from the matrix with aging. However, this argumentmore » has serious flaws. The present paper examines this aspect critically. The authors concluded that Al-Li alloys the disappearance of serrated yielding at a certain stage of aging is not due to removal of the solute from the matrix but due to the change in the nature of the metastable [delta][prime] precipitates - from fine coherent shearable precipitates to larger noncoherent nonshearable precipitates - which prevents the formation of the deformation bands. The serrated yielding reappears with extensive over aging due to the dissolution of these precipitates in favor of the equilibrium precipitates. The equilibrium precipitates, being widely spaced, are ineffective in preventing the formation of deformation bands.« less

  13. Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a 60Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893

  14. Room temperature radiolytic synthesized Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a (60)Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation.

  15. Evaluation of aerial microbial pollutants in Al-Haram Al-Nabawi during pilgrimage of 2013.

    PubMed

    Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Boquellah, Nahla; Kaff, Nadia Al; Ahmadi, Majid Al

    2017-01-01

    Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method. Thirty five genera and fifty eight species were identified. The most recovered bacterial genera were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Dermacoccus with 32.47%, 18.18%, 12.85%, and 11.23%, respectively. Fifty nine isolates of fungi were molecularly identified. Aspergillus species had the highest percentage (78%). The other fungal genera identified ( Alternaria triticina , Emericella nidulans , Emericella striata , Mucor circinelloides , Penicillium chrysogenum , Penicillium minioluteum , Rhizopus arrhizus , Rhizopus oryzae , and Syncephalastrum racemosum ) had less than 5% frequency. In places such as Al-Haram Al-Nabawi, a large and crowded public (millions) exist especially during pilgrimages and Ramadan, thus, exposure to microorganisms is high. On the other hand, microorganism infectivity depends on many factors including their virulence, landing site, and person's immunity. For those reasons, many aspects should be considered to avoid aerosol contaminants.

  16. Transitions in Al Coordination during Gibbsite Crystallization Using High-Field 27 Al and 23 Na MAS NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Zhang, Xin; Jaegers, Nicholas R.

    Mechanisms of nucleation and growth of Al hydroxides such as gibbsite from aqueous solution, particularly in highly alkaline conditions, remain poorly understood. In this work, quantitative 27Al and 22Na MAS NMR experiments were conducted on solid samples extracted from the crystallization of gibbsite from an amorphous aluminum hydroxide gel precursor. The use of high magnetic field and fast sample spinning allowed transitional tetrahedral (AlT) and pentahedral (AlP) aluminum species to be observed along with the octahedral aluminum (AlO) that dominates the gibbsite product. Low-coordinated Al species could be detected at concentrations as low as 0.1% of the total Al sites.more » It is established that (a) AlT and AlP coexist on the surface of growing gibbsites even with a combined percentage over the total Al sites of less than 1%; (b) Different synthesis methods generate gibbsite with varying amounts of low-coordinated Al; (c) the amorphous gel precursor contains a significant amount of low-coordinated Al sites with AO: AlP: AlT ratios of approximately 4:2:1; (d) upon hydration, the external, low-coordinated Al sites become six-fold coordinated by interacting with the oxygen in H2O and the 27Al MAS NMR peak position shifts to that for the AlO sites; (e) gibbsite with increased long range order is synthesized over longer times by gradually incorporating residual AlP and AlT sites into octahedrally-coordinated AlO sites; (f) trace Na is predominantly a surface species on gibbsite particles. These findings provide a basis for understanding the gibbsite crystallization mechanism, along with a general means of characterizing gibbsite surface properties that are of equal importance for understanding related processes such as dissolution behavior.« less

  17. Unveiling the Semicoherent Interface with Definite Orientation Relationships between Reinforcements and Matrix in Novel Al3BC/Al Composites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongfeng; Qian, Zhao; Ma, Xia; Chen, Houwen; Gao, Tong; Wu, Yuying; Liu, Xiangfa

    2016-10-05

    High-strength lightweight Al-based composites are promising materials for a wide range of applications. To provide high performance, a strong bonding interface for effective load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement is essential. In this work, the novel Al 3 BC reinforced Al composites have been in situ fabricated through a liquid-solid reaction method and the bonding interface between Al 3 BC and Al matrix has been unveiled. The HRTEM characterizations on the Al 3 BC/Al interface verify it to be a semicoherent bonding structure with definite orientation relationships: (0001) Al 3 BC //(11̅1) Al ;[112̅0] Al 3 BC //[011] Al . Periodic arrays of geometrical misfit dislocations are also observed along the interface at each (0001) Al 3 BC plane or every five (11̅1) Al planes. This kind of interface between the reinforcement and the matrix is strong enough for effective load transfer, which would lead to the evidently improved strength and stiffness of the introduced new Al 3 BC/Al composites.

  18. Relationship between Al content and substitution mechanism of Al-bearing anhydrous bridgmanites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, M.; Inoue, T.; Kakizawa, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is considered that two substitution mechanisms, Tschermak substitution and oxygen vacancy substitution, exist in MgSiO3 bridgmanite for the incorporation of Al in anhydrous condition. Kubo and Akaogi (2000) has conducted the phase equilibrium experiment in the system MgSiO3-Al2O3, and established the phase diagram up to 28 GPa. However the careful observation in the bridgmanite shows that the chemical compositions are slightly deviated from Tschermak substitution join. The same tendency can be also observed in the run products by Irifune et al. (1996). This result indicates that pure Tschermak substitution bridgmanite cannot be stable even in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 join experiment. However, the previous studies used powder samples as the starting materials, so the absorbed water may affect the results. Therefore, we tried to conduct the experiment in the join MgSiO3-Al2O3 in extremely anhydrous condition to clarify whether the pure Tschermak substitution bridgmanite can be stable or not. In addition, we also examined the stability of oxygen vacancy bridgmanite in the extremely anhydrous condition for the comparison. The high pressure synthesis experiments were conducted at 28 GPa and 1600-1700° for 1hour using a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus. Four different Al content samples were prepared as the starting materials along the ideal substitution line of Tschermak (Al=0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mol) and oxygen-vacancy (Al=0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 mol) substitutions, respectively (when total cation of 2). The glass rods were used as the starting materials to eliminate the absorbed water on the sample surface. The chemical compositions of the synthesized bridgmanite could not be measured by EPMA because of small grain size less than submicron. Therefore the chemical compositions were estimated from the result of the XRD pattern by subtracting the amount of the other phases. The estimated chemical compositions of Tschermak substitution bridgmanites were consistent with the

  19. Creep and Toughness of Cryomilled NiAl Containing Cr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Aikin, Beverly; Salem, Jon

    2000-01-01

    NiAl-AlN + Cr composites were produced by blending cryomilled NiAl powder with approx. 10 vol % Cr flakes. In comparison to the as-consolidated matrices, hot isostatically pressed Cr-modified materials did not demonstrate any significant improvement in toughness. Hot extruded NiAl-AlN+10.5Cr, however, possessed a toughness twice that determine for the base NiAl-AlN alloy. Measurement of the 1200 to 1400 K plastic flow properties revealed that the strength of the composites was completely controlled by the properties of the NiAl-AlN matrices. This behavior could be successfully modeled by the Rule-of-Mixtures, where load is shed from the weak Cr to the strong matrix.

  20. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  1. Doping and compensation in Al-rich AlGaN grown on single crystal AlN and sapphire by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Washiyama, Shun; Reddy, Pramod; Gaddy, Benjamin; Sarkar, Biplab; Breckenridge, M. Hayden; Guo, Qiang; Bobea, Milena; Tweedie, James; Mita, Seiji; Irving, Douglas; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko

    2018-02-01

    In order to understand the influence of dislocations on doping and compensation in Al-rich AlGaN, thin films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on different templates on sapphire and low dislocation density single crystalline AlN. AlGaN grown on AlN exhibited the highest conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility for any doping concentration due to low threading dislocation related compensation and reduced self-compensation. The onset of self-compensation, i.e., the "knee behavior" in conductivity, was found to depend only on the chemical potential of silicon, strongly indicating the cation vacancy complex with Si as the source of self-compensation. However, the magnitude of self-compensation was found to increase with an increase in dislocation density, and consequently, AlGaN grown on AlN substrates demonstrated higher conductivity over the entire doping range.

  2. Reduced electron back-injection in Al2O3/AlOx/Al2O3/graphene charge-trap memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sejoon; Song, Emil B.; Min Kim, Sung; Lee, Youngmin; Seo, David H.; Seo, Sunae; Wang, Kang L.

    2012-12-01

    A graphene charge-trap memory is devised using a single-layer graphene channel with an Al2O3/AlOx/Al2O3 oxide stack, where the ion-bombarded AlOx layer is intentionally added to create an abundance of charge-trap sites. The low dielectric constant of AlOx compared to Al2O3 reduces the potential drop in the control oxide Al2O3 and suppresses the electron back-injection from the gate to the charge-storage layer, allowing the memory window of the device to be further extended. This shows that the usage of a lower dielectric constant in the charge-storage layer compared to that of the control oxide layer improves the memory performance for graphene charge-trap memories.

  3. Oxidation behavior of Al/Cr coating on Ti2AlNb alloy at 900 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengang; Liang, Wenping; Miao, Qiang; Chen, Bowen; Ding, Zheng; Roy, Nipon

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Al/Cr coating was fabricated on the surface of Ti2AlNb alloy via rf magnetron sputtering and double glow treatment to enhance oxidation resistance. The protective coating with an outer layer of Al and inner layer of Cr has great bonding strength due to the in-diffusion of Cr and the inter-diffusion between Al and Cr to form Al-Cr alloyed layer which has great hardness. Acoustic emission curve which was detected via WS-2005 scratch tester indicates the bonding strength between Al/Cr coating and substrate is great. Morphology of Ti2AlNb alloy with Al/Cr coating after scratch test shows that the scratch is smooth without disbanding, and the depth and breadth of scratch are changed uniformly. The mass change was reduced after oxidation test due to the Al/Cr protective coating. Isothermal oxidation test at 900 °C was researched. Results indicate that Al/Cr coating provided oxidation resistance of Ti2AlNb alloy with prolonged air exposure at 900 °C. Al2O3 was detected by XRD patterns and SEM images, and was formed on the surface of Ti2AlNb alloy to protect substrate during oxidation test. A certain content of Cr is beneficial for the formation of Al2O3. Besides, Cr2O3 was produced under Al2O3 by outward diffusion of Cr to protect substrate sequentially, no cracks were discovered on Al/Cr protective coating. The process of Ti outward diffusion into surface was suppressive due to integration of Cr-Ti and Al-Ti intermetallics. A steady, adherent and continuous coated layer of Al/Cr on Ti2AlNb alloy increases oxidation resistance.

  4. 78 FR 6172 - In the Matter of the Designation of Ahmed Abdullah Saleh al-Khazmari al-Zahrani Also Known as Abu...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8168] In the Matter of the Designation of Ahmed Abdullah Saleh al- Khazmari al-Zahrani Also Known as Abu Maryam al-Saudi Also Known as Ahmed Abdullah S al-Zahrani... Abu Maryam al-Saudi; also known as Ahmed Abdullah S al-Zahrani, also known as Ahmad Abdullah Salih Al...

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Al-Induced Genes in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Root Apex: New Insight into Al Toxicity and Resistance Mechanisms in an Al Accumulating Species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia Meng; Fan, Wei; Jin, Jian Feng; Lou, He Qiang; Chen, Wei Wei; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2017-01-01

    Relying on Al-activated root oxalate secretion, and internal detoxification and accumulation of Al, buckwheat is highly Al resistant. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these processes are still poorly understood. It is well-known that root apex is the critical region of Al toxicity that rapidly impairs a series of events, thus, resulting in inhibition of root elongation. Here, we carried out transcriptome analysis of the buckwheat root apex (0-1 cm) with regards to early response (first 6 h) to Al stress (20 μM), which is crucial for identification of both genes and processes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. We obtained 34,469 unigenes with 26,664 unigenes annotated in the NCBI database, and identified 589 up-regulated and 255 down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under Al stress. Functional category analysis revealed that biological processes differ between up- and down-regulated genes, although 'metabolic processes' were the most affected category in both up- and down-regulated DEGs. Based on the data, it is proposed that Al stress affects a variety of biological processes that collectively contributes to the inhibition of root elongation. We identified 30 transporter genes and 27 transcription factor (TF) genes induced by Al. Gene homology analysis highlighted candidate genes encoding transporters associated with Al uptake, transport, detoxification, and accumulation. We also found that TFs play critical role in transcriptional regulation of Al resistance genes in buckwheat. In addition, gene duplication events are very common in the buckwheat genome, suggesting a possible role for gene duplication in the species' high Al resistance. Taken together, the transcriptomic analysis of buckwheat root apex shed light on the processes that contribute to the inhibition of root elongation. Furthermore, the comprehensive analysis of both transporter genes and TF genes not only deep our understanding on the responses of

  6. Millimeter distance effects of surface plasmon polaritons in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal diodes is a soft dielectric breakdown that changes the high resistance of as-prepared diodes to a low resistance state. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-metal diodes with anodic Al2O3 results in voltage-controlled negative resistance in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM). EL is due to electrons injected at the Al-Al2O3 interface combining with radiative defects in Al2O3. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves that can be excited by photons or electrons. SPPs are confined to a metal-dielectric interface, cause large electric fields in the metal and dielectric, and have ranges of micrometers. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EL, and EM of a group of electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 20 nm, group A, was measured between 200 K and 300 K. After a sequence of temperature measurements, the Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, the Al-Al2O3 regions between diodes, and portions of the Ag on the glass region that provides contacts to the diodes are darkened. The range of darkening is >7 mm in a diode with 12 nm of Al2O3 and 2.0-3.5 mm in diodes with Al2O3 thicknesses between 14 nm and 20 nm. Darkening is attributed to the occurrence of SPPs generated by EL photons at the Ag-Al2O3 and Al-Al2O3 interfaces. The results are compared to a second group of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with identical Al2O3 thicknesses, group B, that were prepared in the same way as the diodes of group A except for a difference in the deposition of Al films for the two groups. Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes of group B exhibit enhanced EL, which is attributed to spontaneous emission of recombination centers in Al2O3 being enhanced by large electromagnetic fields that are due to SPPs that are generated by EL photons.

  7. Processing and characterization of Al-Al3Nb prepared by mechanical alloying and equal channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, P.; Zafari, A.; Lui, E. W.; Xia, K.

    2017-05-01

    Mechanically alloyed Al with immiscible elements such as Nb can lead to a uniform distribution of nanoscaled precipitates which are highly stable compared to conventional alloying and with excellent interface, resulting in significant increase in strength without problems associated with nano ceramic particles in metal matrix composites. Although immiscible, Nb can be alloyed with Al through mechanical milling, forming trialuminide (Al3Nb), either directly or upon subsequent precipitation, which possesses high strength, stiffness and stability at elevated temperatures. In the present study, Al-5 at.% Nb supersaturated solid solution was achieved after prolonged ball milling and nano Al3Nb precipitates were formed during subsequent ageing at 530°C. The Al-Al3Nb powder was consolidated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 400°C, resulting in a fully dense material with a uniform distribution of nanoscaled Al3Nb precipitates in the Al matrix.

  8. Transplacental passage of 26Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and 26Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used 26Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, 26Al ( 26AlCl 3) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. 26Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the 26Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and 26Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of 26Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that 26Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

  9. KCAT, Xradia, ALS and APS Performance Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, A; Martz, H; Brown, W

    2004-09-30

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of components, subassemblies and assemblies of millimeter-size extent with micrometer-size features (mesoscale). These mesoscale objects include materials that vary widely in composition, density, geometry and embedded features. Characterizing these mesoscale objects is critical for corroborating the physics codes that underlie LLNL's Stockpile Stewardship mission. In this report we present results from our efforts to quantitatively characterize the performance of several x-ray systems in an effort to benchmark existing systems and to determine which systems may have the best potential for our mesoscale imaging needs.more » Several different x-ray digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT) systems exist that may be applicable to our mesoscale object characterization requirements, including microfocus and synchrotron systems. The systems we have benchmarked include KCAT (LLNL developed) and Xradia {mu}XCT (Xradia, Inc., Concord, CA), both microfocus systems, and Beamline 1-ID at the Advance Photon Source (APS) and the Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), both synchrotron based systems. The ALS Tomography Beamline is a new installation, and the data presented and analyzed here is some of the first to be acquired at the facility. It is important to note that the ALS system had not yet been optimized at the time we acquired data. Results for each of these systems has been independently documented elsewhere. In this report we summarize and compare the characterization results for these systems.« less

  10. Revisiting the Al/Al 2O 3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; ...

    2014-03-27

    We report the coherent and semi-coherent Al/α-Al 2O 3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both Al-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions atmore » the interface. Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. In conclusion, our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Al/α-Al 2O 3 composite heterostructures.« less

  11. Revisiting the Al/Al 2O 3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation

    SciTech Connect

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.

    We report the coherent and semi-coherent Al/α-Al 2O 3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both Al-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions atmore » the interface. Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. In conclusion, our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Al/α-Al 2O 3 composite heterostructures.« less

  12. 1000 to 1300 K slow plastic compression properties of Al-deficient NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Kumar, K. S.; Mannan, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    Nickel aluminides containing 37, 38.5 and 40 at. pct Al have been fabricated by XD synthesis and hot pressing. Such materials were compression tested in air under constant velocity conditions between 1000 and 1300 K. Examination of the microstructures of hot pressed and compression tested aluminides indicated that the structure consisted of two phases, gamma-prime and NiAl, for essentially all conditions, where gamma-prime was usually found on the NiAl grain boundaries. The stress-strain behavior of all three intermetallics was similar where flow at a nominally constant stress occurred after about two-percent plastic deformation. Furthermore, the 1000 to 1300 K flow stress-strain rate properties are nearly identical for these materials, and they are much lower than those for XD processed Ni-50Al. The overall deformation of the two phase nickel aluminides appears to be controlled by dislocation climb in NiAl rather than processes in gamma-prime.

  13. Tribological Properties of Ti(Al,O)/Al2O3 Composite Coating by Thermal Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Asma; Gabbitas, Brian; Cao, Peng; Zhang, Deliang

    The use of thermal spray coatings provides protection to the surfaces operating in severe environments. The main goal of the current work is to investigate the possibility of using a high velocity air fuel (HVAF) thermally sprayed wear resistant Ti(Al,O)/Al2O3 coating on tool steel (H13) which is used for making dies for aluminium high pressure die casting and dummy blocks aluminium extrusion. A feedstock of Ti(Al,O)/Al2O3 composite powder was produced from a mixture of Al and TiO2 powders by high energy mechanical milling, followed by a thermal reaction process. The feedstock was then thermally sprayed using a high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) technique onto H13 steel substrates to produce a composite coating. The present study describes and compares the tribological properties such as friction and sliding wear rate of the coating both at room and high temperature (700°C). The wear resistance of the coating was investigated by a tribometer using a spherical ended alumina pin as a counter body under dry and lubricating conditions. The results showed that composite coating has lower wear rate at high temperature than at room temperature without using lubricant. The composite coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). This paper reports the experimental observations and discusses the wear resistance performance of the coatings at room and high temperatures.

  14. Erratum: Lakes et al (2017).

    PubMed

    2018-05-01

    In the article by Lakes KD, Abdullah MM, Youssef J, et al. Assessing parent perceptions of physical activity in families of toddlers with neurodevelopmental disorders: The Parent Perceptions of Physical Activity Scale (PPPAS), Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2017; 29: 396-407, https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2016-0213 , an author's name was incorrectly listed. Shlomit Aizik should have been listed as Shlomit Radom-Aizik. The online version of this article has been corrected. We apologize for this error.

  15. Development of SiAlON materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layden, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    Cold pressing and sintering techniques were used to produce ceramic bodies in which the major phase was beta prime Si3-Al-O-N4 solid solution. A variety of foreign oxides were used to promote liquid phase sintering, and this resulted in the incorporation of additional solid phases in the ceramic bodies which controlled elevated temperature properties. None of the bodies studied to date exhibited both adequate high temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Criteria are suggested to guide the formulation of bodies with improved high temperature properties.

  16. Structural and compositional evolution of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) precipitates in Al-Zr-Y alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haiyan, E-mail: gaohaiyan@sjtu.edu.cn

    Structural and compositional evolution of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) precipitates in aged Al-Zr-Y alloy was investigated through atom probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis and first principles calculations. The results show that short-bar-shaped D0{sub 19}-Al{sub 3}Y with some Zr atoms dissolved in precipitated at the very beginning of decomposition and worked as heterogeneous nuclei for L1{sub 2}-Al{sub 3}Zr with spherical morphology after being aged at 400 °C for 2 h. Quasi-static coarsening happened as the aging treatment lasted from 2 h to 200 h. However, distribution of Zr and Y atoms in Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) is nearly uniform and Al{submore » 3}(Zr,Y) do not have the typical “Al{sub 3}RE core-Al{sub 3}Zr shell” structure which observed in other RE containing Al-Zr-RE alloys with L1{sub 2}-Al{sub 3}RE as nuclei. First principles calculations revealed that binding energy between Y and Zr is strong during the growth of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y), which led to the co-precipitation of Y and Zr atoms and attribute to the evolution of Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y). - Highlights: •Al{sub 3}Y precipitated firstly and then became nuclei for Al{sub 3}Zr during aging of Al-Zr-Y. •Al{sub 3}(Zr,Y) precipitates do not have the typical “Al{sub 3}Y core-Al{sub 3}Zr shell” structure. •Strong binding between Y and Zr led to the co-precipitation of Y and Zr atoms.« less

  17. Theory and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Aluminum Coordination Complexes – Al K-Edge Studies of Charge and Bonding in (BDI)Al, (BDI)AlR2, and (BDI)AlX2 Complexes.

    PubMed

    Altman, Alison B; Pemmaraju, C D; Camp, Clément; Arnold, John; Minasian, Stefan G; Prendergast, David; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek

    2015-08-19

    Polarized aluminum K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and first-principles calculations were used to probe electronic structure in a series of (BDI)Al, (BDI)AlX2, and (BDI)AlR2 coordination compounds (X = F, Cl, I; R = H, Me; BDI = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl-β-diketiminate). Spectral interpretations were guided by examination of the calculated transition energies and polarization-dependent oscillator strengths, which agreed well with the XANES spectroscopy measurements. Pre-edge features were assigned to transitions associated with the Al 3p orbitals involved in metal-ligand bonding. Qualitative trends in Al 1s core energy and valence orbital occupation were established through a systematic comparison of excited states derived from Al 3p orbitals with similar symmetries in a molecular orbital framework. These trends suggested that the higher transition energies observed for (BDI)AlX2 systems with more electronegative X(1-) ligands could be ascribed to a decrease in electron density around the aluminum atom, which causes an increase in the attractive potential of the Al nucleus and concomitant increase in the binding energy of the Al 1s core orbitals. For (BDI)Al and (BDI)AlH2 the experimental Al K-edge XANES spectra and spectra calculated using the eXcited electron and Core-Hole (XCH) approach had nearly identical energies for transitions to final state orbitals of similar composition and symmetry. These results implied that the charge distributions about the aluminum atoms in (BDI)Al and (BDI)AlH2 are similar relative to the (BDI)AlX2 and (BDI)AlMe2 compounds, despite having different formal oxidation states of +1 and +3, respectively. However, (BDI)Al was unique in that it exhibited a low-energy feature that was attributed to transitions into a low-lying p-orbital of b1 symmetry that is localized on Al and orthogonal to the (BDI)Al plane. The presence of this low-energy unoccupied molecular orbital on electron-rich (BDI)Al distinguishes

  18. Acoustic resonator with Al electrodes on an AlN layer and using a GaAs substrate

    DOEpatents

    Kline, Gerald R.; Lakin, Kenneth M.

    1985-12-03

    A method of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered Al/AlN structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an AlN layer between two Al layers and another layer of AlN on an exterior of one of said Al layers.

  19. Transformation to Ni5Al3 in a 63.0 at. pct Ni-Al alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khadkikar, P. S.; Locci, I. E.; Vedula, K.; Michal, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructures of 63 at. pct P/M Ni-Al alloys with a composition close to the stoichiometry of the Ni5Al3 phase were investigated using homogenized and quenched specimens aged at low temperatures for various times. Results of analyses of XRD data and electron microscopy observations were used for quantitative phase analysis, performed to calculate the (NiAl + Ni5Al3)/Ni5Al3 phase boundary locations. The measured lattice parameters of Ni5Al3 phase formed at 823, 873, and 923 K indicated an increase in tetragonality of the phase with increasing nickel content.

  20. Short-wavelength InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot superluminescent diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, De-Chun; An, Qi; Jin, Peng; Li, Xin-Kun; Wei, Heng; Wu, Ju; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of J-shaped bent-waveguide superluminescent diodes utilizing an InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot active region. The emission spectrum of the device is centred at 884 nm with a full width at half maximum of 37 nm and an output power of 18 mW. By incorporating an Al composition into the quantum dot active region, short-wavelength superluminescent diode devices can be obtained. An intersection was found for the light power-injection current curves measured from the straight-waveguide facet and the bent-waveguide facet, respectively. The result is attributed to the conjunct effects of the gain and the additional loss of the bent waveguide. A numerical simulation is performed to verify the qualitative explanation. It is shown that bent waveguide loss is an important factor that affects the output power of J-shaped superluminescent diode devices.

  1. Reaction diffusion in the NiCrAl and CoCrAl systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper assesses the effect of overlay coating and substrate composition on the kinetics of coating depletion by interdiffusion. This is accomplished by examining the constitution, kinetics and activation energies for a series of diffusion couples primarily of the NiCrAl/Ni-10Cr or CoCrAl/Ni-10Cr type annealed at temperatures in the range 1000-1205 C for times up to 500 hr. A general procedure is developed for analyzing diffusion in multicomponent multiphase systems. It is shown that by introducing the concept of beta-source strength, which can be determined from appropriate phase diagrams, the Wagner solution for consumption of a second phase in a semiinfinite couple is successfully applied to the analysis of MCrAl couples. Thus, correlation of beta-recession rate constants with couple composition, total and diffusional activation energies, and interdiffusion coefficients are determined.

  2. Data supporting Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data files representing each of the Figures and Tables published in Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,3, 593. The data file names identify the Figure or Table and each file contains an internal set of data definitionsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Al-Abed, S.R., J. Virkutyte, J. Ortenzio , R.M. McCarrick, L. Degn, R. Zucker , N. Coates , K. Cleveland, H. Ma, S. Diamond, K. Dreher , and W. Boyes. Environmental aging alters AI(OH)3 coating of TiO2 nanoparticles enhancing their photocatalytic and phototoxicity activities. Environmental Science: Nano. RSC Publishing, Cambridge, UK, N/A, (2016).

  3. FUV Reflectance of Recently Prepared Al Protected with AlF3: COR Program Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quijada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical observations in the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) spectral region are some of the more challenging due to the very distant and faint objects that are typically searched for in cosmic origin studies such as origin of large scale structure, the formation, evolution, and age of galaxies and the origin of stellar and planetary systems. These challenges are driving the need to improve the performance of optical coatings over a wide spectral range that would increase reflectance in mirrors and reduced absorption in dielectric filters used in optical telescope for FUV observations. This paper will present recent advances in reflectance performance for Al+AlF3 mirrors optimized for Lyman-alpha wavelength by performing the deposition of the AlF3 overcoat at elevated substrate temperatures.

  4. Genetic screening in sporadic ALS and FTD.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin R; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Chio, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Kiernan, Matthew C; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Rowe, James; Seeley, William; Talbot, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    The increasing complexity of the genetic landscape in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) presents a significant resource and physician training challenge. At least 10% of those diagnosed with ALS or FTD are known to carry an autosomal dominant genetic mutation. There is no consensus on what constitutes a positive family history, and ascertainment is unreliable for many reasons. However, symptomatic individuals often wish to understand as much as possible about the cause of their disease, and to share this knowledge with their family. While the right of an individual not to know is a key aspect of patient autonomy, and despite the absence of definitive therapy, many newly diagnosed individuals are likely to elect for genetic testing if offered. It is incumbent on the practitioner to ensure that they are adequately informed, counselled and supported in this decision. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. CarbAl Heat Transfer Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of power electronics, such as high-current semiconductor devices and modules, within space vehicles is driving the need to develop specialty thermal management materials in both the packaging of these discrete devices and the packaging of modules consisting of these device arrays. Developed by Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI), CarbAl heat transfer material is uniquely characterized by its low density, high thermal diffusivity, and high thermal conductivity. Its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to most power electronic materials, making it an effective base plate substrate for state-of-the-art silicon carbide (SiC) super junction transistors. The material currently is being used to optimize hybrid vehicle inverter packaging. Adapting CarbAl-based substrates to space applications was a major focus of the SBIR project work. In Phase I, ANI completed modeling and experimentation to validate its deployment in a space environment. Key parameters related to cryogenic temperature scaling of CTE, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength. In Phase II, the company concentrated on improving heat sinks and thermally conductive circuit boards for power electronic applications.

  6. Al-Shebab: An Al-Qaeda Affiliate Case Study (2Rev)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    explosives and car bombs . Al-Shebab’s joining Al-Qaeda had mutual benefits: AQ’s presence in East Africa dates to Osama Bin Laden’s time in Sudan...1992–1996) and the establishment of cells that perpetrated the August 7, 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam...to build an emirate in the Gedo region, but the project was crushed by Ethiopian forces after AIAI perpetrated several bombings in Ethiopia.25 The

  7. A critique of Lilienfeld et al.'s (2000) "The scientific status of projective techniques".

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Lilienfeld, Wood, and Garb (2000) published a largely negative critique of the validity and reliability of projective methods, concentrating on the Comprehensive System for the Rorschach (Exner, 1993), 3 systems for coding the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) cards, and human figure drawings. This article is an effort to document and correct what I perceive as errors of omission and commission in the Lilienfeld et al. article. When projective measures are viewed in the light of these corrections, the evidence for the validity and clinical usefulness of the Rorschach and TAT methods is more robust than Lilienfeld et al. represented.

  8. Comments to Nordmo et al.'s article: effect of hardiness.

    PubMed

    Lucavei, Júlia; Pougnet, Laurence; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique; Loddé, Brice; Pougnet, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We would like to comment on Nordmo et al.'s article on hardiness among Norwegian Royal Navy seamen. The article is very interesting. Understanding the sleep disorders of the military can indeed make it possible to favour the preservation of their health and their competencies. The authors have highlighted the limitations of their study. They will take into account the sleep disorder factors already described in literature, such as: noise, comfort on board, shift organisations, etc. We would like to make two comments: on the one hand, highlight another limit to help future studies; on the other hand, open another perspective of prevention, not described in this article.

  9. Mechanisms of elevated-temperature deformation in the B2 aluminides NiAl and CoAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaney, D. L.; Nix, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    A strain rate change technique, developed previously for distinguishing between pure-metal and alloy-type creep behavior, was used to study the elevated-temperature deformation behavior of the intermetallic compounds NiAl and CoAl. Tests on NiAl were conducted at temperatures between 1100 and 1300 K while tests on CoAl were performed at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1400 K. NiAl exhibits pure-metal type behavior over the entire temperature range studied. CoAl, however, undergoes a transition from pure-metal to alloy-type deformation behavior as the temperature is decreased from 1400 to 1200 K. Slip appears to be inherently more difficult in CoAl than in NiAl, with lattice friction effects limiting the mobility of dislocations at a much higher tmeperature in CoAl than in NiAl. The superior strength of CoAl at elevated temperatures may, therefore, be related to a greater lattice friction strengthening effect in CoAl than in NiAl.

  10. Advanced life support (ALS) instructors experience of ALS education in Western Australia: a qualitative exploratory research study.

    PubMed

    Taplin, John; McConigley, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    When cardiac arrest occurs, timely competent advanced life support (ALS) interventions by nursing staff can influence patient outcomes. Ongoing ALS education influences maintenance of competency and avoids skill decay. To explore the methods of ALS education delivery for nurses in the workplace; describe the issues relating to maintaining ALS competency; explore ALS competency decay for nurses and develop recommendations for the provision of continuing ALS education. A qualitative exploratory design was used to study ALS education provision in the workplace. Data were collected from ALS nurse experts in Western Australia by face-to-face and phone interviews. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and organised around a set of predetermined questions. Two major themes were identified; the first theme Demand and Supply describes the increasing demand for ALS education for nurses and the challenges with providing timely cost effective traditional face-to-face ALS education. The second theme, Choosing The Best Education Options describes new ways to provide ALS education using emerging technologies. The study suggested that using e-learning methods would assist with educating the maximum amount of nurses in a timely manner and e-learning and teleconferencing offer opportunities to reach nurses in distant locations. Delivering ALS education more frequently than annually would increase skills maintenance and lessen skill decay. Further research is required to explore which blended e-learning model is best suited to ALS education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MCrAlY bond coat with enhanced Yttrium layer

    DOEpatents

    Jablonski, Paul D; Hawk, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-21

    One or more embodiments relates to an MCrAlY bond coat comprising an MCrAlY layer in contact with a Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. The MCrAlY layer is comprised of a .gamma.-M solid solution, a .beta.-MAl intermetallic phase, and Y-type intermetallics. The Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer is comprised of Yttrium atoms coordinated with oxygen atoms comprising the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 lattice. Both the MCrAlY layer and the Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer have a substantial absence of Y--Al oxides, providing advantage in the maintainability of the Yttrium reservoir within the MCrAlY bulk. The MCrAlY bond coat may be fabricated through application of a Y.sub.2O.sub.3 paste to an MCrAlY material, followed by heating in a non-oxidizing environment.

  12. 77 FR 67689 - Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...] Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... arrangements (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos... Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos. 23787 (Apr. 15, 1999) (notice) and 23831 (May 11...

  13. Fracture toughness of Ti-Al3Ti-Al-Al3Ti laminate composites under static and cyclic loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patselov, A. M.; Gladkovskii, S. V.; Lavrikov, R. D.; Kamantsev, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    The static and cyclic fracture toughnesses of a Ti-Al3Ti-Al-Al3Ti laminate composite material containing at most 15 vol % intermetallic compound are studied. Composite specimens are prepared by terminating reaction sintering of titanium and aluminum foils under pressure. The fracture of the titanium layers is quasi-cleavage during cyclic crack growth and is ductile during subsequent static loading.

  14. Screw dislocation-induced growth spirals as emissive exciton localization centers in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Funato, Mitsuru, E-mail: funato@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Banal, Ryan G.; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2015-11-15

    Screw dislocations in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells cause growth spirals with an enhanced Ga incorporation, which create potential minima. Although screw dislocations and their surrounding potential minima suggest non-radiative recombination processes within growth spirals, in reality, screw dislocations are not major non-radiative sinks for carriers. Consequently, carriers localized within growth spirals recombine radiatively without being captured by non-radiative recombination centers, resulting in intense emissions from growth spirals.

  15. The growth of high-Al-content InAlGaN quaternary alloys by RF-MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. Z.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, X. Y.; Guo, L. C.; Wang, X. H.; Xiao, H. L.; Liu, H. X.

    2007-02-01

    High-Al-content InxAlyGa1-x-yN (x = 1-10%, y = 34-45%) quaternary alloys were grown on sapphire by radio-frequency plasma-excited molecular beam epitaxy. Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry, high resolution x-ray diffraction and cathodoluminescence were used to characterize the InAlGaN alloys. The experimental results show that InAlGaN with an appropriate Al/In ratio (near 4.7, which is a lattice-match to the GaN under-layer) has better crystal and optical quality than the InAlGaN alloys whose Al/In ratios are far from 4.7. Some cracks and V-defects occur in high-Al/In-ratio InAlGaN alloys. In the CL image, the cracks and V-defect regions are the emission-enhanced regions.

  16. Structure of oxides prepared by decomposition of layered double Mg–Al and Ni–Al hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepanova, Svetlana V.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk; Leont’eva, Natalya N., E-mail: n_n_leonteva@list.ru

    2015-05-15

    Abstracts: Thermal decomposition of Mg–Al and Ni–Al layered double hydroxides LDH at temperatures lower than 800 °C leads to the formation of oxides with different structures. Mg–Al oxide has a very defective structure and consists of octahedral layers as in periclase MgO and mixed octahedral–tetrahedral layers as in spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Mixed Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure, consisting of a core with Al-doped NiO-like structure and some surface layers with spinel NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure epitaxial connected with the core. Suggested models were verified by simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns using DIFFaX code, as well as HRTEM, IR-,more » UV-spectroscopies, and XPS. - Graphical abstract: In the Mg–Al layered double hydroxide Al{sup 3+} ions migrate into interlayers during decomposition. The Mg–Al oxide represents sequence of octahedral and octahedral–tetrahedral spinel layers with vacancies. The Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers as a result of migration of Al{sup 3+} ions on the surface. The models explain the presence and absence of “memory effect” for the Mg–Al and Ni–Al oxides, respectively. - Highlights: • We study products of Mg(Ni)–Al LDH decomposition by calcination at 500(400)–800 °C. • In Mg–Al/Ni–Al LDH Al ions migrate into interlayers/on the surface during decomposition. • Mg–Al oxide represents sequence of periclase- and spinel-like layers with vacancies. • Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers. • The models explain the presence/absence of “memory effect” for Mg–Al/Ni–Al oxides.« less

  17. Control of Defects in Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al)GaN) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Nord, J.; Albe, K.; Erhart, P.; Nordlund, K. Modelling of Compound Semiconductors: Analytical Bond-order Potential for Gallium , Nitrogen and Gallium ...Control of Defects in Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al)GaN) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates by Iskander G. Batyrev, Chi-Chin Wu...Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al)GaN) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates Iskander G. Batyrev and N. Scott Weingarten Weapons and

  18. Arsenic entrapment by nanocrystals of Al-magnetite: The role of Al in crystal growth and As retention.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Erico T F; Stroppa, Daniel G; Montoro, Luciano A; de Mello, Jaime W V; Gasparon, Massimo; Ciminelli, Virginia S T

    2016-09-01

    The nature of As-Al-Fe co-precipitates aged for 120 days are investigated in detail by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Scanning TEM (STEM), electron diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy (EFTEM). The Al present in magnetite is shown to favour As incorporation (up to 1.10 wt%) relative to Al-free magnetite and Al-goethite, but As uptake by Al-magnetite decreases with increasing Al substitution (3.53-11.37 mol% Al). Arsenic-bearing magnetite and goethite mesocrystals (MCs) are formed by oriented aggregation (OA) of primary nanoparticles (NPs). Well-crystalline magnetite likely formed by Otswald ripening was predominant in the Al-free system. The As content in Al-goethite MCs (having approximately 13% substituted Al) was close to the EDS detection limit (0.1 wt% As), but was below detection in Al-goethites with 23.00-32.19 mol% Al. Our results show for the first time the capacity of Al-magnetite to incorporate more As than Al-free magnetite, and the role of Al in favouring OA-based crystal growth under the experimental conditions, and therefore As retention in the formed MCs. The proposed mechanism of As incorporation involves adsorption of As onto the newly formed NPs. Arsenic is then trapped in the MCs as they grow by self-assembly OA upon attachment of the NPs. We conclude that Al may diffuse to the crystal faces with high surface energy to reduce the total energy of the system during the attachment events, thus favouring the oriented aggregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyclic Oxidation of FeCrAlY/Al2O3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Draper, Susan L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Three-ply FeCrAlY/Al2O3 composites and FeCrAlY matrix-only samples were cyclically oxidized at 1000 C and 1100 C for up to 1000 1-hr cycles. Fiber ends were exposed at the ends of the composite samples. Following cyclic oxidation, cracks running parallel to and perpendicular to the fibers were observed on the large surface of the composite. In addition, there was evidence of increased scale damage and spallation around the exposed fiber ends, particularly around the middle ply fibers. This damage was more pronounced at the higher temperature. The exposed fiber ends showed cracking between fibers in the outer plies, occasionally with Fe and Cr-rich oxides growing out of the cracks. Large gaps developed at the fiber/matrix interface around many of the fibers, especially those in the outer plies. Oxygen penetrated many of these gaps resulting in significant oxide formation at the fiber/matrix interface far within the composite sample. Around several fibers, the matrix was also internally oxidized showing Al2O3 precipitates in a radial band around the fibers. The results show that these composites have poor cyclic oxidation resistance due to the CTE mismatch and inadequate fiber/matrix bond strength at temperatures of 1000 C and above.

  20. Al-Mg Isotopic Constraints on Alteration of Allende Ca-Al-rich Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, T. J.; Guan, Y.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2006-03-01

    Multiple stages of alteration of Allende CAIs are implied from SIMS analyses of Al-Mg isotopes in secondary minerals from one B2 and one FTA CAI. 26Mg-excesses are absent from most B2 analyses, but present in one B2 grossular and most FTA analyses.

  1. Environmental quality assessment of groundwater resources in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kalbani, Mohammed Saif; Price, Martin F.; Ahmed, Mushtaque; Abahussain, Asma; O'Higgins, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    The research was conducted to assess the quality of groundwater resources of Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. 11 drinking water sources were sampled during summer and winter seasons during 2012-2013 to evaluate their physico-chemical quality indicators; and assess their suitability for drinking and other domestic purposes. Sample collection, handling and processing followed the standard methods recommended by APHA and analyzed in quality assured laboratories using appropriate analytical methods and instrumental techniques. The results show that the quality parameters in all drinking water resources are within the permissible limits set by Omani and WHO standards; and the drinking water quality index is good or medium in quality based on NFS-WQI classification criteria, indicating their suitability for human consumption. There is an indication of the presence of high nitrate concentrations in some groundwater wells, which require more investigations and monitoring program to be conducted on regular basis to ensure good quality water supply for the residents in the mountain. The trilinear Piper diagram shows that most of the drinking water resources of the study area fall in the field of calcium and bicarbonate type with some magnesium bicarbonate type indicating that most of the major ions are natural in origin due to the geology of the region. This study is a first step towards providing indicators on groundwater quality of this fragile mountain ecosystem, which will be the basis for future planning decisions on corrective demand management measures to protect groundwater resources of Al Jabal Al Akhdar.

  2. Applications and non-idealities of submicron Al-AlOx-Nb tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julin, J. K.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a technique to fabricate sub-micron, 0.6 μ {{m}}× 0.6 μ {{m}} Al-AlOx-Nb tunnel junctions using a standard e-beam resist, angle evaporation and double oxidation of the tunneling barrier, resulting in high quality niobium, as determined by the the high measured values of the critical temperature {T}{{C}}˜ 7.5 K and the gap {{Δ }}˜ 1.3 meV. The devices show great promise for local nanoscale thermometry in the temperature range 1-7.5 K. Electrical characterization of the junctions was performed at sub-Kelvin temperatures both with and without an external magnetic field, which was used to suppress superconductivity in Al and thus bring the junction into a normal-metal-insulator-superconductor configuration. We observed excess sub-gap current, which could not be explained by the standard tunneling theory. Evidence points towards materials science issues of the barrier or Nb/AlOx interface as the culprit.

  3. Electronic transport through Al/InN nanowire/Al junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Tzu -Ming; Wang, George T.; Pan, Wei; ...

    2016-02-10

    We report non-linear electronic transport measurement of Al/Si-doped n-type InN nanowire/Al junctions performed at T = 0.3 K, below the superconducting transition temperature of the Al electrodes. The proximity effect is observed in these devices through a strong dip in resistance at zero bias. In addition to the resistance dip at zero bias, several resistance peaks can be identified at bias voltages above the superconducting gap of the electrodes, while no resistance dip is observed at the superconducting gap. The resistance peaks disappear as the Al electrodes turn normal beyond the critical magnetic field except one which remains visible atmore » fields several times higher than critical magnetic field. An unexpected non-monotonic magnetic field dependence of the peak position is observed. As a result, we discuss the physical origin of these observations and propose that the resistance peaks could be the McMillan-Rowell oscillations arising from different closed paths localized near different regions of the junctions.« less

  4. A sulfur segregation study of PWA 1480, NiCrAl, and NiAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayne, D. T.; Smialek, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Some nickel based superalloys show reduced oxidation resistance from the lack of an adherent oxide layer during high temperature cyclic oxidation. The segregation of sulfur to the oxide-metal interface is believed to effect oxide adhesion, since low sulfur alloys exhibit enhanced adhesion. X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was combined with an in situ sample heater to measure sulfur segregation in NiCrAl, PWA 1480, and NiAl alloys. The polished samples with a 1.5 to 2.5 nm (native) oxide were heated from 650 to 1100 C with hold times up to 6 hr. The sulfur concentration was plotted as a function of temperature versus time at temperature. One NiCrAl sulfur study was performed on the same casting used by Browning to establish a base line between previous Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results and the XPS results of this study. Sulfur surface segregation was similar for PWA 1480 and NiCrAl and reached a maximum of 30 at% at 800 to 850 C. Above 900 C the sulfur surface concentration decreased to about 3 at% at 1100 C. These results are contrasted to the minimal segregation observed for low sulfur hydrogen annealed materials which exhibit improved scale adhesion.

  5. Constitutive Model Constants for Al7075-T651 and Al7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant; Harris, Bryan

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum 7075-T651 and 7075-T6 are characterized at quasi-static and high strain rates to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength and fracture model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact or similar impact events on structural components made of these material. J-C strength model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the two alloys are determined from tension stress-strain data at room and high temperature to 250^oC. J-C strength model constants for Al7075-T651 are: A=527 MPa, B=676 MPa, n=0.71, C=0.017, and m=1.61 and for Al7075-T6: A = 546 MPa, B = 674 MPa, n = 0.72, C = 0.059, and m =1.56. J-C fracture model constants are determined form quasi-static and high strain rate/high temperature tests on notched and smooth tension specimens. J-C fracture model constants for the two alloys are: Al7075-T651; D1 = 0.110, D2 = 0.573, D3= -3.4446, D4 = 0.016, and D 5= 1.099 and Al7075-T6; D1= 0.451 D2= -0.952 D3= -.068, D4 =0.036, and D5 = 0.697.

  6. High Temperature Mechanical Characterization and Analysis of Al2O3 /Al2O3 Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen ply unidirectional zirconia coated single crystal Al2O3 fiber reinforced polycrystalline Al2O3 was tested in uniaxial tension at temperatures to 1400 C in air. Fiber volume fractions ranged from 26 to 31%. The matrix has primarily open porosity of approximately 40%. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of Al2O3/Al2O3 composites. The composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve relative to monolithic alumina) from 22 to 1400 C. The rule-of-mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to approximately 1200 C for short term static tensile tests in air. The ACK theory provides the best approximation of the first matrix cracking stress while accounting for residual stresses at room temperature. Difficulties in determining the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress at high temperatures prevented the accurate prediction of the first matrix cracking stress above room temperature. The theory of Cao and Thouless, based on Weibull statistics, gave the best prediction for the composite ultimate tensile strength.

  7. Control Al/Mg intermetallic compound formation during ultrasonic-assisted soldering Mg to Al.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwu; Li, Zhengwei; Li, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhipeng; Yan, Jiuchun

    2018-09-01

    To prevent the formation of Al/Mg intermetallic compounds (IMCs) of Al 3 Mg 2 and Al 12 Mg 17 , dissimilar Al/Mg were ultrasonic-assisted soldered using Sn-based filler metals. A new IMC of Mg 2 Sn formed in the soldered joints during this process and it was prone to crack at large thickness. The thickness of Mg 2 Sn was reduced to 22 μm at 285 °C when using Sn-3Cu as the filler metal. Cracks were still observed inside the blocky Mg 2 Sn. The thickness of Mg 2 Sn was significantly reduced when using Sn-9Zn as the filler metal. A 17 μm Mg 2 Sn layer without crack was obtained at a temperature of 200 °C, ultrasonic power of Mode I, and ultrasonic time of 2 s. The shear strengths of the joints using Sn-9Zn was much higher than those using Sn-3Cu because of the thinner Mg 2 Sn layer in the former joints. Sn whiskers were prevented by using Sn-9Zn. A cavitation model during ultrasonic assisted soldering was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Slow positrons in single-crystal samples of Al and Al-AlxOy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, K. G.; Lutz, H.

    1980-11-01

    Well-characterized Al(111) and Al(100) samples were studied with monoenergetic positrons before and after exposure to oxygen. Both positronium-formation and positron-emission curves were obtained for various incident positron energies at sample temperatures ranging from 160-900 K. The orthopositronium decay signal provides a unique signature that the positron has emerged from the surface region of a clean metal. In the clean Al crystals part of the positronium formed near the surface is found to be associated with a temperature-activated process described as the thermally activated detrapping of a positron from a surface state. A simple positron diffusion model, including surface and vacancy trapping, is fitted to the positronium data and an estimate of the binding energy of the positron in this trap is made. The positron diffusion constant is found to have a negative temperature dependence before the onset of positron trapping at thermally generated monovacancies (>500 K), in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. The depth of the positron surface state is reduced or positronium is formed in the chemisorbed layer as oxygen is adsorbed on both Al sample surfaces, thus increasing the positronium fraction and decreasing the positron emission. At higher oxygen exposures [>500 L (1 L = 10-6 torr sec)] positron or positronium traps are generated in the overlayer and the positronium fraction is reduced. The amorphous-to-crystalline surface transition of AlxOy on Al is observed between 650 and 800 K by the change in the positronium fraction and is interpreted as the removal of trapping centers in the metal-oxide overlayer. At the higher temperatures and incident energies vacancy trapping is observed by the decrease in the positron diffusion length in both the clean and the underlying Al of the oxygen-exposed samples. Similar vacancy formation enthalpies for Al are extracted in both the clean and oxygen-covered samples by a simple model and are in good

  9. Cascade generation in Al laser induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagli, Lev; Gaft, Michael; Raichlin, Yosef; Gornushkin, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We found cascade IR generation in Al laser induced plasma. This generation includes doublet transitions 3s 25s 2S1/2 → 3s24p 2P1/2,3/2 → 3s24s 2S1/2; corresponding to strong lines at 2110 and 2117 nm, and much weaker lines at 1312-1315 nm. The 3s25s2S 1/2 starting IR generation level is directly pumped from the 3s23p 2P3/2 ground level. The starting level for UV generation at 396.2 nm (transitions 3s24s 2S1/2 → 4p 2P3/2) is populated due to the fast collisional processes in the plasma plume. These differences led to different time and special dependences on the lasing in the IR and UV spectral range within the aluminum laser induced plasma.

  10. Al-Si-Cu/TiN multilayer interconnection and Al-Ge reflow sputtering technologies for quarter-micron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikkawa, Takamaro; Kikuta, Kuniko

    1993-05-01

    Issues of interconnection technologies for quarter-micron devices are the reliability of metal lines with quarter-micron feature sizes and the formation of contact-hole-plugs with high aspect ratios. This paper describes a TiN/Al-Si-Cu/TiN/Al-Si-Cu/TiN/Ti multilayer conductor structure as a quarter-micron interconnection technology and aluminum-germanium (Al-Ge) reflow sputtering as a contact-hole filling technology. The TiN/Al-Si-Cu/TiN/Al-Si-Cu/TiN/Ti multilayer conductor structure could suppress stress-induced voiding and improve the electromigration mean-time to failure. These improvements are attributed to the fact that the grain boundaries for the Al-Si-Cu film and the interfaces between the Al-Si-Cu and the TiN films are strengthened by the rigid intermetallic compound, TiAl3. The Al-Ge alloy reflow sputtering is a candidate for contact- and via-hole filling technologies in terms of reducing fabrication costs. The Al-Ge reflow sputtering achieved low temperature contact hole filling at 300 degree(s)C. Contact holes with a diameter of 0.25 micrometers and aspect ratio of 4 could be filled. This is attributed to the low eutectic temperature for Al-Ge (424 degree(s)C) and the effect of thin polysilicon underlayer on the enhancement of Al-Ge reflow.

  11. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-28

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  12. Enhancing phosphate adsorption by Mg/Al layered double hydroxide functionalized biochar with different Mg/Al ratios.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Zhou, Baoyue; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Ali, Amjad; Zhang, Zengqiang; Gaston, Lewis A; Lahori, Altaf Hussain; Mahar, Amanullah

    2016-07-15

    Mg/Al ratio plays a significant role for anion adsorption by Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides (Mg/Al-LDHs) modified biochar. In this study, Mg/Al-LDHs biochar with different Mg/Al ratios (2, 3, 4) were prepared by co-precipitation for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. Factors on phosphate adsorption including Mg/Al ratio, pH, and the presence of other inorganic anions were investigated through batch experiments. Increasing Mg/Al ratio in the Mg/Al-LDHs biochar composites generally enhanced phosphate adsorption with Langmuir adsorption maximum calculated at 81.83mg phosphorous (P) per gram of 4:1Mg/Al-LDHs biochar at pH3.0. The adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Solution pH had greater effects on the phosphate adsorption by Mg/Al LDHs biochar composites with lower Mg/Al ratios. The presence of other inorganic anions decreased the phosphate adsorption efficiency in the order of F(-) > SO4(2-) > NO2(-) >Cl(-). Phosphate adsorption mechanism involves ion exchange, electrostatic attraction and surface inner-sphere complex formation. Overall, Mg/Al-LDHs biochar composites offer a potential alternative of carbon-based adsorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Room temperature luminescence and ferromagnetism of AlN:Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Cai, G. M.; Wang, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    AlN:Fe polycrystalline powders were synthesized by a modified solid state reaction (MSSR) method. Powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results reveal the single phase nature of the doped samples. In the doped AlN samples, Fe is in Fe2+ state. Room temperature ferromagnetic behavior is observed in AlN:Fe samples. Two photoluminescence peaks located at about 592 nm (2.09 eV) and 598 nm (2.07 eV) are observed in AlN:Fe samples. Our results suggest that AlN:Fe is a potential material for applications in spintronics and high power laser devices.

  14. Tribological properties of thermally sprayed TiAl-Al2O3 composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, A.; Gabbitas, B.; Li, J.; Zhang, D.

    2009-08-01

    The use of thermal spray coatings provides protection to the surfaces operating in severe environments. The main goal of the current work is to investigate the possibility of using a high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) thermally sprayed wear resistant TiAl/Al2O3 coating on tool steel (H13) which is used for making dies for aluminium high pressure die casting. A feedstock of TiAl/Al2O3 composite powder was produced from a mixture of Al and TiO2 powders by high energy mechanical milling, followed by a thermal reaction process. The feedstock was then thermally sprayed using a high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) technique onto H13 steel substrates to produce a composite coating. The present study describes and compares the tribological properties such as friction and sliding wear rate of the coating both at room and high temperature (700°C). The results showed that the composite coating has lower wear rate at high temperature (700°C) than the uncoated H13 sample. At Room temperature without using lubricant there is no much significant difference between the wear rate of the coated and uncoated samples. The experimental results showed that the composite coating has great potential for high temperature application due to its lower wear rate at high temperature in comparison with the uncoated sample at the same temperature. The composite coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). This paper reports the experimental observations and discusses the wear resistance performance of the coatings at room and high temperatures.

  15. Evaluation of nitrate and phosphate adsorption on Al-modified biochar: Influence of Al content.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qianqian; Ren, Huaipu; Wang, Ruikun; Zhao, Zhenghui

    2018-08-01

    Biochars with different Al contents (i.e., 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%) were prepared to evaluate their adsorption capacities for nitrate (NO 3 - ) and phosphate (PO 4 3- ) from eutrophic water. Several techniques, including N 2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, were applied to characterize the physical-chemical properties of the biochars. We found that the NO 3 - and PO 4 3- adsorptions significantly improved on the Al-modified biochars because of their multifunctional and surface charge properties. In single-solute adsorption, 15 Al/BC and 20 Al/BC exhibited optimal NO 3 - and PO 4 3- adsorption capacities, respectively. In bi-solute coadsorption, the PO 4 3- adsorption on the biochar was less affected with the coexistence of NO 3 - , whereas the coexistence of PO 4 3- had a significant impact on the NO 3 - adsorption. The optimal solution pH for NO 3 - adsorption was 6, and pH < 6 was advantageous to PO 4 3- adsorption. In the kinetic study, the pseudo-second-order model could describe the NO 3 - and PO 4 3- adsorptions on biochar well, indicating that chemical adsorption was the main adsorption mechanism. The Langmuir-Freundlich model agreed well with the NO 3 - and PO 4 3- adsorptions on the biochars, and the maximum adsorption capacities for NO 3 - and PO 4 3- reached 89.58 mg/g and 57.49 mg/g, respectively. Therefore, the Al-modified biochar was a good choice for the remediation of eutrophic water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetics of Al + H2O reaction: theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Sharipov, Alexander; Titova, Nataliya; Starik, Alexander

    2011-05-05

    Quantum chemical calculations were carried out to study the reaction of Al atom in the ground electronic state with H(2)O molecule. Examination of the potential energy surface revealed that the Al + H(2)O → AlO + H(2) reaction must be treated as a complex process involving two steps: Al + H(2)O → AlOH + H and AlOH + H → AlO + H(2). Activation barriers for these elementary reaction channels were calculated at B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p), CBS-QB3, and G3 levels of theory, and appropriate rate constants were estimated by using a canonical variational theory. Theoretical analysis exhibited that the rate constant for the Al + H(2)O → products reaction measured by McClean et al. must be associated with the Al + H(2)O → AlOH + H reaction path only. The process of direct HAlOH formation was found to be negligible at a pressure smaller than 100 atm.

  17. "ALS reversals": demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Daniel; Mehta, Paul; van Es, Michael A; Stommel, Elijah; Drory, Vivian E; Nefussy, Beatrice; van den Berg, Leonard H; Crayle, Jesse; Bedlack, Richard

    2018-04-02

    To identify differences in demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities between patients with "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) reversals" and those with typically progressive ALS. Cases of possible ALS reversals were found in prior publications, in the Duke ALS clinic, through self-referral or referral from other Neurologists, and on the internet. Of 89 possible reversals identified, 36 cases were included because chart or literature review confirmed their diagnosis and a robust, sustained improvement in at least one objective measure. Controls were participants in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials database and the National ALS Registry. Cases and controls were compared using descriptive statistics. ALS reversals were more likely to be male, have limb onset disease, and initially progress faster. The prevalences of myasthenia gravis (MG) and purely lower motor neuron disease in cases were higher than estimates of these prevalences in the general population. The odds of taking curcumin, luteolin, cannabidiol, azathioprine, copper, glutathione, vitamin D, and fish oil were greater for cases than controls. When compared to patients with typically progressive ALS, patients with reversals differed in their demographics, disease characteristics, and treatments. While some of these patients may have had a rare antibody-mediated ALS mimicker, such as atypical myasthenia gravis, details of their exams, EMGs and family histories argue that this was unlikely. Instead, our data suggest that ALS reversals warrant evaluation for mechanisms of disease resistance and that treatments associated with multiple ALS reversals deserve further study.

  18. 77 FR 61046 - The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8054] The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in Yemen, aka Al-Qa'ida in the South Arabian Peninsula, as a...

  19. 77 FR 61046 - The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8055] The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in Yemen, aka Al-Qa'ida in the South Arabian Peninsula...

  20. 75 FR 2920 - In the Matter of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Known as Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al- Arab, Also Known as al-Qa'ida Organization in the... Tanzim Qa'idat al- Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, also known as al-Qa'ida Organization in the Arabian...

  1. Imaging of Al/Fe ratios in synthetic Al-goethite revealed by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Lydia; Kölbl, Angelika; Werner, Florian; Mueller, Carsten W; Höschen, Carmen; Häusler, Werner; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2018-04-30

    Aluminium (Al)-substituted goethite is ubiquitous in soils and sediments. The extent of Al-substitution affects the physicochemical properties of the mineral and influences its macroscale properties. Bulk analysis only provides total Al/Fe ratios without providing information with respect to the Al-substitution of single minerals. Here, we demonstrate that nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) enables the precise determination of Al-content in single minerals, while simultaneously visualising the variation of the Al/Fe ratio. Al-substituted goethite samples were synthesized with increasing Al concentrations of 0.1, 3, and 7 % and analysed by NanoSIMS in combination with established bulk spectroscopic methods (XRD, FTIR, Mössbauer spectroscopy). The high spatial resolution (50-150 nm) of NanoSIMS is accompanied by a high number of single-point measurements. We statistically evaluated the Al/Fe ratios derived from NanoSIMS, while maintaining the spatial information and reassigning it to its original localization. XRD analyses confirmed increasing concentration of incorporated Al within the goethite structure. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed 11 % of the goethite samples generated at high Al concentrations consisted of hematite. The NanoSIMS data show that the Al/Fe ratios are in agreement with bulk data derived from total digestion and demonstrated small spatial variability between single-point measurements. More advantageously, statistical analysis and reassignment of single-point measurements allowed us to identify distinct spots with significantly higher or lower Al/Fe ratios. NanoSIMS measurements confirmed the capacity to produce images, which indicated the uniform increase in Al-concentrations in goethite. Using a combination of statistical analysis with information from complementary spectroscopic techniques (XRD, FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopy) we were further able to reveal spots with lower Al/Fe ratios as hematite. Copyright © 2018 John

  2. Influence of Content of Al2O3 on Structure and Properties of Nanocomposite Nb-B-Al-O films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Dong, Lei; Dong, Lei; Yu, Jiangang; Pan, Yupeng; Wan, Rongxin; Gu, Hanqing; Li, Dejun

    2015-11-01

    Nb-B-Al-O nanocomposite films with different power of Al2O3 were successfully deposited on the Si substrate via multi-target magnetron co-sputtering method. The influences of Al2O3's content on structure and properties of obtained nanocomposite films through controlling Al2O3's power were investigated. Increasing the power of Al2O3 can influence the bombarding energy and cause the momentum transfer of NbB2. This can lead to the decreasing content of Al2O3. Furthermore, the whole films showed monocrystalline NbB2's (100) phase, and Al2O3 shaded from amorphous to weak cubic-crystalline when decreasing content of Al2O3. This structure and content changes were proof by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When NbB2 grains were far from each other in lower power of Al2O3, the whole films showed a typical nanocomposite microstructure with crystalline NbB2 grains embedded in a matrix of an amorphous Al2O3 phase. Continuing increasing the power of Al2O3, the less content of Al2O3 tended to cause crystalline of cubic-Al2O3 between the close distances of different crystalline NbB2 grains. The appearance of cubic-crystallization Al2O3 can help to raise the nanocomposite films' mechanical properties to some extent. The maximum hardness and elastic modulus were up to 21.60 and 332.78 GPa, which were higher than the NbB2 and amorphous Al2O3 monolithic films. Furthermore, this structure change made the chemistry bond of O atom change from the existence of O-Nb, O-B, and O-Al bonds to single O-Al bond and increased the specific value of Al and O. It also influenced the hardness in higher temperature, which made the hardness variation of different Al2O3 content reduced. These results revealed that it can enhance the films' oxidation resistance properties and keep the mechanical properties at high temperature. The study highlighted the importance of controlling the Al2O3's content to prepare

  3. Growth of Ni-Al alloys on Ni(1 1 1), from Al deposits of various thicknesses: (II) Formation of NiAl over a Ni 3Al interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pévédic, S.; Schmaus, D.; Cohen, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the second part of a study devoted to the growth of thin Ni-Al alloys after deposition of Al on Ni(1 1 1). In the previous paper [S. Le Pévédic, D. Schmaus, C. Cohen, Surf. Sci. 600 (2006) 565] we have described the results obtained for ultra-thin Al deposits, leading, after annealing at 750 K, to an epitaxial layer of Ni 3Al(1 1 1). In the present paper we show that this regime is only observed for Al deposits smaller than 8 × 10 15 Al/cm 2 and we describe the results obtained for Al deposits exceeding this critical thickness, up to 200 × 10 15 Al/cm 2. Al deposition was performed at low temperature (around 130 K) and the alloying process was followed in situ during subsequent annealing, by Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction and ion beam analysis-channeling measurements, in an ultra-high vacuum chamber connected to a Van de Graaff accelerator. We evidence the formation, after annealing at 750 K, of a crystallographically and chemically well-ordered NiAl(1 1 0) layer (whose thickness depends on the deposited Al amount), over a Ni 3Al "interfacial" layer (whose thickness—about 18 (1 1 1) planes—is independent of the deposited Al amount). The NiAl overlayer is composed of three variants, at 120° from each other in the surface plane, in relation with the respective symmetries of NiAl(1 1 0) and Ni 3Al(1 1 1). The NiAl layer is relaxed (the lattice parameters of cc-B2 NiAl and fcc-L1 2 Ni 3Al differ markedly), and we have determined its epitaxial relationship. In the case of the thickest alloyed layer formed the results concerning the structure of the NiAl layer have been confirmed and refined by ex situ X-ray diffraction and information on its grain size has been obtained by ex situ Atomic Force Microscopy. The kinetics of the alloying process is complex. It corresponds to an heterogeneous growth leading, above the thin Ni 3Al interfacial layer, to a mixture of Al and NiAl over the whole Al film, up to the

  4. CuAlO2 and CuAl2O4 thin films obtained by stacking Cu and Al films using physical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Hernández, G.; Mayén-Hernández, S.; Castaño-Tostado, E.; DeMoure-Flores, F.; Campos-González, E.; Martínez-Alonso, C.; Santos-Cruz, J.

    2018-06-01

    CuAlO2 and CuAl2O4 thin films were synthesized by the deposition of the precursor metals using the physical vapor deposition technique and subsequent annealing. Annealing was carried out for 4-6 h in open and nitrogen atmospheres respectively at temperatures of 900-1000 °C with control of heating and cooling ramps. The band gap measurements ranged from 3.3 to 4.5 eV. Electrical properties were measured using the van der Pauw technique. The preferred orientations of CuAlO2 and CuAl2O4 were found to be along the (1 1 2) and (3 1 1) planes, respectively. The phase percentages were quantified using a Rietveld refinement simulation and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the composition is very close to the stoichiometry of CuAlO2 samples and with excess of aluminum and deficiency of copper for CuAl2O4 respectively. High resolution transmission electron microscopy identified the principal planes in CuAlO2 and in CuAl2O4. Higher purities were achieved in nitrogen atmosphere with the control of the cooling ramps.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Al-Induced Genes in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Root Apex: New Insight into Al Toxicity and Resistance Mechanisms in an Al Accumulating Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia Meng; Fan, Wei; Jin, Jian Feng; Lou, He Qiang; Chen, Wei Wei; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2017-01-01

    Relying on Al-activated root oxalate secretion, and internal detoxification and accumulation of Al, buckwheat is highly Al resistant. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these processes are still poorly understood. It is well-known that root apex is the critical region of Al toxicity that rapidly impairs a series of events, thus, resulting in inhibition of root elongation. Here, we carried out transcriptome analysis of the buckwheat root apex (0–1 cm) with regards to early response (first 6 h) to Al stress (20 μM), which is crucial for identification of both genes and processes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. We obtained 34,469 unigenes with 26,664 unigenes annotated in the NCBI database, and identified 589 up-regulated and 255 down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under Al stress. Functional category analysis revealed that biological processes differ between up- and down-regulated genes, although ‘metabolic processes’ were the most affected category in both up- and down-regulated DEGs. Based on the data, it is proposed that Al stress affects a variety of biological processes that collectively contributes to the inhibition of root elongation. We identified 30 transporter genes and 27 transcription factor (TF) genes induced by Al. Gene homology analysis highlighted candidate genes encoding transporters associated with Al uptake, transport, detoxification, and accumulation. We also found that TFs play critical role in transcriptional regulation of Al resistance genes in buckwheat. In addition, gene duplication events are very common in the buckwheat genome, suggesting a possible role for gene duplication in the species’ high Al resistance. Taken together, the transcriptomic analysis of buckwheat root apex shed light on the processes that contribute to the inhibition of root elongation. Furthermore, the comprehensive analysis of both transporter genes and TF genes not only deep our understanding on the responses

  6. Effect of Al content on impact resistance behavior of Al-Ti-B4C composite fabricated under air atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Liang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Xiujuan; Ren, Luquan

    2016-12-01

    Reaction behavior, mechanical property and impact resistance of TiC-TiB 2 /Al composite reacted from Al-Ti-B 4 C system with various Al content via combination method of combustion synthesis and hot pressed sintering under air was investigated. Al content was the key point to the variation of mechanical property and impact resistance. Increasing Al content could increase the density, strength and toughness of the composite. Due to exorbitant ceramic content, 10wt.% and 20wt.% Al-Ti-B 4 C composites exhibited poor molding ability and machinability. Flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness of 30-50wt.% Al-Ti-B 4 C composite were higher than those of Al matrix. The intergranular fracture dispersed and defused impact load and restricted crack extension, enhancing the impact resistance of the composite. The composite with 50wt.% Al content owned highest mechanical properties and impact resistance. The results were useful for the application of TiC-TiB 2 /Al composite in impact resistance field of ceramic reinforced Al matrix composite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Als1 and Als2 mutations conferring tolerance to acetolactate synthase herbicides in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Kay L; Strachan, Stephen D; Ferry, Nancy M; Albert, Henrik H; Castle, Linda A; Sebastian, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides are effective because they inhibit acetolactate synthase (ALS), a key enzyme in branched-chain amino acid synthesis required for plant growth. A soybean line known as W4-4 was developed through rounds of seed mutagenesis and was demonstrated to have a high degree of ALS-based resistance to both post-emergence and pre-emergence applications of a variety of SU herbicides. This report describes the molecular and phenotypic characterization of the Als1 and Als2 mutations that confer herbicide resistance to SUs and other ALS inhibitors. RESULTS The mutations are shown to occur in two different ALS genes that reside on different chromosomes: Als1 (P178S) on chromosome 4 and Als2 (W560L) on chromosome 6 (P197S and W574L in Arabidopsis thaliana). CONCLUSION Although the Als1 and Als2 genes are unlinked, the combination of these two mutations is synergistic for improved tolerance of soybeans to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. © 2014 DuPont Pioneer. Pest Management Science published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24425499

  8. Effect of in-situ formed Al3Ti particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 6061 Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rahul; Chaudhari, G. P.; Daniel, B. S. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, in situ Titanium-tri-aluminide (Al3Ti) particles reinforced Al 6061 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by the reaction of potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) inorganic salt with molten Al 6061 alloy via liquid metallurgy route. The development of in-situ Al3Ti particles and their effects on the mechanical properties such as yield strength (YS), ductility, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness, and microstructure of Al 6061 alloy were studied. It was observed from the results that in-situ formed Al3Ti particles were blocky in morphology whose average size was around 2.6 ± 1.1 μm. Microstructure studies showed that grain size of Al matrix was reduced due to the nucleating effect of Al3Ti particles. It was observed from the mechanical properties analysis that when the volume fraction of Al3Ti particles was increased, the hardness, UTS and YS of the composites were also increased as compared to that of Al 6061 alloy. An improvement in ductility was observed with the dispersion of Al3Ti particles in base alloy which is contrary to many other composites.

  9. Microstructure and Properties of Fe3Al-Fe3AlC x Composite Prepared by Reactive Liquid Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verona, Maria Nalu; Setti, Dalmarino; Paredes, Ramón Sigifredo Cortés

    2018-04-01

    A Fe3Al-Fe3AlC x composite was prepared using reactive liquid processing (RLP) through controlled mixture of carbon steel and aluminum in the liquid state. The microstructure and phases of the composite were assessed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, the density, hardness, microhardness, and elastic modulus were evaluated. The Fe3Al-Fe3AlC x composite consisted of 65 vol pct Fe3Al and 35 vol pct Fe3AlC x ( κ). The κ phase contained 10.62 at. pct C, resulting in the stoichiometry Fe3AlC0.475. The elastic modulus of the Fe3Al-Fe3AlC0.475 composite followed the rule of mixtures. The RLP technique was shown to be capable of producing Fe3Al-Fe3AlC0.475 with a microstructure and properties similar to those achieved using other processing techniques reported in the literature.

  10. Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys: Phase composition, texture, and anisotropy of mechanical properties (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Knyazev, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    The results of studying the phase transformations, the texture formation, and the anisotropy of the mechanical properties in Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys are generalized. A technique and equations are developed to calculate the amounts of the S1 (Al2MgLi), T1 (Al2CuLi), and δ' (Al3Li) phases. The fraction of the δ' phase in Al-Cu-Li alloys is shown to be significantly higher than in Al-Mg-Li alloys. Therefore, the role of the T1 phase in the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys is thought to be overestimated, especially in alloys with more than 1.5% Li. A new model is proposed to describe the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys upon aging, and the results obtained with this model agree well with the experimental data. A texture, which is analogous to that in aluminum alloys, is shown to form in sheets semiproducts made of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys. The more pronounced anisotropy of the properties of lithium-containing aluminum alloys is caused by a significant fraction of the ordered coherent δ' phase, the deformation mechanism in which differs radically from that in the solid solution.

  11. Comparison of ALS functionality and plant growth in ALS-inhibitor susceptible and resistant Myosoton aquaticum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitang; Bai, Shuang; Jia, Sisi; Guo, Wenlei; Zhang, Lele; Li, Wei; Wang, Jinxin

    2017-10-01

    Herbicide target-site resistance mutations may cause pleiotropic effects on plant ecology and physiology. The effect of several known (Pro197Ser, Pro197Leu Pro197Ala, and Pro197Glu) target-site resistance mutations of the ALS gene on both ALS functionality and plant vegetative growth of weed Myosoton aquaticum L. (water chickweed) have been investigated here. The enzyme kinetics of ALS from four purified water chickweed populations that each homozygous for the specific target-site resistance-endowing mutations were characterized and the effect of these mutations on plant growth was assessed via relative growth rate (RGR) analysis. Plants homozygous for Pro197Ser and Pro197Leu exhibited higher extractable ALS activity than susceptible (S) plants, while all ALS mutations with no negative change in ALS kinetics. The Pro197Leu mutation increased ALS sensitivity to isoleucine and valine, and Pro197Glu mutation slightly increased ALS sensitivity to isoleucine. RGR results indicated that none of these ALS resistance mutations impose negative pleiotropic effects on relative growth rate. However, resistant (R) seeds had a lowed germination rate than S seeds. This study provides baseline information on ALS functionality and plant growth characteristics associated with ALS inhibitor resistance-endowing mutations in water chickweed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Microstructure and Properties of 5083 Al/1060 Al/AZ31 Composite Plate Fabricated by Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Suyuan; Bao, Jiawei

    2018-03-01

    A 5083 Al/1060 Al/AZ31 composite plate was fabricated by explosive welding. The microstructure and properties of the composite plate were investigated after explosive welding. The results showed that all bonding interfaces were wavy interfaces. With an increasing distance from the detonation point, the wavelength and the amplitude also increased. The EDS results indicated that a 5-μm diffusion layer was observed at the 1060 Al/AZ31 layer, including the Mg2Al3 phase. Adiabatic shear bands and twin structures were observed in AZ31. The shear bond strength of the 5083 Al/1060 Al interface was 60 MPa, and the shear bond strength of the 1060 Al/AZ31 interface was 84 MPa.

  13. Current transport mechanism in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Bhishma; Seo, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Beo Deul; Cho, Jaehee

    2016-06-01

    The current transport mechanism of graphene formed on AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions (x = 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40) is investigated. The current-voltage measurement from graphene to AlGaN/GaN shows an excellent rectifying property. The extracted Schottky barrier height of the graphene/AlGaN/GaN contacts increases with the Al mole fraction in AlGaN. However, the current transport mechanism deviates from the Schottky-Mott theory owing to the deterioration of AlGaN crystal quality at high Al mole fractions confirmed by reverse leakage current measurement.

  14. Shock induced reaction of Ni/Al nanopowder mixture.

    PubMed

    Meng, C M; Wei, J J; Chen, Q Y

    2012-11-01

    Nanopowder Ni/Al mixture (mixed in Al:Ni = 2:1 stoichiometry) was shock compressed by employing single and two-stage light gas gun. The particle size of Al and Ni are 100-200 nm and 50-70 nm respectively, morphologies of Al and Ni are sphere like either. Recovered product was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. According to the XRD spectrum, the mixed powder undergo complete reaction under shock compression, reaction product consist of Ni2Al3, NiAl and corundum structure Al2O3 compound. Grain size of Ni-Al compound is less than 100 nm. With the shock pressure increasing, the ratio of Ni2Al3 decreased obviously. The corundum crystal size is 400-500 nm according to the SEM observation. The results of shock recovery experiments and analysis show that the threshold pressure for reaction of nano size powder Ni/Al mixture is much less than that of micro size powder.

  15. MCrAlY bond coat with enhanced yttrium

    DOEpatents

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2016-08-30

    One or more embodiments relates to a method of producing an MCrAlY bond coat comprising an MCrAlY layer in contact with a Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. The MCrAlY layer is comprised of a .gamma.-M solid solution, a .beta.-MAl intermetallic phase, and Y-type intermetallics. The Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer is comprised of Yttrium atoms coordinated with oxygen atoms comprising the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 lattice. The method comprises depositing an MCrAlY material on a substrate, applying an Y.sub.2O.sub.3 paste, and heating the substrate in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature between 400-1300.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. Both the MCrAlY layer and the Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer have a substantial absence of Y.sub.2O.sub.3, YAG, and YAP phases.

  16. Pure AlN layers in metal-polar AlGaN/AlN/GaN and AlN/GaN heterostructures grown by low-temperature ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaun, Stephen W.; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Fireman, Micha N.; Kyle, Erin C. H.; Mishra, Umesh K.; Speck, James S.

    2015-05-01

    When grown at a high temperature (820 °C) by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE), the AlN layers of metal-polar AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures had a high GaN mole fraction (∼0.15), as identified by atom probe tomography in a previous study (Mazumder et al 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 111603). In the study presented here, growth at low temperature (<740 °C) by NH3-MBE yielded metal-polar AlN layers that were essentially pure at the alloy level. The improved purity of the AlN layers grown at low temperature was correlated to a dramatic increase in the sheet density of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the AlN/GaN heterointerface. Through application of an In surfactant, metal-polar AlN(3.5 nm)/GaN and AlGaN/AlN(2.5 nm)/GaN heterostructures grown at low temperature yielded low 2DEG sheet resistances of 177 and 285 Ω/□, respectively.

  17. Radial macrosegregation and dendrite clustering in directionally solidified Al-7Si and Al-19Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghods, M.; Johnson, L.; Lauer, M.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hypoeutectic Al-7 wt% Si and Al-19 wt% Cu alloys were directionally solidified upward in a Bridgman furnace through a range of constant growth speeds and thermal gradients. Though processing is thermo-solutally stable, flow initiated by gravity-independent advection at, slightly leading, central dendrites moves rejected solute out ahead and across the advancing interface. Here any lagging dendrites are further suppressed which promotes a curved solid-liquid interface and the eventual dendrite "clustering" seen in transverse sections (dendrite "steepling" in longitudinal orientations) as well as extensive radial macrosegregation. Both aluminum alloys showed considerable macrosegregation at the low growth speeds (10 and 30 μm s-1) but not at higher speed (72 μm s-1). Distribution of the fraction eutectic-constituent on transverse sections was determined in order to quantitatively describe radial macrosegregation. The convective mechanisms leading to dendrite-steepling were elucidated with numerical simulations, and their results compared with the experimental observations.

  18. Overdamped Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Lacquaniti, V.; Cagliero, C.; Maggi, S.

    2005-01-24

    We report the fabrication and characterization of overdamped Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor Josephson junction whose fabrication process derives from that of the well-known hysteretic junctions. These junctions are an intermediate state between the superconductor-normal metal-superconductor and the superconductor-insulator-superconductor Josephson junctions. Stable and reproducible nonhysteretic current-voltage characteristics are obtained with a proper choice of the fabrication parameters. We have measured critical current densities J{sub C} from 10{sup 3} up to 2x10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, with characteristic voltages from 80 to nearly 450 {mu}V. The junctions are stable against time and repeated thermal cycling.

  19. Chemical shielding properties for BN, BP, AlN, and AlP nanocones: DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Yousefi, Mohammad; Meskinfam, Masoumeh

    2012-06-01

    The properties of boron nitride (BN), boron phosphide (BP), aluminum nitride (AlN), and aluminum phosphide (AlP) nanocones were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The investigated structures were optimized and chemical shielding (CS) properties including isotropic and anisotropic CS parameters were calculated for the atoms of the optimized structures. The magnitudes of CS parameters were observed to be mainly dependent on the bond lengths of considered atoms. The results indicated that the atoms could be divided into atomic layers due to the similarities of their CS properties for the atoms of each layer. The trend means that the atoms of each layer detect almost similar electronic environments. Moreover, the atoms at the apex and mouth of nanocones exhibit different properties with respect to the other atomic layers.

  20. Gate-Tunable Electron Transport Phenomena in Al-Ge⟨111⟩-Al Nanowire Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Brunbauer, Florian M; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2015-11-11

    Electrostatically tunable negative differential resistance (NDR) is demonstrated in monolithic metal-semiconductor-metal (Al-Ge-Al) nanowire (NW) heterostructures integrated in back-gated field-effect transistors (FETs). Unambiguous signatures of NDR even at room temperature are attributed to intervalley electron transfer. At yet higher electric fields, impact ionization leads to an exponential increase of the current in the ⟨111⟩ oriented Ge NW segments. Modulation of the transfer rates, manifested as a large tunability of the peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) and the onset of impact ionization is achieved by the combined influences of electrostatic gating, geometric confinement, and heterojunction shape on hot electron transfer and by electron-electron scattering rates that can be altered by varying the charge carrier concentration in the NW FETs.

  1. Tunneling spectroscopy of Al/AlO{sub x}/Pb subjected to hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jun; Hou, Xing-Yuan; Guan, Tong

    2015-05-18

    We develop an experimental tool to investigate high-pressure electronic density of state by combining electron tunneling spectroscopy measurements with high-pressure technique. It is demonstrated that tunneling spectroscopy measurement on Al/AlO{sub x}/Pb junction is systematically subjected to hydrostatic pressure up to 2.2 GPa. Under such high pressure, the normal state junction resistance is sensitive to the applied pressure, reflecting the variation of band structure of the barrier material upon pressures. In superconducting state, the pressure dependence of the energy gap Δ{sub 0}, the gap ratio 2Δ{sub 0}/k{sub B}T{sub c}, and the phonon spectral energy is extracted and compared with those obtained inmore » the limited pressure range. Our experimental results show the accessibility and validity of high pressure tunneling spectroscopy, offering wealthy information about high pressure superconductivity.« less

  2. Removing Al and regenerating caustic soda from the spent washing liquor of Al etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. A.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Farghly, F. E.

    2005-08-01

    Spent liquor from washing of aluminum section materials after etching with caustic soda (NaOH) has been treated. Aluminum was removed from the liquor and caustic soda was regenerated by adding precipitating agents to hydrolyze sodium aluminate (Na2AlO2), separating the aluminumprecipitate, and concentrating free NaOH in the resulting solution for reuse in the etching process. Four systems were investigated: hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2], hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2O2/Ca(OH)2 mixture, and dry lime (CaO). Results revealed that CaO was more efficient in the removal of aluminum from the spent liquor with a higher hydrolyzing rate of Na2AlO2 than Ca(OH)2, H2O2, or their mixture.

  3. [Clinical aspects, imaging and neuropathology of Kii ALS/PDC].

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Yasumasa

    2007-11-01

    During 1996 and 2006, we examined clinically 37 patients and neuropathologically 13 autopsy cases with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex of the Kii peninsula (Kii ALS/PDC). The ages of onset were between 52 years and 74 years (mean age: 65.3 years). The male to female ratio was 1:1.85. The ratio of positive family history where ALS or PDC occurred within the fourth degree of the relatives was 78.4% in the patients with Kii ALS/PDC. The average duration of the illness was 6.47 years. Kii ALS/PDC was divided into five clinical subtypes, pure ALS form, ALS with dementia form, PDC with parkinsonism predominant form, PDC with dementia predominant form (that is called late-life dementia in Guam) and PDC with ALS features form. Unique pigmentary retinopathy was found in 33.3% of the patients with Kii ALS/PDC. CT/MRI images showed atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes and SPECT images showed a decrease in the blood flow of the frontal and temporal lobes. The cardiac 123I-MIBG uptake was decreased in 4 out of 8 patients with ALS/PDC and the decrease in uptake correlated with the modified Hoehn-Yahr staging. The cardinal neuropathological features of Kii ALS/PDC were abundant neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) associated with loss of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and the brain stem, and findings of ALS neuropathology. Ultrastructurally, NFTs consisted of paired helical filaments. Tau protein, a main component of NFTs, was consisted of 3R and 4R tau isoforms, and phosphoryrated at 18 sites of tau phosphoryrated sites. The neurons of dentate gyrus of hippocampus and anterior horn cells were stained with anti-TDP-43 antibody. The clinical and neuropathological aspects of Kii ALS/PDC are regarded as being identical with those of Guam ALS/PDC.

  4. Unusual Oxidative Limitations for Al-MAX Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Alumina-forming MAX phases are well-known for their excellent oxidation resistance, rivaling many metallic NiAl, NiCrAl, and FeCrAl counterparts and with upper temperature capability possible to approximately1400C. However a number of limitations have been emerging that need to be acknowledged to permit robust performance in demanding applications. Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 possess excellent scale adhesion, cyclic oxidation/moisture/volatility resistance, and TBC compatibility. However they are very sensitive to Al content and flux in order to maintain an exclusive Al2O3 scale without runaway oxidation of ubiquitous TiO2 transient scales. Accelerated oxidation has been shown to occur for Al-depleted, damaged, or roughened surfaces at temperatures less than 1200C. Conversely, Cr2AlC is less sensitive to transients, but exhibits volatile losses at 1200C or above if common Cr7C3 impurity phases are present. Poor scale adhesion is exhibited after oxidation at 1150C or above, where spallation occurs at the Cr7C3 (depletion zone) interface. Delayed spallation is significant and suggests a moisture-induced phenomenon similar to non-adherent metallic systems. Re-oxidation of this surface does not reproduce the initial pure Al2O3 behavior, but initiates a less-protective scale. Cr2AlC has also been shown to have good long term bonding with superalloys at 800C, but exhibits significant Beta-NiAl + Cr7C3 diffusion zones at 1100C and above. This may set limits on Cr2AlC as a high temperature TBC bond coat on Ni-based superalloys, while improving corrosion resistance in lower temperature applications.

  5. 26Al- 26Mg and 207Pb- 206Pb systematics of Allende CAIs: Canonical solar initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio reinstated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin, Qing-zhu; Moynier, Frederic; Amelin, Yuri; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Palme, Herbert

    2008-07-01

    The precise knowledge of the initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio [( 26Al/ 27Al) 0] is crucial if we are to use the very first solid objects formed in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) as the "time zero" age-anchor and guide future work with other short-lived radio-chronometers in the early Solar System, as well as determining the inventory of heat budgets from radioactivities for early planetary differentiation. New high-precision multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) measurements of 27Al/ 24Mg ratios and Mg-isotopic compositions of nine whole-rock CAIs (six mineralogically characterized fragments and three micro-drilled inclusions) from the CV carbonaceous chondrite, Allende yield a well-defined 26Al- 26Mg fossil isochron with an ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10 - 5 . Internal mineral isochrons obtained for three of these CAIs ( A44A, AJEF, and A43) are consistent with the whole-rock CAI isochron. The mineral isochron of AJEF with ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 = (4.96 ± 0.25) × 10 - 5 , anchored to our precisely determined absolute 207Pb- 206Pb age of 4567.60 ± 0.36 Ma for the same mineral separates, reinstate the "canonical" ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 of 5 × 10 - 5 for the early Solar System. The uncertainty in ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 corresponds to a maximum time span of ± 20 Ka (thousand years), suggesting that the Allende CAI formation events were culminated within this time span. Although all Allende CAIs studied experienced multistage formation history, including melting and evaporation in the solar nebula and post-crystallization alteration likely on the asteroidal parent body, the 26Al- 26Mg and U-Pb-isotopic systematics of the mineral separates and bulk CAIs behaved largely as closed-system since their formation. Our data do not support the "supra-canonical" 26Al/ 27Al ratio of individual minerals or their mixtures in CV CAIs, suggesting that the supra-canonical 26Al/ 27Al ratio in the CV CAIs may have resulted from post

  6. Al-Qaeda-Syria (AQS): An Al-Qaeda Affiliate Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    comparative methodology that included eight case studies on groups affiliated or associated with Al-Qaeda. These case studies were then used as a...Case Study Zack Gold With contributions from Pamela G. Faber October 2017 This work was performed under Federal Government...for Stability and Development Center for Strategic Studies REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden

  7. Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS): An Al Qaeda Affiliate Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    conduct this assessment, CNA used a comparative methodology that included eight case studies on groups affiliated or associated with Al-Qaeda. These case...Case Study Pamela G. Faber and Alexander Powell October 2017 This work was performed under Federal Government Contract No. N00014-16-D-5003. Copyright...Director Center for Stability and Development Center for Strategic Studies REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden

  8. Cognitive-behavioral longitudinal assessment in ALS: the Italian Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS screen (ECAS).

    PubMed

    Poletti, Barbara; Solca, Federica; Carelli, Laura; Faini, Andrea; Madotto, Fabiana; Lafronza, Annalisa; Monti, Alessia; Zago, Stefano; Ciammola, Andrea; Ratti, Antonia; Ticozzi, Nicola; Abrahams, Sharon; Silani, Vincenzo

    2018-08-01

    The study presents data on the longitudinal administration of the Italian Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS). We investigated cognitive-behavioral performance in a group of ALS patients over time and the feasibility of repeating the ECAS longitudinally compared with standard neuropsychological tests. Finally, correlations between clinical/genetic and cognitive/behavioral data were considered. One hundred and sixty-eight ALS patients were tested at baseline (T 0 ). Among these, 48 patients performed the ECAS after 6 months (T 1 ), 18 patients performed it at T 2 (12 months), and five patients were assessed after 24 months (T 3 ). Participants were also administered two cognitive test (FAB; MoCA) and psychological questionnaires (BDI; STAI/Y). The FBI was carried out with caregivers. No cognitive deterioration was found across follow-ups. In contrast, although scores did not change between T 0 and T 1 , scores improved significantly for ECAS Total/ALS Non-specific and Memory domains when the ECAS was repeated on three occasions (T 0 , T 1 , T 2 ). Apathy/Inertia was the most common behavioral symptom, but no worsening of behavioral scores was detected over time. After 12-24 months, patients were still able to perform the ECAS in total, in contrast to FAB and MoCA, which were only partially administrable. The significant improvement of some ECAS scores over time supports the presence of possible practice effects, particularly in the memory domain, highlighting the need to accommodate for these in longitudinal assessments, through healthy controls groups or alternate versions. This work represents the first Italian ECAS follow-up study and confirms ECAS feasibility in patients with increasing physical disability.

  9. Investigation of the Electrical Characteristics of Al/p-Si/Al Schottky Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şenarslan, Elvan; Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    In this study, p-type Si semiconductor wafer with (100) orientation, 400 μm thickness and 1-10 Ω cm resistivity was used. The Si wafer before making contacts were chemically cleaned with the Si cleaning procedure which for remove organic contaminations were ultrasonically cleaned at acetone and methanol for 10 min respectively and then rinsed in deionized water of 18 MΩ and dried with high purity N2. Then respectively RCA1(i.e., boiling in NH3+H2O2+6H2O for 10 min at 60°C ), RCA2 (i.e., boiling in HCl+H2O2+6H2O for 10 min at 60°C ) cleaning procedures were applied and rinsed in deionized water followed by drying with a stream of N2. After the cleaning process, the wafer is immediately inserted in to the coating unit. Ohmic contact was made by evaporating of Al on the non-polished side of the p-Si wafer pieces under ~ 4,2 10-6 Torr pressure. After process evaporation, p-Si with omic contac thermally annealed 580°C for 3 min in a quartz tube furnace in N2. Then, the rectifier contact is made by evaporation Al metal diameter of about 1.0 mm on the polished surface of p-Si in turbo molecular pump at about ~ 1 10-6 Torr. Consequently, Al/p-Si/Al Schottky diode was obtained. The I-V measurements of this diode performed by the use of a KEITLEY 487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source and the C-V measurements were performed with HP 4192A (50-13 MHz) LF Impedance Analyzer at room temperature and in dark.

  10. Synthesis of new metal-matrix Al-Al2O3-graphene composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshina, L. A.; Muradymov, R. V.; Kvashnichev, A. G.; Vichuzhanin, D. I.; Molchanova, N. G.; Pankratov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism of formation of ceramic microparticles (alumina) and graphene in a molten aluminum matrix is studied as a function of the morphology and type of precursor particles, the temperature, and the gas atmosphere. The influence of the composition of an aluminum composite material (as a function of the concentration and size of reinforcing particles) on its mechanical and corrosion properties, melting temperature, and thermal conductivity is investigated. Hybrid metallic Al-Al2O3-graphene composite materials with up to 10 wt % alumina microparticles and 0.2 wt % graphene films, which are uniformly distributed over the metal volume and are fully wetted with aluminum, are synthesized during the chemical interaction of a salt solution containing yttria and boron carbide with molten aluminum in air. Simultaneous introduction of alumina and graphene into an aluminum matrix makes it possible to produce hybrid metallic composite materials having a unique combination of the following properties: their thermal conductivity is higher than that of aluminum, their hardness and strength are increased by two times, their relative elongation during tension is increased threefold, and their corrosion resistance is higher than that of initial aluminum by a factor of 2.5-4. We are the first to synthesize an in situ hybrid Al-Al2O3-graphene composite material having a unique combination of some characteristics. This material can be recommended as a promising material for a wide circle of electrical applications, including ultrathin wires, and as a structural material for the aerospace industry, the car industry, and the shipbuilding industry.

  11. Combustion Synthesis Reaction Behavior of Cold-Rolled Ni/Al and Ti/Al Multilayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    6   Figure 4 . Combustion synthesis process of the cold-rolled Ni/Al multilayer foils: (a) reaction front of the displacement of the reaction...Reactive Nanostructured Foil Used as a Heat Source for Joining Titanium . J. Appl. Phys. 2004, 96 ( 4 ), 2336–2342. 16. Wang, J.; Besnoin, E...2011 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2006–January 2008 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combustion Synthesis Reaction Behavior of

  12. Al Sahawa - The Awakening. Volume 4: Al Anbar Province, Area of Operations Topeka, Ramadi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    is a multimedia instructional package to accom- modate different teaching and learning styles. B. Collection Interviews were conducted in the...the city of Fallujah in November 2004 to rid the city of insurgents. For more information , see Matt M. Matthews, Operation AL FAJR: A Study in Army... communities . Some of the messages explicitly thanked the community “for the information that you are providing on the insurgents.” This technique served

  13. Al Sahawa - The Awakening, Volume 4: Al Anbar Province, Area of Operations Topeka, Ramadi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    is a multimedia instructional package to accom- modate different teaching and learning styles. B. Collection Interviews were conducted in the...the city of Fallujah in November 2004 to rid the city of insurgents. For more information , see Matt M. Matthews, Operation AL FAJR: A Study in Army... communities . Some of the messages explicitly thanked the community “for the information that you are providing on the insurgents.” This technique served

  14. Shift Focus on the Al Qaeda Network: A More Comprehensive Approach to Defeating Al Qaeda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-15

    Declaration of jihad against the United States,” Al-Islah ( Internet ), September 2, 1996. As analyzed in Michael Scheuer, Osama bin Laden (New York...He enhanced his charismatic persona by deliberately modeling his life after that of Mohammed, the Islamic prophet.25 The irony of bin Laden is that...with the sensitive topic of a political ideology linked with a religion whose population is overwhelmingly distrustful of the U.S. Much has been made

  15. Ferromagnetism in UCo1-xMnxAl and UCo1-xVxAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmaylov, M.; Rafaja, D.; Sechovský, V.; Andreev, A. V.

    2002-01-01

    UCoAl is an itinerant 5 f-electron metamagnet with a tiny critical field of transition B c≈0.4 T (at 1.3 K). Critical magnetic parameters of this material are strongly sensitive to chemical environment of U atoms. We present results of a pilot study of formation, crystal structure and magnetism of UCo1-xTxAl compounds for T=Mn and V, x≤0.1. All these compounds have been found to be isostructural with the parent compound. Already for x=0.01 in both systems a spontaneous magnetization M s has been observed at low temperatures. Anomalies in the AC susceptibility as a function of temperature point to T c≈28 and 25 K respectively for Mn and V doping. The ferromagnetism induced in UCo1-xTxAl compounds due to a substitution of light transition metal for Co is discussed within a model considering effects of varying 5 f-ligand hybridization on the stability of U 5 f-moment and on exchange interactions.

  16. Design of Al-rich AlGaN quantum well structures for efficient UV emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funato, Mitsuru; Ichikawa, Shuhei; Kumamoto, Kyosuke; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2017-02-01

    The effects of the structure design of AlGaN-based quantum wells (QWs) on the optical properties are discussed. We demonstrate that to achieve efficient emission in the germicidal wavelength range (250 - 280 nm), AlxGa1-xN QWs in an AlyGa1-yN matrix (x < y) is quite effective, compared with those in an AlN matrix: Time-resolved photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies show that the AlyGa1-yN matrix can enhance the radiative recombination process and can prevent misfit dislocations, which act as non-radiative recombination centers, from being induced in the QW interface. As a result, the emission intensity at room temperature is about 2.7 times larger for the AlxGa1-xN QW in the AlyGa1-yN matrix than that in the AlN matrix. We also point out that further reduction of point defects is crucial to achieve an even higher emission efficiency.

  17. Why Gupta et al.'s critique of niche construction theory is off target.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Marcus W; Odling-Smee, John; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-07-01

    Gupta et al., in their article in this issue ('Niche construction in evolutionary theory: the construction of an academic niche?'. doi:10.1007/s12041-017-0787-6), lament 'serious problems with the way science is being done' and suggest that 'niche construction theory exemplifies this state of affairs.' However, their aggressively confrontational but superficial critique of niche construction theory (NCT) only contributes to these problems by attacking claims that NCT does not make. This is unfortunate, as their poor scholarship has done a disservice to the evolutionary biology community through propagating misinformation.We correct Gupta et al.'s misunderstandings, stressing that NCT does not suggest that the fact that organisms engage in niche construction is neglected, nor does it make strong claims on the basis of its formal theory. Moreover, the treatment of niche construction as an evolutionary process has been highly productive, and is both theoretically and empirically well-validated.We end by reflecting on the potentially deleterious implications of their publication for evolutionary science.

  18. 3DGRAPE/AL User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, Reese L.; Alter, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a users' manual for a new three-dimensional structured multiple-block volume g generator called 3DGRAPE/AL. It is a significantly improved version of the previously-released a widely-distributed programs 3DGRAPE and 3DMAGGS. It generates volume grids by iteratively solving the Poisson Equations in three-dimensions. The right-hand-side terms are designed so that user-specific; grid cell heights and user-specified grid cell skewness near boundary surfaces result automatically, with little user intervention. The code is written in Fortran-77, and can be installed with or without a simple graphical user interface which allows the user to watch as the grid is generated. An introduction describing the improvements over the antecedent 3DGRAPE code is presented first. Then follows a chapter on the basic grid generator program itself, and comments on installing it. The input is then described in detail. After that is a description of the Graphical User Interface. Five example cases are shown next, with plots of the results. Following that is a chapter on two input filters which allow use of input data generated elsewhere. Last is a treatment of the theory embodied in the code.

  19. Whisker Formation in Porosity in Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, William David; Elsayed, Ahmed; El-Sayed, Mahmoud Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    An examination of the fracture surfaces of tensile test bars from Al alloy castings held in the liquid state for up to 20 minutes revealed porosity which in some cases contained whisker-like features. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis in a SEM suggested that these might be oxide whiskers forming in an oxide-related pore or double oxide film defect. Such entrainment defects (also known as bifilms) may entrap a small amount of the local atmosphere when they form and become incorporated into the liquid metal. This atmosphere may be predominantly air, which then subsequently reacts with the surrounding melt, firstly by reaction with oxygen and secondly by reaction with nitrogen. A CFD model of the heat distribution associated with the reactions between the interior atmosphere of a double oxide film defect and the surrounding liquid alloy suggested that highly localized increases in temperature, up to about 2000 K to 5000 K (1727 °C to 4727 °C), could occur, over a scale of a few hundred micrometers. Such localized increases in temperature might lead to the evaporation or disassociation of oxide within the pore, followed by condensation, to form the whisker structures observed. Hydrogen might also be expected to diffuse into the bifilm and may play a role in the chemical reactions associated with the development of the bifilm.

  20. ALS liquid hydrogen turbopump: Advanced Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimp, Nancy R.; Claffy, George J.

    1989-01-01

    The point of departure (POD) turbopump concept was reviewed and finalized. The basis for the POD was the configuration presented in the Aerojet proposal. After reviewing this proposal concept, several modifications were made. These modifications include the following: (1) the dual pump discharge arrangement was changed to a single discharge; (2) commonality of the turbine inlet manifold with the advanced launch system (ALS) liquid oxygen (LOX) TPA was dropped for this program; (3) the turbine housing flange arrangement was improved by relocating it away from the first stage nozzles; (4) a ten percent margin (five percent diameter increase) was built into the impeller design to ensure meeting the required discharge pressure without the need for increasing speed; (5) a ten percent turbine power margin was imposed which is to be obtained by increasing turbine inlet pressure if required; and (6) the backup concept, as an alternative to the use of cast impellers, now incorporates forged/machined shrouded impellers, rather than the unshrouded type originally planned.

  1. Dehydration of δ-AlOOH in the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piet, H.; Shim, S. H.; Tappan, J.; Leinenweber, K. D.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrous phase δ-AlOOH is an important candidate for water transport and storage in the Earth's deep mantle [1]. Knowing the conditions, under which it is stable and dehydrated, is therefore important for understanding the water transportation to the deep mantle or even to the core. A few experimental studies [1, 2] have shown that δ-AlOOH may be stable in cold descending slabs while it is dehydrated into a mixture of corundum and water under normal mantle conditions, up to 25 GPa. A subsequent study [3] reported the stability of δ-AlOOH in cold descending slabs to the core-mantle boundary conditions (2300 K at 135 GPa). However, the dehydration of δ-AlOOH has not bee directly observed in the experiments conducted at pressures above 25 GPa. We have synthesized δ-AlOOH from diaspore and Al(OH)3 in multi-anvil press at ASU. The sample was mixed with Au for coupling with near IR laser beams and loaded in diamond-anvil cells. We performed the laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at the 13IDD beamline of the Advanced Photon Source and ASU. At APS, we measured X-ray diffraction patterns at in situ high pressure and temperature. We observed the appearance of the corundum diffraction lines at 1700-2000 K and 55-90 GPa, indicating the dehydration of δ-AlOOH to Al2O3+ H2O. We found that the transition occurs over a broad range of temperature (500 K). We also observed that the dehydration of δ-AlOOH was accompanied by sudden change in laser coupling, most likely due to the release of fluids. The property change also helps us to determine the dehydration at ASU without in situ XRD. Our new experimental results indicate that δ-AlOOH would be stable in most subducting slabs in the deep mantle. However, because the dehydration occurs very close to the temperatures expected for the lower mantle, its stability is uncertain in the normal mantle. [1] Ohtani et al. 2001, Stability field of new hydrous phase, delta-AlOOH, Geophysical Research Letters 28, 3991-3993. [2

  2. Assessment of phase constitution on the Al-rich region of rapidly solidified Al-Co-Fe-Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, W., E-mail: witorw@gmail.com

    The formation of quasicrystalline approximants in rapidly solidified Al-Co-Fe-Cr alloys was investigated. Alloys of atomic composition Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8}, Al{sub 77}Co{sub 11}Fe{sub 6}Cr{sub 6} and Al{sub 76}Co{sub 19}Fe{sub 4}Cr{sub 1} were produced using melt spinning and arc melting methods and their microstructural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Up to the present there is no consensus in the literature regarding the formation of quasicrystalline phase or quasicrystalline approximants in the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy. This work presents, for the first time, a detailed structural characterization of selected alloysmore » in the Al-Co-Fe-Cr system close to the atomic composition Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8}. The results indicated the samples to be composed, mostly, by two intermetallic phases, which are quaternary extensions of Al{sub 5}Co{sub 2} and Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} and are quasicrystalline approximants. Although the Al{sub 5}Co{sub 2} phase has already been reported in the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy, the presence of the monoclinic Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} is now identified for the first time in the as cast state. In the binary Al-Co system a quasicrystalline phase is known to form in a rapidly solidified alloy with composition close to the monoclinic and orthorhombic Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} phases. This binary quasicrystalline phase presents an average valence electron per atom (e/a) between 1.7 and 1.9; thus, in addition to the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy, the compositions Al{sub 77}Co{sub 11}Fe{sub 6}Cr{sub 6} and Al{sub 76}Co{sub 19}Fe{sub 4}Cr{sub 1} were chosen to be within the region of formation of the quaternary extension of the Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} phase and also within the (e/a) of 1.7 to 1.9. However, no quasicrystalline phase is present in any of the studied alloys. The Al

  3. Compatibility of AlN with liquid lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terai, T.; Suzuki, A.; Yoneoka, T.; Mitsuyama, T.

    2000-12-01

    Development of ceramic coatings is one of the most important subjects in liquid blanket research and development. Compatibility of sintered AlN and AlN coatings with liquid lithium, a candidate breeding material, was investigated. Sintered AlN with or without the sintering aid of Y 2O 3 examined in lithium at 773 K for 1390 h showed a slight decrease in electrical resistivity because of a reduction in Al 2O 3 impurity, though AlN and Y 2O 3 components themselves were subject to no severe corrosion. On the other hand, AlN ceramic coatings on SUS430 with high resistivity (> 10 11 Ω m) fabricated by the RF sputtering method disappeared in liquid lithium at 773 K in 56 h. This may be because cracks were formed due to the difference in thermal expansion between the coatings and the substrate or because the oxide formed between the two was removed by liquid lithium.

  4. Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol Over Pt/Al-SBA-15 Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi Jin; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Ryu, Changkook; Sohn, Jung Min; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Upgrading of bio-oil through catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction was investigated for guaiacol as a model compound. A batch reactor was used for the reaction condition of 40 bar and 250 degrees C. The target product was cyclohexane. Pt/Al-SBA-15 with the Si/Al ratios of 20, 40, and 80 and Pt/HZSM-5 were used as the catalyst. The SBA-15 catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction analysis, and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia. The order of cyclohexane yield was Pt/Al-SBA-15 (Si/Al = 20) > Pt/Al-SBA-15(40) > Pt/Al-SBA-15 (80), indicating that the quantity of acid sites plays an important role in the HDO reaction. On the other hand, Pt/HZSM-5 led to a very low cyclohexane yield, in spite of its abundant strong acid sites, due to its small pore size.

  5. Aggregation of trypsin and trypsin inhibitor by Al cation.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-04-01

    Al cation may trigger protein structural changes such as aggregation and fibrillation, causing neurodegenerative diseases. We report the effect of Al cation on the solution structures of trypsin (try) and trypsin inhibitor (tryi), using thermodynamic analysis, UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thermodynamic parameters showed Al-protein bindings occur via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts for trypsin and trypsin inhibitor. AFM showed that Al cations are able to force trypsin into larger or more robust aggregates than trypsin inhibitor, with trypsin 5±1 SE (n=52) proteins per aggregate and for trypsin inhibitor 8.3±0.7 SE (n=118). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced more alterations of trypsin inhibitor conformation than trypsin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Hanna, Mark Cooper [Boulder, CO; Reedy, Robert [Golden, CO

    2008-02-12

    A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

  7. Thermal properties of U-7Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Tae Won; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Jong Man; Lee, Kyu Hong; Kim, Sunghwan; Lee, Chong-Tak; Yang, Jae Ho; Oh, Jang Soo; Won, Ju-Jin; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2017-12-01

    The thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of U-7Mo/Al and U-7Mo/Al-5Si as functions of U-Mo fuel volume fraction and temperature were measured. The density of the sample was measured at room temperature and estimated using thermal expansion data at elevated temperatures. Using the measured data, the thermal conductivity was obtained as a function of U-Mo volume fraction and temperature. The thermal conductivity of U-7Mo/Al-5Si was found to be lower than that of U-7Mo/Al because of the Si addition to the Al. Due to a lower porosity and reduced interaction between U-Mo and Al in the sample, the thermal conductivity data reported in the present study were higher than those in the literature. The present data were found to be in agreement with the predictions of theoretical models.

  8. Cost-Effective TiAl based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moxson, V. S.; Sun, Fusheng; Draper, Susan L.; Froes, F. H.; Duz, V.

    2003-01-01

    Because of their inherent low ductility, TiAl-based materials are difficult to fabricate, especially thin gage titanium gamma aluminide (TiAl) sheet and foil. In this paper, an innovative powder metallurgy approach for producing cost-effective thin gage TiAl sheets (with 356 mm long and 235 mm wide, and a thickness of 0.74, 1.09, 1.55, and 2.34 mm, respectively) is presented. The microstructures and tensile properties at room and elevated temperatures of the thin gage TiAl are studied. Results show that these TiAl sheets have a relatively homogenous chemistry, uniform microstructure, and acceptable mechanical properties. This work demonstrates a cost-effective method for producing both flat products (sheet/foil) and complex chunky parts of TiAl for various advanced applications including aerospace and automotive industries.

  9. Could Sirtuin Activities Modify ALS Onset and Progression?

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2017-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a complex etiology. Sirtuins have been implicated as disease-modifying factors in several neurological disorders, and in the past decade, attempts have been made to check if manipulating Sirtuin activities and levels could confer benefit in terms of neuroprotection and survival in ALS models. The efforts have largely focused on mutant SOD1, and while limited in scope, the results were largely positive. Here, the body of work linking Sirtuins with ALS is reviewed, with discussions on how Sirtuins and their activities may impact on the major etiological mechanisms of ALS. Moving forward, it is important that the potentially beneficial effect of Sirtuins in ALS disease onset and progression are assessed in ALS models with TDP-43, FUS, and C9orf72 mutations.

  10. Multidisciplinary ALS Telemedicine Care: The Store and Forward Method.

    PubMed

    Pulley, Michael T; Brittain, Rebecca; Hodges, Wayne; Frazier, Christine; Miller, Leslie; Matyjasik-Liggett, Maria; Maurer, Susan; Peters, Melissa; Solomon, Kimberly; Berger, Alan R

    2018-05-26

    ALS patients benefit from multidisciplinary care in an ALS clinic. We studied whether multidisciplinary care of ALS patients using the store and forward method of telemedicine was feasible and acceptable to patients and providers. ALS patients seen in the UF Jacksonville ALS clinic were eligible. A trained telemedicine nurse performed and recorded a multidisciplinary assessment of the patient in their home. Clinic team members reviewed the assessments, provided recommendations and the clinic director discussed the plan with the patient via videoconference. Patient and provider satisfaction was evaluated using surveys. 18 patients completed a total of 27 telemedicine visits. Patient satisfaction was excellent and provider satisfaction was very good. The store and forward method of telemedicine is an acceptable alternative to live telemedicine for the multidisciplinary care of ALS patients. This method of care may improve access to multidisciplinary care for this patient population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of Cooling Rate on Morphology of TiAl3 Particles in Al-4Ti Master Alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing; Fu, Lu; He, Jiansheng

    2017-02-27

    The Al-4Ti master alloy was fabricated by aluminum (Al) and sponge titanium particle in a resistance furnace at different cooling rates. This work aims to investigate the relationship between the cooling rate and morphology of TiAl3. The microstructure and composition of master alloys at different cooling rates were characterized and analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that various morphologies of TiAl3 particles in the Al-4Ti master alloy could be acquired at different cooling rates. Petal-like, blocky, and flake-like TiAl3 particles in the Al-4Ti master alloy were respectively acquired at the cooling rates of 3.36 K/s, 2.57 K/s, and 0.31 K/s. It was also found that the morphology of TiAl3 particles in the prepared master alloy changed from petal-like to blocky, then finally to flake-like, with the decrease of cooling rate. In addition, the morphology of the TiAl3 particles has no effect on the phase inversion temperature of Al-4Ti master alloy.

  12. Formation of Al3Ti/Mg composite by powder metallurgy of Mg-Al-Ti system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zi R; Qi Wang, Shu; Cui, Xiang H; Zhao, Yu T; Gao, Ming J; Wei, Min X

    2008-07-01

    An in situ titanium trialuminide (Al 3 Ti)-particle-reinforced magnesium matrix composite has been successfully fabricated by the powder metallurgy of a Mg-Al-Ti system. The reaction processes and formation mechanism for synthesizing the composite were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Al 3 Ti particles are found to be synthesized in situ in the Mg alloy matrix. During the reaction sintering of the Mg-Al-Ti system, Al 3 Ti particles are formed through the reaction of liquid Al with as-dissolved Ti around the Ti particles. The formed intermetallic particles accumulate at the original sites of the Ti particles. As sintering time increases, the accumulated intermetallic particles disperse and reach a relatively homogeneous distribution in the matrix. It is found that the reaction process of the Mg-Al-Ti system is almost the same as that of the Al-Ti system. Mg also acts as a catalytic agent and a diluent in the reactions and shifts the reactions of Al and Ti to lower temperatures. An additional amount of Al is required for eliminating residual Ti and solid-solution strengthening of the Mg matrix.

  13. Study on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-18Si Alloy Modified with Al-3B.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chunjie; Tu, Hao; Wu, Changjun; Wang, Jianhua; Su, Xuping

    2018-03-20

    An hypereutectic Al-18Si alloy was modified via an Al-3B master alloy. The effect of the added Al-3B and the modification temperature on the microstructure, tensile fracture morphologies, and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated using an optical microscope, Image-Pro Plus 6.0, a scanning electron microscope, and a universal testing machine. The results show that the size of the primary Si and its fraction decreased at first, and then increased as an additional amount of Al-3B was added. When the added Al-3B reached 0.2 wt %, the fraction of the primary Si in the Al-18Si alloy decreased with an increase in temperature. Compared with the unmodified Al-18Si alloy, the tensile strength and elongation of the alloy modified at 850 °C with 0.2 wt % Al-3B increased by 25% and 81%, respectively. The tensile fracture of the modified Al-18Si alloy exhibited partial ductile fracture characteristics, but there were more areas with ductile characteristics compared with that of the unmodified Al-18Si alloy.

  14. Accidentes laborales asociados al desánimo de médicos SERUMS para laborar en el primer nivel de atención de Lima, Perú

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Christian R.; Valladares-Garrido, Mario J.; Romero, Brian M.; Valladares-Garrido, Danai; Linares-Reyes, Edgardo

    2018-01-01

    Introducción la retención laboral es un tema de suma importancia, porque se requiere de profesionales en el primer nivel de atención (PNA). El objetivo fue determinar si los accidentes laborales se asociaron al desánimo de los médicos para trabajar en el PNA de Lima, Perú. Métodos estudio transversal analítico de datos secundarios de una base de datos generada de una encuesta a médicos que realizaron su Servicio Rural y Urbano-Marginal en Salud (SERUMS). Se incluyó solo a los médicos que manifestaron al inicio del SERUMS que podían trabajar en el PNA de Lima. Se definió como cambio de intención de trabajo en el PNA a los que finalizando el SERUMS refirieron que ya no deseaban laborar en Lima. Esto se asoció según si tuvieron un accidente laboral y se ajustó por otras variables. Resultados de los 124 médicos el 63% fueron hombres (78). La mediana de edad fue de 26 años (rango intercuartílico: 25-27 años). Después de su SERUMS, el 12% (15) manifestó que cambió su interés y que deseaba trabajar en la capital. En el análisis multivariado, haber tenido un accidente laboral disminuyó la frecuencia del cambio de intención de trabajo en el PNA (RPa: 0.28, IC 95%: 0.14-0.54, p < 0,001), ajustado por ocho variables. Conclusiones en un estudio previo los accidentes laborales disminuyeron la frecuencia de trabajar en provincias, pero nuestro estudio dice lo contrario, posiblemente por la percepción de que un trabajo en la capital del país permite estar más cerca de los servicios para ser atendido en caso de cualquier emergencia. PMID:29190859

  15. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Suxin; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E.; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s−1 (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g−1 for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g−1 for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials’. PMID:27402936

  16. Delegitimizing Al-Qaeda: A Jihad-Realist Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    However distasteful to U.S. national security de- cisionmakers, the presumption of Islamic suprema- cism and a past-perfect Islamic utopian “ golden ...Islamic glorious golden age. Third, an ac- count of “The Fall” is provided that is largely a dystopian odyssey involving Western cultural modernity...LIKEWISE AGAINST HIM . . . AL-FARBEK AL-ROKN, Abu Bakr Al-Makee (Simon Reeve, The New Jackals : Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden, and the Future of Terror

  17. Jasmonic Acid Enhances Al-Induced Root Growth Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; He, Chunmei; Ma, Yanqi; Herde, Marco; Ding, Zhaojun

    2017-02-01

    Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root growth inhibition. Furthermore, phenotype analysis with mutants defective in either JA biosynthesis or signaling suggests that JA is involved in the regulation of Al-induced root growth inhibition. The expression of the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the key JA signaling regulator MYC2 was up-regulated in response to Al stress in the root tips. This process together with COI1-mediated Al-induced root growth inhibition under Al stress was controlled by ethylene but not auxin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that many responsive genes under Al stress were regulated by JA signaling. The differential responsive of microtubule organization-related genes between the wild-type and coi1-2 mutant is consistent with the changed depolymerization of cortical microtubules in coi1 under Al stress. In addition, ALMT-mediated malate exudation and thus Al exclusion from roots in response to Al stress was also regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling. Together, this study suggests that root growth inhibition is regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling independent from auxin signaling and provides novel insights into the phytohormone-mediated root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Ayman Al-Zawahiri: The Ideologue of Modern Islamic Militancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    and actual combat experience for EIJ members. 8 . . . Ayman Al-Zawahiri Two such Egyptian-Afghan mujahideen and EIJ members, Naeem Nabeel Abdul...Gives Life Meaning, (New York: PublicAffairs Press, 2002), 45-46. 18. Nabeel Sharaf-al-Din, Bin Laden, The Taliban and the Fundamentalist Movement...Radical Islam and the Future of America (Dulles, Virginia: Brasseys, 2002), 59. 34. Nabeel Sharaf-al-Din, “Bin Laden, The Taliban and the

  19. Understanding fracture toughness in gamma TiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    1992-05-01

    The ambient-temperature ductility and fracture toughness of TiAl-base intermetallic alloys have been improved in recent years by both alloy additions and microstructural control. Two-phase TiAl alloys have emerged as a new class of lightweight, high-temperature materials with potential importance for aerospace applications. This overview summarizes recent advances in the basic understanding of the fracture processes and toughening mechanisms in TiAl-base alloys and the relationships between microstructures and mechanical properties.

  20. Attacking al Qaeda’s Operational Centers of Gravity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    have allied themselves with al Qaeda.7 The Taliban in Afghanistan have a close relationship with al Qaeda. In Iraq, there are two major insurgent... consanguinity , the ideological affinity between al Qaeda and local insurgents and populations. By designating consanguinity as a decisive point at the...people, materiel, or facilities. Links connect nodes and are behavioral or functional; they could be a command relationship or an ideology. A deci

  1. Circumstellar chlorine chemistry and a search for AlCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, R. E. S.; Wootten, H. A.

    1980-09-01

    The J = 7-6 transition of AlCl has been sought in carbon-rich circumstellar shells, Orion A, and Sgr B-2. The upper limit for IRC + 10216 is 20 times less than the predicted value for fully associated AlCl. It is suggested that either the initial density in the circumstellar gas flow (not greater than 10 to the 10th per cu cm) or the gaseous Al and Cl are depleted by grains in this object.

  2. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of the Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka The Monotheism and Jihad Group, aka The al-Zarqawi Network, aka al-Tawhid, aka Tanzim Qa`idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of... Group of Jihad in Iraq, aka al-Qaida Group of Jihad in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka The Organization...

  3. Spectra of surface plasmon polariton enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, T. W.

    Narrow band-pass filters have been used to measure the spectral distribution of electroluminescent photons with energies between 1.8 eV and 3.0 eV from electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes with anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses between 12 nm and 18 nm. Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is a non-destructive dielectric breakdown that results in a conducting channel in the insulator and changes the initial high resistance of the MIM diode to a low resistance state. It is a critical step in the development of resistive-switching memories that utilize MIM diodes as the active element. Electroforming of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes in vacuum results in voltage-controlledmore » negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) develop simultaneously with the current increase that results in VCNR in the I-V characteristics. EL is due to recombination of electrons injected at the Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface with radiative defect centers in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Measurements of EL photons between 1.8 eV and 3.0 eV using a wide band-pass filter showed that EL intensity is exponentially dependent on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness for Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes between 12 nm and 20 nm thick. Enhanced El intensity in the thinnest diodes is attributed to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate of recombination centers due to high electromagnetic fields generated in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} when EL photons interact with electrons in Ag or Al to form surface plasmon polaritons at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al interface. El intensity is a maximum at 2.0–2.2 eV for Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses between 12 nm and 18 nm. EL in diodes with 12 nm or 14 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is enhanced by factors of 8–10 over EL from a diode with 18 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The extent of EL

  4. The cyclic oxidation resistance at 1200 C of beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl alloys with selected third element additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Titran, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The intermetallic compounds Beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl were tested in cyclic oxidation with selected third element alloy additions. Tests in static air for 200 1-hr cycles at 1200 C indicated by specific weight change/time data and x-ray diffraction analysis that the 5 at percent alloy additions did not significantly improve the oxidation resistance over the alumina forming baseline alloys without the additions. Many of the alloy additions were actually deleterious. Ta and Nb were the only alloy additions that actually altered the nature of the oxide(s) formed and still maintained the oxidation resistance of the protective alumina scale.

  5. Study of the Al m 26 ( d , p ) Al 27 Reaction and the Influence of the Al 26 0 + Isomer on the Destruction of Al 26 in the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Gerken, N.

    The existence of 26Al (t 1/2 = 7.17 × 10 5 yr) in the interstellar medium provides a direct confirmation of ongoing nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. The presence of a low-lying 0 + isomer ( 26Al m), however, severely complicates the astrophysical calculations. Here we present for the first time a study of the 26Al m (d, p) 27 Al reaction using an isomeric 26Al beam. The selectivity of this reaction allowed the study of ℓ = 0 transfers to T = 1/2, and T = 3/2 states in 27Al . Mirror symmetry arguments were then used to constrain themore » 26Al m (p,γ) 27Si reaction rate and provide an experimentally determined upper limit of the rate for the destruction of isomeric 26Al via radiative proton capture reactions, which is expected to dominate the destruction path of 26Al m in asymptotic giant branch stars, classical novae, and core collapse supernovae.« less

  6. High-Strength Nanotwinned Al Alloys with 9R Phase.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Xue, Sichuang; Wang, Jian; Shao, Shuai; Kwong, Anthony H; Giwa, Adenike; Fan, Zhe; Liu, Yue; Qi, Zhimin; Ding, Jie; Wang, Han; Greer, Julia R; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Xinghang

    2018-03-01

    Light-weight aluminum (Al) alloys have widespread applications. However, most Al alloys have inherently low mechanical strength. Nanotwins can induce high strength and ductility in metallic materials. Yet, introducing high-density growth twins into Al remains difficult due to its ultrahigh stacking-fault energy. In this study, it is shown that incorporating merely several atomic percent of Fe solutes into Al enables the formation of nanotwinned (nt) columnar grains with high-density 9R phase in Al(Fe) solid solutions. The nt Al-Fe alloy coatings reach a maximum hardness of ≈5.5 GPa, one of the strongest binary Al alloys ever created. In situ uniaxial compressions show that the nt Al-Fe alloys populated with 9R phase have flow stress exceeding 1.5 GPa, comparable to high-strength steels. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that high strength and hardening ability of Al-Fe alloys arise mainly from the high-density 9R phase and nanoscale grain sizes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. al-Qaida Strategy, Ideology, Doctrine, and Media

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Jarret Brachman

    2017-12-09

    Dr. Jarret Brachman, an internationally recognized al-Qaida specialist, author and public lecturer, shares his thoughts on a range of topics, including the differences involved in fighting insurgent groups versus terrorist organizations, the future of the global al-Qaida movement, and assessing America's efforts to combat al-Qaida. In his talk, Brachman focuses specifically on current trends in al-Qaida's military and messaging strategies, both from the perspective of the group's senior leadership and its regional commands. Presented on June 17, 2010.

  8. al-Qaida Strategy, Ideology, Doctrine, and Media

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Jarret Brachman

    Dr. Jarret Brachman, an internationally recognized al-Qaida specialist, author and public lecturer, shares his thoughts on a range of topics, including the differences involved in fighting insurgent groups versus terrorist organizations, the future of the global al-Qaida movement, and assessing America's efforts to combat al-Qaida. In his talk, Brachman focuses specifically on current trends in al-Qaida's military and messaging strategies, both from the perspective of the group's senior leadership and its regional commands. Presented on June 17, 2010.

  9. Ca-Al-rich chondrules and inclusions in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischoff, A.; Keil, K.

    1983-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich objects, hitherto mostly found in carbonaceous chondrites, are shown to be widespread, albeit rare, constituents of type 3 ordinary chondrites. Widespread occurrence and textural similarities of Ca-Al-rich chondrules to common, Mg-Fe-rich chondrules suggest that they formed by related processes. It is suggested in this article that Ca-Al-rich chondrules were formed by total melting and crystallization of heterogeneous, submillimeter- to submillimeter-sized dustballs made up of mixtures of high-temperature, Ca-Al-rich and lower-temperature, Na-K-rich components.

  10. Interdiffusion and Intrinsic Diffusion in the Mg-Al System

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2012-01-01

    Solid-to-solid diffusion couples were assembled and annealed to examine the diffusion between pure Mg (99.96%) and Al (99.999%). Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were utilized to identify the formation of the intermetallic phases, -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2 and absence of the -phase in the diffusion couples. Thicknesses of the -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2 phases were measured and the parabolic growth constants were calculated to determine the activation energies for the growth, 165 and 86 KJ/mole, respectively. Concentration profiles were determined with electronmore » microprobe analysis using pure elemental standards. Composition-dependent interdiffusion coefficients in Mg-solid solution, -Al12Mg17 and - Al3Mg2 and Al-solid solutions were calculated based on the Boltzmann-Matano analysis. Average effective interdiffusion coefficients for each phase were also calculated, and the magnitude was the highest for the -Al3Mg2 phase, followed by -Al12Mg17, Al-solid solution and Mg-solid solution. Intrinsic diffusion coefficients based on Huemann s analysis (e.g., marker plane) were determined for the ~38 at.% Mg in the -Al3Mg2 phase. Activation energies and the pre-exponential factors for the inter- and intrinsic diffusion coefficients were calculated for the temperature range examined. The -Al3Mg2 phase was found to have the lowest activation energies for growth and interdiffusion among all four phases studied. At the marker location in the -Al3Mg2 phase, the intrinsic diffusion of Al was found to be faster than that of Mg. Extrapolations of the impurity diffusion coefficients in the terminal solid solutions were made and compared to the available self- and impurity diffusion data from literature. Thermodynamic factor, tracer diffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities at the marker plane composition were approximated using available literature values of Mg activity in

  11. Study of the Al m 26 ( d , p ) Al 27 Reaction and the Influence of the Al 26 0 + Isomer on the Destruction of Al 26 in the Galaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Gerken, N.; ...

    2017-08-17

    The existence of 26Al (t 1/2 = 7.17 × 10 5 yr) in the interstellar medium provides a direct confirmation of ongoing nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. The presence of a low-lying 0 + isomer ( 26Al m), however, severely complicates the astrophysical calculations. Here we present for the first time a study of the 26Al m (d, p) 27 Al reaction using an isomeric 26Al beam. The selectivity of this reaction allowed the study of ℓ = 0 transfers to T = 1/2, and T = 3/2 states in 27Al . Mirror symmetry arguments were then used to constrain themore » 26Al m (p,γ) 27Si reaction rate and provide an experimentally determined upper limit of the rate for the destruction of isomeric 26Al via radiative proton capture reactions, which is expected to dominate the destruction path of 26Al m in asymptotic giant branch stars, classical novae, and core collapse supernovae.« less

  12. The Growth of Berlinite (AlPO4) Single Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Solubility of AlPO 4 18 6. Solubility Data of Jahn and Kordes on AlPO4 19 7. AlPO 4 Seed Crystal 23 8. Tem-Pres Hydrothermal Research Unit 25 9...Since the vapor pressure of water rises rapidly with temperature, a closed hydrothermal system was used. In a seeded hydrothermal growth process, the...to investigate the hydrothermal growth of Berlinite (AlPO4 ) to determine the optimum growth conditions for large high quality crystals. Over thirty

  13. Study of the ^{26}Al^{m}(d,p)^{27}Al Reaction and the Influence of the ^{26}Al 0^{+} Isomer on the Destruction of ^{26}Al in the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Almaraz-Calderon, S; Rehm, K E; Gerken, N; Avila, M L; Kay, B P; Talwar, R; Ayangeakaa, A D; Bottoni, S; Chen, A A; Deibel, C M; Dickerson, C; Hanselman, K; Hoffman, C R; Jiang, C L; Kuvin, S A; Nusair, O; Pardo, R C; Santiago-Gonzalez, D; Sethi, J; Ugalde, C

    2017-08-18

    The existence of ^{26}Al (t_{1/2}=7.17×10^{5}  yr) in the interstellar medium provides a direct confirmation of ongoing nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. The presence of a low-lying 0^{+} isomer (^{26}Al^{m}), however, severely complicates the astrophysical calculations. We present for the first time a study of the ^{26}Al^{m}(d,p)^{27}Al reaction using an isomeric ^{26}Al beam. The selectivity of this reaction allowed the study of ℓ=0 transfers to T=1/2, and T=3/2 states in ^{27}Al. Mirror symmetry arguments were then used to constrain the ^{26}Al^{m}(p,γ)^{27}Si reaction rate and provide an experimentally determined upper limit of the rate for the destruction of isomeric ^{26}Al via radiative proton capture reactions, which is expected to dominate the destruction path of ^{26}Al^{m} in asymptotic giant branch stars, classical novae, and core collapse supernovae.

  14. Electrical resistivity of Al-Cu liquid binary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakor, P. P.; Patel, J. J.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-06-01

    Present paper deals with the electrical resistivity (ρ) of liquid Al-Cu binary alloy. To describe electron-ion interaction we have used our parameter free model potential along with Faber-Ziman formulation combined with Ashcroft-Langreth (AL) partial structure factor. To see the influence of exchange and correlation effect, Hartree, Taylor and Sarkar et al local field correlation functions are used. From present results, it is seen that good agreements between present results and experimental data have been achieved. Lastly we conclude that our model potential successfully produces the data of electrical resistivity (ρ) of liquid Al-Cu binary alloy.

  15. Inductively coupled BCl 3/Cl 2 /Ar plasma etching of Al-rich AlGaN

    DOE PAGES

    Douglas, Erica A.; Sanchez, Carlos A.; Kaplar, Robert J.; ...

    2016-12-01

    Varying atomic ratios in compound semiconductors is well known to have large effects on the etching properties of the material. The use of thin device barrier layers, down to 25 nm, adds to the fabrication complexity by requiring precise control over etch rates and surface morphology. The effects of bias power and gas ratio of BCl 3 to Cl 2 for inductively coupled plasma etching of high Al content AlGaN were contrasted with AlN in this study for etch rate, selectivity, and surface morphology. Etch rates were greatly affected by both bias power and gas chemistry. Here we detail themore » effects of small variations in Al composition for AlGaN and show substantial changes in etch rate with regards to bias power as compared to AlN.« less

  16. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Microstructure of carbide precipitates in L12-Ni3Al and L10-TiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang Suk

    2008-04-01

    The crystallographic structures of carbide formed in Ni3Al- and TiAl-based intermetallics containing carbon are investigated in this study using transmission electron microscopy. In an L12-ordered Ni3Al alloy with 4 mol.% of chromium and 0.2 mol.% to 3.0 mol.% of carbon, fine octahedral precipitates of M23C6 type carbide were formed in the matrix by aging at temperatures around 973 K after solution annealing at 1423 K. TEM examination revealed that the M23C6 phase and the matrix lattices have a cube-cube orientation relationship and maintain partial atomic matching at the {111} interface. After prolonged aging or by aging at higher temperatures, the M23C6 precipitates adopt a rod-like morphology elongated parallel to the <100> directions. In L10-ordered TiAl containing from 0.1 mol.% to 2.0 mol.% carbon, TEM observations reveal that needle-like precipitates, which lie only in one direction parallel to the [001] axis of the L10 matrix appear in the matrix mainly at dislocations. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns analyses showed that the needle-shaped precipitate is perovskite-type Ti3AlC. The orientation relationship between the Ti3AlC and the L10 matrix was found to be (001)Ti3AlC//(001)L10 matrix and [010]Ti3AlC//[010]L10 matrix. By aging at higher temperatures or for a longer period at 1073 K, plate-like precipitates of Ti2AlC with a hexagonal structure form on the {111} planes of the L10 matrix. The orientation relationship between the Ti2AlC and the L10 matrix is (0001)Ti2AlC//(111)L10 matrix and Ti2AlC//L10 matrix.

  17. Comparative research on the influence of varied Al component on the active layer of AlGaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Minyou; Chen, Liang; Su, Lingai; Yin, Lin; Qian, Yunsheng

    2017-06-01

    To theoretically research the influence of a varied Al component on the active layer of AlGaN photocathodes, the first principle based on density functional theory is used to calculate the formation energy and band structure of Al x Ga1-x N with x at 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.325, and 0.5. The calculation results show that the formation energy declines along with the Al component rise, while the band gap is increasing with Al component increasing. Al x Ga1-x N with x at 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.325, and 0.5 are direct band gap semiconductors, and their absorption coefficient curves have the same variation tendency. For further study, we designed two kinds of reflection-mode AlGaN photocathode samples. Sample 1 has an Al x Ga1-x N active layer with varied Al component ranging from 0.5 to 0 and decreasing from the bulk to the surface, while sample 2 has an Al x Ga1-x N active layer with the fixed Al component of 0.25. Using the multi-information measurement system, we measured the spectral response of the activated samples at room temperature. Their photocathode parameters were obtained by fitting quantum efficiency curves. Results show that sample 1 has a better spectral response than sample 2 at the range of short-wavelength. This work provides a reference for the structure design of the AlGaN photocathode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61308089, 6144005) and the Public Technology Applied Research Project of Zhejiang Province (No. 2013C31068).

  18. Co-existence of a few and sub micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Yoshiya; Oto, Takao; Banal, Ryan G.

    2015-03-21

    Inhomogeneity in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells is directly observed using our custom-built confocal microscopy photoluminescence (μ-PL) apparatus with a reflective system. The μ-PL system can reach the AlN bandgap in the deep ultra-violet spectral range with a spatial resolution of 1.8 μm. In addition, cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements with a higher spatial resolution of about 100 nm are performed. A comparison of the μ-PL and CL measurements reveals that inhomogeneities, which have different spatial distributions of a few- and sub-micron scales that are superimposed, play key roles in determining the optical properties.

  19. Formation of (Ti,Al)N/Ti{sub 2}AlN multilayers after annealing of TiN/TiAl(N) multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Dolique, V.; Jaouen, M.; Cabioc'h, T.

    2008-04-15

    By using ion beam sputtering, TiN/TiAl(N) multilayers of various modulation wavelengths ({lambda}=8, 13, and 32 nm) were deposited onto silicon substrates at room temperature. After annealing at 600 deg. C in vacuum, one obtains for {lambda}=13 nm a (Ti,Al)N/Ti{sub 2}AlN multilayer as it is evidenced from x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy filtered electron imaging experiments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments show that the as-deposited TiAl sublayers contain a noticeable amount of nitrogen atoms which mean concentration varies with the period {lambda}. They also evidenced the diffusion of aluminum into TiN sublayers after annealing. Deduced from thesemore » observations, we propose a model to explain why this solid-state phase transformation depends on the period {lambda} of the multilayer.« less

  20. Liver X Receptor Genes Variants Modulate ALS Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mouzat, Kevin; Molinari, Nicolas; Kantar, Jovana; Polge, Anne; Corcia, Philippe; Couratier, Philippe; Clavelou, Pierre; Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Lobaccaro, Jean -Marc A; Raoul, Cedric; Lumbroso, Serge; Camu, William

    2018-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most severe motor neuron (MN) disorders in adults. Phenotype of ALS patients is highly variable and may be influenced by modulators of energy metabolism. Recent works have implicated the liver X receptors α and β (LXRs), either in the propagation process of ALS or in the maintenance of MN survival. LXRs are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols, modulating cholesterol levels, a suspected modulator of ALS severity. In a cohort of 438 ALS patients and 330 healthy controls, the influence of LXR genes on ALS risk and phenotype was studied using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The two LXRα SNPs rs2279238 and rs7120118 were shown to be associated with age at onset in ALS patients. Consistently, homozygotes were twice more correlated than were heterozygotes to delayed onset. The onset was thus delayed by 3.9 years for rs2279238 C/T carriers and 7.8 years for T/T carriers. Similar results were obtained for rs7120118 (+2.1 years and +6.7 years for T/C and C/C genotypes, respectively). The LXRβ SNP rs2695121 was also shown to be associated with a 30% increase of ALS duration (p = 0.0055, FDR = 0.044). The tested genotypes were not associated with ALS risk. These findings add further evidence to the suspected implication of LXR genes in the disease process of ALS and might open new perspectives in ALS therapeutics.

  1. How well can wave runup be predicted? comment on Laudier et al. (2011) and Stockdon et al. (2006)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2015-01-01

    Laudier et al. (2011) suggested that there may be a systematic bias error in runup predictions using a model developed by Stockdon et al. (2006). Laudier et al. tested cases that sampled beach and wave conditions that differed from those used to develop the Stockdon et al. model. Based on our re-analysis, we found that in two of the three Laudier et al. cases observed overtopping was actually consistent with the Stockdon et al. predictions. In these cases, the revised predictions indicated substantial overtopping with, in one case, a freeboard deficit of 1 m. In the third case, the revised prediction had a low likelihood of overtopping, which reflected a large uncertainty due to wave conditions that included a broad and bi-modal frequency distribution. The discrepancy between Laudier et al. results and our re-analysis appear to be due, in part, to simplifications made by Laudier et al. when they implemented a reduced version of the Stockdon et al. model.

  2. Comparison of dry sliding wear and friction behavior of Al6061/SiC PMMC with Al6061 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, A. G. Shankara; Mehta, N. K.; Kumar, Pradeep

    2018-04-01

    Dry sliding wear and friction behavior tests were conducted on Al6061 alloy and Al6061/SiC particle reinforced metal matrix composites (PMMCs) reinforced with fine particles of 5, 10 and 15 µm size having 5,7.5 and 10% weight content fabricated by stir-casting route. Cylindrical sample pins produced as per ASTM standard were tested for various parameters like SiC size, weight content, load and sliding distance affecting the wear rate or resistance and friction. Results indicated that Al6061/SiCp composites exhibited good wear resistance compared to Al6061 alloy for the tested parameters.

  3. Oxidation Resistant Ti-Al-Fe Diffusion Barrier for FeCrAlY Coatings on Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialke, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A diffusion barrier to help protect titanium aluminide alloys, including the coated alloys of the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha2) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C is disclosed. The coating may comprise FeCrAlX alloys. The diffusion barrier comprises titanium, aluminum, and iron in the following approximate atomic percent: Ti-(50-55)Al-(9-20)Fe. This alloy is also suitable as an oxidative or structural coating for such substrates.

  4. Inclined dislocation arrays in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum well structures emitting at 290 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, T. Y.; Moram, M. A.; McAleese, C.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    We report on the structural and optical properties of deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on (0001) sapphire by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy using two different buffer layer structures, one containing a thin (1 μm) AlN layer combined with a GaN interlayer and the other a thick (4 μm) AlN layer. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of both structures showed inclined arrays of dislocations running through the AlGaN layers at an angle of ˜30°, originating at bunched steps at the AlN surface and terminating at bunched steps at the surface of the MQW structure. In all layers, these inclined dislocation arrays are surrounded by AlGaN with a relatively higher Ga content, consistent with plan-view cathodoluminescence maps in which the bunched surface steps are associated with longer emission wavelengths. The structure with the 4 μm-thick AlN buffer layer had a dislocation density lower by a factor of 2 (at (1.7±0.1)×109 cm-2) compared to the structure with the 1 μm thick AlN buffer layer, despite the presence of the inclined dislocation arrays.

  5. Nonequilibrium synthesis of NbAl3 and Nb-Al-V alloys by laser cladding. II - Oxidation behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haasch, R. T.; Tewari, S. K.; Sircar, S.; Loxton, C. M.; Mazumder, J.

    1992-01-01

    Isothermal oxidation behaviors of NbAl3 alloy synthesized by laser cladding were investigated at temperatures between 800 and 1400 C, and the effect of vanadium microalloying on the oxidation of the laser-clad alloy was examined. The oxidation kinetics of the two alloys were monitored using thermal gravimetric weight gain data, and the bulk and surface chemistries were analyzed using XRD and XPS, respectively. It was found that NbAl3 did not form an exclusive layer of protective Al2O3. The oxidation products at 800 C were found to be a mixture of Nb2O5 and Al2O3. At 1200 C, a mixture of NbAlO4, Nb2O5, and Al2O3 formed; and at 1400 C, a mixture of NbAlO4, Al2O3, NbO2, NbO(2.432), and Nb2O5 formed. The addition of V led to a dramatic increase of the oxidation rate, which may be related to the formation of (Nb, V)2O5 and VO2, which grows in preference to protective Al2O3.

  6. 77 FR 4082 - Review and Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, et al. as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Operations in Iraq, aka al-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka al... of al-Jihad's Base in the Land of the Two Rivers, aka The Organization Base of Jihad/Mesopotamia, aka...

  7. Molecular structure of Mg-Al, Mn-Al and Zn-Al halotrichites-type double sulfates--an infrared spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sara J; Frost, Ray L

    2011-05-01

    Near infrared (NIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy have been applied to halotrichites of the formula MgAl(2)(SO(4))(4)·22H(2)O, MnAl(2)(SO(4))(4)·22H(2)O and ZnAl(2)(SO(4))(4)·22H(2)O. Comparison of the halotrichites in different spectral regions has shown that the incorporation of a divalent transition metal into the halotrichite structure causes a shift in OH stretching band positions to lower wavenumbers. Therefore, an increase of the hydrogen bond strength of the bonded water is observed for divalent cations with a larger molecular mass. XRD has confirmed the formation of halotrichite for all three samples and characteristic peaks of halotrichite have been identified for each halotrichite-type compound. It has been observed that Mg-Al and Mn-Al halotrichite are very similar in structure, while Zn-Al showed several differences particularly in the NIR spectra. This work has shown that compounds with halotrichite structures can be synthesised and characterised by infrared and NIR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electron Trap Energy Distribution in ALD Al2O3, LaAl4Ox, and GdyAl2-yO3 Layers on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. C.; Badylevich, M.; Adelmann, C.; Swerts, J.; Kittl, J. A.; Afanas'ev, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    The energy distribution of electron trap density in atomic layer deposited Al2O3, LaAl4Ox and GdyAl2-yO3 insulating layers was studied by using the exhaustive photodepopulation spectroscopy. Upon filling the traps by electron tunneling from Si substrate, a broad energy distribution of trap levels in the energy range 2-4 eV is found in all studied insulators with trap densities in the range of 1012 cm-2eV-1. The incorporation of La and Gd cations reduces the trap density in aluminate layers as compared to Al2O3. Crystallization of the insulator by the post-deposition annealing is found to increase the trap density while the energy distribution remains unchanged. The similar trap spectra in the Al2O3 and La or Gd aluminate layers suggest the common nature of the traps, probably originating from imperfections in the AlOx sub-network.

  9. Developing Wide-Spectrum Antiproteotoxicity Agents to Treat ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    stress response ameliorates mutant SOD1-induced ALS. Hum Mol Genet. Wegorzewska, I., Bell , S., Cairns, N.J., Miller, T.M., and Baloh, R.H. (2009). TDP-43...TDP-43 transgenic mice develop spastic paralysis and neuronal inclusions characteristic of ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration

  10. Al-Faruqi's Fundamental Ideas and Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Tasnim Abdul; Yusof, Wan Sabri Wan; Rashid, Zuriati Mohd; Amir, Ahmad Nabil

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental ideal and philosophy of education advocated by Ismail Raji al-Faruqi (1921-1986) in realizing the Islamization of knowledge (IOK) project. The concept and perspective of education projected by al-Faruqi was constructed on the worldview of tawhid that reflected the essence and intrinsic philosophy and paradigm…

  11. Al Qaida and Yemen- Is Our Current Policy Good Enough?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    thus contributing to waterborne diseases such as cholera and bacterial dysentery. In fact, waterborne diseases help to contribute to 70% of Yemen‟s...the capture of the United States born cleric Anwar al-Awlaki. As eluded to earlier, al-Awlaki, born in New Mexico , “is the evil genius behind AQAP‟s

  12. A yeast functional screen predicts new candidate ALS disease genes

    PubMed Central

    Couthouis, Julien; Hart, Michael P.; Shorter, James; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Erion, Renske; Oristano, Rachel; Liu, Annie X.; Ramos, Daniel; Jethava, Niti; Hosangadi, Divya; Epstein, James; Chiang, Ashley; Diaz, Zamia; Nakaya, Tadashi; Ibrahim, Fadia; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Solski, Jennifer A.; Williams, Kelly L.; Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Jelena; Ingre, Caroline; Boylan, Kevin; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Clay-Falcone, Dana; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Greene, Robert; Kalb, Robert G.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ludolph, Albert; Robberecht, Wim; Andersen, Peter M.; Nicholson, Garth A.; Blair, Ian P.; King, Oliver D.; Bonini, Nancy M.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Rademakers, Rosa; Mourelatos, Zissimos; Gitler, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and universally fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in two related RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 and FUS, that harbor prion-like domains, cause some forms of ALS. There are at least 213 human proteins harboring RNA recognition motifs, including FUS and TDP-43, raising the possibility that additional RNA-binding proteins might contribute to ALS pathogenesis. We performed a systematic survey of these proteins to find additional candidates similar to TDP-43 and FUS, followed by bioinformatics to predict prion-like domains in a subset of them. We sequenced one of these genes, TAF15, in patients with ALS and identified missense variants, which were absent in a large number of healthy controls. These disease-associated variants of TAF15 caused formation of cytoplasmic foci when expressed in primary cultures of spinal cord neurons. Very similar to TDP-43 and FUS, TAF15 aggregated in vitro and conferred neurodegeneration in Drosophila, with the ALS-linked variants having a more severe effect than wild type. Immunohistochemistry of postmortem spinal cord tissue revealed mislocalization of TAF15 in motor neurons of patients with ALS. We propose that aggregation-prone RNA-binding proteins might contribute very broadly to ALS pathogenesis and the genes identified in our yeast functional screen, coupled with prion-like domain prediction analysis, now provide a powerful resource to facilitate ALS disease gene discovery. PMID:22065782

  13. Gaseous modification of MCrAlY coatings

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes methods for modifying MCrAlY coatings by using gaseous carburization, gaseous nitriding or gaseous carbonitriding. The modified MCrAlY coatings are useful in thermal barrier coating systems, which may be used in gas turbine engines.

  14. 75 FR 4270 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 [Docket No. FAA-2009-0653; Airspace Docket 09-ASO-22] Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL AGENCY: Federal... October 28, 2009 that modifies the Class E airspace at Anniston Metropolitan Airport, Anniston, AL. DATES...

  15. 75 FR 13670 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 [Docket No. FAA-2009-0955; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-28] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL AGENCY: Federal... December 29, 2009 that amends Class E airspace at Northeast Alabama Regional, Gadsden, AL. DATES: Effective...

  16. On Al-26 and other short-lived interstellar radioactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Donald D.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Leising, Mark D.

    1993-01-01

    Several authors have shown that massive stars exploding at a rate of about three per century can account for a large portion, if not all, of the observed interstellar Al-26. In a separate argument using models of Galactic chemical evolution, Clayton (1984) showed that the Al-26/Al-27 production ratio was not large enough to maintain enough Al-26 in the Galactic disk gas of about 10 exp 10 solar masses having solar composition. We present a resolution of those conflicting arguments. A past history of Galactic infall growing the Galactic disk so dilutes the stable Al-27 concentration that the two approaches can be brought into near agreement. If massive stars dominate the production of Al-26, we suggest that the apparent shortfall of their Al-26/Al-27 yield ratio is to be interpreted as evidence for significant growth of the Galactic disk. We also discuss the implications of these arguments for other extinct radioactivities in meteorites, using I-129 and Sm-146 as examples.

  17. The utility of covariances: a response to Ranta et al

    Treesearch

    J.E. Houlahan; K. Cottenie; G.S. Cumming; D.J. Currie; C.S. Findlay; U. Gaedke; P. Legendre; J.J. Magnuson; B.H. McArdle; R.D. Stevens; I.P. Woiwod; S.M. Wondzell

    2008-01-01

    In an earlier publication (Houlahan et al. 2007) we reviewed trends in population covariances within communities across a range of long-term empirical data sets. We used these results to argue that compensatory dynamics are rare in natural communities. Ranta et al. (2008) explored interspecific interactions in a simulated environment and showed that 'negative...

  18. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

  19. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd.sub.0.54 Er.sub.0.46)AlNi alloys having a relatively constant .DELTA.Tmc over a wide temperature range.

  20. 75 FR 20773 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Jackson, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 [Docket No. FAA-2009-0937; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-27] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Jackson, AL AGENCY: Federal... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Jackson Muni, Jackson, AL. DATES: Effective Date...

  1. 78 FR 21428 - Royce Focus Trust, Inc., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...] Royce Focus Trust, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application April 4, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: Royce Focus Trust, Inc. (``RFT''), Royce Value Trust, Inc. (``RVT''), Royce Micro-Cap Trust, Inc... prior order (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Royce Global Trust, Inc., et al., Investment Company Act Release...

  2. Oxidation behavior of FeAl+Hf,Zr,B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Doychak, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of Fe-40Al-1Hf, Fe-40Al-1Hf-0.4B, and Fe-40Al-0.1Zr-0.4B (at. percent) alloys was characterized after 900, 1000, and 100 C exposures. Isothermal tests revealed parabolic kinetics after a period of transitional theta-alumina scale growth. The parabolic growth rates for the subsequent alpha-alumina scales were about five times higher than those for NiAl+0.1Zr alloys. The isothermally grown scales showed a propensity toward massive scale spallation due to both extensive rumpling from growth stresses and to an inner layer of HfO2. Cyclic oxidation for 200 1-hr cycles produced little degradation at 900 or 1000 C, but caused significant spallation at 1100 C in the form of small segments of the outer scale. The major difference in the cyclic oxidation of the three FeAl alloys was increased initial spallation for FeAl+Zr,B. Although these FeAl alloys showed many similarities to NiAl alloys, they were generally less oxidation resistant. It is believed that this resulted from nonoptimal levels of dopants and larger thermal expansion mismatch stresses.

  3. Assessing the Incremental Algorithm: A Response to Krahmer et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This response discusses the experiment reported in Krahmer et al.'s Letter to the Editor of "Cognitive Science". We observe that their results do not tell us whether the Incremental Algorithm is better or worse than its competitors, and we speculate about implications for reference in complex domains, and for learning from "normal" (i.e.,…

  4. The Practical Enactment of Adventure Learning: Where Will You AL@?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brant G.; Hougham, R. Justin; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The Adventure Learning (AL) approach to designing and implementing learning experiences has great potential for practitioners. This manuscript delineates the practical enactment of AL to support the K-12 community, teacher educators, and residential environmental science program providers in the conceptualization and delivery of their own AL…

  5. Experience matters: neurologists' perspectives on ALS patients' well-being.

    PubMed

    Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Böhm, Sarah; Keller, Jürgen; Dorst, Johannes; Uttner, Ingo; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2017-04-01

    Despite the fatal outcome and progressive loss of physical functioning in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), many patients maintain contentment in life. It has been shown that non-professionals tend to underestimate the well-being of patients with ALS, but professionals' perspective is yet to be studied. In total, 105 neurologists with varying degrees of experience with ALS were included in an anonymous survey. They were asked to estimate the quality of life and depressiveness of ALS patients with artificial ventilation and nutrition. Physicians' estimations were compared with previously reported subjective ratings of ALS patients with life-prolonging measures. Neurologists with significant experience on ALS and palliative care were able to accurately estimate depressiveness and quality of life of ALS patients with life-prolonging measures. Less experienced neurologists' estimation differed more from patients' reports. Of all life-prolonging measures neurologists regarded invasive ventilation as the measure associated with lowest quality of life and highest depressiveness of the patients. Experienced neurologists as well as neurologists with experience in palliative care are able to better empathize with patients with a fatal illness such as ALS and support important decision processes.

  6. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS.

    PubMed

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-03-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we systematically searched PubMed for case-control studies published after 1 August 2010 that investigated the association between ATXN2 intermediate repeats and ALS. We conducted a meta-analysis of the new and existing studies for the relative risks of ATXN2 intermediate repeat alleles of between 24 and 34 CAG trinucleotide repeats and ALS. There was an overall increased risk of ALS for those carrying intermediate sized trinucleotide repeat alleles (odds ratio 3.06 [95% confidence interval 2.37-3.94]; p = 6 × 10 -18 ), with an exponential relationship between repeat length and ALS risk for alleles of 29-32 repeats (R 2  = 0.91, p = 0.0002). No relationship was seen for repeat length and age of onset or survival. In contrast to trinucleotide repeat diseases, intermediate ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat expansion in ALS does not predict age of onset but does predict disease risk. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ENERGY CONVERSION FOR THE TRANSITION FROM Al TO γ-Al2O3 NANOPARTICLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shulin; Li, Shengjuan; Xu, Bo; Jian, Dunliang; Zhu, Yufang

    2013-07-01

    We have successfully converted large volume Al particles into γ-Al2O3 nanostructures by vibration milling at room temperature and successive treatment. We show that there exist special relationships among stacking fault energy (SFE), strain energy (SRE), and surface energy (SE) of the materials, including interdependence, intercompetition, and interconversion during the phase transition. SFE and SRE perform the same changing tendency, while SE just does the opposite. However, it is not the particle size but the energy state that determines the reactivity of the materials. And it is the SE that can directly determine the physical chemical reaction and the conversion into the end product rather than SFE and SRE. When SE goes up, the material reactivity and the product yield will be enhanced; and when SE goes down, the reaction and the product yield will decay. However, the state of SE depends closely on the change tendency of the SFE and SRE. That is, when SFE and SRE goes up, SE will goes down; if SFE and SRE goes down, SE will goes up. It seems that energy conservation law may be followed in a sense in the particle system if the external input keeps constant. The work may be significant for energy conversion in nano-scale and mechanosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles.

  8. [Survey report on end-of-life care for ALS patients of ALS physicians in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ogino, Mieko

    2010-11-01

    In March 2009 we sent out the questionnaire to the 4,478 board certified neurologist to ask about the palliative care in ALS. 1,495 anonymous responses (33%) have been returned. 21% of the respondents prescribe morphine, which shows a drastic increase from the 14% in the 2007 survey. However, 77% of them had only less than 5 patients, 47% of them studied and trained themselves. It illustrates that most of the neurologists are not well experienced with morphine, and that they are isolated in practice. However, 47% of the respondents answer that they would prescribe morphine whether or not the national insurance pays. As for the withdrawal of the permanent ventilation, 21% of the respondents were asked by their patients to turn off the ventilation. While 24% of the respondents believe that the withdrawal right not should be promoted, 46% believe that such right should be granted if the decision made by the patient and/or his/her family members can explicitly be recognized. The result illustrates that the physicians are also divided. It may be the time to lay the foundation for the Japanese ALS physicians to discuss openly and candidly together to deal with the wants and wishes of their patients.

  9. Emission Depth Distribution Function of Al 2s Photoelectrons in Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hucek, S.; Zemek, J.; Jablonski, A.; Tilinin, I. S.

    The escape probability of Al 2s photoelectrons leaving an aluminum oxide sample (Al2O3) has been studied as a function of depth of origin. It has been found that the escape probability (the so-called emission depth distribution function - DDF) depends strongly on the photoelectron emission direction with respect to that of the incident X-ray beam. In particular, in the emission direction close to that of photon propagation, the DDF differs substantially from the simple Beer-Lambert law and exhibits a nonmonotonic behavior with a maximum in the near-surface region at a depth of about 10 Å. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions based on Monte Carlo simulations of the electron transport and with analytical solution of the linearized Boltzmann kinetic equation with appropriate boundary conditions. Both theoretical approaches take into account multiple elastic scattering of photoelectrons on their way out of the sample. It is shown that the commonly used straight line approximation (SLA), which neglects elastic scattering effects, fails to describe adequately experimental data at emission directions close to minima of the differential photoelectric cross section.

  10. Multi-scale simulation of quantum dot formation in Al/Al (110) homoepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwary, Yogesh; Fichthorn, Kristen

    2007-03-01

    In experimental studies of Al(110) homoepitaxy, it is observed that over a certain temperature window (330-500K), 3D huts, up to 50 nm high with well defined and smooth (111) and (100) facets, form and self-organize over the micron scale [1]. The factors leading to this kinetic self-organization are currently unclear. To understand how these structures form and evolve, we simulated multi-layer, homoepitaxial growth on Al(110) using ab initio kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). At the high temperatures, where nano-huts form, the KMC simulations are slow. To tackle this problem, we use a technique developed by Devita & Sander [2], in which isolated adatoms make multiple moves in one step. We achieve high efficiency with this algorithm and we explore very high temperatures on large simulation lattices. We uncover a variety of interesting morphologies (Ripples, mounds, smooth surface, huts) that depend on the growth temperature. By varying the barriers for various rate processes, we discern the factors that determine hut sizes, aspect ratios, and self-organization. [1] F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. Wang, and Z. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003). [2] J.P. Devita & L.M. Sander, Phys. Rev. B 72, 205421 (2005).

  11. Melting Behavior of Al/Pb/Sn/Al Multilayered Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Patan Yousaf; Devi, M. Manolata; Biswas, Krishanu

    2015-09-01

    Metals or alloy nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported to exhibit superheating on melting when coated with higher melting point material or embedded in a matrix. This is due to the suppression of the heterogeneous nucleation of the melt at the epitaxial interface. For 2D thin films, this necessary condition is not feasible because even if a thin film is sandwiched between higher melting temperature materials with coherent interfaces, the heterogeneous nucleation of melt is possible at various detects. However, it has earlier been reported that 2D thin films of the pure metal sandwiched by other materials can exhibit superheating by suppression of melt growth. In order to probe this effect in case of alloy thin films, the present investigation has been carried out on Pb/Sn multilayers sandwiched between Al layers. The present study shows that such sandwiched thin films prepared by accumulative roll bonding process cause the formation of biphasic NPs in the intermixed region of Pb and Sn. Al layers undergo severe plastic deformation, leading to the generation of dislocations and sub-grain boundaries. DSC (differential canning calorimeter) thermograms of the films indicate superheating of 3 K to 6 K (or 3 °C to 6 °C). Theoretical analysis using currently available literatures has been carried out to justify the finding in the present investigation.

  12. Microarray analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from ALS patients and the SAFE detection of the KEGG ALS pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is a motor neuron disease with poorly understood etiology. Results of gene expression profiling studies of whole blood from ALS patients have not been validated and are difficult to relate to ALS pathogenesis because gene expression profiles depend on the relative abundance of the different cell types present in whole blood. We conducted microarray analyses using Agilent Human Whole Genome 4 × 44k Arrays on a more homogeneous cell population, namely purified peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), from ALS patients and healthy controls to identify molecular signatures possibly relevant to ALS pathogenesis. Methods Differentially expressed genes were determined by LIMMA (Linear Models for MicroArray) and SAM (Significance Analysis of Microarrays) analyses. The SAFE (Significance Analysis of Function and Expression) procedure was used to identify molecular pathway perturbations. Proteasome inhibition assays were conducted on cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from ALS patients to confirm alteration of the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System (UPS). Results For the first time, using SAFE in a global gene ontology analysis (gene set size 5-100), we show significant perturbation of the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) ALS pathway of motor neuron degeneration in PBLs from ALS patients. This was the only KEGG disease pathway significantly upregulated among 25, and contributing genes, including SOD1, represented 54% of the encoded proteins or protein complexes of the KEGG ALS pathway. Further SAFE analysis, including gene set sizes >100, showed that only neurodegenerative diseases (4 out of 34 disease pathways) including ALS were significantly upregulated. Changes in UBR2 expression correlated inversely with time since onset of disease and directly with ALSFRS-R, implying that UBR2 was increased early in the course of ALS. Cultured PBMCs from ALS patients accumulated more ubiquitinated proteins

  13. Slow Orbit Feedback at the ALS Using Matlab

    SciTech Connect

    Portmann, G.

    1999-03-25

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) produces extremely bright and finely focused photon beams using undulatory, wigglers, and bend magnets. In order to position the photon beams accurately, a slow global orbit feedback system has been developed. The dominant causes of orbit motion at the ALS are temperature variation and insertion device motion. This type of motion can be removed using slow global orbit feedback with a data rate of a few Hertz. The remaining orbit motion in the ALS is only 1-3 micron rms. Slow orbit feedback does not require high computational throughput. At the ALS, the globalmore » orbit feedback algorithm, based on the singular valued decomposition method, is coded in MATLAB and runs on a control room workstation. Using the MATLAB environment to develop, test, and run the storage ring control algorithms has proven to be a fast and efficient way to operate the ALS.« less

  14. Room temperature luminescence and ferromagnetism of AlN:Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H., E-mail: lihui@mail.iee.ac.cn, E-mail: wjwang@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Cai, G. M.; Wang, W. J., E-mail: lihui@mail.iee.ac.cn, E-mail: wjwang@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2016-06-15

    AlN:Fe polycrystalline powders were synthesized by a modified solid state reaction (MSSR) method. Powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results reveal the single phase nature of the doped samples. In the doped AlN samples, Fe is in Fe{sup 2+} state. Room temperature ferromagnetic behavior is observed in AlN:Fe samples. Two photoluminescence peaks located at about 592 nm (2.09 eV) and 598 nm (2.07 eV) are observed in AlN:Fe samples. Our results suggest that AlN:Fe is a potential material for applications in spintronics and high power laser devices.

  15. High temperature dispersion strengthening of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, M.; Vedula, K.

    1986-01-01

    A potential high temperature strengthening mechanism for alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl was investigated. This study forms part of an overall program at NASA Lewis Research Center for exploring the potential of alloys based on NiAl for high temperature applications. An alloy containing 2.26 at% Nb and produced by hot extrusion of blended powders was examined in detail using optical and electron microscopy. Interdiffusion between the blended Nb and NiAl powders results in the formation of intermediate phases. A fine dispersion of precipitates of a hexagonal, ordered NiAlNb phases in a matrix of NiAl can be produced and this results in strengthening of the alloy by interfering with dislocation motion at high temperature. These precipitates are, however, found to coarsen during the high temperature (1300 K) deformation at slow strain rates and this may impose some limitatioins on the use of this strengthening mechanism.

  16. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bowman, Randy R.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable research has been performed on NiAl over the last decade, with an exponential increase in effort occurring over the last few years. This is due to interest in this material for electronic, catalytic, coating and especially high-temperature structural applications. This report uses this wealth of new information to develop a complete description of the properties and processing of NiAl and NiAl-based materials. Emphasis is placed on the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms of single and polycrystalline NiAl and its alloys over the entire range of temperatures for which data are available. Creep, fatigue, and environmental resistance of this material are discussed. In addition, issues surrounding alloy design, development of NiAl-based composites, and materials processing are addressed.

  17. Enhanced photoluminescence properties of Al doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. X.; Ding, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Al doped ZnO films are fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. In general, visible emission is related to various defects in ZnO films. However, too much defects will cause light emission quench. So it is still a controversial issue to control appropriate defect concentrations. In this paper, based on our previous results, appropriate Al doping concentration is chosen to introduce more both interstitial Zn and O vacancy defects, which is responsible for main visible emission of ZnO films. A strong emission band located at 405 nm and a long tail peak is observed in the samples. As Al is doped in ZnO films, the intensity of emission peaks increases. Zn interstitial might increase with the increasing Al3+ substitute because ZnO was a self-assembled oxide compound. So Zn interstitial defect concentration in Al doped ZnO films will increase greatly, which results in the intensity of emission peaks increases.

  18. Ferroelectric behavior of Al substituted InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C. S.; Lee, S. J.; Kang, T. W.; Fu, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    InP:Al was grown by the liquid phase epitaxy method on InP (100)substrates. X-ray diffraction confirmed the epitaxial growth along (100) of AlInP. Photoluminescence spectra showed the evident effect of Al content. Ferroelectric characterization of the sample revealed a clear hysteresis in its polarization-voltage curves. The remnant polarization of InP:Al amounts to 1.99μC/cm2 at 300Hz, and it decreases with increasing temperature in a continuous and diffusive manner. Resistance measurement demonstrated a maximum resistance at 160°C, tentatively consistent with the transition temperature of remnant polarization. The ferroelectricity is accounted by the collective interaction between nuclei having the microscopic instability from the cation size difference in InP:Al.

  19. Electrical Transport Properties of Liquid Al-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakore, B. Y.; Khambholja, S. G.; Suthar, P. H.; Jani, A. R.

    2010-06-01

    Electrical transport properties viz. electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity of liquid Al-Cu alloys as a function of Cu concentration have been studied in the present paper. Ashcroft empty core model potential has been used to incorporate the ion-electron interaction. To incorporate the exchange and correlation effects, five different forms of local field correction functions viz. Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru et al., Farid et al. and Sarkar et al. have been used. The transport properties of binary system have been studied using Faber-Ziman formulation combined with Ashcroft-Langreth (AL) partial structure factor. The computed values of electrical resistivity are compared with experimental data and for low Cu concentration, good agreement has been observed. Further, thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity have also been predicted.

  20. A Fruitful Endeavor: Modeling ALS in the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2014-01-01

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585

  1. Dynamics of Agglutinin-Like Sequence (ALS) Protein Localization on the Surface of Candida Albicans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, David Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The ALS gene family encodes large cell-surface glycoproteins associated with "C. albicans" pathogenesis. Als proteins are thought to act as adhesin molecules binding to host tissues. Wide variation in expression levels among the ALS genes exists and is related to cell morphology and environmental conditions. "ALS1," "ALS3," and "ALS4" are three of…

  2. Interaction of Al with O2 exposed Mo2BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-03-01

    A Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O2. The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O2 adsorption whereby Mosbnd O, Osbnd Mosbnd O and Mo2sbnd Csbnd O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo2BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO2 and MoO3 bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O2 exposed Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O2 exposed Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Alsbnd Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Alsbnd O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Alsbnd Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations.

  3. Correction to Smith et al. (2013).

    PubMed

    Smith, Carl D; Piasecki, Christopher C; Weera, Marcus; Olszewicz, Joshua; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2015-08-01

    Reports an error in "Noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor modulators in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: Effects on anxiety behavior in postpartum and virgin female rats" by Carl D. Smith, Christopher C. Piasecki, Marcus Weera, Joshua Olszewicz and Joseph S. Lonstein (Behavioral Neuroscience, 2013[Aug], Vol 127[4], 582-597). Table 2 should have used the ratio of 5HIAA/serotonin - rather than the inverse - as the indicator of serotonin turnover. Using the correct ratio, differences in serotonin turnover between the postpartum and virgin females are: BSTv - 1.11 0.06 vs 0.79 0.11 (t 2.57, p 0.05); BSTd - 1.01 0.07 vs 0.68 0.11 (t 2.58, p 0.05). That is, contrary to what was originally reported, postpartum females had higher serotonin turnover in both subregions of the BST compared to virgins. The penultimate sentence in the abstract noting serotonin turnover in mothers has been corrected in the online version of this article. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-22430-001.) Emotional hyperreactivity can inhibit maternal responsiveness in female rats and other animals. Maternal behavior in postpartum rats is disrupted by increasing norepinephrine release in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) with the α2-autoreceptor antagonist, yohimbine, or the more selective α2-autoreceptor antagonist, idazoxan (Smith et al., 2012). Because high noradrenergic activity in the BSTv can also increase anxiety-related behaviors, increased anxiety may underlie the disrupted mothering of dams given yohimbine or idazoxan. To assess this possibility, anxiety-related behaviors in an elevated plus maze were assessed in postpartum rats after administration of yohimbine or idazoxan. It was further assessed if the α2-autoreceptor agonist clonidine (which decreases norepinephrine release) would, conversely, reduce dams' anxiety. Groups of diestrous virgins were also examined. It was found that peripheral or intra-BSTv yohimbine

  4. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior

  5. Hot-electron real-space transfer and longitudinal transport in dual AlGaN/AlN/{AlGaN/GaN} channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šermukšnis, E.; Liberis, J.; Matulionis, A.; Avrutin, V.; Ferreyra, R.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2015-03-01

    Real-space transfer of hot electrons is studied in dual-channel GaN-based heterostructure operated at or near plasmon-optical phonon resonance in order to attain a high electron drift velocity at high current densities. For this study, pulsed electric field is applied in the channel plane of a nominally undoped Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN/{Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN} structure with a composite channel of Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN, where the electrons with a sheet density of 1.4 × 1013 cm-2, estimated from the Hall effect measurements, are confined. The equilibrium electrons are situated predominantly in the Al0.15Ga0.85N layer as confirmed by capacitance-voltage experiment and Schrödinger-Poisson modelling. The main peak of the electron density per unit volume decreases as more electrons occupy the GaN layer at high electric fields. The associated decrease in the plasma frequency induces the plasmon-assisted decay of non-equilibrium optical phonons (hot phonons) confirmed by the decrease in the measured hot-phonon lifetime from 0.95 ps at low electric fields down below 200 fs at fields of E \\gt 4 kV cm-1 as the plasmon-optical phonon resonance is approached. The onset of real-space transfer is resolved from microwave noise measurements: this source of noise dominates for E \\gt 8 kV cm-1. In this range of fields, the longitudinal current exceeds the values measured for a mono channel reference Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN/GaN structure. The results are explained in terms of the ultrafast decay of hot phonons and reduced alloy scattering caused by the real-space transfer in the composite channel.

  6. Microstructure of Reaction Zone Formed During Diffusion Bonding of TiAl with Ni/Al Multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, Sónia; Viana, Filomena; Koçak, Mustafa; Ramos, A. Sofia; Vieira, M. Teresa; Vieira, Manuel F.

    2012-05-01

    In this article, the characterization of the interfacial structure of diffusion bonding a TiAl alloy is presented. The joining surfaces were modified by Ni/Al reactive multilayer deposition as an alternative approach to conventional diffusion bonding. TiAl substrates were coated with alternated Ni and Al nanolayers. The nanolayers were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering with 14 nm of period (bilayer thickness). Joining experiments were performed at 900 °C for 30 and 60 min with a pressure of 5 MPa. Cross sections of the joints were prepared for characterization of their interfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Several intermetallic compounds form at the interface, assuring the bonding of the TiAl. The interface can be divided into three distinct zones: zone 1 exhibits elongated nanograins, very small equiaxed grains are observed in zone 2, while zone 3 has larger equiaxed grains. EBSD analysis reveals that zone 1 corresponds to the intermetallic Al2NiTi and AlNiTi, and zones 2 and 3 to NiAl.

  7. Dopant-Free GaN/AlN/AlGaN Radial Nanowire Heterostructures as High Electron Mobility Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-10

    grown at 775 °C and sequentially deposited with AlN and AlGaN shells in hydrogen at 1040 °C. (21) Manfra, M. J.; Pfriffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Stormer ...Lett. 2005, 86, 102106. (30) Henriksen, E. A.; Syed, S.; Ahmadian, Y.; Manfra, M. J.; Baldwin, K. W.; Sergent, A. M.; Molnar, R. J.; Stormer , H. L

  8. The in vitro biocompatibility and macrophage phagocytosis of Mg17Al12 phase in Mg-Al-Zn alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; He, Peng; Wan, Peng; Li, Mei; Wang, Kehong; Tan, Lili; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Ke

    2015-07-01

    Mg alloys are gaining interest for applications as biodegradable medical implant, including Mg-Al-Zn series alloys with good combination of mechanical properties and reasonable corrosion resistance. However, whether the existence of second phase particles in the alloys exerts influence on the biocompatibility is still not clear. A deeper understanding of how the particles regulate specific biological responses is becoming a crucial requirement for their subsequent biomedical application. In this work, the in vitro biocompatibility of Mg17Al12 as a common second phase in biodegradable Mg-Al-Zn alloys was investigated via hemolysis, cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion tests. Moreover, osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by the extracellular matrix mineralization assay. The Mg17Al12 particles were also prepared to simulate the real situation of second phase in the in vivo environment in order to estimate the cellular response in macrophages to the Mg17Al12 particles. The experimental results indicated that no hemolysis was found and an excellent cytocompatibility was also proved for the Mg17Al12 second phase when co-cultured with L929 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells and BMSCs. Macrophage phagocytosis co-culture test revealed that Mg17Al12 particles exerted no harmful effect on RAW264.7 macrophages and could be phagocytized by the RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the possible inflammatory reaction and metabolic way for Mg17Al12 phase were also discussed in detail. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Defect characterization of MOCVD grown AlN/AlGaN films on sapphire substrates by TEM and TKD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, J. H.; Lee, M. E.; Westraadt, J.; Engelbrecht, J. A. A.

    2018-04-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to characterize defects structures in AlN/AlGaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire (Al2O3) substrates. The AlN buffer layer was shown to be epitaxially grown on the sapphire substrate with the two lattices rotated relatively through 30°. The AlN layer had a measured thickness of 20-30 nm and was also shown to contain nano-sized voids. The misfit dislocations in the buffer layer have been shown to be pure edge with a spacing of 1.5 nm. TEM characterization of the AlGaN epilayers was shown to contain a higher than expected threading dislocation density of the order 1010 cm-2 as well as the existence of "nanopipes". TEM analysis of the planar lamella for AlGaN has presented evidence for the possibility of columnar growth. The strain and misorientation mapping in the AlGaN epilayer by transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) using the FIB lamella has also been demonstrated to be complimentary to data obtained by TEM imaging.

  10. Influence of impact speed on water droplet erosion of TiAl compared with Ti6Al4V

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipoor, M.S.; Kirols, H.S.; Kevorkov, D.; Jedrzejowski, P.; Medraj, M.

    2015-01-01

    Water Droplet Erosion (WDE) as a material degradation phenomenon has been a concern in power generation industries for decades. Steam turbine blades and the compressor blades of gas turbines that use water injection usually suffer from WDE. The present work focuses on studying erosion resistance of TiAl as a potential alloy for turbine blades compared to Ti6Al4V, a frequently used blade alloy. Their erosion behaviour is investigated at different droplet impact speeds to determine the relation between erosion performance and impact speed. It is found that the relationship is governed by a power law equation, ER ~ Vn, where the speed exponent is 7–9 for Ti6Al4V and 11–13 for TiAl. There is a contrast between the observed speed exponent in this work and the ones reported in the literature for Ti6Al4V. It is attributed to the different erosion setups and impingement conditions such as different droplet sizes. To verify this, the erosion experiments were performed at two different droplet sizes, 464 and 603 μm. TiAl showed superior erosion resistance in all erosion conditions; however, its erosion performance exhibits higher sensitivity to the impact speed compared to Ti6Al4V. It means that aggressive erosion conditions decrease the WDE resistance superiority of TiAl. PMID:26391370

  11. Laser Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with Ti-Al2O3 Coating for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mthisi, A.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Adebiyi, D. I.; Popoola, O. M.

    2018-05-01

    The indispensable properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coupled with poor tribological properties and delayed bioactivity make it a subject of interest to explore in biomedical application. A quite number of numerous coatings have been employed on titanium alloys, with aim to overcome the poor properties exhibited by this alloy. In this work, the possibility of laser cladding different ad-mixed powders (Ti - 5 wt.% Al2O3 and Ti - 8wt.% Al2O3) on Ti-6Al-4V at various laser scan speed (0.6 and 0.8 m/min) were investigated. The microstructure, phase constituents and corrosion of the resultant coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Optical microscope, X-Ray diffractometer (XRD) and potentiostat respectively. The electrochemical behaviour of the produced coatings was studied in a simulated body fluid (Hanks solution). The microstructural results show that a defect free coating is achieved at low scan speed and ad-mixed of Ti-5 wt. % Al2O3. Cladding of Ti - Al2O3 improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy regardless of varying neither scan speed nor ad-mixed percentage. However, Ti-5 wt.% Al2O3 coating produced at low scan speed revealed the highest corrosion resistance among the coatings due to better quality coating layer. Henceforth, this coating may be suitable for biomedical applications.

  12. Effect of Al gate on the electrical behaviour of Al-doped Ta2O5 stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeparovski, A.; Novkovski, N.; Atanassova, E.; Paskaleva, A.; Lazarov, V. K.

    2011-06-01

    The electrical behaviour of Al-doped Ta2O5 films on nitrided silicon and implemented in Al-gated MIS capacitors has been studied. The dopant was introduced into the Ta2O5 through its surface by deposing a thin Al layer on the top of Ta2O5 followed by an annealing process. The HRTEM images reveal that the initial double-layer structure of the stacks composed of doped Ta2O5 and interfacial SiON layer undergoes changes during the formation of the Al gate and transforms into a three-layer structure with an additional layer between the Al electrode and the doped Ta2O5. This layer, being a result of reaction between the Al gate and the Al-doped Ta2O5, affects the overall electrical properties of the stacks. Strong charge trapping/detrapping processes have been established in the vicinity of the doped Ta2O5/SiON interface resulting in a large C-V hysteresis effect. The charge trapping also influences the current conduction in the layers keeping the current density level rather low even at high electric fields (J < 10-6 A cm-2 at 7 MV cm-1). By employing a three-layer model of the stack, the permittivity of both, the Al-doped Ta2O5 and the additional layer, has been estimated and the corresponding conduction mechanisms identified.

  13. 78 FR 32443 - United States, et al. v. Cinemark Holdings, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. Cinemark Holdings, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), that a proposed Final Judgment, Hold Separate Stipulation and Order and Competitive Impact...

  14. Searching for consensus in molt terminology 11 years after Howell et al.'s "first basic problem"

    Treesearch

    Jared D. Wolfe; Erik I. Johnson; Ryan S. Terrill

    2014-01-01

    Howell et al. (2003) published an innovative augmentation to terminology proposed by Humphrey and Parkes (1959) that classified bird molt on the basis of perceived evolutionary relationships. Despite apparent universal applicability, Howell et al.’s (2003) proposed terminological changes were met with criticism that cited a failure to verify the evolutionary...

  15. Influence of impact speed on water droplet erosion of TiAl compared with Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Mahdipoor, M S; Kirols, H S; Kevorkov, D; Jedrzejowski, P; Medraj, M

    2015-09-22

    Water Droplet Erosion (WDE) as a material degradation phenomenon has been a concern in power generation industries for decades. Steam turbine blades and the compressor blades of gas turbines that use water injection usually suffer from WDE. The present work focuses on studying erosion resistance of TiAl as a potential alloy for turbine blades compared to Ti6Al4V, a frequently used blade alloy. Their erosion behaviour is investigated at different droplet impact speeds to determine the relation between erosion performance and impact speed. It is found that the relationship is governed by a power law equation, ER ~ V(n), where the speed exponent is 7-9 for Ti6Al4V and 11-13 for TiAl. There is a contrast between the observed speed exponent in this work and the ones reported in the literature for Ti6Al4V. It is attributed to the different erosion setups and impingement conditions such as different droplet sizes. To verify this, the erosion experiments were performed at two different droplet sizes, 464 and 603 μm. TiAl showed superior erosion resistance in all erosion conditions; however, its erosion performance exhibits higher sensitivity to the impact speed compared to Ti6Al4V. It means that aggressive erosion conditions decrease the WDE resistance superiority of TiAl.

  16. 76 FR 5439 - United States, et al. v. Comcast Corp., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Vol. 76 Monday, No. 20 January 31, 2011 Part III Department of Justice Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. Comcast Corp., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 20 / Monday, January 31, 2011 / Notices#0;#0; [[Page 5440

  17. ALS-linked mutant SOD1 proteins promote Aβ aggregates in ALS through direct interaction with Aβ.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Young; Cho, Hyungmin; Park, Hye-Yoon; Rhim, Hyangshuk; Kang, Seongman

    2017-11-04

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Aggregation of ALS-linked mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a hallmark of a subset of familial ALS (fALS). Recently, intracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) is detected in motor neurons of both sporadic and familial ALS. We have previously shown that intracellular Aβ specifically interacts with G93A, an ALS-linked SOD1 mutant. However, little is known about the pathological and biological effect of this interaction in neurons. In this study, we have demonstrated that the Aβ-binding region is exposed on the SOD1 surface through the conformational changes due to misfolding of SOD1. Interestingly, we found that the intracellular aggregation of Aβ is enhanced through the direct interaction of Aβ with the Aβ-binding region exposed to misfolded SOD1. Ultimately, increased Aβ aggregation by this interaction promotes neuronal cell death. Consistent with this result, Aβ aggregates was three-fold higher in the brains of G93A transgenic mice than those of non Tg. Our study provides the first direct evidence that Aβ, an AD-linked factor, is associated to the pathogenesis of ALS and provides molecular clues to understand common aggregation mechanisms in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, it will provide new insights into the development of therapeutic approaches for ALS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An AlN/Al 0.85Ga 0.15N high electron mobility transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, Albert G.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-07-22

    An AlN barrier high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on the AlN/Al 0.85Ga 0.15N heterostructure was grown, fabricated, and electrically characterized, thereby extending the range of Al composition and bandgap for AlGaN channel HEMTs. An etch and regrowth procedure was implemented for source and drain contact formation. A breakdown voltage of 810 V was achieved without a gate insulator or field plate. Excellent gate leakage characteristics enabled a high I on/I off current ratio greater than 10 7 and an excellent subthreshold slope of 75 mV/decade. A large Schottky barrier height of 1.74 eV contributed to these results. In conclusion,more » the room temperature voltage-dependent 3-terminal off-state drain current was adequately modeled with Frenkel-Poole emission.« less

  19. An AlN/Al{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}N high electron mobility transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, Albert G.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-07-18

    An AlN barrier high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on the AlN/Al{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}N heterostructure was grown, fabricated, and electrically characterized, thereby extending the range of Al composition and bandgap for AlGaN channel HEMTs. An etch and regrowth procedure was implemented for source and drain contact formation. A breakdown voltage of 810 V was achieved without a gate insulator or field plate. Excellent gate leakage characteristics enabled a high I{sub on}/I{sub off} current ratio greater than 10{sup 7} and an excellent subthreshold slope of 75 mV/decade. A large Schottky barrier height of 1.74 eV contributed to these results. The room temperature voltage-dependent 3-terminalmore » off-state drain current was adequately modeled with Frenkel-Poole emission.« less

  20. Influence of Al grain boundaries segregations and La-doping on embrittlement of intermetallic NiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Anatoly I.; Wainstein, Dmitry L.; Rashkovskiy, Alexander Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The microscopic nature of intergranular fracture of NiAl was experimentally investigated by the set of electron spectroscopy techniques. The paper demonstrates that embrittlement of NiAl intermetallic compound is caused by ordering of atomic structure that leads to formation of structural aluminum segregations at grain boundaries (GB). Such segregations contain high number of brittle covalent interatomic bonds. The alloying by La increases the ductility of material avoiding Al GB enrichment and disordering GB atomic structure. The influence of La alloying on NiAl mechanical properties was investigated. GB chemical composition, atomic and electronic structure transformations after La doping were investigated by AES, XPS and EELFS techniques. To qualify the interatomic bonds metallicity the Fermi level (EF) position and electrons density (neff) in conduction band were determined in both undoped and doped NiAl. Basing on experimental results the physical model of GB brittleness formation was proposed.

  1. In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO{sub 3} thermites

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Kyle T.; Zachariah, Michael R.; Chiou, Wen-An

    2010-09-27

    The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 10{sup 6} K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO{sub 3} composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring formore » the nano-Al/WO{sub 3} thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.« less

  2. 27Al-NMR studies of the structural phase transition in LaPd2Al2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Taisuke; Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Kotegawa, Hisashi; Tou, Hideki; Doležal, Petr; Kriegner, Dominik; Javorský, Pavel; Uhlířová, Klára

    2018-05-01

    We performed 27Al-NMR measurements for the CaBe2Ge2 type single crystalline LaPd2Al2 in the temperature range from 100 K to 5 K to investigate the origin of the structural phase transition. We found that the line profile of the 27Al-NMR spectrum does not change entirely on passing through the structural phase transition at Tst. Meanwhile, the peak position of the central line slightly change (≈ 30 ppm) below 70 K, suggesting the orbital shift changes below Tst. The present 27Al-NMR studies evidence that the local electronic state at Al site is hardly affected by the structural phase transition.

  3. Theoretical analysis of compatibility of several reinforcement materials with NiAl and FeAl matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1989-01-01

    Several potential reinforcement materials were assessed for their chemical, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and mechanical compatibility with the intermetallic matrices based on NiAl and FeAl. Among the ceramic reinforcement materials, Al2O3, TiC, and TiB2, appear to be the optimum choices for NiAl and FeAl matrices. However, the problem of CTE mismatch with the matrix needs to be solved for these three reinforcement materials. Beryllium-rich intermetallic compounds can be considered as potential reinforcement materials provided suitable reaction barrier coatings can be developed for these. Based on preliminary thermodynamic calculations, Sc2O3 and TiC appear to be suitable as reaction barrier coatings for the beryllides. Several reaction barrier coatings are also suggested for the currently available SiC fibers.

  4. Al3+ environments in nanostructured ZnAl2O4 and their effects on the luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alison A; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S; Davolos, Marian R; Santagneli, Silvia H

    2008-11-01

    Single-phase zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) with the spinel structure was successfully obtained by the Pechini method at different calcining temperatures for 4 hours. The nanoparticles are highly crystalline with no impurities related to ZnO or Al2O3 residues. The microstructural environment of aluminium ions changes with heat treatment temperature, as observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The spinel structure might present two different AlO6 sites as evidenced by 27Al solid-state magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Some AlO4 sites were also detected for samples calcined at a temperature lower than 900 degrees C. The photoluminescence spectra show that the emission can be tuned depending on the calcining temperature. This effect was discussed on the basis of symmetry and oxygen vacancies.

  5. Development of B2 Shape Memory Intermetallics Beyond NiAl, CoNiAl and CoNiGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstein, G.; Firstov, G. S.; Kosorukova, T. A.; Koval, Yu. N.; Maier, H. J.

    2018-06-01

    The present study describes the development of shape memory alloys based on NiAl. Initially, this system was considered a promising but unsuccessful neighbour of NiTi. Later, however, shape memory alloys like CoNiAl or CoNiGa were developed that can be considered as NiAl derivatives and already demonstrated good mechanical properties. Yet, these alloys were still inferior to NiTi in most respects. Lately, using a multi-component approach, a CoNiCuAlGaIn high entropy intermetallic compound was developed from the NiAl prototype. This new alloy featured a B2 phase and a martensitic transformation along with a remarkable strength in the as-cast state. In the long-term, this new approach might led to a breakthrough for shape memory alloys in general.

  6. Cryptanalysis and improvement of Yan et al.'s biometric-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dheerendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Chaturvedi, Ankita; Kumari, Saru; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2014-06-01

    Remote user authentication is desirable for a Telecare Medicine Information System (TMIS) for the safety, security and integrity of transmitted data over the public channel. In 2013, Tan presented a biometric based remote user authentication scheme and claimed that his scheme is secure. Recently, Yan et al. demonstrated some drawbacks in Tan's scheme and proposed an improved scheme to erase the drawbacks of Tan's scheme. We analyze Yan et al.'s scheme and identify that their scheme is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack, and does not protect anonymity. Moreover, in their scheme, login and password change phases are inefficient to identify the correctness of input where inefficiency in password change phase can cause denial of service attack. Further, we design an improved scheme for TMIS with the aim to eliminate the drawbacks of Yan et al.'s scheme.

  7. Adhesive and tribocorrosive behavior of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl multilayers sputtered coatings over CoCrMo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, C. E.; Andrade, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Alemón, B.; Flores, M.

    2017-09-01

    The tribocorrosion resistance and adherence of multilayer coatings of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl synthesized by PVD reactive magnetron sputtering over a CoCrMo alloy substrate in 10 periods of 30 min each were analyzed and compared to those of the substrate alone and to that of a TiAlPtN single layer coating of the same thickness. The objective of the present work was to create multilayers with different amounts of Pt in order to enhance the tribocorrosion resistance of a biomedical alloy of CoCrMo. Tribocorrosion tests were performed using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) at typical body temperature with a tribometer in a pin on disk test. The elemental composition and thickness of the coating which behave better at the tribocorrosion tests were evaluated by means of RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy) IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) technique, using an alpha particles beam of 1.8 MeV, before and after the reciprocating motion in the tribocorrosion test. In order to simulate the elemental profile of the samples, the SIMNRA simulation computer code was used. Measurements of the adhesion of the coatings to the substrate were carried on by means of a scratch test using a tribometer. By taking micrographs of the produced tracks, the critical loads at which the coatings are fully separated from the substrate were determined. From these tests it was observed that a coating with 10 min of TiAlPtN in a TiAlPtN/TiAl period of 30 min in multilayers of 10 periods and with an average thickness of 145 nm for the TiAlPtN nanolayers had the best tribocorrosion resistance behavior, compared to that of the CoCrMo alloy. The RBS experiments showed a reduction of the thickness of the films along with some loss of the multilayer structure after the reciprocating motion. The adhesion tests indicated that the multilayer with the average TiAlPtN thickness of 145 nm displayed the highest critical load. These results indicate a high correlation between the adherence and the tribocorrosion behavior.

  8. Microstructure and properties of Ti-Al intermetallic/Al2O3 layers produced on Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy by PACVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, R.; Bolek, T.; Mizera, J.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents investigation of microstructure and corrosion resistance of the multi-component surface layers built of intermetallic phases of the Ti-Al system and an outer Al2O3 ceramic sub-layer. The layers were produced on a two phase (α + β) Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy using the PACVD method with the participation of trimethylaluminum vapors. The layers are characterized by a high surface hardness and good corrosion, better than that of these materials in the starting state. In order to find the correlation between their structure and properties, the layers were subjected to examinations using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), surface analysis by XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyses of the chemical composition (EDS). The properties examined included: the corrosion resistance and the hydrogen absorptiveness. Moreover growth of the Al2O3 ceramic layer and its influence on the residual stress distribution was simulated using finite element method [FEM]. The results showed that the produced layer has amorphous-nano-crystalline structure, improved corrosion resistance and reduces the permeability of hydrogen as compared with the base material of Ti6Al2Mo2Cr -titanium alloy.

  9. Next Generation Sequencing and ALS: known genes, different phenotyphes.

    PubMed

    Campopiano, Rosa; Ryskalin, Larisa; Giardina, Emiliano; Zampatti, Stefania; Busceti, Carla L; Biagioni, Francesca; Ferese, Rosangela; Storto, Marianna; Gambardella, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is fatal neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction resulting in rapidly progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure. Most cases appear to be sporadic, but 5-10 % of cases have a family history of the disease, and over the last decade, identification of mutations in about 20 genes predisposing to these disorders has provided the means to better understand their pathogenesis. Next Generation sequencing (NGS) is an advanced high-throughput DNA sequencing technology which have rapidly contributed to an acceleration in the discovery of genetic risk factors for both familial and sporadic neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. These strategies allowed to rapidly identify disease-associated variants and genetic risk factors for both familial (fALS) and sporadic ALS (sALS), strongly contributing to the knowledge of the genetic architecture of ALS. Moreover, as the number of ALS genes grows, many of the proteins they encode are in intracellular processes shared with other known diseases, suggesting an overlapping of clinical and phatological features between different diseases. To emphasize this concept, the review focuses on genes coding for Valosin-containing protein (VPC) and two Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins (HNRNPA1 and hnRNPA2B1), recently idefied through NGS, where different mutations have been associated in both ALS and other neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H.

    1994-12-31

    Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). Themore » orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from <111>-type to <001>-type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.« less

  11. Oxidation Kinetics of Cast TiAl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Humphrey, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of the TiAl3 compound over a wide temperature range is documented, and these rates are related to exclusive alpha-Al2O3 scale growth. The specific weight change vs time curves are shown. Two abnormalities are immediately apparent. One is that a rapid initial uptake of oxygen occurs at times less than 5 h, followed by a lower oxidation rate at longer times, for tests at 900 C and below. The other is that the final weight changes for the 700, 800, and 900 C tests are not in the sequence expected with respect to temperature. Isothermal oxidation of drop cast TiAl above 1000 C was found to exhibit parabolic oxidation controlled by protective alpha-Al2O3 scale formation. TiAl is the only phase in the binary Ti-Al system that forms exclusive scales of alpha-Al2O3 in isothermal oxidation. High anomalous rates at short times and at temperatures below 1000 C resulted from the internal oxidation of a second phase of aluminum.

  12. Atomically Thin Al2O3 Films for Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, Jamie; Gong, Youpin; Gong, Ming; Su, Feifan; Xu, Huikai; Sakidja, Ridwan; Elliot, Alan; Lu, Rongtao; Zhao, Shiping; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Judy Z.

    2017-06-01

    Metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions are common throughout the microelectronics industry. The industry standard AlOx tunnel barrier, formed through oxygen diffusion into an Al wetting layer, is plagued by internal defects and pinholes which prevent the realization of atomically thin barriers demanded for enhanced quantum coherence. In this work, we employ in situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy along with molecular-dynamics simulations to understand and control the growth of atomically thin Al2O3 tunnel barriers using atomic-layer deposition. We find that a carefully tuned initial H2O pulse hydroxylated the Al surface and enabled the creation of an atomically thin Al2O3 tunnel barrier with a high-quality M -I interface and a significantly enhanced barrier height compared to thermal AlOx . These properties, corroborated by fabricated Josephson junctions, show that atomic-layer deposition Al2O3 is a dense, leak-free tunnel barrier with a low defect density which can be a key component for the next generation of metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions.

  13. Synthesis of Al-26 in explosive hydrogen burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnould, M.; Norgaard, H.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Hillebrandt, W.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of Al-26 synthesis during the explosive processing of hydrogen-rich material in the outer layers of a supernova or in nova envelopes is investigated. It is found that in the peak temperature range of 1-3 x 10 to the 8th deg K and for expansion time scales of the order of 1-1000 s, values of (Al-26)/(Al-27) as high as 0.1-1 can be obtained for values of 0.001-100,000 for the product of the peak density in g/cu cm and the proton mass fraction. Such a level of Al-26 production is considerably higher than that of recent carbon/neon burning nucleosynthesis models, and is sufficient to account for the magnesium anomalies detected in certain inclusions from the Leoville and Allende meteorites. Al abundances resulting from a hydrodynamical calculation performed on the grounds of a 25 solar mass presupernova model are also presented, and the influence of uncertainties in the input physics is discussed; in particular, the rates of the (Mg-25)(p,gamma)(Al-26) and (Al-26)(p,gamma)(Si-27) key reactions are studied.

  14. Centerless grinding of TiAl using conventional grinding wheels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.E.; Smits, D.; Eylon, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ordered gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) based alloys are now under consideration for automotive valves because of their light weight and high strength at temperatures up to 850 C. Finishing comprises as much as 70% of the cost of an automotive valve, therefore the grindability of TiAl valves will influence their commercial viability. This study compared the grindability of the TiAl alloy Ti-47Al-2Nb-1.75Cr (at%) to standard valve steels, nickel base superalloys, and conventional titanium alloys using the centerless grinding process. Three grinding conditions simulating stem grinding were selected. The power requirements, grinding time, and grinding wheel consumption were used to estimatemore » the cost to grind TiAl on conventional centerless grinding equipment using vitrified bonded silicon carbide wheels. The metallurgical effects of rough and finish stem grinding cycles on the surface were determined. The grindability factor of TiAl, a measure of grinding cost, was slightly inferior to conventional valve steels, but much better than conventional titanium alloys. The high work hardening rate of the TiAl resulted in much better surface finish at high metal removal rates than that achieved in steels. No grinding cracks were observed, even under the rough grinding conditions. Microhardness profiles indicated significant work hardening of the surface under all three grinding conditions.« less

  15. Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram

    2011-09-15

    The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 A in pristine LDH to 21.3 A in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug moleculemore » in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion. - Graphical abstract: ZnAl-layered double hydroxide intercalated with methotrexate ({approx}34% loading) promises the possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in controlled delivery. Highlights: > ZnAl-layered double hydroxide methotrexate nanohybrid has been synthesized. > XRD and TEM studies on nanohybrid revealed successful intercalation of methotrexate. > TG and CHN analyses showed {approx}34 wt% of methotrexate loading into the nanohybrid. > Possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in delivery.« less

  16. The multi-dimensional roles of astrocytes in ALS.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Koji; Komine, Okiru

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant progress in understanding the molecular and genetic aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons, the precise and comprehensive pathomechanisms remain largely unknown. In addition to motor neuron involvement, recent studies using cellular and animal models of ALS indicate that there is a complex interplay between motor neurons and neighboring non-neuronal cells, such as astrocytes, in non-cell autonomous neurodegeneration. Astrocytes are key homeostatic cells that play numerous supportive roles in maintaining the brain environment. In neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS, astrocytes change their shape and molecular expression patterns and are referred to as reactive or activated astrocytes. Reactive astrocytes in ALS lose their beneficial functions and gain detrimental roles. In addition, interactions between motor neurons and astrocytes are impaired in ALS. In this review, we summarize growing evidence that astrocytes are critically involved in the survival and demise of motor neurons through several key molecules and cascades in astrocytes in both sporadic and inherited ALS. These observations strongly suggest that astrocytes have multi-dimensional roles in disease and are a viable therapeutic target for ALS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Near ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with highly reflective tin-doped indium oxide/Al-based reflectors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Hoon; Han, Jaecheon; Park, Jae-Seong; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2013-11-04

    The enhanced light output power of a InGaN/AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using three different types of highly reflective Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO)/Al-based p-type reflectors, namely, ITO/Al, Cu-doped indium oxide (CIO)/s-ITO(sputtered)/Al, and Ag nano-dots(n-Ag)/CIO/s-ITO/Al, is presented. The ITO/Al-based reflectors exhibit lower reflectance (76 - 84% at 365 nm) than Al only reflector (91.1%). However, unlike Al only n-type contact, the ITO/Al-based contacts to p-GaN show good ohmic characteristics. Near-UV (365 nm) InGaN/AlGaN-based LEDs with ITO/Al, CIO/s-ITO/Al, and n-Ag/CIO/s-ITO/Al reflectors exhibit forward-bias voltages of 3.55, 3.48, and 3.34 V at 20 mA, respectively. The LEDs with the ITO/Al and CIO/s-ITO/Al reflectors exhibit 9.5% and 13.5% higher light output power (at 20 mA), respectively, than the LEDs with the n-Ag/CIO/s-ITO/Al reflector. The improved performance of near UV LEDs is attributed to the high reflectance and low contact resistivity of the ITO/Al-based reflectors, which are better than those of conventional Al-based reflectors.

  18. The deformation twin in lamellar Ti 3Al/TiAl structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. X.; Ye, H. Q.

    2003-04-01

    A Ti-48Al-2Cr (at.%) alloy consisting of γ+α 2 lamellar structure was deformed in compression at room temperature. Study by high resolution electron microscopy was carried out on the characteristic of induced γ T/α 2 interface. During deformation the γ T/α 2 interface presents a stepped structure and the γ/α 2 interface remains straight. The formation mechanism of γ T associated with misfit dislocations is proposed. 1/2[01 1¯] γ interfacial dislocation in the γ/α 2 interface can dissociate into a 1/6[ 1¯1 2¯] γ partial dislocation which glides on the ( 1¯11) γ plane and causes γ T to form.

  19. Stokes-Einstein relation and excess entropy in Al-rich Al-Cu melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasturel, A.; Jakse, N.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the conditions for the validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation that connects diffusivity to viscosity in melts using entropy-scaling relationships developed by Rosenfeld. Employing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine transport and structural properties of liquid Al1-xCux alloys (with composition x ≤ 0.4), we first show that reduced self-diffusion coefficients and viscosities, according to Rosenfeld's formulation, scale with the two-body approximation of the excess entropy except the reduced viscosity for x = 0.4. Then, we use our findings to evidence that the Stokes-Einstein relation using effective atomic radii is not valid in these alloys while its validity can be related to the temperature dependence of the partial pair-excess entropies of both components. Finally, we derive a relation between the ratio of the self-diffusivities of the components and the ratio of their pair excess entropies.

  20. Comment on RamaRao et al. [1995] and LaVenue et al. [1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Richard L.; Hill, Mary C.

    2000-01-01

    A method for stochastic modeling of groundwater flow systems using a combination of pilot point parameterization and conditional simulation was presented by RamaRao et. al [1995] and LaVenue et. al [1995]. (We will collectively term these two papers RLMM and term the method developed in RLMM the CS method here.) RLMM (pp. 478-479) state that the CS method is intended to provide a frequency distribution of possible alternative spatial transmissivity T distributions that (1) are statistically similar to the observed T distribution, (2) are equally likely given the calibration data, and (3) closely reproduce the measured pressures. The frequency distribution of transmissivities is then used to form frequency distribution of derived functions, such as travel times, which are summarized in the form of uncertainty measures, such as (RLMM, p. 512) "confidence (or tolerance) intervals," on the actual values, which in the case of travels times, are values that could occur sometime in the future (RLMM, p.513). Cooley [2000] analyzes the RLMM method using linearization and bootstrap theory and concludes that that the method can yield accurate uncertainty estimates but only under some limited circumstances.  In this comment we use Cooley's analysis to critique the method. We also identify and discuss some statements made my by RLMM about model calibration and their methodology that appear to be misleading. It is unusual to comment on a paper so long after publication. Subsequent work has expanded the method of RLMM, and the method was used advantageously in the testing documented by Zimmerman et. al [1998], so it is clear the method has significant strengths. We go back to the 1995 papers for this comment, however, because they display most clearly the methodological difficulties with which we are concerned. 

  1. Understanding the use of NIV in ALS: results of an international ALS specialist survey.

    PubMed

    Heiman-Patterson, Terry D; Cudkowicz, Merit E; De Carvalho, Mamede; Genge, Angela; Hardiman, Orla; Jackson, Carlayne E; Lechtzin, Noah; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Silani, Vincenzo; Andrews, Jinsy A; Chen, Dafeng; Kulke, Sarah; Rudnicki, Stacy A; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2018-04-16

    To identify common practices of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use among ALS specialists and how they follow respiratory status in their patients. A 25-item questionnaire on NIV indications/initiation was sent via SurveyMonkey® to ALS specialists identified through membership in NEALS (114 sites in the US) and ENCALS (39 sites in Europe). Descriptive statistics and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for general association were performed. In their initial evaluation, US and European specialists (n = 186) use upright forced vital capacity (FVC) most (92.8% vs 91.1%; p = 0.752). Upright FVC results are most important for US respondents when deciding to prescribe NIV; European respondents consider symptoms of orthopnea and/or dyspnea as most important. European respondents use overnight pulse oximetry (69.8% vs 7.9%; p < 0.001) and arterial blood gas analyses (62.8% vs 3.2%; p < 0.001) more than US respondents. Insurance regulations/national health care coverage impact NIV initiation more in the US than in Europe (70.0% vs 47.5%; p = 0.025). When asked if insurance/other financial constraints affects when they prescribe NIV, more US respondents answered positively (77.2% vs 15.4%; p < 0.001). In patients with no respiratory symptoms, most US specialists (68.3%) initiated NIV at VC <50% predicted; European responses showed greater variability. Given the impact of NIV on respiratory function and the importance of respiratory function to quality of life and survival, understanding differences that influence NIV prescribing is critical. This information may inform future study design and identify areas warranting additional research to develop best practices for NIV implementation.

  2. Electrical switching in Sb doped Al23Te77 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumlianmunga; Ramesh, K.

    2017-08-01

    Bulk glasses (Al23Te77)Sbx (0≤ x≤10) prepared by melt quenching method show a change in switching type from threshold to memory for x≥5. An increase in threshold current (Ith) and a concomitant decrease in threshold voltage (Vth) and resisitivity(ρ) have been observed with the increase of Sb content. Raman spectra of the switched region in memory switching compositions show a red shift with respect to the as prepared glasses whereas in threshold switching compositions no such shift is observed. The magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) of 27Al atom shows three different environments for Al ([4]Al, [5]Al and [6]Al). The samples annealed at their respective crystallization temperatures show rapid increase in [4]Al sites by annihilating [5]Al sites. The melts of threshold switching glasses (x≤2.5) quenched in water at room temperature (27 °C) show amorphous structure whereas, the melt of memory switching glasses (x>2.5) solidify into crystalline structure. The higher coordination of Al increases the cross-linking and rigidity. The addition of Sb increases the glass transition(Tg) and decreases the crystallization temperature(Tc). The decrease in the interval between the Tg and Tc eases the transition between the amorphous and crystalline states and improves the memory properties. The temperature rise at the time of switching can be as high as its melting temperature and the material in between the electrodes may melt to form a filament. The filament may consists of temporary (high resistive amorphous) and permanent (high conducting crystalline) units. The ratio between the temporary and the permanent units may decide the switching type. The filament is dominated by the permanent units in memory switching compositions and by the temporary units in threshold switching compositions. The present study suggests that both the threshold and memory switching can be understood by the thermal model and filament formation.

  3. Social processes explaining the benefits of Al-Anon participation.

    PubMed

    Timko, Christine; Halvorson, Max; Kong, Calvin; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-12-01

    This study examined social processes of support, goal direction, provision of role models, and involvement in rewarding activities to explain benefits of participating in Al-Anon, a 12-step mutual-help program for people concerned about another person's substance use. Newcomers to Al-Anon were studied at baseline and 6 months later, at which time they were identified as having either sustained attendance or dropped out. Among both newcomers and established Al-Anon members ("old-timers"), we also used number of Al-Anon meetings attended during follow-up to indicate extent of participation. Social processes significantly mediated newcomers' sustained attendance status versus dropped out and outcomes of Al-Anon in the areas of life context (e.g., better quality of life, better able to handle problems due to the drinker), improved positive symptoms (e.g., higher self-esteem, more hopeful), and decreased negative symptoms (e.g., less abuse, less depressed). Social processes also significantly mediated newcomers' number of meetings attended and outcomes. However, among old-timers, Al-Anon attendance was not associated with outcomes, so the potential mediating role of social processes could not be examined, but social processes were associated with outcomes. Findings add to the growing body of work identifying mechanisms by which 12-step groups are effective, by showing that bonding, goal direction, and access to peers in recovery and rewarding pursuits help to explain associations between sustained Al-Anon participation among newcomers and improvements on key concerns of Al-Anon attendees. Al-Anon is free of charge and widely available, making it a potentially cost-effective public health resource for help alleviating negative consequences of concern about another's addiction. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Amino acids acting as transmitters in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Niebroj-Dobosz, I; Janik, P

    1999-07-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease of unknown origin, excitotoxic mechanisms are supposed to be involved. Divergent results are, however, presented either because of the heterogeneity of this disease, and/or different methodologies used to evaluate the excitotoxic amino acids content. The results of the most sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques with precolumn derivatization of fasting serum and CSF glutamate, aspartate, glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mild and severely progressing ALS cases are presented here. We studied 25 ALS patients with different course of the disease and controls, which consisted of 10 cases with other motor neuron diseases and 20 healthy, age-matched subjects. In the ALS patients with a mild course of the disease serum glutamate and aspartate content was either normal or slightly decreased, in all of these cases a rise in GABA and glycine was present. In the severely progressing ALS cases serum glutamate and aspartate was increased. The GABA content was either normal or increased, the glycine level appeared to be either normal or decreased. In CSF the amino acids changes in ALS were less pronounced as compared to serum. The most frequent finding was the increase in GABA concentration both in the mild and the severely progressing group. CSF glutamate in ALS patients with mild course of the disease was decreased, in the severely progressing cases the glutamate level appeared in a broad range from decreased to increased values. CSF aspartate was either normal or elevated, glycine values were present in a broad range from decreased to increased values. In the other tested motor neuron diseases no consistent changes in serum and CSF amino acids concentration was observed. The data from serum and CSF indicate that in ALS an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory amino acids might be present in the brain, which may be induced in different ways in particular ALS

  5. ALS user meeting features 10th anniversary celebration

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art

    2003-12-05

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) saw first light on October 5, 1993, not quite to the day but close to 10 years before the 2003 ALS Users Association meeting, held October 6-8. Fittingly, the proceedings included retrospectives from two of the key players in the early history of the ALS, David Attwood and Jay Marx, and a display of photographs chronicling its construction and commissioning. Science highlights, highlights from young researchers, and posters constituted the meat of the program on Monday and Tuesday morning, while workshops took over Tuesday afternoon and all day Wednesday.

  6. Evaluation of Ti-48Al-2Nb Under Fretting Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Lerch, Bradley A.; Draper, Susan L.; Raj, Sai V.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the fretting behavior of lambda-TiAl (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb) in contact with a nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718) in air at temperatures from 23 to 550 C. Fretting wear experiments were conducted with 9.4-mm-diameter hemispherical Inconel (IN) 718 pins in contact with Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb flats (and the reverse) at loads from 1 to 40 N and fretting frequencies from 50 to 160 Hz with slip amplitudes from 50 to 200 microns for 1 to 20 million fretting cycles. The results were similar for both combinations of pin and flat. Reference fretting wear experiments were also conducted with 9.4-mm-diameter hemispherical Ti-6Al-4V pins in contact with IN718 flats. The interfacial adhesive bonds between Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and IN718 in contact were generally stronger than the cohesive bonds in the cohesively weaker Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb. The failed Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb subsequently transferred to the IN718 surface at any fretting condition. The wear scars produced on Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb contained metallic and oxide wear debris, scratches, plastically deformed asperities, cracks, and fracture pits. Oxide layers readily formed on the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb surface at 550 C, but cracks easily occurred in the oxide layers. Factors including fretting frequency, temperature, slip amplitude, and load influenced the fretting behavior of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb in contact with IN718. The wear volume loss of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb generally decreased with increasing fretting frequency. The increasing rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures up to 200 C led to a drop in wear volume loss at 200 C. However, the fretting wear increased as the temperature was increased from 200 to 550 C. The highest temperatures of 450 and 550 C resulted in oxide film disruption with generation of cracks, loose wear debris, and pits on the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear surface. The wear volume loss generally increased as the slip amplitude increased. The wear volume loss also generally increased as the load increased

  7. Crystal structure of hexagonal MnAl4

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1987-01-01

    A structure is proposed for the hexagonal form of MnAl4, with aH = 28.4 Å and cH = 12.43 Å, on the basis of a high-resolution electron micrograph and comparison with crystals of known structures. The proposed structure involves seven 104-atom complexes of 20 Friauf polyhedra, sharing some atoms with one another. It is closely related to the 23.36-Å cubic structure of MnAl4 and to the 14.19-Å cubic structure of Mg32(Al,Zn)49. Images PMID:16593837

  8. Crystal structure of hexagonal MnAl(4).

    PubMed

    Pauling, L

    1987-06-01

    A structure is proposed for the hexagonal form of MnAl(4), with a(H) = 28.4 A and c(H) = 12.43 A, on the basis of a high-resolution electron micrograph and comparison with crystals of known structures. The proposed structure involves seven 104-atom complexes of 20 Friauf polyhedra, sharing some atoms with one another. It is closely related to the 23.36-A cubic structure of MnAl(4) and to the 14.19-A cubic structure of Mg(32)(Al,Zn)(49).

  9. Sodium hydroxide anodization of Ti-Al-4V adherends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filbey, Jennifer A.; Wightman, J. P.; Progar, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of sodium hydroxide anodization (SHA) for Ti-6Al-4V adherends is examined. The SHA surface is evaluated using SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The SHA procedures of Kennedy et al. (1983) were employed in this experiment. The photomicrographs of the SHA (sandblasted) and PSHA (sandblasted and pickled) oxide surface reveal that the two surfaces differ. The PSHA is patchy and similar to a chromic acid anodization surface and the porosity of the PSHA is more uniform than the SHA surface. The compositions of the surfaces are studied. It is noted that SHA is an effective pretreatment for Ti-6Al-4V adherends.

  10. The photoionization spectrum of neutral aluminium, Al I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roig, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of Al I has been studied for the wavelength range 1160 to 2000 A by the flash pyrolysis technique. Wavelengths and derived energy levels are reported for 70 new lines converging on the 3s3p(3)P(0) limits of Al II. The autoionization parameters of the 3p(2)P(0)-3p(2)(2)S doublet have been measured. Good agreement is obtained with the experiment of Kohl and Parkinson and the recent calculation of Le Dourneuf et al. The relative photoionization cross section has been measured in the wavelength region 1200 A to 2000 A.

  11. Diaphragm pacing system implanted in a patient with ALS.

    PubMed

    Kotan, Dilcan; Kaymak, Kamil; Gündogdu, Aslı Aksoy

    2016-08-10

    The diaphragm pacing system (DPS) is a life quality improving operation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients who need mechanical ventilation or have chronic respiratory insufficiency. This procedure is gaining in popularity, and the number of centers implanting diaphragm pacing systems (DPS) is increasing. DPS delays the need for a ventilation machine in the early stages of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease. In this case study, we present a young female ALS patient. A DPS was implanted after respiratory insufficiency began. In the one-year follow-up period following her operation, her need for ventilatory support disappeared.

  12. Lattice crossover and phase transitions in NdAlO{sub 3}-GdAlO{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect

    Vasylechko, L., E-mail: crystal-lov@polynet.lviv.ua; Shmanko, H.; Ohon, N.

    2013-02-15

    Phase and structural behaviour in the (1-x)NdAlO{sub 3}-xGdAlO{sub 3} system in a whole concentration range has been studied by means of in situ high-resolution X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction technique and differential thermal analysis. Two kinds of solid solutions Nd{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} have been found at room temperature: one with rhombohedral (x<0.15) and one with orthorhombic (x{>=}0.20) symmetry. A morphotropic phase transition occurs at x Almost-Equal-To 0.15, where the co-existence of both phases was observed. Peculiarity of the orthorhombic solid solution is the lattice parameter crossover at the compositions with x=0.33, 0.49 and 0.62. First-order structural transition Pbnm{r_reversible}R3{sup Macron }cmore » has been detected both from in situ powder diffraction and thermal analysis data. Continuous phase transformation R3{sup Macron }c{r_reversible}Pm3{sup Macron }m above 2140 K has been predicted for Nd-rich sample Nd{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}AlO{sub 3} from the extrapolation of high-temperature behaviour of the lattice parameter ratio of the rhombohedral phase. Based on the experimental data, the phase diagram of the pseudo-binary system NdAlO{sub 3}-GdAlO{sub 3} has been constructed. - Graphical abstract: Concentration dependencies of normalized lattice parameters of Nd{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} perovskite solid solutions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two kinds of solid solutions Nd{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} were found in the NdAlO{sub 3}-GdAlO{sub 3} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphotropic transition between both perovskite phases occurs at x Almost-Equal-To 0.15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lattice parameter crossover was found in orthorhombic solid solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature driven first-order phase transition Pbnm{r_reversible}R3{sup Macron }c was found in Nd{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase diagram of the pseudo-binary system NdAlO{sub 3}-GdAlO{sub 3

  13. Predictions of thermomagnetic properties of Laves phase compounds: TbAl2, GdAl2 and SmAl2 performed with ATOMIC MATTERS MFA computation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Rafał; Zygadło, Jakub

    2018-04-01

    Recent calculations of properties of TbAl2 GdAl2 and SmAl2 single crystals, performed with our new computation system called ATOMIC MATTERS MFA are presented. We applied localized electron approach to describe the thermal evolution of Fine Electronic Structure of Tb3+, Gd3+ and Sm3+ ions over a wide temperature range and estimate Magnetocaloric Effect (MCE). Thermomagnetic properties of TbAl2, GdAl2 and SmAl2 were calculated based on the fine electronic structure of the 4f8, 4f7 and 4f5 electronic configuration of the Tb3+ and Gd3+ and Sm3+ ions, respectively. Our calculations yielded: magnetic moment value and direction; single-crystalline magnetization curves in zero field and in external magnetic field applied in various directions m(T,Bext); the 4f-electronic components of specific heat c4f(T,Bext); and temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy and isothermal entropy change with external magnetic field - ΔS(T,Bext). The cubic universal CEF parameters values used for all CEF calculations was taken from literature and recalculated for universal cubic parameters set for the RAl2 series: A4 = +7.164 Ka04 and A6 = -1.038 Ka06. Magnetic properties were found to be anisotropic due to cubic Laves phase C15 crystal structure symmetry. These studies reveal the importance of multipolar charge interactions when describing thermomagnetic properties of real 4f electronic systems and the effectiveness of an applied self-consistent molecular field in calculations for magnetic phase transition simulation.

  14. The Effectiveness of Al-Si Coatings for Preventing Interfacial Reaction in Al-Mg Dissimilar Metal Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin; Al-Zubaidy, Basem; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2018-01-01

    The dissimilar welding of aluminum to magnesium is challenging because of the rapid formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) at the weld interface. An Al-Si coating interlayer was selected to address this problem, based on thermodynamic calculations which predicted that silicon would change the reaction path to avoid formation of the normally observed binary Al-Mg IMC phases ( β-Al3Mg2 and γ-Al12Mg17). Long-term static heat treatments confirmed that a Si-rich coating will preferentially produce the Mg2Si phase in competition with the less stable, β-Al3Mg2 and γ-Al12Mg17 binary IMC phases, and this reduced the overall reaction layer thickness. However, when an Al-Si clad sheet was tested in a real welding scenario, using the Refill™ friction stir spot welding (FSSW) technique, Mg2Si was only produced in very small amounts owing to the much shorter reaction time. Surprisingly, the coating still led to a significant reduction in the IMC reaction layer thickness and the welds exhibited enhanced mechanical performance, with improved strength and fracture energy. This beneficial behavior has been attributed to the softer coating material both reducing the welding temperature and giving rise to the incorporation of Si particles into the reaction layer, which toughened the brittle interfacial IMC phases during crack propagation.

  15. Characterization of Al/crystallized Al-based metallic glass composites produced by repeated roll bonding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Morteza; Khoramkhorshid, Saba; Taghvaei, Amir Hossein; Gokuldoss, Prashanth Konda

    2017-07-01

    Devitrified Al84Gd6Ni7Co3 glassy particles have been used to reinforce Al-matrix composites through repeated roll bonding (RRB) process. Microstructural characterization of the produced composites after various rolling cycles was performed by scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the fabricated composites were evaluated by the tensile and microhardness tests. The results indicate that the RRB process is successful to produce composites with the negligible amount of flaws and porosity, and it is followed by homogeneous distribution of Al84Gd6Ni7Co3 particles in the Al matrix after nine rolling passes. Elongation of the composites improves significantly upon RRB cycles and the tensile strength and microhardness of them increase more than two times compared to unreinforced Al. According to fractography results, the enhanced mechanical properties are correlated with formation of excellent bonding at the interface of Al84Gd6Ni7Co3 particles and Al matrix. The theoretical values of composites hardness and yield strength calculated based on iso-strain model show a good agreement with respect to the experimental results.

  16. Surgery for Gynecomastia in the Islamic Golden Age: Al-Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi (936-1013 AD).

    PubMed

    Chavoushi, Seyed Hadi; Ghabili, Kamyar; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Aslanabadi, Arash; Babapour, Sarah; Ahmedli, Rafail; Golzari, Samad E J

    2012-01-01

    The rise of European science during the Renaissance is greatly indebted to the flourishing of the sciences during the Islamic Golden Age. However, some believe that medieval Islamic physicians and in particular surgeons had been merely a medium for Greco-Roman ideas. Contrarily, in some medieval Islamic medical books, such as Al-Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi (936-1013), the surgical instructions represent a change in the usual techniques or are accompanied by a case history, implying that the procedure was actually undertaken. Along with the hundreds of chapters on different diseases and related medical and surgical treatments, Al-Tasrif includes a chapter on surgical techniques for gynecomastia. The present paper is a review of the description of the surgical management of gynecomastia by Al-Zahrawi as well as that of the ancient Greek, medieval, and modern medicine. Although Al-Zahrawi seemed to base his descriptions of surgery for gynecomastia upon those of Paulus of Aegina, his modification of the procedure and application of the medicinal substances might be indicative of Al-Zahrawi's own practice of the procedure. Al-Zahrawi's surgical procedures remained unchanged for many centuries thenceforward until the technological evolution in the recent centuries.

  17. Evidence for Al/Si tetrahedral network in aluminosilicate glasses from Al K-edge x-ray-absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ziyu; Romano, C.; Marcelli, A.; Mottana, A.; Cibin, G.; della Ventura, G.; Giuli, G.; Courtial, P.; Dingwell, D. B.

    1999-10-01

    The structure of aluminosilicate melts and/or glasses plays a key role in the earth sciences for the understanding of rock-forming igneous processes, as well as in the materials sciences for their technical applications. In particular, the alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glasses are an extremely important group of materials, with a wide range of commercial application, as well as serving as an analog for natural basaltic melts. However, definition of their structure and properties is still controversial, and in particular the role and effect of Al has long been a subject of debate. Here we report a series of experimental x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra at the Al K edge on a series of synthetic glasses of peralkaline composition in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system, together with a general theoretical framework for data analysis based on an ab initio full multiple-scattering theory. We propose an Al/Si tetrahedral network model for aluminosilicate glasses based on distorted polyhedra, with varying both the T-O (T=Al or Si) bond lengths and the T-O-T angles, and with different Al/Si composition. This model achieves a significant agreement between experiments and simulations. In these glasses, experimental data and theoretical results concur to support a model in which Al is network former with a comparatively well ordered local medium-range order (up to 5 Å).

  18. Growth of C60 thin films on Al2O3/NiAl(100) at early stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Liao, C.-H.; Hung, T.-C.; Wu, Y.-C.; Lai, Y.-L.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Luo, M.-F.

    2018-03-01

    The growth of thin films of C60 on Al2O3/NiAl(100) at the earliest stage was studied with scanning tunneling microscopy and synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. C60 molecules, deposited from the vapor onto an ordered thin film of Al2O3/NiAl(100) at 300 K, nucleated into nanoscale rectangular islands, with their longer sides parallel to direction either [010] or [001] of NiAl. The particular island shape resulted because C60 diffused rapidly, and adsorbed and nucleated preferentially on the protrusion stripes of the crystalline Al2O3 surface. The monolayer C60 film exhibited linear protrusions of height 1-3 Å, due to either the structure of the underlying Al2O3 or the lattice mismatch at the boundaries of the coalescing C60 islands; such protrusions governed also the growth of the second layer. The second layer of the C60 film grew only for a C60 coverage >0.60 ML, implying a layer-by-layer growth mode, and also ripened in rectangular shapes. The thin film of C60 was thermally stable up to 400 K; above 500 K, the C60 islands dissociated and most C60 desorbed.

  19. Surgery for Gynecomastia in the Islamic Golden Age: Al-Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi (936–1013 AD)

    PubMed Central

    Chavoushi, Seyed Hadi; Ghabili, Kamyar; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Aslanabadi, Arash; Babapour, Sarah; Ahmedli, Rafail; Golzari, Samad E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of European science during the Renaissance is greatly indebted to the flourishing of the sciences during the Islamic Golden Age. However, some believe that medieval Islamic physicians and in particular surgeons had been merely a medium for Greco-Roman ideas. Contrarily, in some medieval Islamic medical books, such as Al-Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi (936–1013), the surgical instructions represent a change in the usual techniques or are accompanied by a case history, implying that the procedure was actually undertaken. Along with the hundreds of chapters on different diseases and related medical and surgical treatments, Al-Tasrif includes a chapter on surgical techniques for gynecomastia. The present paper is a review of the description of the surgical management of gynecomastia by Al-Zahrawi as well as that of the ancient Greek, medieval, and modern medicine. Although Al-Zahrawi seemed to base his descriptions of surgery for gynecomastia upon those of Paulus of Aegina, his modification of the procedure and application of the medicinal substances might be indicative of Al-Zahrawi's own practice of the procedure. Al-Zahrawi's surgical procedures remained unchanged for many centuries thenceforward until the technological evolution in the recent centuries. PMID:23050167

  20. Identification of phases in the interaction layer between U-Mo-Zr/Al and U-Mo-Zr/Al-Si

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, C.L. Komar; Arico, S.F.; Mirandou, M.

    Out-of-pile diffusion experiments were performed between U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr and Al or Al A356 (7,1wt.% Si) at 550 deg. C. In this work morphological characterization and phase identification on both interaction layer are presented. They were carried out by the use of different techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and WDS microanalysis. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al, the phases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} were identified. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al A356, the phases U(Al, Si) with 25at.% Si and Si{sub 5}U{sub 3} were identified. This lastmore » phase, with a higher Si concentration, was identified with XRD Synchrotron radiation performed at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brasil. (author)« less

  1. Epidemiological Trends of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Province, Western Region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elmekki, Miskelyemen Abdelatti; Elhassan, Mogahid M; Ozbak, Hani A; Qattan, Ilham T; Saleh, Satti M; Alharbi, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, western region of KSA. Four hundred and sixty-seven parasitologically confirmed CL cases attending Al-Meeqat Hospital, Al-Madinah, during 2012-2015, were included in this study. Both Saudi and non-Saudi nationals were infected, with the highest infection rate being among Saudis (68.7%). Males were more affected than females as 86.9% of the total CL cases were males. Moreover, CL was prevalent in all age groups with higher frequency among young adults and adolescents (23.1% and 22.7%, respectively). Interestingly, almost all the patients in the adolescent and child age groups were Saudis (96.2% and 93.5%, respectively). Considering geographical distribution, the highest percentage of the cases (40.5%) were from the northern parts of Al-Madinah province while the eastern parts reported the least infection rate (7.3%). Few cases (2.5%) were supposed to encounter the infection abroad. Additionally, the frequency of infection was found to follow a seasonal distribution. Regarding treatment, pentostam, ketoconazole, or cryotherapy were the treatment options usually used. CL is prevalent in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah area and new foci are being introduced. Thus, detailed studies with large surveillances regarding vector and reservoir hosts in and around the area are needed.

  2. Epidemiological Trends of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Province, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elmekki, Miskelyemen Abdelatti; Elhassan, Mogahid M; Ozbak, Hani A; Qattan, Ilham T; Saleh, Satti M; Alharbi, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, western region of KSA. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-seven parasitologically confirmed CL cases attending Al-Meeqat Hospital, Al-Madinah, during 2012–2015, were included in this study. Results: Both Saudi and non-Saudi nationals were infected, with the highest infection rate being among Saudis (68.7%). Males were more affected than females as 86.9% of the total CL cases were males. Moreover, CL was prevalent in all age groups with higher frequency among young adults and adolescents (23.1% and 22.7%, respectively). Interestingly, almost all the patients in the adolescent and child age groups were Saudis (96.2% and 93.5%, respectively). Considering geographical distribution, the highest percentage of the cases (40.5%) were from the northern parts of Al-Madinah province while the eastern parts reported the least infection rate (7.3%). Few cases (2.5%) were supposed to encounter the infection abroad. Additionally, the frequency of infection was found to follow a seasonal distribution. Regarding treatment, pentostam, ketoconazole, or cryotherapy were the treatment options usually used. Conclusion: CL is prevalent in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah area and new foci are being introduced. Thus, detailed studies with large surveillances regarding vector and reservoir hosts in and around the area are needed. PMID:29302149

  3. Current issues in ALS epidemiology: Variation of ALS occurrence between populations and physical activity as a risk factor.

    PubMed

    Luna, J; Logroscino, G; Couratier, P; Marin, B

    2017-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a fatal outcome. This review aims to report key epidemiological features of ALS in relation to the hypothesis of variation between populations, to summarize environmental hypothesis and to highlight current issues that deserve much considerations. Epidemiological ALS studies have shown a variation of incidence, mortality and prevalence between geographical areas and different populations. These data could support the notion that genetic factors, especially populations' ancestries, along with environmental and lifestyle factors, play a significant role in the occurrence of the disease. To date, there is no strong evidence to confirm an association between a particular environmental factor and ALS. Physical activity (PA) has been extensively evaluated. Recent studies support with the best evidence level that PA in general population is not a risk factor for ALS. However, further research is needed to clarify the association of PA in some occupations and some athletic activities. Epidemiological research based on multicenter international collaboration is essential to provide new data on ALS especially in some regions of the world that are to date poorly represented in the ALS literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure of Li5AlS4 and comparison with other lithium-containing metal sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hanjin; Kim, Sung-Chul; Kim, Jaegyeom; Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Seung-Joo

    2018-01-01

    Lithium aluminum sulfide (Li5AlS4) was synthesized by solid state reaction, and its crystal structure was characterized by ab initio structure determination on the basis of powder neutron diffraction (ND) data. Li5AlS4 was found to have monoclinic unit cell (space group, P21/m) with the lattice parameters: a = 6.8583(4) Å, b = 7.8369(4) Å, c = 6.2488(4) Å, and β = 90.333(4)°. This structure is built from a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) arrangement of sulfur atoms with a stacking sequence of …ABAB…. The hcp sulfide lattice consists of two different double-sulfide layers alternately stacked along the c-axis. Between the first pair of sulfur layers all the tetrahedral interstices (T+ and T- sites) are filled with lithium and aluminum atoms. All octahedral interstices between the second pair of sulfur layers are occupied by the remaining lithium atoms. The structure of Li5AlS4 is compared with those of various lithium-containing metal sulfides like Li2FeS2, NaLiMS2 (M = Zn, Cd), Li4GeS4, LiM‧S2 (M‧ = Al, Ga, In) and γ-Li3PS4. Each sulfide represents a specific distribution of lithium atoms in the lattice depending on how the octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites are filled. The low ionic conductivity of Li5AlS4 (9.7 × 10-9 S cm-1 at 323 K) relative to other sulfides may be due to the highly-ordered distribution of the lithium atoms in the layered structure and the lack of adjacent void spaces that can be used for lithium ion hopping.

  5. Low resistance ohmic contacts to n-GaN and n-AlGaN using NiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingerly, D. B.; Chen, Y.; William, R. S.; Takeuchi, T.; Chang, Y. A.

    2000-07-01

    The intermetallic compound NiAl (50:50 at. %) has been shown to be a low-resistance ohmic contact to n-GaN and n-AlGaN. NiAl contacts on n-GaN (n=2.5×1017cm-3) had a specific contact resistance of 9.4×10-6 Ω cm2 upon annealing at 850 °C for 5 min. NiAl contacts annealed at 900 °C for 5 min in n-Al0.12Ga0.88N (n=2.4×1018cm-3) and n-Al0.18Ga0.82N (n=2.7×1018cm-3) had specific contact resistances of 2.1×10-5 Ω cm2 and 4.7×10-5 Ω cm2, respectively. Additionally, these contacts were subjected to long-term annealing at 600 °C for 100 h. On n-GaN, the contact specific contact resistance degraded from 9.4×10-6 Ω cm2 to 5.3×10-5 Ω cm2 after the long-term anneal. Contacts to n-Al0.18Ga0.82N showed only slight degradation with a change in contact resistance, from 4.7×10-5 Ω cm2 to 9.2×10-5 Ω cm2. These results demonstrate the NiAl has great promise as a stable, low-resistance contact, particularly to n-AlGaN used in high-temperature applications.

  6. Preclinical Studies of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Astrocyte Transplantation in ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    fast-frozen in liquid nitrogen. RNAwas iso- lated using TRIzol, followed by DNase treatment and RNA cleanup using RNeasy columns (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany...J Neurochem 2001;79:737–746. 34 Doi A, Park IH, Wen B et al. Differential methylation of tissue- and cancer-specific CpG island shores distinguishes...2008, Sreedharan et al., 2008, Kwiatkowski et al., 2009, Vance et al., 2009, Johnson et al., 2010, Maruyama et al., 2010, DeJesus-Hernandez et al

  7. Relaxation-phenomena in LiAl/FeS-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borger, W.; Kappus, W.; Panesar, H. S.

    A theoretical model of the capacity of strongly relaxing electrochemical systems is applied to the LiAl/FeS system. Relaxation phenomena in LiAl and FeS electrodes can be described by this model. Experimental relaxation data indicate that lithium transport through the alpha-LiAl layer to the particle surface is the capacity limiting process at high discharge current density in the LiAl electrode in LiCl-KCl and LiF-LiCl-LiBr mixtures. Strong relaxation is observed in the FeS electrode with LiCl-KCl electrolyte caused by lithium concentration gradients and precipitation of KCl in the pores.

  8. Modeling ALS and FTD with iPSC-derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sebum; Huang, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in genetics and neuropathology support the idea that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTD) are two ends of a disease spectrum. Although several animal models have been developed to investigate the pathogenesis and disease progression in ALS and FTD, there are significant limitations that hamper our ability to connect these models with the neurodegenerative processes in human diseases. With the technical breakthrough in reprogramming biology, it is now possible to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and disease-relevant neuron subtypes. This review provides a comprehensive summary of studies that use iPSC-derived neurons to model ALS and FTD. We discuss the unique capabilities of iPSC-derived neurons that capture some key features of ALS and FTD, and underscore their potential roles in drug discovery. There are, however, several critical caveats that require improvements before iPSC-derived neurons can become highly effective disease models. PMID:26462653

  9. 77 FR 40265 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Tennessee River, Decatur, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... schedule that governs the Southern Railroad Drawbridge across the Tennessee River, mile 304.4, at Decatur..., across the Tennessee River, mile 304.4, at Decatur, AL. The vertical clearance of the bridge in the...

  10. RadNet Air Data From Birmingham, AL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Birmingham, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  11. 76 FR 35245 - Country Investors Life Assurance Company, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Life Assurance Company, et al. June 9, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (the.... Applicants: COUNTRY Investors Life Assurance Company (the ``Company''), COUNTRY Investors Variable Life Account (the ``Life Account'') and COUNTRY Investors Variable Annuity Account (the ``Annuity Account...

  12. RadNet Air Data From Montgomery, AL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Montgomery, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  13. Mass determination near N = 20 for Al and Na isotopes

    DOE PAGES

    Gallant, A. T.; Alanssari, M.; Bale, J. C.; ...

    2017-08-31

    We report on the mass measurements of 31;32Na and 29;34;35Al, performed with the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer at TRIUMF. The mass excesses were found to be 12246(14) keV and 18638(37) keV for 31;32Na and -18207:77(37) keV, -3000:5(29) keV, and -223:7(73) keV for 29;34;35Al, respectively. Our measurements con rm the observation of a crossover in the two-neutron separation energies of 33Mg and 34Al. We did not observe the recently reported, long-lived, isomeric state of 34Al, but, based on the previously measured half-lives, the mass value of the ground state was determined.

  14. Omental transplantation in a patient with mild ALS

    PubMed Central

    Rafael, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not a neurodegenerative disease. The patient, a 33-year-old man began with symptoms of the bulbar form of ALS, characterized by burning pain in both feet during two months and then, he presented right crural monoparesis, fasciculations, slight dysarthria and he walked with help of orthopedic devices. A preoperative MRI scans showed atherosclerosis at the V4 segment of the left vertebral artery. On May 2012, he received an omental transplantation on the anterior, left lateral and posterior surface of the medulla oblongata. About 48 hours after surgery, the dysarthria disappeared and the voluntary movement of the right foot improved. Three days later, he walked without aid of orthopedic device. At present, four years after operation he present complete reversal of symptoms. In conclusión, this patient confirms that bulbar ALS is of ischemic origin and therefore, mild ALS can be cured. PMID:27508110

  15. Omental transplantation in a patient with mild ALS.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not a neurodegenerative disease. The patient, a 33-year-old man began with symptoms of the bulbar form of ALS, characterized by burning pain in both feet during two months and then, he presented right crural monoparesis, fasciculations, slight dysarthria and he walked with help of orthopedic devices. A preoperative MRI scans showed atherosclerosis at the V4 segment of the left vertebral artery. On May 2012, he received an omental transplantation on the anterior, left lateral and posterior surface of the medulla oblongata. About 48 hours after surgery, the dysarthria disappeared and the voluntary movement of the right foot improved. Three days later, he walked without aid of orthopedic device. At present, four years after operation he present complete reversal of symptoms. In conclusión, this patient confirms that bulbar ALS is of ischemic origin and therefore, mild ALS can be cured.

  16. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  17. Crystalline Structure and Physical Properties of UCo2Al3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdín, E.; Escudero, R.

    Some intermetallic compounds which contain uranium or cerium present heavy fermion characteristics. Take, for example, in the UM2Al3 (M=Pd, Ni) family, superconductivity and magnetism coexist and present heavy fermion behavior. This work presents the crystallographic characteristics and physical properties of a new compound of this family; the intermetallic compound UCo2Al3. Our initial crystallographic studies performed in a small single crystal show that the structure is hexagonal and similar to the UNi2Al3 and UPd2Al3 parent compounds. The space group is P6/mmm with a=5.125 Å and c=4.167 Å crystalline parameters. Measurements of resistivity and magnetization performed on the single crystal reveal that the compound is not superconducting when measured at about 1.8 K. The compound is highly anisotropic and features related to Kondo-like behavior are observed. A weak ferromagnetic transition is observed at a temperature of about 20 K.

  18. 75 FR 9867 - University of Pittsburgh, et al

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration University of Pittsburgh, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Electron Microscopes This is a...: University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer: JEOL, Ltd...

  19. Omar al-Hammami: a case study in radicalization.

    PubMed

    Mastors, Elena; Siers, Rhea

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study on the radicalization of Omar al-Hammami, aka Abu Mansoor al-Amriki, an American who joined al-Shabaab, a Somali terrorist group. There are a limited number of in-depth case studies that help to inform the fragmented discussions in the literature about the radicalization process of Islamic terrorists. Hammami received quite a bit of attention from the government and media due to his "homegrown" status, as well as his prolific use of social media to inform the world of his views and exploits. Hammami did not fully commit to the group, his sense of self-importance taking precedent over the norms of the group. He left al-Shabaab, was publicly critical of the group, and was ultimately killed by them. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. RadNet Air Data From Mobile, AL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Mobile, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  1. AlGaAs diode pumped tunable chromium lasers

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.; Payne, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    An all-solid-state laser system is disclosed wherein the laser is pumped in the longwave wing of the pump absorption band. By utilizing a laser material that will accept unusually high dopant concentrations without deleterious effects on the crystal lattice one is able to compensate for the decreased cross section in the wing of the absorption band, and the number of pump sources which can be used with such a material increases correspondingly. In a particular embodiment a chromium doped colquiriite-structure crystal such as Cr:LiSrAlF.sub.6 is the laser material. The invention avoids the problems associated with using AlGaInP diodes by doping the Cr:LiSrAlF.sub.6 heavily to enable efficient pumping in the longwave wing of the absorption band with more practical AlGaAs diodes.

  2. Al-Qaeda's operational evolution: behavioral and organizational perspectives.

    PubMed

    Borum, Randy; Gelles, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Al-Qaeda is widely regarded by the military, law enforcement, diplomatic, and intelligence communities as being the foremost threat to U.S. national security and safety. The nature of this threat, however, has changed since al-Qaeda first emerged in the late 1980s. This article describes the emergence of a new form of transnational terrorism and details al-Qaeda's progression from being an organization to an ideological movement. Drawing on a theory of social movements, we analyze its trajectory and the levels of influence. We also offer a behavioral perspective in explaining how al-Qaeda has adapted as a learning organization with new leadership, tactics, and patterns of recruitment and training.

  3. 78 FR 36411 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tuskegee, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... (404) 305-6364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On March 28, 2013, the FAA published in the Federal... feet or More Above the Surface of the Earth. * * * * * ASO TN E5 Tuskegee, AL [Amended] Moton Field...

  4. 77 FR 8942 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13002 and 13003] Alabama Disaster Number AL-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major [[Page 8943

  5. Senator Doug Jones (D-AL) Tour of MSFC Facilities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-22

    During Senator Doug Jones (D-Al.) tour of MSFC facilities Marshall engineer Bob Zeek explains the High School Students United with NASA to Create Hardware (HUNCH) program to Senator Jones and his wife, Louise.

  6. Senator Doug Jones (D-AL) Tour of MSFC Facilities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-22

    Senator Doug Jones (D-Al.) and wife Louise tour the Payload Crew Training Complex (PCTC) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The PCTC simulates International Space Station habitat modules and is interactive for different activities.

  7. NASA Acting Chief Technologist Douglas Terrier Interviewed by Al Roker

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    NASA CTO Douglas Terrier talks with the "Today Show's" Al Roker about NASA's science research during an Eclipse Across America broadcast aboard the USS Yorktown in Charleston, South Carolina on Aug. 21, 2017.

  8. Insulator-semiconductor interface fixed charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor devices with Al2O3 or AlTiO gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Son Phuong; Nguyen, Duong Dai; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated insulator-semiconductor interface fixed charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices with Al2O3 or AlTiO (an alloy of Al2O3 and TiO2) gate dielectrics obtained by atomic layer deposition on AlGaN. Analyzing insulator-thickness dependences of threshold voltages for the MIS devices, we evaluated positive interface fixed charges, whose density at the AlTiO/AlGaN interface is significantly lower than that at the Al2O3/AlGaN interface. This and a higher dielectric constant of AlTiO lead to rather shallower threshold voltages for the AlTiO gate dielectric than for Al2O3. The lower interface fixed charge density also leads to the fact that the two-dimensional electron concentration is a decreasing function of the insulator thickness for AlTiO, whereas being an increasing function for Al2O3. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the interface fixed charges and interface states. From the conductance method, it is shown that the interface state densities are very similar at the Al2O3/AlGaN and AlTiO/AlGaN interfaces. Therefore, we consider that the lower AlTiO/AlGaN interface fixed charge density is not owing to electrons trapped at deep interface states compensating the positive fixed charges and can be attributed to a lower density of oxygen-related interface donors.

  9. Fractional Brownian motion of an Al nanosphere in liquid Al-Si alloy under electron-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Takeshi; Howe, J. M.; Jesser, W. A.; Murayama, M.

    2004-05-01

    Fractional forces and Brownian motion are expected to govern the behavior of nanoscale metallic solids in liquids, but such systems have not been studied. We investigated the motion of a crystalline Al nanosphere inside a partially molten Al-Si alloy particle, using an electron beam to both stimulate and observe the motion of the nanosphere. The irregular motion observed was quantified as antipersistant fractional Brownian motion. Analysis of possible phenomena contributing to the motion demonstrates that the incident electrons provide the fractional force that moves the Al nanosphere and that gravity and the oxide shell on the partially molten particle cause the antipersistant behavior.

  10. Training for Terror: A Case Study of Al-Qaida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Khaled Abou el Fadl, a law professor at the University of California at Los Angeles , states that bin Laden and the Taliban are selective in their... Rueda , 2001, p.20). 1. Al-Qaida Attack Chronology Al-Qaida gained notoriety in February 1993 for its bombing of the World Trade Center. This attack...overthrowing any regime that has been 35 corrupted by Western influence (Alexander, 2001, p.2). According to Alexander and Rueda , the following is a

  11. Diffusivity in Alumina Scales Grown on Al-MAX Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC, and Cr2AlC are oxidation resistant MAX phase compounds distinguished by the formation of protective Al2O3 scales with well controlled kinetics. A modified Wagner treatment was used to obtain interfacial grain boundary diffusivity, deltaD(sub gb,O,int.), from scale growth rates and corresponding grain size. It is based on the p(O2)(exp -1/6) dependency of the double charged oxygen vacancy and oxygen diffusivity, coupled with the effective diffusion constant for short circuit grain boundary paths. Data from the literature for MAX phases was analyzed accordingly, and deltaD(sub gb,O,int.) was found to nearly coincide with the Arrhenius line developed for Zr-doped FeCrAl, where: deltaD(sub gb,O,int.) = 1.8x10(exp -10) exp(-375 kJ/RT) cubic meters/s. Furthermore, this oxidation relation suggests the more general format applicable to bulk samples under ambient conditions: deltaD(sub gb,O) = 7.567x10(exp -8) exp(-544 kJ/RT) p(O2)(exp -1/6) cubic meters/[s x Pa(exp -1/6)]. Data from many other FeCrAl(X) studies were similarly assessed to show general agreement with the relation for deltaD(sub gb,O,int.). This analysis reinforces the view that protective alumina scales grow by similar mechanisms for these Al-MAX phases and oxidation resistant FeCrAl alloys.

  12. Sintering of (Ni,Mg)(Al,Fe)2O4 Materials and their Corrosion Process in Na3AlF6-AlF3-K3AlF6 Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yibiao; Li, Yawei; Yang, Jianhong; Sang, Shaobai; Wang, Qinghu

    2017-06-01

    The application of ledge-free sidewalls in the Hall-Héroult cells can potentially reduce the energy requirement of aluminum production by about 30 pct (Nightingale et al. in J Eur Ceram, 33:2761-2765, 2013). However, this approach poses great material challenges since such sidewalls are in direct contact with corrosive electrolyte. In the present paper, (Ni,Mg)(Al,Fe)2O4 materials were prepared using fused magnesia, reactive alumina, nickel oxide, and iron oxide powders as the starting materials. The sintering behaviors of specimens as well as their corrosion resistance to molten electrolyte have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The results show that after firing at temperature ranging from 1673 K (1400 °C) up to 1873 K (1600 °C), all the specimens prepared are composed of single-phase (Ni,Mg)(Al,Fe)2O4 composite spinel, the lattice parameter of which increases with increasing Fe3+ ion concentration. Increasing the iron oxide content enhances densification of the specimens, which is accompanied by the formation of homogeneously distributed smaller pores in the matrix. The corrosion tests show that corrosion layers consist of fluoride and Ni(Al,Fe)2O4 composite spinel grains are produced in specimens with Fe/Al mole ratio no more than 1, whereas dense Ni(Al,Fe)2O4 composite spinel layers are formed on the surface of the specimens with Fe/Al mole ratio more than 1. The dense Ni(Al,Fe)2O4 composite spinel layers formed improve the corrosion resistance of the specimens by inhibiting the infiltration of electrolyte and hindering the chemical reaction between the specimen and electrolyte.

  13. The frontotemporal syndrome of ALS is associated with poor survival.

    PubMed

    Govaarts, Rosanne; Beeldman, Emma; Kampelmacher, Mike J; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van den Berg, Leonard H; van der Kooi, Anneke J; Wijkstra, Peter J; Zijnen-Suyker, Marianne; Cobben, Nicolle A M; Schmand, Ben A; de Haan, Rob J; de Visser, Marianne; Raaphorst, Joost

    2016-12-01

    Thirty percent of ALS patients have a frontotemporal syndrome (FS), defined as behavioral changes or cognitive impairment. Despite previous studies, there are no firm conclusions on the effect of the FS on survival and the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in ALS. We examined the effect of the FS on survival and the start and duration of NIV in ALS. Behavioral changes were defined as >22 points on the ALS-Frontotemporal-Dementia-Questionnaire or ≥3 points on ≥2 items of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Cognitive impairment was defined as below the fifth percentile on ≥2 tests of executive function, memory or language. Classic ALS was defined as ALS without the frontotemporal syndrome. We performed survival analyses from symptom onset and time from NIV initiation, respectively, to death. The impact of the explanatory variables on survival and NIV initiation were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. We included 110 ALS patients (76 men) with a mean age of 62 years. Median survival time was 4.3 years (95 % CI 3.53-5.13). Forty-seven patients (43 %) had an FS. Factors associated with shorter survival were FS, bulbar onset, older age at onset, short time to diagnosis and a C9orf72 repeat expansion. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the FS was 2.29 (95 % CI 1.44-3.65, p < 0.001) in a multivariate model. Patients with an FS had a shorter survival after NIV initiation (adjusted HR 2.70, 95 % CI 1.04-4.67, p = 0.04). In conclusion, there is an association between the frontotemporal syndrome and poor survival in ALS, which remains present after initiation of NIV.

  14. Photoluminescence from narrow InAs-AlSb quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brar, Berinder; Kroemer, Herbert; Ibbetson, James; English, John H.

    1993-01-01

    We report on photoluminescence spectra from narrow InAs-AlSb quantum wells. Strong, clearly resolved peaks for well widths from 2 to 8 monolayers were observed. Transmission electron micrographs show direct evidence for the structural quality of the quantum well structures. The transition energies of the narrowest wells suggest a strong influence of the AlSb X-barrier on the electronic states in the conduction band.

  15. Asymmetry of radiation damage properties in Al-Ti nanolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Gerboth, Matthew D.; Yao, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed with empirical potentials to study the effects of multilayer interfaces and interface spacing in Al-Ti nanolayers. Several model interfaces derived from stacking of close-packed layers or face-centered cubic \\{100\\} layers were investigated. The simulations reveal significant and important asymmetries in defect production withmore » $$\\sim$$60\\% of vacancies created in Al layers compared to Ti layers within the Al-Ti multilayer system. The asymmetry in the creation of interstitials is even more pronounced. The asymmetries cause an imbalance in the ratio of vacancies and interstitials in films of dissimilar materials leading to $>$$90\\% of the surviving interstitials located in the Al layers. While in the close-packed nanolayers the interstitials migrate to the atomic layers adjacent to the interface of the Al layers, in the \\{100\\} nanolayers the interstitials migrate to the center of the Al layers and away from the interfaces. The degree of asymmetry and defect ratio imbalance increases as the layer spacing decreases in the multilayer films. Underlying physical processes are discussed including the interfacial strain fields and the individual elemental layer stopping power in nanolayered systems. In addition, experimental work was performed on low-dose (10$$^{16}$ atoms/cm$^2$) helium (He) irradiation on Al/Ti nanolayers (5 nm per film), resulting in He bubble formation $$\\sim$$1 nm in diameter in the Ti film near the interface. The correlation between the preferential flux of displaced atoms from Ti films to Al films during the defect production that is revealed in the simulations and the morphology and location of He bubbles from the experiments is discussed.« less

  16. Ignition Behavior of alpha-AlH3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    nitromethane (Weiser et al., 2007) and Ammonium Perchlorate= HTPB propellants (Deluca et al., 2007) compared to similarly aluminized versions may...aluminum burning times. Combustion, Explosives , and Shockwaves, 41, 533–546. Benson, S.W. 1976. Thermochemical Kinetics, 2nd ed., Wiley Interscience, New...flat-flame burner. 16th International Colloquium on the Dynamic Explosions and Reactive Systems, Krakow, Poland. Brzustowski, T.A., and Glassman, I. 1964

  17. Observations of Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report 5-(sigma) tangent column detections of Al and Fe, and strict 3-(sigma) tangent column upper limits for Ca(+) in Mercury's exosphere obtained using the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck I telescope. These are the first direct detections of Al and Fe in Mercury's exosphere. Our Ca(-) observation is consistent with that reported by The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft.

  18. Discovery of a metastable Al20Sm4 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z.; Zhang, F.; Sun, Y.; Mendelev, M. I.; Ott, R. T.; Park, E.; Besser, M. F.; Kramer, M. J.; Ding, Z.; Wang, C.-Z.; Ho, K.-M.

    2015-03-01

    We present an efficient genetic algorithm, integrated with experimental diffraction data, to solve a nanoscale metastable Al20Sm4 phase that evolves during crystallization of an amorphous magnetron sputtered Al90Sm10 alloy. The excellent match between calculated and experimental X-ray diffraction patterns confirms an accurate description of this metastable phase. Molecular dynamic simulations of crystal growth from the liquid phase predict the formation of disordered defects in the devitrified crystal.

  19. Magnetometory of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubaki, K.; Maeda, N.; Saitoh, T.; Kobayashi, N.

    2005-06-01

    AlGaN/GaN heterostructure wafers are becoming a key technology for next generation cellar-phone telecommunication system because of their potential for high-performance microwave applications. Therefore, the electronic properties of a 2DEG in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have recently been discussed. In this paper, we performed the extraordinary Hall effect measurement and the SQUID magnetometory of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure wafer at low temperature. The AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapour phase epitaxy on (0001) SiC substrate using AlN buffers. The electron mobility and electron concentration at 4.2 K are 9,540cm2/V s and 6.6 × 1012cm-2, respectively. In the extraordinary Hall effect measurement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, the hysteresis of Hall resistance appeared below 4.5 K and disappeared above 4.5 K. On the other hand, the hysteresis of magnetometric data obtained by SQUID magnetometory appears near zero magnetic field when the temperature is lower than 4.5 K. At the temperature larger than 4.5 K, the hysteresis of magnetometric data disappears. And the slopes of magnetometric data with respect to magnetic field become lower as obeying Currie-Weiss law and the Curie temperature TC is 4.5 K. Agreement of TC measured by the extraordinary Hall effect and the SQUID magnetometory implies the ferromagnetism at the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction. However, the conformation of the ferromagnetism of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is still difficult and the detailed physical mechanism is still unclear.

  20. Pathology and diagnosis of renal non-AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sanjeev; Theis, Jason D

    2018-06-01

    Renal amyloidosis is characterized by acellular Congo red positive deposits in the glomeruli, interstitium and/or arteries. Light chain restriction on immunofluorescence studies is present in AL-amyloidosis, the most common type of amyloidosis involving the kidney. The detection of Congo red positive deposits coupled with negative immunofluorescence studies is highly suggestive of non-AL amyloidosis. Some of the non-AL amyloidosis are common while others are relatively rare. The clinical features, laboratory and renal pathology findings are helpful in the diagnosis and typing of non-AL amyloidosis. Thus, ALECT2 amyloidosis is characterized by diffuse cortical interstitial amyloid deposits, AA amyloidosis shows vascular deposits in addition to the glomerular deposits, AFib amyloidosis is characterized by massive amyloid accumulation limited to the glomeruli resulting in the obliteration of glomerular architecture, AApoA1 and AApoAIV are characterized by large amyloid deposits restricted to the medulla, and AGel shows swirling patterns of amyloid fibrils on electron microscopy. While light microscopy is very helpful, accurate typing of non-AL amyloidosis then requires immunohistochemical or laser microdissection/mass spectrometry studies of the Congo red positive deposits. Immunohistochemical studies are available for some of the non-AL amyloidosis. On the other hand, mass spectrometry analysis is a one stop methodology for confirmation and typing of amyloidosis. The diagnosis and typing of amyloidosis by mass spectrometry is based on finding the signature amyloid peptides, apolipoprotein E and serum amyloid-P component, followed by detection of precursor amyloidogenic protein such as LECT2, fibrinogen-α, gelsolin, etc. To, summarize, non-AL amyloidosis is a group of amyloidosis with distinctive clinical, laboratory and renal pathology findings. Typing of the amyloidosis is best performed using mass spectrometry methodology. Accurate typing of non-AL amyloidosis is