Science.gov

Sample records for lectin mbl co-receptor

  1. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) substitution: recovery of opsonic function in vivo lags behind MBL serum levels.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Nannette; Frakking, Florine N J; van de Wetering, Marianne D; van Houdt, Michel; Hart, Margreet; Budde, Ilona Kleine; Strengers, Paul F W; Laursen, Inga; Houen, Gunnar; Roos, Dirk; Jensenius, Jens C; Caron, Huib N; Dolman, Koert M; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2009-09-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency is often associated with an increased risk of infection or worse prognosis in immunocompromised patients. MBL substitution in these patients might diminish these risks. We therefore performed an open, uncontrolled safety and pharmacokinetic MBL-substitution study in 12 pediatric oncology patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Twice weekly MBL infusions with plasma-derived MBL yielded MBL trough levels >1.0 microg/ml. We tested whether MBL substitution in vivo increased MBL-dependent complement activation and opsonophagocytosis of zymosan in vitro. Upon MBL substitution, opsonophagocytosis by control neutrophils increased significantly (p < 0.001) but remained suboptimal, although repeated MBL infusions resulted in improvement over time. The MBL-dependent MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-mediated complement C3 and C4 activation also showed a suboptimal increase. To explain these results, complement activation was studied in detail. We found that in the presence of normal MASP-2 blood levels, MASP-2 activity (p < 0.0001) was reduced as well as the alternative pathway of complement activation (p < 0.05). This MBL-substitution study demonstrates that plasma-derived MBL infusions increase MBL/MASP-mediated C3 and C4 activation and opsonophagocytosis, but that higher circulating levels of plasma-derived MBL are required to achieve MBL-mediated complement activation comparable to healthy controls. Other patient cohorts should be considered to demonstrate clinical efficacy in phase II/III MBL-substitution studies, because we found a suboptimal recovery of (in vitro) biological activity upon MBL substitution in our neutropenic pediatric oncology cohort.

  2. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, M W

    1998-08-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is the most intensively studied human collectin. It is recognized to be a versatile macro-molecule with many of the functional characteristics of IgM, IgG and Clq. In the presence of calcium the protein can bind to a wide spectrum of oligosaccharides through multiple lectin domains. Such binding to the repeating sugar arrays on microbial surfaces may result in direct uptake by one or more collectin receptors on phagocyte surface or may trigger the activation of a pro-serine protease complex (MASP 1 and MASP 2) leading to cleavage of C4 and C2 of the classical complement pathway. Although serum levels of MBL are normally rather low (1500 micrograms/litre) there is increasing evidence that the protein plays an important role in immune defence, particularly during the phase of primary contact with a microorganism. This is suggested by the observed association of an increased incidence of infections in individuals with structural mutations in exon 1 of the MBL gene. A cluster of such mutations in codons 52, 54 and 57 lead to secondary structural abnormalities of the collagenous triple helix and a failure to form biologically functional higher order oligomers. The codon 54 mutation has been identified in several Eurasian populations whereas the codon 57 mutation is characteristic of sub-Saharan populations. One intriguing paradox arising from the MBL genotyping studies is the observation that in many populations there are surprisingly high frequencies of either the codon 54 or codon 57 mutation, suggesting that there may be some biological advantage associated with absence of the protein. Nevertheless, various groups have reported either low serum levels of MBL or an increased frequency of the structural gene mutations in patients with suspected immunodeficiencies, those with frequent unexplained infections and those with systemic lupus erythematosus. There is also evidence that the rate of progression of AIDS in HIV positive men is faster

  3. Is mannan-binding lectin (MBL) detectable on monocytes and monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells?

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shirley L; Downing, Ian; Turner, Marc; Kilpatrick, David C

    2008-12-01

    MBL (mannan-binding lectin; also called mannose-binding lectin) is a circulating C-type lectin with a collagen-like region synthesized mainly by the liver. MBL may influence susceptibility to infection in recipients of stem cell transplants, and it has even been suggested that the MBL status of a donor can influence the recipient's susceptibility to post-transplant infections. We have previously reported that MBL can be detected on human monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells, based on detection using biotinylated anti-MBL, suggesting that those cells could synthesize MBL. If true, permanent MBL replacement therapy could be achieved by stem cell infusions. However, two other groups independently failed to find mbl-2-derived mRNA in monocytes. Therefore, to confirm or refute our previous observations, we used an alternative experimental strategy. Instead of using biotinylated antibody and labelled streptavidin, detection of surface MBL was attempted using MBL-specific primary antibodies (131-1, 131-10 and 131-11) followed by fluorescein-labelled anti-IgG, and controlled by the use of non-specific IgG as primary antibody. Monocytes were counterstained with anti-CD14-PE before FACS analysis. Adherent monocytes were also cultured for 48 h in serum-free medium or converted into immature dendritic cells by culture with IL-4 (interleukin-4) and GM-CSF (granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor). During FACS analysis, the dendritic cells were gated after counter-staining with anti-CD1a-PE. MBL was readily detected on the surface of fresh monocytes using all three specific anti-MBL monoclonal antibodies, but specific anti-MBL binding was greatly diminished after monocytes had been cultured for 2 days in serum-free medium. Moreover, we could not detect any MBL present on the surface of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. We therefore conclude that MBL is indeed present on the surface of fresh human monocytes. However, in view of the mRNA findings of others and our

  4. Interaction of human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) with Yersinia enterocolitica lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kasperkiewicz, Katarzyna; Swierzko, Anna S; Bartlomiejczyk, Marcin A; Cedzynski, Maciej; Noszczynska, Magdalena; Duda, Katarzyna A; Michalski, Mateusz; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-09-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is involved in the interaction between Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and host. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), complement-activating soluble pattern-recognition receptor targets microbial glycoconjugates, including LPS. We studied its interactions with a set of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 LPS mutants. The wild-type strain LPS consists of lipid A (LA) substituted with an inner core oligosaccharide (IC) which in turn is substituted either with the O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) or the outer core hexasaccharide (OC), and sometimes also with the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA). The LPS mutants produced truncated LPS, missing OPS, OC or both, or, in addition, different IC constituents or ECA. MBL bound to LA-IC, LA-IC-OPS and LA-IC-ECA but not LA-IC-OC structures. Moreover, LA-IC substitution with both OPS and ECA prevented the lectin binding. Sequential truncation of the IC heptoses demonstrated that the MBL targets the IC heptose region. Furthermore, microbial growth temperature influenced MBL binding; binding was stronger to bacteria grown at room temperature (22°C) than to bacteria grown at 37°C. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that MBL can interact with Y. enterocolitica LPS, however, the in vivo significance of that interaction remains to be elucidated.

  5. Lack of association between genetic variants in the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene and HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Paola; Seripa, Davide; Matera, Maria G; Rinaldi, Monica; Signori, Emanuela; Gravina, Carolina; Gallo, Antonietta P; Prencipe, Maria; Grandone, Elvira; Mariani, Luciano; Cordiali, Paola; Di Carlo, Aldo; Stentella, Patrizia; Pachì, Antonio; Fazio, Vito M

    2007-01-01

    Genetic variants in the immunomodulatory gene mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2), were associated with risk, severity, and frequency of viral infections. In a case-control setting, we investigated the association of MBL2 functional polymorphisms with Human Papillomas Virus (HPV) infection. No differences between cases (HPV(+)) and controls (HPV(-)) were found in the distribution of each single genotypes or allele. Haplotype analysis did not show any difference between HPV+ and HPV(-) groups.

  6. Low mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels and MBL genetic polymorphisms associated with the risk of neonatal sepsis: An updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Xu, Fen; Lu, Guang-Jin; Lin, Hung-Chih; Feng, Zhi-Chun

    2014-10-01

    Relatively low serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels and MBL genetic polymorphisms have been implicated as high risk factors for neonatal sepsis. However, different studies have reported conflicting findings and have generally been underpowered to exclude modest effect sizes. Standard methodology of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was followed. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched from January 1996 to December 2013. The eligible studies were collected and analyzed using Review Manager 5.2. Meta-Disc version 1.4 was used to describe and calculate sensitivity, specificity, summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curves and area under the curve. SROC curve analysis was used to summarize the overall performance. Funnel plots, Egger's test and Begg's test were used to investigate publication bias. Seven studies addressing low MBL levels and MBL genetic polymorphisms (structure variant A/O, A/B of Exon1) were analyzed for susceptibility to neonatal sepsis, respectively. All of these control studies were of reasonable methodological quality. The pooled unadjusted odds ratio showed that low MBL levels were significantly associated with neonatal sepsis (P=0.0002; odds ratio=4.94, 95% confidence interval=2.16-11.29) and MBL genetic polymorphisms were also significantly associated with neonatal sepsis (P=0.03; odds ratio=1.41, 95% confidence interval=1.03-1.94). In subgroup analysis based on gestational age, increased risk was found in the preterm infants in the dominant model (RR 2.33, 95%CI 1.06-5.13, P=0.03). However, no association was observed for term infants in subgroup analysis. Additionally, the SROC curve of low MBL levels in the prediction of neonatal sepsis indicated a poor predictive ability. The area under curve was 0.80 (95% confidence interval=0.74-0.86). Currently available evidence shows that neonates with low serum MBL levels are more than four times more likely to have neonatal sepsis compared to

  7. A journey through the lectin pathway of complement-MBL and beyond.

    PubMed

    Garred, Peter; Genster, Ninette; Pilely, Katrine; Bayarri-Olmos, Rafael; Rosbjerg, Anne; Ma, Ying Jie; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole

    2016-11-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), collectin-10, collectin-11, and the ficolins (ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3) are soluble pattern recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. These proteins act as mediators of host defense and participate in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. They bind to conserved pathogen-specific structures and altered self-antigens and form complexes with the pentraxins to modulate innate immune functions. All molecules exhibit distinct expression in different tissue compartments, but all are found to a varying degree in the circulation. A common feature of these molecules is their ability to interact with a set of serine proteases named MASPs (MASP-1, MASP-2, and MASP-3). MASP-1 and -2 trigger the activation of the lectin pathway and MASP-3 may be involved in the activation of the alternative pathway of complement. Furthermore, MASPs mediate processes related to coagulation, bradykinin release, and endothelial and platelet activation. Variant alleles affecting expression and structure of the proteins have been associated with a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases, most commonly as disease modifiers. Notably, the severe 3MC (Malpuech, Michels, Mingarelli, and Carnevale) embryonic development syndrome originates from rare mutations affecting either collectin-11 or MASP-3, indicating a broader functionality of the complement system than previously anticipated. This review summarizes the characteristics of the molecules in the lectin pathway.

  8. Extreme High Prevalence of a Defective Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL2) Genotype in Native South American West Andean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O.; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations. PMID:25313559

  9. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  10. A two-nucleotide deletion renders the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene nonfunctional in Danish Landrace and Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Bergman, I M; Edman, K; van As, P; Huisman, A; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2014-03-01

    The mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) are central components of innate immunity, facilitating phagocytosis and inducing the lectin activation pathway of the complement system. Previously, it has been found that certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine MBL1 and MBL2 (pMBL1, pMBL2) affect mRNA expression, serum concentration, and susceptibility to disease, but the combinatory effect of pMBL1 and pMBL2 genotypes needs further elucidation. In the present study, pMBL1 and pMBL2 alleles, combined pMBL haplotypes, and MBL-A concentration in serum were analyzed in purebred Landrace (N = 30) and Duroc (N = 10) pigs. Furthermore, the combined pMBL haplotypes of 89 Piètrain × (Large White × Landrace) crossbred pigs were studied, and the genotypes of 67 crossbreds challenged with Escherichia coli were compared to their individual disease records. In the purebred animals, three non-synonymous SNPs and a two-nucleotide deletion were detected in the coding sequence of pMBL2. The two-nucleotide deletion was present at a frequency of 0.88 in the Landrace pigs and 0.90 in the Duroc pigs, respectively. In the crossbreds, the T allele of the SNP G949T in pMBL1-previously shown to have profound effect on MBL-A concentration even in the heterozygote condition-was detected in 47 % of the animals. Finally, an association was found between low-producing MBL genotypes and low body weight on the day of weaning in the same animals.

  11. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and mannan-binding lectin (MBL): on constant alert in a hostile environment.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingrid-Maria

    2011-05-01

    In the beginning were neither B cells nor T cells nor antibodies, but innate immune defense alone. The primary functional theme of innate immunity is the distinction between self and non-self, which is maintained by a vast number of cellular and subcellular components. In this context, the immense importance of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is well established. Positive (Darwinian) selection seems to be acting on the ligand-binding domains of these molecules, suggesting a selection pattern similar to that previously observed in the MHC proteins. In sharp contrast to TLRs, the biological significance of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is controversial, and, concerning humans, it has been suggested that low concentration of MBL in serum represents a selective advantage. In this mini-review, based on a doctoral thesis, evolutionary aspects of TLRs and MBL are discussed.

  12. The pepper mannose-binding lectin gene CaMBL1 is required to regulate cell death and defense responses to microbial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Sun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2011-01-01

    Plant mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) are crucial for plant defense signaling during pathogen attack by recognizing specific carbohydrates on pathogen surfaces. In this study, we isolated and functionally characterized a novel pepper (Capsicum annuum) MBL gene, CaMBL1, from pepper leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv). The CaMBL1 gene contains a predicted Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectin domain responsible for the recognition of high-mannose N-glycans but lacks a middle S-locus glycoprotein domain and a carboxyl-terminal PAN-Apple domain. The CaMBL1 protein exhibits binding specificity for mannose and is mainly localized to the plasma membrane. Immunoblotting using a CaMBL1-specific antibody revealed that CaMBL1 is strongly expressed and accumulates in pepper leaves during avirulent Xcv infection. The transient expression of CaMBL1 induces the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), the activation of defense-related genes, and the cell death phenotype in pepper. The G. nivalis agglutinin-related lectin domain of CaMBL1 is responsible for cell death induction. CaMBL1-silenced pepper plants are more susceptible to virulent or avirulent Xcv infection compared with unsilenced control plants, a phenotype that is accompanied by lowered reactive oxygen species accumulation, reduced expression of downstream SA target genes, and a concomitant decrease in SA accumulation. In contrast, CaMBL1 overexpression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) confers enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato and Alternaria brassicicola infection. Together, these data suggest that CaMBL1 plays a key role in the regulation of plant cell death and defense responses through the induction of downstream defense-related genes and SA accumulation after the recognition of microbial pathogens.

  13. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) codon 54 (rs1800450) polymorphism predisposes towards medium vessel vasculitis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vir Singh; Devaraju, Panneer; Misra, Durga Prasanna; Jain, Vikramraj K; Usdadiya, Jignesh Babulal; Antony, Paul T; Gulati, Reena

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multiple etiological factors. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a key role in innate immunity by activating antibody-independent lectin complement pathway, opsonisation, phagocytosis, and immune complex (IC) clearance. Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter and coding regions of MBL gene affect the circulatory levels and biological activity of MBL. Defects in MBL can lead to defective opsonisation and, hence, hamper clearance of apoptotic debris, the persistence of which can drive autoantibody formation in lupus. The exon1 variants at codon 52, 54, and 57 have been reported to augment the risk of SLE in different ethnic populations. Three hundred South Indian Tamil patients with SLE and 460 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls were genotyped for three polymorphisms at codon 52, 54, and 57 in exon1 of MBL gene by Taqman real-time PCR. The three polymorphisms in exon1 of MBL were observed not to confer risk of developing SLE. However, MBL codon 54 rs1800450 polymorphism was associated with the development of medium vessel vasculitis and gangrene (OR-2.29, CI 95% 1.08-4.83, p = 0.02), whereas, the ancestral allele G conferred protection (OR-0.44, CI 95% 0.21-0.93, p = 0.02). Genetic variants in the exon1 of MBL gene per se are not risk factors for SLE in South Indian Tamils. However, the association of codon 54 (rs1800450) with medium vessel vasculitis suggests that it may be a genetic modifier of clinical phenotype in SLE.

  14. Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene, MBL2, Polymorphisms Do Not Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Meningococcal Disease in a Population of Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Lundbo, Lene F.; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Clausen, Louise N.; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Konradsen, Helle B.; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Nørgaard, Mette; Benfield, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neisseria meningitidis is the cause of meningococcal bacteremia and meningitis, and nasopharyngeal colonization with this pathogen is common. The incidence of invasive disease is highest in infants, whereas adolescents more often are carriers. Altered regulation or dysfunction of the innate immune system may predispose to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). In this study, we investigated the effect of genetic variation in the mannose-binding lectin gene, MBL2, and its promoter on susceptibility to IMD and IMD-associated mortality among children. Methods. Children (<5 years) diagnosed during 1982–2007 with IMD and controls were identified through Danish national registries. DNA was obtained from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. The associations between MBL2 diplotypes and IMD susceptibility and 30- and 90-day mortality were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results. We included 1351 children: 406 with meningitis, 272 with bacteremia, and 673 age- and sex-matched controls. Of the children studied, 1292 (96%) were successfully genotyped and assigned MBL2 diplotypes. The median age in IMD cases was 19.1 months (interquartile range [IQR], 8.8–32.2 months). Children with defective MBL2 diplotypes were not at higher risk for meningococcal meningitis than children with intermediate and normal diplotypes (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], .47–1.02). Similar results were found for children with bacteremia and defective diplotypes (OR = 0.84; 95% CI, .53–1.32) as well as for all cases (OR = 0.75; 95% CI, .56–1.01). There was no association between MBL2 diplotypes and mortality. Conclusions. Defective MBL2 diplotypes did not predict either an increased IMD susceptibility or mortality in a Danish population of children. PMID:26464842

  15. Mannose-binding lectin 2 (Mbl2) gene polymorphisms are related to protein plasma levels, but not to heart disease and infection by Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, M.A.F.; Gomes, S.T.M.; Almeida, N.C.C.; Souza, M.I.M.; Costa, S.R.C.F.; Hermes, R.B.; Lima, S.S.; Zaninotto, M.M.; Fossa, M.A.A.; Maneschy, M.A.; Martins-Feitosa, R.N.; Azevedo, V.N.; Machado, L.F.A.; Ishak, M.O.G.; Ishak, R.; Vallinoto, A.C.R.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in exon 1 of the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene was evaluated in a sample of 159 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (71 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery and 300 control subjects) to investigate a possible association between polymorphisms and heart disease with Chlamydia infection. The identification of the alleles B and D was performed using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and of the allele C was accomplished through PCR assays followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme. The comparative analysis of allelic and genotypic frequencies between the three groups did not reveal any significant difference, even when related to previous Chlamydia infection. Variations in the MBL plasma levels were influenced by the presence of polymorphisms, being significantly higher in the group of cardiac patients, but without representing a risk for the disease. The results showed that despite MBL2 gene polymorphisms being associated with the protein plasma levels, the polymorphisms were not enough to predict the development of heart disease, regardless of infection with both species of Chlamydia. PMID:27982280

  16. Association of Mannose-Binding Lectin 2 (MBL2) gene heterogeneity and its serum concentration with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kiseljaković, Emina; Hasić, Sabaheta; Valjevac, Amina; Mačkić-Đurović, Mirela; Jadrić, Radivoj; Mehić, Bakir; KuCukalić-Selimović, Elma; Ibrulj, Slavka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to detect prevalence of MBL2 exon 1 (codons 52, 54 and 57) genetic polymorphism in postmenopausal women in Bosnia and Herzegovina and its possible role as genetic risk factor for susceptibility to occurrence of osteoporosis in this study group. Also, we investigated association between MBL serum concentrations and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Genetic codons’ variations were determined by PCR-RFLP and MBL in serum was measured by ELISA method in 75 postmenopausal women (37 with osteoporosis and 38 apparently healthy, non-osteoporotic women serving as a control). Serum MBL levels were not significantly different between osteoporosis and control group (492 (37-565.1) and 522.6 (477-559.4) ng/mL respectively, p=0.206). Genotype frequencies were not significantly different (p=0.997) between the studied groups of postmenopausal women. Genotype frequencies A/A, A/o and o/o in osteoporosis group were 0.576; 0.405; 0.018 and in control group 0.562; 0.412; 0.026, respectively. Frequencies of A and o allele were 0.78 and 0.22 in osteoporosis and 0.77 and 0.23 in control group. The results do not suggest association of functional polymorphism of MBL2 gene and MBL serum concentration with osteoporosis in postmenopausal females. PMID:24579967

  17. Quantitative Characterization of the Activation Steps of Mannan-binding Lectin (MBL)-associated Serine Proteases (MASPs) Points to the Central Role of MASP-1 in the Initiation of the Complement Lectin Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Megyeri, Márton; Harmat, Veronika; Major, Balázs; Végh, Ádám; Balczer, Júlia; Héja, Dávid; Szilágyi, Katalin; Datz, Dániel; Pál, Gábor; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Dobó, József

    2013-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, have been thought to autoactivate when MBL/ficolin·MASP complexes bind to pathogens triggering the complement lectin pathway. Autoactivation of MASPs occurs in two steps: 1) zymogen autoactivation, when one proenzyme cleaves another proenzyme molecule of the same protease, and 2) autocatalytic activation, when the activated protease cleaves its own zymogen. Using recombinant catalytic fragments, we demonstrated that a stable proenzyme MASP-1 variant (R448Q) cleaved the inactive, catalytic site Ser-to-Ala variant (S646A). The autoactivation steps of MASP-1 were separately quantified using these mutants and the wild type enzyme. Analogous mutants were made for MASP-2, and rate constants of the autoactivation steps as well as the possible cross-activation steps between MASP-1 and MASP-2 were determined. Based on the rate constants, a kinetic model of lectin pathway activation was outlined. The zymogen autoactivation rate of MASP-1 is ∼3000-fold higher, and the autocatalytic activation of MASP-1 is about 140-fold faster than those of MASP-2. Moreover, both activated and proenzyme MASP-1 can effectively cleave proenzyme MASP-2. MASP-3, which does not autoactivate, is also cleaved by MASP-1 quite efficiently. The structure of the catalytic region of proenzyme MASP-1 R448Q was solved at 2.5 Å. Proenzyme MASP-1 R448Q readily cleaves synthetic substrates, and it is inhibited by a specific canonical inhibitor developed against active MASP-1, indicating that zymogen MASP-1 fluctuates between an inactive and an active-like conformation. The determined structure provides a feasible explanation for this phenomenon. In summary, autoactivation of MASP-1 is crucial for the activation of MBL/ficolin·MASP complexes, and in the proenzymic phase zymogen MASP-1 controls the process. PMID:23386610

  18. Mannose Binding Lectin and Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Children with Cardiomyopathy: No Association with MBL2 Codon 54 A/B Genotype, but an Association between MIF -173 CC Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Col-Araz, Nilgun; Oguzkan-Balci, Sibel; Baspinar, Osman; Sever, Tugce; Balat, Ayse; Pehlivan, Sacide

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial inflammation is one of the commonest mechanisms in cardiomyopathy (CMP). Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a key molecule in innate immunity, while macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a constitutive element of the host defenses. We investigated the possible association between polymorphisms of MBL2 and MIF genes and CMP in Turkish children. Twenty-children with CMP and 30 healthy controls were analyzed for codon 54 A/B polymorphism in MBL, and -173 G/C polymorphism in MIF genes by using PCR-RFLP methods. No significant difference was found between genotypes and alleles of MBL2 gene codon 54 A/B polymorphism in patients and controls (p>0.05). However, serum uric acid levels was found higher in dilated CMP patients with AA genotype. Frequency of MIF -173 CC genotype was significantly higher in patients (p<0.05), and sodium levels were higher in patients with MIF -173 CC genotype. This study is the first to investigate the MBL and MIF gene polymorphisms in Turkish children with CMP. We conclude that CC genotype of MIF (-173) polymorphism may be a risk factor for CMP patients. However, further studies with larger samples are needed to address the exact role of this polymorphism in CMP. PMID:22927777

  19. Genetically Determined MBL Deficiency Is Associated with Protection against Chronic Cardiomyopathy in Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Luz, Paola Rosa; Miyazaki, Márcia I; Chiminacio Neto, Nelson; Padeski, Marcela C; Barros, Ana Cláudia M; Boldt, Angelica B W; Messias-Reason, Iara J

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, whose sugar moieties are recognized by mannan binding lectin (MBL), a soluble pattern-recognition molecule that activates the lectin pathway of complement. MBL levels and protein activity are affected by polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene. We sequenced the MBL2 promoter and exon 1 in 196 chronic CD patients and 202 controls. The MBL2*C allele, which causes MBL deficiency, was associated with protection against CD (P = 0.007, OR = 0.32). Compared with controls, genotypes with this allele were completely absent in patients with the cardiac form of the disease (P = 0.003). Furthermore, cardiac patients with genotypes causing MBL deficiency presented less heart damage (P = 0.003, OR = 0.23), compared with cardiac patients having the XA haplotype causing low MBL levels, but fully capable of activating complement (P = 0.005, OR = 7.07). Among the patients, those with alleles causing MBL deficiency presented lower levels of cytokines and chemokines possibly implicated in symptom development (IL9, p = 0.013; PDGFB, p = 0.036 and RANTES, p = 0.031). These findings suggest a protective effect of genetically determined MBL deficiency against the development and progression of chronic CD cardiomyopathy.

  20. Genetically Determined MBL Deficiency Is Associated with Protection against Chronic Cardiomyopathy in Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Márcia I.; Chiminacio Neto, Nelson; Padeski, Marcela C.; Barros, Ana Cláudia M.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, whose sugar moieties are recognized by mannan binding lectin (MBL), a soluble pattern-recognition molecule that activates the lectin pathway of complement. MBL levels and protein activity are affected by polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene. We sequenced the MBL2 promoter and exon 1 in 196 chronic CD patients and 202 controls. The MBL2*C allele, which causes MBL deficiency, was associated with protection against CD (P = 0.007, OR = 0.32). Compared with controls, genotypes with this allele were completely absent in patients with the cardiac form of the disease (P = 0.003). Furthermore, cardiac patients with genotypes causing MBL deficiency presented less heart damage (P = 0.003, OR = 0.23), compared with cardiac patients having the XA haplotype causing low MBL levels, but fully capable of activating complement (P = 0.005, OR = 7.07). Among the patients, those with alleles causing MBL deficiency presented lower levels of cytokines and chemokines possibly implicated in symptom development (IL9, p = 0.013; PDGFB, p = 0.036 and RANTES, p = 0.031). These findings suggest a protective effect of genetically determined MBL deficiency against the development and progression of chronic CD cardiomyopathy. PMID:26745156

  1. Mannose-Binding Lectin Genotypes and Susceptibility to Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Infancy▿

    PubMed Central

    Friborg, Jeppe T.; Jarrett, Ruth F.; Koch, Anders; Garred, Peter; Freeland, June M. L.; Andersen, Andreas; Melbye, Mads

    2010-01-01

    In a cohort study of children <4 years of age in Greenland, mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotypes and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody levels were determined. EBV seropositivity was significantly lower and time to seroconversion increased in MBL-insufficient compared with MBL-sufficient children, indicating that MBL may be involved in primary EBV infection in infancy. PMID:20610664

  2. Characterization of mannose binding lectin from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity capable of activating the lectin pathway of the complement system. A MBL gene was isolated from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The deduced protein contains a canonical collagen-like domain, a carbohydrate recognition d...

  3. Ureaplasma urealyticum binds mannose-binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Benstein, Barbara D; Ourth, Donald D; Crouse, Dennis T; Shanklin, D Radford

    2004-10-01

    Mannose-binding C-type lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity in mammals. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an acute phase protein, acts as an opsonin for phagocytosis and also activates the mannan-binding lectin complement pathway. It may play a particularly significant role during infancy before adequate specific protection can be provided by the adaptive immune system. Ureaplasma urealyticum has been linked to several diseases including pneumonia and chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants. We therefore investigated the ability of U. urealyticum to bind MBL. A guinea pig IgG anti-rabbit-MBL antiserum was produced. An immunoblot (dot-blot) assay done on nitrocellulose membrane determined that the anti-MBL antibody had specificity against both rabbit and human MBL. Pure cultures of U. urealyticum, serotype 3, were used to make slide preparations. The slides containing the organisms were then incubated with nonimmune rabbit serum containing MBL. Ureaplasma was shown to bind rabbit MBL with an immunocytochemical assay using the guinea pig IgG anti-rabbit MBL antiserum. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-guinea pig IgG was used to localize the reaction. The anti-MBL antiserum was also used in an immunocytochemical assay to localize U. urealyticum in histological sections of lungs from mice specifically infected with this organism. The same method also indicated binding of MBL by ureaplasma in human lung tissue obtained at autopsy from culture positive infants. Our results demonstrate that ureaplasma has the capacity to bind MBL. The absence of MBL may play a role in the predisposition of diseases related to this organism.

  4. Genetic association study between mbl2 and asthma phenotypes in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ting Fan; Tang, Nelson L S; Sung, Ying Man; Li, Chung Yi; Ma, Suk Ling; Lam, Christopher W K; Wong, Gary W K

    2006-11-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a member of the innate immune system, initiates complement deposition on microbial surfaces. MBL deficiency is associated with severe respiratory infections. Polymorphisms in the MBL gene (mbl2) were associated with the susceptibility and severity of autoimmune diseases. This study investigated whether mbl2 polymorphisms at positions -550 and -221 and at codon-54 are associated with asthma phenotypes in Chinese children. Asthmatics aged 5-18 yr and non-allergic controls were eligible, and their plasma total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentrations were measured by micro-particle immunoassay and fluorescent enzyme immunoassay. mbl2 polymorphisms were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Three hundred and seventeen asthmatic children and 140 controls were recruited, with their mean (s.d.) log-transformed plasma total IgE being 2.61 (0.61) and 1.77 (0.77), respectively (p < 0.0001). Polymorphisms at -550 and codon-54 (p < 0.0001 for both) but not at -221 (p = 0.534) of mbl2 were significantly associated with plasma MBL concentrations. mbl2 genotypes were not associated with asthma, atopy, sensitization to individual aeroallergens or spirometric variable. Subjects with LYB haplotype had the lowest plasma MBL concentrations (p < 0.0001), but two- and three-loci mbl2 haplotypes were also not associated with asthma diagnosis. However, patients with LY and LYB haplotypes were less likely to be atopic (p = 0.006 and 0.031). Subjects with LY and LYA were also less likely to be sensitized to cockroach (p = 0.035 and 0.047). The latter three associations became insignificant when adjusted for multiple comparisons. Despite the importance of MBL in innate immunity, our mbl2 polymorphisms only show weak association with asthma and atopy in children.

  5. Differential ability to resist to complement lysis and invade host cells mediated by MBL in R4 and 860 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Evans-Osses, Ingrid; Mojoli, Andres; Beltrame, Marcia Holsbach; da Costa, Denise Endo; DaRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; de Messias-Reason, Iara; Ramirez, Marcel Ivan

    2014-03-18

    To produce an infection Trypanosoma cruzi must evade lysis by the complement system. During early stages of infection, the lectin pathway plays an important role in host defense and can be activated by binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens. We hypothesized that MBL has a dual role during parasite-host cell interaction as lectin complement pathway activator and as binding molecule to invade the host cell. We used two polarized strains of T. cruzi, R4 (susceptible) and 860 (resistant) strains, to investigate the role of MBL in complement-mediated lysis. Interestingly R4, but not 860 metacyclic strain, markedly increases the invasion of host cells, suggesting that MBL drives the invasion process while the parasite deactivates the Lectin complement pathway. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of TNF, MBL, and VDR Polymorphisms with Leprosy Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Bishwa R.; Macdonald, Murdo; Berrington, William R.; Misch, E. Ann; Ranjit, Chaman; Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Kaplan, Gilla; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although genetic variants in tumor necrosis factor (TNF), mannose binding lectin (MBL), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been associated with leprosy clinical outcomes these findings have not been extensively validated. Methods We used a case-control study design with 933 patients in Nepal, which included 240 patients with type I reversal reaction (RR), and 124 patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) reactions. We compared genotype frequencies in 933 cases and 101 controls of 7 polymorphisms, including a promoter region variant in TNF (G−308A), three polymorphisms in MBL (C154T, G161A and G170A), and three variants in VDR (FokI, BsmI, and TaqI). Results We observed an association between TNF −308A and protection from leprosy with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.29 to 0.95, P = 0.016). MBL polymorphism G161A was associated with protection from lepromatous leprosy (OR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.12–0.85), P = 0.010). VDR polymorphisms were not associated with leprosy phenotypes. Conclusion These results confirm previous findings of an association of TNF −308A with protection from leprosy and MBL polymorphisms with protection from lepromatous leprosy. The statistical significance was modest and will require further study for conclusive validation. PMID:20650301

  7. Mannan-Binding Lectin Enhances Susceptibility to Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    de Miranda Santos, Isabel K. F.; Costa, Carlos H. N.; Krieger, Henrique; Feitosa, Mary F.; Zurakowski, David; Fardin, Babak; Gomes, Regis B. B.; Weiner, Debra L.; Harn, Donald A.; Ezekowitz, R. Alan B.; Epstein, Judith E.

    2001-01-01

    Levels of the serum opsonin mannan-binding lectin (MBL) were directly correlated with the probability of developing visceral leishmaniasis. Monocytes infected with MBL-opsonized Leishmania chagasi promastigotes secreted higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 than cells infected with nonopsonized parasites. Our findings indicate that MBL can modulate the clinical outcome of infection with L. chagasi and the function of infected macrophages. PMID:11447210

  8. Near-planar Solution Structures of Mannose-binding Lectin Oligomers Provide Insight on Activation of Lectin Pathway of Complement

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ami; Phillips, Anna; Gor, Jayesh; Wallis, Russell; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    The complement system is a fundamental component of innate immunity that orchestrates complex immunological and inflammatory processes. Complement comprises over 30 proteins that eliminate invading microorganisms while maintaining host cell integrity. Protein-carbohydrate interactions play critical roles in both the activation and regulation of complement. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) activates the lectin pathway of complement via the recognition of sugar arrays on pathogenic surfaces. To determine the solution structure of MBL, synchrotron x-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the carbohydrate-recognition domains in the MBL dimer, trimer, and tetramer are positioned close to each other in near-planar fan-like structures. These data were subjected to constrained modeling fits. A bent structure for the MBL monomer was identified starting from two crystal structures for its carbohydrate-recognition domain and its triple helical region. The MBL monomer structure was used to identify 10–12 near-planar solution structures for each of the MBL dimers, trimers, and tetramers starting from 900 to 6,859 randomized structures for each. These near-planar fan-like solution structures joined at an N-terminal hub clarified how the carbohydrate-recognition domain of MBL binds to pathogenic surfaces. They also provided insight on how MBL presents a structural template for the binding and auto-activation of the MBL-associated serine proteases to initiate the lectin pathway of complement activation. PMID:22167201

  9. Mannan-binding lectin deficiency - Good news, bad news, doesn't matter?

    PubMed

    Heitzeneder, Sabine; Seidel, Markus; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Heitger, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency has been classified as a commonly occurring immune disorder, affecting approximately 30% of the human population. MBL, being part of the innate immune system, supports the recognition of infectious pathogens by binding to carbohydrate moieties expressed on microorganisms and activates the lectin pathway of the complement system. MBL2 gene polymorphisms are associated with quantitative and qualitative MBL abnormalities in the serum. The clinical impact of MBL deficiency and its association to a wide variety of diseases has been extensively studied. The picture is puzzling as the studies suggest a detrimental or beneficial or no impact of low or high MBL serum levels on disease susceptibility. In this review we attempt to extract what is relevant from the literature and address controversial issues. We finally suggest that a comprehensive understanding of the role of MBL in human diseases requires considering its context-dependency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Software Review: An MBL Smorgasbord.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Reviews software packages used in microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) experiments. They include programs for a precision timer, frequency meter, heat and light experiments, sound experiments, spectrum analysis, biofeedback analysis, and others. Reviews include a brief description, source, current cost, and equipment requirements. (JN)

  11. Genetically-Defined Deficiency of Mannose-Binding Lectin Is Associated with Protection after Experimental Stroke in Mice and Outcome in Human Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cervera, Alvaro; Planas, Anna M.; Justicia, Carles; Urra, Xabier; Jensenius, Jens C.; Torres, Ferran; Lozano, Francisco; Chamorro, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Background The complement system is a major effector of innate immunity that has been involved in stroke brain damage. Complement activation occurs through the classical, alternative and lectin pathways. The latter is initiated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). Here we investigated whether the lectin pathway contributes to stroke outcome in mice and humans. Methodology/Principal Findings Focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in MBL-null mice induced smaller infarctions, better functional outcome, and diminished C3 deposition and neutrophil infiltration than in wild-type mice. Accordingly, reconstitution of MBL-null mice with recombinant human MBL (rhMBL) enhanced brain damage. In order to investigate the clinical relevance of these experimental observations, a study of MBL2 and MASP-2 gene polymorphism rendering the lectin pathway dysfunctional was performed in 135 stroke patients. In logistic regression adjusted for age, gender and initial stroke severity, unfavourable outcome at 3 months was associated with MBL-sufficient genotype (OR 10.85, p = 0.008) and circulating MBL levels (OR 1.29, p = 0.04). Individuals carrying MBL-low genotypes (17.8%) had lower C3, C4, and CRP levels, and the proinflammatory cytokine profile was attenuated versus MBL-sufficient genotypes. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, genetically defined MBL-deficiency is associated with a better outcome after acute stroke in mice and humans. PMID:20140243

  12. A Meta-analysis of MBL2 Polymorphisms and Tuberculosis Risk

    PubMed Central

    Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Mandal, Raju K.; Akhter, Naseem; Dar, Sajad A.; Jawed, Arshad; Wahid, Mohd; Mahto, Harishankar; Panda, Aditya K.; Lohani, Mohtashim; Haque, Shafiul

    2016-01-01

    MBL2 gene encodes mannose-binding lectin, is a member of innate immune system. Earlier studies revealed that MBL2 gene variants, rs1800451, rs1800450, rs5030737, rs7096206, rs11003125 and rs7095891 are associated with impaired serum level and susceptibility to TB, but their results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis was performed by including 22 studies (7095 TB-patients and 7662 controls) and data were analyzed with respect to associations between alleles, genotypes and minor allele carriers to evaluate the potential association between MBL2 polymorphisms and TB risk. Statistically significant results were found only for the homozygous variant genotype (CC vs. AA: p = 0.045; OR = 0.834, 95% CI = 0.699 to 0.996) of rs1800451 and showed reduced risk of TB in overall population. However, other genetic models of rs1800450, rs5030737, rs7096206, rs11003125, rs7095891 and combined rs1800450, rs1800451, rs5030737 polymorphisms of MBL2 gene did not reveal any association with TB risk. Stratified analysis by ethnicity showed decreased risk of TB in African population for rs1800450 and rs1800451. Whereas, no association was observed between other MBL2 polymorphisms and TB risk in all the evaluated ethnic populations. In conclusion, MBL2 rs1800450 and rs1800451 polymorphisms play a protective role in TB infection and reinforce their critical significance as a potential genetic marker for TB resistance. PMID:27876780

  13. Association of MBL With Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms in Bakery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Moon Kyung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Baker's asthma is the most prevalent occupational asthma, and IgE-mediated response is known as a major pathogenesis. However, recent studies have suggested the involvement of innate immune response because wheat flour contains bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides. To further understand a role of innate immune response in the development of work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS) in bakery workers, we investigated mannose-binding lectin (MBL), one of the initiating components of the complement cascade in a single cohort of bakery workers. A total of 373 bakery workers completed a questionnaire regarding WRS. The bakery workers were divided into 2 groups according to previous history of allergic rhinitis (AR)/bronchial asthma (BA): those with history of AR/BA (group I) and those without (group II). We measured serum MBL levels by using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and genotyped 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MBL2 gene (226G>A in exon 1, -554G>C, -431A>C, and -225G>C in the promoter) by using TaqMan assays. Fifty-nine subjects (15.5%) were previously diagnosed with AR/BA, and 64 subjects (16.8%) complained of WRS. No significant differences were found in serum MBL levels between groups I and II. However, in group II subjects, but not in group I subjects, the serum MBL levels were significantly higher in bakery workers with WRS than in those without. In addition, the serum MBL levels were significantly different according to genetic polymorphisms of the MBL2 gene and its haplotypes. In conclusion, serum MBL, affected by genetic polymorphisms, may be associated with WRS in bakery workers with no previous history of AR/BA. PMID:27826966

  14. Differences in MBL levels between juvenile patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and their healthy siblings.

    PubMed

    Sildorf, Stine Møller; Eising, Stefanie; Hougaard, David M; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøl; Skogstrand, Kristin; Pociot, Flemming; Johannesen, Jesper; Svensson, Jannet

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has during the last few decades been increasing in children and juveniles. Multi-factorial courses combining genetic disposition and environmental factors might be in play, and through the years, there has been a mounting interest in the innate immune system's role in the development of T1D. The aim of this study was to determine mannose binding lectin (MBL) levels in newly diagnosed children with T1D (n=481) over a period of 10 years (1997-2005) and to compare these levels with corresponding levels in their healthy siblings (n=479). Furthermore, the aims were to evaluate if MBL-levels in patients and siblings were influenced by season, age autoimmunity and/or changed over time. The study found that MBL levels differed between patients and their healthy siblings when adjusted for age, gender, season and period. More patients than siblings had MBL levels above 0.8 μg/ml, associated with high producing MBL genotypes, and the elevated MBL levels were associated with high levels of four T1D related cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-α). MBL levels increased during the study period and siblings had seasonal variance in concentrations with the lowest level during wintertime (Dec-Feb). In conclusion, more patients than siblings had a high MBL level, and high levels of MBL were related to high levels of T1D specific cytokines, supporting a role of the innate immune system and MBL on the risk of developing T1D. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recombinant chimeric lectins consisting of mannose-binding lectin and L-ficolin are potent inhibitors of influenza A virus compared with mannose-binding lectin

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Chuan; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; White, Mitchell R.; Moyoa, Patience; Michelow, Ian C.; Koziel, Henry; Kinane, Bernard T.; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Fujita, Teizo; Takahashi, Kazue

    2010-01-01

    MBL structurally contains a type II-like collagenous domain and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). We have recently generated three novel recombinant chimeric lectins (RCL), in which varying length of collagenous domain of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is replaced with that of L-ficolin (L-FCN). CRD of MBL is used for target recognition because it has a broad spectrum in pathogen recognition compared with L-FCN. Results of our study demonstrate that these RCLs are potent inhibitors of influenza A virus (IAV). RCLs, against IAV, show dose-dependent activation of the lectin complement pathway, which is significantly higher than that of recombinant human MBL (rMBL). This activity is observed even without MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs, provided by MBL deficient mouse sera), which have been thought to mediate complement activation. These observations suggest that RCLs are more efficient in associating with MASP-2, which predominantly mediates the activity. Yet, additional serum further increases the activity while RCL-mediated coagulation-like enzyme activities are diminished compared with rMBL, suggesting reduced association with MASP-1, which has been shown to mediate coagulation-like activity. These data suggest that RCLs may interfere less with host coagulation, which is advantageous to be a therapeutic drug. Importantly, these RCLs have surpassed rMBL for anti-viral activities, such as viral aggregation, reduction of viral hemagglutination (HA) and inhibition of virus-mediated HA and neuraminidase (NA) activities. These results are encouraging that novel RCLs could be used as anti-IAV agents with less side effect and that RCLs would be suitable candidates in developing a new anti-IAV therapy. PMID:21035429

  16. Recombinant chimeric lectins consisting of mannose-binding lectin and L-ficolin are potent inhibitors of influenza A virus compared with mannose-binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Chuan; Hartshorn, Kevan L; White, Mitchell R; Moyo, Patience; Michelow, Ian C; Koziel, Henry; Kinane, Bernard T; Schmidt, Emmett V; Fujita, Teizo; Takahashi, Kazue

    2011-02-01

    MBL structurally contains a type II-like collagenous domain and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). We have recently generated three novel recombinant chimeric lectins (RCL), in which varying length of collagenous domain of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is replaced with that of L-ficolin (L-FCN). CRD of MBL is used for target recognition because it has a broad spectrum in pathogen recognition compared with L-FCN. Results of our study demonstrate that these RCLs are potent inhibitors of influenza A virus (IAV). RCLs, against IAV, show dose-dependent activation of the lectin complement pathway, which is significantly higher than that of recombinant human MBL (rMBL). This activity is observed even without MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs, provided by MBL deficient mouse sera), which have been thought to mediate complement activation. These observations suggest that RCLs are more efficient in associating with MASP-2, which predominantly mediates the activity. Yet, additional serum further increases the activity while RCL-mediated coagulation-like enzyme activities are diminished compared with rMBL, suggesting reduced association with MASP-1, which has been shown to mediate coagulation-like activity. These data suggest that RCLs may interfere less with host coagulation, which is advantageous to be a therapeutic drug. Importantly, these RCLs have surpassed rMBL for anti-viral activities, such as viral aggregation, reduction of viral hemagglutination (HA) and inhibition of virus-mediated HA and neuraminidase (NA) activities. These results are encouraging that novel RCLs could be used as anti-IAV agents with less side effect and that RCLs would be suitable candidates in developing a new anti-IAV therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mannose-binding lectin 2 polymorphisms do not influence frequency or type of infection in adults with chemotherapy induced neutropaenia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michelle; Öhrmalm, Lars; Broliden, Kristina; Aust, Carl; Hibberd, Martin; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mannose-binding Lectin protein (MBL) has been suggested to be relevant in the defence against infections in immunosuppressed individuals. In a Swedish adult cohort immunosuppressed from both the underlying disease and from iatrogenic treatments for their underlying disease we investigated the role of MBL in susceptibility to infection. In this cross sectional, prospective study, blood samples obtained from 96 neutropaenic febrile episodes, representing 82 individuals were analysed for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MBL2 gene. Concurrent measurement of plasma MBL protein concentrations was also performed for observation of acute response during febrile episodes. No association was observed between MBL2 genotype or plasma MBL concentrations, and the type or frequency of infection. Adding to the literature, we found no evidence that viral infections or co-infections with virus and bacteria would be predisposed by MBL deficiency. We further saw no correlation between MBL2 genotype and the risk of fever. However, fever duration in febrile neutropaenic episodes was negatively associated with MBL2 SNP mutations (p<0.05). Patients with MBL2 SNP mutations presented a median febrile duration of 1.8 days compared with 3 days amongst patients with wildtype MBL2 genotype. We found no clear association between infection, or infection type to MBL2 genotypes or plasma MBL concentration, and add to the reports casting doubts on the benefit of recombinant MBL replacement therapy use during iatrogenic neutropaenia.

  18. Mannose-Binding Lectin 2 Polymorphisms Do Not Influence Frequency or Type of Infection in Adults with Chemotherapy Induced Neutropaenia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michelle; Öhrmalm, Lars; Broliden, Kristina; Aust, Carl; Hibberd, Martin; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Mannose-binding Lectin protein (MBL) has been suggested to be relevant in the defence against infections in immunosuppressed individuals. In a Swedish adult cohort immunosuppressed from both the underlying disease and from iatrogenic treatments for their underlying disease we investigated the role of MBL in susceptibility to infection. Methods In this cross sectional, prospective study, blood samples obtained from 96 neutropaenic febrile episodes, representing 82 individuals were analysed for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MBL2 gene. Concurrent measurement of plasma MBL protein concentrations was also performed for observation of acute response during febrile episodes. Findings No association was observed between MBL2 genotype or plasma MBL concentrations, and the type or frequency of infection. Adding to the literature, we found no evidence that viral infections or co-infections with virus and bacteria would be predisposed by MBL deficiency. We further saw no correlation between MBL2 genotype and the risk of fever. However, fever duration in febrile neutropaenic episodes was negatively associated with MBL2 SNP mutations (p<0.05). Patients with MBL2 SNP mutations presented a median febrile duration of 1.8 days compared with 3 days amongst patients with wildtype MBL2 genotype. Interpretation We found no clear association between infection, or infection type to MBL2 genotypes or plasma MBL concentration, and add to the reports casting doubts on the benefit of recombinant MBL replacement therapy use during iatrogenic neutropaenia. PMID:22363494

  19. Modeling and MBL: Software Tools for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.

    Recent technological advances and new software packages put unprecedented power for experimenting and theory-building in the hands of students at all levels. Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) and model-solving tools illustrate the educational potential of the technology. These tools include modeling software and three MBL packages (which are…

  20. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms and the development of coal workers' pneumoconiosis in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.T.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kaji, H.; Saito, J.; Tanino, Y.; Ishida, T.; Munakata, M.

    2008-07-15

    Infection, immunity and genetic factors play roles in the development of coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) and progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). We investigate whether the genetic polymorphisms of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), one of the key molecules of innate immunity, is associated with the susceptibility to CWP. MBL2 polymorphisms (codon54, promoter -221, and -550) were assessed for 197 patients with CWP (119 with nodular CWP and 78 with PMF) and 153 unexposed regional controls. Serum MBL concentrations were measured in 119 CWP patients. Three polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium for all study populations. The MBL2 genotype and haplotypes were associated with lower serum MBL levels. The frequency of such MBL2 genotype and haplotypes were significantly higher in patients with CWP compared to controls, whereas these distributions were not different between patients with nodular CWP and those with PMF. MBL2 polymorphisms and haplotypes may be one of the genetic determinants for the susceptibility of CWP.

  1. Human mannose-binding lectin inhibitor prevents myocardial injury and arterial thrombogenesis in a novel animal model.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Vasile I; Tan, Ying S; McClure, Erin E; La Bonte, Laura R; Zou, Chenhui; Gorsuch, William B; Stahl, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    Myocardial infarction and coagulation disorders are leading causes of disability and death in the world. An important role of the lectin complement pathway in myocardial infarction and coagulation has been demonstrated in mice genetically deficient in lectin complement pathway proteins. However, these studies are limited to comparisons between wild-type and deficient mice and lack the ability to examine reversal/inhibition of injury after disease establishment. We developed a novel mouse that expresses functional human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) 2 under the control of Mbl1 promoter. Serum MBL2 concentrations averaged approximately 3 μg/mL in MBL2(+/+)Mbl1(-/-)Mbl2(-/-) [MBL2 knock in (KI)] mice. Serum MBL2 level in MBL2 KI mice significantly increased after 7 (8 μg/mL) or 14 (9 μg/mL) days of hyperglycemia compared to normoglycemic mice (P < 0.001). Monoclonal antibody 3F8 inhibited C3 deposition on mannan-coated plates in MBL2 KI, but not wild-type, mice. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in MBL2 KI mice revealed that 3F8 preserved cardiac function and decreased infarct size and fibrin deposition in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 3F8 prevented ferric chloride-induced occlusive arterial thrombogenesis in vivo. MBL2 KI mice represent a novel animal model that can be used to study the lectin complement pathway in acute and chronic models of human disease. Furthermore, these novel mice demonstrate the therapeutic window for MBL2 inhibition for effective treatment of disease and its complications.

  2. Human Mannose-Binding Lectin Inhibitor Prevents Myocardial Injury and Arterial Thrombogenesis in a Novel Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Vasile I.; Tan, Ying S.; McClure, Erin E.; La Bonte, Laura R.; Zou, Chenhui; Gorsuch, William B.; Stahl, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and coagulation disorders are leading causes of disability and death in the world. An important role of the lectin complement pathway in myocardial infarction and coagulation has been demonstrated in mice genetically deficient in lectin complement pathway proteins. However, these studies are limited to comparisons between wild-type and deficient mice and lack the ability to examine reversal/inhibition of injury after disease establishment. We developed a novel mouse that expresses functional human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) 2 under the control of Mbl1 promoter. Serum MBL2 concentrations averaged approximately 3 μg/mL in MBL2+/+Mbl1−/−Mbl2−/− [MBL2 knock in (KI)] mice. Serum MBL2 level in MBL2 KI mice significantly increased after 7 (8 μg/mL) or 14 (9 μg/mL) days of hyperglycemia compared to normoglycemic mice (P < 0.001). Monoclonal antibody 3F8 inhibited C3 deposition on mannan-coated plates in MBL2 KI, but not wild-type, mice. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in MBL2 KI mice revealed that 3F8 preserved cardiac function and decreased infarct size and fibrin deposition in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 3F8 prevented ferric chloride–induced occlusive arterial thrombogenesis in vivo. MBL2 KI mice represent a novel animal model that can be used to study the lectin complement pathway in acute and chronic models of human disease. Furthermore, these novel mice demonstrate the therapeutic window for MBL2 inhibition for effective treatment of disease and its complications. PMID:25482922

  3. MBL-Associated Serine Protease -1 (MASP-1) is a Significant Contributor to Coagulation in a Murine Model of Occlusive Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    La Bonte, Laura R; Pavlov, Vasile I; Tan, Ying S; Takahashi, Kazue; Takahashi, Minoru; Banda, Nirmal K; Zou, Chenhui; Fujita, Teizo; Stahl, Gregory L

    2011-01-01

    Bleeding disorders and thrombotic complications constitute a major cause of death and disability worldwide. While it’s known that the complement and coagulation systems interact, no studies have investigated the specific role or mechanisms of lectin-mediated coagulation in vivo. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) treatment resulted in intra-arterial occlusive thrombogenesis within 10min in wild-type (WT) and C2/fB null mice. In contrast, MBL null and MASP-1/-3 KO mice had significantly decreased FeCl3-induced thrombogenesis. Reconstitution with rhMBL restored FeCl3-induced thrombogenesis in MBL null mice to levels comparable to WT mice, suggesting a significant role of the MBL-MASP complex for in vivo coagulation. Additionally, whole blood aggregation demonstrated increased MBL-MASP complex-dependent platelet aggregation. In vitro, MBL-MASP complexes were captured on mannan-coated plates and cleavage of a chromogenic thrombin substrate (S2238) was measured. We observed no significant differences in S2238 cleavage between WT, C2/fB null, MBL-A−/− or MBL-C−/− sera, however MBL null or MASP-1/-3 KO mouse sera demonstrated significantly decreased S2238 cleavage. Recombinant human (rh)MBL alone failed to cleave S2238, however cleavage was restored when rMASP-1 was added to either MASP-1/-3 KO sera or rhMBL. Taken together, these findings indicate that MBL-MASP complexes, and specifically MASP-1, play a key role in thrombus formation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22156595

  4. Correlation of Interleukin-6 levels and lectins during Schistosoma haematobium infection.

    PubMed

    Antony, Justin S; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Meyer, Christian G; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Mishra, Anshuman; Kremsner, Peter G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2015-12-01

    Urogenital schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium induces a Th2 immune response, including expression of Interleukin-6. IL-6 confers protection from experimental Schistosoma-induced pulmonary hypertension and modulates production of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and other lectins. We studied IL-6 levels in schistosomiasis and its effect on lectins production. Elevated IL-6 levels occurred in cases, compared to controls. IL-6 correlated with the lectins MBL, ficolin-2 and Collectin Kidney-1 (CL-K1) in cases, but correlated inversely in controls. The study shows that IL-6 levels are elevated in individuals infected with urogenital schistosomiasis. IL-6 was also found to be correlated with the production of lectins in S. haematobium infection. A similar correlation between IL-6 and MBL was observed during visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural and functional overview of the lectin complement pathway: its molecular basis and physiological implication.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Misao; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo

    2013-08-01

    The complement system is an effector mechanism in immunity. It is activated in three ways, the classical, alternative and lectin pathways. The lectin pathway is initiated by the binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins to carbohydrates on the surfaces of pathogens. In humans, MBL and three types of ficolins (L-ficolin, H-ficolin, and M-ficolin) are present in plasma. Of these lectins, at least, MBL, L-ficolin, and H-ficolin are complexed with three types of MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs), MASP-1, MASP-2, and MASP-3 and their truncated proteins (MAp44 and sMAP). In the lectin pathway, the lectin-MASP complex (i.e., a complex of lectin, MASPs and their truncated proteins) binds to pathogens, resulting in the activation of C4 and C2 to generate a C3 convertase capable of activating C3. MASP-2 is involved in the activation of C4 and C2. MASP-1 activates C2 and MASP-2. The functions of MASP-3, sMAP, and MAp44 in the lectin pathway remain unknown. MASP-1 and MASP-3 also have a role in the alternative pathway. MBL and ficolins are able to bind to a variety of pathogens depending on their carbohydrate binding specificity, resulting in the activation of the lectin pathway. Deficiencies of the components of the lectin pathway are associated to susceptibility to infection, indicating an important role of the lectin pathway in innate immunity. The lectin-MASP complex is also involved in innate immunity by activating the coagulation system. Recent findings suggest a crucial role of MASP-3 in development.

  6. Lectin-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection via Soluble and Transmembrane C-type Lectin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lear, Calli; Chen, Li; Yantosca, L. Michael; Scully, Corinne; Sarraju, Ashish; Sokolovska, Anna; Zariffard, M. Reza; Eisen, Damon P.; Mungall, Bruce A.; Kotton, Darrell N.; Omari, Amel; Huang, I-Chueh; Farzan, Michael; Takahashi, Kazue; Stuart, Lynda; Stahl, Gregory L.; Ezekowitz, Alan B.; Spear, Gregory T.; Olinger, Gene G.; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Michelow, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key soluble effector of the innate immune system that recognizes pathogen-specific surface glycans. Surprisingly, low-producing MBL genetic variants that may predispose children and immunocompromised individuals to infectious diseases are more common than would be expected in human populations. Since certain immune defense molecules, such as immunoglobulins, can be exploited by invasive pathogens, we hypothesized that MBL might also enhance infections in some circumstances. Consequently, the low and intermediate MBL levels commonly found in human populations might be the result of balancing selection. Using model infection systems with pseudotyped and authentic glycosylated viruses, we demonstrated that MBL indeed enhances infection of Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and West Nile viruses in low complement conditions. Mechanistic studies with Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviruses confirmed that MBL binds to N-linked glycan epitopes on viral surfaces in a specific manner via the MBL carbohydrate recognition domain, which is necessary for enhanced infection. MBL mediates lipid-raft-dependent macropinocytosis of EBOV via a pathway that appears to require less actin or early endosomal processing compared with the filovirus canonical endocytic pathway. Using a validated RNA interference screen, we identified C1QBP (gC1qR) as a candidate surface receptor that mediates MBL-dependent enhancement of EBOV infection. We also identified dectin-2 (CLEC6A) as a potentially novel candidate attachment factor for EBOV. Our findings support the concept of an innate immune haplotype that represents critical interactions between MBL and complement component C4 genes and that may modify susceptibility or resistance to certain glycosylated pathogens. Therefore, higher levels of native or exogenous MBL could be deleterious in the setting of relative hypocomplementemia which can occur genetically or because of immunodepletion during active

  7. Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis: A short review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Epp Boschmann, Stefanie; Goeldner, Isabela; Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Schiel, Wagner; Aoyama, Fernanda; de Messias-Reason, Iara J

    2016-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a pattern recognition receptor of the lectin pathway of complement system. MBL binds to carbohydrates on microorganism's surfaces leading to complement activation, opsonization and phagocytosis. Polymorphisms in the MBL gene (MBL2) are associated with variations on MBL serum levels and with the susceptibility to various infectious and autoimmune diseases. The involvement of the lectin pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been demonstrated by several studies and although MBL has been considered to have a dual role in the pathogenesis of the disease, the association between MBL and RA remains inconclusive. In an attempt to clarify this relationship, we developed this short review summarizing accumulated evidences in regard to MBL and RA and a meta-analysis to evaluate the influence of MBL2 polymorphisms on the susceptibility to RA. Among a total of 217 articles that were identified following a predefined search strategy on PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, only 13 met all inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Data assessment was conducted by three independent investigators and presented in odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using forest plot charts. Both heterogeneity and publication bias were analyzed. The results of the meta-analysis evidenced that MBL2 low producing OO and XX genotypes do not confer higher risk to RA, even when data were analyzed according to cohort's ethnicity. Further studies are needed in order to clarify the importance of other genes of the lectin pathway in the pathogenesis of RA.

  8. High levels of serum mannose-binding lectin are associated with the severity of clinical signs of leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, K A; Vasconcelos, L R S; Coelho, L C B B; Lima Filho, J L; Cavalcanti, M S M; Moura, P

    2009-04-01

    The clinical heterogeneity observed in leptospirosis may be associated with host factors or bacteria virulence. Human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes many pathogens, and low levels of this lectin are associated with susceptibility to infection. MBL is also implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory process. We determined the levels of serum MBL during leptospirosis infection. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to detect the immunoreactive serum MBL. The ELISA plates were coated with monoclonal antibody to MBL and bound MBL or recombinant human MBL were detected by rabbit anti-human MBL serum. HRPO-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody was used for detection of the reaction. Two groups of patients seen at referral hospitals in Recife, PE, Brazil, were divided according to the year of infection, 2001 (N = 61) or 2002 (N = 57) and compared in terms of disease severity and levels of serum MBL. A group of healthy volunteers (N = 97) matched by age, gender, and ethnic background was used as control. Patients infected in 2001 had more severe outcomes than those infected in 2002, including jaundice, hemorrhage, respiratory alteration, and renal complication (P = 0.0009; chi-square test). The frequency of patients producing serum MBL >1000 ng/mL was higher in the 2001 group than in the 2002 and control groups (P < 0.01), suggesting an association of MBL level with disease severity. The involvement of MBL and genetic variation of the MBL2 gene should be further evaluated to establish the role of this lectin in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis.

  9. Diabetes Is Associated with Increased Autoreactivity of Mannan-Binding Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) has been reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. MBL is a pattern-recognition molecule of the innate immune system that initiates the lectin pathway of the complement system upon recognition of evolutionary conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns or to altered self-tissue. Our group have previously shown direct effects of MBL on diabetes-induced kidney damage, and we hypothesized that MBL may cause autoactivation of the complement system via binding to neoepitopes induced by hyperglycemia. In the present study, we induced diabetes in MBL knockout mice and in wild type C57BL/6J mice by low-dose streptozotocin injection and measured blood glucose and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio to monitor development of diabetes. After 24 weeks, fluorescently labelled recombinant MBL was injected intravenously in diabetic MBL knockout mice after which the distribution was investigated using in vivo fluorescence imaging. Mice were subjected to in vivo and ex vivo imaging 24 hours after injection. MBL was found to accumulate in the kidneys of diabetic mice as compared to healthy control mice (p < 0.0001). These findings support the hypothesis of a significant role of MBL and the complement system in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:28349070

  10. Improvements on the purification of mannan-binding lectin and demonstration of its Ca(2+)-independent association with a C1s-like serine protease.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, S M; Chung, M C; Kon, O L; Thiel, S; Lee, S H; Lu, J

    1996-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), previously called 'mannan-binding protein' or MBP, is a plasma C-type lectin which, upon binding to carbohydrate structures on micro-organisms, activates the classical pathway of complement. Purification of MBL relies on its Ca(2+)-dependent affinity for carbohydrate, but existing methods are susceptible to contamination by anti-carbohydrate antibodies. In the present study a sequential-sugar-elution method has been developed which can achieve a preparation of virtually pure MBL and its associated serine protease (MBL-associated serine protease, MASP) by two steps of affinity chromatography. In further separation of MASP from MBL, it was found that activated MASP was associated with MBL independent of Ca2+. Since MBL was found to bind to underivatized Sepharose 4B, the MBL-MASP complex was purified using Sepharose 4B and protease inhibitors were included to purify the complex with MASP in its proenzyme form. Analysis of thus-purified MBL-MASP complex by gel filtration on a Sephacryl S-300 column at pH 7.8 showed that the proenzyme MASP was also associated with MBL independently of Ca2+, but that the complex could be disrupted at a low pH (5.0). Therefore the mechanism of MBL-MASP-mediated complement activation appears to be significantly different from the C1-mediated classical pathway. PMID:8912663

  11. Genetics Home Reference: mannose-binding lectin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... MBL2 gene. Mannose-binding lectin plays an important role in the body's immune response by attaching to foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, or yeast and turning on (activating) the complement system . The complement system is a group of immune system proteins that work together to ...

  12. Cholesterol Crystals Activate the Lectin Complement Pathway via Ficolin-2 and Mannose-Binding Lectin: Implications for the Progression of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pilely, Katrine; Rosbjerg, Anne; Genster, Ninette; Gal, Peter; Pál, Gábor; Halvorsen, Bente; Holm, Sverre; Aukrust, Pål; Bakke, Siril Skaret; Sporsheim, Bjørnar; Nervik, Ingunn; Niyonzima, Nathalie; Bartels, Emil D; Stahl, Gregory L; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Espevik, Terje; Garred, Peter

    2016-06-15

    Cholesterol crystals (CC) play an essential role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. CC activate the classical and the alternative complement pathways, but the role of the lectin pathway is unknown. We hypothesized that the pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) from the lectin pathway bind CC and function as an upstream innate inflammatory signal in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. We investigated the binding of the PRMs mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3, the associated serine proteases, and complement activation products to CC in vitro using recombinant proteins, specific inhibitors, as well as deficient and normal sera. Additionally, we examined the deposition of ficolin-2 and MBL in human carotid plaques by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that the lectin pathway was activated on CC by binding of ficolin-2 and MBL in vitro, resulting in activation and deposition of complement activation products. MBL bound to CC in a calcium-dependent manner whereas ficolin-2 binding was calcium-independent. No binding was observed for ficolin-1 or ficolin-3. MBL and ficolin-2 were present in human carotid plaques, and binding of MBL to CC was confirmed in vivo by immunohistochemistry, showing localization of MBL around CC clefts. Moreover, we demonstrated that IgM, but not IgG, bound to CC in vitro and that C1q binding was facilitated by IgM. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that PRMs from the lectin pathway recognize CC and provides evidence for an important role for this pathway in the inflammatory response induced by CC in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Lessons learned from mice deficient in lectin complement pathway molecules.

    PubMed

    Genster, Ninette; Takahashi, Minoru; Sekine, Hideharu; Endo, Yuichi; Garred, Peter; Fujita, Teizo

    2014-10-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system is initiated when the pattern-recognition molecules, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin-11, bind to invading pathogens or damaged host cells. This leads to activation of MBL/ficolin/collectin-11 associated serine proteases (MASPs), which in turn activate downstream complement components, ultimately leading to elimination of the pathogen. Mice deficient in the key molecules of lectin pathway of complement have been generated in order to build knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the lectin pathway in health and disease. Despite differences in the genetic arrangements of murine and human orthologues of lectin pathway molecules, the knockout mice have proven to be valuable models to explore the effect of deficiency states in humans. In addition, new insight and unexpected findings on the diverse roles of lectin pathway molecules in complement activation, pathogen infection, coagulation, host tissue injury and developmental biology have been revealed by in vivo investigations. This review provides an overview of the mice deficient in lectin pathway molecules and highlights some of the most important findings that have resulted from studies of these. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Network Analysis Reveals the Recognition Mechanism for Mannose-binding Lectins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunjie; Jian, Yiren; Zeng, Chen; Computational Biophysics Lab Team

    The specific carbohydrate binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) protein in plants makes it a very useful molecular tool for cancer cell detection and other applications. The biological states of most MBL proteins are dimeric. Using dynamics network analysis on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the model protein of MBL, we elucidate the short- and long-range driving forces behind the dimer formation. The results are further supported by sequence coevolution analysis. We propose a general framework for deciphering the recognition mechanism underlying protein-protein interactions that may have potential applications in signaling pathways.

  15. The association of mannose-binding lectin 2 polymorphisms with outcome in very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, Julia; Humberg, Alexander; Preuss, Michael; Schreiter, Lena; Rupp, Jan; Figge, Julia; Karsten, Christian M.; Nürnberg, Peter; Herting, Egbert

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Studies on the influence of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency on infection susceptibility in preterm infants have yielded controversial results. We investigated the association of genotype-based MBL levels with outcome in very-low-birth weight infants (VLBWI). Methods We genotyped 3 genetic variants of MBL2 (rs1800450, rs1800451, rs5030737) in 6878 VLBWI. MBL plasma levels were categorized as normal (wild type, A/A), low (heterozygotes, A/O) or undetectable (homozygotes, O/O). Primary outcome was the effect of genotype-based MBL2 levels on blood-culture proven and clinical sepsis during primary stay in hospital. We also evaluated burden of infection within 24 months after discharge. Results We found no association between MBL levels and sepsis risk in the whole cohort. Infants without measurable MBL levels born between 32 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks of gestation, however, had a higher rate of Gram-negative sepsis than infants with normal or reduced MBL levels. In a follow-up investigation at 24 months (n = 1070 infants), infants without measurable MBL levels suffered more frequently from stomatitis and urinary tract infection. Conclusions In a large cohort of VLBWI MBL2 deficiency had no major impact on infection risk unless children were born between 32 0/7 and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. PMID:28558032

  16. Plasma mannose-binding lectin is stimulated by PPARα in humans.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Stienstra, Rinke; de Wit, Nicole J; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Haluzik, Martin; Mensink, Ronald P; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2012-03-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) is a major transcriptional regulator of lipid metabolism in liver and represents the molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrate drugs. Effects of PPARα on lipid metabolism are partially mediated by circulating proteins such as FGF21 and ANGPTL4. The present study was undertaken to screen for and identify circulating proteins produced by human liver that are under the control of PPARα. Toward that aim, primary human hepatocytes were treated with the synthetic PPARα agonist Wy-14643 and whole genome expression data selected for secreted proteins. Expression of FGF21, ANGPTL4, and mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a soluble mediator of innate immunity and primary component of the lectin branch of the complement system, was markedly upregulated by Wy-14643 in primary human hepatocytes. Mice express two MBL isomers, Mbl1 and Mbl2. Mbl1 mRNA was weakly induced by Wy-14643 in primary mouse hepatocytes and remained unaltered by Wy-14643 in mouse liver. Mbl2 mRNA was unchanged by Wy-14643 in primary mouse hepatocytes and was strongly reduced by Wy-14643 in mouse liver. Remarkably, plasma Mbl1 levels were increased by chronic PPARα activation in lean and obese mice. Importantly, in two independent clinical trials, treatment with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate at 200 mg/day for 6 wk and 3 mo increased plasma MBL levels by 73 (P = 0.0016) and 86% (P = 0.017), respectively. It is concluded that hepatocyte gene expression and plasma levels of MBL are stimulated by PPARα and fenofibrate in humans, linking PPARα to regulation of innate immunity and complement activation in humans and suggesting a possible role of MBL in lipid metabolism.

  17. Annotation and genetic diversity of the chicken collagenous lectins.

    PubMed

    Hamzić, Edin; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2015-06-01

    Collectins and ficolins are multimeric proteins present in various tissues and are actively involved in innate immune responses. In chickens, six different collagenous lectins have been characterized so far: mannose-binding lectin (MBL), surfactant protein A (SP-A), collectin 10 (COLEC10), collectin 11 (COLEC11), collectin 12 (COLEC12), lung lectin (LL) and one ficolin (FCN). However, the structural and functional features of the chicken collectins and ficolin are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were: (i) to make an overview of the genetic structure and function of chicken collectins and the ficolin, (ii) to investigate the variation in the chicken collectins and the ficolin gene in different chicken populations, and (iii) to assess the presence of MBL gene variants in different chicken populations. We performed comparative genomic analysis using publically available data. The obtained results showed that collectins and ficolins have conserved protein sequences and gene structure across all vertebrate groups and this is especially notable for COLEC10, COLEC11 and COLEC12. For the purpose of studying the genetic variation, 179 animals from 14 populations were genotyped using 31 SNPs covering five genomic regions. The obtained results revealed low level of heterozygosity in the collagenous lectins except for the COLEC12 gene and the LL-SPA-MBL region compared to heterozygosity at neutral microsatellite markers. In addition, the MBL gene variants were assessed in different chicken populations based on the polymorphisms in the promoter region. We observed 10 previously identified MBL variants with A2/A8 and A4 as the most frequent alleles.

  18. Effects of MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) on liquefaction and ulceration in rabbit skin model of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinfang; Luo, Yanping; Gao, Qi; Lu, Xiaoling; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Xun; Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Jingqiu; Ma, Xingming; Zhu, Bingdong

    2016-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease, which caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It typically affects the functions of the lung and causes high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. The lectin pathway, one of the complement cascade systems, provides the primary line of defense against invading pathogens. However, what is the specific effection between tuberculosis and complement is unknown. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a recognition subunit, binds to arrays of carbohydrates on the surfaces of pathogens, which results in the activation of MBL-associated serine protease-2 to trigger a downstream reaction cascade of complement system. The effects of human MBL-associated serine protease-2 (hMASP-2) were assessed in a rabbit-skin model by intradermal injection of 5 × 10(6) viable BCG bacilli. The rAd-hMASP-2 accelerated the formation of liquefaction and healing of the granuloma lesions, reduced the bacteria loads of the skin nodules. The serum levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were significantly increasing during the granuloma and liquefaction phases in the rAd-hMASP-2 group. This study suggests that hMASP-2 can induce a protective efficacy in BCG-infected rabbit skin models, which affects both the progress of lesions and the survival of the mycobacteria within them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymorphisms in the lectin pathway of complement activation influence the incidence of acute rejection and graft outcome after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Golshayan, Déla; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Bibert, Stéphanie; Pyndiah, Nitisha; Manuel, Oriol; Binet, Isabelle; Buhler, Leo H; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Mueller, Thomas; Steiger, Jürg; Pascual, Manuel; Meylan, Pascal; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

    2016-04-01

    There are conflicting data on the role of the lectin pathway of complement activation and its recognition molecules in acute rejection and outcome after transplantation. To help resolve this we analyzed polymorphisms and serum levels of lectin pathway components in 710 consecutive kidney transplant recipients enrolled in the nationwide Swiss Transplant Cohort Study, together with all biopsy-proven rejection episodes and 1-year graft and patient survival. Functional mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels were determined in serum samples, and previously described MBL2, ficolin 2, and MBL-associated serine protease 2 polymorphisms were genotyped. Low MBL serum levels and deficient MBL2 diplotypes were associated with a higher incidence of acute cellular rejection during the first year, in particular in recipients of deceased-donor kidneys. This association remained significant (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.18-2.60) in a Cox regression model after adjustment for relevant covariates. In contrast, there was no significant association with rates of antibody-mediated rejection, patient death, early graft dysfunction or loss. Thus, results in a prospective multicenter contemporary cohort suggest that MBL2 polymorphisms result in low MBL serum levels and are associated with acute cellular rejection after kidney transplantation. Since MBL deficiency is a relatively frequent trait in the normal population, our findings may lead to individual risk stratification and customized immunosuppression.

  20. Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Patients With Candiduria

    PubMed Central

    Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314

  1. Mannose-Binding Lectin Inhibits the Motility of Pathogenic Salmonella by Affecting the Driving Forces of Motility and the Chemotactic Response

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Shuichi; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Guo, Yijie; Ihara, Kohei; Tomioka, Rintaro; Masuda, Mizuki; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Isogai, Emiko

    2016-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key pattern recognition molecule in the lectin pathway of the complement system, an important component of innate immunity. MBL functions as an opsonin which enhances the sequential immune process such as phagocytosis. We here report an inhibitory effect of MBL on the motility of pathogenic bacteria, which occurs by affecting the energy source required for motility and the signaling pathway of chemotaxis. When Salmonella cells were treated with a physiological concentration of MBL, their motile fraction and free-swimming speed decreased. Rotation assays of a single flagellum showed that the flagellar rotation rate was significantly reduced by the addition of MBL. Measurements of the intracellular pH and membrane potential revealed that MBL affected a driving force for the Salmonella flagellum, the electrochemical potential difference of protons. We also found that MBL treatment increased the reversal frequency of Salmonella flagellar rotation, which interfered with the relative positive chemotaxis toward an attractive substrate. We thus propose that the motility inhibition effect of MBL may be secondarily involved in the attack against pathogens, potentially facilitating the primary role of MBL in the complement system. PMID:27104738

  2. Mannose-binding lectin and its associated proteases (MASPs) mediate coagulation and its deficiency is a risk factor in developing complications from infection, including disseminated intravascular coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazue; Chang, Wei-Chuan; Takahashi, Minoru; Pavlov, Vasile; Ishida, Yumi; La Bonte, Laura; Shi, Lei; Fujita, Teizo; Stahl, Gregory L.; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The first line of host defense is the innate immune system that includes coagulation factors and pattern recognition molecules, one of which is mannose-binding lectin (MBL). Previous studies have demonstrated that MBL deficiency increases susceptibility to infection. Several mechanisms are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, including reduced opsonophagocytic killing and reduced lectin complement pathway activation. In this study, we demonstrate that MBL and MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1/3 together mediate coagulation factor-like activities, including thrombin-like activity. MBL and/or MASP-1/3 deficient hosts demonstrate in vivo evidence that MBL and MASP-1/3 are involved with hemostasis following injury. Staphylococcus aureus infected MBL null mice developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which was associated with elevated blood IL-6 levels (but not TNF-α and multi-organ inflammatory responses). Infected MBL null mice also develop liver injury. These findings suggest that MBL deficiency may manifest into DIC and organ failure during infectious diseases. PMID:20399528

  3. Association between mannose-binding lectin levels and gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Ozçaka, Ozgün; Biçakci, Nurgün; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Köse, Timur; Berdeli, Afig

    2010-03-01

    The aims of the present study were: (1) to investigate mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene exon-1 polymorphisms in Turkish subjects with chronic periodontitis (CP), (2) to assess the association between these polymorphisms and plasma MBL levels, (3) to determine the effects of MBL genotypes on the outcomes of non-surgical periodontal therapy. A total of 172 subjects were included in the present study. Genomic DNA was obtained from the peripheral blood of 83 CP patients and 89 periodontally healthy subjects. The MBL levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The MBL gene exon-1 polymorphisms were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Subjects homozygous for the frequent allele A had higher MBL plasma levels compared with rare allele B carriers. This difference in MBL plasma levels was statistically significant both in CP patients and healthy subjects. The distribution of MBL gene codon 54 genotypes and allele frequencies did not differ significantly between study groups. All study subjects were the MBL gene codon 52 and 57 frequent allele A carriers. Codon 54 B allele carriers had similar clinical periodontal parameters compared with AA genotypes after non-surgical periodontal therapy. The present study failed to find any significant association between the MBL gene codon 54 polymorphisms and severe CP in a Turkish population. MBL gene rare allele carriers had lower MBL plasma levels in both study groups. It seems that MBL gene codon 54 B allele carriage may not influence the outcome of periodontal therapy. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Intracellular mannose binding lectin mediates subcellular trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in neurons.

    PubMed

    Teodorof, C; Divakar, S; Soontornniyomkij, B; Achim, C L; Kaul, M; Singh, K K

    2014-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the brain early during infection and leads to severe neuronal damage and central nervous system impairment. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), a neurotoxin, undergoes intracellular trafficking and transport across neurons; however mechanisms of gp120 trafficking in neurons are unclear. Our results show that mannose binding lectin (MBL) that binds to the N-linked mannose residues on gp120, participates in intravesicular packaging of gp120 in neuronal subcellular organelles and also in subcellular trafficking of these vesicles in neuronal cells. Perinuclear MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes were observed and MBL facilitated the subcellular trafficking of gp120 via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi vesicles. The functional carbohydrate recognition domain of MBL was required for perinuclear organization, distribution and subcellular trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes. Nocodazole, an agent that depolymerizes the microtubule network, abolished the trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicles, suggesting that these vesicular complexes were transported along the microtubule network. Live cell imaging confirmed the association of the MBL:gp120 complexes with dynamic subcellular vesicles that underwent trafficking in neuronal soma and along the neurites. Thus, our findings suggest that intracellular MBL mediates subcellular trafficking and transport of viral glycoproteins in a microtubule-dependent mechanism in the neurons.

  5. Intracellular Mannose Binding Lectin Mediates Subcellular Trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Teodorof, C; Divakar, S; Soontornniyomkij, B; Achim, CL; Kaul, M; Singh, KK

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus -1 (HIV-1) enters the brain early during infection and leads to severe neuronal damage and central nervous system impairment. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), a neurotoxin, undergoes intracellular trafficking and transport across neurons; however mechanisms of gp120 trafficking in neurons are unclear. Our results show that mannose binding lectin (MBL) that binds to the N-linked mannose residues on gp120, participates in intravesicular packaging of gp120 in neuronal subcellular organelles and also in subcellular trafficking of these vesicles in neuronal cells. Perinuclear MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes were observed and MBL facilitated the subcellular trafficking of gp120 via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi vesicles. The functional carbohydrate recognition domain of MBL was required for perinuclear organization, distribution and subcellular trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes. Nocodazole, an agent that depolymerizes the microtubule network, abolished the trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicles, suggesting that these vesicular complexes were transported along the microtubule network. Live cell imaging confirmed the association of the MBL:gp120 complexes with dynamic subcellular vesicles that underwent trafficking in neuronal soma and along the neurites. Thus, our findings suggest that intracellular MBL mediates subcellular trafficking and transport of viral glycoproteins in a microtubule-dependent mechanism in the neurons. PMID:24825317

  6. Growth hormone abuse and biological passport: is mannan-binding lectin a complementary candidate?

    PubMed

    Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Bosch, Jaume; Segura, Jordi; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo

    2011-09-01

    In the detection of human growth hormone (GH) abuse, the approach based on altered GH-related biomarkers is also being considered with respect to its application within the context of a biological passport. As a potential biomarker, mannan-binding lectin (MBL), which is reported to respond to recombinant GH (rGH) administration, is evaluated here. Randomized and single blind and approved by the Ethical Committee (Comité Ético de Investigación Clínica-Instituto Municipal de Asistencia Sanitaria). One group of 12 male subjects (24.2 ± 2.2 years; 76.1 ± 6.1 kg) was studied. Mannan-binding lectin concentration was measured in 12 healthy individuals after subcutaneous daily doses of 6 IU of rGH administration. Mannan-binding lectin serum concentration increased after rGH administration. Mannan-binding lectin concentration increases were observed 48 hours after the first administration and remained elevated for several days after the final dose. Mannan-binding lectin concentration increase and elapsed time to recover initial MBL values after the last rGH administration. Absolute values displayed high interindividual variability, and 1 individual did not show any MBL increase (potential MBL deficiency). Mannan-binding lectin protein showed a clear concentration increase after continued rGH administration, despite the high heterogeneity found between individuals. The use of MBL as a complementary GH-related biomarker could be of interest, taking advantage of the high increases (up to 700%) and the relatively slow recovery time.

  7. Mannan-binding lectin, a serum collectin, suppresses T-cell proliferation via direct interaction with cell surface calreticulin and inhibition of proximal T-cell receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Wu, Jie; Xiong, Simin; Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Xiao; Chen, Shangliang; Wu, Qifeng; Wang, Hailan; Liu, Ying; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2017-06-01

    Mannan binding lectin (MBL), initially reported to activate the complement pathway, is also known to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We report a thus far unknown function of MBL as a suppressor of T-cell activation. MBL markedly inhibited T-cell proliferation induced by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. Moreover, the presence of MBL during T-cell priming interfered with proximal T-cell receptor signaling by decreasing phosphorylation of Lck, ZAP-70, and LAT. MBL bound to T cells through interaction between the collagen-like region of MBL and calreticulin (CRT) expressed on the T-cell surface. The neutralizing antibody against CRT abrogated MBL-mediated suppression of T-cell proliferation, suggesting that MBL down-modulates T-cell proliferation via cell surface CRT. We further demonstrated that the feature of MBL-mediated T-cell suppression is shared by other serum collectins (e.g., C1q and collectin 11). The concentrations of MBL correlated negatively with in vivo T-cell activation status in patients with early-stage silicosis. Furthermore, MBL efficiently inhibited activation and proliferation of autoreactive T cells derived from patients with silicosis, indicating that MBL serves as a negative feedback control of the T-cell responses.-Zhao, N., Wu, J., Xiong, S., Zhang, L., Lu, X., Chen, S., Wu, Q., Wang, H., Liu, Y., Chen, Z., Zuo, D. Mannan-binding lectin, a serum collectin, suppresses T-cell proliferation via direct interaction with cell surface calreticulin and inhibition of proximal T-cell receptor signaling. © FASEB.

  8. Association study between mannose-binding lectin haplotypes and X gene mutation of hepatitis B virus from treatment naïve patients

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chenghao; Lin, Yong; Mao, Qianguo; Wu, Daitze; Zhu, Lina; Najera, Isabel; Garcia-Alcalde, Fernando; Niu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Mannose binding lectin (MBL) plays important role in the innate immunity of human. Mutations in the MBL2 gene can significantly change the serum level of MBL, and consequently alter the susceptibility and progression of infectious disease. However, the association between the MBL2 profile and the HBV mutation and quasispecies complexity has not yet been reported. Our approach includes the study of the MBL2 gene genotype as well as ultra-deep sequencing of the HBV viruses obtained from the plasma of 50 treatment naïve patients with chronic HBV infection. We found that the liver function was better among patients within the high MBL2 group with respect to those within the medium/low MBL2 group. Likewise, the number of mutations in the HBV X gene as well as the viral quasispecies complexity were significantly higher in medium/low MBL2 production group. Nucleotide substitution rates were also higher within the medium/low MBL2 production group in all positions described to have an influence in liver cancer development, except for A1499G. In this work we show that the MBL2 profile may have an impact on the HBV X gene mutations as well as on viral quasispecies complexity. PMID:27824315

  9. Innate immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) mannose-binding lectin to channel catfish virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The channel catfish virus (CCV) is a pathogenic herpesvirus that infects channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in pond aquaculture in the Southeast USA. The innate immune protein mannose-binding lectin (MBL) could play an important role in the innate response of channel catfish by binding to the CC...

  10. Complementary Roles of the Classical and Lectin Complement Pathways in the Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Rosbjerg, Anne; Genster, Ninette; Pilely, Katrine; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Stahl, Gregory L.; Garred, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus infections are associated with a high mortality rate for immunocompromised patients. The complement system is considered to be important in protection against this fungus, yet the course of activation is unclear. The aim of this study was to unravel the role of the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways under both immunocompetent and immunocompromised conditions to provide a relevant dual-perspective on the response against A. fumigatus. Conidia (spores) from a clinical isolate of A. fumigatus were combined with various human serum types (including serum deficient of various complement components and serum from umbilical cord blood). We also combined this with inhibitors against C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and ficolin-2 before complement activation products and phagocytosis were detected by flow cytometry. Our results showed that alternative pathway amplified complement on A. fumigatus, but required classical and/or lectin pathway for initiation. In normal human serum, this initiation came primarily from the classical pathway. However, with a dysfunctional classical pathway (C1q-deficient serum), lectin pathway activated complement and mediated opsonophagocytosis through MBL. To model the antibody-decline in a compromised immune system, we used serum from normal umbilical cords and found MBL to be the key complement initiator. In another set of experiments, serum from patients with different kinds of immunoglobulin insufficiencies showed that the MBL lectin pathway contribution was highest in the samples with the lowest IgG/IgM binding. In conclusion, lectin pathway appears to be the primary route of complement activation in the absence of anti-A. fumigatus antibodies, whereas in a balanced immune state classical pathway is the main activator. This suggests a crucial role for the lectin pathway in innate immune protection against A. fumigatus in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27857715

  11. Effects of mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms on irinotecan-induced febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    van der Bol, Jessica M; de Jong, Floris A; van Schaik, Ron H; Sparreboom, Alex; van Fessem, Marianne A; van de Geijn, Fleur E; van Daele, Paul L; Verweij, Jaap; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H

    2010-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is important in the innate immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms affect MBL expression, and genotypes yielding low MBL levels have been associated with an elevated risk for infections in hematological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, these reported associations are inconsistent, and data on patients with solid tumors are lacking. Here, we investigated the effects of MBL2 genotypes on irinotecan-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors. Irinotecan-treated patients were genotyped for the MBL2 gene. Two promoter (-550 H/L and -221 X/Y) and three exon polymorphisms (52 A/D, 54 A/B, and 57 A/C) were determined, together with known risk factors for irinotecan-induced toxicity. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were recorded during the first course. Of the 133 patients, 28% experienced severe neutropenia and 10% experienced febrile neutropenia. No associations were found between exon polymorphisms and febrile neutropenia. However, patients with the H/H promoter genotype, associated with high MBL levels, experienced significantly more febrile neutropenia than patients with the H/L and L/L genotypes (20% versus 13% versus 5%). Moreover, patients with the HYA haplotype encountered significantly more febrile neutropenia than patients without this high MBL-producing haplotype (16% versus 4%). In the subgroup with wild-type exon polymorphisms (A/A), patients with the high MBL promoter phenotype had the highest incidence of febrile neutropenia, regardless of known risk factors. Patients with high MBL2 promoter genotypes and haplotypes seem more at risk for developing febrile neutropenia. If confirmed, these preliminary findings may contribute to more individualized approaches of irinotecan treatment.

  12. Effects of Mannose-Binding Lectin Polymorphisms on Irinotecan-Induced Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Floris A.; van Schaik, Ron H.; Sparreboom, Alex; van Fessem, Marianne A.; van de Geijn, Fleur E.; van Daele, Paul L.; Verweij, Jaap; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is important in the innate immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms affect MBL expression, and genotypes yielding low MBL levels have been associated with an elevated risk for infections in hematological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, these reported associations are inconsistent, and data on patients with solid tumors are lacking. Here, we investigated the effects of MBL2 genotypes on irinotecan-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors. Patients and Methods. Irinotecan-treated patients were genotyped for the MBL2 gene. Two promoter (−550 H/L and −221 X/Y) and three exon polymorphisms (52 A/D, 54 A/B, and 57 A/C) were determined, together with known risk factors for irinotecan-induced toxicity. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were recorded during the first course. Results. Of the 133 patients, 28% experienced severe neutropenia and 10% experienced febrile neutropenia. No associations were found between exon polymorphisms and febrile neutropenia. However, patients with the H/H promoter genotype, associated with high MBL levels, experienced significantly more febrile neutropenia than patients with the H/L and L/L genotypes (20% versus 13% versus 5%). Moreover, patients with the HYA haplotype encountered significantly more febrile neutropenia than patients without this high MBL-producing haplotype (16% versus 4%). In the subgroup with wild-type exon polymorphisms (A/A), patients with the high MBL promoter phenotype had the highest incidence of febrile neutropenia, regardless of known risk factors. Conclusion. Patients with high MBL2 promoter genotypes and haplotypes seem more at risk for developing febrile neutropenia. If confirmed, these preliminary findings may contribute to more individualized approaches of irinotecan treatment. PMID:20930093

  13. The Lipopolysaccharide Structures of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Determine the Attachment of Human Mannose-Binding Lectin to Intact Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Devyatyarova-Johnson, Marina; Rees, Ian H.; Robertson, Brian D.; Turner, Malcolm W.; Klein, Nigel J.; Jack, Dominic L.

    2000-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of the innate immune system. It binds to the arrays of sugars commonly presented by microorganisms and activates the complement system independently of antibody. Despite detailed knowledge of the stereochemical basis of MBL binding, relatively little is known about how bacterial surface structures influence binding of the lectin. Using flow cytometry, we have measured the binding of MBL to a range of mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Neisseria gonorrhoeae which differ in the structure of expressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For both organisms, the possession of core LPS structures led to avid binding of MBL, which was abrogated by the addition of O antigen (Salmonella serovar Typhimurium) or sialic acid (N. gonorrhoeae). Truncation of the LPS within the core led to lower levels of MBL binding. It was not possible to predict the magnitude of MBL binding from the identity of the LPS terminal sugar alone, indicating that the three-dimensional disposition of LPS molecules is probably also of importance in determining MBL attachment. These results further support the hypothesis that LPS structure is a major determinant of MBL binding. PMID:10858200

  14. Deficiency in Mannose-Binding Lectin-Associated Serine Protease-2 Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carolina H.; Lynch, Nicholas J.; Stover, Cordula M.; Ali, Youssif M.; Valck, Carolina; Noya-Leal, Francisca; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease, a chronic illness affecting 10 million people around the world. The complement system plays an important role in fighting microbial infections. The recognition molecules of the lectin pathway of complement activation, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins, and CL-11, bind to specific carbohydrates on pathogens, triggering complement activation through MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2). Previous in vitro work showed that human MBL and ficolins contribute to T. cruzi lysis. However, MBL-deficient mice are only moderately compromised in their defense against the parasite, as they may still activate the lectin pathway through ficolins and CL-11. Here, we assessed MASP-2-deficient mice, the only presently available mouse line with total lectin pathway deficiency, for a phenotype in T. cruzi infection. Total absence of lectin pathway functional activity did not confer higher susceptibility to T. cruzi infection, suggesting that it plays a minor role in the immune response against this parasite. PMID:25548381

  15. Activation of the lectin complement pathway in post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Satoshi; Matsushita, Misao; Fujita, Teizo; Takeshita, Morishige; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the correlation between complement pathways and clinicopathological findings in post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis (PSAGN). Immunohistological staining was performed on renal specimens obtained from 18 patients with PSAGN and 20 controls, using antibodies against IgG, IgA, IgM, C1q, C3c, C4, fibrinogen, factor B, C4-binding protein (C4-bp), C5b-9, CD59, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1). Controls showed no deposition of any antibody. In seven patients, glomerular deposits of C3c, C4, factor B, C4-bp, C5b-9, CD59, MBL and MASP-1 were found. In the remaining 11 patients, glomerular deposits of neither C4 nor MBL/MASP-1 were found, and glomerular deposits of C3c, factor B, C5b-9 and CD59 were evident. C4-bp was detected in seven of these 11 patients. Glomerular deposits of fibrinogen were detected in five of seven patients with MBL/MASP-1 deposits and in only two of 11 patients without MBL/MASP-1 deposits. Hematuria was prolonged in three of seven patients with MBL/MASP-1 deposits through follow up, whereas urinalysis was normal in all patients without MBL/MASP-1 deposits. However, the histological indicators were not different between the two groups. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report to show that complement activation through both the alternative and lectin pathways is evident in some patients with PSAGN. Complement activation is promoted in situ in the glomerulus.

  16. Association Between Polymorphisms of the Mannose-Binding Lectin and Severity of Periportal Fibrosis in Schistosomiasis, in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Constantino, Taynan; de Lima, Elker Lene Santos; de Brito, Lidiane Régia Pereira Braga; Silva, Jamile Luciana; Coêlho, Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; Silva, Paula Carolina Valença; Domingues, Ana Lúcia Coutinho

    2017-09-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a protein synthesized by the liver and its immune response is associated with the development of liver fibrosis. We hypothesized that the polymorphisms in the Exon 1 region (52, 54, 57) and promoter regions (-550 H/L, -221 X/Y) of the MBL2 gene were associated with the severity of periportal fibrosis (PPF), and that these polymorphisms affect the MBL serum levels. In this cross-sectional study we genotyped these polymorphisms within the MBL2 gene in 229 Brazilian subjects infected with Schistosoma mansoni, with different patterns of PPF. There was no association between the polymorphisms and haplotypes of the MBL2 gene and the advanced PPF pattern. The MBL levels were higher in individuals with advanced fibrosis. There was risk association among high-expression haplotypes of MBL, and a protection association between the A/O Exon 1 genotype and elevated MBL serum levels. Our results suggest that polymorphism of Exon 1 and MBL haplotypes could potentially be used to predict the severity of advanced PPF in the Brazilian population.

  17. Human mannose-binding lectin 2 is directly regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors via a peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko; Sugimoto, Ken; Ishimoto, Kenji; Yamashita, Masanori; Maegawa, Takashi; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Osada, Shigehiro; Tanaka, Toshiya; Rakugi, Hiromi; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Doi, Takefumi

    2013-09-01

    Human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is encoded by the MBL2 gene and is a key player in innate immunity. However, the mechanism of the transcriptional regulation of MBL2 is largely unknown. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that play an important role in a number of biological responses, including lipid homeostasis, immune function and adipogenesis. In this study, we showed that PPARα and PPARγ up-regulate the expression of human MBL2. Using a luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility-shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that PPARs regulate the expression of human MBL2 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE). On the other hand, MBL2 mRNA expression was not affected by the PPARα ligand both in vivo in rat liver and in vitro in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells. Thus, there is a species difference in regulation of MBL2 gene expression by PPARs between humans and rodents. We also show that the species differences in response to PPAR could be due in part to sequence-specific differences in the PPRE in the promoter region of MBL2. These results indicate that human, but not rat, MBL2 expression is regulated by PPARs via a PPRE.

  18. Elevated Serum Levels of Mannose-Binding Lectin and Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ling-Zhi; Tong, Qiang; Xu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation and complement activation initiated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. We investigated serum MBL levels in type 2 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and with persistent normoalbuminuria. Method Serum MBL levels were determined in 242 type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy and 242 type 2 diabetes with persistent normoalbuminuria matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, as well as in 100 healthy control subjects. The prediction value of MBL was compared with HbA1c, Hs-CRP and with other known predictors. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Results The serum MBL levels were significantly higher in diabetes with DN as compared to with persistent normoalbuminuria (P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common factors showed that serum MBL levels≥2950ug/L was an independent indictor of DN (OR=7.55; 95%CI: 3.44–19.04). Based on the ROC curve, the optimal cutoff value of serum MBL levels as an indicator for diagnosis of DN was projected to be 2950ug/L, which yielded a sensitivity of 77.2 % and a specificity of 80.8%, with the area under the curve at 0.809 (95%CI, 0.769—0.848). Conclusion Our findings suggested that MBL may be involved in the pathogenesis of DN in type 2 diabetes, and that determination of MBL status might be used to identify patients at increased risk of developing nephropathy complications. PMID:25803807

  19. Mannose-Binding Lectin: Biologic Characteristics and Role in the Susceptibility to Infections and Ischemia-Reperfusion Related Injury in Critically Ill Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Moriondo, Maria; Bertaina, Chiara; Mondì, Vito; Inglese, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a member of the collectin family, belonging to the innate immunity system. Genetic, biologic, and clinical properties of MBL have been widely investigated throughout the last decades, although some interesting aspects of its potential clinical relevance are still poorly understood. Low circulating concentrations of MBL have been associated with increased risk of infection and poor neurologic outcome in neonates. On the other hand, an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response by the neonatal intestine after the exposure to luminal bacteria, leading to an increased production of MBL, may be involved in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge about genetic and biologic characteristics of MBL and its role in the susceptibility to infections and to ischemia-reperfusion related tissue injuries to better explore its clinical relevance during the perinatal period and the possible future therapeutic applications. PMID:28246614

  20. The Lectin Pathway of Complement and Rheumatic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Beltrame, Marcia Holsbach; Catarino, Sandra Jeremias; Goeldner, Isabela; Boldt, Angelica Beate Winter; de Messias-Reason, Iara José

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of host defense against infection and is comprised of humoral and cellular mechanisms that recognize potential pathogens within minutes or hours of entry. The effector components of innate immunity include epithelial barriers, phagocytes, and natural killer cells, as well as cytokines and the complement system. Complement plays an important role in the immediate response against microorganisms, including Streptococcus sp. The lectin pathway is one of three pathways by which the complement system can be activated. This pathway is initiated by the binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), collectin 11 (CL-K1), and ficolins (Ficolin-1, Ficolin-2, and Ficolin-3) to microbial surface oligosaccharides and acetylated residues, respectively. Upon binding to target molecules, MBL, CL-K1, and ficolins form complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2 (MASP-1 and MASP-2), which cleave C4 and C2 forming the C3 convertase (C4b2a). Subsequent activation of complement cascade leads to opsonization, phagocytosis, and lysis of target microorganisms through the formation of the membrane-attack complex. In addition, activation of complement may induce several inflammatory effects, such as expression of adhesion molecules, chemotaxis and activation of leukocytes, release of reactive oxygen species, and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. In this chapter, we review the general aspects of the structure, function, and genetic polymorphism of lectin-pathway components and discuss most recent understanding on the role of the lectin pathway in the predisposition and clinical progression of Rheumatic Fever. PMID:25654073

  1. Characterization of the oligomer structure of recombinant human mannan-binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia H; Weilguny, Dietmar; Matthiesen, Finn; McGuire, Kirsten A; Shi, Lei; Højrup, Peter

    2005-03-25

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) belongs to a family of proteins called the collectins, which show large differences in their ultrastructures. These differences are believed to be determined by different N-terminal disulfide-bonding patterns. So far only the bonding pattern of two of the simple forms (recombinant rat MBL-C and bovine CL-43) have been determined. Recombinant MBL expressed in human cells was purified, and the structure of the N-terminal region was determined. Preliminary results on human plasma-derived MBL revealed high similarity to the recombinant protein. Here we report the structure of the N-terminal part of recombinant human MBL and present a model to explain the oligomerization pattern. Using a strategy of consecutive enzymatic digestions and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, we succeeded in identifying a number of disulfide-linked peptides from the N-terminal cysteine-rich region. Based on these building blocks, we propose a model that can explain the various oligomeric forms found in purified MBL preparations. Furthermore, the model was challenged by the production of cysteine to serine mutants of the three N-terminally situated cysteines. The oligomerization patterns of these mutants support the proposed model. The model indicates that the polypeptide dimer is the basic unit in the oligomerization.

  2. Mannose-binding lectin serum levels in neonatal sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Wahab Mohamed, Walid Abdel; Saeed, Mohamed Abdullatif

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum levels as a marker for predicting sepsis, septic shock, and their outcomes in neonates. A prospective study was conducted on 62 neonates (27 preterm and 35 full term) with culture-proven sepsis and 35 controls. Serum levels of MBL were measured by immunoassay. Of 62 infants with positive blood cultures (Gram-negative = 44 and Gram-positive = 18), 11 infants had severe sepsis and 6 neonates developed septic shock. MBL levels were significantly lower in infants with sepsis than in control group (0.39 ± 0.07 vs. 1.34 ± 0.03 μg/ml; p < 0.001). The lowest MBL levels were detected in those infants with septic shock, particularly those who died (p < 0.05). MBL had high sensitivity (96.7), specificity (97.1), positive (98.3), and negative (94.4) predictive values to detect sepsis. Low MBL serum levels could be considered as sensitive and specific marker for predicting sepsis, septic shock, and their clinical outcomes in newborn infants.

  3. Rapid Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus Pathogens from Infected Clinical Samples Using Magnetic Beads Coated with Fc-Mannose Binding Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, B.; Gamini, N.; Rodas, M.; Penary, M.; Giordano, G.; Oswald, E.; Super, M.; Ingber, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe how Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can be rapidly isolated from clinical samples of articular fluid and synovial tissue using magnetic beads coated with the engineered chimeric human opsonin protein, Fc-mannose-binding lectin (FcMBL). The FcMBL-beads were used to capture and magnetically remove bacteria from purified cultures of 12 S. aureus strains, and from 8 articular fluid samples and 4 synovial tissue samples collected from patients with osteoarthritis or periprosthetic infections previously documented by positive S. aureus cultures. While the capture efficiency was high (85%) with purified S. aureus strains grown in vitro, direct FcMBL-bead capture from the clinical samples was initially disappointing (< 5% efficiency). Further analysis revealed that inhibition of FcMBL binding was due to coating of the bacteria by immunoglobulins and immune cells that masked FcMBL binding sites, and to the high viscosity of these complex biological samples. Importantly, capture of pathogens using the FcMBL-beads was increased to 76% efficiency by pretreating clinical specimens with hypotonic washes, hyaluronidase and a protease cocktail. Using this approach, S. aureus bacteria could be isolated from infected osteoarthritic tissues within 2 hours after sample collection. This FcMBL-enabled magnetic method for rapid capture and concentration of pathogens from clinical samples could be integrated upstream of current processes used in clinical microbiology laboratories to identify pathogens and perform antibiotic sensitivity testing when bacterial culture is not possible or before colonies can be detected. PMID:27275840

  4. The three-dimensional structure of codakine and related marine C-type lectins.

    PubMed

    Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Markiv, Anatoly; Smith-Ravin, Juliette

    2007-10-01

    Codakine is a new Ca(2+)-dependent mannose-binding C-type lectin (MBL) isolated from the gill tissue of the tropical clam, Codakia orbicularis. Bioinformatic analyses with the BLAST program have revealed similarities with marine lectins involved in immunity whose three-dimensional (3D) structures were unknown up until recently. In this article, we present bioinformatic analyses of marine lectins that are homologous to codakine, in particular lectins from the sea worm Laxus oneistus, named mermaid. These lectins are involved in the symbiotic association with sulphur-oxidizing bacteria which are closely related to the C. orbicularis gill symbiont. Using homology modelling, folding that is characteristic of C-type lectins was observed in all the marine Ca(2+)-dependent lectins studied, with conservation of random coiled structures of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and Ca(2+)-binding sites. Like codakine, the marine lectins analysed contain a signal peptide commonly found in secreted and transmembrane proteins. The majority of the predictive 3D models established from the lectins exhibit a common feature, namely the involvement in invertebrate and vertebrate immunity (dendritic cell receptor, macrophage receptor, etc.). These bioinformatic analyses and the literature data support the hypothesis that codakine, like the L. oneistus mermaids, is probably involved in the cellular mediation of symbiosis and defence against pathogenic microorganisms.

  5. Association of mannose-binding lectin levels and invasive fungal disease in hematologic malignancy patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Riwes, M M; Leather, H; Neal, D; Bennett, C; Sugrue, M; Cline, C; Stokes, J; Hiemenz, J; Hsu, J; Wingard, J R

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have suggested an association of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency with infections. In this study, we investigated the association between MBL deficiency and invasive fungal disease (IFD) in hematologic malignancy patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. MBL levels were quantified at the start of treatment in 152 patients who were followed for 6 months and scored as developing IFD or not. Forty-five patients (29.6%) developed IFD, of which 21 (46.7% of IFD cases and 13.8% of patients) were proven or probable IFD. Fifty-nine (38.8%) had MBL levels <1000 ng/mL. The rates of all IFD in patients with MBL levels below and above 1000 ng/mL were 33.9% and 26.9%, respectively (P=0.356). The rates of proven or probable IFD in patients with MBL levels below and above 1000 ng/mL were 11.9% and 15.1%, respectively (P=0.579). MBL levels <1000 ng/mL were not predictors of death (P=0.233). As expected, IFD was associated with death (P<0.0001). Our findings indicate that MBL levels <1000 ng/mL were not associated with an increased risk of developing IFD or overall survival.

  6. Role of genetic polymorphisms in factor H and MBL genes in Tunisian patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gorgi, Yousr; Hbibi, Imen; Sfar, Imen; Gargueh, Tahar; Cherif, Majda; Goucha Louzir, Rim; Daghbouj, Raoudha; Aouadi, Houda; Makhlouf, Mouna; Ben Romdhane, Thouraya; Jendoubi-Ayed, Salwa; Amri, Mohamed; Kheder, Adel; Lakhoua, Mohaled R; Ben Abdallah, Taïeb; Ayed, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) remain poorly understood. Several different polymorphic genes have been investigated in order to demonstrate their possible association with this disease. It is evident that mainly alternative and lectin pathways complement activation and play an important role in renal injury of IgAN. This study was conducted to determine eventual deficiencies of factor H in the SCR20 gene region and to look for a possible association between the polymorphism (+54) exon 1 of the MBL gene and the predisposition in Tunisian patients with IgAN. We then evaluated the effects of these FH mutations and/or this MBL polymorphism on nephropathy susceptibility and progression. Polymorphism A/B (+54) in the exon1 of the MBL gene and analysis within the C-terminal domain of the protein SCR20 in the exon 22 of the factor H (FH) gene were conducted in 36 sporadic IgAN Tunisian patients and 117 age and gender matched healthy subjects recruited from blood donors, by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and direct sequencing respectively. The analysis of the Gly54Asp (+54) mutation of the MBL gene according to the criteria of gravity of the IgAN reveals that the patients with genotype AB present more frequently with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with those of genotype AA [OR: 8, CI (1.74–54.49), P = 0.019]. Moreover, the variant allele B was statistically more frequent than the allele A in patients with an association with initial arterial high blood pressure, ESRD and class V of the Haas classification compared to those without this association (P = 0.009). The direct sequencing of exon 22 (SCR 20) of FH gene did not reveal any abnormal mutational deficiency for this factor in all patients and controls. The data did not support the hypothesis that FH is a susceptibility factor for the IgAN. However the data did show there was an association between AB (+54) exon1 MBL genotype and severe

  7. Multivalent 3D Display of Glycopolymer Chains for Enhanced Lectin Interaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kenneth; Kasko, Andrea M

    2015-08-19

    Synthetic glycoprotein conjugates were synthesized through the polymerization of glycomonomers (mannose and/or galactose acrylate) directly from a protein macroinitiator. This design combines the multivalency of polymer structures with 3D display of saccharides randomly arranged around a central protein structure. The conjugates were tested for their interaction with mannose binding lectin (MBL), a key protein of immune complement. Increasing mannose number (controlled through polymer chain length) and density (controlled through comonomer feed ratio of mannose versus galactose) result in greater interaction with MBL. Most significantly, mannose glycopolymers displayed in a multivalent and 3D configuration from the protein exhibit dramatically enhanced interaction with MBL compared to linear glycopolymer chains with similar total valency but lacking 3D display. These findings demonstrate the importance of the 3D presentation of ligand structures for designing biomimetic materials.

  8. Classical and lectin complement pathway activity in polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; Cats, Elisabeth A; Vlam, Lotte; Heezius, Erik; Rooijakkers, Suzan; Herpers, Bjorn; de Jong, Ben A W; Rijkers, Ger; van Strijp, Jos; Notermans, Nicolette C; van den Berg, Leonard H; van der Pol, W-Ludo

    2016-01-15

    Polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy (IgM-PNP) is a slowly progressive, sensorimotor neuropathy. It is assumed that complement activation contributes to IgM-PNP pathogenesis. We investigated whether innate differences in complement activity of the classical and mannose binding lectin (MBL) pathways are associated with IgM-PNP or its severity. We measured complement activity using ELISA and determined MBL serumc oncentrations and MBL gene polymorphisms in 83 patients and 83 healthy controls. We did not observe differences between IgM-PNP patients and healthy controls nor associations with different disease severities. Differences in innate complement activity are not likely to explain susceptibility to or severity of IgM-PNP.

  9. Large Capacitance Measurement by Multiple Uses of MBL Charge Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung Sook; Chae, Min; Kim, Jung Bog

    2010-01-01

    A recent article by Morse described interesting electrostatics experiments using an MBL charge sensor. In this application, the charge sensor has a large capacitance compared to the charged test object, so nearly all charges can be transferred to the sensor capacitor from the capacitor to be measured. However, the typical capacitance of commercial…

  10. Large Capacitance Measurement by Multiple Uses of MBL Charge Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung Sook; Chae, Min; Kim, Jung Bog

    2010-01-01

    A recent article by Morse described interesting electrostatics experiments using an MBL charge sensor. In this application, the charge sensor has a large capacitance compared to the charged test object, so nearly all charges can be transferred to the sensor capacitor from the capacitor to be measured. However, the typical capacitance of commercial…

  11. Genetic and Phenotypic Screening of Mannose-Binding Lectin in Relation to Risk of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Infections in Women of North India: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Namarta; Singh, Jatinder; Sharma, Sujata; Arora, Hardesh; Kaur, Manpreet

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent Vulvovaginal Infections (RVVI) is common problem associated with women of reproductive age. The function and deleterious effect of Mannose Binding Lectin 2 (MBL2) common polymorphisms are reported to be associated with various diseases. However, the role of MBL2 promoter gene polymorphisms and their combined effect with structural variant along with Serum Mannose Binding Lectin (sMBL) levels in RVVI has not been investigated. The study included 258 RVVI cases and 203 age matched healthy controls. These were investigated for the distribution of MBL2 codon 54 and promoter polymorphisms by Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR). sMBL levels were quantified by Enzyme Linked Immnosorbent Assay (ELISA). The frequency of X allele and its genotypes was significantly high in cases than controls conferring risk toward RVVI and its types (p < 0.05). The HXPA (OR; 2.0), LXQB (OR; 1.43) haplotypes were associated with susceptibility to RVVI cases while haplotype LYQB significantly protected against RVVI (OR; 0.58), Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) (OR; 0.27) and Mixed Infections (MI) cases (OR; 0.62) with high frequency observed in controls (p < 0.05). Mean sMBL levels were significantly low in RVVI, BV, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC), and MI cases compared to controls (p < 0.05). VVC patient showed significantly low sMBL levels than RVVI and MI cases (p < 0.05). The mean sMBL levels segregated based on MBL2 genotypes and haplotypes showed significant difference in different cases groups with controls. The findings of the present study suggested that MBL2 Y/X polymorphism and low sMBL levels were associated with susceptibility to RVVI either it is BV, VVC, or MI. Thus MBL deficiency in women with RVVI may contribute to decreased efficiency in clearing of pathogens. Hence, specific measures like administration of purified or recombinant MBL might decrease the incidence of vaginal infections recurrences and more-effective treatment. PMID

  12. The bacteria binding glycoprotein salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp340) activates complement via the lectin pathway.

    PubMed

    Leito, Jelani T D; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; van Houdt, Michel; van den Berg, Timo K; Wouters, Diana

    2011-10-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), also known as gp-340 and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1, is a glycoprotein that is present in tears, lung fluid and mucosal surfaces along the gastrointestinal tract. It is encoded by the Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 gene, a member of the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich group B protein superfamily. SAG aggregates bacteria thus promoting their clearance from the oral cavity and activates the complement system. Complement proteins may enter the oral cavity in case of serum leakage, which occurs after mucosal damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mode of complement activation. We showed a dose-dependent C4 deposition on SAG-coated microplates showing that either the classical or lectin pathway of complement was activated. Antibodies against mannose binding lectin inhibited C4 deposition and SAG induced no C4 deposition in MBL deficient sera showing SAG activated complement through the MBL pathway. Periodate treatment of SAG abolished MBL pathway activation consistent with an involvement of SAG glycans in complement activation. This provides the first evidence for a role of SAG in complement activation through the MBL pathway and suggests a potential role of SAG as a complement activating factor at the mucosal epithelia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct Complement Restriction of Flavivirus Infection Requires Glycan Recognition by Mannose Binding Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Anja; Lin, Tsai-Yu; Beasley, David W.; Stover, Cordula M.; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Pierson, Theodore C.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY An intact complement system is crucial for limiting West Nile virus (WNV) dissemination. Herein, we define how complement directly restricts flavivirus infection in an antibody-independent fashion. Mannose binding lectin (MBL) recognized N-linked glycans on the structural proteins of WNV and Dengue virus (DENV), resulting in neutralization through a C3 and C4-dependent mechanism that utilized both the canonical and bypass lectin activation pathways. For WNV, neutralization occurred with virus produced in insect cells, whereas for DENV, neutralization of insect and mammalian cell-derived virus was observed. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the MBL-dependent neutralization occurred in part, by blocking viral fusion. Experiments in mice showed an MBL-dependent accelerated intravascular clearance of DENV or a WNV mutant with two N-linked glycans on its E protein, but not with wild type WNV. Our studies show that MBL recognizes terminal mannose containing carbohydrates on flaviviruses, resulting in neutralization and efficient clearance in vivo. PMID:20709295

  14. Mannose-binding lectin genotypes: potential role in tubal damage and adverse IVF outcome.

    PubMed

    Laisk, Triin; Peters, Maire; Salumets, Andres

    2011-12-01

    The innate immune system provides the first-line defence against genital tract pathogens and is also involved in establishing and maintaining a successful pregnancy. Genetic variation of factors regulating immune response can be associated with complications after genital tract infections and may lead to unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. This study focused on four polymorphisms in the mannose binding lectin gene (MBL2) and assessed their significance in tubal damage and female fertility by comparing genotype frequencies among 388 controls and women with tubal factor infertility (n=155) or previous ectopic pregnancy (n=178). The high-producing MBL2 genotype HYA/LYA was found to have a protective effect, while the hyper-producing MBL2 genotype HYA/HYA and low-producing MBL2 genotypes were associated with susceptibility to tubal factor infertility. Also, the low-producing genotypes showed association with early pregnancy loss in IVF treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that certain MBL2 genotypes can be associated with tubal damage in patients with evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and additionally may contribute to the pathogenesis of early pregnancy loss.

  15. Smoking status interacts with the association between mannose-binding lectin serum levels and gene polymorphism and the carriage of oropharyngeal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jounio, Ulla; Rantala, Aino; Bloigu, Aini; Juvonen, Raija; Lajunen, Taina; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, Sylvi; Peitso, Ari; Vainio, Olli; Harju, Terttu; Saukkoriipi, Annika; Leinonen, Maija

    2010-03-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) role in the carriage of oropharyngeal bacteria is not known. We investigated the association of smoking, MBL2 polymorphisms, and MBL concentrations with oropharyngeal carriage of respiratory bacteria in young men. Oropharyngeal specimens, MBL concentrations, and MBL2 gene polymorphisms were measured in 124 asthmatic and 394 nonasthmatic Finnish military recruits. The carriage rates of S. pneumoniae (p = 0.002), N. meningitidis (p = 0.005), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (p < 0.001) throughout the military service were significantly higher among smokers than in nonsmokers. An MBL level below the median proved to be a significant risk factor for the carriage of N. meningitidis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.6) and beta-hemolytic streptococci (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.2) in the nonsmokers and a borderline significant risk factor for the carriage of S. pneumoniae (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 0.9-2.6), whereas low MBL levels producing MBL2 haplotypes (LXA/LXA, LXA/O, HYA/O, LYA/O, O/O) seemed to be associated with the carriage of N. meningitidis (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.4) and S. pneumoniae (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.9-2.7). Thus, MBL deficiency may predispose nonsmokers to oropharyngeal carriage of these bacteria. We hypothesize that the major factor contributing to elevated bacterial carriage in smokers might be increased bacterial adherence to epithelial cells, which obscures the effect of MBL.

  16. Levels of mannose-binding lectin in individuals with visceral leishmaniasis in the northeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E L; Campos Júnior, M; Monteiro, S G; Costa, G C; Magalhães, A L P; Santos, M D C; Caldas, A J M; Pimentel, M M G

    2015-12-29

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the seven priority endemic diseases in the world. The clinical outcome of many infections is not only dependent on the pathogenic organism, but also on the genetic variability of the host susceptibility to infection. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a protein that plays an important role in the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of MBL between healthy controls and carriers of VL. The VL cases were recruited randomly from the main hospitals and referral outpatient clinics for VL in São Luís, and from home visits. Determination of MBL protein levels was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 161 patients with VL and the 161 healthy controls, 60.9 and 67.1% had high levels of MBL, respectively. There was no significant difference in MBL levels between cases and controls. Low socioeconomic status and living conditions are conducive to the occurrence of VL. Owing to the small number of existing studies, it is extremely important to conduct further studies on MBL levels and susceptibility to VL, especially in regions where the disease is endemic, such as Maranhão, Brazil.

  17. Association between mannose-binding lectin variants, haplotypes and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chenghao; Lin, Yong; Cai, Lin; Mao, Qianguo; Niu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    The innate immunity gene mannose-binding lectin2 (MBL2) has played an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and the relationship between MBL2 variants and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk has not yet been identified. In total, 315 HCC cases and 315 healthy controls were enrolled and blood samples were acquired. High resolution melt analysis (HRM) was employed to genotype 6 polymorphisms in MBL2 gene. Increased HCC risk in carriers of LL genotype of −550 polymorphism with an adjusted OR (AOR) of 1.61 (95%CI = 1.00–2.57) was observed but no significant association detected in HL genotype. Both YX and XX genotype demonstrated a significantly elevated HCC risk in the analysis of −221 polymorphism. The B variants in codon 54 was also significantly associated with elevated HCC risk. HYB was identified as the protective factor of HCC while LXB was significantly associated with increase HCC risk. ELISA technique revealed that the MBL2 protein was significantly reduced in HCC cases. Moreover, both IL-1β and IL-6 were inversely associated with plasma MBL2 level.The mutations in MBL2 could lead to compromised innate immunity, and possibly lead to elevated HCC risk, and a novel haplotype HXB has been identified with a rate of 12.5%. PMID:27557564

  18. Association of mannose-binding lectin gene variation with disease severity and infections in a population-based cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Garred, P; Voss, A; Madsen, H O; Junker, P

    2001-12-01

    This study describes the importance of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) variant alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and accompanying infections in a population-based cohort. MBL alleles were determined in 99 SLE patients recruited from a representative Danish region. Patients were classified according to the 1982 revised ACR criteria as definite SLE (D-SLE) (n = 77) fulfilling > or =4 criteria and incomplete SLE (I-SLE) (n = 22) with 0.99, respectively). A meta-analysis of eight previously published studies suggested that the presence of MBL variant alleles confer a 1.6 times overall increased risk for D-SLE (P < 0.00001). MBL variant allele carriers had higher disease activity (SLEDAI-index) in a 2-year follow-up period (P = 0.02) and had an increased risk of acquiring complicating infections in general (P = 0.03) and respiratory infections in particular (P = 0.0006). Only in SLE patients fulfilling > or =4 ACR criteria an increased frequency of MBL variant alleles was found. MBL variant alleles were also associated with increased risk of disease activity and of complicating infections indicating that the MBL gene is an SLE disease modifier locus.

  19. Influence of chicken serum mannose-binding lectin levels on the immune response towards Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Norup, L R; Dalgaard, T S; Friggens, N C; Sørensen, P; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) on infections with Escherichia coli in chickens. Initially, the basic levels of MBL in 4 different lines of layer chickens, namely ISA Brown, Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Braun, and Hellevad, were investigated. This investigation revealed a 2-to 3-fold difference in the basic levels of MBL in serum between some of these commercial lines. Furthermore, the ontogeny of the basic level of MBL in serum of an experimental chicken line was investigated. The level of MBL was very stabile for long periods, with an elevation at 5 to 7 wk of age. Another elevation in MBL level started around 18 to 19 wk of age and stayed elevated at least until 38 wk of age. In this study, it was hypothesized that chickens with high levels of MBL (H-type) may be less prone to disease caused by E. coli infection than chickens with low levels of MBL (L-type) after attempts were made to immunosuppress the chickens by immunization with a live attenuated infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine strain. The H-type and L-type chickens were divided into 4 groups receiving either no treatment (I-E-), E. coli alone (I-E+), IBDV alone (I+E-), or IBDV and E. coli (I+E+). Body weight gain was depressed by IBDV immunization as well as E. coli inoculation. The depression of BW gain was significantly larger in L-type chickens compared with H-type chickens. The antibody response to E. coli was significantly depressed by IBDV vaccination and antibody titers to E. coli were elevated by experimental E. coli inoculation, but only in the group not given IBDV (I-E- vs. I-E+). On d 28, T-cell responses in L-type chickens showed a lower percentage of proliferating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared with the H-type, regardless of treatment. In conclusion, immune reactions toward infections with E. coli differed between chickens having different basal serum MBL levels, and as such, MBL may be of importance for future selection of more

  20. Lectins from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Singh, Senjam Sunil; Wang, Hexiang; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wenliang; Dan, Xiuli; Yin, Cui Ming; Akkouh, Ouafae; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-12-31

    Mushrooms are famous for their nutritional and medicinal values and also for the diversity of bioactive compounds they contain including lectins. The present review is an attempt to summarize and discuss data available on molecular weights, structures, biological properties, N-terminal sequences and possible applications of lectins from edible mushrooms. It further aims to update and discuss/examine the recent advancements in the study of these lectins regarding their structures, functions, and exploitable properties. A detailed tabling of all the available data for N-terminal sequences of these lectins is also presented here.

  1. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M; Ryan, Christopher M; Johnson, Patricia J; O'Keefe, Barry R; Secor, W Evan; Anderson, Deborah J; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas.

  2. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Johnson, Patricia J.; O’Keefe, Barry R.; Secor, W. Evan; Anderson, Deborah J.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas. PMID:26252012

  3. Cyborg lectins: novel leguminous lectins with unique specificities.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Maruyama, I N; Osawa, T

    2000-01-01

    Bauhinia purpurea lectin (BPA) is one of the beta-galactose-binding leguminous lectins. Leguminous lectins contain a long metal-binding loop, part of which determines their carbohydrate-binding specificities. Random mutations were introduced into a portion of the cDNA coding BPA that corresponds to the carbohydrate-binding loop of the lectin. An library of the mutant lectin expressed on the surface of lambda foo phages was screened by the panning method. Several phage clones with an affinity for mannose or N-acetylglucosamine were isolated. These results indicate the possibility of making artificial lectins (so-called "cyborg lectins") with distinct and desired carbohydrate-binding specificities.

  4. Mannose-binding lectin-deficient genotypes as a risk factor of pneumococcal meningitis in infants

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Rodriguez, Carles; Launes, Cristian; Jordan, Iolanda; Andres, Maria; Arias, Maria Teresa; Lozano, Francisco; Garcia-Garcia, Juan Jose

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate to evaluate the role of mannose-binding-lectin deficient genotypes in pneumococcal meningitis (PM) in children. Methods We performed a 16-year retrospective study (January 2001 to March 2016) including patients ≤ 18 years with PM. Variables including attack rate of pneumococcal serotype (high or low invasive capacity) and MBL2 genotypes associated with low serum MBL levels were recorded. Results Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Median age was 18.5 months and 17/48 episodes (35.4%) occurred in children ≤ 12 months old. Serotypes with high-invasive disease potential were identified in 15/48 episodes (31.2%). MBL2 deficient genotypes accounted for 18.8% (9/48). Children ≤ 12 months old had a 7-fold risk (95% CI: 1.6–29.9; p < 0.01) of having a MBL2 deficient genotype in comparison to those > 12 months old. A sub-analysis of patients by age group revealed significant proportions of carriers of MBL2 deficient genotypes among those ≤ 12 months old with PM caused by opportunistic serotypes (54.5%), admitted to the PICU (Pediatric Intensive Care Unit) (46.7%) and of White ethnicity (35.7%). These proportions were significantly higher than in older children (all p<0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that differences in MBL2 genotype in children ≤12 months old affects susceptibility to PM, and it may have an important role in the episodes caused by non-high invasive disease potential serotypes. PMID:28562692

  5. Mannose-binding lectin-deficient genotypes as a risk factor of pneumococcal meningitis in infants.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Rodriguez, Carles; Launes, Cristian; Jordan, Iolanda; Andres, Maria; Arias, Maria Teresa; Lozano, Francisco; Garcia-Garcia, Juan Jose; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate to evaluate the role of mannose-binding-lectin deficient genotypes in pneumococcal meningitis (PM) in children. We performed a 16-year retrospective study (January 2001 to March 2016) including patients ≤ 18 years with PM. Variables including attack rate of pneumococcal serotype (high or low invasive capacity) and MBL2 genotypes associated with low serum MBL levels were recorded. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Median age was 18.5 months and 17/48 episodes (35.4%) occurred in children ≤ 12 months old. Serotypes with high-invasive disease potential were identified in 15/48 episodes (31.2%). MBL2 deficient genotypes accounted for 18.8% (9/48). Children ≤ 12 months old had a 7-fold risk (95% CI: 1.6-29.9; p < 0.01) of having a MBL2 deficient genotype in comparison to those > 12 months old. A sub-analysis of patients by age group revealed significant proportions of carriers of MBL2 deficient genotypes among those ≤ 12 months old with PM caused by opportunistic serotypes (54.5%), admitted to the PICU (Pediatric Intensive Care Unit) (46.7%) and of White ethnicity (35.7%). These proportions were significantly higher than in older children (all p<0.05). Our results suggest that differences in MBL2 genotype in children ≤12 months old affects susceptibility to PM, and it may have an important role in the episodes caused by non-high invasive disease potential serotypes.

  6. Innate Immune Proteins C1q and Mannan-Binding Lectin Enhance Clearance of Atherogenic Lipoproteins by Human Monocytes and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Deborah A.; Tenner, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of modified lipoproteins in the arterial intima. C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) are not only recognition components involved in activation of inflammation via the complement cascade, but they are also able to directly modulate phagocyte activation. Studies in C1q−/− and MBL−/− mice suggest that these molecules play a protective role in the early atherosclerotic lesion in the absence of, or prior to, expression of other complement components. However, in later stages, complement activation becomes an inappropriate inflammatory response, contributing to disease pathology. Therefore, to investigate possible molecular interactions of C1q and MBL in atherosclerotic lesions, we examined the influence of C1q and MBL in the clearance of native and modified lipoproteins by human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Both C1q and MBL are shown to bind and enhance the monocyte/monocyte-derived macrophage clearance of modified forms of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), including oxidized LDL and acetylated LDL, but not native LDL. Modified forms of LDL activate the classical complement pathway, but no lectin pathway activation was detected. Interestingly, monocytes that ingested modified LDL in the presence of C1q or MBL upregulated surface CD80 and CD31, as well as CCL2 chemokine gene expression. However, C1q and MBL also significantly reduced levels of free cholesterol accumulation in monocytes and human monocyte-derived macrophages that ingested oxidized LDL, while enhancing high-density lipoprotein–specific cholesterol efflux from these cells. These results suggest a novel pathway in which C1q and MBL influence removal and metabolism of atherogenic forms of LDL in the early stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:20833838

  7. Isolation and characterization of a novel lectin from the mushroom Armillaria luteo-virens

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, K.; Liu, Q.H.; Ng, T.B.; Liu, H.Z.; Li, J.Q.; Chen, G.; Sheng, H.Y.; Xie, Z.L.; Wang, H.X. . E-mail: hxwang@cau.edu.cn

    2006-07-14

    From the dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Armillaria luteo-virens, a dimeric lectin with a molecular mass of 29.4 kDa has been isolated. The purification procedure involved (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, and Q-Sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin could not be inhibited by simple sugars but was inhibited by the polysaccharide inulin. The activity was stable up to 70 {sup o}C but was acid- and alkali-labile. Salts including FeCl{sub 3}, AlCl{sub 3}, and ZnCl{sub 2} inhibited the activity whereas MgCl{sub 2}, MnCl{sub 2}, and CaCl{sub 2} did not. The lectin stimulated mitogenic response of mouse splenocytes with the maximal response achieved by 1 {mu}M lectin. Proliferation of tumor cells including MBL2 cells, HeLa cells, and L1210 cells was inhibited by the lectin with an IC{sub 5} of 2.5, 5, and 10 {mu}M, respectively. However, proliferation of HepG2 cells was not affected. The novel aspects of the isolated lectin include a novel N-terminal sequence, fair thermostability, acid stability, and alkali stability, together with potent mitogenic activity toward spleen cells and antiproliferative activity toward tumor cells.

  8. Binding and activation of human and mouse complement by Cryptosporidium parvum (Apicomplexa) and susceptibility of C1q- and MBL-deficient mice to infection.

    PubMed

    Petry, Franz; Jakobi, Vera; Wagner, Swen; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Thiel, Steffen; Loos, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite (Apicomplexa) that causes gastrointestinal disease in animals and humans. Whereas immunocompetent hosts can limit the infection within 1 or 2 weeks, immunocompromised individuals develop a chronic, life-threatening disease. The importance of the adaptive cellular immune response, with CD4+ T-lymphocytes being the major players, has been clearly demonstrated. Several non-adaptive immune mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the host defence, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) from NK cells, certain chemokines, beta-defensins and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but the influence of the complement systems has been less well studied. We analysed the in vitro binding and activation of the human and mouse complement systems and tested the susceptibility to infection in complement-deficient mouse strains. We found that C. parvum can activate both the classical and lectin pathways, leading to the deposition of C3b on the parasite. Using real-time PCR, parasite development could be demonstrated in adult mice lacking mannan-binding lectin (MBL-A/C-/-) but not in mice lacking complement factor C1q (C1qA-/-) or in wild type C57BL/6 mice. The contribution of the complement system and the lectin pathway in particular to the host defence against cryptosporidiosis may become apparent in situations of immunodeficiency such as HIV infections or in early childhood.

  9. Mannose-binding lectin codon 54 gene polymorphism and vulvovaginal candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nedovic, Bojan; Posteraro, Brunella; Leoncini, Emanuele; Ruggeri, Alberto; Amore, Rosarita; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a key role in the human innate immune response. It has been shown that polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene, particularly at codon 54 (variant allele B; wild-type allele designated as A), impact upon host susceptibility to Candida infection. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the association between MBL2 codon 54 genotype and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or recurrent VVC (RVVC). Studies were searched in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science until April 2013. Five studies including 704 women (386 cases and 318 controls) were part of the meta-analysis, and pooled ORs were calculated using the random effects model. For subjects with RVVC, ORs of AB versus AA and of BB versus AA were 4.84 (95% CI 2.10-11.15; P for heterogeneity = 0.013; I(2) = 68.6%) and 12.68 (95% CI 3.74-42.92; P for heterogeneity = 0.932, I(2) = 0.0%), respectively. For subjects with VVC, OR of AB versus AA was 2.57 (95% CI 1.29-5.12; P for heterogeneity = 0.897; I (2) = 0.0%). This analysis indicates that heterozygosity for the MBL2 allele B increases significantly the risk for both diseases, suggesting that MBL may influence the women's innate immunity in response to Candida.

  10. Frequent IgG subclass and mannose binding lectin deficiency in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Sabrina; Loebel, Madlen; Mooslechner, Agnes A; Knops, Michael; Hanitsch, Leif G; Grabowski, Patricia; Wittke, Kirsten; Meisel, Christian; Unterwalder, Nadine; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a severe disease characterized by various symptoms of immune dysfunction. CFS onset is typically with an infection and many patients suffer from frequently recurrent viral or bacterial infections. Immunoglobulin and mannose binding lectin (MBL) deficiency are frequent causes for increased susceptibility to infections. In this study we retrospectively analysed 300 patients with CFS for immunoglobulin and MBL levels, and B-cell subset frequencies. 25% of the CFS patients had decreased serum levels of at least one antibody class or subclass with IgG3 and IgG4 subclass deficiencies as most common phenotypes. However, we found elevated immunoglobulin levels with an excess of IgM and IgG2 in particular in another 25% of patients. No major alteration in numbers of B cells and B-cell subsets was seen. Deficiency of MBL was found in 15% of the CFS patients in contrast to 6% in a historical control group. In a 2nd cohort of 168 patients similar frequencies of IgG subclass and MBL deficiency were found. Thus, humoral immune defects are frequent in CFS patients and are associated with infections of the respiratory tract.

  11. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphic variants predispose to the development of bronchopulmonary complications but have no influence on other clinical and laboratory symptoms or signs of common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Litzman, J; Freiberger, T; Grimbacher, B; Gathmann, B; Salzer, U; Pavlík, T; Vlček, J; Postránecká, V; Trávníčková, Z; Thon, V

    2008-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), activating protein of the lectin pathway of the complement system, is an important component of the non-specific immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms, both in the coding and promoter regions, lead to low or deficient serum MBL levels. Low serum MBL levels were shown to be associated with serious infectious complications, mainly in patients in whom other non-specific immune system barriers were disturbed (granulocytopenia, cystic fibrosis). We have analysed two promoter (−550 and −221) and three exon (codons 52, 54 and 57) MBL2 polymorphisms in a total of 94 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) from two immunodeficiency centres. Low-producing genotypes were associated with the presence of bronchiectasis (P = 0·009), lung fibrosis (P = 0·037) and also with respiratory insufficiency (P = 0·029). We could not demonstrate any association of MBL deficiency with age at onset of clinical symptoms, age at diagnosis, the number of pneumonias before diagnosis or serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA and IgM levels before initiation of Ig treatment. No association with emphysema development was observed, such as with lung function test abnormalities. No effect of MBL2 genotypes on the presence of diarrhoea, granuloma formation, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, frequency of respiratory tract infection or the number of antibiotic courses of the patients was observed. Our study suggests that low MBL-producing genotypes predispose to bronchiectasis formation, and also fibrosis and respiratory insufficiency development, but have no effect on other complications in CVID patients. PMID:18637104

  12. Lectins with potential for anti-cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Yau, Tammy; Dan, Xiuli; Ng, Charlene Cheuk Wing; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-02-26

    This article reviews lectins of animal and plant origin that induce apoptosis and autophagy of cancer cells and hence possess the potential of being developed into anticancer drugs. Apoptosis-inducing lectins encompass galectins, C-type lectins, annexins, Haliotis discus discus lectin, Polygonatum odoratum lectin, mistletoe lectin, and concanavalin A, fucose-binding Dicentrarchus labrax lectin, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus lectin, Polygonatum odoratum lectin, and mistletoe lectin, Polygonatum odoratum lectin, autophagy inducing lectins include annexins and Polygonatum odoratum lectin.

  13. PRO 140--a novel CCR5 co-receptor inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Nadia; Das, Satyajit

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increase in the variety of anti-retroviral agents in the market, there remains a need for novel agents to treat HIV 1 infected individuals, in order to overcome existing problems with adherence, toxicities, drug interactions and viral resistance. In this article, we will describe Pro 140, one of the recently developed class of anti-retroviral agent, the CCR5 co-receptor inhibitor. We will also describe several preclinical and clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy, tolerability and toxicity profiles of Pro-140. We will also look at how its mechanism of action and mode of delivery may change the way patients take highly active anti-retroviral therapy. There are some promising patents discussed in this short review for the use of PRO 140 as CCR5 co-receptor Inhibitor.

  14. Functional variants in MBL2 are associated with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes traits in Pima Indians and the old order Amish.

    PubMed

    Muller, Yunhua L; Hanson, Robert L; Bian, Li; Mack, Janel; Shi, Xiaolian; Pakyz, Ruth; Shuldiner, Alan R; Knowler, William C; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J

    2010-08-01

    MBL2 encodes the mannose-binding lectin, which is a key player in the innate immune system and has recently been found to play a role in insulin resistance and development of type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus. To assess the role of MBL2 in diabetes susceptibility, this gene was analyzed in the Pima Indian population, which has a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Nineteen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in a population-based sample of 3,501 full-heritage Pima Indians, and selected SNPs were further genotyped in independent samples of Native American (n = 3,723) and Old Order Amish (n = 486) subjects. Two variants, a promoter SNP (rs11003125) at -550 bp with a risk allele frequency of 0.77 and a Gly54Asp (rs1800450) with a risk allele frequency of 0.83, were associated with type 2 diabetes in the full-heritage Pima Indians (odds ratio 1.30 per copy of the G allele for rs1103125, P = 0.0007, and 1.30 per copy of the glycine allele for rs1800450, P = 0.002, adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). These associations replicated in an independent Native American sample (1.19, P = 0.04, for rs11003125) and a Caucasian sample, the Old Order Amish (1.51, P = 0.004, for rs1103125 and 2.38, P = 0.003, for rs1800450). Among Pima Indians with normal glucose tolerance, the diabetes risk allele glycine of Gly54Asp was associated with a decreased acute insulin response to an intravenous glucose bolus infusion (P = 0.004, adjusted for age, sex, percent body fat, glucose disposal under physiological insulin stimulation, and family membership). Our data suggest that the functional variants in MBL2 contribute to type 2 diabetes susceptibility in both Native Americans and the Old Order Amish.

  15. Lectins of living organisms. The overview.

    PubMed

    Lakhtin, Vladimir; Lakhtin, Mikhail; Alyoshkin, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    Occurrence, organization, and functioning of lectins as well as their current classifications are under investigation. Results indicate importance of symbiotic lectins for clinical microecology. Lectins and lectin-based approaches have wide perspectives for medical biotechnology. Lectin terms, relationships between lectins and enzymes are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical Role and Therapeutic Control of the Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation in an Abortion-Prone Mouse Mating.

    PubMed

    Petitbarat, Marie; Durigutto, Paolo; Macor, Paolo; Bulla, Roberta; Palmioli, Alessandro; Bernardi, Anna; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia; Ledee, Nathalie; Chaouat, Gerard; Tedesco, Francesco

    2015-12-15

    The abortion-prone mating combination CBA/J × DBA/2 has been recognized as a model of preeclampsia, and complement activation has been implicated in the high rate of pregnancy loss observed in CBA/J mice. We have analyzed the implantation sites collected from DBA/2-mated CBA/J mice for the deposition of the complement recognition molecules using CBA/J mated with BALB/c mice as a control group. MBL-A was observed in the implantation sites of CBA/J × DBA/2 combination in the absence of MBL-C and was undetectable in BALB/c-mated CBA/J mice. Conversely, C1q was present in both mating combinations. Searching for other complement components localized at the implantation sites of CBA/J × DBA/2, we found C4 and C3, but we failed to reveal C1r. These data suggest that complement is activated through the lectin pathway and proceeds to completion of the activation sequence as revealed by C9 deposition. MBL-A was detected as early as 3.5 d of pregnancy, and MBL-A deficiency prevented pregnancy loss in the abortion-prone mating combination. The contribution of the terminal complex to miscarriage was supported by the finding that pregnancy failure was largely inhibited by the administration of neutralizing Ab to C5. Treatment of DBA/2-mated CBA/J mice with Polyman2 that binds to MBL-A with high affinity proved to be highly effective in controlling the activation of the lectin pathway and in preventing fetal loss. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Glycoepitopes of Staphylococcal Wall Teichoic Acid Govern Complement-mediated Opsonophagocytosis via Human Serum Antibody and Mannose-binding Lectin*

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Kenji; Jung, Dong-Jun; An, Jang-Hyun; Fuchs, Katharina; Jeon, Yu-Jin; Kim, Na-Hyang; Li, Xuehua; Tateishi, Koichiro; Park, Ji Ae; Xia, Guoqing; Matsushita, Misao; Takahashi, Kazue; Park, Hee-Ju; Peschel, Andreas; Lee, Bok Luel

    2013-01-01

    Serum antibodies and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) are important host defense factors for host adaptive and innate immunity, respectively. Antibodies and MBL also initiate the classical and lectin complement pathways, respectively, leading to opsonophagocytosis. We have shown previously that Staphylococcus aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer consisting of ribitol phosphate substituted with α- or β-O-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and d-alanine, is recognized by MBL and serum anti-WTA IgG. However, the exact antigenic determinants to which anti-WTA antibodies or MBL bind have not been determined. To answer this question, several S. aureus mutants, such as α-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase-deficient S. aureus ΔtarM, β-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase-deficient ΔtarS, and ΔtarMS double mutant cells, were prepared from a laboratory and a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain. Here, we describe the unexpected finding that β-GlcNAc WTA-deficient ΔtarS mutant cells (which have intact α-GlcNAc) escape from anti-WTA antibody-mediated opsonophagocytosis, whereas α-GlcNAc WTA-deficient ΔtarM mutant cells (which have intact β-GlcNAc) are efficiently engulfed by human leukocytes via anti-WTA IgG. Likewise, MBL binding in S. aureus cells was lost in the ΔtarMS double mutant but not in either single mutant. When we determined the serum concentrations of the anti-α- or anti-β-GlcNAc-specific WTA IgGs, anti-β-GlcNAc WTA-IgG was dominant in pooled human IgG fractions and in the intact sera of healthy adults and infants. These data demonstrate the importance of the WTA sugar conformation for human innate and adaptive immunity against S. aureus infection. PMID:24045948

  18. Morula cells as key hemocytes of the lectin pathway of complement activation in the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Franchi; Loriano, Ballarin

    2017-04-01

    The complement system is deeply rooted in the evolution of humoral mechanism of innate immunity. In addition to the alternative pathway of complement activation, lectins and associated serine proteases exert important roles in the recognition of non-self and activation of the effectors. In the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri, we identified, characterized and studied the expression of three orthologues of genes involved in the lectin pathway of complement activation of vertebrates, i.e., genes for a mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a ficolin and a mannose-associated serine protease 1 (MASP1). All the genes are transcribed by hemocytes, and specifically by morula cells, the same immunocytes responsible for the transcription of C3 and Bf orthologues. The transcription levels of MASP1 and ficolin orthologues are not affected by zymosan challenge, indicating a constitutive expression of complement system associated serine proteases, whereas the MBL orthologue is up-regulated after 15 min of zymosan exposure. Collectively, our data suggest the presence of a complete lectin activation pathway in Botryllus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lectins: production and practical applications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Lectins are proteins found in a diversity of organisms. They possess the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes with known carbohydrate specificity since they have at least one non-catalytic domain that binds reversibly to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. This articles aims to review the production and practical applications of lectins. Lectins are isolated from their natural sources by chromatographic procedures or produced by recombinant DNA technology. The yields of animal lectins are usually low compared with the yields of plant lectins such as legume lectins. Lectins manifest a diversity of activities including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory, and anti-insect activities, which may find practical applications. A small number of lectins demonstrate antibacterial and anti-nematode activities. PMID:20890754

  20. Histochemical staining using lectin probes.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Hayato

    2014-01-01

    In histochemistry and cytochemistry, lectins are often used as probes for the localization of carbohydrates in cells and tissues. With lectins, cells and tissues can be identified as a particular type or a group in situ. Various lectins have been used for mapping of normal cells and tissues, pathological diagnosis such as malignant transformation, and identification of cell lineages during development. This chapter describes light and electron microscopic methods using lectin probes for determining carbohydrate localization in cells and tissues.

  1. Lectins with anti-HIV activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Akkouh, Ouafae; Ng, Tzi Bun; Singh, Senjam Sunil; Yin, Cuiming; Dan, Xiuli; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wenliang; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai

    2015-01-06

    Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin) lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana) lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus). The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Effects of mannose-binding lectin on pulmonary gene expression and innate immune inflammatory response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Ciencewicki, Jonathan M; Verhein, Kirsten C; Gerrish, Kevin; McCaw, Zachary R; Li, Jianying; Bushel, Pierre R; Kleeberger, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    Ozone is a common, potent oxidant pollutant in industrialized nations. Ozone exposure causes airway hyperreactivity, lung hyperpermeability, inflammation, and cell damage in humans and laboratory animals, and exposure to ozone has been associated with exacerbation of asthma, altered lung function, and mortality. The mechanisms of ozone-induced lung injury and differential susceptibility are not fully understood. Ozone-induced lung inflammation is mediated, in part, by the innate immune system. We hypothesized that mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an innate immunity serum protein, contributes to the proinflammatory events caused by ozone-mediated activation of the innate immune system. Wild-type (Mbl(+/+)) and MBL-deficient (Mbl(-/-)) mice were exposed to ozone (0.3 ppm) for up to 72 h, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was examined for inflammatory markers. Mean numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils and levels of the neutrophil attractants C-X-C motif chemokines 2 [Cxcl2 (major intrinsic protein 2)] and 5 [Cxcl5 (limb expression, LIX)] in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly lower in Mbl(-/-) than Mbl(+/+) mice exposed to ozone. Using genome-wide mRNA microarray analyses, we identified significant differences in transcript response profiles and networks at baseline [e.g., nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated oxidative stress response] and after exposure (e.g., humoral immune response) between Mbl(+/+) and Mbl(-/-) mice. The microarray data were further analyzed to discover several informative differential response patterns and subsequent gene sets, including the antimicrobial response and the inflammatory response. We also used the lists of gene transcripts to search the LINCS L1000CDS(2) data sets to identify agents that are predicted to perturb ozone-induced changes in gene transcripts and inflammation. These novel findings demonstrate that targeted deletion of Mbl caused differential levels of inflammation-related gene sets at

  3. Lectin affinity electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    An interaction or a binding event typically changes the electrophoretic properties of a molecule. Affinity electrophoresis methods detect changes in the electrophoretic pattern of molecules (mainly macromolecules) that occur as a result of biospecific interactions or complex formation. Lectin affinity electrophoresis is a very effective method for the detection and analysis of trace amounts of glycobiological substances. It is particularly useful for isolating and separating the glycoisomers of target molecules. Here, we describe a sensitive technique for the detection of glycoproteins separated by agarose gel-lectin affinity electrophoresis that uses antibody-affinity blotting. The technique is tested using α-fetoprotein with lectin (Lens culinaris agglutinin and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin)-agarose gels.

  4. Influence of mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms on the invasiveness of cytomegalovirus disease after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cervera, C; Lozano, F; Linares, L; Antón, A; Balderramo, D; Suárez, B; Pascal, M; Sanclemente, G; Cofán, F; Ricart, M J; Navasa, M; Roig, E; Marcos, M A; Pumarola, T; Moreno, A

    2009-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a component of the innate immune system that binds the surface of pathogens, activating the complement pathway and acting as opsonin. Certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MBL2 are associated with a decrease in the circulating levels of MBL. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of MBL2 polymorphisms in the invasiveness of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease after solid organ transplantation. We include those solid organ transplant recipients who developed CMV disease posttransplant from 2000 to 2006. MBL2 genotyping was performed by sequencing of exon 1 (wild-type allele A and variants B, C, and D) and promoter regions (alleles H and L, X and Y, and P and Q). In the case of liver transplantation, donor MBL2 genotypes were analyzed. Associations were calculated by the chi-square test and binary logistic regression. We included 45 transplant recipients with CMV disease (22 renal, 7 simultaneous kidney-pancreas, 11 liver, and 5 heart), of whom 10 (22%) had invasive CMV disease. No differences were found regarding HH (versus HL or LL), YY and YX (versus XX) and QQ (versus QP and PP) haplotypes with invasive CMV disease (P = 1.000 for all 3 comparisons). Patients with an exon 1 wild-type (AA) haplotype had 36% invasive CMV disease in comparison with 9% of patients with A/O or O/O haplotypes (P = .035). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that patients with exon 1 AA haplotype had an independent risk of developing invasive CMV disease (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-32.5). Our results suggest that exon 1 wild-type genotypes are associated with a higher risk of invasive CMV disease after solid organ transplantation.

  5. Mannose-binding lectin and l-ficolin polymorphisms in patients with community-acquired pneumonia caused by intracellular pathogens.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Gijs; Meijvis, Sabine; Endeman, Henrik; Vlaminckx, Bart; Meek, Bob; de Jong, Ben; Rijkers, Ger; Bos, Willem Jan

    2017-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading infectious disease requiring hospitalization in the western world. Genetic variability affecting the host response to infection may play a role in susceptibility and outcome in patients with CAP. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and l-ficolin (l-FCN) are two important activators of the complement system and they can enhance phagocytosis by opsonization. In a prospective cohort of 505 Dutch patients with CAP and 227 control participants we studied whether polymorphisms in the MBL (MBL2) and FCN (FCN2) genes influenced susceptibility and outcome. No difference in frequency of these genotypes was found between patients with CAP in general and controls. However, the +6424G>T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in FCN2 was more common in patients with a Coxiella burnetii pneumonia (P = 0·014). Moreover, the haplotypes coding for the highest MBL serum levels (YA/YA and YA/XA) predisposed to atypical pneumonia (C. burnetii, Legionella or Chlamydia species or Mycoplasma pneumoniae) compared with controls (P = 0·016). Furthermore, patients with these haplotypes were more often bacteraemic (P = 0·019). It can therefore be concluded that MBL2 and FCN2 polymorphisms are not major risk factors for CAP in general, but that the +6424G>T SNP in the FCN2 gene predisposes to C. burnetii pneumonia. In addition, patients with genotypes corresponding with high serum MBL levels are at risk for atypical pneumonia, possibly caused by enhanced phagocytosis, thereby promoting cell entry of these intracellular bacteria. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Immunogenetics shows that not all MBL are equal: the larger the clone, the more similar to CLL.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Anna; Dagklis, Antonis; Scarfò, Lydia; Jelinek, Diane; Newton, Darren; Bennett, Fiona; Almeida, Julia; Rodriguez-Caballero, Arancha; Allgood, Sallie; Lanasa, Mark; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Orlandi, Ester; Veronese, Silvio; Montillo, Marco; Rawstron, Andy; Shanafelt, Tait; Orfao, Alberto; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Ghia, Paolo

    2013-05-30

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) -like monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) shares common immunophenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities with CLL, from which it is discriminated by a cutoff value of 5 × 10(9)/L circulating clonal B cells. However, the clonal size in MBL is extremely variable and allows discrimination of two distinct entities (high-count [HC] and low-count [LC]-MBL) based on a cutoff value of 0.5 × 10(9)/L clonal B cells. HC-MBL is associated with lymphocytosis and progresses to CLL requiring treatment at a rate of 1.1% per year, whereas LC-MBL is found in the general population only through high-sensitivity techniques and carries limited, if any, risk of progression. We performed an immunogenetic profiling of 333 cases with CLL-like MBL supplemented by detailed comparisons with CLL, focusing especially on CLL Rai stage 0 (CLL-0). LC- and HC-MBL had similar somatic hypermutation status, yet different IGHV gene repertoires and frequencies of B-cell receptor (BcR) stereotypy. In particular, stereotyped BcRs were infrequent in LC-MBL and were often not CLL specific. In contrast, HC-MBL exhibited clear immunogenetic similarities to CLL-0. These findings indicate that LC-MBL may not represent a true preleukemic condition, thus differing from HC-MBL/CLL-0 in which the identification of factors endowing malignant potential is strongly warranted.

  7. Efficacy of recombinant chimeric lectins, consisting of mannose binding lectin and L-ficolin, against influenza A viral infection in mouse model study

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazue; Moyo, Patience; Chigweshe, Lorencia; Chang, Wei-Chuan; White, Mitchel R.; Hartshorn, Kevan L.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus infection could result in fatal complications. Although immunization is the most effective prevention it is not effective to pandemic infection and is less effective or not approved for certain age groups. Some influenza virus strains have developed resistance to antiviral agents. Thus, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. We focused on innate immune molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL). In order to optimize its antiviral activities, we have previously generated three recombinant chimeric lectins (RCL), by introducing portions of L-ficolin, another innate immune lectin. Our in vitro characterizations previously selected RCL2 and RCL3 for further investigations against viruses, including influenza viruses. Here, we examined efficacy of these lectins against infection with PR8 (H1N1) influenza A virus using mouse model studies and a human tracheal epithelial cell system. Our results provide in vivo evidence that RCL3 is effective agent against influenza virus infection. The therapeutic mechanisms are in part by providing host protective responses mediated by cytokines. We conclude that RCL3 is a potential new innate immune anti-influenza virus therapeutic agent. PMID:24140629

  8. Efficacy of recombinant chimeric lectins, consisting of mannose binding lectin and L-ficolin, against influenza A viral infection in mouse model study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazue; Moyo, Patience; Chigweshe, Lorencia; Chang, Wei-Chuan; White, Mitchel R; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2013-12-26

    Influenza A virus infection could result in fatal complications. Although immunization is the most effective prevention it is not effective to pandemic infection and is less effective or not approved for certain age groups. Some influenza virus strains have developed resistance to antiviral agents. Thus, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. We focused on innate immune molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL). In order to optimize its antiviral activities, we have previously generated three recombinant chimeric lectins (RCL), by introducing portions of L-ficolin, another innate immune lectin. Our in vitro characterizations previously selected RCL2 and RCL3 for further investigations against viruses, including influenza viruses. Here, we examined efficacy of these lectins against infection with PR8 (H1N1) influenza A virus using mouse model studies and a human tracheal epithelial cell system. Our results provide in vivo evidence that RCL3 is effective agent against influenza virus infection. The therapeutic mechanisms are in part by providing host protective responses mediated by cytokines. We conclude that RCL3 is a potential new innate immune anti-influenza virus therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lectin typing of Campylobacter isolates.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, N; Benjamin, J; Skirrow, M B

    1990-01-01

    Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni, C coli, C fetus and C laridis were tested for agglutination reactions with a panel of five lectins: Arachis hypogaea, Bauhinia purpurea, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum vulgaris and Wisteria floribunda. Twenty three patterns of agglutination (lectin types) were recorded among 376 isolates. Patterns were consistent and reproducible. Only 4.5% of isolates were untypable because of autoagglutination. Some lectin types were found exclusively or predominantly in a species, but others were shared between species. Forty two per cent of C jejuni and 35% of C coli isolates belonged to lectin type 4. There was no apparent correlation between lectin type and serotype; different lectin types were found among strains of single Penner and Lior serotypes. Lectin typing is a simple and economical procedure suitable for use in non-specialist laboratories, either as an adjunct to serogrouping or, after further development, as a sole typing scheme. PMID:2262570

  10. Variants of the mannose-binding lectin gene in the Benin population: heterozygosity for the p.G57E allele may confer a selective advantage.

    PubMed

    Dossou-Yovo, Omer Placide; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Hauchecorne, Michelle; Zaccaria, Isabelle; Ducrocq, Rolande; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Rahimy, Mohamed Chérif; Elion, Jacques

    2007-12-01

    Human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with mutations in the promoter region and in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. Such deficiency has been correlated with elevated incidence of infections in infancy and in immunocompromised adults. We determined the distribution profile of the MBL2 gene variants in the general population of Benin (West Africa) and in a vulnerable subset of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) (SS homozygotes). Five hundred forty-two healthy individuals (274 newborns, 268 adults) and 128 patients with SCD (35 newborns, 93 children) were screened for the common variant alleles in the MBL2 secretor haplotype region (exon 1 and promoter). The p.G57E variant allele was the most frequent allele compared to p.G54D (27.5% vs. 1.6%, respectively). The p.R52C allele was not found in this population. There was no difference in allele or genotype frequencies between healthy newborns and newborns with SCD. Alleles associated with MBL deficiency were more frequent in adults than in newborns (69.8% vs. 57.3%, respectively; p = 0.002). This enrichment was exclusively due to an elevated proportion of heterozygotes for the p.G57E allele (47.0% vs. 35.3%, respectively; p = 0.004), supporting a potential selective advantage of this genotype. Our results, compared to those reported in other African countries, support the implication of the MBL2 gene in various major infections in Africa, such as meningitis and tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients.

  11. Variants of the mannose-binding lectin gene in the Benin population: heterozygosity for the p.G57E allele may confer a selective advantage. 2007.

    PubMed

    Dossou-Yovo, Omer Placide; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Hauchecorne, Michelle; Zaccaria, Isabelle; Ducrocq, Rolande; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Rahimy, Mohamed Chérif; Elion, Jacques

    2009-12-01

    Human mannose- binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with mutations in the promoter region and in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. Such deficiency has been correlated with elevated incidence of infections in infancy and in immunocompromised adults. We determined the distribution profile of the MBL2 gene variants in the general population of Benin (West Africa) and in a vulnerable subset of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) (SS homozygotes). Five hundred forty-two healthy individuals (274 newborns, 268 adults) and 128 patients with SCD (35 newborns, 93 children) were screened for the common variant alleles in the MBL2 secretor haplotype region (exon 1 and promoter). The p.G57E variant allele was the most frequent allele compared to p.G54D (27.5% vs. 1.6%, respectively). The p.R52C allele was not found in this population. There was no difference in allele or genotype frequencies between healthy newborns and newborns with SCD. Alleles associated with MBL deficiency were more frequent in adults than in newborns (69.8% vs. 57.3%, respectively; p=0.002). This enrichment was exclusively due to an elevated proportion of heterozygotes for the p.G57E allele (47.0% vs. 35.3%,respectively; p=0.004), supporting a potential selective advantage of this genotype. Our results, compared to those reported in other African countries, support the implication of the MBL2 gene in various major infections in Africa, such as meningitis and tuberculosis in HIV- positive patients.

  12. Lectins from Mycelia of Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Nikitina, Valentina E.; Loshchinina, Ekaterina A.; Vetchinkina, Elena P.

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are proteins of a nonimmunoglobulin nature that are capable of specific recognition of and reversible binding to the carbohydrate moieties of complex carbohydrates, without altering the covalent structure of any of the recognized glycosyl ligands. They have a broad range of biological activities important for the functioning of the cell and the whole organism and, owing to the high specificity of reversible binding to carbohydrates, are valuable tools used widely in biology and medicine. Lectins can be produced by many living organisms, including basidiomycetes. Whereas lectins from the fruit bodies of basidiomycetes have been studied sufficiently well, mycelial lectins remain relatively unexplored. Here, we review and comparatively analyze what is currently known about lectins isolated from the vegetative mycelium of macrobasidiomycetes, including their localization, properties, and carbohydrate specificities. Particular attention is given to the physiological role of mycelial lectins in fungal growth and development. PMID:28640205

  13. Conidiogenic effects of mannose-binding lectins isolated from cotyledons of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Hossein; Leung, David W M; Cole, Anthony L J

    2011-01-01

    Effect of proteinaceous extracts from red kidney bean cotyledons on mycelium of Alternaria alternata growing on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates was investigated. Unexpectedly, conidia formation was induced in response to applied crude extracts. A PDA disc method was developed to quantify conidia formed. A purified fraction retaining conidiation inducing effect (CIE) was obtained following several protein purification procedures including the last step of eluting bound proteins from an Affi-gel blue gel column. Based on MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization) mass spectrometric analysis, a previously identified mannose-binding lectin (MBL) called PvFRIL (Phaseolus vulgaris fetal liver tyrosine kinase 3-receptor interacting lectin) was present in this conidiation inducing fraction. The PvFRIL was subsequently purified using a single step mannose-agarose affinity column chromatography. When the lectin was applied exogenously to A. alternata, increased conidiation resulted. The conidia produced in response to the MBL were similar to those induced by other methods and their germ tubes were longer after 12 h growth than those induced under white light. To our knowledge this is the first report of exogenous application of a PvFRIL or another purified protein from a plant inducing conidia formation in a fungus.

  14. Glycan and lectin biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Belický, Štefan; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    A short description about the importance of glycan biorecognition in physiological (blood cell type) and pathological processes (infections by human and avian influenza viruses) is provided in this review. Glycans are described as much better information storage media, compared to proteins or DNA, due to the extensive variability of glycan structures. Techniques able to detect an exact glycan structure are briefly discussed with the main focus on the application of lectins (glycan-recognising proteins) in the specific analysis of glycans still attached to proteins or cells/viruses. Optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric and micromechanical biosensors with immobilised lectins or glycans able to detect a wide range of analytes including whole cells/viruses are also discussed. PMID:27365034

  15. MASP-3 is the exclusive pro-factor D activator in resting blood: the lectin and the alternative complement pathways are fundamentally linked

    PubMed Central

    Dobó, József; Szakács, Dávid; Oroszlán, Gábor; Kortvely, Elod; Kiss, Bence; Boros, Eszter; Szász, Róbert; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Pál, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    MASP-3 was discovered 15 years ago as the third mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease of the complement lectin pathway. Lacking any verified substrate its role remained ambiguous. MASP-3 was shown to compete with a key lectin pathway enzyme MASP-2 for MBL binding, and was therefore considered to be a negative complement regulator. Later, knock-out mice experiments suggested that MASP-1 and/or MASP-3 play important roles in complement pro-factor D (pro-FD) maturation. However, studies on a MASP-1/MASP-3-deficient human patient produced contradicting results. In normal resting blood unperturbed by ongoing coagulation or complement activation, factor D is present predominantly in its active form, suggesting that resting blood contains at least one pro-FD activating proteinase that is not a direct initiator of coagulation or complement activation. We have recently showed that all three MASPs can activate pro-FD in vitro. In resting blood, however, using our previously evolved MASP-1 and MASP-2 inhibitors we proved that neither MASP-1 nor MASP-2 activates pro-FD. Other plasma proteinases, particularly MASP-3, remained candidates for that function. For this study we evolved a specific MASP-3 inhibitor and unambiguously proved that activated MASP-3 is the exclusive pro-FD activator in resting blood, which demonstrates a fundamental link between the lectin and alternative pathways. PMID:27535802

  16. Untwisting the mystery of supercoiling: Mbl configuration in growing bacterial filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sulav; Setlow, Barbara; Setlow, Peter; Wolgemuth, Charles

    2005-03-01

    Bacillus subtilis, a commonly studied prokaryote form long filaments, or chains of cells, when the cells fail to separate upon replication. These mutants undergo supercoiling where the bacterial filament buckles and wraps about itself like an over-twisted phone cord. It has long been supposed that twisting stress is generated in the cell wall during growth and causes this coiling. But, the twisting mechanism has remained an enigma. A recently discovered actin-like protein, Mbl, forms helical structures under the cell wall and controls cell morphogenesis in B. subtilis. Based on these findings, a new model suggests how these helical structures could lead to supercoiling. We report here experiments connecting growth, Mbl structure, and supercoiling. We have studied the helical pitch of the Mbl under regular growth conditions, various concentrations of xylose, and under the influence of different concentrations of ammonium and magnesium. These experiments demonstrate how growth effects the configuration of the Mbl cables and suggest that growth induced deformation of the Mbl cables generate twist in the filaments, which eventually leads to supercoiling in bacterial filaments.

  17. Polymorphisms in the mannose binding lectin-2 gene and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gong, Michelle N; Zhou, Wei; Williams, Paige L; Thompson, B Taylor; Pothier, Lucille; Christiani, David C

    2007-01-01

    The variant alleles in the mannose binding lectin-2 (MBL-2) gene have been associated with MBL deficiency and increased susceptibility to sepsis. We postulate that the variant MBL-2 genotypes are associated with increased susceptibility to and mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Nested case-control study. Tertiary academic medical center. Two hundred and twelve Caucasians with ARDS and 442 controls genotyped for the variant X, D, B, and C alleles of codon -221, 52, 54, and 57, respectively. None. Patients homozygous for the variant codon 54B allele (54BB) had worse severity of illness on admission (p = .007), greater likelihood of septic shock (p = .04), and increased odds of ARDS (adjusted odds ratio, 6.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-31) when compared with heterozygotes and homozygotes for the wild-type allele. This association with ARDS was especially strong among the 311 patients with septic shock (adjusted odds ratio, 12.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-74). Among the patients with ARDS, the 54BB genotype was associated with more daily organ dysfunction (p = .01) and higher mortality (adjusted hazard rate, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-10). Development of ARDS and outcomes in ARDS did not vary significantly with variant alleles of codon -221, 52, and 57, but the power to detect an effect was limited secondary to the low allele frequencies. The MBL-2 codon 54BB genotype may be important in ARDS susceptibility and outcome. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings in other populations.

  18. Childhood Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Functional Mannose Binding Lectin Polymorphisms Are Associated with Increased Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Olivo-Marston, Susan E.; Yang, Ping; Mechanic, Leah E.; Bowman, Elise D.; Pine, Sharon R.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Caporaso, Neil; Shields, Peter G.; Chanock, Stephen; Wu, Yanhong; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Cunningham, Julie; Jen, Jin; Harris, Curtis C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to secondhand smoke during adulthood has detrimental health effects, including increased lung cancer risk. Compared with adults, children may be more susceptible to secondhand smoke. This susceptibility may be exacerbated by alterations in inherited genetic variants of innate immunity genes. We hypothesized a positive association between childhood secondhand smoke exposure and lung cancer risk that would be modified by genetic polymorphisms in the mannose binding lectin-2 (MBL2) gene resulting in well-known functional changes in innate immunity. Methods Childhood secondhand smoke exposure and lung cancer risk was assessed among men and women in the ongoing National Cancer Institute-Maryland Lung Cancer (NCI-MD) study, which included 624 cases and 348 controls. Secondhand smoke history was collected via in-person interviews. DNA was used for genotyping the MBL2 gene. To replicate, we used an independent case-control study from Mayo Clinic consisting of 461 never smokers, made up of 172 cases and 289 controls. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In the NCI-MD study, secondhand smoke exposure during childhood was associated with increased lung cancer risk among never smokers [odds ratio (OR), 2.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.04-4.90]. This was confirmed in the Mayo study (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.00-2.15). A functional MBL2 haplotype associated with high circulating levels of MBL and increased MBL2 activity was associated with increased lung cancer risk among those exposed to childhood secondhand smoke in both the NCI-MD and Mayo studies (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.13-5.60, and OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.18-3.85, respectively). Conclusions Secondhand smoke exposure during childhood is associated with increased lung cancer risk among never smokers, particularly among those possessing a haplotype corresponding to a known overactive complement pathway of the innate immune system. PMID:19959685

  19. Childhood exposure to secondhand smoke and functional mannose binding lectin polymorphisms are associated with increased lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Olivo-Marston, Susan E; Yang, Ping; Mechanic, Leah E; Bowman, Elise D; Pine, Sharon R; Loffredo, Christopher A; Alberg, Anthony J; Caporaso, Neil; Shields, Peter G; Chanock, Stephen; Wu, Yanhong; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Cunningham, Julie; Jen, Jin; Harris, Curtis C

    2009-12-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke during adulthood has detrimental health effects, including increased lung cancer risk. Compared with adults, children may be more susceptible to secondhand smoke. This susceptibility may be exacerbated by alterations in inherited genetic variants of innate immunity genes. We hypothesized a positive association between childhood secondhand smoke exposure and lung cancer risk that would be modified by genetic polymorphisms in the mannose binding lectin-2 (MBL2) gene resulting in well-known functional changes in innate immunity. Childhood secondhand smoke exposure and lung cancer risk was assessed among men and women in the ongoing National Cancer Institute-Maryland Lung Cancer (NCI-MD) study, which included 624 cases and 348 controls. Secondhand smoke history was collected via in-person interviews. DNA was used for genotyping the MBL2 gene. To replicate, we used an independent case-control study from Mayo Clinic consisting of 461 never smokers, made up of 172 cases and 289 controls. All statistical tests were two-sided. In the NCI-MD study, secondhand smoke exposure during childhood was associated with increased lung cancer risk among never smokers [odds ratio (OR), 2.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.04-4.90]. This was confirmed in the Mayo study (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.00-2.15). A functional MBL2 haplotype associated with high circulating levels of MBL and increased MBL2 activity was associated with increased lung cancer risk among those exposed to childhood secondhand smoke in both the NCI-MD and Mayo studies (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.13-5.60, and OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.18-3.85, respectively). Secondhand smoke exposure during childhood is associated with increased lung cancer risk among never smokers, particularly among those possessing a haplotype corresponding to a known overactive complement pathway of the innate immune system.

  20. Fungal lectins: a growing family.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are members of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that include yeasts and molds, as well as the most familiar member, mushrooms. Fungal lectins with unique specificity and structures have been discovered. In general, fungal lectins are classified into specific families based on their amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the approximately 80 types of mushroom and fungal lectins that have been isolated and studied to date. In particular, we have focused on ten fungal lectins (Agaricus bisporus, Agrocybe cylindracea, Aleuria aurantia, Aspergillus oryzae, Clitocybe nebularis, Marasmius oreades, Psathyrella velutina, Rhizopus stolonifer, Pholiota squarrosa, Polyporus squamosus), many of which are commercially available and their properties, sugar-binding specificities, structural grouping into families, and applications for biological research being described. The sialic acid-specific lectins (Agrocybe cylindracea and Polyporus squamosus) and fucose-specific lectins (Aleuria aurantia, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Pholiota squarrosa) each showed potential for use in identifying sialic acid glycoconjugates and fucose glycoconjugates. Although not much is currently known about fungal lectins compared to animal and plant lectins, the knowledge accumulated thus far shows great promise for several applications in the fields of taxonomy, biomedicine, and molecular and cellular biology.

  1. Early Changes of Mannose-Binding Lectin, H-Ficolin, and Procalcitonin in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Işlak Mutcalı, Sibel; Saltoğlu, Neşe; Balkan, İlker İnanç; Özaras, Reşat; Yemişen, Mücahit; Tabak, Fehmi; Mert, Ali; Öztürk, Recep; Öngören, Şeniz; Başlar, Zafer; Aydın, Yıldız; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan; Soysal, Teoman

    2016-12-01

    The significance of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and H-ficolin deficiency in febrile neutropenic (FN) patients and the correlation of these markers along with consecutive C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels during the infectious process are investigated. Patients with any hematological malignancies who were defined to have "microbiologically confirmed infection", "clinically documented infection", or "fever of unknown origin" were included in this single-center prospective observational study. Serum levels of CRP, PCT, MBL, and H-ficolin were determined on 3 separate occasions: at baseline (between hospital admission and chemotherapy), at the onset of fever, and at the 72nd hour of fever. Forty-six patients (54% male, mean age 41.7 years) with 61 separate episodes of FN were evaluated. Eleven patients (23.9%) had "microbiologically confirmed infection", 17 (37%) had "clinically documented infection", and 18 (39.1%) had "fever of unknown origin". Fourteen (30.4%) patients had low (<500 ng/mL) initial MBL levels and 7 (15.21%) had low (<12,000 ng/mL) H-ficolin levels. Baseline MBL and H-ficolin levels did not significantly change on the first and third days of fever (p=0.076). Gram-negative bacteremia more frequently occurred in those with low initial MBL levels (p=0.006). PCT levels were significantly higher in those with microbiologically documented infections. Mean and median PCT levels were significantly higher in cases with bacteremia. There was no significant difference between hemoculture-positive and-negative patients in terms of CRP levels. Monitoring serum H-ficolin levels was shown to be of no benefit in terms of predicting severe infection. Low baseline MBL levels were correlated with high risk of gram-negative bacteremia; however, no significant correlation was shown in the follow-up. Close monitoring of PCT levels is warranted to provide more accurate and specific data while monitoring cases of bacteremia.

  2. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance, susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri and levels of mannose binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brian C; Peatman, E; Ourth, D D; Waldbieser, G C

    2015-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE; containing the essential oils carvacrol, thymol, anethol, and limonene) on growth performance and disease susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Two hundred and fifty juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (7.2 ± 0.1 g) were allotted into the following treatments: Control (floating diet) and EO (floating diet supplemented with essential oils). The fish were fed their respective diets for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, all fish were exposed to virulent E. ictaluri by bath immersion (1.9 × 10(7) cfu/mL; final concentration). Plasma and tissue samples were taken to quantify protein and mRNA expression levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL). Weight gain and food conversion ratio were similar between treatments. After exposing fish to virulent E. ictaluri and monitoring mortality for 21 days, survival was 43% higher (69.5 vs 48.4%) in fish fed EO compared to fish not treated with EO (P < 0.05). One day after challenge, plasma MBL levels were down-regulated in the non-treated fish compared to non-challenged fish. In the EO fish, MBL levels were similar to non-challenged fish but significantly higher than non-treated fed fish (P < 0.001). By d 7, plasma MBL levels increased in non-treated fed fish to levels observed in the EO and non-challenged fish. On d 14, MBL mRNA levels were upregulated 15-fold in fish fed EO compared to non-treated fed fish and non-challenged fish (P < 0.001). The results demonstrate that essential oils improved survival of channel catfish challenged with E. ictaluri. Mechanisms through which essential oils improve survival may involve MBL.

  3. MBL-II-141, a chromone derivative, enhances irinotecan (CPT-11) anticancer efficiency in ABCG2-positive xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Honorat, Mylène; Guitton, Jérôme; Gauthier, Charlotte; Bouard, Charlotte; Lecerf-Schmidt, Florine; Peres, Basile; Terreux, Raphaël; Gervot, Héloïse; Rioufol, Catherine; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Puisieux, Alain; Di Pietro, Attilio; Payen, Léa

    2014-01-01

    ABCG2 is responsible for the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, and strongly modulates cancer outcomes. Its high expression at a number of physiological barriers, including blood-brain and intestinal barriers, impacts on drug pharmacokinetics parameters. We characterized MBL-II-141, a specific and potent ABCG2 inhibitor. Combination of 10 mg/kg MBL-II-141 with the anticancer agent CPT-11 completely blocked the growth of 90% freshly implanted ABCG2-positive tumors. Moreover, the same combination slowed the growth of already established tumors. As required for preclinical development, we defined the main pharmacokinetics parameters of MBL-II-141 and its influence on the kinetics of CPT-11 and its active metabolite SN-38 in mice. MBL-II-141 distribution into the brain occurred at a low, but detectable, level. Interestingly, preliminary data suggested that MBL-II-141 is well tolerated (at 50 mg/kg) and absorbed upon force-feeding. MBL-II-141 induced a potent sensitization of ABCG2-positive xenografts to CPT-11 through in vivo ABCG2 inhibition. MBL-II-141 strongly increased CPT-11 levels in the brain, and therefore would be a valuable agent to improve drug distribution into the brain to efficiently treat aggressive gliomas. Safety and other pharmacological data strongly support the reglementary preclinical development of MBL-II-141. PMID:25474134

  4. Integrating Physics and Math through Microcomputer-Based Laboratories (MBL): Effects on Discourse Type, Quality, and Mathematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma B.; Jurdak, Murad E.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to understand the nature of discourse in terms of knowledge types and cognitive process, source of utterances (student or teacher), and time use in microcomputer-based labs (MBL) and verification type labs (VTL) and to gain an understanding of the role of MBL in promoting mathematization. The study was conducted in…

  5. Integrating Physics and Math through Microcomputer-Based Laboratories (MBL): Effects on Discourse Type, Quality, and Mathematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma B.; Jurdak, Murad E.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to understand the nature of discourse in terms of knowledge types and cognitive process, source of utterances (student or teacher), and time use in microcomputer-based labs (MBL) and verification type labs (VTL) and to gain an understanding of the role of MBL in promoting mathematization. The study was conducted in…

  6. Limited effect of recombinant human mannose-binding lectin on the infection of novel influenza A (H7N9) virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlei; Cao, Yang; Qin, Kun; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Donghong; Li, Zi; Xin, Li; Shu, Yuelong; Zhou, Jianfang

    2015-02-27

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern-recognition molecule in serum, recognizes specific hexose sugars rich in mannose and N-acetylglucosamine on bacterium, yeasts, viruses as well as apoptotic cells. It has been well-identified that MBL has antiviral effects via binding to seasonal influenza H1 and H3 subtype viruses. Influenza A (H7N9) virus, a novel reassortant virus to human population, possesses the surface hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from duck and wild-bird influenza viruses and internal genes from poultry H9N2 viruses. As of Dec 7th, 2014, a total of 467 human infections and 183 fatal cases have been identified. Here, recombinant human (rh) MBL was tested for its binding and effects on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and NA activity inhibition (NAI) of avian H7N9, H9N2 and human H3N2 viruses. We discovered that rhMBL exhibited a strong binding to H7N9 virus as human H3N2 did at high virus titers. However, it performed a significantly weaker HI activity effect on H7N9 comparing to those of H3N2 and H9N2, even at a much higher concentration (3.67 ± 0.33 vs. 0.026 ± 0.001 and 0.083 ± 0.02 μg/mL, respectively). Similarly, minor NAI effect of rhMBL, even at up to 10 μg/mL, was found on H7N9 virus while it displayed significant effects on both H3N2 and H9N2 at a lowest concentration of 0.0807 ± 0.009 and 0.0625 μg/mL, respectively. The HI and NAI effects of rhMBL were calcium-dependent and mediated by lectin domain. Our findings suggest that MBL, the host innate molecule, has differential interference effects with human and avian influenza virus and limited antiviral effect against H7N9 virus.

  7. Lectins and Tetrahymena - A review.

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2016-09-01

    The unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena is a complete organism, one of the most highly developed protozoans, which has specialized organelles performing each of the functions characteristic to the cells of higher ranked animals. It is also able to produce, store, and secrete hormones of higher ranked animals and also react to them. It produces lectins that can bind them and has functions, which are influenced by exogenous lectins. The review lists the observations on the relationship between lectins and Tetrahymena and try to construe them on the basis of the data, which are at our disposal. Considering the data, lectins can be used by Tetrahymena as materials for influencing conjugation, for stimulating hormone receptors, and by this, mimic the hormonal functions. Lectins can influence phagocytosis and movement of the cells as well as the cell division. As Tetrahymena can recognize both related and hostile cells by the help of lectins and surface sugars, it could be surmised a complex predator-prey system. This could determine the survival of the population as well as the nourishment conditions. When Tetrahymena is pathogenic, it can use lectins as virulence factors.

  8. High doses of recombinant mannan-binding lectin inhibit the binding of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus with cells expressing DC-SIGN.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Shang, Shiqiang; Tao, Ran; Wang, Caiyun; Zhang, Li; Peng, Hao; Chen, Yinghu

    2017-07-01

    The pandemic influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus continues to be a threat to human health. Low doses of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) (<1 μg/mL) were shown not to protect against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. However, the effect of high doses of MBL has not been investigated. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) has been proposed as an alternative receptor for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. In this study, we examined the expression of DC-SIGN on DCs as well as on acute monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1. High doses of recombinant or human MBL inhibited binding of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 to both these cell types in the presence of complement derived from bovine serum. Further, anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibody inhibited binding of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 to both DC-SIGN-expressing DCs and THP-1 cells. This study demonstrates that high doses of MBL can inhibit binding of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus to DC-SIGN-expressing cells in the presence of complement. Our results suggest that DC-SIGN may be an alternative receptor for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Global Challenge in Neuroscience Education and Training: The MBL Perspective.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Rae; Castañeda, Edward; Davis, Graeme W; Fenton, André A; Hofmann, Hans A; King, Jean; Ryan, Timothy A; Trujillo, Keith A

    2016-11-02

    The greatest challenge in moving neuroscience research forward in the 21st century is recruiting, training, and retaining the brightest, rigorous, and most diverse scientists. The MBL research training courses Neurobiology and Neural Systems & Behavior, and the Summer Program in Neuroscience, Excellence, and Success provide a model for full immersion, discovery-based training while enhancing cultural, geographic, and racial diversity.

  10. Correlates of Achievement with Online and Classroom-Based MBL Physics Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slykhuis, David; Park, John

    2006-01-01

    Students from five high schools participated in a 2 to 4-week microcomputer based laboratory (MBL) physics curriculum in two groups. One group completed the curriculum entirely online, and the other completed the same curriculum in a traditional classroom setting. Variables were collected to predict student success on a post-unit measure of…

  11. Use of lectins in immunohematology

    PubMed Central

    Gorakshakar, Ajit C.; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins present in seeds of many plants, especially corals and beans, in fungi and bacteria, and in animals. Apart from their hemagglutinating property, a wide range of functions have been attributed to them. Their importance in the area of immunohematology is immense. They are used to detect specific red cell antigens, to activate different types of lymphocytes, in order to resolve problems related to polyagglutination and so on. The introduction of advanced biotechnological tools generates new opportunities to exploit the properties of lectins, which were not used earlier. Stem cell research is a very important area in transplant medicine. Certain lectins detect surface markers of stem cell. Hence, they are used to understand the developmental biology of stem cells. The role of various lectins in the areas of transfusion and transplant medicine is discussed in detail in this review. PMID:27011665

  12. A review of fish lectins.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Fai Cheung, Randy Chi; Wing Ng, Charlene Cheuk; Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Lectins have been reported from various tissues of a diversity of fish species including Japanese eel, conger eel, electric eel, bighead carp, gibel carp, grass carp, Arabian Gulf catfish, channel catfish, blue catfish, catfish, pike perch, perch, powan, zebrafish, toxic moray, cobia fish, steelhead trout, Japanese trout, Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon, olive rainbow smelt, rainbow smelt, white-spotted charr, tilapia, blue gourami, ayu, Potca fish, Spanish mackerel, gilt head bream, tench, roach, rudd, common skate, and sea lamprey. The tissues from which the lectins were isolated comprise gills, eggs, electric organ, stomach, intestine, and liver. Lectins have also been isolated from skin, mucus serum, and plasma. The lectins differ in molecular weight, number of subunits, glycosylation, sugar binding specificity and amino acid sequence. Their activities include antimicrobial, antitumor, immunoregulatory and a role in development.

  13. Lectins in the investigation of receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhtin, V. M.; Yamskov, Igor A.

    1991-08-01

    Problems of the purification and characterisation are considered for approximately 270 receptors (including cell surface and organelle enzymes), which are glycoconjugates (mainly glycoproteins) from animals, plants and microorganisms, using various lectins (mainly lectin sorbents). An analysis has been carried out of the stages of lectin affinity chromatography of receptors (choice of detergent, use of organic solvents, elution with carbohydrates, etc.). Examples are given of procedures for the purification of receptors, including the use of paired columns and combination chromatography on lectins. The possibility of separating sub-populations of receptors using lectins has been demonstrated. Examples are given of the use of lectins in the analysis of the oligosaccharide structure of receptors. Cases are recorded of the interaction of receptors with endogenous lectins and of receptor lectins with endogenous glycoconjugates. It has been shown that lectins, in combination with glycosidases and antibodies, may be useful in the investigation of receptors. The bibliography contains 406 references.

  14. Murine Hyperglycemic Vasculopathy and Cardiomyopathy: Whole-Genome Gene Expression Analysis Predicts Cellular Targets and Regulatory Networks Influenced by Mannose Binding Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Chenhui; La Bonte, Laura R.; Pavlov, Vasile I.; Stahl, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, in the absence of type 1 or 2 diabetes, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have previously demonstrated a central role for mannose binding lectin (MBL)-mediated cardiac dysfunction in acute hyperglycemic mice. In this study, we applied whole-genome microarray data analysis to investigate MBL’s role in systematic gene expression changes. The data predict possible intracellular events taking place in multiple cellular compartments such as enhanced insulin signaling pathway sensitivity, promoted mitochondrial respiratory function, improved cellular energy expenditure and protein quality control, improved cytoskeleton structure, and facilitated intracellular trafficking, all of which may contribute to the organismal health of MBL null mice against acute hyperglycemia. Our data show a tight association between gene expression profile and tissue function which might be a very useful tool in predicting cellular targets and regulatory networks connected with in vivo observations, providing clues for further mechanistic studies. PMID:22375142

  15. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. One-dimensional photochemical study of H2O2, CH3OOH, and HCHO in the marine boundary (MBL) layer (MBL) during PEM-TROPICS (B)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Lee, M.; Heikes, B.

    2003-04-01

    This study was motivated by the discrepancies found between observational data, collected in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during several large scale field campaigns, and photochemical model simulations appropriate to these campaigns. In particular, for chemical species (H( 2 )O( 2 ), CH( 3 )OOH, and HCHO) theory and measurement remain unresolved. The temporal and spatial distribution and behavior of these key species indicates they are subject to chemical and physical processes such as gas-phase chemistry, scavenging by seasalt particles, seasalt aerosol chemistry involving halogen species, air-sea gas exchange, and FT-MBL exchange. We attempted to resolve the previous disagreements and to identify dominant processes controlling the species by incorporating of these processes into a single model. A one-dimensional photochemical model was developed and verified against observational data from PEM-Tropics (B). A series of model simulations were conducted with varied chemical schemes and material boundary flux conditions. The results highlighted that two processes; the FT-to-MBL O( 3 ) transport and dry deposition critically influence the abundance of H( 2 )O( 2 ), CH( 3 )OOH, and HCHO. This study also demonstrated that gas-phase chemistry alone with rationalized fluxes was capable of capturing the behavior of CH( 3 )OOH and HCHO and other processes, including scavenging by seasalt particles and seasalt aerosol chemistry involving halogen species, were found to be negligible under conditions of this study. There was a general agreement between the observations and theory for O( 3 ), OH, CH( 3 )OOH, HCHO, and NO( x ). However, there remain gaps for H( 2 )O( 2 ). By taking into account a wet removal rate of 1( × )10( -5 ) s( -1 ), the model could reproduce the observation.

  17. The Emerging Role of Complement Lectin Pathway in Trypanosomatids: Molecular Bases in Activation, Genetic Deficiencies, Susceptibility to Infection, and Complement System-Based Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Osses, Ingrid; de Messias-Reason, Iara; Ramirez, Marcel I.

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system is evolutionary and ancient and is the pivotal line of the host defense system to protect against invading pathogens and abnormal self-derived components. Cellular and molecular components are involved in recognition and effector mechanisms for a successful innate immune response. The complement lectin pathway (CLP) was discovered in 1990. These new components at the complement world are very efficient. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin not only recognize many molecular patterns of pathogens rapidly to activate complement but also display several strategies to evade innate immunity. Many studies have shown a relation between the deficit of complement factors and susceptibility to infection. The recently discovered CLP was shown to be important in host defense against protozoan microbes. Although the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by MBL and Ficolins reveal efficient complement activations, an increase in deficiency of complement factors and diversity of parasite strategies of immune evasion demonstrate the unsuccessful effort to control the infection. In the present paper, we will discuss basic aspects of complement activation, the structure of the lectin pathway components, genetic deficiency of complement factors, and new therapeutic opportunities to target the complement system to control infection. PMID:23533355

  18. Effects of mannose-binding lectin on pulmonary gene expression and innate immune inflammatory response to ozone

    PubMed Central

    Ciencewicki, Jonathan M.; Verhein, Kirsten C.; Gerrish, Kevin; McCaw, Zachary R.; Li, Jianying; Bushel, Pierre R.

    2016-01-01

    Ozone is a common, potent oxidant pollutant in industrialized nations. Ozone exposure causes airway hyperreactivity, lung hyperpermeability, inflammation, and cell damage in humans and laboratory animals, and exposure to ozone has been associated with exacerbation of asthma, altered lung function, and mortality. The mechanisms of ozone-induced lung injury and differential susceptibility are not fully understood. Ozone-induced lung inflammation is mediated, in part, by the innate immune system. We hypothesized that mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an innate immunity serum protein, contributes to the proinflammatory events caused by ozone-mediated activation of the innate immune system. Wild-type (Mbl+/+) and MBL-deficient (Mbl−/−) mice were exposed to ozone (0.3 ppm) for up to 72 h, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was examined for inflammatory markers. Mean numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils and levels of the neutrophil attractants C-X-C motif chemokines 2 [Cxcl2 (major intrinsic protein 2)] and 5 [Cxcl5 (limb expression, LIX)] in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly lower in Mbl−/− than Mbl+/+ mice exposed to ozone. Using genome-wide mRNA microarray analyses, we identified significant differences in transcript response profiles and networks at baseline [e.g., nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated oxidative stress response] and after exposure (e.g., humoral immune response) between Mbl+/+ and Mbl−/− mice. The microarray data were further analyzed to discover several informative differential response patterns and subsequent gene sets, including the antimicrobial response and the inflammatory response. We also used the lists of gene transcripts to search the LINCS L1000CDS2 data sets to identify agents that are predicted to perturb ozone-induced changes in gene transcripts and inflammation. These novel findings demonstrate that targeted deletion of Mbl caused differential levels of inflammation-related gene sets at

  19. Heparin-coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits selectively deplete the pattern recognition molecule ficolin-2 of the lectin complement pathway in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hein, E; Munthe-Fog, L; Thiara, A S; Fiane, A E; Mollnes, T E; Garred, P

    2015-02-01

    The complement system can be activated via the lectin pathway by the recognition molecules mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and the ficolins. Ficolin-2 exhibits binding against a broad range of ligands, including biomaterials in vitro, and low ficolin-2 levels are associated with increased risk of infections. Thus, we investigated the biocompatibility of the recognition molecules of the lectin pathway in two different types of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits. Bloods were drawn at five time-points before, during and postoperatively from 30 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups using different coatings of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits, Phisio® (phosphorylcholine polymer coating) and Bioline® (albumin-heparin coating). Concentrations of MBL, ficolin-1, -2 and -3 and soluble C3a and terminal complement complex (TCC) in plasma samples were measured. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was evaluated with C4, C3 and TCC as output. There was no significant difference between the two circuit materials regarding MBL, ficolin-1 and -3. In the Bioline® group the ficolin-2 levels decreased significantly after initiation of surgery (P < 0.0001) and remained reduced throughout the sampling period. This was not seen for Phisio®-coated circuits. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was reduced significantly in both groups after start of operation (P < 0.0001), whereas soluble C3a and TCC in the samples were increased (P < 0.0001). Ficolin-2 was depleted from plasma during cardiac surgery when using heparin-coated bypass circuits and did not reach baseline level 24 h postoperation. These findings may have implications for the postoperative susceptibility to infections in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation procedures. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  20. Genotypic Prediction of Co-receptor Tropism of HIV-1 Subtypes A and C

    PubMed Central

    Riemenschneider, Mona; Cashin, Kieran Y.; Budeus, Bettina; Sierra, Saleta; Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Elham; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Kaiser, Rolf; Gorry, Paul R.; Heider, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infections with CCR5-antagonists requires the co-receptor usage prediction of viral strains. Currently available tools are mostly designed based on subtype B strains and thus are in general not applicable to non-B subtypes. However, HIV-1 infections caused by subtype B only account for approximately 11% of infections worldwide. We evaluated the performance of several sequence-based algorithms for co-receptor usage prediction employed on subtype A V3 sequences including circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and subtype C strains. We further analysed sequence profiles of gp120 regions of subtype A, B and C to explore functional relationships to entry phenotypes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that state-of-the-art algorithms are not useful for predicting co-receptor tropism of subtype A and its CRFs. Sequence profile analysis of gp120 revealed molecular variability in subtype A viruses. Especially, the V2 loop region could be associated with co-receptor tropism, which might indicate a unique pattern that determines co-receptor tropism in subtype A strains compared to subtype B and C strains. Thus, our study demonstrates that there is a need for the development of novel algorithms facilitating tropism prediction of HIV-1 subtype A to improve effective antiretroviral treatment in patients. PMID:27126912

  1. Genotypic Prediction of Co-receptor Tropism of HIV-1 Subtypes A and C.

    PubMed

    Riemenschneider, Mona; Cashin, Kieran Y; Budeus, Bettina; Sierra, Saleta; Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Elham; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Kaiser, Rolf; Gorry, Paul R; Heider, Dominik

    2016-04-29

    Antiretroviral treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infections with CCR5-antagonists requires the co-receptor usage prediction of viral strains. Currently available tools are mostly designed based on subtype B strains and thus are in general not applicable to non-B subtypes. However, HIV-1 infections caused by subtype B only account for approximately 11% of infections worldwide. We evaluated the performance of several sequence-based algorithms for co-receptor usage prediction employed on subtype A V3 sequences including circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and subtype C strains. We further analysed sequence profiles of gp120 regions of subtype A, B and C to explore functional relationships to entry phenotypes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that state-of-the-art algorithms are not useful for predicting co-receptor tropism of subtype A and its CRFs. Sequence profile analysis of gp120 revealed molecular variability in subtype A viruses. Especially, the V2 loop region could be associated with co-receptor tropism, which might indicate a unique pattern that determines co-receptor tropism in subtype A strains compared to subtype B and C strains. Thus, our study demonstrates that there is a need for the development of novel algorithms facilitating tropism prediction of HIV-1 subtype A to improve effective antiretroviral treatment in patients.

  2. Lack of Association between Mannose-binding Lectin 2 Codons 54 and 57 Gene Polymorphisms and Cervicovaginal Infections in Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez-Hernandez, Nadia; Aguilar-Duran, Marisela; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Salas-Pacheco, Jose M.; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada. A.; Lazalde-Medina, Brissia; Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2017-01-01

    The mannose-binding lectin (MBL) 2 gene has an important function in the innate immune response and activation of the third pathway of the complement system. Some studies have assessed the association of the MBL2 gene polymorphisms with cervicovaginal infections (CVI); however, there is no information about this association in Mexican women. This study aimed to determine the association between the MBL2 codons 54 and 57 gene polymorphisms with CVI in a sample of Mexican women. Through a cross-sectional study, blood samples and cervicovaginal cultures were obtain from 354 women. MBL2 genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction with Taqman probes. Of the 354 women studied, 128 (36.2%) had CVI and 226 (63.8%) were healthy. The frequencies of the C and T variants in codon 54 in women with CVI were 83% and 17%, respectively; whereas the frequencies of these variants in healthy women were 82% and 18%, respectively. The frequencies of variants C/C, C/T, and T/T in women with CVI were 68%, 31%, and 1%, respectively; whereas the frequencies of these variants in healthy women were 68%, 29%, and 3%, respectively. With respect to codon 57, the frequencies of variants C and T were identical in women with CVI and in healthy women (97% and 3%, respectively). The frequencies of variants C/C, C/T, and T/T were identical in women with CVI and in healthy women (94%, 6%, and 0%, respectively). We conclude that MBL2 codons 54 and 57 gene polymorphisms do not associate with CVI in Mexican women. PMID:28824344

  3. 3′ UTR and functional secretor haplotypes in mannose-binding lectin 2 are associated with increased colon cancer risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Krista A.; Haznadar, Majda; Welsh, Judith A.; Robles, Ana I.; Ryan, Bríd M.; McClary, Andrew C.; Bowman, Elise D.; Goodman, Julie E.; Bernig, Toralf; Chanock, Stephen J.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2012-01-01

    Because chronic intestinal inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, we hypothesized that genetic variants of inflammatory mediators, such as mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2), are associated with colon cancer susceptibility. Here we report the association of 24 MBL2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and corresponding haplotypes with colon cancer risk in a case-control study. Four SNPs in the 3′-UTR region of the gene (rs10082466, rs2120132, rs2099902, and rs10450310) were associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in African Americans. Odds ratios (OR) for homozygous variants vs. wild-type ranged from 3.17 (95% CI, 1.57–6.40) to 4.51 (95% CI, 1.94–10.50), whereas the 3′-UTR region haplotype consisting of these four variants had an OR of 2.10 (95% CI, 1.42–3.12). The C allele of rs10082466 exhibited a binding affinity of miR-27a and this allele was associated with both lower MBL plasma levels and activity. We found that 5′ secretor haplotypes known to correlate with moderate and low MBL serum levels exhibited associations with increased risk of colon cancer in African Americans, specifically as driven by two haplotypes LYPA and LYQC relative to the referent HYPA haplotype (LYPA: OR 2.60; 95% CI 1.33–5.08 and LYQC: OR 2.28; 95% CI 1.20–4.30). Similar associations were not displayed in Caucasians. Together, our results support the hypothesis that genetic variations in MBL2 increase colon cancer susceptibility in African Americans. PMID:22282660

  4. Lectin-probed western blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Lectin-probed western blot analysis, the so-called lectin blot analysis, is a useful method to yield basic information on the glycan structures of glycoproteins, based on the carbohydrate-binding specificities of lectins. By lectin blot analysis, researchers can directly analyze the glycan structures without releasing the glycans from glycoproteins. Here, the author describes protocols for standard analysis, and applies analysis in combination with glycosidase digestion of blot.

  5. Using MBL To Verify Newton's Second Law and the Impulse-Momentum Relationship with an Arbitrary Changing Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo; Gelbman, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    Uses microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) to teach Newton's second law and the impulse-momentum relationship with a high degree of precision and accuracy while applying forces that change in an arbitrary way. (YDS)

  6. Using MBL To Verify Newton's Second Law and the Impulse-Momentum Relationship with an Arbitrary Changing Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo; Gelbman, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    Uses microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) to teach Newton's second law and the impulse-momentum relationship with a high degree of precision and accuracy while applying forces that change in an arbitrary way. (YDS)

  7. Mannose-Binding Lectin and Toll-Like Receptor Polymorphisms and Chagas Disease in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Zulantay, Inés; Danquah, Ina; Hamann, Lutz; Schumann, Ralf R.; Apt, Werner; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2012-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms may influence susceptibility and manifestation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In northern Chile, we examined 61 asymptomatic patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD), 64 patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), and 45 healthy individuals. Low-producer MBL2*B genotypes were more common in CD patients (48%) than healthy individuals (31%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.01–5.4, P = 0.047) but did not differ with manifestation. In contrast, the heterozygous Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficiency genotype D299G/T399I occurred more frequently in asymptomatic (14.8%) than CCC patients (3.1%; P = 0.02). TLR1-I602S, TLR2-R753Q, TLR6-S249P, and MAL/TIRAP-S180L did not associate with CD or CCC. These findings support the complement system to be involved in defense against Trypanosoma cruzi infection and indicate that curbed TLR4 activation might be beneficial in preventing CCC. PMID:22302853

  8. Mannose-binding lectin and Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and Chagas disease in Chile.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Zulantay, Inés; Danquah, Ina; Hamann, Lutz; Schumann, Ralf R; Apt, Werner; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2012-02-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms may influence susceptibility and manifestation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In northern Chile, we examined 61 asymptomatic patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD), 64 patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), and 45 healthy individuals. Low-producer MBL2*B genotypes were more common in CD patients (48%) than healthy individuals (31%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-5.4, P = 0.047) but did not differ with manifestation. In contrast, the heterozygous Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficiency genotype D299G/T399I occurred more frequently in asymptomatic (14.8%) than CCC patients (3.1%; P = 0.02). TLR1-I602S, TLR2-R753Q, TLR6-S249P, and MAL/TIRAP-S180L did not associate with CD or CCC. These findings support the complement system to be involved in defense against Trypanosoma cruzi infection and indicate that curbed TLR4 activation might be beneficial in preventing CCC.

  9. Circulating mannan-binding lectin, M-, L-, H-ficolin and collectin-liver-1 levels in patients with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Tea L; Sandahl, Thomas D; Støy, Sidsel; Schiødt, Frank V; Lee, William M; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Thiel, Steffen; Grønbaek, Henning

    2015-03-01

    The complement system is activated in liver diseases including acute liver failure (ALF); however, the role of the lectin pathway of complement has scarcely been investigated in ALF. The pathway is initiated by soluble pattern recognition molecules: mannan-binding lectin (MBL), M-, L-, and H-ficolin and collectin-liver-1 (CL-L1), which are predominantly synthesized in the liver. We aimed to study lectin levels in ALF patients and associations with clinical outcome. Serum samples from 75 patients enrolled by the US ALF Study Group were collected on days 1 and 3. We included 75 healthy blood donors and 20 cirrhosis patients as controls. Analyses were performed using sandwich-type immunoassays (ELISA, TRIFMA). At day 1, the MBL level in ALF patients was 40% lower compared with healthy controls {[median (interquartile range) 0.72 μg/ml(0.91) vs. 1.15 (1.92)(P = 0.02]}, and increased significantly by day 3 [0.83 μg/ml(0.94)(P = 0.01)]. The M-ficolin level was 60% lower [0.54 μg/ml(0.50) vs. 1.48(1.01)(P < 0.0001)]. The CL-L1 level at day 1 was slightly higher compared with healthy controls [3.20 μg/ml(2.37) vs. 2.64(0.72)(P = 0.11)]; this was significant at day 3 [3.35(1.84)(P = 0.006)]. H- and L-ficolin levels were similar to healthy controls. Spontaneous ALF survivors had higher levels of MBL at day 1 [0.96 μg/ml(1.15) vs. 0.60(0.60)(P = 0.02)] and lower levels of L-ficolin by day 3 compared with patients who died or were transplanted [1.61 μg/ml(1.19) vs. 2.17(2.19)(P = 0.02)]. We observed significant dynamics in lectin levels in ALF patients, which may suggest they play a role in ALF pathogenesis. High MBL and low L-ficolin levels are associated with survival. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation Is Associated with Vulnerability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Perego, Carlo; Zangari, Rosalia; De Blasio, Daiana; Oggioni, Marco; De Nigris, Francesca; Snider, Francesco; Garred, Peter; Ferrante, Angela M. R.; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. By using a novel histology-based method to quantify plaque instability here, we assess whether lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation, a major inflammation arm, could represent an index of plaque instability. Plaques from 42 consecutive patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the lipid core, cholesterol clefts, hemorrhagic content, thickness of tunica media, and intima, including or not infiltration of cellular debris and cholesterol, were determined. The presence of ficolin-1, -2, and -3 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL), LP initiators, was assessed in the plaques by immunofluorescence and in plasma by ELISA. LP activation was assessed in plasma by functional in vitro assays. Patients presenting low stenosis (≤75%) had higher hemorrhagic content than those with high stenosis (>75%), indicating increased erosion. Increased hemorrhagic content and tunica media thickness, as well as decreased lipid core and infiltrated content were associated with vulnerable plaques and therefore used to establish a plaque vulnerability score that allowed to classify patients according to plaque vulnerability. Ficolins and MBL were found both in plaques’ necrotic core and tunica media. Patients with vulnerable plaques showed decreased plasma levels and intraplaque deposition of ficolin-2. Symptomatic patients experiencing a transient ischemic attack had lower plasma levels of ficolin-1. We show that the LP initiators are present within the plaques and their circulating levels change in atherosclerotic patients. In particular, we show that decreased ficolin-2 levels are associated with rupture-prone vulnerable plaques, indicating its potential use as marker for cardiovascular risk assessment in atherosclerotic patients. PMID:28360913

  11. Lectins Offer New Perspectives in the Development of Macrophage-Targeted Therapies for COPD/Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Mukaro, Violet R.; Bylund, Johan; Hodge, Greg; Holmes, Mark; Jersmann, Hubertus; Reynolds, Paul N.; Hodge, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the defective ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to phagocytose apoptotic cells (‘efferocytosis’) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema (COPD) could be therapeutically improved using the C-type lectin, mannose binding lectin (MBL), although the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. An S-type lectin, galectin-3, is also known to regulate macrophage phenotype and function, via interaction with its receptor CD98. We hypothesized that defective expression of galectin/CD98 would be associated with defective efferocytosis in COPD and that mechanisms would include effects on cytoskeletal remodeling and macrophage phenotype and glutathione (GSH) availability. Galectin-3 was measured by ELISA in BAL from controls, smokers and current/ex-smokers with COPD. CD98 was measured on AM using flow cytometry. We assessed the effects of galectin-3 on efferocytosis, CD98, GSH, actin polymerisation, rac activation, and the involvement of PI3K (using β-actin probing and wortmannin inhibition) in vitro using human AM and/or MH-S macrophage cell line. Significant decreases in BAL galectin-3 and AM CD98 were observed in BAL from both current- and ex-smoker COPD subjects vs controls. Galectin 3 increased efferocytosis via an increase in active GTP bound Rac1. This was confirmed with β-actin probing and the role of PI3K was confirmed using wortmannin inhibition. The increased efferocytosis was associated with increases in available glutathione and expression of CD98. We provide evidence for a role of airway lectins in the failed efferocytosis in COPD, supporting their further investigation as potential macrophage-targeted therapies. PMID:23441163

  12. Lectins offer new perspectives in the development of macrophage-targeted therapies for COPD/emphysema.

    PubMed

    Mukaro, Violet R; Bylund, Johan; Hodge, Greg; Holmes, Mark; Jersmann, Hubertus; Reynolds, Paul N; Hodge, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the defective ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to phagocytose apoptotic cells ('efferocytosis') in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema (COPD) could be therapeutically improved using the C-type lectin, mannose binding lectin (MBL), although the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. An S-type lectin, galectin-3, is also known to regulate macrophage phenotype and function, via interaction with its receptor CD98. We hypothesized that defective expression of galectin/CD98 would be associated with defective efferocytosis in COPD and that mechanisms would include effects on cytoskeletal remodeling and macrophage phenotype and glutathione (GSH) availability. Galectin-3 was measured by ELISA in BAL from controls, smokers and current/ex-smokers with COPD. CD98 was measured on AM using flow cytometry. We assessed the effects of galectin-3 on efferocytosis, CD98, GSH, actin polymerisation, rac activation, and the involvement of PI3K (using β-actin probing and wortmannin inhibition) in vitro using human AM and/or MH-S macrophage cell line. Significant decreases in BAL galectin-3 and AM CD98 were observed in BAL from both current- and ex-smoker COPD subjects vs controls. Galectin 3 increased efferocytosis via an increase in active GTP bound Rac1. This was confirmed with β-actin probing and the role of PI3K was confirmed using wortmannin inhibition. The increased efferocytosis was associated with increases in available glutathione and expression of CD98. We provide evidence for a role of airway lectins in the failed efferocytosis in COPD, supporting their further investigation as potential macrophage-targeted therapies.

  13. PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory co-receptors act synergistically to prevent autoimmunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Il-mi; Wang, Jian; Sugiura, Daisuke; Nakaki, Fumio; Yoshida, Taku; Kato, Yu; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Eto, Tomoo; Hioki, Kyoji; Honjo, Tasuku

    2011-01-01

    Stimulatory and inhibitory co-receptors play fundamental roles in the regulation of the immune system. We describe a new mouse model of spontaneous autoimmune disease. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase–linked autoimmunity (aida) mice harbor a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), an inhibitory co-receptor. Although LAG-3 deficiency alone did not induce autoimmunity in nonautoimmune-prone mouse strains, it induced lethal myocarditis in BALB/c mice deficient for the gene encoding the inhibitory co-receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). In addition, LAG-3 deficiency alone accelerated type 1 diabetes mellitus in nonobese diabetic mice. These results demonstrate that LAG-3 acts synergistically with PD-1 and/or other immunoregulatory genes to prevent autoimmunity in mice. PMID:21300912

  14. Monitoring lectin interactions with carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    de Bentzmann, Sophie; Varrot, Annabelle; Imberty, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions are often involved in the first step of infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces several proteins that are able to bind specifically to glycan epitopes present on host epithelia. The experimental approaches for studying protein-carbohydrate interaction have been inspired, with some adaptations, from those commonly used for protein-protein or protein-ligand interactions. A range of methods are described herein for detecting lectin activity, screening for monosaccharide or oligosaccharide specificity, determining the affinity of binding together with thermodynamics and kinetics parameters, and producing crystal of lectin-carbohydrate complexes for further structural studies.

  15. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with normal lymphocyte counts is associated with decreased numbers of normal circulating B-cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, Alexander W; Almeida, Julia; Nieto, Wendy G; Teodosio, Cristina; Rodriguez-Caballero, Arancha; Romero, Alfonso; López, Antonio; Fernandez-Navarro, Paulino; Vega, Tomas; Perez-Andres, Martin; Valent, Peter; Jäger, Ulrich; Orfao, Alberto

    2012-07-01

    Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with normal lymphocyte counts is associated with decreased numbers of normal circulating B-cell subsets.Little is known about the distribution of normal lymphoid cells and their subsets in the peripheral blood (PB) of subjects with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). In our study, we compared the absolute number of PB lymphoid cells and their subpopulations in 95 MBL cases with normal lymphocyte counts vs. 617 age-/sex-matched non-MBL healthy subjects (controls), using highly sensitive flow cytometry. MBL cases showed significantly reduced numbers of normal circulating B-cells, at the expense of immature and naive B-cells; in addition, CD4+CD8+ double-positive T-cells and CD8+ T-cells were significantly lower and higher vs. controls, respectively. Moreover, most normal B-cell subsets were significantly decreased in PB at >1% MBL-counts, vs. "low-count" MBL cases, and lower amounts of immature/naive B-cells were detected in biclonal (particularly in cases with coexisting CLL-like- and non-CLL-like B-cell clones) vs. monoclonal MBL subjects. In summary, our results show imbalanced (reduced) absolute numbers of recently produced normal circulating B-cells (e.g., immature and naıve B-cells) in MBL, which becomes more pronounced as the MBL cell count increases.

  16. A simple structure-based model for the prediction of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 enters host cells through interaction of its V3 loop (which is part of the gp120 protein) with the host cell receptor CD4 and one of two co-receptors, namely CCR5 or CXCR4. Entry inhibitors binding the CCR5 co-receptor can prevent viral entry. As these drugs are only available for CCR5-using viruses, accurate prediction of this so-called co-receptor tropism is important in order to ensure an effective personalized therapy. With the development of next-generation sequencing technologies, it is now possible to sequence representative subpopulations of the viral quasispecies. Results Here we present T-CUP 2.0, a model for predicting co-receptor tropism. Based on our recently published T-CUP model, we developed a more accurate and even faster solution. Similarly to its predecessor, T-CUP 2.0 models co-receptor tropism using information of the electrostatic potential and hydrophobicity of V3-loops. However, extracting this information from a simplified structural vacuum-model leads to more accurate and faster predictions. The area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) achieved with T-CUP 2.0 on the training set is 0.968±0.005 in a leave-one-patient-out cross-validation. When applied to an independent dataset, T-CUP 2.0 has an improved prediction accuracy of around 3% when compared to the original T-CUP. Conclusions We found that it is possible to model co-receptor tropism in HIV-1 based on a simplified structure-based model of the V3 loop. In this way, genotypic prediction of co-receptor tropism is very accurate, fast and can be applied to large datasets derived from next-generation sequencing technologies. The reduced complexity of the electrostatic modeling makes T-CUP 2.0 independent from third-party software, making it easy to install and use. PMID:25120583

  17. An overview of lectins purification strategies.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Kelany S; Cunha, Ana I; Nascimento, Kyria S; Cavada, Benildo S; Azevedo, Ana M; Aires-Barros, Maria Raquel

    2012-11-01

    Lectins hold great promise not only as reagents for diagnostics and drug discovery but also as a novel class of biopharmaceutical products. In fact, new research directions in the last years have led to major developments in the uses of plant lectins as therapeutic agents against numerous diseases in an ageing society. It is even expected that lectins may occupy an important place in the biopharmaceutical industry next to monoclonal antibodies. All these new trends are placing a tremendous emphasis on the development of new approaches for faster lectins development, selection, and optimization, including alternatives methods of purification. This article reviews the isolation and purification methods used for lectins purification. Origins and applications of lectins are described, highlighting the special features of this class of proteins, such as the carbohydrated-binding domains and their importance in the development of affinity methodologies to increase and facilitate lectins purification. Published strategies for the purification of lectins from different sources are analyzed in relation to the purification methods used, their sequence, and the number of times they are used in a purification procedure. The purity of lectins is analyzed in relation to the average overall yield and purification factors obtained for each purification scheme for these proteins and the purification steps necessary. New directions are described for improving lectins separation and purification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. EVA-1 Functions as an UNC-40 Co-receptor to Enhance Attraction to the MADD-4 Guidance Cue in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Bagg, Rachel; Selman, Guillermo; Zhang, Yuqian; Kim, Joowan; Roy, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We recently discovered a secreted and diffusible midline cue called MADD-4 (an ADAMTSL) that guides migrations along the dorsoventral axis of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We showed that the transmembrane receptor, UNC-40 (DCC), whose canonical ligand is the UNC-6 (netrin) guidance cue, is required for extension towards MADD-4. Here, we demonstrate that MADD-4 interacts with an EVA-1/UNC-40 co-receptor complex to attract cell extensions. EVA-1 is a conserved transmembrane protein with predicted galactose-binding lectin domains. EVA-1 functions in the same pathway as MADD-4, physically interacts with both MADD-4 and UNC-40, and enhances UNC-40's sensitivity to the MADD-4 cue. This enhancement is especially important in the presence of UNC-6. In EVA-1's absence, UNC-6 interferes with UNC-40's responsiveness to MADD-4; in UNC-6's absence, UNC-40's responsiveness to MADD-4 is less dependent on EVA-1. By enabling UNC-40 to respond to MADD-4 in the presence of UNC-6, EVA-1 may increase the precision by which UNC-40-directed processes can reach their MADD-4-expressing targets within a field of the UNC-6 guidance cue. PMID:25122090

  19. EVA-1 functions as an UNC-40 Co-receptor to enhance attraction to the MADD-4 guidance cue in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kevin Ka Ming; Seetharaman, Ashwin; Bagg, Rachel; Selman, Guillermo; Zhang, Yuqian; Kim, Joowan; Roy, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    We recently discovered a secreted and diffusible midline cue called MADD-4 (an ADAMTSL) that guides migrations along the dorsoventral axis of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We showed that the transmembrane receptor, UNC-40 (DCC), whose canonical ligand is the UNC-6 (netrin) guidance cue, is required for extension towards MADD-4. Here, we demonstrate that MADD-4 interacts with an EVA-1/UNC-40 co-receptor complex to attract cell extensions. EVA-1 is a conserved transmembrane protein with predicted galactose-binding lectin domains. EVA-1 functions in the same pathway as MADD-4, physically interacts with both MADD-4 and UNC-40, and enhances UNC-40's sensitivity to the MADD-4 cue. This enhancement is especially important in the presence of UNC-6. In EVA-1's absence, UNC-6 interferes with UNC-40's responsiveness to MADD-4; in UNC-6's absence, UNC-40's responsiveness to MADD-4 is less dependent on EVA-1. By enabling UNC-40 to respond to MADD-4 in the presence of UNC-6, EVA-1 may increase the precision by which UNC-40-directed processes can reach their MADD-4-expressing targets within a field of the UNC-6 guidance cue.

  20. Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas Spp. in ICU Patients with Special Reference to ESBL, AMPC, MBL and Biofilm Production

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Richa; Malik, Abida; Rizvi, Meher; Ahmed, S. Moied

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas spp. have been reported to be the important cause of ICU infections. The appearance of ESBL, AmpC and MBL genes and their spread among bacterial pathogens is a matter of great concern. Biofilm production also attributes to antimicrobial resistance due to close cell to cell contact that permits bacteria to more effectively transfer plasmids to one another. This study aimed at determining the incidence of ESBL, AmpC, MBL and biofilm producing Pseudomonas spp. in ICU patients. Material and Methods: The clinical specimens were collected aseptically from 150 ICU patients from February 2012 to October 2013. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. ESBLs and AmpC were detected phenotypically and genotypically. MBL was detected by modified Hodge and imipenem-EDTA double-disk synergy test. Results: Pseudomonas spp. 35(28%) were the most prevalent pathogen in ICU infections. Multidrug resistance and biofilm production was observed in 80.1% and 60.4% isolates, respectively. Prevalence of ESBL, AmpC and MBL was 22.9%, 42.8% and 14.4%, respectively. The average hospital stay was 25 days and was associated with 20% mortality. Conclusions: A regular surveillance is required to detect ESBL, AmpC and MBL producers especially in ICU patients. Carbapenems should be judiciously used to prevent their spread. The effective antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and piperacillin-tazobactum should be used after sensitivity testing. PMID:27013841

  1. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  2. Microbial lectins and their prospective mitogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Walia, Amandeep K

    2014-11-01

    The binding of mitogenic lectins to the glycoconjugates on cell surface receptor triggers multitude of reactions involving different signal transduction pathways which ultimately results in cell proliferation. Since 1960 after the chance discovery of mitogenic property of lectins by Nowell, it has attracted more attention. The property of stimulation of mature lymphocytes aided the immunological investigations to study and analyse the mechanism of cell stimulation and division. Plant lectins are extensively studied for mitogenic activity and their widespread applications are also reported. During the past two decades, the study of biological properties of microbial lectins has increased tremendously. Their biological activities including mitogenic potential are equally applicable as that of plant lectins. The review mainly focuses on mitogenic potential of microbial lectins. It will provide a comprehensive view regarding distribution of this remarkable property among microbes including algae, fungi and bacteria, mechanisms and models of mitogenic stimulation, and also assays being employed to detect the mitogenic activity.

  3. Plant as a plenteous reserve of lectin

    PubMed Central

    Hivrale, AU; Ingale, AG

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are clusters of glycoproteins of nonimmune foundation that combine specifically and reversibly to carbohydrates, mainly the sugar moiety of glycoconjugates, resulting in cell agglutination and precipitation of glycoconjugates. They are universally distributed in nature, being established in plants, fungi, viruses, bacteria, crustacea, insects, and animals, but leguminacae plants are rich source of lectins. The present review reveals the structure, biological properties, and application of plant lectins. PMID:24084524

  4. SUEL-related lectins, a lectin family widely distributed throughout organisms.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Glycan-binding proteins are categorized into two groups, lectins and sulfated glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins. SUEL-related lectins are members of a superfamily of proteins containing a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), which is structurally similar to sea urchin egg lectin (SUEL). Here I review the structure and function of this family of proteins.

  5. Influence of Lectins on Constricting Ring Formation by Arthrobotrys dactyloides.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T; Davis, E L; Walter, D E

    1991-04-01

    Incubation of Arthrobotrys dactyloides conidia in the presence of Radopholus citrophilus in lectin solutions with their corresponding sugars did not alter the stimulation of trap formation in solutions containing lectins alone. The lack of inhibition of lectin-stimulated trap formation by sugars or by lectin denaturation and the lack of lectin specificity indicate that the carbohydrate-binding regions of the particular lectins studied are not the stimulatory moieties of these macromolecules.

  6. Lectins and their application to clinical microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    Slifkin, M; Doyle, R J

    1990-01-01

    Lectins are generally associated with plant or animal components, selectively bind carbohydrates, and interact with procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Lectins have various specificities that are associated with their ability to interact with acetylaminocarbohydrates, aminocarbohydrates, sialic acids, hexoses, pentoses, and as other carbohydrates. Microbial surfaces generally contain many of the sugar residues that react with lectins. Lectins are presently used in the clinical laboratory to type blood cells and are used in a wide spectrum of applications, including, in part, as carriers of chemotherapeutic agents, as mitogens, for fractionation of animal cells, and for investigations of cellular surfaces. Numerous studies have shown that lectins can be used to identify rapidly certain microorganisms isolated from a clinical specimen or directly in a clinical specimen. Lectins have been demonstrated to be important diagnostic reagents in the major realms of clinical microbiology. Thus, they have been applied in bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and virology for the identification and/or differentiation of various microorganisms. Lectins have been used successfully as epidemiologic as well as taxonomic markers of specific microorganisms. Lectins provide the clinical microbiologist with cost-effective and potential diagnostic reagents. This review describes the applications of lectins in clinical microbiology. Images PMID:2200603

  7. Fungal lectins: structure, function and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Varrot, Annabelle; Basheer, Soorej M; Imberty, Anne

    2013-10-01

    Lectins are a widespread class of proteins implicated in many essential cellular and molecular recognition processes. They recognize carbohydrates in a non-catalytic, specific and reversible manner. Fungi, which include mushrooms, microfungi and yeasts, have attracted wide interest in recent years. They are indeed a promising source for novel lectins with unique specificity and potential for biomedical and biotechnological applications. Information on fungal lectins, particularly structural insight, is scarce compared to that on their plant and animal counterparts. This review therefore focuses on the structure, function, and exploitable properties of fungal lectins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perspectives in glycomics and lectin engineering.

    PubMed

    Tkac, Jan; Bertok, Tomas; Nahalka, Jozef; Gemeiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This chapter would like to provide a short survey of the most promising concepts applied recently in analysis of glycoproteins based on lectins. The first part describes the most exciting analytical approaches used in the field of glycoprofiling based on integration of nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, or nanochannels or using novel transducing platforms allowing to detect very low levels of glycoproteins in a label-free mode of operation. The second part describes application of recombinant lectins containing several tags applied for oriented and ordered immobilization of lectins. Besides already established concepts of glycoprofiling several novel aspects, which we think will be taken into account for future, more robust glycan analysis, are described including modified lectins, peptide lectin aptamers, and DNA aptamers with lectin-like specificity introduced by modified nucleotides. The last part of the chapter describes a novel concept of a glycocodon, which can lead to a better understanding of glycan-lectin interaction and for design of novel lectins with unknown specificities and/or better affinities toward glycan target or for rational design of peptide lectin aptamers or DNA aptamers.

  9. Essential Role for the Lectin Pathway in Collagen Antibody-Induced Arthritis Revealed Through Use of Adenovirus Programming Complement Inhibitor MAp44 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Nirmal K.; Mehta, Gaurav; Kjaer, Troels R.; Takahashi, Minoru; Schaack, Jerome; Morrison, Thomas E.; Thiel, Steffen; Arend, William P.; Holers, V. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies using mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and complement C4 deficient mice have suggested that the lectin pathway (LP) is not required for the development of inflammatory arthritis in the collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model. MBL, ficolins and collectin-11 are key LP pattern recognition molecules that associate with three serine proteases, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3, and also with two MBL-associated proteins designated sMAP and MAp44. Recent studies have shown that MAp44, an alternatively spliced product of the MASP-1/3 gene, is a competitive inhibitor of the binding of the recognition molecules to all three MASPs. In these studies we examined the effect of treatment of mice with adenovirus (Ad) programmed to express human MAp44 (AdhMAp44) on the development of CAIA. AdhMAp44 and Ad programming Green fluorescent protein (AdGFP) expression were injected intraperitoneally in C57BL/6 wild-type mice prior to the induction of CAIA. AdhMAp44 significantly reduced the clinical disease activity score (CDA) by 81% compared to mice injected with AdGFP. Similarly, histopathologic injury scores for inflammation, pannus, cartilage and bone damage, as well as C3 deposition in the cartilage and synovium, were significantly reduced by AdhMAp44 pretreatment. Mice treated with AdmMAp44, programming expression of mouse MAp44, also showed significantly decreased CDA and histopathologic injury scores. Additionally, administration of AdhMAp44 significantly diminished the severity of Ross River Virus-induced arthritis, a LP-dependent model. Our study provides conclusive evidence that an intact complement LP is essential to initiate CAIA, and that MAp44 may be an appropriate treatment for inflammatory arthritis. PMID:25070856

  10. Molecular interactions between MASP-2, C4, and C2 and their activation fragments leading to complement activation via the lectin pathway.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Russell; Dodds, Alister W; Mitchell, Daniel A; Sim, Robert B; Reid, Kenneth B M; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J

    2007-03-16

    Activation of component C3 is central to the pathways of complement and leads directly to neutralization of pathogens and stimulation of adaptive immune responses. The convertases that catalyze this reaction assemble from fragments of complement components via multistep reactions. In the lectin pathway, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins bind to pathogens and activate MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2). MASP-2 cleaves C4 releasing C4a and generating C4b, which attaches covalently to the pathogen surface upon exposure of its reactive thioester. C2 binds to C4b and is also cleaved by MASP-2 to form the C3 convertase (C4b2a). To understand how this complex process is coordinated, we have analyzed the interactions between MASP-2, C4, C2, and their activation fragments and have compared MASP-2-catalyzed cleavage of C4b2 and C2. The data show that C2 binds tightly to C4b but not to C4, implying that C4 and C2 do not circulate as preformed complexes but that C2 is recruited only after prior activation of C4. Following cleavage of C4, C4b still binds to MASP-2 (KD approximately 0.6 microM) and dissociates relatively slowly (koff approximately 0.06 s-1) compared with the half-life of the thioester (MBL.MASP complex on the bacterial surface so that, following recruitment of C2, the proximity of enzyme and substrate (C4b2) combined with more favorable reaction kinetics drive the formation of the C3 convertase, promoting complement activation.

  11. Early Changes of Mannose-Binding Lectin, H-Ficolin, and Procalcitonin in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Işlak Mutcal, Sibel; Saltoğlu, Neşe; Balkan, İlker İnanç; Özaras, Reşat; Yemişen, Mücahit; Mete, Bilgül; Tabak, Fehmi; Mert, Ali; Öztürk, Recep; Öngören, Şeniz; Başlar, Zafer; Aydın, Yıldız; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan; Soysal, Teoman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The significance of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and H-ficolin deficiency in febrile neutropenic (FN) patients and the correlation of these markers along with consecutive C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels during the infectious process are investigated. Materials and Methods: Patients with any hematological malignancies who were defined to have “microbiologically confirmed infection”, “clinically documented infection”, or “fever of unknown origin” were included in this single-center prospective observational study. Serum levels of CRP, PCT, MBL, and H-ficolin were determined on 3 separate occasions: at baseline (between hospital admission and chemotherapy), at the onset of fever, and at the 72nd hour of fever. Results: Forty-six patients (54% male, mean age 41.7 years) with 61 separate episodes of FN were evaluated. Eleven patients (23.9%) had “microbiologically confirmed infection”, 17 (37%) had “clinically documented infection”, and 18 (39.1%) had “fever of unknown origin”. Fourteen (30.4%) patients had low (<500 ng/mL) initial MBL levels and 7 (15.21%) had low (<12,000 ng/mL) H-ficolin levels. Baseline MBL and H-ficolin levels did not significantly change on the first and third days of fever (p=0.076). Gram-negative bacteremia more frequently occurred in those with low initial MBL levels (p=0.006). PCT levels were significantly higher in those with microbiologically documented infections. Mean and median PCT levels were significantly higher in cases with bacteremia. There was no significant difference between hemoculture-positive and-negative patients in terms of CRP levels. Conclusion: Monitoring serum H-ficolin levels was shown to be of no benefit in terms of predicting severe infection. Low baseline MBL levels were correlated with high risk of gram-negative bacteremia; however, no significant correlation was shown in the follow-up. Close monitoring of PCT levels is warranted to provide more accurate and

  12. Investigating Chemistry Students' Learning about the Relationship between the Temperature and the Pressure of a Gas Using a Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL): A Word of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on practices related to the use of a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) in a high school chemistry course in which students studied gases and kinetic theory. Reports that little or no higher order thinking was employed as students engaged in using the MBL and that some alternative conceptions were still evident. (Contains 42 references.)…

  13. Investigating Chemistry Students' Learning about the Relationship between the Temperature and the Pressure of a Gas Using a Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL): A Word of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on practices related to the use of a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) in a high school chemistry course in which students studied gases and kinetic theory. Reports that little or no higher order thinking was employed as students engaged in using the MBL and that some alternative conceptions were still evident. (Contains 42 references.)…

  14. Hepatitis C virus has a genetically determined lymphotropism through co-receptor B7.2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Lin; Huang, Jeffrey Y.; Wang, Chun-Hsiang; Tahara, Stanley M; Zhou, Lin; Kondo, Yasuteru; Schechter, Joel; Su, Lishan; Lai, Michael M C.; Wakita, Takaji; Cosset, François-Loïc; Jung, Jae U; Machida, Keigo

    2017-01-01

    B-cell infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been a controversial topic. To examine whether HCV has a genetically determined lymphotropism through a co-receptor specific for the infection by lymphotropic HCV, we established an infectious clone and chimeric virus of hepatotropic and lymphotropic HCV strains derived from an HCV-positive B-cell lymphoma. The viral envelope and 5′-UTR sequences of the lymphotropic HCV strain were responsible for the lymphotropism. Silencing of the virus sensor, RIGI, or overexpression of microRNA-122 promoted persistent viral replication in B cells. By cDNA library screening, we identified an immune cell-specific, co-stimulatory receptor B7.2 (CD86) as a co-receptor of lymphotropic HCV. Infection of B cells by HCV inhibited the recall reaction to antigen stimulation. Together, a co-receptor B7.2 enabled lymphotropic HCV to infect memory B cells, leading to inhibition of memory B-cell function and persistent HCV infection in HCV-infected hosts. PMID:28067225

  15. Complement Activation by Giardia duodenalis Parasites through the Lectin Pathway Contributes to Mast Cell Responses and Parasite Control

    PubMed Central

    Li, Erqiu; Tako, Ernest A.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease in the world. While numerous studies have identified important contributions of adaptive immune responses to parasite control, much less work has examined innate immunity and its connections to the adaptive response during this infection. We explored the role of complement in immunity to Giardia using mice deficient in mannose-binding lectin (Mbl2) or complement factor 3a receptor (C3aR). Both strains exhibited delayed clearance of parasites and a reduced ability to recruit mast cells in the intestinal submucosa. C3aR-deficient mice had normal production of antiparasite IgA, but ex vivo T cell recall responses were impaired. These data suggest that complement is a key factor in the innate recognition of Giardia and that recruitment of mast cells and activation of T cell immunity through C3a are important for parasite control. PMID:26831470

  16. Polymorphisms of Mannose-binding Lectin and Toll-like Receptors 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8 and the Risk of Respiratory Infections and Acute Otitis Media in Children.

    PubMed

    Toivonen, Laura; Vuononvirta, Juho; Mertsola, Jussi; Waris, Matti; He, Qiushui; Peltola, Ville

    2017-05-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune system. We assessed the susceptibility of children with genetic variants in these factors to respiratory infections, rhinovirus infections and acute otitis media. In a prospective cohort study, blood samples from 381 Finnish children were analyzed for polymorphisms in MBL2 at codons 52, 54 and 57, TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR3 Leu412Phe, TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR7 Gln11Leu and TLR8 Leu651Leu. Children were followed up for respiratory infections until 24 months of age with daily diaries. Polymerase chain reaction and antigen tests were used for detection of respiratory viruses from nasal swabs. Children with MBL variant genotype had a mean of 59 days with symptoms of respiratory infection per year, compared with 49 days in those with wild-type (P = 0.01). TLR8 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk and TLR7 polymorphisms with a decreased risk of recurrent rhinovirus infections (P = 0.02 for both). TLR2 polymorphisms were associated with recurrent acute otitis media (P = 0.02). MBL polymorphisms were associated with an increased and TLR7 polymorphisms with a decreased risk of rhinovirus-associated acute otitis media (P = 0.03 and P = 0.006, respectively). Genetic polymorphisms in MBL and TLRs promote susceptibility to or protection against respiratory infections. In addition to environmental factors, genetic variations may explain why some children are more prone to respiratory infections.

  17. Marine lectins and their medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wenliang; Chan, Yau Sang; Yin, Cuiming; Dan, Xiuli; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-05-01

    Marine organisms have been extensively explored for the last several decades as potential sources of novel biologically active compounds, and extensive research has been conducted on lectins. Lectins derived from marine organisms are structurally diverse and also differ from those identified from terrestrial organisms. Marine lectins appear to be particularly useful in some biological applications. They seem to induce negligible immunogenicity because they have a relatively small size, are more stable due to extensive disulfide bridge formation, and have high specificity for complex glyco-conjugates and carbohydrates instead of simple sugars. It is clear that many of them have not yet been extensively studied when compared with their terrestrial counterparts. Marine lectins can be used to design and develop new potentially useful therapeutic agents. This review encompasses recent research on the isolation and identification of marine lectins with potential value in medicinal applications.

  18. Exploring the Phenomenon of "Change of Phase" of Pure Substances Using the Microcomputer-Based-Laboratory (MBL) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierri, Evgenia; Karatrantou, Anthi; Panagiotakopoulos, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We examined how first year students (10th grade) of Greek Senior High School could conceptualize the influence of the molecular weight of saturated fatty acids on the melting and the freezing point, during the "change of phase" phenomenon using the Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) system. Students had to freeze a melted substance,…

  19. Exploring the Phenomenon of "Change of Phase" of Pure Substances Using the Microcomputer-Based-Laboratory (MBL) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierri, Evgenia; Karatrantou, Anthi; Panagiotakopoulos, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We examined how first year students (10th grade) of Greek Senior High School could conceptualize the influence of the molecular weight of saturated fatty acids on the melting and the freezing point, during the "change of phase" phenomenon using the Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) system. Students had to freeze a melted substance,…

  20. MBL, P2X7, and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in patients with oropharyngeal tularemia.

    PubMed

    Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Koc, Sema; Ates, Omer; Göktas, Göksel; Soyalic, Harun; Uysal, Ismail Onder; Gurbuzler, Levent; Sapmaz, Emrah; Sezer, Saime; Eyibilen, Ahmet

    2016-11-01

    A significant association was found of oropharyngeal tularemia with SLC11A1 allele polymorphism (INT4 G/C) and MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q). These results indicate C allele and Q allele might be a risk factor for the development of oropharyngeal tularemia. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of SLC11A1, MBL, and P2X7 gene polymorphism with oropharyngeal tularemia. The study included totally 120 patients who were diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia. Frequencies of polymorphisms in the following genes were analyzed both in the patient and control groups in the study: SLC11A1 (5'(GT)n Allele 2/3, Int4 G/C, 3' UTR, D543N G/A), MBL (MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q), and P2X7 (-762 C/T and 1513 A/C). Among all polymorphisms that were investigated in this study, SLC11A1 gene showed a significance in the distriburtion of polymorphism allelle frequency at the INT4 region. Frequency of C allele was 54 (28%) in patients with oropharyngeal tularemia, and 31 (13%) in the control group (p = 0.006 and OR = 1.96 (1.21-3.20)). An association was detected between MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q) gene polymorphism and oropharyngeal tularemia (p < 0.005 and OR = 0.30 (0.19-0.48)). No significant relation was found between P2X7 (-762 C/T and 1513 A/C) gene polymorphism and oropharyngeal tularemia in this study (p > 0.05).

  1. Lectin microarray technology identifies specific lectins related to lymph node metastasis of advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Keishi; Kuno, Atsushi; Matsuda, Atsushi; Ikehata, Yuzuru; Katada, Natsuya; Hirabayashi, Jun; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-04-01

    Although various molecular profiling technologies have the potential to predict specific tumor phenotypes, the comprehensive profiling of lectin-bound glycans in human cancer tissues has not yet been achieved. We examined 242 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients without or with lymph node metastasis-N0 (n = 62) or N+ (n = 180)-by lectin microarray, and identified the specific lectins highly associated with AGC phenotypes. In seven gastric cancer cell lines, in contrast to expressed-in-cancer lectins, not-expressed-in-cancer (NEC) lectins were tentatively designated by lectin microarray. Binding signals of the specific lectins were robustly reduced in AGC patients with N+ status as compared with those with N0 status. The receiver operating characteristic curve determined the optimal cutoff value to differentiate N0 status from N+ status, and subsequent profiling of NEC lectins identified Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) association with the significant other lectins involved in lymph node metastasis. VVA reaction was clearly found on cancer cells, suggesting that it may result from carcinoma-stroma interaction in primary AGC, because VVA is an NEC lectin. Most intriguingly, VVA reaction was remarkably attenuated in the tumor cells of the metastatic lymph nodes, even if it was recognized in primary AGC. In AGC, histological type was strongly associated with soybean agglutinin and Bauhinia purpurea lectin, whereas p53 mutation was the best correlated with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II. Lectin microarrays can be used to very accurately quantify the reaction of glycans with tumor tissues, and such profiles may represent the specific phenotypes, including N+ status, histological type, or p53 mutation of AGC.

  2. Overall strategy for functional analysis of animal lectins.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Norihito

    2014-01-01

    Animal lectins elicit biological functions through the interaction with glycan ligands. To clarify the functions of the lectins, both identification of their glycan ligand structure and assessment of impact of lectin-glycan interaction on the biological event are essential strategies. This chapter focuses on two of key useful methodologies for planning experiments based on the strategies. One is the detection of lectin-glycan interaction by the multivalent display of lectins and glycans. This methodology is a powerful means for identification of the glycan ligand structure and proteins and/or lipids carrying the glycan ligands for lectins. The other is the intervention of lectin-glycan interaction to assess the biological roles of lectins. Bioinformatics especially useful for animal lectins will be also described in this chapter. The concepts described in this chapter are versatile and applicable to a wide range of animal lectin research.

  3. Lectins in human cancer: both a devil and an angel?

    PubMed

    Dan, Xiu Li; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-09-01

    Lectins are a group of proteins which could recognize different sugar structures and specifically initiate reversible binding with them. Lectins are universally expressed in different organisms and undertake important biological roles. Understanding of their inherent roles and mechanisms that they employ has inspired researches with new ideas and applications. For example, along with the revelation of their anti-insect function, plant lectins exhibit great potential in agriculture. In human beings, lectins shoulder great missions in cell communication, differentiation and vesicle trafficking etc., aberrant expression of lectins is always associated with diseases. Mannan-binding lectin deficiency leads to immune disorder and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell lectin is involved in colorectal carcinoma liver metastasis. In this review, we present two contradictory roles of lectins in human cancer: the promotive roles of homologous lectins and suppressive roles of heterologous lectins in cancer development. Hopefully, this review will facilitate a better understanding of tumorigenesis and provide references for cancer treatment.

  4. C-type lectins facilitate tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dongbing; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Songbai; Su, Chunjie; Zhang, Yonglian

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis, a life-threatening complication of cancer, leads to the majority of cases of cancer-associated mortality. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. C-type lectins are a large group of proteins, which share structurally homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and possess diverse physiological functions, including inflammation and antimicrobial immunity. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the contribution of C-type lectins in different steps of the metastatic spread of cancer. Notably, a substantial proportion of C-type lectins, including selectins, mannose receptor (MR) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial cell C-type lectin, are important molecular targets for the formation of metastases in vitro and in vivo. The present review summarizes what has been found regarding C-type lectins in the lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis of cancer. An improved understanding the role of C-type lectins in cancer metastasis provides a comprehensive perspective for further clarifying the molecular mechanisms of cancer metastasis and supports the development of novel C-type lectins-based therapies the for prevention of metastasis in certain types of cancer. PMID:28123516

  5. Mushroom Lectins as Promising Anticancer Substances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Kaur, Hemant Preet; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin, which are widely distributed in nature. They have at least one non-catalytic domain, which binds reversibly to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. Lectins recognizing sugar moieties in cell walls or cell membranes alter the membrane physiology and trigger biochemical changes in the cell. Thus, various applications of lectins have been described, for example as tools to identify aberrant glycans expressed by neoplastic cells and as antitumor agents by inducing apoptosis by various mechanisms. In order to widen applications of anti-tumor lectins, a detailed investigation of their action mechanism is required. Mushrooms are a valuable source of novel lectins with unique specificities and potentials for biotechnological and biomedical applications. This article reviews information on anti-proliferative activity of mushroom lectins obtained in-vitro and in-vivo. The possible role of lectins as cancer therapeutics is discussed together with the mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative activity, which may help to exploit these biomolecules as potential novel antitumor drugs in near future.

  6. C-type lectins facilitate tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dongbing; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Songbai; Su, Chunjie; Zhang, Yonglian

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis, a life-threatening complication of cancer, leads to the majority of cases of cancer-associated mortality. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. C-type lectins are a large group of proteins, which share structurally homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and possess diverse physiological functions, including inflammation and antimicrobial immunity. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the contribution of C-type lectins in different steps of the metastatic spread of cancer. Notably, a substantial proportion of C-type lectins, including selectins, mannose receptor (MR) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial cell C-type lectin, are important molecular targets for the formation of metastases in vitro and in vivo. The present review summarizes what has been found regarding C-type lectins in the lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis of cancer. An improved understanding the role of C-type lectins in cancer metastasis provides a comprehensive perspective for further clarifying the molecular mechanisms of cancer metastasis and supports the development of novel C-type lectins-based therapies the for prevention of metastasis in certain types of cancer.

  7. Agglutination of Helicobacter pylori coccoids by lectins

    PubMed Central

    Khin, Mar Mar; Hua, Jie Song; Ng, Han Cong; Wadström, Torkel; Ho, Bow

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study the agglutination pattern of Helicobacter pylori coccoid and spiral forms. METHODS: Assays of agglutination and agglutination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins. RESULTS: Strong agglutination was observed with mannose-specific Concanavalin A (Con A), fucose-specific Tetragonolobus purpureas (Lotus A) and N-acetyl glucosamine-specific Triticum vulgaris (WGA) lectins. Mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of H. pylori coccoids as compared to the spirals. Specific carbohydrates, glycoproteins and mucin were shown to inhibit H. pylori lectin-agglutination reactions. Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells with formalin and sulphuric acid did not alter the agglutination patterns with lectins. However, sodium periodate treatment of bacterial cells were shown to inhibit agglutination reaction with Con A, Lotus A and WGA lectins. On the contrary, enzymatic treatment of coccoids and spirals did not show marked inhibition of H. pylori lectin agglutination. Interes tingly, heating of H. pylori cells at 60 °C for 1 h was shown to augment the agglutination with all of the lectins tested. CONCLUSION: The considerable differences in lectin agglutination patterns seen among the two differentiated forms of H. pylori might be attributable to the structural changes during the events of morphological transformation, resulting in exposing or masking some of the sugar residues on the cell surface. Possibility of various sugar residues on the cell wall of the coccoids may allow them to bind to different carbohydrate receptors on gastric mucus and epithelial cells. The coccoids with adherence characteristics like the spirals could aid in the pathogenic process of Helicobacter infection. This may probably lead to different clinical outcome of H. pylori associated gastroduodenal disease. PMID:11819557

  8. Peptide and protein-based inhibitors of HIV-1 co-receptors

    PubMed Central

    von Recum, Horst A; Pokorski, Jonathan K

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) afflicts an estimated 30 million people globally, making it a continuing pandemic. Despite major research efforts, the rate of new infections has remained relatively static over time. This article reviews an emerging strategy for the treatment of HIV, the inhibition of the co-receptors necessary for HIV entry, CCR5 and CXCR4. The aim of this article is to highlight potential therapeutics derived from peptides and proteins that show particular promise in HIV treatment. Molecules that act on CCR5, CXCR4 or on both receptors will be discussed herein. PMID:23856897

  9. Spectral characters of lectin saccharide interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deyu; Jiang, Duxiao; Yuan, Chunwei

    1999-09-01

    In this paper we report attempts to directly detect the interaction behavior between erythrocyte and lectin concanavalin a (Con A) as well as phaseolus vulgaris (PHA) on the polystyrene film surface. In the procedure, an optical transducer based reflectance interferometry was set up and used to detect the film thickness change during the lectin adsorption and lectin- erythrocyte interaction. The specific interactions among Con A, PHA and erythrocyte were obtained. The solubility monosaccharide inhibition test confirmed that there is affinity between (alpha) - D-mannose and Con A.

  10. Antiviral lectins as potential HIV microbicides.

    PubMed

    Koharudin, Leonardus M I; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2014-08-01

    A growing class of potential antivirals encompasses carbohydrate-binding proteins, such as antibodies and lectins. They block virus entry into host target cells and halt virus transmission from virus-infected cells to non-infected cells, thereby preventing infection. Here, we review the structural basis for the anti-HIV activity of various lectins, describing their structures and determinants of high-affinity oligosaccharide binding. The mechanism of glycan recognition on the gp120 envelope protein by these antiviral lectins may therefore be exploited for developing agents and alternative strategies to prevent HIV transmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. B cell recognition of the conserved HIV-1 co-receptor binding site is altered by endogenous primate CD4.

    PubMed

    Forsell, Mattias N E; Dey, Barna; Mörner, Andreas; Svehla, Krisha; O'dell, Sijy; Högerkorp, Carl-Magnus; Voss, Gerald; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Shaw, George M; Mascola, John R; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Wyatt, Richard T

    2008-10-03

    The surface HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 on the target cell surface to induce the co-receptor binding site on gp120 as the initial step in the entry process. The binding site is comprised of a highly conserved region on the gp120 core, as well as elements of the third variable region (V3). Antibodies against the co-receptor binding site are abundantly elicited during natural infection of humans, but the mechanism of elicitation has remained undefined. In this study, we investigate the requirements for elicitation of co-receptor binding site antibodies by inoculating rabbits, monkeys and human-CD4 transgenic (huCD4) rabbits with envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers possessing high affinity for primate CD4. A cross-species comparison of the antibody responses showed that similar HIV-1 neutralization breadth was elicited by Env trimers in monkeys relative to wild-type (WT) rabbits. In contrast, antibodies against the co-receptor site on gp120 were elicited only in monkeys and huCD4 rabbits, but not in the WT rabbits. This was supported by the detection of high-titer co-receptor antibodies in all sera from a set derived from human volunteers inoculated with recombinant gp120. These findings strongly suggest that complexes between Env and (high-affinity) primate CD4 formed in vivo are responsible for the elicitation of the co-receptor-site-directed antibodies. They also imply that the naïve B cell receptor repertoire does not recognize the gp120 co-receptor site in the absence of CD4 and illustrate that conformational stabilization, imparted by primary receptor interaction, can alter the immunogenicity of a type 1 viral membrane protein.

  12. Mercury chemistry in the MBL: Modeling results including Hg + halogen atom reaction rate constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgecock, I. M.; Pirrone, N.

    2003-04-01

    The inclusion, of recently published kinetic data for the reactions between gas phase elemental Hg and halogen atoms and molecules, in a photochemical box model including aerosols of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL), suggests that the cycling of Hg over the world's oceans may be much more dynamic than was once thought, as a direct result of halogen activation from marine aerosols. The rate of gas phase oxidation of Hg(0) in the model leads to high concentrations of gas phase oxidised Hg (Hg(II)), which is deposited to the sea surface either directly from the gas phase or indirectly via scavenging by sea salt and non-sea-salt sulphate aerosol particles and subsequent deposition. The model base run predicts Hg(II) concentrations higher than those measured in the marine atmosphere, and a lifetime for Hg(0) of a matter of days, rather than months as has been generally assumed. In light of previous measurements and the known stability of the hemispherical background concentration of Hg(0) the influence of liquid water content (the number of deliquescent aerosol droplets), cloud optical depth at the top of the boundary layer, and the Henry's Law constants for HgCl2 and HgBr2 have been investigated. In order to maintain a stable background concentration of Hg(0) a source strength (for emission from the sea, or entrainment from the free troposphere) of at least 15 ng m-2 hr-1 is required, which seems most unlikely considering results from flux chamber experiments. The model therefore either overestimates the rate of gas phase oxidation or lacks a fundamental reduction process. The evidence from studies of mercury depletion events in the Arctic troposphere lend support to the fast reaction between Hg(0) and Br containing radicals which have been included in the model, it is necessary therefore to investigate homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms for the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) in order to explain the measured Hg(II) concentrations in the MBL and the stable

  13. Legume Lectins: Proteins with Diverse Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lagarda-Diaz, Irlanda; Guzman-Partida, Ana Maria; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are a diverse class of proteins distributed extensively in nature. Among these proteins; legume lectins display a variety of interesting features including antimicrobial; insecticidal and antitumor activities. Because lectins recognize and bind to specific glycoconjugates present on the surface of cells and intracellular structures; they can serve as potential target molecules for developing practical applications in the fields of food; agriculture; health and pharmaceutical research. This review presents the current knowledge of the main structural characteristics of legume lectins and the relationship of structure to the exhibited specificities; provides an overview of their particular antimicrobial; insecticidal and antitumor biological activities and describes possible applications based on the pattern of recognized glyco-targets. PMID:28604616

  14. Galactose-specific seed lectins from Cucurbitaceae.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Musti J; Marapakala, Kavitha; Sultan, Nabil Ali M; Kenoth, Roopa

    2015-01-01

    Lectins, the carbohydrate binding proteins have been studied extensively in view of their ubiquitous nature and wide-ranging applications. As they were originally found in plant seed extracts, much of the work on them was focused on plant seed lectins, especially those from legume seeds whereas much less attention was paid to the lectins from other plant families. During the last two decades many studies have been reported on lectins from the seeds of Cucurbitaceae species. The main focus of the present review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on these proteins, especially with regard to their physico-chemical characterization, interaction with carbohydrates and hydrophobic ligands, 3-dimensional structure and similarity to type-II ribosome inactivating proteins. The future outlook of research on these galactose-specific proteins is also briefly considered.

  15. Co-receptor and co-stimulation blockade for mixed chimerism and tolerance without myelosuppressive conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Graca, Luis; Daley, Stephen; Fairchild, Paul J; Cobbold, Stephen P; Waldmann, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Background A major challenge in the application of marrow transplantation as a route to immunological tolerance of a transplanted organ is to achieve hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment with minimal myelosuppressive treatments. Results We here describe a combined antibody protocol which can achieve long-term engraftment with clinically relevant doses of MHC-mismatched bone marrow, without the need for myelosuppressive drugs. Although not universally applicable in all strains, we achieved reliable engraftment in permissive strains with a two-stage strategy: involving first, treatment with anti-CD8 and anti-CD4 in advance of transplantation; and second, treatment with antibodies targeting CD4, CD8 and CD40L (CD154) at the time of marrow transplantation. Long-term mixed chimerism through co-receptor and co-stimulation blockade facilitated tolerance to donor-type skin grafts, without any evidence of donor-antigen driven regulatory T cells. Conclusion We conclude that antibodies targeting co-receptor and co-stimulatory molecules synergise to enable mixed hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance, showing that neither cytoreductive conditioning nor 'megadoses' of donor bone marrow are required for donor HSC to engraft in permissive strains. PMID:16638128

  16. CD36 is a co-receptor for hepatitis C virus E1 protein attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun-Jun; Li, Jian-Rui; Huang, Meng-Hao; Ma, Lin-Lin; Wu, Zhou-Yi; Jiang, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Jing; Li, Yu-Huan; Han, Yan-Xing; Li, Hu; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, Yan-Xiang; Song, Dan-Qing; Peng, Zong-Gen; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a membrane protein related to lipid metabolism. We show that HCV infection in vitro increased CD36 expression in either surface or soluble form. HCV attachment was facilitated through a direct interaction between CD36 and HCV E1 protein, causing enhanced entry and replication. The HCV co-receptor effect of CD36 was independent of that of SR-BI. CD36 monoclonal antibodies neutralized the effect of CD36 and reduced HCV replication. CD36 inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO), which directly bound CD36 but not SR-BI, significantly interrupted HCV entry, and therefore inhibited HCV replication. SSO’s antiviral effect was seen only in HCV but not in other viruses. SSO in combination with known anti-HCV drugs showed additional inhibition against HCV. SSO was considerably safe in mice. Conclusively, CD36 interacts with HCV E1 and might be a co-receptor specific for HCV entry; thus, CD36 could be a potential drug target against HCV. PMID:26898231

  17. Identification of mycobacterial lectins from genomic data.

    PubMed

    Abhinav, K V; Sharma, Alok; Vijayan, M

    2013-04-01

    Sixty-four sequences containing lectin domains with homologs of known three-dimensional structure were identified through a search of mycobacterial genomes. They appear to belong to the β-prism II, the C-type, the Microcystis virdis (MV), and the β-trefoil lectin folds. The first three always occur in conjunction with the LysM, the PI-PLC, and the β-grasp domains, respectively while mycobacterial β-trefoil lectins are unaccompanied by any other domain. Thirty heparin binding hemagglutinins (HBHA), already annotated, have also been included in the study although they have no homologs of known three-dimensional structure. The biological role of HBHA has been well characterized. A comparison between the sequences of the lectin from pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria provides insights into the carbohydrate binding region of the molecule, but the structure of the molecule is yet to be determined. A reasonable picture of the structural features of other mycobacterial proteins containing one or the other of the four lectin domains can be gleaned through the examination of homologs proteins, although the structure of none of them is available. Their biological role is also yet to be elucidated. The work presented here is among the first steps towards exploring the almost unexplored area of the structural biology of mycobacterial lectins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Intercomparisons of marine boundary layer cloud properties from the ARM CAP-MBL campaign and two MODIS cloud products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Song, Hua; Ma, Po-Lun; Ghan, Steven J.; Platnick, Steven; Minnis, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    From April 2009 to December 2010, the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program carried out an observational field campaign on Graciosa Island, targeting the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the Azores region. In this paper, we present an intercomparison of the MBL cloud properties, namely, cloud liquid water path (LWP), cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud-droplet effective radius (CER), among retrievals from the ARM mobile facility and two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products (Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-MODIS and Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-MODIS). A total of 63 daytime single-layer MBL cloud cases are selected for intercomparison. Comparison of collocated retrievals indicates that the two MODIS cloud products agree well on both COT and CER retrievals, with the correlation coefficient R > 0.95, despite their significant difference in spatial sampling. In both MODIS products, the CER retrievals based on the 2.1 µm band (CER2.1) are significantly larger than those based on the 3.7 µm band (CER3.7). The GSFC-MODIS cloud product is collocated and compared with ground-based ARM observations at several temporal-spatial scales. In general, the correlation increases with more precise collocation. For the 63 selected MBL cloud cases, the GSFC-MODIS LWP and COT retrievals agree reasonably well with the ground-based observations with no apparent bias and correlation coefficient R around 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. However, GSFC-MODIS CER3.7 and CER2.1 retrievals have a lower correlation (R 0.5) with the ground-based retrievals. For the 63 selected cases, they are on average larger than ground observations by about 1.5 µm and 3.0 µm, respectively. Taking into account that the MODIS CER retrievals are only sensitive to cloud top reduces the bias only by 0.5 µm.

  19. Modeling halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer 2. Interactions with sulfur and the cloud-covered MBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, Roland; Sander, Rolf; Bott, Andreas; Crutzen, Paul J.

    2002-09-01

    A companion paper presented a numerical one-dimensional model of the marine boundary layer (MBL) including chemical reactions in the gas and aqueous phase, focusing on the reaction cycles of halogen compounds. In this paper we study interactions between halogen and sulfur chemistry. HOCl and HOBr were found to be generally more important than H2O2 or O3 in the oxidation of S(IV) in sea salt aerosols in the cloud-free MBL. The inclusion of halogen chemistry lead to an increase in the oxidation of DMS of roughly 63%. This additional oxidation is caused by BrO. The model was also expanded for the study of the cloudy MBL. We found that the effects of stratiform clouds on the evolution and diurnal cycle of halogen species are widespread; they are not restricted to cloud layers. The diurnal variation of gas and aqueous phase bromine was the opposite of that in cloud-free runs. Oxidation of S(IV) by HOBr and HOCl was important for cloud droplets, too. However, the relative importance of these oxidants changed compared to the cloud-free runs.

  20. Science Teacher Learning of MBL-Supported Student-Centered Science Education in the Context of Secondary Education in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voogt, Joke; Tilya, Frank; van den Akker, Jan

    2009-10-01

    Science teachers from secondary schools in Tanzania were offered an in-service arrangement to prepare them for the integration of technology in a student-centered approach to science teaching. The in-service arrangement consisted of workshops in which educative curriculum materials were used to prepare teachers for student-centered education and for the use and application of Microcomputer Based Laboratories (MBL)—a specific technology application for facilitating experiments in science education. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to study whether the in-service arrangement impacted teacher learning. Teacher learning was determined by three indicators: (1) the ability to conduct MBL-supported student centered science lessons, (2) teachers' reflection on those lessons and (3) students' perceptions of the classroom environment. The results of the research indicate that the teachers' were able to integrate MBL in their science lessons at an acceptable level and that they were able to create a classroom environment which was appreciated by their students as more investigative and open-ended.

  1. Animal lectins: potential antitumor therapeutic targets in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Hao; Zhang, Wen-zhi

    2012-10-01

    Lectins, a group of carbohydrate-binding proteins ubiquitously distributed into plants and animals, are well-known to have astonishing numerous links to human cancers. In this review, we present a brief outline of the representative animal lectins such as galectins, C-type lectins, and annexins by targeting programmed cell death (or apoptosis) pathways, and also summarize these representative lectins as possible anti-cancer drug targets. Taken together, these inspiring findings would provide a comprehensive perspective for further elucidating the multifaceted roles of animal lectins in apoptosis pathways of cancer, which, in turn, may ultimately help us to exploit lectins for their therapeutic purposes in future drug discovery.

  2. Lectin binding to formalin-fixed paraffin sections.

    PubMed Central

    Leathem, A; Atkins, N

    1983-01-01

    Lectins are potentially useful tools in histopathology for the identification of carbohydrates and distinguishing cells according to their type, differentiation or function. Conjugated to fluorescent or enzyme labels, lectins are simple to use on fresh tissue but fixation and processing sequesters glycoconjugates and dissolves out fat-linked sugars. We describe here the use of labelled antibodies to lectins to localise sites of lectin binding and increase sensitivity, combined with trypsin and neuraminidase to reveal sequestered carbohydrates. Absorbing lectins with appropriate sugars establishes the specificity of binding and allows lectins to be used as sensitive and specific reagents. PMID:6190843

  3. Screening for lectins from basidiomycetes and isolation of Punctularia atropurpurascens lectin.

    PubMed

    Alborés, Silvana; Mora, Paola; Cerdeiras, María Pía; Fraguas, Laura Franco

    2014-02-01

    Aqueous extracts of basidiomycete fungi were screened for the presence of lectins by hemagglutination (HA) assays with mouse, rabbit, and sheep red blood cells. From mycelia and/or fruiting bodies, 23 extracts were prepared; 15 extracts exhibited HA activity towards mouse erythrocytes, with specific activities ranging from 12 to 440 lectin units (LU) mg(-1) protein. In HA inhibition assays, 43 carbohydrates including mono-, di-, tri-, tetrasaccharides, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides were tested as haptens, to determine the saccharide-binding specificities of the lectins. A novel lectin with specificity towards N-acetyl-glucosamine was purified from mycelia of Punctularia atropurpurascens using affinity chromatography on chitosan-Sepharose. The lectin has a subunit molecular mass of 67 kDa determined by SDS-PAGE and a pI of 5.0. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Do human polyoma viruses and human immunodeficiency virus share common co-receptors?

    PubMed

    Borissov, Kalin; Tsekov, Iliya; Gavazova, Rayna; Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Argirova, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Host and/or viral factors involved in human polyomavirus (HPoV) infection in persons living with HIV remain unknown. A hypothesis is outlined suggesting the importance of the co-receptors CCR5, CCR2, and CXCR4 not only for HIV, but also for HPoV. Functionally capable receptors coded by wild-type (wt) genotypes could facilitate internalization of HPoV in the cell resulting in brain and/or kidney infection/s in HIV infected individuals. Forty-nine Bulgarians with HIV, all treated by HAART, without neurological and/or kidney disorders, were tested for JCV and BKV and genotyped for CCR5 (CCR5del32), CCR2 (CCR2-64I), and CXCR4 (SDF1-3'A). In 27/49 (55.1%) individuals a co-infection with HPoV was identified-BKV in 12/49 (24.5%), JCV-in another 12/49 (24.5%), and both viruses-in 3/49 (6.1%). A high frequency of wt CCR5 was found in patients with HPoV (91.7% for BKV and JCV and in 100% with both viruses). V/V of CCR2 was presented in 75% for BKV and JCV and in 66.7% for BKV plus JCV. SDF1-3'G/G predominated in JCV infected patients (75%), while G/A and A/A genotypes were more frequent in patients with BKV (41.7%). Also, 21/22 (95.4%) persons without HPoV infection were heterozygous for SDF1 and CCR2. The number of individuals bearing wt of all co-receptors in the group of persons not infected with HPoV was lower (P = 0.03) than that with polymorphism/s in one or two genes (SDF1 and CCR2) in the same group. The results suggest a probable role of co-receptors used by HIV to facilitate infection with HPoV.

  5. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of lectins from Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Singh, R S; Jain, P; Kaur, H P

    2013-11-01

    Ten Penicillium sp. were screened for lectin activity for occurrence of lectins. Mycelial extracts from submerged cultures of P. corylophilum, P. expansum and P. purpurogenum showed agglutination against human (A, B, AB and O), goat, sheep, pig and rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment to human blood- type O erythrocytes substantially increased their agglutinability by all the lectins as compared to untreated erythrocytes. Modification of erythrocyte surfaces by protease increased the lectin titre only of P. corylophilum with no effect on other two lectins. P. corylophilum and P. expansum displayed relatively lower titres in mycelial extracts prepared from agar plate cultures as compared to broth cultures. A panel of sugars was tested for inhibition of lectin activity. All the lectins were found to be specific for asialofetuin, bovine submaxillary mucin, porcine stomach mucin, chondroitin-6-sulphate, D-sucrose and D-glucose. P. corylophilum lectin was expressed (Titre 8) by 5 day old cultures, reaching its maximum level (Titre 32) upon 8 days of cultivation, thereafter declin in lectin activity was observed. P. purpurogenum lectin was expressed by 7-10 days old cultures, while in P. expansum maximum lectin activity was elaborated by 5-8 days old cultures. Lectin extracts from all the three species were found to possess antimicrobial activities. Lectin extracts from the three Penicillium species displayed antifungal activity and antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains.

  6. Epidemiological characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Schalla, W O; Whittington, W L; Rice, R J; Larsen, S A

    1985-01-01

    A total of 101 isolates of penicillinase-producing and non-penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae with known nutritional requirements, plasmid content, and serovars, were examined for lectin agglutination patterns. These isolates were from outbreaks in Georgia, California, Hawaii, and Pennsylvania. Cell suspensions made from 16- to 18-h cultures were mixed with 14 different lectins, and the resultant agglutination patterns were classified as agglutination groups. Among the 101 isolates tested, 24 different agglutination groups were demonstrated. Of the organisms tested, 55% were located in 3 of the 24 groups, and 86% of the isolates reacted with the lectins Trichosanthes kinlowii, Griffonia simplicifolia I, peanut agglutinin, soybean agglutinin, potato agglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin. One isolate did not react with peanut or potato agglutinin, five isolates lacked reactivity with potato agglutinin, and six isolates did not react with wheat germ agglutinin. Of the wheat germ-negative isolates, four were from Pennsylvania and were identical with regard to auxotype, plasmid content, serovar, and lectin group. The other two wheat germ-negative isolates were from California and were unrelated by the same criteria to the four Pennsylvania isolates and to each other. Among the isolates tested, there were no differences in lectin groups with regard to the sex of the patient. In the Georgia collection, agglutination with one lectin group was confined to isolates of serogroup IA. This association was not observed for the other geographic areas. Some isolates showing identical auxotype, plasmid content, and serovars could be differentiated based on lectin agglutination patterns, whereas other isolates were identical by all testing criteria. PMID:3930560

  7. Targeted mutagenesis of an odorant receptor co-receptor using TALEN in Ostrinia furnacalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Fujii, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) has been applied for various model organisms but not yet for agricultural pest insects. In this study, TALEN-mediated mutagenesis of the gene encoding odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) of an important agricultural pest Ostrinia furnacalis (OfurOrco) was carried out. Of the two pairs of TALEN constructs designed, one generated somatic and germline mutations at rates of 70.8% and 20.8%, respectively. Physiological and behavioral analyses using a gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector system and a wind tunnel, respectively, revealed that antennal responses to sex pheromone components were decreased to trace levels, and behavioral responses were abolished in OfurOrco mutants. This study demonstrated that TALEN-mediated mutagenesis is applicable to pest insects, and these results will open the way for a better understanding of chemosensory systems in wild insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth factor and co-receptor release by structural regulation of substrate metalloprotease accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Liseth M.; Hartmann, Monika; Schubach, Salome; Ma, Junzhi; Herrlich, Peter; Herrlich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Release of cytokines, growth factors and other life-essential molecules from precursors by a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteases (ADAMs) is regulated with high substrate-specificity. We hypothesized that this is achieved by cleavage-regulatory intracellular-domain (ICD)-modifications of the precursors. We show here that cleavage-stimuli-induced specific ICD-modifications cause structural substrate changes that enhance ectodomain sensitivity of neuregulin-1 (NRG1; epidermal-growth-factor) or CD44 (receptor-tyrosine-kinase (RTK) co-receptor) to chymotrypsin/trypsin or soluble ADAM. This inside-out signal transfer required substrate homodimerization and was prevented by cleavage-inhibitory ICD-mutations. In chimeras, regulation could be conferred to a foreign ectodomain, suggesting a common higher-order structure. We predict that substrate-specific protease-accessibility-regulation controls release of numerous ADAM substrates. PMID:27876763

  9. C-terminal tail of FGF19 determines its specificity toward Klotho co-receptors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinle; Lemon, Bryan; Li, XiaoFan; Gupte, Jamila; Weiszmann, Jennifer; Stevens, Jennitte; Hawkins, Nessa; Shen, Wenyan; Lindberg, Richard; Chen, Jin-Long; Tian, Hui; Li, Yang

    2008-11-28

    FGF19 subfamily proteins (FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23) are unique members of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis in an endocrine fashion. Their activities require the presence of alpha or betaKlotho, two related single-pass transmembrane proteins, as co-receptors in relevant target tissues. We previously showed that FGF19 can bind to both alpha and betaKlotho, whereas FGF21 and FGF23 can bind only to either betaKlotho or alphaKlotho, respectively in vitro. To determine the mechanism regulating the binding and specificity among FGF19 subfamily members to Klotho family proteins, chimeric proteins between FGF19 subfamily members or chimeric proteins between Klotho family members were constructed to probe the interaction between those two families. Our results showed that a chimera of FGF19 with the FGF21 C-terminal tail interacts only with betaKlotho and a chimera with the FGF23 C-terminal tail interacts only with alphaKlotho. FGF signaling assays also reflected the change of specificity we observed for the chimeras. These results identified the C-terminal tail of FGF19 as a region necessary for its recognition of Klotho family proteins. In addition, chimeras between alpha and betaKlotho were also generated to probe the regions in Klotho proteins that are important for signaling by this FGF subfamily. Both FGF23 and FGF21 require intact alpha or betaKlotho for signaling, respectively, whereas FGF19 can signal through a Klotho chimera consisting of the N terminus of alphaKlotho and the C terminus of betaKlotho. Our results provide the first glimpse of the regions that regulate the binding specificity between this unique family of FGFs and their co-receptors.

  10. Immune Receptors and Co-receptors in Antiviral Innate Immunity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Bianca C.; Calil, Iara P.; Machado, João Paulo B.; Santos, Anésia A.; Fontes, Elizabeth P. B.

    2017-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens using an innate immune system that is broadly divided into PTI (pathogen-associated molecular pattern- or PAMP-triggered immunity) and ETI (effector-triggered immunity). PTI is activated upon perception of PAMPs, conserved motifs derived from pathogens, by surface membrane-anchored pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). To overcome this first line of defense, pathogens release into plant cells effectors that inhibit PTI and activate effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS). Counteracting this virulence strategy, plant cells synthesize intracellular resistance (R) proteins, which specifically recognize pathogen effectors or avirulence (Avr) factors and activate ETI. These coevolving pathogen virulence strategies and plant resistance mechanisms illustrate evolutionary arms race between pathogen and host, which is integrated into the zigzag model of plant innate immunity. Although antiviral immune concepts have been initially excluded from the zigzag model, recent studies have provided several lines of evidence substantiating the notion that plants deploy the innate immune system to fight viruses in a manner similar to that used for non-viral pathogens. First, most R proteins against viruses so far characterized share structural similarity with antibacterial and antifungal R gene products and elicit typical ETI-based immune responses. Second, virus-derived PAMPs may activate PTI-like responses through immune co-receptors of plant PTI. Finally, and even more compelling, a viral Avr factor that triggers ETI in resistant genotypes has recently been shown to act as a suppressor of PTI, integrating plant viruses into the co-evolutionary model of host-pathogen interactions, the zigzag model. In this review, we summarize these important progresses, focusing on the potential significance of antiviral immune receptors and co-receptors in plant antiviral innate immunity. In light of the innate immune system, we also discuss a newly uncovered layer of

  11. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential.

    PubMed

    Gardères, Johan; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2015-08-07

    An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.

  12. A rainbow trout lectin with multimeric structure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L E; Thiel, S; Petersen, T E; Jensenius, J C

    1997-04-01

    A novel lectin has been identified in rainbow trout serum and plasma. The lectin binds to Sepharose (an agarose polymer) in a calcium-dependent manner. Glucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, mannose, N-acetyl-mannosamine, L-fucose, maltose and alpha-methyl-mannoside are good inhibitors of this binding, whereas glucosamine and D-fucose inhibits to a lesser degree and mannosamine and galactose do not inhibit the binding to Sepharose. When analysed by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions, the lectin appears as a characteristic ladder of bands with approximately 16 kDa between consecutive bands. Upon reduction, the lectin appears as a 16-kDa band. On size-exclusion chromatography of trout serum and plasma, the protein emerges over a broad range corresponding to sizes from about 2000 kDa to less than 200 kDa. The NH2-terminal sequence (AAENRNQXPPG) shows no significant homology with known proteins. Because of the characteristic appearance in non-reducing SDS-PAGE and the lectin activity, we propose to name the protein "ladderlectin."

  13. Antimicrobial and antiparasitic activity of lectins.

    PubMed

    Iordache, Florin; Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Liviu Ioan; Fafaneata, Cornelia; Pop, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in current contemporary medicine and it has become a major concern of the 21st century. New resistance mechanisms developed by microorganisms spread greatly, threatening the ability to treat numerous infectious diseases, and increasing the number of nosocomial infections. Besides the role in immunology and glycobiology where they are used as hemaglutinine and identification of complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, lectins proved to mediate diversified biological functions like cytotoxicity, complement activation, cell-to-cell and host-pathogen communications, innate immune response, and cell-to-cell signalling. Recently, great interest has been developed for the research and applications of lectins in agriculture and medicine due to their antiparasitic and antimicrobial potentials. This review focuses on the recent data regarding the antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities of lectins, by presenting the role of lectins in host-pathogen interaction and also the cytotoxic effects on microorganisms and parasites. Identification and characterisation of new lectins with antimicrobial activity could serve as a natural alternative for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and parasites.

  14. Isolation, characterization and molecular cloning of a leaf-specific lectin from ramsons (Allium ursinum L.).

    PubMed

    Smeets, K; Van Damme, E J; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1997-11-01

    Lectins were isolated from roots and leaves of ramsons and compared to the previously described bulb lectins. Biochemical analyses indicated that the root lectins AUAIr and AUAIIr are identical to the bulb lectins AUAI and AUAII, whereas the leaf lectin AUAL has no counterpart in the bulbs. cDNA cloning confirmed that the leaf lectin differs from the bulb lectins. Northern blot analysis further indicated that the leaf lectin is tissue-specifically expressed. Sequence comparisons revealed that the ramsons leaf lectin differs considerably from the leaf lectins of garlic, leek, onion and shallot.

  15. 21 CFR 864.9550 - Lectins and protectins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lectins and protectins. 864.9550 Section 864.9550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and Blood Products § 864.9550 Lectins and protectins. (a) Identification. Lectins and protectins are...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9550 - Lectins and protectins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lectins and protectins. 864.9550 Section 864.9550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and Blood Products § 864.9550 Lectins and protectins. (a) Identification. Lectins and protectins are...

  17. A Human Lectin Microarray for Sperm Surface Glycosylation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yangyang; Cheng, Li; Gu, Yihua; Xin, Aijie; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Shumin; Guo, Shujuan; Liu, Yin; Diao, Hua; Shi, Huijuan; Wang, Guangyu; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2016-09-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most abundant and functionally important protein post-translational modifications. As such, technology for efficient glycosylation analysis is in high demand. Lectin microarrays are a powerful tool for such investigations and have been successfully applied for a variety of glycobiological studies. However, most of the current lectin microarrays are primarily constructed from plant lectins, which are not well suited for studies of human glycosylation because of the extreme complexity of human glycans. Herein, we constructed a human lectin microarray with 60 human lectin and lectin-like proteins. All of the lectins and lectin-like proteins were purified from yeast, and most showed binding to human glycans. To demonstrate the applicability of the human lectin microarray, human sperm were probed on the microarray and strong bindings were observed for several lectins, including galectin-1, 7, 8, GalNAc-T6, and ERGIC-53 (LMAN1). These bindings were validated by flow cytometry and fluorescence immunostaining. Further, mass spectrometry analysis showed that galectin-1 binds several membrane-associated proteins including heat shock protein 90. Finally, functional assays showed that binding of galectin-8 could significantly enhance the acrosome reaction within human sperms. To our knowledge, this is the first construction of a human lectin microarray, and we anticipate it will find wide use for a range of human or mammalian studies, alone or in combination with plant lectin microarrays. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. A Human Lectin Microarray for Sperm Surface Glycosylation Analysis *

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yangyang; Cheng, Li; Gu, Yihua; Xin, Aijie; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Shumin; Guo, Shujuan; Liu, Yin; Diao, Hua; Shi, Huijuan; Wang, Guangyu; Tao, Sheng-ce

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most abundant and functionally important protein post-translational modifications. As such, technology for efficient glycosylation analysis is in high demand. Lectin microarrays are a powerful tool for such investigations and have been successfully applied for a variety of glycobiological studies. However, most of the current lectin microarrays are primarily constructed from plant lectins, which are not well suited for studies of human glycosylation because of the extreme complexity of human glycans. Herein, we constructed a human lectin microarray with 60 human lectin and lectin-like proteins. All of the lectins and lectin-like proteins were purified from yeast, and most showed binding to human glycans. To demonstrate the applicability of the human lectin microarray, human sperm were probed on the microarray and strong bindings were observed for several lectins, including galectin-1, 7, 8, GalNAc-T6, and ERGIC-53 (LMAN1). These bindings were validated by flow cytometry and fluorescence immunostaining. Further, mass spectrometry analysis showed that galectin-1 binds several membrane-associated proteins including heat shock protein 90. Finally, functional assays showed that binding of galectin-8 could significantly enhance the acrosome reaction within human sperms. To our knowledge, this is the first construction of a human lectin microarray, and we anticipate it will find wide use for a range of human or mammalian studies, alone or in combination with plant lectin microarrays. PMID:27364157

  19. Pentraxin 3, ficolin-2 and lectin pathway associated serine protease MASP-3 as early predictors of myocardial infarction - the HUNT2 study

    PubMed Central

    Vengen, Inga Thorsen; Enger, Tone Bull; Videm, Vibeke; Garred, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The lectin complement pathway is suggested to play a role in atherogenesis. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3), ficolin-1, ficolin-2, ficolin-3, MBL/ficolin/collectin-associated serine protease-3 (MASP-3) and MBL/ficolin/collectin-associated protein-1 (MAP-1) are molecules related to activation of the lectin complement pathway. We hypothesized that serum levels of these molecules may be associated with the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). In a Norwegian population-based cohort (HUNT2) where young to middle-aged relatively healthy Caucasians were followed up for a first-time MI from 1995–1997 through 2008, the 370 youngest MI patients were matched by age (range 29–62 years) and gender to 370 controls. After adjustments for traditional risk factors, the two highest tertiles of PTX3 and the highest tertiles of ficolin-2 and MASP-3 were associated with MI, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.65 (1.10–2.47) and 2.79 (1.83–4.24) for PTX3, 1.55 (1.04–2.30) for ficolin-2, and 0.63 (0.043–0.94) for MASP-3. Ficolin-1, ficolin-3 and MAP-1 were not associated with MI. In a multimarker analysis of all associated biomarkers, only PTX3 and MASP-3 remained significant. PTX-3 and MASP-3 enhanced prediction of MI compared to the traditional Framingham risk score alone (AUC increased from 0.64 to 0.68, p = 0.006). These results support the role of complement-dependent inflammation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. PMID:28216633

  20. In vivo efficacy of biapenem with ME1071, a novel metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) inhibitor, in a murine model mimicking ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kaku, Norihito; Harada, Yosuke; Migiyama, Yohei; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Shigeki; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Izumikawa, Koichi; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yasuoka, Akira; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-09-01

    ME1071, a maleic acid derivative, is a novel, specific inhibitor of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). In vitro, ME1071 can potentiate the activity of carbapenems against MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To confirm the clinical efficacy of ME1071 in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by MBL-producing P. aeruginosa, a mouse model that mimics VAP by placement of a plastic tube in the bronchus was used. Biapenem (100 mg/kg) or ME1071 plus biapenem (each 100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally every 12 h beginning at 12 h after inoculation. Survival was evaluated over 7 days. At 30 h post infection, mice were sacrificed and the numbers of viable bacteria in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were compared. Histopathological analysis of lung specimens was also performed. The pharmacokinetics of ME1071 was analysed after initial treatment. The ME1071 plus biapenem combination group displayed significantly longer survival compared with the control and biapenem monotherapy groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, the number of viable bacteria in the lungs was significantly lower in the combination group (P<0.05). Histopathological examination of lung specimens indicated that progression of lung inflammation was prevented in the combination group. Furthermore, total cell and neutrophil counts, as well as cytokine levels, in BALF were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the combination group. The percentage time above the MIC (%T>MIC) for biapenem without ME1071 was 0% in plasma; however, this value was elevated to 10.8% with ME1071. These results suggest that ME1071 is potent and effective for treatment of VAP caused by MBL-producing P. aeruginosa.

  1. Gene number determination and genetic polymorphism of the gamma delta T cell co-receptor WC1 genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background WC1 co-receptors belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily and are encoded by a multi-gene family. Expression of particular WC1 genes defines functional subpopulations of WC1+ '' T cells. Our previous study identified partial sequences for 13 different WC1 genes by annota...

  2. Orientation of GST-tagged lectins via in situ surface modification to create an expanded lectin microarray for glycomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Propheter, Daniel C; Mahal, Lara K

    2011-07-01

    Herein we describe the orientation of GST-tagged lectins on NHS-activated slides via a one-step deposition of the protein and a glutathione (GSH) scaffold. This technology overcomes the need for a premade GSH-surface to orient GST-tagged proteins, enabling us to rapidly expand the analytical capacity of lectin microarrays through addition of oriented lectins, while maintaining lectin diversity.

  3. Unfolding energetics and stability of banana lectin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Garima; Sinha, Sharmistha; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2008-08-01

    The unfolding pathway of banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca was determined by isothermal denaturation induced by the chaotrope GdnCl. The unfolding was found to be a reversible process. The data obtained by isothermal denaturation provided information on conformational stability of banana lectin. The high values of DeltaG of unfolding at various temperatures indicated the strength of intersubunit interactions. It was found that banana lectin is a very stable and denatures at high chaotrope concentrations only. The basis of the stability may be attributed to strong hydrogen bonds of the order 2.5-3.1 A at the dimeric interface along with the presence of water bridges. This is perhaps very unique example in proteins where subunit association is not a consequence of the predominance of hydrophobic interactions.

  4. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Alona; Vaknin, Karin; Gdalevsky, Garik; Vyazmensky, Maria; Marks, Robert S; Taube, Ran; Engel, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential.

  5. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Alona; Vaknin, Karin; Gdalevsky, Garik; Vyazmensky, Maria; Marks, Robert S.; Taube, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential. PMID:26629902

  6. Diversity of lectins in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their expression patterns under spiroplasma MR-1008 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huanxi; Du, Jie; Hui, Kai-Min; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2013-08-01

    Lectins play important roles in crustacean innate immunity through recognition of foreign pathogens. In this study, 20 lectins including C-type lectins [dual-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) type and single-CRD type], L-type lectin, and lectin with low-density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) domain were identified from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The tissue distribution and expression patterns of these lectins under spiroplasma strain MR-1008 challenge were investigated. Most of the lectins were found to be mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas. Lectin5, Lectin14, Lectin17, and Lectin18 exhibited the highest expression level in the hemocytes, nerve, intestine, and heart, respectively. MrLec1 to MrLec6 (dual-CRD lectins) in the hepatopancreas were up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Single-CRD lectins reached the highest level at 72 h after spiroplasma challenge. Lectin9 and Lectin15 both belong to L-type lectins. At post-spiroplasma challenge, Lectin9 expression was up-regulated, whereas Lectin15 expression was down-regulated. Lectin11 with LDLa domain showed the highest level after 12 h Lectin18 and Lectin20, namely, CD209, were also up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Lectin14, a C-type lectin, quickly reached the highest level after 2 h Lectin16 showed the highest level after 72 h Lectin5 reached the highest level in cultured hemocytes after 6 h Lectin17 in the intestine and Lectin14 in the nerve were slightly up-regulated after 6 and 2 h, respectively. Our research results indicate that lectins may play important roles in early or late immune responses against spiroplasma challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Lectins in Plant-Microorganism Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pueppke, Steven G.; Bauer, Wolfgang D.; Keegstra, Kenneth; Ferguson, Ardene L.

    1978-01-01

    Three different assay procedures have been used to quantitate the levels of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) lectin in various tissues of soybean plants. The assays used were a standard hemagglutination assay, a radioimmunoassay, and an isotope dilution assay. Most of the lectin in seeds was found in the cotyledons, but lectin was also detected in the embryo axis and the seed coat. Soybean lectin was present in all of the tissues of young seedlings, but decreased as the plants matured and was not detectable in plants older than 2 to 3 weeks. Soybean lectin isolated from seeds of several soybean varieties were identical when compared by several methods. PMID:16660384

  8. Capillary-based lectin affinity electrophoresis for interaction analysis between lectins and glycans.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Capillary affinity electrophoresis (CAE) is a powerful technique for glycan analysis, and one of the analytical approaches for analyzing the interaction between lectins and glycans. The method is based on the high-resolution separation of fluorescently labeled glycans by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced fluorescence detection (LIF) in the presence of lectins (or glycan binding proteins). CAE allows simultaneous determination of glycan structures in a complex mixture of glycans. In addition, we can calculate the binding kinetics on a specific glycan in the complex mixture of glycans with a lectin. Here, we show detailed procedures for capillary affinity electrophoresis of fluorescently labeled glycans with lectins using CE-LIF apparatus. Its application to screening a sialic acid binding protein in plant barks is also shown.

  9. Fruit-specific lectins from banana and plantain.

    PubMed

    Peumans, W J; Zhang, W; Barre, A; Houlès Astoul, C; Balint-Kurti, P J; Rovira, P; Rougé, P; May, G D; Van Leuven, F; Truffa-Bachi, P; Van Damme, E J

    2000-09-01

    One of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe bananas (Musa acuminata L.) and plantains (Musa spp.) has been identified as a lectin. The banana and plantain agglutinins (called BanLec and PlanLec, respectively) were purified in reasonable quantities using a novel isolation procedure, which prevented adsorption of the lectins onto insoluble endogenous polysaccharides. Both BanLec and PlanLec are dimeric proteins composed of two identical subunits of 15 kDa. They readily agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and exhibit specificity towards mannose. Molecular cloning revealed that BanLec has sequence similarity to previously described lectins of the family of jacalin-related lectins, and according to molecular modelling studies has the same overall fold and three-dimensional structure. The identification of BanLec and PlanLec demonstrates the occurrence of jacalin-related lectins in monocot species, suggesting that these lectins are more widespread among higher plants than is actually believed. The banana and plantain lectins are also the first documented examples of jacalin-related lectins, which are abundantly present in the pulp of mature fruits but are apparently absent from other tissues. However, after treatment of intact plants with methyl jasmonate, BanLec is also clearly induced in leaves. The banana lectin is a powerful murine T-cell mitogen. The relevance of the mitogenicity of the banana lectin is discussed in terms of both the physiological role of the lectin and the impact on food safety.

  10. Mushroom lectins: specificity, structure and bioactivity relevant to human disease.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-04-08

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell-cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity.

  11. Comprehensive list of lectins: origins, natures, and carbohydrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Tateno, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Haruko; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    More than 100 years have passed since the first lectin ricin was discovered. Since then, a wide variety of lectins (lect means "select" in Latin) have been isolated from plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, as well as viruses, and their structures and properties have been characterized. At present, as many as 48 protein scaffolds have been identified as functional lectins from the viewpoint of three-dimensional structures as described in this chapter. In this chapter, representative 53 lectins are selected, and their major properties that include hemagglutinating activity, mitogen activity, blood group specificity, molecular weight, metal requirement, and sugar specificities are summarized as a comprehensive table. The list will provide a practically useful, comprehensive list for not only experienced lectin users but also many other non-expert researchers, who are not familiar to lectins and, therefore, have no access to advanced lectin biotechnologies described in other chapters.

  12. Diversity and multiple functions of lectins in shrimp immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Wei; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Lectins play important roles in many biological processes, including protein trafficking, cell signaling, pathogen recognition, as effector molecules, and so on, because of their capacity to bind carbohydrates. Presently, seven groups of lectins have been identified in shrimp: C-type, L-type, P-type, M-type, fibrinogen-like domain lectins, galectins, and calnexin/calreticulin. These lectins have different structures, diverse expression patterns, and multiple functions in the shrimp immune response. This review summarizes the research progress and analyzes the diversity of shrimp lectins, focusing mainly on the C-type lectin family. Shrimp C-type lectins show considerable diversity in their domain architectures, sugar substrates, tissue distributions, expression patterns responding to pathogen challenge and functions in shrimp immunity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W.; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  14. Efficacy of glycoprotein enrichment by microscale lectin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Madera, Milan; Mann, Benjamin; Mechref, Yehia; Novotny, Milos V

    2008-08-01

    Reproducible and efficient affinity enrichment is increasingly viewed as an essential step in many investigations leading to the discovery of new biomarkers. In this work, we have evaluated the repeatability of lectin enrichment of glycoproteins from human blood serum through both qualitative and quantitative proteomic approaches. In a comprehensive evaluation of lectin binding, we have performed 30 separate microscale lectin affinity chromatography experiments, followed by a conventional sample purification, and LC-MS/MS analysis of the enriched glycoproteins. Two lectin affinity matrixes, both with Con A lectin, immobilized to the same solid support but differing in the amount of immobilized lectin, were investigated to characterize their binding properties. Both qualitative and quantitative data indicate acceptable repeatability and binding efficiency for the lectin materials received from two different commercial sources.

  15. Lectins from tropical sponges. Purification and characterization of lectins from genus Aplysina.

    PubMed

    Miarons, P B; Fresno, M

    2000-09-22

    Only a few animal phyla have been screened for the presence and distribution of lectins. Probably the most intensively studied group is the mollusk. In this investigation, 22 species from 12 families of tropical sponges collected in Los Roques National Park (Venezuela) were screened for the presence of lectins. Nine saline extracts exhibited strong hemagglutinating activity against pronase-treated hamster red blood cells; five of these reacted against rabbit red blood cells, four with trypsin-treated bovine red blood cells, and five with human red blood cells regardless of the blood group type. Extracts from the three species studied from genus Aplysina (archeri, lawnosa, and cauliformis) were highly reactive and panagglutinating against the panel of red blood cells tested. The lectins from A. archeri and A. lawnosa were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on p-aminobenzyl-beta-1-thiogalactopyranoside-agarose, and gel filtration chromatography. Both lectins exhibited a native molecular mass of 63 kDa and by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions have an apparent molecular mass of 16 kDa, thus suggesting they occur as homotetramers. The purified lectins contain 3-4 mol of divalent cation per molecule, which are essential for their biological activity. Hapten inhibition of hemagglutination was carried out to define the sugar binding specificity of the purified A. archeri lectin. The results indicate a preference of the lectin for nonreducing beta-linked d-Gal residues being the best inhibitors of red blood cells binding methyl-beta-d-Gal and thiodigalactoside (Gal beta 1-4-thiogalactopyranoside). The behavior of several glycans on immobilized lectin affinity chromatography confirmed and extended the specificity data obtained by hapten inhibition.

  16. Lectin-mediated drug delivery: influence of mucin on cytoadhesion of plant lectins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wirth, M; Gerhardt, K; Wurm, C; Gabor, F

    2002-02-19

    As the mucous layer represents the first barrier to peroral lectin-mediated drug delivery, the influence of mucin on the cytoadhesive properties of lectins was studied in vitro by establishing a rapid and simple microplate format assay using pig gastric mucin (PGM) for coating the wells. The lectin-binding capacity of mucin followed the order WGA>UEA-I>LCA=STL>PNA>DBA. The PGM-binding of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was strongly dependent on pH being highest at pH 5.0. In comparison, PGM-binding of WGA was about 15% at gastric pH and 60-70% at intestinal pH. This points to unimpeded gastric transit of WGA-grafted formulations and favorable conditions within the intestine for binding to mucus coated enterocytes. Moreover the WGA-PGM interaction was concentration-dependent, specific and fully reversible. According to a competitive assay in the presence of Caco-2 monolayers, the PGM-binding of WGA was saturated and influenced by the lectin-concentration yielding 28% Caco-2 bound WGA (125 ng WGA/0.29 cm(2) monolayer) and 68% Caco-2 bound WGA (4 microg WGA/0.29 cm(2) monolayer), respectively. Following on from these results, lectins are expected to suffer at least partially from premature inactivation by shed off mucus like bioadhesives of the first generation, however initial but reversible mucus-binding of lectins offers partititioning to the cell membrane followed by uptake into the enterocyte.

  17. Structural analysis of a Dioclea sclerocarpa lectin: Study on the vasorelaxant properties of Dioclea lectins.

    PubMed

    Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Delatorre, Plinio; Teixeira, Claudener S; Correia, Jorge L A; Cajazeiras, João B; Pereira, Ronniery I; Nascimento, Kyria S; Laranjeira, Eva P P; Pires, Alana F; Assreuy, Ana M S; Rocha, Bruno A M; Cavada, Benildo S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are proteins that show a variety of biological activities. However, they share in common at least one domain capable of recognizing specific carbohydrates reversibly without changing its structure. The legume lectins family is the most studied family of plant lectins, in particular the Diocleinae subtribe, which possesses high degree of structural similarity, but variable biological activities. This variability lies in small differences that can be analyzed in studies based on structures. In particular, Dioclea sclerocarpa seed lectin (DSL) presents low ability to relax endothelialized rat aorta in comparison with other Dioclea lectins such as Dioclea violacea (DVL), Dioclea virgata (DvirL) and Dioclea rostrata (DRL). The DSL relaxation mechanism relies on nitric oxide production and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). This feature can be explained by structural differences, since DSL has a carbohydrate recognition domain design less favorable. In addition, the presence of a glutamate residue at position 205 proved to be a decisive factor for the low relaxant effect of Dioclea lectins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and Applications of the Lectin Microarray.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Jun; Kuno, Atsushi; Tateno, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The lectin microarray is an emerging technology for glycomics. It has already found maximum use in diverse fields of glycobiology by providing simple procedures for differential glycan profiling in a rapid and high-throughput manner. Since its first appearance in the literature in 2005, many application methods have been developed essentially on the same platform, comprising a series of glycan-binding proteins immobilized on an appropriate substrate such as a glass slide. Because the lectin microarray strategy does not require prior liberation of glycans from the core protein in glycoprotein analysis, it should encourage researchers not familiar with glycotechnology to use glycan analysis in future work. This feasibility should provide a broader range of experimental scientists with good opportunities to investigate novel aspects of glycoscience. Applications of the technology include not only basic sciences but also the growing fields of bio-industry. This chapter describes first the essence of glycan profiling and the basic fabrication of the lectin microarray for this purpose. In the latter part the focus is on diverse applications to both structural and functional glycomics, with emphasis on the wide applicability now available with this new technology. Finally, the importance of developing advanced lectin engineering is discussed.

  19. BAD-lectins: boronic acid-decorated lectins with enhanced binding affinity for the selective enrichment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Wei; Chien, Chih-Wei; Lin, Po-Chiao; Huang, Li-De; Chen, Chang-Yang; Wu, Sz-Wei; Han, Chia-Li; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2013-09-03

    The weak and variable binding affinities exhibited by lectin-carbohydrate interactions have often compromised the practical utility of lectin in capturing glycoproteins for glycoproteomic applications. We report here the development and applications of a new type of hybrid biomaterial, namely a boronic acid-decorated lectin (BAD-lectin), for efficient bifunctional glycoprotein labeling and enrichment. Our binding studies showed an enhanced affinity by BAD-lectin, likely to be mediated via the formation of boronate ester linkages between the lectin and glycan subsequent to the initial recognition process and thus preserving its glycan-specificity. Moreover, when attached to magnetic nanoparticles (BAD-lectin@MNPs), 2 to 60-fold improvement on detection sensitivity and enrichment efficiency for specific glycoproteins was observed over the independent use of either lectin or BA. Tested at the level of whole cell lysates for glycoproteomic applications, three different types of BAD-lectin@MNPs exhibited excellent specificities with only 6% overlapping among the 295 N-linked glycopeptides identified. As many as 236 N-linked glycopeptides (80%) were uniquely identified by one of the BAD-lectin@MNPs. These results indicated that the enhanced glycan-selective recognition and binding affinity of BAD-lectin@MNPs will facilitate a complementary identification of the under-explored glycoproteome.

  20. Role of HER2/HER3 co-receptor in breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Way, Tzong-Der; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2005-12-01

    ErbB receptors are essential mediators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Their aberrant activation is associated with the development and severity of many cancers. Homo- and heterodimerization of ErbB receptors result in a wide variety of cellular signal transduction. Dimerization of human epidermal growth-factor receptor (HER)2 and HER3 occurs frequently and is a preferred heterodimer. The HER2/HER3 dimer constitutes a high affinity co-receptor for heregulin, which is capable of potent mitogenic signaling. HER3 is a kinase-defective protein that is phosphorylated by HER2. Tyrosine phosphorylated HER3 is able to directly couple to phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase, a lipid kinase involved in the proliferation, survival, adhesion and motility of tumor cells. The authors' research provides mechanistic evidence that apigenin induces apoptosis by depleting the HER2 protein and, in turn, suppressing the signaling of the HER2/HER3-phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This indicates that inhibition of HER2/HER3 heterodimer function may be an especially effective and unique strategy for blocking the HER2-mediated carcinogenesis of breast cancer cells.

  1. Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheard, Laura B; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin; Withers, John; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Hinds, Thomas R; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Sharon, Michal; Browse, John; He, Sheng Yang; Rizo, Josep; Howe, Gregg A; Zheng, Ning

    2011-11-07

    Jasmonates are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates jasmonate signalling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of jasmonate perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true Arabidopsis jasmonate receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved {alpha}-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the jasmonate co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs.

  2. Air Vertical Velocity Distributions of Trade Cumulus and Stratocumulus Clouds from the ARM Mobile Facility CAP-MBL Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinden, K. L.; de Szoeke, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The ARM mobile facility W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) was deployed as part of the Cloud, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) campaign on the north shore of Graciosa Island, Azores during the summers of 2009 and 2010. Vertical air velocities from cumulus and stratocumulus clouds over this location are retrieved using radar reflectivity and mean Doppler vertical velocity, employing the assumptions of Pinsky et al. (2010) that gravitational settling of hydrometeors is independent of vertical air motion. Cases of trade cumulus and stratocumulus clouds are identified from the CAP-MBL WACR dataset by examining hourly ceilometer-derived cloud base and cloud top heights, cloud top height variability, temporal duration of hydrometeor clusters from the WACR-derived hydrometeor mask, and precipitation type (Remillard et al. 2012). The structure of mean Doppler velocity as a function of reflectivity and cloud properties (e.g. cloud depth and distance below cloud top) are characterized for these two cloud types. Once the settling velocity has been subtracted, the distribution of air vertical velocities are examined. Vertical velocity histograms provide clues to test parameterizations of updrafts and downdrafts within clouds.

  3. HBV Viral Load and Liver Enzyme Levels May Be Associated with the Wild MBL2 AA Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Tuane Carolina Ferreira; Araújo, Mauro Sérgio; Freitas Queiroz, Maria Alice; Conde, Simone Regina Souza da Silva; Demachki, Sâmia; Martins-Feitosa, Rosimar Neris; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira; Ishak, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the frequencies of rs1800450 (MBL ⁎B, G>A), rs1800451 (MBL ⁎C, G>A), and rs5030737 (MBL ⁎D, C>T) polymorphisms in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene among patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Blood samples from patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV; n = 65), hepatitis C virus (HCV; n = 92), and a noninfected control group (n = 300) were investigated. The presence of polymorphisms was detected using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to correlate with liver disease pathogenesis and fibrosis staging according to the Metavir classification. The genotypic and allelic frequencies showed no significant differences between the groups, but patients with active HBV and the wild AA genotype presented a positive correlation between increased transaminase and HBV DNA levels and the presence of mild to moderate fibrosis. Patients with HCV and the wild AA genotype presented mild inflammation and higher HCV RNA levels, although the same association was not observed for the fibrosis scores. The results suggest that the mutations in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene do not contribute directly to the clinical and laboratory features of HCV and HBV infections, but further studies should be performed to confirm whether the wild AA genotype has indirect effect on disease progression. PMID:28408790

  4. [Can mannose-binding lectin and plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor be used in diagnosis and treatment monitorization of brucellosis patients?].

    PubMed

    Karsen, Hasan; Cesur, Salih; Karaağaç, Leman; Binici, Irfan; Fidan, Yasemin; Oğüş, Elmas; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (SuPAR) levels in monitoring the treatment in patients with brucellosis, by comparing their levels before and after treatment with the values obtained from healthy control group. Thirty brucellosis patients (mean age: 25.8 ± 12.2 years; 15 were male) and 28 healthy controls (mean age: 29.3 ± 12.3 years; 15 were male) were included in the study. Patients were diagnosed with brucellosis according to the characteristic clinical findings and by brucella standard tube agglutination test (SAT) titer ≥ 1/160 and/or blood culture positivity. Serum MBL (Antibodyshop, Denmark) and plasma SuPAR (Virogates, Denmark) levels were investigated with commercial ELISA kits. In our study, no statistical significance was observed between the pre-treatment (13.8 ± 13.4 ng/ml) and post-treatment (12.4 ± 13.1 ng/ml) MBL levels of the patient group and MBL levels of the control group (16.5 ± 14.8 ng/ml) (p> 0.05). Moreover, the mean SuPAR levels measured in pre-treatment and post-treatment plasma samples of the brucellosis patients was 5.1 ± 1.9 ng/ml and 2.9 ± 1.3 ng/ml, respectively, while the mean SuPAR level was 1.8 ± 0.5 ng/ml in the control group. The difference between mean SuPAR levels of patients in pre- and post-treatment samples was found statistically significant (p< 0.001). In addition SuPAR levels were significantly higher in patients before and after treatment than the control group (p> 0.001). In conclusion, plasma SuPAR level would be a useful marker for the diagnosis and treatment follow up of the patients with brucellosis.

  5. Lectins, Interconnecting Proteins with Biotechnological/Pharmacological and Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Priscila Marcelino dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are proteins extensively used in biomedical applications with property to recognize carbohydrates through carbohydrate-binding sites, which identify glycans attached to cell surfaces, glycoconjugates, or free sugars, detecting abnormal cells and biomarkers related to diseases. These lectin abilities promoted interesting results in experimental treatments of immunological diseases, wounds, and cancer. Lectins obtained from virus, microorganisms, algae, animals, and plants were reported as modulators and tool markers in vivo and in vitro; these molecules also play a role in the induction of mitosis and immune responses, contributing for resolution of infections and inflammations. Lectins revealed healing effect through induction of reepithelialization and cicatrization of wounds. Some lectins have been efficient agents against virus, fungi, bacteria, and helminths at low concentrations. Lectin-mediated bioadhesion has been an interesting characteristic for development of drug delivery systems. Lectin histochemistry and lectin-based biosensors are useful to detect transformed tissues and biomarkers related to disease occurrence; antitumor lectins reported are promising for cancer therapy. Here, we address lectins from distinct sources with some biological effect and biotechnological potential in the diagnosis and therapeutic of diseases, highlighting many advances in this growing field. PMID:28367220

  6. Lectin-binding by sporozoites of Elmeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

    2002-02-01

    Sporozoites of Eimeria tenella were reacted in vitro with 19 different lectins characterized with a variety of carbohydrate-binding properties. Nine lectins caused sporozoite agglutination, which was inhibited by the specific carbohydrates mannose, sialic acid, melibiose, D-galactose, or D-galNAc. When intact live or fixed whole sporozoites were reacted with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectins, another nine lectins bound to sporozoites, giving weak to strong fluorescence but not agglutination. Of these, all nine lectins bound to surface sites, but four also bound to the refractile body. Two of the agglutinating lectins also bound to intracellular organelles of air-dried sporozoites. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that biotinylated lectins bound a wide variety of parasite proteins. Lectins with similar carbohydrate specificities had some similarity in binding patterns of parasite proteins, as well as marked differences. In a few cases lectins with different carbohydrate specificities bound common protein bands. Only one lectin (Dolichos biflorus) showed no evidence of binding to whole sporozoites, organelles, or proteins.

  7. AMD3100, a small molecule inhibitor of HIV-1 entry via the CXCR4 co-receptor.

    PubMed

    Donzella, G A; Schols, D; Lin, S W; Esté, J A; Nagashima, K A; Maddon, P J; Allaway, G P; Sakmar, T P; Henson, G; De Clercq, E; Moore, J P

    1998-01-01

    The bicyclam AMD3100 (formula weight 830) blocks HIV-1 entry and membrane fusion via the CXCR4 co-receptor, but not via CCR5. AMD3100 prevents monoclonal antibody 12G5 from binding to CXCR4, but has no effect on binding of monoclonal antibody 2D7 to CCR5. It also inhibits binding of the CXC-chemokine, SDF-1alpha, to CXCR4 and subsequent signal transduction, but does not itself cause signaling and has no effect on RANTES signaling via CCR5. Thus, AMD3100 prevents CXCR4 functioning as both a HIV-1 co-receptor and a CXC-chemokine receptor. Development of small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry is feasible.

  8. YodL and YisK Possess Shape-Modifying Activities That Are Suppressed by Mutations in Bacillus subtilis mreB and mbl

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yi; Sperber, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many bacteria utilize actin-like proteins to direct peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis. MreB and MreB-like proteins are thought to act as scaffolds, guiding the localization and activity of key PG-synthesizing proteins during cell elongation. Despite their critical role in viability and cell shape maintenance, very little is known about how the activity of MreB family proteins is regulated. Using a Bacillus subtilis misexpression screen, we identified two genes, yodL and yisK, that when misexpressed lead to loss of cell width control and cell lysis. Expression analysis suggested that yodL and yisK are previously uncharacterized Spo0A-regulated genes, and consistent with these observations, a ΔyodL ΔyisK mutant exhibited reduced sporulation efficiency. Suppressors resistant to YodL's killing activity occurred primarily in mreB mutants and resulted in amino acid substitutions at the interface between MreB and the highly conserved morphogenic protein RodZ, whereas suppressors resistant to YisK occurred primarily in mbl mutants and mapped to Mbl's predicted ATP-binding pocket. YodL's shape-altering activity appears to require MreB, as a ΔmreB mutant was resistant to the effects of YodL but not YisK. Similarly, YisK appears to require Mbl, as a Δmbl mutant was resistant to the cell-widening effects of YisK but not of YodL. Collectively, our results suggest that YodL and YisK likely modulate MreB and Mbl activity, possibly during the early stages of sporulation. IMPORTANCE The peptidoglycan (PG) component of the cell envelope confers structural rigidity to bacteria and protects them from osmotic pressure. MreB and MreB-like proteins are thought to act as scaffolds for PG synthesis and are essential in bacteria exhibiting nonpolar growth. Despite the critical role of MreB-like proteins, we lack mechanistic insight into how their activities are regulated. Here, we describe the discovery of two B. subtilis proteins, YodL and YisK, which modulate MreB and Mbl

  9. Sensing lectin-glycan interactions using lectin super-microarrays and glycans labeled with dye-doped silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Matei, Elena; Deng, Lingquan; Koharudin, Leonardus; Gronenborn, Angela M; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2013-09-15

    A new microarray platform, based on lectin super-microarrays and glycans labeled with dye-doped nanoparticles, has been developed to study glycan-lectin interactions. Glycan ligands were conjugated onto fluorescein-doped silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) using a general photocoupling chemistry to afford FSNP-labeled glycan probes. Lectins were printed on epoxy slides in duplicate sets to generate lectin super-microarrays where multiple assays could be carried out simultaneously in each lectin microarray. Thus, the lectin super-microarray was treated with FSNP-labeled glycans to screen for specific binding pairs. Furthermore, a series of ligand competition assays were carried out on a single lectin super-microarray to generate the dose-response curve for each glycan-lectin pair, from which the apparent affinity constants were obtained. Results showed 4-7 orders of magnitude increase in affinity over the free glycans with the corresponding lectins. Thus, the glycan epitope structures having weaker affinity than the parent glycans could be readily identified and analyzed from the lectin super-microarrays. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A case-based reasoning system for genotypic prediction of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark C; Paquet, Agnes C; Huang, Wei; Napolitano, Laura; Frantzell, Arne; Toma, Jonathan; Stawiski, Eric W; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Petropoulos, Christos J; Whitcomb, Jeannette; Coakley, Eoin; Haddad, Mojgan

    2013-08-01

    Accurate co-receptor tropism (CRT) determination is critical for making treatment decisions in HIV management. We created a genotypic tropism prediction tool by utilizing the case-based reasoning (CBR) technique that attempts to solve new problems through applying the solution from similar past problems. V3 loop sequences from 732 clinical samples with diverse characteristics were used to build a case library. Additional sequence and molecular properties of the V3 loop were examined and used for similarity assessment. A similarity metric was defined based on each attribute's frequency in the CXCR4-using viruses. We implemented three other genotype-based tropism predictors, support vector machines (SVM), position specific scoring matrices (PSSM), and the 11/25 rule, and evaluated their performance as the ability to predict CRT compared to Monogram's enhanced sensitivity Trofile(®) assay (ESTA). Overall concordance of the CBR based tropism prediction algorithm was 81%, as compared to ESTA. Sensitivity to detect CXCR4 usage was 90% and specificity was at 73%. In comparison, sensitivity of the SVM, PSSM, and the 11/25 rule were 85%, 81%, and 36% respectively while achieving a specificity of 90% by SVM, 75% by PSSM, and 97% by the 11/25 rule. When we evaluated these predictors in an unseen dataset, higher sensitivity was achieved by the CBR algorithm (87%), compared to SVM (82%), PSSM (76%), and the 11/25 rule (33%), while maintaining similar level of specificity. Overall this study suggests that CBR can be utilized as a genotypic tropism prediction tool, and can achieve improved performance in independent datasets compared to model or rule based methods.

  11. Phenotypic Co-receptor Tropism in Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth Failing Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Agwu, Allison L.; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Eshleman, Susan H.; Patel, Kunjal; Huang, Wei; Burchett, Sandra K.; Siberry, George K.; Van Dyke, Russell B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children and youth are often heavily treatment-experienced, with resultant antiretroviral (ARV) resistance and limited treatment options. For those with virologic failure (VF), new agents such as CCR5 (R5) antagonists may be useful; however, reports of R5 antagonist susceptibility in children have mostly relied on genotypic testing, which may not accurately reflect the phenotypic tropism of the viral populations. We characterized phenotypic co-receptor usage among PHIV children and youth with VF on ARV treatment (ART) to identify predictors of CXCR4 (X4) tropism which preclude R5 antagonist use. Methods Plasma samples with >1,000 HIV RNA copies/mL were obtained from 73 PHIV-infected ART-treated children and youth (age 9–21 years) enrolled in the multi-center Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Samples were analyzed using the Trofile™ phenotypic assay. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with detectable X4-tropism. Results Tropism results were obtained for 59 (81%) of the 73 children and youth; 32 (54%) had X4-tropism. Persistent viremia (≥80% of HIV RNA measurements >400 copies/mL) was associated with detectable X4-tropism (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.6, 95% CI 1.4, 31.4), while longer cumulative nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) use was associated with lower risk of X4-tropism (aOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5, 0.9). Conclusions Using a phenotypic assay, >50% of PHIV children and youth with VF had X4-tropism, similar to that in treatment-experienced adults, and higher than the 30% reported for children using genotypic assays. Persistent viremia and shorter NRTI exposure are associated with X4-tropism in children and youth and may help target phenotypic testing to those most likely to benefit from R5 antagonist. PMID:27078121

  12. Trace amines inhibit insect odorant receptor function through antagonism of the co-receptor subunit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sisi; Luetje, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Many insect behaviors are driven by olfaction, making insect olfactory receptors (ORs) appealing targets for insect control.  Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, with each receptor thought to be composed of a representative from a large, variable family of odorant binding subunits and a highly conserved co-receptor subunit (Orco), assembled in an unknown stoichiometry.  Synthetic Orco directed agonists and antagonists have recently been identified.  Several Orco antagonists have been shown to act via an allosteric mechanism to inhibit OR activation by odorants.  The high degree of conservation of Orco across insect species results in Orco antagonists having broad activity at ORs from a variety of insect species and suggests that the binding site for Orco ligands may serve as a modulatory site for compounds endogenous to insects or may be a target of exogenous compounds, such as those produced by plants.  To test this idea, we screened a series of biogenic and trace amines, identifying several as Orco antagonists.  Of particular interest were tryptamine, a plant-produced amine, and tyramine, an amine endogenous to the insect nervous system.  Tryptamine was found to be a potent antagonist of Orco, able to block Orco activation by an Orco agonist and to allosterically inhibit activation of ORs by odorants.  Tyramine had effects similar to those of tryptamine, but was less potent.  Importantly, both tryptamine and tyramine displayed broad activity, inhibiting odorant activation of ORs of species from three different insect orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera), as well as odorant activation of six diverse ORs from a single species (the human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae).  Our results suggest that endogenous and exogenous natural compounds serve as Orco ligands modulating insect olfaction and that Orco can be an important target for the development of novel insect repellants. PMID:25075297

  13. Identification of New Agonists and Antagonists of the Insect Odorant Receptor Co-Receptor Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sisi; Luetje, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insects detect attractive and aversive chemicals using several families of chemosensory receptors, including the OR family of olfactory receptors, making these receptors appealing targets for the control of insects. Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, comprised of at least one common subunit (the odorant receptor co-receptor subunit, Orco) and at least one variable odorant specificity subunit. Each of the many ORs of an insect species is activated or inhibited by an unique set of odorants that interact with the variable odorant specificity subunits, making the development of OR directed insect control agents complex and laborious. However, several N-,2-substituted triazolothioacetamide compounds (VUAA1, VU0450667 and VU0183254) were recently shown to act directly on the highly conserved Orco subunit, suggesting that broadly active compounds can be developed. We have explored the chemical space around the VUAA1 structure in order to identify new Orco ligands. Principal Findings We screened ORs from several insect species, using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and an electrophysiological assay, with a panel of 22 compounds structurally related to VUAA1. By varying the nitrogen position in the pyridine ring and altering the moieties decorating the phenyl ring, we identified two new agonists and a series of competitive antagonists. Screening smaller compounds, similar to portions of the VUAA1 structure, also yielded competitive antagonists. Importantly, we show that Orco antagonists inhibit odorant activation of ORs from several insect species. Detailed examination of one antagonist demonstrated inhibition to be through a non-competitive mechanism. Conclusions A similar pattern of agonist and antagonist sensitivity displayed by Orco subunits from different species suggests a highly conserved binding site structure. The susceptibility to inhibition of odorant activation by Orco antagonism is conserved across disparate insect species

  14. A profile of protein-protein interaction: Crystal structure of a lectin-lectin complex.

    PubMed

    Surya, Sukumaran; Abhilash, Joseph; Geethanandan, Krishnan; Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu; Haridas, Madhathilkovilakathu

    2016-06-01

    Proteins may utilize complex networks of interactions to create/proceed signaling pathways of highly adaptive responses such as programmed cell death. Direct binary interactions study of proteins may help propose models for protein-protein interaction. Towards this goal we applied a combination of thermodynamic kinetics and crystal structure analyses to elucidate the complexity and diversity in such interactions. By determining the heat change on the association of two galactose-specific legume lectins from Butea monosperma (BML) and Spatholobus parviflorus (SPL) belonging to Fabaceae family helped to compute the binding equilibrium. It was extended further by X-ray structural analysis of BML-SPL binary complex. In order to chart the proteins interacting mainly through their interfaces, identification of the nature of forces which stabilized the association of the lectin-lectin complex was examined. Comprehensive analysis of the BMLSPL complex by isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystal structure threw new light on the lectin-lectin interactions suggesting of their use in diverse areas of glycobiology.

  15. Using Single Lectins to Enrich Glycoproteins in Conditioned Media.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Manveen K; Fanayan, Susan

    2015-08-03

    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins that can recognize and bind to carbohydrates conjugated to proteins and lipids. Coupled with mass spectrometry technologies, lectin affinity chromatography is becoming a popular approach for identification and quantification of glycoproteins in complex samples such as blood, tumor tissues, and cell lines. Given the commercial availability of a large number of lectins that recognize diverse sugar structures, it is now possible to isolate and study glycoproteins for biological and medical research. This unit provides a general guide to single-lectin-based enrichment of glycoproteins from serum-free conditioned media. Due to the unique carbohydrate specificity of most lectins and the complexity of the samples, optimization steps may be required to evaluate different elution buffers and methods as well as binding conditions, for each lectin, for optimal recovery of bound glycoproteins.

  16. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.

    1994-01-04

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon. .

  17. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1994-01-04

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  18. Soluble Lectins: A New Class of Extracellular Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barondes, Samuel H.

    1984-03-01

    Soluble lectins of cellular slime molds and vertebrates are present at extracellular sites in the developing or adult tissues that make them. Some lectins are concentrated around cell groups, as in extracellular matrix or elastic fibers. Others are at the interface between cells and the external environment, as in much or slime. Specific glycoproteins, proteoglycans, or polysaccharides that bind these endogenous lectins may also be present at these sites. Interactions between the lectins and glycoconjugates appear to play a role in shaping extracellular environments.

  19. Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.

    1984-09-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various /sup 125/I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

  20. Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    de Miranda Santos, I K; Pereira, M E

    1984-09-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various 125I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

  1. A thermostable lectin from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora.

    PubMed

    Konkumnerd, Wichchulada; Karnchanatat, Aphichart; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2010-08-30

    Kaempferia parviflora, or black galingale (Kra-Chai-Dam), belongs to the Zingiberaceae family and is used as both a food ingredient and a medicinal plant. There are diverse reports on the biological activities of compounds extracted from the plant, such as antimalarial, antifungal and an effective sexual-enhancing role, but not on the lectins. A lectin was isolated from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora using affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100. The molecular weight of the purified lectin was about 41.7 kDa. This lectin showed haemagglutinating activity against erythrocytes from several sources, with the highest level being against those from rabbits. Moreover, the lectin was thermostable, with significant haemagglutinating activity detectable up to 75 degrees C. The results of trypsin digestion and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis suggested that this protein could be a member of the lectin/endochitnase1 family. A lectin that showed thermotolerant haemagglutinating activity against erythrocytes from several sources was successfully purified from K. paviflora rhizomes. Peptide sequence analysis indicated that this lectin is similar to lectin/endochitinase 1 (Urtica dioica) or Hevein-like protein (Hevea brasiliensis). Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Archeal lectins: An identification through a genomic search.

    PubMed

    Abhinav, K V; Samuel, Ebenezer; Vijayan, M

    2016-01-01

    Forty-six lectin domains which have homologues among well established eukaryotic and bacterial lectins of known three-dimensional structure, have been identified through a search of 165 archeal genomes using a multipronged approach involving domain recognition, sequence search and analysis of binding sites. Twenty-one of them have the 7-bladed β-propeller lectin fold while 16 have the β-trefoil fold and 7 the legume lectin fold. The remainder assumes the C-type lectin, the β-prism I and the tachylectin folds. Acceptable models of almost all of them could be generated using the appropriate lectins of known three-dimensional structure as templates, with binding sites at one or more expected locations. The work represents the first comprehensive bioinformatic study of archeal lectins. The presence of lectins with the same fold in all domains of life indicates their ancient origin well before the divergence of the three branches. Further work is necessary to identify archeal lectins which have no homologues among eukaryotic and bacterial species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Functional assay using lectin gene targeting technologies (over-expression).

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Motohiro; Kawasaki, Toshisuke

    2014-01-01

    Function of lectin depends on its amino acid sequence of carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), conformation, and extracellular/intracellular localization. Altering lectin gene expression by over-expression or knockdown is a powerful tool for analyzing its cellular function. Here, we describe a method of lectin gene over-expression, taking a C-type lectin, mannan-binding protein (MBP), as an example. Carbohydrate-binding ability of MBP, its subcellular localization, and functional co-localization with ligand glycoprotein are assayed comparing with an inactive mutant MBP.

  4. Role of bean lectins inRhizobium phaseoli-Phaseolus vulgaris interactions. Some properties of lectins from two bean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Mariño, G B; Boiardi, J L

    1992-11-01

    Lectins from twoPhaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars were isolated and purified by salt fractionation, affinity chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. The cultivars used were: 'alubia', with a low-nodulating ability, and Bat 76 with a good symbiotic aptitude. Differences in properties of the two lectins were noted: 'alubia' lectin gave only one peak with haemagglutinating activity following gel permeation chromatography while Bat 76 yielded two active peaks, although both lectins had several bands of about 30 kDa following gel electrophoresis, Bat 76 lecting had three bands of about 50 kDa which were not present in 'alubia' and red kidney bean lectins. Peptide-mapping, by limited proteolysis and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, also showed differences between the lectins which are therefore judged to be different.

  5. Algal Lectins as Potential HIV Microbicide Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Huskens, Dana; Schols, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    The development and use of topical microbicides potentially offers an additional strategy to reduce the spread of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Carbohydrate-binding agents (CBAs) that show specificity for high mannose carbohydrates on the surface of the heavily glycosylated envelope of HIV are endowed with potent anti-HIV activity. In fact, a number of algal lectins such as cyanovirin-N, microvirin, microcystis viridis lectin, scytovirin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin and griffithsin are considered as potential microbicide candidates to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV through topical applications. They not only inhibit infection of cells by cell-free virus but they can also efficiently prevent virus transmission from virus-infected cells to uninfected CD4+ target T-lymphocytes and DC-SIGN-directed capture of HIV-1 and transmission to CD4+ T lymphocytes. This review focuses on the structural properties and carbohydrate specificity of these algal lectins, their antiviral activity against HIV and several other enveloped viruses, their safety profile and viral resistance patterns. PMID:22851920

  6. Plant Lectins and Lectin Receptor-Like Kinases: How Do They Sense the Outside?

    PubMed

    Bellande, Kevin; Bono, Jean-Jacques; Savelli, Bruno; Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé

    2017-05-31

    Lectins are fundamental to plant life and have important roles in cell-to-cell communication; development and defence strategies. At the cell surface; lectins are present both as soluble proteins (LecPs) and as chimeric proteins: lectins are then the extracellular domains of receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) and receptor-like proteins (LecRLPs). In this review; we first describe the domain architectures of proteins harbouring G-type; L-type; LysM and malectin carbohydrate-binding domains. We then focus on the functions of LecPs; LecRLKs and LecRLPs referring to the biological processes they are involved in and to the ligands they recognize. Together; LecPs; LecRLKs and LecRLPs constitute versatile recognition systems at the cell surface contributing to the detection of symbionts and pathogens; and/or involved in monitoring of the cell wall structure and cell growth.

  7. A comparison of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin with its deglycosylated derivative.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D C; Graham, C; Urbaniak, S J; Jeffree, C E; Allen, A K

    1984-06-15

    A deglycosylated derivative of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin was prepared with the use of trifluoromethanesulphonic acid. Its properties were generally similar to those of the native lectin, but differences were evident in terms of relative agglutinating activity towards sheep, (untreated) human and trypsin-treated human erythrocytes. The two forms of tomato lectin were used in conjunction with a battery of specific antisera to investigate structural relatedness among solanaceous lectins. Immunological cross-reactivity between tomato, potato and Datura lectins depends on the integrity of the glycosylated region of those lectins; that between Datura lectin and other seed lectins, however, has a separate structural basis.

  8. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Containing a Glypican 5 Core and 2-O-Sulfo-iduronic Acid Function as Sonic Hedgehog Co-receptors to Promote Proliferation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Rochelle M.; Hecht, Marie-Lyn; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Cohen, Samuel M.; Noti, Christian; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Fuller, Maria; Chan, Jennifer A.; Hopwood, John J.; Seeberger, Peter H.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is crucial for growth, cell fate determination, and axonal guidance in the developing nervous system. Although the receptors Patched (Ptch1) and Smoothened (Smo) are required for Shh signaling, a number of distinct co-receptors contribute to these critical responses to Shh. Several membrane-embedded proteins such as Boc, Cdo, and Gas1 bind Shh and promote signaling. In addition, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have also been implicated in the initiation of Shh responses. However, the attributes of HSPGs that function as co-receptors for Shh have not yet been defined. Here, we identify HSPGs containing a glypican 5 core protein and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid residues at the nonreducing ends of the glycans as co-receptors for Shh. These HSPG co-receptors are expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors and promote Shh binding and signaling. At the subcellular level, these HSPG co-receptors are located adjacent to the primary cilia that act as Shh signaling organelles. Thus, Shh binds to HSPG co-receptors containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid to promote neural precursor proliferation. PMID:23867465

  9. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid function as Sonic Hedgehog co-receptors to promote proliferation.

    PubMed

    Witt, Rochelle M; Hecht, Marie-Lyn; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Cohen, Samuel M; Noti, Christian; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Fuller, Maria; Chan, Jennifer A; Hopwood, John J; Seeberger, Peter H; Segal, Rosalind A

    2013-09-06

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is crucial for growth, cell fate determination, and axonal guidance in the developing nervous system. Although the receptors Patched (Ptch1) and Smoothened (Smo) are required for Shh signaling, a number of distinct co-receptors contribute to these critical responses to Shh. Several membrane-embedded proteins such as Boc, Cdo, and Gas1 bind Shh and promote signaling. In addition, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have also been implicated in the initiation of Shh responses. However, the attributes of HSPGs that function as co-receptors for Shh have not yet been defined. Here, we identify HSPGs containing a glypican 5 core protein and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid residues at the nonreducing ends of the glycans as co-receptors for Shh. These HSPG co-receptors are expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors and promote Shh binding and signaling. At the subcellular level, these HSPG co-receptors are located adjacent to the primary cilia that act as Shh signaling organelles. Thus, Shh binds to HSPG co-receptors containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid to promote neural precursor proliferation.

  10. Inhibition of Haemonchus contortus larval development by fungal lectins.

    PubMed

    Heim, Christian; Hertzberg, Hubertus; Butschi, Alex; Bleuler-Martinez, Silvia; Aebi, Markus; Deplazes, Peter; Künzler, Markus; Štefanić, Saša

    2015-08-19

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are involved in fundamental intra- and extracellular biological processes. They occur ubiquitously in nature and are especially abundant in plants and fungi. It has been well established that certain higher fungi produce lectins in their fruiting bodies and/or sclerotia as a part of their natural resistance against free-living fungivorous nematodes and other pests. Despite relatively high diversity of the glycan structures in nature, many of the glycans targeted by fungal lectins are conserved among organisms of the same taxon and sometimes even among different taxa. Such conservation of glycans between free-living and parasitic nematodes is providing us with a useful tool for discovery of novel chemotherapeutic and vaccine targets. In our study, a subset of fungal lectins emanating from toxicity screens on Caenorhabditis elegans was tested for their potential to inhibit larval development of Haemonchus contortus. The effect of Coprinopsis cinerea lectins - CCL2, CGL2, CGL3; Aleuria aurantia lectin - AAL; Marasmius oreades agglutinin - MOA; and Laccaria bicolor lectin - Lb-Tec2, on cultivated Haemonchus contortus larval stages was investigated using a larval development test (LDT). To validate the results of the toxicity assay and determine lectin binding capacity to the nematode digestive tract, biotinylated versions of lectins were fed to pre-infective larval stages of H. contortus and visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Lectin histochemistry on fixed adult worms was performed to investigate the presence and localisation of lectin binding sites in the disease-relevant developmental stage. Using an improved larval development test we found that four of the six tested lectins: AAL, CCL2, MOA and CGL2, exhibited a dose-dependent toxicity in LDT, as measured by the number of larvae developing to the L3 stage. In the case of AAL, CGL2 and MOA lectin, doses as low as 5 μg/ml caused >95 % inhibition of larval

  11. A Lagrangian model investigation of chemico-microphysical evolution of northeast Asian pollution plumes within the MBL during TRACE-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. M.; Song, C. H.; Cho, H. J.; Kim, J.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kurata, G.; Thongboonchoo, N.; He, Z.; Kim, H. S.

    2007-12-01

    In this work, we determine the major channels through which air pollutants, mainly originating in Northeast Asian mega-cities, flow out into the Northwestern Pacific atmosphere. For this purpose, comprehensive backward/forward trajectory analyses are conducted. Two important channels along which pollutants from the Northeast Asian mega-cities flow out are defined, and are labeled as ¢®¡ÆDC8 transport path¢®¡¾ and ¢®¡ÆP3B transport path¢®¡¾. We then comprehensively examine the chemico-microphysical transformations of the anthropogenic pollutants from the Northeast Asian mega-cities along the two major transport paths, using a new Lagrangian forward-trajectory photochemical model. In the newly developed model, state-of-the-science parameterizations for considering chemico-microphysical aging processes and atmospheric aerosol processes are incorporated. As air masses travel toward low latitudes through the marine boundary layer (MBL), the temperature increases along the trajectories and large amounts of PAN experience thermal decomposition. By this process, PAN can be an important supplier of NO2 in the remote MBL. The O3 productions in the remote Northwestern Pacific MBL are fueled and maintained by NOx provided from the PAN decomposition. High O3 levels (> 50 ppb) are observed within the remote MBL of the Northwestern Pacific Oceans from several TRACE- P DC8 and P3B measurements under the continental outflow situations. Gas-phase SO2 is continuously converted into nss-sulfate via heterogeneous oxidation reaction with H2O2 at a particle pH of 2~5. The Lagrangian-trajectory modeling studies also indicate that in the remote MBL of Northwestern Pacific Ocean under continental outflow situations, conditions are unfavorable for nucleation events, because of the depletion of SO2, the large aerosol surface areas available for H2SO4 sink, and high temperatures.

  12. Plasmid Profile Analysis and bla VIM Gene Detection of Metalo β-lactamase (MBL) Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    M, Jeya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent colonizer of hospitalized patients. They are responsible for serious infections such as meningitis, urological infections, septicemia and pneumonia. Carbapenem resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is currently increasingly reported which is often mediated by production of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL). Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates may involve reduced cell wall permeability, production of chromosomal and plasmid mediated β lactamases, aminoglycosides modifying enzymes and an active multidrug efflux mechanism. Objective: This study is aimed to detect the presence and the nature of plasmids among metallo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Also to detect the presence of bla VIM gene from these isolates. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showing the metalo-β-lactamase enzyme (MBL) production were isolated. The MBL production was confirmed by three different methods. From the MBL producing isolates plasmid extraction was done by alkaline lysis method. Plasmid positive isolates were subjected for blaVIM gene detection by PCR method. Results: Two thousand seventy six clinical samples yielded 316 (15.22%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, out of which 141 (44.62%) were multidrug resistant. Among them 25 (17.73%) were metallo-β-lactamase enzyme producers. Plasmids were extracted from 18 out of 25 isolates tested. Five out of 18 isolates were positive for the blaVIM gene detection by the PCR amplification. Conclusion: The MBL producers were susceptible to polymyxin /colistin with MIC ranging from 0.5 – 2μg/ml. Molecular detection of specific genes bla VIM were positive among the carbapenem resistant isolates. PMID:25120980

  13. Cell-to-cell binding induced by different lectins.

    PubMed

    Rutishauser, U; Sachs, L

    1975-05-01

    The cell-to-cell binding induced by concanavalin A (Con A) and the lectins from wheatgerm, soybean, and waxbean has been analyzed by measuring the ability of single cells to bind to lectin-coated cells immobilized on nylon fibers. The cells used were lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and normal fibroblast cells. With all lectins, cell-to-cell binding was inhibited if both cells were prefixed with glutaraldehyde. However, in most cases cell-to-cell binding was enhanced when only the lectin-coated cell was prefixed. With normal fibroblasts, treatment of either one or both cells with trypsin enhanced the cell-to-cell binding induced by Con A and the wheatgerm lectin. Neuraminidase, which increases the number of receptors for soybean agglutinin, increased cell-to-cell binding only if both cells were treated. Although cell-to-cell binding induced by the lectins from soybean and wheatgerm could be partially reversed by the appropriate competitive saccharide inhibitor, binding induced by Con A could not be reversed. The experiments indicate that cell-to-cell binding induced by a lectin can be prevented by an insufficient density of receptors for the lectin, insufficient receptor mobility, or induced clustering of receptors. These effects can explain the differences in cell-to-cell binding and agglutination observed with different cell types and lectins. They also suggest that cell-to-cell binding induced by different lectins with a variety of cell types is initiated by a mechanism involving the alignment of complementary receptors on the colliding cells for the formation of multiple cell-to-lectin-to-cell bridges.

  14. Modulation of glycan detection on specific glycoproteins by lectin multimerization.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Brouhard, Elizabeth; Hincapie, Marina; Brand, Randall E; Hancock, William S; Haab, Brian B

    2013-02-05

    Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. Many lectins, however, are not useful as analytic tools due to low affinity in vitro. As an approach to increasing lectin avidity to targeted glycans, we tested the use of lectin multimerization. Several biotinylated lectins were linked together through streptavidin interactions. The binding of certain lectins for purified glycoproteins and glycoproteins captured directly out of biological solutions was increased using multimerization, resulting in the detection of lower concentrations of glycoprotein than possible using monomeric detection. The analysis of glycoproteins in plasma samples showed that the level of binding enhancement through multimerization was not equivalent across patient samples. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reactive glycans on fibronectin and thrombospondin-5 were preferentially bound by multimers in pancreatic cancer patient samples relative to control samples, suggesting a cancer-associated change in glycan density that could be detected only through lectin multimerization. This strategy could lead to the more sensitive and informative detection of glycans in biological samples and a broader spectrum of lectins that are useful as analytical reagents.

  15. Glycan profiling of endometrial cancers using lectin microarray.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Masashi; Yamazaki-Inoue, Mayu; Sugiyama, Taro; Miyazawa, Masaki; Muramatsu, Toshinari; Nakamura, Kyoko; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Mikami, Mikio

    2012-10-01

    Cell surface glycans change during the process of malignant transformation. To characterize and distinguish endometrial cancer and endometrium, we performed glycan profiling using an emerging modern technology, lectin microarray analysis. The three cell lines, two from endometrial cancers [well-differentiated type (G1) and poorly differentiated type (G3)] and one from normal endometrium, were successfully categorized into three independent groups by 45 lectins. Furthermore, in cancer cells, a clear difference between G1 and G3 type was observed for the glycans recognized with six lectins, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), Sambucus sieboldiana agglutinin (SSA), Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), Trichosanthes japonica agglutinin I (TJA-I), Amaranthus caudatus agglutinin (ACA), and Bauhinia purpurea lectin (BPL). The lectin microarray analysis using G3 type tissues demonstrated that stage I and stage III or IV were distinguished depending on signal pattern of three lectins, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), BPL, and ACA. In addition, the analysis of the glycans on the ovarian cancer cells showed that only anticancer drug-sensitive cell lines had almost no activities to specific three lectins. Glycan profiling by the lectin microarray may be used to assess the characteristics of tumors and potentially to predict the success of chemotherapy treatment.

  16. Plant Lectins: Wheat Defense Strategy Against Hessian Fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants produce a variety of defense proteins, including lectins in response to attack by phytophagous insects. Ultrastructural studies reveal that binding to insect gut structures and resistance to proteolytic degradation by insect digestive enzymes are the two main prerequisites for the lectins to...

  17. Isothermal calorimetric analysis of lectin-sugar interaction.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yoichi; Matsuo, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful tool for analyzing lectin-glycan interactions because it can measure the binding affinity and thermodynamic properties such as ∆H and ΔS in a single experiment without any chemical modification or immobilization. Here we describe a method for preparing glycan and lectin solution to minimize the buffer mismatch, setting parameters, and performing experiments.

  18. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Gardères, Johan; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2015-01-01

    An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest. PMID:26262628

  19. Lectin-binding properties of Aeromonas caviae strains

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-de-Souza, Cláudio M.; Hirata-Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Freitas-Almeida, Angela C.; Andrade, Arnaldo F. B.

    2008-01-01

    The cell surface carbohydrates of four strains of Aeromonas caviae were analyzed by agglutination and lectin-binding assays employing twenty highly purified lectins encompassing all sugar specificities. With the exception of L-fucose and sialic acid, the sugar residues were detected in A. caviae strains. A marked difference, however, in the pattern of cell surface carbohydrates in different A. caviae isolates was observed. Specific receptors for Tritricum vulgaris (WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum (STA) (D-GlcNAc-binding lectins) were found only in ATCC 15468 strain, whereas Euonymus europaeus (EEL, D-Gal-binding lectin) sites were present exclusively in AeQ32 strain, those for Helix pomatia (HPA, D-GalNAc-binding lectin) in AeC398 and AeV11 strains, and for Canavalia ensiformes (Con A, D-Man-binding lectin) in ATCC 15468, AeC398, AeQ32 and AeV11 strains, after bacterial growing at 37°C. On the other hand, specific receptors for WGA and EEL were completely abrogated growing the bacteria at 22°C. Binding studies with 125I- labeled lectins from WGA, EEL and Con A were performed. These assays essentially confirmed the selectivity, demonstrated in the agglutination assays of these lectins for the A. caviae strains. PMID:24031204

  20. Enantioselective carbohydrate recognition by synthetic lectins in water.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Pablo; Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Carter, Tom S; Williams, Christopher; Wilson, Miriam R; Crump, Matthew P; Davis, Anthony P

    2017-05-01

    Carbohydrate receptors with a chiral framework have been generated by combining a tetra-aminopyrene and a C3-symmetrical triamine via isophthalamide spacers bearing water-solubilising groups. These "synthetic lectins" are the first to show enantiodiscrimination in aqueous solution, binding N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) with 16 : 1 enantioselectivity. They also show exceptional affinities. GlcNAc is bound with Ka up to 1280 M(-1), more than twice that measured for previous synthetic lectins, and three times the value for wheat germ agglutinin, the lectin traditionally employed to bind GlcNAc in glycobiological research. Glucose is bound with Ka = 250 M(-1), again higher than previous synthetic lectins. The results suggest that chirality can improve complementarity to carbohydrate substrates and may thus be advantageous in synthetic lectin design.

  1. Diversified Carbohydrate-Binding Lectins from Marine Resources

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Tomohisa; Watanabe, Mizuki; Naganuma, Takako; Muramoto, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Marine bioresources produce a great variety of specific and potent bioactive molecules including natural organic compounds such as fatty acids, polysaccharides, polyether, peptides, proteins, and enzymes. Lectins are also one of the promising candidates for useful therapeutic agents because they can recognize the specific carbohydrate structures such as proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, resulting in the regulation of various cells via glycoconjugates and their physiological and pathological phenomenon through the host-pathogen interactions and cell-cell communications. Here, we review the multiple lectins from marine resources including fishes and sea invertebrate in terms of their structure-activity relationships and molecular evolution. Especially, we focus on the unique structural properties and molecular evolution of C-type lectins, galectin, F-type lectin, and rhamnose-binding lectin families. PMID:22312473

  2. Recognition of microbial glycans by soluble human lectins.

    PubMed

    Wesener, Darryl A; Dugan, Amanda; Kiessling, Laura L

    2017-06-01

    Human innate immune lectins that recognize microbial glycans can conduct microbial surveillance and thereby help prevent infection. Structural analysis of soluble lectins has provided invaluable insight into how these proteins recognize their cognate carbohydrate ligands and how this recognition gives rise to biological function. In this opinion, we cover the structural features of lectins that allow them to mediate microbial recognition, highlighting examples from the collectin, Reg protein, galectin, pentraxin, ficolin and intelectin families. These analyses reveal how some lectins (e.g., human intelectin-1) can recognize glycan epitopes that are remarkably diverse, yet still differentiate between mammalian and microbial glycans. We additionally discuss strategies to identify lectins that recognize microbial glycans and highlight tools that facilitate these discovery efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lectins: an effective tool for screening of potential cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Lee, Cheng-Siang

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the use of lectins for screening of potential biomarkers has gained increased importance in cancer research, given the development in glycobiology that highlights altered structural changes of glycans in cancer associated processes. Lectins, having the properties of recognizing specific carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates, have become an effective tool for detection of new cancer biomarkers in complex bodily fluids and tissues. The specificity of lectins provides an added advantage of selecting peptides that are differently glycosylated and aberrantly expressed in cancer patients, many of which are not possibly detected using conventional methods because of their low abundance in bodily fluids. When coupled with mass spectrometry, research utilizing lectins, which are mainly from plants and fungi, has led to identification of numerous potential cancer biomarkers that may be used in the future. This article reviews lectin-based methods that are commonly adopted in cancer biomarker discovery research. PMID:28894650

  4. Structure-function relationship of monocot mannose-binding lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Barre, A; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Rougé, P

    1996-01-01

    The monocot mannose-binding lectins are an extended superfamily of structurally and evolutionarily related proteins, which until now have been isolated from species of the Amaryllidaceae, Alliaceae, Araceae, Orchidaceae, and Liliaceae. To explain the obvious differences in biological activities, the structure-function relationships of the monocot mannose-binding lectins were studied by a combination of glycan-binding studies and molecular modeling using the deduced amino acid sequences of the currently known lectins. Molecular modeling indicated that the number of active mannose-binding sites per monomer varies between three and zero. Since the number of binding sites is fairly well correlated with the binding activity measured by surface plasmon resonance, and is also in good agreement with the results of previous studies of the biological activities of the mannose-binding lectins, molecular modeling is of great value for predicting which lectins are best suited for a particular application. PMID:8972598

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to endogenous galactose-specific tumor cell lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Raz, A; Meromsky, L; Carmi, P; Karakash, R; Lotan, D; Lotan, R

    1984-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, 5D7, was obtained after immunization of syngeneic mice with B16 melanoma cell extracts enriched for endogenous lectin activity and screening for inhibition of lectin-mediated hemagglutination. Binding of this antibody to affinity-purified B16 melanoma galactoside-specific lectin was revealed by solid-phase radioimmunoassay and binding to the surface of viable B16 cells was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. Inhibition of lectin activity and cell surface labeling by 5D7 antibody were also found with several types of cultured human and murine cells including melanoma, sarcoma and carcinoma. This monoclonal antibody should be useful for evaluating the role of tumor cell surface lectins in intercellular interactions and metastasis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6084591

  6. A developmentally regulated lectin in Bufo arenarum embryos.

    PubMed

    Elola, M T; Fink-de-Cabutti, N E; Herkovits, H

    1987-01-01

    We report the levels of an endogenous beta-galactoside lectin activity from Bufo arenarum whole embryos extracts and specific inhibition by saccharides at different developmental stages. Specific activity measured against trypsinized rabbit red blood cells showed relatively high and fluctuating levels during early stages (up to about 76 h post-fertilization) which fell to significantly lower and more constant values at late stages (77-264 h post-fertilization). Lactose is the most potent inhibitor of this lectin activity, and saccharides having alpha-galactoside configurations are weaker inhibitors. At the last embryonic stage, the agglutinating activity showed a different sugar specificity which suggests either the modification of the preexistent lectin or the synthesis of another type of lectin. The possible physiological roles of these lectins in the blockage of polyspermy or in embryonic cell-cell interactions are discussed.

  7. HIV-1 envelope, integrins and co-receptor use in mucosal transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Cicala, Claudia; Arthos, James; Fauci, Anthony S

    2011-01-27

    It is well established that HIV-1 infection typically involves an interaction between the viral envelope protein gp120/41 and the CD4 molecule followed by a second interaction with a chemokine receptor, usually CCR5 or CXCR4. In the early stages of an HIV-1 infection CCR5 using viruses (R5 viruses) predominate. In some viral subtypes there is a propensity to switch to CXCR4 usage (X4 viruses). The receptor switch occurs in ~ 40% of the infected individuals and is associated with faster disease progression. This holds for subtypes B and D, but occurs less frequently in subtypes A and C. There are several hypotheses to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms that lead to switching of co-receptor usage; however, there is no definitive explanation for either. One important consideration regarding transmission is that signaling by R5 gp120 may facilitate transmission of R5 viruses by inducing a permissive environment for HIV replication. In the case of sexual transmission, infection by HIV requires the virus to breach the mucosal barrier to gain access to the immune cell targets that it infects; however, the immediate events that follow HIV exposure at genital mucosal sites are not well understood. Upon transmission, the HIV quasispecies that is replicating in an infected donor contracts through a "genetic bottleneck", and often infection results from a single infectious event. Many details surrounding this initial infection remain unresolved. In mucosal tissues, CD4(+) T cells express high levels of CCR5, and a subset of these CD4(+)/CCR5(high) cells express the integrin α₄β₇, the gut homing receptor. CD4(+)/CCR5(high)/ α4β7(high) T cells are highly susceptible to infection by HIV-1 and are ideal targets for an efficient productive infection at the point of transmission. In this context we have demonstrated that the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 binds to α₄β₇ on CD4(+) T cells. On CD4(+)/CCR5(high)/ α4β7(high) T cells,

  8. MMBL proteins: from lectin to bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; Loris, Remy; De Mot, René

    2012-12-01

    Arguably, bacteriocins deployed in warfare among related bacteria are among the most diverse proteinacous compounds with respect to structure and mode of action. Identification of the first prokaryotic member of the so-called MMBLs (monocot mannose-binding lectins) or GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin) lectin family and discovery of its genus-specific killer activity in the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas has added yet another kind of toxin to this group of allelopathic molecules. This novel feature is reminiscent of the protective function, on the basis of antifungal, insecticidal, nematicidal or antiviral activity, assigned to or proposed for several of the eukaryotic MMBL proteins that are ubiquitously distributed among monocot plants, but also occur in some other plants, fish, sponges, amoebae and fungi. Direct bactericidal activity can also be effected by a C-type lectin, but this is a mammalian protein that limits mucosal colonization by Gram-positive bacteria. The presence of two divergent MMBL domains in the novel bacteriocins raises questions about task distribution between modules and the possible role of carbohydrate binding in the specificity of target strain recognition and killing. Notably, bacteriocin activity was also demonstrated for a hybrid MMBL protein with an accessory protease-like domain. This association with one or more additional modules, often with predicted peptide-hydrolysing or -binding activity, suggests that additional bacteriotoxic proteins may be found among the diverse chimaeric MMBL proteins encoded in prokaryotic genomes. A phylogenetic survey of the bacterial MMBL modules reveals a mosaic pattern of strongly diverged sequences, mainly occurring in soil-dwelling and rhizosphere bacteria, which may reflect a trans-kingdom acquisition of the ancestral genes.

  9. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age.

  10. Lectin binding to cystic stages of Taenia taeniaeformis.

    PubMed

    Sandeman, R M; Williams, J F

    1984-10-01

    Studies of membrane glycoconjugates of Taenia taeniaeformis were initiated by assays of the lectin binding characteristics of 35-day-old cysticerci. Parasites fixed in glutaraldehyde were incubated with one of the following FITC-labelled lectins: Concanavalin A (Con A), Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), fucose binding protein (FBP) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and either their specific or a nonspecific sugar. Ultraviolet microscopy revealed that only Con A and LCA bound in large amounts to the surface of cysticerci. This binding was partly inhibited by the specific sugar, but the nonspecific sugar had little effect. The lectin not removed by either of the sugars may have been bound nonspecifically to the charged glycocalyx. Lectins were primarily bound on the anterior third of the parasite around the scolex invagination. Kinetic studies of lectin interactions were carried out with LCA and RCA by spectrophotofluorometric analysis of the amount bound specifically or nonspecifically over a range of lectin concentrations. Lens culinaris lectin binding was found to be specific and involve 2 receptors which showed large differences in their affinity for lectin and prevalence on the surface. Ricinus communis lectin did not bind specifically but nonspecific interactions were observed. Adherence of small numbers of host cells was shown to have no measurable effect on the lectin binding characteristics. The results suggest that the major surface carbohydrates exposed are D-mannose and/or D-glucose residues with the other sugar groups poorly represented. This relatively homogeneous surface may have implications for the antigenicity of the parasite in its host.

  11. Effects of Lectins on initial attachment of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Shiota, Yasuyoshi; Ito, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2017-09-08

    Oral bacteria initiate biofilm formation by attaching to tooth surfaces via an interaction of a lectin-like bacterial protein with carbohydrate chains on the pellicle. This study aimed to find naturally derived lectins that inhibit the initial attachment of a cariogenic bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), to carbohydrate chains in saliva in vitro. Seventy kinds of lectins were screened for candidate motifs that inhibit the attachment of S. mutans ATCC 25175 to a saliva-coated culture plate. The inhibitory effect of the lectins on attachment of the S. mutans to the plates was quantified by crystal violet staining, and the biofilm was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis was performed to examine the binding of S. mutans to carbohydrate chains and the binding of candidate lectins to carbohydrate chains, respectively. Moreover, binding assay between the biotinylated-lectins and the saliva components was conducted to measure the lectin binding. Lectins recognizing a salivary carbohydrate chain, Galβ1-3GalNAc, inhibited the binding of S. mutans to the plate. In particular, Agaricus bisporus agglutinin (ABA) markedly inhibited the binding. This inhibition was confirmed by SEM observation. SPR analysis indicated that S. mutans strongly binds to Galβ1-3GalNAc, and ABA binds to Galβ1-3GalNAc. Finally, the biotinylated Galβ1-3GalNAc-binding lectins including ABA demonstrated marked binding to the saliva components. These results suggest that ABA lectin inhibited the attachment of S. mutans to Galβ1-3GalNAc in saliva and ABA can be useful as a potent inhibitor for initial attachment of oral bacteria and biofilm formation.

  12. Isolation and characterization of lectins and lectin-alliinase complexes from bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum) and ramsons (Allium ursinum).

    PubMed

    Smeets, K; Van Damme, E J; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1997-04-01

    A procedure developed to separate the homodimeric and heterodimeric mannose-binding lectins from bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and ramsons (Allium ursinum L.) also enabled the isolation of stable lectin-alliinase complexes. Characterization of the individual lectins indicated that, in spite of their different molecular structure, the homomeric and heteromeric lectins resemble each other reasonably well with respect to their agglutination properties and carbohydrate-binding specificity. However, a detailed analysis of the lectin-alliinase complexes from garlic and ramsons bulbs demonstrated that only the heterodimeric lectins are capable of binding to the glycan chains of the alliinase molecules (EC 4.4.1.4). Moreover, it appears that only a subpopulation of the alliinase molecules is involved in the formation of lectin-alliinase complexes and that the complexed alliinase contains more glycan chains than the free enzyme. Finally, some arguments are given that the lectin-alliinase complexes do not occur in vivo but are formed in vitro after homogenization of the tissue.

  13. The Liverwort Contains a Lectin That Is Structurally and Evolutionary Related to the Monocot Mannose-Binding Lectins1

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, Willy J.; Barre, Annick; Bras, Julien; Rougé, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Van Damme, Els J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A mannose (Man)-binding lectin has been isolated and characterized from the thallus of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. N-terminal sequencing indicated that the M. polymorpha agglutinin (Marpola) shares sequence similarity with the superfamily of monocot Man-binding lectins. Searches in the databases yielded expressed sequence tags encoding Marpola. Sequence analysis, molecular modeling, and docking experiments revealed striking structural similarities between Marpola and the monocot Man-binding lectins. Activity and specificity studies further indicated that Marpola is a much stronger agglutinin than the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin and exhibits a preference for methylated Man and glucose, which is unprecedented within the family of monocot Man-binding lectins. The discovery of Marpola allows us, for the first time, to corroborate the evolutionary relationship between a lectin from a lower plant and a well-established lectin family from flowering plants. In addition, the identification of Marpola sheds a new light on the molecular evolution of the superfamily of monocot Man-binding lectins. Beside evolutionary considerations, the occurrence of a G. nivalis agglutinin homolog in a lower plant necessitates the rethinking of the physiological role of the whole family of monocot Man-binding lectins. PMID:12114560

  14. Fluorescent carbohydrate probes for cell lectins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanina, Oxana; Feofanov, Alexei; Tuzikov, Alexander B.; Rapoport, Evgenia; Crocker, Paul R.; Grichine, Alexei; Egret-Charlier, Marguerite; Vigny, Paul; Le Pendu, Jacques; Bovin, Nicolai V.

    2001-09-01

    Fluorescein labeled carbohydrate (Glyc) probes were synthesized as analytical tools for the study of cellular lectins, i.e. SiaLe x-PAA-flu, Sia 2-PAA-flu, GlcNAc 2-PAA-flu, LacNAc-PAA-flu and a number of similar ones, with PAA a soluble polyacrylamide carrier. The binding of SiaLe x-PAA-flu was assessed using CHO cells transfected with E-selectin, and the binding of Sia 2-PAA-flu was assessed by COS cells transfected with siglec-9. In flow cytometry assays, the fluorescein probes demonstrated a specific binding to the lectin-transfected cells that was inhibited by unlabeled carbohydrate ligands. The intense binding of SiaLe x-PAA- 3H to the E-selectin transfected cells and the lack of binding to both native and permeabilized control cells lead to the conclusion that the polyacrylamide carrier itself and the spacer arm connecting the carbohydrate moiety with PAA did not contribute anymore to the binding. Tumors were obtained from nude mice by injection of CHO E-selectin or mock transfected cells. The fluorescent SiaLe x-PAA-flu probe could bind to the tumor sections from E-selectin positive CHO cells, but not from the control ones. Thus, these probes can be used to reveal specifically the carbohydrate binding sites on cells in culture as well as cells in tissue sections. The use of the confocal spectral imaging technique with Glyc-PAA-flu probes offered the unique possibility to detect lectins in different cells, even when the level of lectin expression was rather low. The confocal mode of spectrum recording provided an analysis of the probe localization with 3D submicron resolution. The spectral analysis (as a constituent part of the confocal spectral imaging technique) enabled interfering signals of the probe and intrinsic cellular fluorescence to be accurately separated, the distribution of the probe to be revealed and its local concentration to be measured.

  15. Studies on lectins. XXXVII. Isolation and characterization of the lectin from Jimson-weed seeds (Datura stramonium L.).

    PubMed

    Horejsí, V; Kocourek, J

    1978-01-25

    The lectin of Jimson-weed seeds (Datura stramonium L.) was isolated by affinity chromatography on a polysaccharide mixture from mycelium of Aspergillus niger. The lectin yields two bands on disc electrophoresis, it has sedimentation coefficient s20,w = 3.8 S and its apparent molecular weight estimated by thin layer gel chromatography is 120,000. The lectin reduced with mercaptoethanol yields on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of dodecyl sulfate three zones corresponding to subunits of molecular weight 72,000, 45,000 and 25,000. The lectin contains large amounts of cystine, glycine, 6.3% of hydroxyproline residues, 4.5% glucosamine and 28% of neutral sugar, predominantly arabinose. The lectin is nonspecific in human erythrocyte ABO system, it is not inhibited by simple sugars but is inhibited by a partial hydrolysate of chitin-containing mixture of polysaccharides from Aspergillus niger.

  16. HIV co-receptor tropism prediction remains stable over time in treatment-naïve patients.

    PubMed

    Philip, Keir Ej; Macartney, Malcolm J; Conibear, Tim Cr; Smith, Colette J; Marshall, Neal; Johnson, Margaret A; Haque, Tanzina; Webster, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    HIV co-receptor tropism determination is essential before prescribing the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc. British HIV Association guidelines suggest tropism testing may remain valid for only 90 days in antiretroviral-naïve patients. We aimed to determine the accuracy of this figure. Tropism was assessed in 26 antiretroviral-naïve patients with ongoing viral replication, sampled yearly from first clinic visit. The V3 region of HIV-1 was sequenced in triplicate, then tropism predicted using the Geno2Pheno system. Baseline tropism prediction remained valid for a median of 52 months (range 7-81). For 19/26 individuals baseline tropism remained unchanged throughout a median of 54 months follow-up; 18 R5 tropic and 1 X4 tropic. In seven patients (27%) baseline tropism switched at least once (range 1-4 switches) during follow-up; however, their baseline tropism prediction remained valid for a median of 45 months. Co-receptor tropism in treatment-naïve patients with ongoing viral replication appears highly stable over time, suggesting that baseline genotypic tropism prediction may be valid for a longer duration in patients delaying ART initiation. In this study, baseline tropism prediction remained valid for a median of 52 months, suggesting current guidelines recommending repeat testing after 90 days may be excessively conservative in their assessment of tropism stability. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Genetic interactions between the hedgehog co-receptors Gas1 and Boc regulate cell proliferation during murine palatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Guilherme M.; Seppala, Maisa; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N.; Fan, Chen-Ming; Cobourne, Martyn T.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal regulation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been described in a variety of human cancers and developmental anomalies, which highlights the essential role of this signaling molecule in cell cycle regulation and embryonic development. Gas1 and Boc are membrane co-receptors for Shh, which demonstrate overlapping domains of expression in the early face. This study aims to investigate potential interactions between these co-receptors during formation of the secondary palate. Mice with targeted mutation in Gas1 and Boc were used to generate Gas1; Boc compound mutants. The expression of key Hedgehog signaling family members was examined in detail during palatogenesis via radioactive in situ hybridization. Morphometric analysis involved computational quantification of BrdU-labeling and cell packing; whilst TUNEL staining was used to assay cell death. Ablation of Boc in a Gas1 mutant background leads to reduced Shh activity in the palatal shelves and an increase in the penetrance and severity of cleft palate, associated with failed elevation, increased proliferation and reduced cell death. Our findings suggest a dual requirement for Boc and Gas1 during early development of the palate, mediating cell cycle regulation during growth and subsequent fusion of the palatal shelves. PMID:27811357

  18. Toshiaki Osawa: biochemistry of lectins and their applications in immunochemistry and cellular biology.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2011-11-01

    Lectins are proteins that agglutinate cells and exhibit an antibody like, sugar-binding specificity. Professor Toshiaki Osawa has discovered, purified and characterized many plant lectins that display diverse biological activities. Using lectins as biochemical tools, he developed methods to determine the biochemical structures of glycoprotein glycans that react with lectins; separated and characterized glycoproteins and cell populations; analysed the mechanisms by which lectins activate cells; and characterized several cytokines produced by immune cells stimulated by lectins. The studies on lectins, the field he took strong leadership, developed into an essential hub of the biology of multicellular organisms.

  19. Bridging lectin binding sites by multivalent carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Valentin; Pieters, Roland J

    2013-05-21

    Carbohydrate-protein interactions are involved in a multitude of biological recognition processes. Since individual protein-carbohydrate interactions are usually weak, multivalency is often required to achieve biologically relevant binding affinities and selectivities. Among the possible mechanisms responsible for binding enhancement by multivalency, the simultaneous attachment of a multivalent ligand to several binding sites of a multivalent receptor (i.e. chelation) has been proven to have a strong impact. This article summarizes recent examples of chelating lectin ligands of different size. Covered lectins include the Shiga-like toxin, where the shortest distance between binding sites is ca. 9 Å, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) (shortest distance between binding sites 13-14 Å), LecA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (shortest distance 26 Å), cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin (shortest distance 31 Å), anti-HIV antibody 2G12 (shortest distance 31 Å), concanavalin A (ConA) (shortest distance 72 Å), RCA120 (shortest distance 100 Å), and Erythrina cristagalli (ECL) (shortest distance 100 Å). While chelating binding of the discussed ligands is likely, experimental proof, for example by X-ray crystallography, is limited to only a few cases.

  20. [Separation of osteoclasts by lectin affinity chromatography].

    PubMed

    Itokazu, M; Tan, A; Tanaka, S

    1991-09-01

    Newborn rat calvaria bone cells obtained by digestion were fractionated on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) sepharose 6MB for osteoclast isolation. The initial nonspecific binding cells which were passed through the WGA sepharose column by a buffer acquired a high enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, but not that of acid phosphatase. However, elution of cells using a buffer with the addition of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in a high acid phosphatase activity but no alkaline phosphatase activity. The former WGA binding negative fraction enriched osteoblasts averaging 30 microns in size. The latter WGA binding positive fraction enriched osteoclasts ranging from 20 microns to 60 microns in size. The electron-microscope clearly demonstrated the cellular details of osteoclasts. Isolated cell counts showed a ratio of six to four. These results indicate that our method of osteoclast isolation is simple and useful in lectin affinity chromatography because all cells have sugar moieties on their surface and the binding of osteoclasts can be reversed by the addition of specific lectin-binding sugars to the eluting buffer.

  1. Glycoprotein enrichment through lectin affinity techniques.

    PubMed

    Mechref, Yehia; Madera, Milan; Novotny, Milos V

    2008-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTM) of proteins are among the key biological regulators of function, activity, localization, and interaction. The fact that no more than 30,000-50,000 proteins are encoded by the human genome underlines the importance of posttranslational modifications in modulating the activities and functions of proteins in health and disease. With approximately 50% of all proteins now considered to be glycosylated, its physiological importance in mammalian systems is imperative. Aberrant glycosylation has now been recognized as an attribute of many mammalian diseases, including hereditary disorders, immune deficiencies, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular conditions, and cancer. As many potential disease biomarkers may be glycoproteins present in only minute quantities in tissue extracts and physiological fluids, glycoprotein isolation and enrichment may be critical in a search for such biomarkers. For decades, efforts have been focused on the development of glycoprotein enrichment from complex biological samples. Logically, the great majority of these enrichment methodologies rely on the use of immobilized lectins, which permit selective enrichment of the pools of glycoproteins for proteomic/glycomic studies. In this chapter, lectin affinity chromatography in different formats are described, including tubes; packed columns, and microfluidic channels.

  2. Lectin domains at the frontiers of plant defense.

    PubMed

    Lannoo, Nausicaä; Van Damme, Els J M

    2014-01-01

    Plants are under constant attack from pathogens and herbivorous insects. To protect and defend themselves, plants evolved a multi-layered surveillance system, known as the innate immune system. Plants sense their encounters upon perception of conserved microbial structures and damage-associated patterns using cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Plant lectins and proteins with one or more lectin domains represent a major part of these receptors. The whole group of plant lectins comprises an elaborate collection of proteins capable of recognizing and interacting with specific carbohydrate structures, either originating from the invading organisms or from damaged plant cell wall structures. Due to the vast diversity in protein structures, carbohydrate recognition domains and glycan binding specificities, plant lectins constitute a very diverse protein superfamily. In the last decade, new types of nucleocytoplasmic plant lectins have been identified and characterized, in particular lectins expressed inside the nucleus and the cytoplasm of plant cells often as part of a specific plant response upon exposure to different stress factors or changing environmental conditions. In this review, we provide an overview on plant lectin motifs used in the constant battle against pathogens and predators during plant defenses.

  3. Use of labeled tomato lectin for imaging vasculature structures.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Richard T; Levine, Samantha T; Haynes, Sherry M; Gutierrez, Paula; Baratta, Janie L; Tan, Zhiqun; Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    Intravascular injections of fluorescent or biotinylated tomato lectin were tested to study labeling of vascular elements in laboratory mice. Injections of Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin) (50-100 µg/100 µl) were made intravascularly, through the tail vein, through a cannula implanted in the jugular vein, or directly into the left ventricle of the heart. Tissues cut for thin 10- to 12-µm cryostat sections, or thick 50- to 100-µm vibratome sections, were examined using fluorescence microscopy. Tissue labeled by biotinylated lectin was examined by bright field microscopy or electron microscopy after tissue processing for biotin. Intravascular injections of tomato lectin led to labeling of vascular structures in a variety of tissues, including brain, kidney, liver, intestine, spleen, skin, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and experimental tumors. Analyses of fluorescence in serum indicated the lectin was cleared from circulating blood within 2 min. Capillary labeling was apparent in tissues collected from animals within 1 min of intravascular injections, remained robust for about 1 h, and then declined markedly until difficult to detect 12 h after injection. Light microscopic images suggest the lectin bound to the endothelial cells that form capillaries and endothelial cells that line some larger vessels. Electron microscopic studies confirmed the labeling of luminal surfaces of endothelial cells. Vascular labeling by tomato lectin is compatible with a variety of other morphological labeling techniques, including histochemistry and immunocytochemistry, and thus appears to be a sensitive and useful method to reveal vascular patterns in relationship to other aspects of parenchymal development, structure, and function.

  4. Extensive amino acid sequence homologies between animal lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Paroutaud, P.; Levi, G.; Teichberg, V.I.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have established the amino acid sequence of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from the electric eel and the sequences of several peptides from a similar lectin isolated from human placenta. These sequences were compared with the published sequences of peptides derived from the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from human lung and with sequences deduced from cDNAs assigned to the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins from chicken embryo skin and human hepatomas. Significant homologies were observed. One of the highly conserved regions that contains a tryptophan residue and two glutamic acid resides is probably part of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding site, which, on the basis of spectroscopic studies of the electric eel lectin, is expected to contain such residues. The similarity of the hydropathy profiles and the predicted secondary structure of the lectins from chicken skin and electric eel, in spite of differences in their amino acid sequences, strongly suggests that these proteins have maintained structural homologies during evolution and together with the other ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins were derived form a common ancestor gene.

  5. Lectins, agglutinins, and their roles in autoimmune reactivities.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present throughout nature that act as agglutinins. Approximately 30% of our food contains lectins, some of which may be resistant enough to digestion to enter the circulation. Because of their binding properties, lectins can cause nutrient deficiencies, disrupt digestion, and cause severe intestinal damage when consumed in excess by an individual with dysfunctional enzymes. These effects are followed by disruption of intestinal barrier integrity, which is the gateway to various autoimmunities. Shared amino acid motifs between dietary lectins, exogenous peptides, and various body tissues may lead to cross-reactivity, resulting in the production of antibodies against lectin and bacterial antigens, followed by autoimmunity. The detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against specific lectins may serve as a guide for the elimination of these lectins from the diet. It is proposed that this process can reduce the peripheral antigenic stimulus and, thereby, result in a diminution of disease symptoms in some-but not all-patients with autoimmune disorders.

  6. Lectins: getting familiar with translators of the sugar code.

    PubMed

    André, Sabine; Kaltner, Herbert; Manning, Joachim C; Murphy, Paul V; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-22

    The view on the significance of the presence of glycans in glycoconjugates is undergoing a paradigmatic change. Initially mostly considered to be rather inert and passive, the concept of the sugar code identifies glycans as highly versatile platform to store information. Their chemical properties endow carbohydrates to form oligomers with unsurpassed structural variability. Owing to their capacity to engage in hydrogen (and coordination) bonding and C-H/π-interactions these "code words" can be "read" (in Latin, legere) by specific receptors. A distinct class of carbohydrate-binding proteins are the lectins. More than a dozen protein folds have developed carbohydrate-binding capacity in vertebrates. Taking galectins as an example, distinct expression patterns are traced. The availability of labeled endogenous lectins facilitates monitoring of tissue reactivity, extending the scope of lectin histochemistry beyond that which traditionally involved plant lectins. Presentation of glycan and its cognate lectin can be orchestrated, making a glycan-based effector pathway in growth control of tumor and activated T cells possible. In order to unravel the structural basis of lectin specificity for particular glycoconjugates mimetics of branched glycans and programmable models of cell surfaces are being developed by strategic combination of lectin research with synthetic and supramolecular chemistry.

  7. Lectin domains at the frontiers of plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Lannoo, Nausicaä; Van Damme, Els J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are under constant attack from pathogens and herbivorous insects. To protect and defend themselves, plants evolved a multi-layered surveillance system, known as the innate immune system. Plants sense their encounters upon perception of conserved microbial structures and damage-associated patterns using cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Plant lectins and proteins with one or more lectin domains represent a major part of these receptors. The whole group of plant lectins comprises an elaborate collection of proteins capable of recognizing and interacting with specific carbohydrate structures, either originating from the invading organisms or from damaged plant cell wall structures. Due to the vast diversity in protein structures, carbohydrate recognition domains and glycan binding specificities, plant lectins constitute a very diverse protein superfamily. In the last decade, new types of nucleocytoplasmic plant lectins have been identified and characterized, in particular lectins expressed inside the nucleus and the cytoplasm of plant cells often as part of a specific plant response upon exposure to different stress factors or changing environmental conditions. In this review, we provide an overview on plant lectin motifs used in the constant battle against pathogens and predators during plant defenses. PMID:25165467

  8. Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

  9. Cloning and Characterization of Root-Specific Barley Lectin 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, David R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1989-01-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNA library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A+) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A+) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16666982

  10. Purification, some properties of a D-galactose-binding leaf lectin from Erythrina indica and further characterization of seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Konozy, Emadeldin H E; Mulay, Ranjana; Faca, Vitor; Ward, Richard John; Greene, Lewis Joel; Roque-Barriera, Maria Cristina; Sabharwal, Sushma; Bhide, Shobhana V

    2002-10-01

    Lectin from a leaf of Erythrina indica was isolated by affinity chromatography on Lactamyl-Seralose 4B. Lectin gave a single band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In SDS-gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions Erythrina indica leaf lectin (EiLL) split into two bands with subunit molecular weights of 30 and 33 kDa, whereas 58 kDa was obtained for the intact lectin by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. EiLL agglutinated all human RBC types, with a slight preference for the O blood group. Lectin was found to be a glycoprotein with a neutral sugar content of 9.5%. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin was directed towards D-galactose and its derivatives with pronounced preference for lactose. EiLL had pH optima at pH 7.0; above and below this pH lectin lost sugar-binding capability rapidly. Lectin showed broad temperature optima from 25 to 50 degrees C; however, at 55 degrees C EiLL lost more than 90% of its activity and at 60 degrees C it was totally inactivated. The pI of EiLL was found to be 7.6. The amino acid analysis of EiLL indicated that the lectin was rich in acidic as well as hydrophobic amino acids and totally lacked cysteine and methionine. The N-terminal amino acids were Val-Glu-Thr-IIe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Glu-Phe-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asn-Asp-X-Leu-Thr-Gln-Glu-Gly-Ala-Ala-Leu-. Chemical modification studies of both EiLL and Erythrina indica seed lectin (EiSL) with phenylglyoxal, DEP and DTNB revealed an absence of arginine, histidine and cysteine, respectively, in or near the ligand-binding site of both lectins. Modification of tyrosine with NAI led to partial inactivation of EiLL and EiSL; however, total inactivation was observed upon NBS-modification of two tryptophan residues in EiSL. Despite the apparent importance of these tryptophan residues for lectin activity they did not seem to have a direct role in binding haptenic sugar as D-galactose did not protect lectin from inactivation by NBS.

  11. Aerosol properties and their influences on surface cloud condensation nuclei during CAP-MBL and MC3E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, T.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol particles are of particular importance because of their influences on cloud development and precipitation processes over land and ocean. Aerosol physical and chemical properties and their ability to activate as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) as well as influence CCN number concentration (NCCN) during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region and the 2009-2010 Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) over the Azores are presented in this study. Both regions periodically observe increases in NCCN when sulfate pollution and biomass burning smoke are present but over ocean, mineral dust diminishes NCCN. During clean conditions over the ocean, sea salt is the main contributor to CCN production, and strong (weak) surface winds and turbulent conditions can enhance (diminish) NCCN. Over the SGP, there were moderate to high correlations (R > 0.5) between increased magnitudes of aerosol loading (ssp), NCCN, chemical species, and PWV suggesting a shared common transport mechanism via the Gulf of Mexico further indicating the strong dependence on air mass type (e.g., marine vs. continental). Further investigations will greatly help to understand the seasonal influences of air masses on aerosol, NCCN, and cloud properties.

  12. [Current knowledge about presumable functions of plant lectins].

    PubMed

    Shakirova, F M; Bezrukova, M V

    2007-01-01

    Current data on the diversity of plant lectins and their functional importance for plants, caused primarily by their capacity to link carbohydrate ligands specifically and convertibly, are reviewed. For instance, the role of plant lectins in the recognition of alien organisms and in the adaptation of plants to various stress-induced effects is discussed. In addition to centres of specific affinity to carbohydrates, plant lectins are characterized by the presence of sites responsible for hydrophobic interactions with non-carbohydrate molecules. These sites link to plant hormones, proteins, and other metabolites, thus participating in the regulation of metabolic processes controlling growth, development, and differentiation in plants. The structure and biological properties of ribosome-inactivating proteins having and not having lectin activity are discussed, as well as their role in plant protection from pests and pathogens. Current data on the assumed functions of the independent groups of plant lectins with specific endogenic role are given. These include chitin-specific lectins synthesized in phloem, which are capable of forming protein-protein and RNA-protein complexes and translocating via vessels, which thus play their specific intra- or intercellular interactions, processes of growth, development, and protection of plants. Other groups of plant lectins, induced by jasmonate, such as Nictaba (Nicotiana tabaccum agglutinin), and cereal lectins related to jacalin, which are localised in the cytoplasm and nucleus, probably play regulatory role in the formation of stress response in plants. The structure and currently discussed functions of wheat germ agglutinin, a typical representative of cereal lectins, are analysed in detail.

  13. Self-assembled carbohydrate-based vesicles for lectin targeting.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Marinalva Cardoso; Micheletto, Yasmine Miguel Serafini; da Silveira, Nadya Pesce; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Giacomelli, Fernando Carlos; de Lima, Vânia Rodrigues; Frizon, Tiago Elias Allievi; Dal-Bó, Alexandre Gonçalves

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the physicochemical interactions between vesicles formed by phosphatidylcholine (PC) and glycosylated polymeric amphiphile N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminyl-PEG900-docosanate (C22PEG900GlcNAc) conjugated with Bauhinia variegata lectin (BVL). Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins capable of binding glycosylated membrane components. Accordingly, the surface functionalization by such entities is considered a potential strategy for targeted drug delivery. We observed increased hydrodynamic radii (RH) of PC+C22PEG900GlcNAc vesicles in the presence of lectins, suggesting that this aggregation was due to the interaction between lectins and the vesicular glycosylated surfaces. Furthermore, changes in the zeta potential of the vesicles with increasing lectin concentrations implied that the vesicular glycosylated surfaces were recognized by the investigated lectin. The presence of carbohydrate residues on vesicle surfaces and the ability of the vesicles to establish specific interactions with BVL were further explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. The results indicated that the thickness of the hydrophilic layer was to some extent influenced by the presence of lectins. The presence of lectins required a higher degree of polydispersity as indicated by the width parameter of the log-normal distribution of size, which also suggested more irregular structures. Reflectance Fourier transform infrared (HATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis.) analyses revealed that the studied lectin preferentially interacted with the choline and carbonyl groups of the lipid, thereby changing the choline orientation and intermolecular interactions. The protein also discretely reduced the intermolecular communication of the hydrophobic acyl chains, resulting in a disordered state.

  14. Generation of fibronectin receptors on macrophages by wheat germ lectin.

    PubMed

    Hörmann, H; Jelinić, V; Richter, H

    1983-08-01

    A chymotrypsin-derived and 125I-labelled 125-kDa fragment of human plasma fibronectin which contained the cell binding site, was only weakly bound by peritoneal macrophages of guinea pigs and binding was not saturable. In presence of wheat germ lectin binding increased proportionally to the logarithm of the lectin concentration. Association of 125I-fragment with cells was partially prevented by non-labelled fragment indicating a saturable receptor-ligand interaction. An apparent affinity constant of about 2--4 x 10(-5) M was evaluated. A considerable fraction of the cell-bound 125I-fragment resisted removal by proteases suggesting that it was internalized. In order to investigate an influence of wheat germ lectin on the binding of 125I-fibronectin by the cells the macrophages were preincubated with the lectin followed by washing and evaluation of 125I-fibronectin binding. A simultaneous incubation of the cells with 125I-fibronectin and lectin was impractical due to partial interaction of the two proteins giving rise to some unspecific precipitates. Preincubation with wheat germ lectin considerably improved the capacity of the macrophages for binding of 125I-fibronectin. Again the binding of 125I-labelled protein could be restricted by unlabelled one. N-acetyl-glucosamine inhibited the binding of 125I-fibronectin by wheat germ lectin-treated cells if applied in the preincubation phase and more effectively, if applied in the final 125I-fibronectin binding assay. N-Acetylneuraminic acid also inhibited this step. In addition to wheat germ lectin concanavalin A was capable of generating fibronectin receptors on the cell surface. Soy bean lectin, however, was ineffective.

  15. Role of Mannose-Binding Lectin Deficiency in HIV-1 and Schistosoma Infections in a Rural Adult Population in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B. L.; Chasela, Charles; Madsen, Hans O.; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Kallestrup, Per; Christiansen, Michael; Gomo, Exnevia; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian; Munyati, Shungu; Kurewa, Edith N.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Garred, Peter; Mduluza, Takafira

    2015-01-01

    Background Polymorphism in the MBL2 gene lead to MBL deficiency, which has been shown to increase susceptibility to various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. We assessed role of MBL deficiency in HIV-1 and schistosoma infections in Zimbabwean adults enrolled in the Mupfure Schistosomiasis and HIV Cohort (MUSH Cohort). Methods HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections were determined at baseline. Plasma MBL concentration was measured by ELISA and MBL2 genotypes determined by PCR. We calculated and compared the proportions of plasma MBL deficiency, MBL2 structural variant alleles B (codon 54A>G), C (codon 57A>G), and D (codon 52T>C) as well as MBL2 promoter variants -550(H/L), -221(X/Y) and +4(P/Q) between HIV-1 and schistosoma co-infection and control groups using Chi Square test. Results We assessed 379 adults, 80% females, median age (IQR) 30 (17–41) years. HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni prevalence were 26%, 43% and 18% respectively in the MUSH baseline survey. Median (IQR) plasma MBL concentration was 800μg/L (192-1936μg/L). Prevalence of plasma MBL deficiency was 18% with high frequency of the C (codon 57G>A) mutant allele (20%). There was no significant difference in median plasma MBL levels between HIV negative (912μg/L) and HIV positive (688μg/L), p = 0.066. However plasma MBL levels at the assay detection limit of 20μg/L were more frequent among the HIV-1 infected (p = 0.007). S. haematobium and S. mansoni infected participants had significantly higher MBL levels than uninfected. All MBL2 variants were not associated with HIV-1 infection but promoter variants LY and LL were significantly associated with S. haematobium infection. Conclusion Our data indicate high prevalence of MBL deficiency, no evidence of association between MBL deficiency and HIV-1 infection. However, lower plasma MBL levels were protective against both S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections and MBL2 promoter and variants LY and LL increased susceptibility to

  16. [Spreading and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance of microorganisms, producing beta-lactamases. Phenotypical screening for MBL producers (carbapenemases B1) among strains of Pseudomonas genus, isolated in cases of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, D V; Egorov, A M

    2007-01-01

    Intrahospital strains (215) of the bacterial genus Pseudomonas isolated from patients of 30 Medical centers of 15 Russian regions have been investigated for antibiotic resistance. The bacterial cultures resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem were considered as metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producers. Production of subclass B1 MBL (carbapenemases) was evaluated by means of the double-disk approximation test using MBL inhibitor, EDTA. There were 55 P. aeroginosa strains (25.6%) resistant to imipenem and meropenem simultaneously; 19 isolates (8.8%) of P. aeroginosa were characterized by synergism between carbapenem and EDTA. The subclass B1 MBL producers are widely distributed in the intrahospital strain obtained from Moscow, Yaroslavl, Ekaterinburg, Omsk, and Tomsk hospitals.

  17. In vivo biosynthetic studies of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.M.; Etzler, M.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The in vivo biosynthesis of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin was studied by pulse-chase labeling experiments using ({sup 35}S)methionine and ({sup 14}C)glucosamine. These studies demonstrate that each of the two mature lectin subunit types are derived by the processing of separate glycosylated precursors. The appearance of the precursor to subunit I before the precursor to subunit II supports the possibility raised by previous studies that both subunit types of this lectin may originate from a single gene product.

  18. [Relation of MBL ExonI 54 and NFκB1-94ins/del ATTG Polymorphism with Fever during Neutropenia in Patients with Acute Leukaemia after Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Ning; Jiang, Zu-Jun; Li, Yong-Hua; Xiao, Hao-Wen; Gao, Yang; Pang, Yan; Ouyang, Lin; Liu, Zeng-Hui; Zhang, Le-Qing; Wang, Yang; Xiao, Yang

    2015-10-01

    To explore the correlation between MBL ExonI 54 and NFκB1-94ins/del ATTG polymorphism and fever during neutropenia in patients with acute leukaemia (AL) (except M3) after first chemotherapy in Chinese Han population. Blood samples obtained from 76 fever patients with AL during neutropenia episodes were detected to analyse single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MBL ExonI 54 and NFκB1-94ins/del ATTG gene, and analyse the correlation between above-mentioned 2 polymorphisms and fever during neutropenia of AL patients after chemotherapy. In 76 patients, no correlation were found between MBL ExonI 54 and NFκB1-94ins/del ATTG polymorphism and fever during neutropenia in patients with acute leukaemia after chemotherapy (P > 0.05). No significant relation were found in sex, age, underlying disease, disease status or degrees of neutropenia in febrile neutropenia between MBL ExonI 54 and NFκB1-94ins/del ATTG polymorphism (P > 0.05). However, patients with MBL ExonI 54 mutation presented longer febrile duration with a median of 5 days compared to 3 days of patients with wildtype MBL ExonI 54 genotype (P < 0.05). There is no clear correlation between MBL ExonI 54 and NFκB1-94ins/del ATTG polymorphism and fever during neutropenia in patients with acute leukaemia after chemotherapy. However, the patients with MBL ExonI 54 mutation have been observed to present a longer febrile duration.

  19. Fine specificities of two lectins from Cymbosema roseum seeds: a lectin specific for high-mannose oligosaccharides and a lectin specific for blood group H type II trisaccharide.

    PubMed

    Dam, Tarun K; Cavada, Benildo S; Nagano, Celso S; Rocha, Bruno Am; Benevides, Raquel G; Nascimento, Kyria S; de Sousa, Luiz Ag; Oscarson, Stefan; Brewer, C Fred

    2011-07-01

    The legume species of Cymbosema roseum of Diocleinae subtribe produce at least two different seed lectins. The present study demonstrates that C. roseum lectin I (CRL I) binds with high affinity to the "core" trimannoside of N-linked oligosaccharides. Cymbosema roseum lectin II (CRL II), on the other hand, binds with high affinity to the blood group H trisaccharide (Fucα1,2Galα1-4GlcNAc-). Thermodynamic and hemagglutination inhibition studies reveal the fine binding specificities of the two lectins. Data obtained with a complete set of monodeoxy analogs of the core trimannoside indicate that CRL I recognizes the 3-, 4- and 6-hydroxyl groups of the α(1,6) Man residue, the 3- and 4-hydroxyl group of the α(1,3) Man residue and the 2- and 4-hydroxyl groups of the central Man residue of the trimannoside. CRL I possesses enhanced affinities for the Man5 oligomannose glycan and a biantennary complex glycan as well as glycoproteins containing high-mannose glycans. On the other hand, CRL II distinguishes the blood group H type II epitope from the Lewis(x), Lewis(y), Lewis(a) and Lewis(b) epitopes. CRL II also distinguishes between blood group H type II and type I trisaccharides. CRL I and CRL II, respectively, possess differences in fine specificities when compared with other reported mannose and fucose recognizing lectins. This is the first report of a mannose-specific lectin (CRL I) and a blood group H type II-specific lectin (CRL II) from seeds of a member of the Diocleinae subtribe.

  20. Lectins as inducers of interferon-gamma production in human lymphocytes: lentil lectin is highly efficient.

    PubMed

    Rönnblom, L; Funa, K; Ersson, B; Alm, G V

    1982-10-01

    Several of many tested plant lectins induced interferon (IFN) production in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes (PBL). The mannose-binding lectin obtained from Lens culinaris (LCL) was a particularly efficient inducer of trypsin-sensitive antiviral activity, which qualified as IFN-gamma because it was 90-95% destroyed by pH 2 treatment but not neutralized by anti-IFN-gamma antibodies. However, such antibodies neutralized the residual 5-10% pH 2-resistant IFN, which therefore represented IFN-alpha. Further evidence for the IFN-gamma nature of the LCL-induced IFN was that its production in PBL cultures required both T lymphocytes and macrophages and that its induction of antiviral resistance in human amnion cells was significantly delayed compared with IFN-alpha. Under optimal conditions LCL induced titres of IFN-gamma corresponding to more than 20,000 IFN-alpha units/ml medium, higher than observed with other tested, established IFN-gamma inducers. Other desirable properties of this lectin, as discussed, also suggest that it will be of value for efficient large-scale IFN-gamma production.

  1. [Galectins, a class of unconventional lectins].

    PubMed

    Advedissian, Tamara; Deshayes, Frédérique; Poirier, Françoise; Grandjean, Cyrille; Viguier, Mireille

    2015-05-01

    Galectins constitute a family of soluble animal lectins defined by their evolutionary conserved carbohydrate recognition domain and their affinity for β-galactosides containing glycoconjugates. Each galectin is characterized by a specific spatio-temporal distribution and a unique set of ligands and molecular partners. Interestingly, galectins are found both extracellularly and intracellularly and modulate various cellular processes. Knock-out mutant mice for galectins-1, 3 or 7 are viable but display a wide range of defects under various stress conditions. Indeed, galectins are multifunctional proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, organization of membrane domains, cell signalling and also in intracellular trafficking, apoptosis, regulation of cell cycle. Galectins represent potential therapeutic targets, especially in the context of cancer and inflammatory diseases. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a lectin from Annona muricata seeds.

    PubMed

    Damico, D C S; Freire, M G M; Gomes, V M; Toyama, M H; Marangoni, S; Novello, J C; Macedo, M L R

    2003-11-01

    A lectin with a high affinity for glucose/mannose was isolated from Annona muricata seeds (Annonaceae) by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE SP-5 PW column, and molecular exclusion on a Protein Pak Glass 300 SW column. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) yielded two protein bands of approximately 14 kDa and 22 kDa. However, only one band was seen in native PAGE. The Mr of the lectin estimated by fast-performance liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75 was 22 kDa. The lectin was a glycoprotein with 8% carbohydrate (neutral sugar) and required divalent metal cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+) for full activity. Amino acid analysis revealed a large content of Glx, Gly, Phe, and Lys. The lectin agglutinated dog, chicken, horse, goose, and human erythrocytes and inhibited the growth of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Colletotrichum musae.

  3. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  4. Structure and Function of Mammalian Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kevin; Evers, David; Rice, Kevin G.

    Over the past three decades the field of glycobiology has expanded beyond a basic understanding of the structure and biosynthesis of glycoprotein, proteoglycans, and glycolipids toward a more detailed picture of how these molecules afford communication through binding to mammalian lectins. Although the number of different mammalian lectin domains appears to be finite and even much smaller than early estimates predicated based on the diversity of glycan structures, nature appears capable of using these in numerous combinations to fine tune specificity. The following provides an overview of the major classes of mammalian lectins and discusses their glycan binding specificity. The review provides a snapshot of the field of glycobiology that continues to grow providing an increasing number of examples of biological processes that rely upon glycan-lectin binding.

  5. Sweet complementarity: the functional pairing of glycans with lectins.

    PubMed

    Gabius, H-J; Manning, J C; Kopitz, J; André, S; Kaltner, H

    2016-05-01

    Carbohydrates establish the third alphabet of life. As part of cellular glycoconjugates, the glycans generate a multitude of signals in a minimum of space. The presence of distinct glycotopes and the glycome diversity are mapped by sugar receptors (antibodies and lectins). Endogenous (tissue) lectins can read the sugar-encoded information and translate it into functional aspects of cell sociology. Illustrated by instructive examples, each glycan has its own ligand properties. Lectins with different folds can converge to target the same epitope, while intrafamily diversification enables functional cooperation and antagonism. The emerging evidence for the concept of a network calls for a detailed fingerprinting. Due to the high degree of plasticity and dynamics of the display of genes for lectins the validity of extrapolations between different organisms of the phylogenetic tree yet is inevitably limited.

  6. An alternate high yielding purification method for Clitoria ternatea lectin.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Aabgeena; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2007-10-01

    In our previous publication we had reported the purification and characterization of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin from its seeds on fetuin CL agarose affinity column, designated CTA [A. Naeem, S. Haque, R.H. Khan. Protein J., 2007]. Since CTA binds beta-d-galactosides, this lectin can be used as valuable tool for glycobiology studies in biomedical and cancer research. So an attempt was made for a high yielding alternative purification method employing the use of asialofetuin CL agarose column for the above-mentioned lectin, designated CTL. The fetuin affinity purified agglutinin was found similar to asialofetuin affinity purified lectin in SDS pattern, HPLC and N-terminal sequence. The content of lectin was found to be 30mg/30g dry weight of pulse. The yield was 2.8% as compared to 0.3% obtained on fetuin column. The number of tryptophan and tyrosine estimated was four and six per subunit.

  7. Molecular cloning of mannose-binding lectins from Clivia miniata.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, E J; Smeets, K; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1994-03-01

    Screening of a cDNA library constructed from total RNA isolated from young developing ovaries of Clivia miniata Regel with the amaryllis lectin cDNA clone resulted in the isolation of four different isolectin clones which clearly differ from each other in their nucleotide sequences and hence also in their deduced amino acid sequences. Apparently the lectin is translated from an mRNA of ca. 800 nucleotides encoding a precursor polypeptide of 163 amino acids. Northern blot analysis of total RNA isolated from different tissues of Clivia miniata has shown that the lectin is expressed in most plant tissues with very high lectin mRNA concentrations in the ovary and the seed endosperm.

  8. Effect of plant lectins on Ustilago maydis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Santiago, A P; Saavedra, E; Pérez Campos, E; Córdoba, F

    2000-12-01

    Ustilago maydis is an edible parasitic basidiomycete, which specifically infects corn (Zea mays) and teocintle (Z. diploperennis). To characterise the interaction between the basidiomycete and its host organism, we tested the effect of plant lectins with well-known sugar specificity on the growth and germination of U. maydis spores. Lectins specific for N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, such as those from Dolichos biflorus and Phaseolus lunatus, and the wheatgerm agglutinin specific for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine inhibited spore germination, but were ineffective in modifying U. maydis cell growth. The galactose-specific lectin from the corn coleoptyle inhibited both germination and cell growth, while the lectin concanavalin A (mannose/glucose specific) activated spore germination and growth. Our results suggest that specific saccharide-containing receptors participate in regulating the growth and maturation of U. maydis spores.

  9. Insights into animal and plant lectins with antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Dias, Renata de Oliveira; Machado, Leandro Dos Santos; Migliolo, Ludovico; Franco, Octavio Luiz

    2015-01-05

    Lectins are multivalent proteins with the ability to recognize and bind diverse carbohydrate structures. The glyco -binding and diverse molecular structures observed in these protein classes make them a large and heterogeneous group with a wide range of biological activities in microorganisms, animals and plants. Lectins from plants and animals are commonly used in direct defense against pathogens and in immune regulation. This review focuses on sources of animal and plant lectins, describing their functional classification and tridimensional structures, relating these properties with biotechnological purposes, including antimicrobial activities. In summary, this work focuses on structural-functional elucidation of diverse lectin groups, shedding some light on host-pathogen interactions; it also examines their emergence as biotechnological tools through gene manipulation and development of new drugs.

  10. Specific interaction of lectins with liposomes and monolayers bearing neoglycolipids.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Vincent; Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Boullanger, Paul; Baszkin, Adam; Rosilio, Véronique

    2003-10-01

    The interaction of three lectins (wheat germ, Ulex europaeus I, and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinins: WGA, UEA-I and LTA) with either N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or L-fucose neoglycolipids incorporated into phospholipid monolayers and liposome bilayers was studied at the air/water interface and in bulk solution. The results show that for both systems studied, synthesized neoglycolipids were capable of binding their specific lectin and that, in general, the binding of lectins increased with the increase in the molar fraction of the saccharide derivative incorporated in either the monolayers or bilayers. However, whereas for UEA-I, molecular recognition was enhanced by a strong hydrophobic interaction, for WGA and LTA successful recognition was predominantly related to the distance between neighboring sugar groups. The observed lengthy adsorption times of these lectins onto their specific ligands were attributed to interfacial conformational changes occurring in the proteins upon their adsorption at the interfaces.

  11. Development and Distribution of Dolichos biflorus Lectin as Measured by Radioimmunoassay 1

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Craig F.; Etzler, Marilynn E.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay, capable of detecting the Dolichos biflorus lectin at concentrations as low as 400 ng/ml, was developed and used to follow the distribution of this lectin in the plant during its life cycle. The lectin was first detected in the seeds of the plant 27 days after flowering and rapidly attained the high level of lectin present in the mature seed. The lectin content of the plant is highest in the seeds and cotyledons and decreases as the storage materials of the cotyledons decrease. A low but measurable amount of material that reacts with antibodies to the seed lectin was detected in the leaves, stems, and pods of the plant. This material gives a precipitin band of only partial identity to the seed lectin when tested in immunodiffusion against antiserum to the seed lectin. No lectin was detected by the radioimmunoassay in the roots of the plant at any stage of development. ImagesFIG. 4 PMID:16660399

  12. A Lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with Midgut Surface of Lutzomyia migonei, Unlike Its Homologues, Cratylia floribunda Lectin and Canavalia gladiata Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro Tínel, Juliana Montezuma Barbosa; Benevides, Melina Fechine Costa; Frutuoso, Mércia Sindeaux; Rocha, Camila Farias; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Martins, Jorge Luiz; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe), D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL) was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL) and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL). Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania. PMID:25431778

  13. A lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with midgut surface of Lutzomyia migonei, unlike its homologues, Cratylia floribunda lectin and Canavalia gladiata lectin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro Tínel, Juliana Montezuma Barbosa; Benevides, Melina Fechine Costa; Frutuoso, Mércia Sindeaux; Rocha, Camila Farias; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Martins, Jorge Luiz; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe), D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL) was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL) and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL). Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania.

  14. Interactions between Rhizobia and Lectins of Lentil, Pea, Broad Bean, and Jackbean 1

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peter P.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative method was developed to measure the binding of fluorescent-labeled lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.), and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis L., DC.) lectins to various Rhizobium strains. Lentil lectin bound to three of the five Rhizobium leguminosarum strains tested. The number of lentil lectin molecules bound per R. leguminosarum 128C53 cell was 2.1 × 104. Lentil lectin also bound to R. japonicum 61A133. Pea and broad bean lectins bound to only two of the five strains of R. leguminosarum, whereas concanavalin A (jackbean lectin) bound to all strains of R. leguminosarum, R. phaseoli, R. japonicum, and R. sp. tested. Since these four lectins have similar sugarbinding properties but different physical properties, the variation in bindings of these lectins to various Rhizobium strains indicates that binding of lectin to Rhizobium is determined not only by the sugar specificity of the lectin but also by its physical characteristics. The binding of lentil lectin and concanavalin A to R. leguminosarum 128C53 could be inhibited by glucose, fructose, and mannose. However, even at 150 millimolar glucose, about 15% of the binding remained. The binding of lentil lectin to R. japonicum 61A133 could be inhibited by glucose but not by galactose. It is concluded that the binding site of lentil lectin to R. japonicum is different from the binding site of soybean lectin to R. japonicum. PMID:16661328

  15. [MBL quality control survey of autoantibodies--25 years of activity and its achievement--mainly antinuclear antibodies].

    PubMed

    Tsunekawa, Shinji; Arai, Jiro; Ishihara, Yasushi; Fujii, Yoshihisa

    2010-02-01

    Annual MBL Quality Control Survey of Autoantibodies has continued to this day since it started in 1983 as the only quality control survey of autoantibodies in Japan. The survey has aimed at unification and standardization of measurement value, as well as finding out between-laboratory differences in results through reporting the results of tabulation to the participating laboratories. For carrying out the survey, we intend to make our efforts to promote assurance and standardization of the quality control of the autoantibodies. The number of participant on this survey has been increasing every year and more than 500 laboratories participate not only in Japan but also from Asia and European countries. The laboratories that participated in this survey are the ones that usually perform ANA test, anti-DNA antibodies test, anti-ENA antibodies test, AMA test, ASMA test, anti-cardiolipin antibodies test and anti-CCP antibodies test. The purpose of the survey is to standardize antinuclear antibodies testing value in semi quantitative assay using ANA control serum or our titer control HEPASERA-1. We got 12% increase from 79% to 91% in 1986 using ANA control serum. Additionally, we reached 97% (86% to 97%) of convergence in 2001 by using HEPASERA-1, which contains 4 major pattern titer controls from 1993. In 2007, coefficient of variation (CV) for anti-dsDNA antibodies was 13%, showing better result than 25% of the first survey in 1993. We started secondary survey for laboratories which reported a result far apart. In the secondary survey, we made investigation for cause and improvement action. We conclude quality control survey is useful for autoantibodies testing for its result convergence.

  16. Effects of environment forcing on marine boundary layer cloud-drizzle processes: MBL Cloud-Drizzle Processes

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Peng; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; ...

    2017-04-20

    Determining the factors affecting drizzle formation in marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds remains a challenge for both observation and modeling communities. To investigate the roles of vertical wind shear and buoyancy (static instability) in drizzle formation, ground-based observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the Azores are analyzed for two types of conditions. The type I clouds should last for at least five hours and more than 90% time must be non-drizzling, and then followed by at least two hours of drizzling periods while the type II clouds are characterized by mesoscale convection cellular (MCC) structures with drizzlemore » occur every two to four hours. By analyzing the boundary layer wind profiles (direction and speed), it was found that either directional or speed shear is required to promote drizzle production in the type I clouds. Observations and a recent model study both suggest that vertical wind shear helps the production of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), stimulates turbulence within cloud layer, and enhances drizzle formation near the cloud top. The type II clouds do not require strong wind shear to produce drizzle. The small values of lower-tropospheric stability (LTS) and negative Richardson number (Ri) in the type II cases suggest that boundary layer instability plays an important role in TKE production and cloud-drizzle processes. As a result, by analyzing the relationships between LTS and wind shear for all cases and all time periods, a stronger connection was found between LTS and wind directional shear than that between LTS and wind speed shear.« less

  17. A lectin with some unique characteristics from the samta tomato.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Ng, T B

    2006-04-01

    A lectin, with a molecular mass of 79 kDa, and with specificity toward rhamnose and O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was isolated from samta tomato fruits. The procedure entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. The lectin was stable up to 70 degrees C. The lectin activity was potentiated by NaOH solutions (25-100 mM), but was reduced by 50 and 100 mM HCl solutions. The activity of the lectin was reduced in the presence of CaCl(2), MgCl(2) and ZnCl(2), but was potentiated by 5 and 10 mM AlCl(3) solutions. The lectin stimulated the mitogenic response in mouse splenocytes and inhibited human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 6.2 microM.

  18. Structural analysis of Centrolobium tomentosum seed lectin with inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Alysson Chaves; Osterne, Vinicius Jose da Silva; Santiago, Mayara Queiroz; Pinto-Junior, Vanir Reis; Silva-Filho, Jose Caetano; Lossio, Claudia Figueiredo; Nascimento, Francisco Lucas Faustino; Almeida, Ricardo Patricio Honorato; Teixeira, Claudener Souza; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Delatorre, Plinio; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2016-04-15

    A glycosylated lectin (CTL) with specificity for mannose and glucose has been detected and purified from seeds of Centrolobium tomentosum, a legume plant from Dalbergieae tribe. It was isolated by mannose-sepharose affinity chromatography. The primary structure was determined by tandem mass spectrometry and consists of 245 amino acids, similar to other Dalbergieae lectins. CTL structures were solved from two crystal forms, a monoclinic and a tetragonal, diffracted at 2.25 and 1.9 Å, respectively. The carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), metal-binding site and glycosylation site were characterized, and the structural basis for mannose/glucose-binding was elucidated. The lectin adopts the canonical dimeric organization of legume lectins. CTL showed acute inflammatory effect in paw edema model. The protein was subjected to ligand screening (dimannosides and trimannoside) by molecular docking, and interactions were compared with similar lectins possessing the same ligand specificity. This is the first crystal structure of mannose/glucose native seed lectin with proinflammatory activity isolated from the Centrolobium genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vasorelaxant activity of Canavalia grandiflora seed lectin: A structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Barroso-Neto, Ito Liberato; Simões, Rafael Conceição; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias; Bezerra, Maria Julia Barbosa; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Silva Osterne, Vinicius José; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Delatorre, Plinio; Pereira, Maria Gonçalves; Freitas Pires, Alana; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2014-02-01

    Lectins are comprised of a large family of proteins capable of the specific and reversible recognition of carbohydrates. Legume lectins, the most studied plant lectins, show high structural similarity, but with modifications that imply a variation in the intensity of some biological activities. In this work, the primary and tertiary structures of Canavalia grandiflora (ConGF) were determined. ConGF, a lectin isolated from C. grandiflora seeds, is able to induce relaxant activity in rat aortic rings. The complete sequence of ConGF comprises 237 amino acids. This particular protein has primary sequence variations commonly found in lectins from Dioclea and Canavalia genera. The protein structure was solved at 2.3 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. An X-Man molecule was modeled into the carbohydrate recognition domain. Still, ConGF (30 and 100 μg mL(-1)) elicited 25% of vasorelaxation (IC50=34.48 ± 5.07 μg mL(-1)) in endothelialized aortic rings. A nonselective inhibitor of nitric oxide blocked ConGF relaxant effect, showing mediation by nitric oxide. Key distances between ConGF carbohydrate recognition domain residues were determined in order to explain this effect, in turn revealing some structural aspects that could differentiate lectins from the Canavalia genera with respect to different efficacy in vasorelaxant effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Severo; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; de Cássia Carvalho Maia, Rita; Giampaoli, Viviana; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; de Lima, Adriana Nunes; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256μg/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health. PMID:24031889

  1. Glycoprotein targeting and other applications of lectins in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Aabgeena; Saleemuddin, M; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2007-06-01

    Glycoconjugates comprise a variety of structures, include glycoproteins and glycolipids and are found on the surfaces of animal and plant cells, as well as on the surface of microorganisms. Determination of the structure and the distribution of glycoconjugates on cell surfaces are important for the understanding their biological function. Lectins are useful to investigate protein-carbohydrate interactions, because they have specificity for defined carbohydrate structure. They have been implicated in cell-to-cell recognition and signaling, blood group typing, in immune recognition process, and various other biological processes, such as viral, bacterial, mycoplasmal and parasitic infections, fertilization, cancer metastasis, growth and differentiation. Once thought to be confined to plant seeds, lectins are now recognized as ubiquitous in virtually all living systems, ranging from viruses and bacteria to animals. Plant lectins provide a rich source of carbohydrate-recognizing protein reagents for glycobiologists and biotechnologists. Biotechnology offers the therapeutic use of lectin against certain life threatening diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. This review presents a comprehensive summary of research efforts that focus on the actual and potential uses and advantages of using lectins to target glycoproteins and also glycoproteins to target lectins.

  2. Purification and cDNA cloning of a lectin and a lectin-like protein from Apios americana Medikus tubers.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Irie, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Rikiya; Yonekura, Masami

    2014-01-01

    An Apios americana lectin (AAL) and a lectin-like protein (AALP) were purified from tubers by chromatography on Butyl-Cellulofine, ovomucoid-Cellulofine, and DEAE-Cellulofine columns. AAL showed strong hemagglutinating activity toward chicken and goose erythrocytes, but AALP showed no such activity toward any of the erythrocytes tested. The hemagglutinating activity of AAL was not inhibited by mono- or disaccharides, but was inhibited by glycoproteins, such as asialofetuin and ovomucoid, suggesting that AAL is an oligosaccharide-specific lectin. The cDNAs of AAL and AALP consist of 1,093 and 1,104 nucleotides and encode proteins of 302 and 274 amino acid residues, respectively. Both amino acid sequences showed high similarity to known legume lectins, and those of their amino acids involved in carbohydrate and metal binding were conserved.

  3. High-Dose Mannose-Binding Lectin Therapy for Ebola Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    trapezoidal method. Murine Ebola model We used a validated lethal Ebola Zaire mouse model developed at the US ArmyMedical Research Institute of Infectious...exposure, mice were treated and exposed to 100 pfu of mouse-adapted Ebola Zaire either 12 hours before or 1 hour after the first dose of rhMBL as...retested 28 days later. RESULTS We previously found that rhMBL bound Ebola ( Zaire ) and Marburg (Musoke) envelope GPs [2]. RhMBL effectively blocked Ebola GP

  4. Structures and binding specificity of galactose- and mannose-binding lectins from champedak: differences from jackfruit lectins.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Othman, Shatrah; Hashim, Onn H; Cogdell, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Galactose-binding and mannose-binding lectins from the champedak fruit, which is native to South-east Asia, exhibit useful potential clinical applications. The specificity of the two lectins for their respective ligands allows the detection of potential cancer biomarkers and monitoring of the glycosylated state of proteins in human serum and/or urine. To fully understand and expand the use of these natural proteins, their complete sequences and crystal structures are presented here, together with details of sugar binding.

  5. Utilization of lectin-histochemistry in forensic neuropathology: lectin staining provides useful information for postmortem diagnosis in forensic neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Katsuji; Tanegashima, Akio; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Ushiyama, Ikuko; Ikemoto, Keiko; Yamasaki, Shigeru; Nishimura, Akiyoshi; Rand, Steven; Brinkmann, Bernd

    2003-09-01

    We have investigated the deposition of glycoconjugates in human brain tissue with or without brain disorders. In this review we describe the application of lectin-histochemistry techniques to forensic neuropathology. Lectin staining is able to reveal several kinds of carbohydrate-related depositions in addition to the conventional degenerative changes including senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and corpora amylacea. The senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles were clearly stained by Con A, PSA and GSI lectins, the corpora amylacea which is relevant to repeated brain hypoxia and mitochondrial damage was also easily detected by these and many other kinds of lectins. Amorphous spaces were detected around blood vessels and independently from blood vessels by lectin staining in the white matter from patients with brain disorders or severe edema. The white matter lesions were not considered relevant for forensic pathology, until a large group of cerebral white matter lesions were detected in the elderly with increasing frequency by modern neuro-imaging methods. The spherical deposits were newly detected by lectin staining in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation chiefly from patients with schizophrenia or cognitive dysfunctions.

  6. Interaction of lectins with membrane receptors on erythrocyte surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sung, L A; Kabat, E A; Chien, S

    1985-08-01

    The interactions of human genotype AO erythrocytes (red blood cells) (RBCs) with N-acetylgalactosamine-reactive lectins isolated from Helix pomatia (HPA) and from Dolichos biflorus (DBA) were studied. Binding curves obtained with the use of tritium-labeled lectins showed that the maximal numbers of lectin molecules capable of binding to human genotype AO RBCs were 3.8 X 10(5) and 2.7 X 10(5) molecules/RBC for HPA and DBA, respectively. The binding of one type of lectin may influence the binding of another type. HPA was found to inhibit the binding of DBA, but not vice versa. The binding of HPA was weakly inhibited by a beta-D-galactose-reactive lectin isolated from Ricinus communis (designated RCA1). Limulus polyphemus lectin (LPA), with specificity for N-acetylneuraminic acid, did not influence the binding of HPA but enhanced the binding of DBA. About 80% of LPA receptors (N-acetylneuraminic acid) were removed from RBC surfaces by neuraminidase treatment. Neuraminidase treatment of RBCs resulted in increases of binding of both HPA and DBA, but through different mechanisms. An equal number (7.6 X 10(5) of new HPA sites were generated on genotypes AO and OO RBCs by neuraminidase treatment, and these new sites accounted for the enhancement (AO cells) and appearance (OO cells) of hemagglutinability by HPA. Neuraminidase treatment did not generate new DBA sites, but increased the DBA affinity for the existing receptors; as a result, genotype AO cells increased their hemagglutinability by DBA, while OO cells remained unagglutinable. The use of RBCs of different genotypes in binding assays with 3H-labeled lectins of known specificities provides an experimental system for studying cell-cell recognition and association.

  7. Lectin-like molecules in transcriptome of Littorina littorea hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Gorbushin, Alexander M; Borisova, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    The common periwinkle Littorina littorea was introduced in the list of models for comparative immunobiology as a representative of phylogenetically important taxon Caenogastropoda. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of Littorina littorea hemocytes from 182 million mRNA-Seq pair-end 100 bp reads into a total of 15,526 contigs clustered in 4472 unigenes. The transcriptome profile was analyzed for presence of carbohydrate-binding molecules in a variety of architectural contexts. Hemocytes' repertoire of lectin-like proteins bearing conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) is highly diversified, including 11 of 15 lectin families earlier described in animals, as well as the novel members of lectin family found for the first time in mollusc species. The new molluscan lineage-specific domain combinations were confirmed by cloning and sequencing, including the fuco-lectin related molecules (FLReMs) composed of N-terminal region with no sequence homology to any known protein, a middle Fucolectin Tachylectin-4 Pentaxrin (FTP) domain, and a C-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat region. The repertoire of lectin-like molecules is discussed in terms of their potential participation in the receptor phase of immune response. In total, immune-associated functions may be attributed to 70 transcripts belonging to 6 lectin families. These lectin-like genes show low overlap between species of invertebrates, suggesting relatively rapid evolution of immune-associated genes in the group. The repertoire provides valuable candidates for further characterization of the gene functions in mollusc immunity.

  8. Genome-wide identification and domain organization of lectin domains in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-11-01

    Lectins are ubiquitous proteins in plants and play important roles in a diverse set of biological processes, such as plant defense and cell signaling. Despite the availability of the Cucumis sativus L. genome sequence since 2009, little is known with respect to the occurrence of lectins in cucumber. In this study, a total of 146 putative lectin genes belonging to 10 different lectin families were identified and localized in the cucumber genome. Domain architecture analysis revealed that most of these lectin gene sequences contain multiple domains, where lectin domains are linked with other domains, as such creating chimeric lectin sequences encoding proteins with dual activities. This study provides an overview of lectin motifs in cucumber and will help to understand their potential biological role(s). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Conceição, Fabricio R; McBride, Alan J A; Pinto, Luciano da S

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  10. Structure Predictions of Two Bauhinia variegata Lectins Reveal Patterns of C-Terminal Properties in Single Chain Legume Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Gustavo M. S. G.; Conceição, Fabricio R.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Pinto, Luciano da S.

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and –II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins. PMID:24260572

  11. Probing the cons and pros of lectin-induced immunomodulation: case studies for the mistletoe lectin and galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Gabius, H J

    2001-07-01

    When imagining to monitor animal cells through a microscope with resolution at the molecular level, a salient attribute of their surfaces will be the abundance of glycan chains. They present galactosides at their termini widely extending like tentacles into the extracellular space. Their spatial accessibility and their potential for structural variability endow especially these glycan parts with capacity to act as docking points for molecular sensors (sugar receptors such as lectins). Binding and ligand clustering account for transmission of post-binding signals into the cell interior. The range of triggered activities has turned plant lectins into popular tools in cell biology and immunology. Potential for clinical application has been investigated rigorously only in recent years. As documented in vitro and in vivo for the galactoside-specific mistletoe lectin, its apparent immunomodulatory capacity reflected in upregulation of production of proinflammatory cytokines will not necessarily be clinically favorable but a double-edged sword. In fact, lectin application has been shown to stimulate tumor growth in cell lines, histocultures of human tumors and in two animal models using chemical carcinogenesis or tumor transplantation. When testing immunological effects of the endogenous lectin galectin-1, protection against disorders mediated by activated T cells came up for consideration. Elimination of these cells via CD7-dependent induction of apoptosis, and a shift to the Th2 response by the galectin, are factors to ameliorate disease states. This result encourages further efforts with other galectins. Functional redundancy, synergism, diversity or antagonism among galectins are being explored to understand the actual role of this class of endogenous lectins in inflammation. Regardless of the results of further preclinical testing for galectin-1, these two case studies break new ground in our understanding how glycans as ligands for lectins convey reactivity to

  12. The production and properties of an antiserum to potato (Solanum tuberosum) lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Ashford, D; Allen, A K; Neuberger, A

    1982-01-01

    Precipitation of potato (Solanum tuberosum) lectin by antisera was not affected by treatments that abolish lectin activity. An antiserum precipitated glycosylated derivatives of the lectin but not a deglycosylated peptide. The haemagglutination inhibition titre of this antiserum was not affected by removing anti-glycopeptide antibodies. This evidence suggests that the antiserum contains two populations of antibodies, specific for different domains of the lectin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6807287

  13. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  14. Molecular biology of seed storage proteins and lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, L.M.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The seeds of many plants contain abundant storage protein and lectin which have been the subject of biochemical investigations for over a hundred years. Because these proteins represent abundant gene products translated from abundant messages, they were among the first plant proteins to which the techniques of molecular biology were applied. Many of the proteins have now been purified and characterized and their amino acid sequences have been determined; some have been crystallized and their 3-dimensional structure is known. Studies of their biosynthesis, transport and accumulation in protein bodies have lead to a greater understanding of the dynamics of plant cell organelles. Seed storage proteins and lectins are encoded by small gene families whose members show considerable homology and appear to have been conserved in evolution. The expression of these genes is highly regulated in time (development) and space (tissue). The recent discovery that other plant organs synthesize lectins, or lectin-like proteins which are closely related to the seed lectins, has lent additional support to the search for a function for these intriguing proteins; this finding also indicates that different members of the gene family are expressed in different tissues. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  15. Prevalence of the F-type lectin domain.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Ritika; Khatri, Indu; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Ramya, T N C

    2015-08-01

    F-type lectins are fucolectins with characteristic fucose and calcium-binding sequence motifs and a unique lectin fold (the "F-type" fold). F-type lectins are phylogenetically widespread with selective distribution. Several eukaryotic F-type lectins have been biochemically and structurally characterized, and the F-type lectin domain (FLD) has also been studied in the bacterial proteins, Streptococcus mitis lectinolysin and Streptococcus pneumoniae SP2159. However, there is little knowledge about the extent of occurrence of FLDs and their domain organization, especially, in bacteria. We have now mined the extensive genomic sequence information available in the public databases with sensitive sequence search techniques in order to exhaustively survey prokaryotic and eukaryotic FLDs. We report 437 FLD sequence clusters (clustered at 80% sequence identity) from eukaryotic, eubacterial and viral proteins. Domain architectures are diverse but mostly conserved in closely related organisms, and domain organizations of bacterial FLD-containing proteins are very different from their eukaryotic counterparts, suggesting unique specialization of FLDs to suit different requirements. Several atypical phylogenetic associations hint at lateral transfer. Among eukaryotes, we observe an expansion of FLDs in terms of occurrence and domain organization diversity in the taxa Mollusca, Hemichordata and Branchiostomi, perhaps coinciding with greater emphasis on innate immune strategies in these organisms. The naturally occurring FLDs with diverse domain organizations that we have identified here will be useful for future studies aimed at creating designer molecular platforms for directing desired biological activities to fucosylated glycoconjugates in target niches.

  16. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Koosha, Mona; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Abolhasani, Mandan; Charedar, Soroor; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Methods: Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed) were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups). Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+) glucose, D (+) galactose, D (+) mannose, D (−) fructose, D (−) arabinose, L (−) fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin. Results: The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose. Conclusion: The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules) in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins. PMID:23785692

  17. Lectin histochemistry of palatine glands in the developing rat.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Zaki; Kitaura, Hideki; Honma, Shiho; Wakisaka, Satoshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the binding pattern of lectins, soybean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and succinylated WGA (sucWGA) in the developing rat palatine glands. In adult rats, heterogeneous lectin binding patterns were revealed between the anterior and posterior portions of palatine glands, as DBA, VVA, and WGA were bound more intensely and broadly in the posterior portion. SBA, PNA, and sucWGA showed far less reactivity in the anterior than in the posterior portion. At embryonic day 18 (E18), weak labeling was observed with UEA-I and WGA at the basal membrane of terminal buds, UEA-I and PNA labeled the epithelial cord, and there was no apparent binding for SBA, DBA, VVA, and sucWGA. At E20, after acinar lumenization, all lectins were detected at the acinar cell basal membranes. After birth, all lectins detectably labeled at the mucous cell apical membranes and progressively, with maturation, extended from the apical to basal portions of the cytoplasm. Apparent serous cells were observed around postnatal day 10 (PN10) and bound UEA-I. Lectins reached peak reactivity at PN21 and the binding patterns became identical to those of adults around PN28.

  18. Neuropilin-1 functions as a VEGFR2 co-receptor to guide developmental angiogenesis independent of ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Maria V; Hagan, Nellwyn; Tata, Aleksandra; Oh, Won-Jong; Lacoste, Baptiste; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Kopycinska, Justyna; Bischoff, Joyce; Wang, Jia-Huai; Gu, Chenghua

    2014-09-22

    During development, tissue repair, and tumor growth, most blood vessel networks are generated through angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of this process and currently both VEGF and its receptors, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and Neuropilin1 (NRP1), are targeted in therapeutic strategies for vascular disease and cancer. NRP1 is essential for vascular morphogenesis, but how NRP1 functions to guide vascular development has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we generated a mouse line harboring a point mutation in the endogenous Nrp1 locus that selectively abolishes VEGF-NRP1 binding (Nrp1(VEGF-)). Nrp1(VEGF-) mutants survive to adulthood with normal vasculature revealing that NRP1 functions independent of VEGF-NRP1 binding during developmental angiogenesis. Moreover, we found that Nrp1-deficient vessels have reduced VEGFR2 surface expression in vivo demonstrating that NRP1 regulates its co-receptor, VEGFR2. Given the resources invested in NRP1-targeted anti-angiogenesis therapies, our results will be integral for developing strategies to re-build vasculature in disease.

  19. Role of Wnt Co-receptor LRP6 in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinlu; Lu, Wenyan; Chen, Dongquan; Xu, Bo; Li, Yonghe

    2017-03-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) is an essential Wnt co-receptor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Although studies have shown an increased expression of LRP6 in several types of cancer, its function in tumor development and progression remains to be elucidated. We herein demonstrated that LRP6 expression is up-regulated in human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients and human TNBC cell lines, and that knockdown of LRP6 expression and treatment of recombinant Mesd protein (a specific inhibitor of LRP6) significantly decreased cell migration and invasion of TNBC MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells. Interestingly, the effects of LRP6 knockdown and Mesd treatment on TNBC cell migration and invasion were more prominent than on TNBC cell proliferation/viability. Mechanistically, LRP6 knockdown and Mesd treatment inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling and decreased the expression of S100A4, a mediator of cancer metastasis and a specific target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, in TNBC cells. Together, our data suggest that LRP6 promotes TNBC cell migration and invasion by regulating the expression and function of S100A4 via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of cervical cancer stem cell-like cells: phenotyping, stemness, and human papilloma virus co-receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Santiago-López, Luz; Cruz-Domínguez, Verónica B; Toledo-Guzmán, Mariel E; Hernández-Cueto, Daniel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Garrido, Efraín; Cantú De León, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2016-05-31

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) exhibit high tumorigenic capacity in several tumor models. We have now determined an extended phenotype for cervical cancer stem cells. Our results showed increased CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ expression in these cells, together with higher Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDHbright)activity in Cervical CSC (CCSC) enriched in cervospheres. An increase in stem cell markers, represented by OCT-4, Nanog, and β-catenin proteins, was also observed, indicating that under our culture conditions, CCSC are enriched in cervospheres, as compared to monolayer cultures. In addition, we were able to show that an increased ALDHbright activity correlated with higher tumorigenic activity. Flow cytometry and immunflorescence assays demonstrated that CCSC in cervosphere cultures contain a sub-population of cells that contain Annexin II, a Human papillomavirus (HPV) co-receptor. Taken together, under our conditions there is an increase in the number of CCSC in cervosphere cultures which exhibit the following phenotype: CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ and high ALDH activity, which in turn correlates with higher tumorigenicity. The presence of Annexin II and CD49f in CCSC opens the possibility that normal cervical stem cells could be the initial target of infection by high risk HPV.

  1. First report of a healthy Indian heterozygous for delta 32 mutant of HIV-1 co-receptor-CCR5 gene.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Goila, R; Shahi, S; Banerjea, A

    1998-01-30

    The beta-chemokine receptor, CCR5, is a major co-receptor for macrophage tropic non-syncytia-inducing isolates of HIV-1. Recently a 32 bp homozygous deletion in the coding region of CCR5 has been reported in a very small percentage (< 1%) of Caucasian individuals who remain uninfected, despite multiple exposure to the wild-type virus. This mutant allele in the heterozygous form (CCR5/32 ccr5) was readily detected in a normal unrelated Caucasian population of European heritage with varying frequencies (13-20%). However, when a large number of the non-Caucasian population (261 Africans and 423 Asians) were screened for the presence of this deleted allele, not a single case of either homozygous or heterozygous mutant for delta 32 allele of CCR5 was detected. We screened 100 normal individuals and found a single heterozygous case with an identical 32 bp deletion in CCR5 gene reported earlier, the rest possessed wild-type alleles. This deleted gene was inherited in Mendelian fashion among the family members of this individual. Thus, the frequency of this deleted allele in India among unrelated normal individuals is likely to be very low (< 1%). We observed a moderate transdominant effect of this mutant allele in a fusion assay. Finally, we show a significant inhibition of fusion of cell membranes when the 176-bp region of CCR5 was used as an antisense.

  2. Characterization of cervical cancer stem cell-like cells: phenotyping, stemness, and human papilloma virus co-receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Santiago-López, Luz; Cruz-Domínguez, Verónica B.; Toledo-Guzmán, Mariel E.; Hernández-Cueto, Daniel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Garrido, Efraín; De León, David Cantú; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) exhibit high tumorigenic capacity in several tumor models. We have now determined an extended phenotype for cervical cancer stem cells. Our results showed increased CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ expression in these cells, together with higher Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDHbright)activity in Cervical CSC (CCSC) enriched in cervospheres. An increase in stem cell markers, represented by OCT-4, Nanog, and β-catenin proteins, was also observed, indicating that under our culture conditions, CCSC are enriched in cervospheres, as compared to monolayer cultures. In addition, we were able to show that an increased ALDHbright activity correlated with higher tumorigenic activity. Flow cytometry and immunflorescence assays demonstrated that CCSC in cervosphere cultures contain a sub-population of cells that contain Annexin II, a Human papillomavirus (HPV) co-receptor. Taken together, under our conditions there is an increase in the number of CCSC in cervosphere cultures which exhibit the following phenotype: CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ and high ALDH activity, which in turn correlates with higher tumorigenicity. The presence of Annexin II and CD49f in CCSC opens the possibility that normal cervical stem cells could be the initial target of infection by high risk HPV. PMID:27008711

  3. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as chaperones and co-receptors for FERONIA receptor kinase signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Cheung, Alice Y; Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Liu, Ming-Che; Maman, Jacob; Luu, Emily J; Wu, Brendan W; Gates, Laura; Jalal, Methun; Kwong, Amy; Carpenter, Hunter; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this interaction is pivotal for FER function. LLG1 interacts with FER in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, and loss of LLG1 function induces cytoplasmic retention of FER, consistent with transport of FER from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a complex with LLG1. We further demonstrate that LLG1 is a component of the FER-regulated RHO GTPase signaling complex and that fer and llg1 mutants display indistinguishable growth, developmental and signaling phenotypes, analogous to how lre and fer share similar reproductive defects. Together our results support LLG1/LRE acting as a chaperone and co-receptor for FER and elucidate a mechanism by which GPI-APs enable the signaling capacity of a cell surface receptor. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06587.001 PMID:26052747

  4. The Wnt Co-Receptor Lrp5 Is Required for Cranial Neural Crest Cell Migration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Bernd; Tao, Shijie; Yu, Tingsheng; Huysseune, Ann; Witten, Paul Eckhard; Winkler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    During vertebrate neurulation, cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), delaminate from the neural plate border, and migrate as separate streams into different cranial regions. There, they differentiate into distinct parts of the craniofacial skeleton. Canonical Wnt signaling has been shown to be essential for this process at different levels but the involved receptors remained unclear. Here we show that the frizzled co-receptor low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) plays a crucial role in CNCC migration and morphogenesis of the cranial skeleton. Early during induction and migration of CNCCs, lrp5 is expressed ubiquitously but later gets restricted to CNCC derivatives in the ventral head region besides different regions in the CNS. A knock-down of lrp5 does not interfere with induction of CNCCs but leads to reduced proliferation of premigratory CNCCs. In addition, cell migration is disrupted as CNCCs are found in clusters at ectopic positions in the dorsomedial neuroepithelium after lrp5 knock-down and transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. These migratory defects consequently result in malformations of the craniofacial skeleton. To date, Lrp5 has mainly been associated with bone homeostasis in mammals. Here we show that in zebrafish, lrp5 also controls cell migration during early morphogenetic processes and contributes to shaping the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:26121341

  5. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as chaperones and co-receptors for FERONIA receptor kinase signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Cheung, Alice Y; Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Liu, Ming-Che; Maman, Jacob; Luu, Emily J; Wu, Brendan W; Gates, Laura; Jalal, Methun; Kwong, Amy; Carpenter, Hunter; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2015-06-08

    The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this interaction is pivotal for FER function. LLG1 interacts with FER in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, and loss of LLG1 function induces cytoplasmic retention of FER, consistent with transport of FER from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a complex with LLG1. We further demonstrate that LLG1 is a component of the FER-regulated RHO GTPase signaling complex and that fer and llg1 mutants display indistinguishable growth, developmental and signaling phenotypes, analogous to how lre and fer share similar reproductive defects. Together our results support LLG1/LRE acting as a chaperone and co-receptor for FER and elucidate a mechanism by which GPI-APs enable the signaling capacity of a cell surface receptor.

  6. Recombinant lectins: an array of tailor-made glycan-interaction biosynthetic tools.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2013-03-01

    Lectins are a heterogeneous group of proteins found in plants, animals and microorganisms, which possess at least one non-catalytic domain that binds reversibly to specific mono- or oligosaccharides. The range of lectins and respective biological activities is unsurprising given the immense diversity and complexity of glycan structures and the multiple modes of interaction with proteins. Recombinant DNA technology has been traditionally used for cloning and characterizing newly discovered lectins. It has also been employed as a means of producing pure and sequence-defined lectins for different biotechnological applications. This review focuses on the production of recombinant lectins in heterologous organisms, and highlighting the Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris expression systems, which are the most employed. The choice of expression host depends on the lectin. Non-glycosylated recombinant lectins are produced in E. coli and post-translational modified recombinant lectins are produced in eukaryotic organisms, namely P. pastoris and non-microbial hosts such as mammalian cells. Emphasis is given to the applications of the recombinant lectins especially (a) in cancer diagnosis and/or therapeutics, (b) as anti-microbial, anti-viral, and anti-insect molecules or (c) in microarrays for glycome profiling. Most reported applications are from recombinant plant lectins. These applications benefit from the tailor-made design associated with recombinant production and will aid in unraveling the complex biological mechanisms of glycan-interactions, bringing recombinant lectins to the forefront of glycobiology. In conclusion, recombinant lectins are developing into valuable biosynthetic tools for biomedical research.

  7. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    The olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the Corriedale sheep were examined using lectin histochemistry in order to clarify the histochemical and glycohistochemical differences between these two tissues. The olfactory epithelium was stained with 13 lectins out of 21 lectins examined, while the respiratory epithelium was positive to 16 lectins. The free border of both of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia was stained with 12 lectins: Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120), Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). The associated glands of the olfactory mucosa, Bowman's glands, were stained with 13 lectins. While both the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands were stained with 8 lectins; five of them (WGA, s-WGA, STL, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) and ECL) were mutually positive among the Bowman's glands, mucous nasal glands and the goblet cells. These findings indicate that the glycohistochemical characteristics of the free borders of both olfactory and respiratory epithelia are similar to each other, suggesting that secretions from the Bowman's glands and those of the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands are partially exchanged between the surface of two epithelia to contribute the functions of the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory receptor cells, respectively.

  8. Studies on lectins. XLIX. The use of glycosyl derivatives of Dextran T-500 for affinity electrophoresis of lectins.

    PubMed

    Cerovský, V; Tichá, M; Horejsi, V; Kocourek, J

    1980-09-01

    p-Aminophenyl glycosides and glycosylamines were coupled to periodate oxidized Dextran T-500 either directly or through an epsilon-aminocaproic acid spacer. The new glycosylated derivatives of dextran specifically precipitate lectins having the appropriate carbohydrate specificity, and thus were used in the preparation of affinity gels for affinity electrophoresis of lectins. The apparent strength of interaction of several lectins with carbohydrate residues immobilized in this way was less than with carbohydrates immobilized in O-glycosyl polyacrylamide copolymers. The presence of epsilon-aminocaproic spacer had no effect on the strength of interaction. The advantages of this type of macromolecular derivative of the ligand for affinity electrophoresis and some differences between the glycosylated dextrans and O-glycosyl polyacrylamide copolymers are discussed. Dextrans containing bound p-aminophenyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside and p-aminophenyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside were used to study the binding properties of concanavalin A and the lectin from Lathyrus sativus seeds. For the investigation of interaction of lectins from Ricinus communis and Glycine soja seeds, dextran derivatives containing bound p-aminophenyl alpha- and beta-D-galactopyranosides and alpha- and beta-D-galactopyranosylamines were used.

  9. Marine sponge lectins: actual status on properties and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Gomes Filho, Sandro Mascena; Cardoso, Juscélio Donizete; Anaya, Katya; Silva do Nascimento, Edilza; de Lacerda, José Thalles Jucelino Gomes; Mioso, Roberto; Santi Gadelha, Tatiane; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto

    2014-12-26

    Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  10. Symbiotic Bacteria Direct Expression of an Intestinal Bactericidal Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Heather L.; Whitham, Cecilia V.; Behrendt, Cassie L.; Hooper, Lora V.

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian intestine harbors complex societies of beneficial bacteria that are maintained in the lumen with minimal penetration of mucosal surfaces. Microbial colonization of germ-free mice triggers epithelial expression of RegIIIγ, a secreted C-type lectin. RegIIIγ binds intestinal bacteria but lacks the complement recruitment domains present in other microbe-binding mammalian C-type lectins. We show that RegIIIγ and its human counterpart, HIP/PAP, are directly antimicrobial proteins that bind their bacterial targets via interactions with peptidoglycan carbohydrate. We propose that these proteins represent an evolutionarily primitive form of lectin-mediated innate immunity, and that they reveal intestinal strategies for maintaining symbiotic host-microbial relationships. PMID:16931762

  11. Isolation and biochemical characterization of Apios tuber lectin.

    PubMed

    Kenmochi, Eri; Kabir, Syed Rashel; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Naude, Ryno; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Muramoto, Koji

    2015-01-09

    Apios tuber lectin, named ATL, was isolated from Apios americana Medikus by two chromatography steps, hydrophobic chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The minimum concentration required for the hemagglutination activity toward rabbit erythrocytes of ATL was 4 μg/mL. ATL was composed of a homodimer of 28.4 kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of ATL was similar to those of other legume lectins. The lectin showed moderate stability toward heating and acidic pH, and the binding affinity against several monosaccharides, such as D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine. ATL also bound to desialylated or agalactosylated glycoproteins such as asialo and agalacto transferrin. ATL decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, suggesting the effect on the tight junction-mediated paracellular transport.

  12. Parkia pendula lectin as histochemistry marker for meningothelial tumour.

    PubMed

    Beltrão, E I C; Medeiros, P L; Rodrigues, O G; Figueredo-Silva, J; Valença, M M; Coelho, L C B B; Carvalho, L B

    2003-01-01

    Lectins have been intensively used in histochemical techniques for cell surface characterization. These proteins are involved in several biological processes and their use as histochemical markers have been evaluated since they can indicate differences in cell surfaces. Parkia pendula lectin (PpeL) was evaluated as histochemical marker for meningothelial meningioma biopsies. Tissue slices were incubated with PpeL conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (PpeL-HRP) and Concanavalin A-HRP (ConA-HPR) and the binding visualized with diaminobenzidine and hydrogen peroxide. The lectin-tissue binding was inhibited with D-glucose. PpeL showed to be a useful tool for the characterization of meningothelial tumour and clinico-pathological diagnosis.

  13. Systematic donor blood qualification by flow cytometry would have been able to avoid CLL-type MBL transmission after unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Christophe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Collonge-Rame, Marie Agnès; Larosa, Fabrice; Blanc, Michel; Behar, Catherine; Giannoli, Catherine; Garnier, Frédérico; Tiberghien, Pierre; Deconinck, Eric; Rohrlich, Pierre Simon

    2012-03-01

    The current screening for eligibility of unrelated volunteer marrow donors comprises a complete clinical check-up, a blood CBC and serum protein immunoelectrophoresis. This allows to eliminate acute leukemias, myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders, myelomas and MGUS. To date, the risk of transmission of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) disease is only evaluated by the clinical evaluation and CBC. We report here the case of a CLL-type MBL disease occurring in a 12-year-old boy after unrelated BMT. Deep biological investigations, as Immunophenotyping, cytogenetic and molecular biology allow us to determine the donor origin of the CLL clone. In 2010, 14.2% donor (105/737) for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were over 45y. It is currently estimated (USA) that 1 in 210 men and women will be diagnosed with CLL during their lifetime. Given the long asymptomatic phase of CLL, this raises the case for a detection strategy analog to that used for MGUS and myeloma through serum protein electrophoresis. This case-report, to our knowledge, of a CLL-type MBL unrelated donor-to-recipient transmission through BMT raises ethical and practical questions, such as the proper information about disease transmission risk. The cost-effectiveness of a systematic peripheral blood Immunophenotyping in donors elder than 40y at time of stem cell donation should be evaluated.

  14. Purification of a thermostable antinociceptive lectin isolated from Andira anthelmia.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Nascimento, Francisco Lucas Faustino do; Silva, Mayara Torquato Lima; Nobre, Camila Bezerra; Moreira, Cleane Gomes; Brizeno, Luiz André Cavalcante; da Ponte, Edson Lopes; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2016-06-01

    Andira anthelmia (tribe Dalbergieae), a plant from Brazilian Amazon, possesses a seed lectin that was purified by affinity chromatography in sepharose-mannose. This novel Dalbergieae lectin, named AAL, agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes treated with trypsin. The hemagglutinating activity of AAL was maintained after incubation at a wide range of temperature (40 to 70 °C) and pH, was shown to be dependent on divalent cations, and was inhibited by d-mannose and d-sucrose. AAL showed an electrophoretic profile in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis similar to other lectins of the tribe Dalbergieae, presenting a double band of molecular weight with approximately 20 kDa and other minor bands of 17, 15, and 13 kDa, being the smaller fragment glycosylated. AAL injected by intravenous route in mice showed antinociceptive activity in two behavioral tests (writhing and formalin). In the writhing test induced by acetic acid, AAL showed inhibitory effect at 0.01 mg/kg (68%), 0.1 mg/kg (46%) and 1 mg/kg (74%). In the formalin test, AAL (0.1 mg/kg) inhibited by 48% the licking time in the inflammatory phase, an effect that was recovered by the lectin association with mannose. In conclusion, AAL presents analgesic effect involving the lectin domain via peripheral mechanisms of inflammatory nociception. This activity highlights the importance of lectins as tools to be used for understanding the interaction of protein-carbohydrate in processes associated to inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Lectin histochemical studies on the vomeronasal organ of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ of sheep was examined using lectin histochemistry in order to compare the types and amounts of the glycoconjugates among various components of the vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia. In the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) stained particular cells, located at the same level as the vomeronasal receptor cells, while the distribution, shape and number of the stained cells did not correspond to those of the vomeronasal receptor cells. Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L) labeled the basal cells of both vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia. While, Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL) and Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120) labeled the basal cells of the sensory epithelium, and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I) stained the basal cells of the non-sensory epithelium, respectively. Seventeen lectins labeled the free border of both vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia, while Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), Jacalin and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA) labeled neither free border of the sensory nor that of non-sensory epithelia. The expression pattern of glycoconjugate was similar, but not identical, in the free border between the sensory and non-sensory epithelia. These results indicate that there are dissimilar features in the type and amount of glycoconjugates between the vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia, and at the same time, among the various cell types either in the vomeronasal sensory or non-sensory epithelium.

  16. Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Angeli, Renata; da Paz, Nathalia V. N.; Maciel, Jackeline C.; Araújo, Flávia F. B.; Paiva, Patrícia M. G.; Calazans, Glícia M. T.; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fábio C. L.; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Carvalho, Luiz B.; Silva, Maria da Paz C.; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

    2009-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1, 4) did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column. PMID:19547713

  17. Soluble Host Defense Lectins in Innate Immunity to Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wy Ching; Tate, Michelle D.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Reading, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    Host defenses against viral infections depend on a complex interplay of innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) components. In the early stages of infection, innate mechanisms represent the main line of host defense, acting to limit the spread of virus in host tissues prior to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Serum and lung fluids contain a range of lectins capable of recognizing and destroying influenza A viruses (IAV). Herein, we review the mechanisms by which soluble endogenous lectins mediate anti-IAV activity, including their role in modulating IAV-induced inflammation and disease and their potential as prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatments during severe IAV-induced disease. PMID:22665991

  18. Lectin binding to olfactory system in a shark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, V; Ciani, F

    1993-01-01

    Lectin histochemical studies were performed on the olfactory system of Scyliorhinus canicula to identify specific glycoconjugates on the cell surface of primary olfactory neurons. The olfactory receptor cells, the olfactory nerve fibers and their terminals in the bulbs were labelled with SBA, BSA-I and BSA-I-B4. The lectin staining patterns indicate that the membranes of small-spotted catshark olfactory neurons had glycoproteins with alpha-galactose residues. This carbohydrate moiety could be related to modulation of the cell-cell interactions in the olfactory system.

  19. Ribosome-inactivating lectins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Battelli, M G; Barbieri, L; Bolognesi, A; Buonamici, L; Valbonesi, P; Polito, L; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Stirpe, F

    1997-05-26

    Lectins from Aegopodium podagraria (APA), Bryonia dioica (BDA), Galanthus nivalis (GNA), Iris hybrid (IRA) and Sambucus nigra (SNAI), and a new lectin-related protein from Sambucus nigra (SNLRP) were studied to ascertain whether they had the properties of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP). IRA and SNLRP inhibited protein synthesis by a cell-free system and, at much higher concentrations, by cells and had polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity, thus behaving like non-toxic type 2 (two chain) RIP. APA and SNAI had much less activity, and BDA and GNA did not inhibit protein synthesis.

  20. Structural and functional similarities of breadfruit seed lectin and jacalin.

    PubMed

    Pineau, N; Pousset, J L; Preud'Homme, J L; Aucouturier, P

    1990-03-01

    Aquous extracts from seeds of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) were compared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two bands of the same size (12 and 15 kD) as the jacalin subunits were the major components in breadfruit seed extract. They strongly reacted with anti-jacalin antibodies by western blotting. The breadfruit lectin displayed the same IgAl and IgD precipitation specificity as jacalin in gel double diffusion experiments. It also stimulated in vitro proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results suggest that lectins from both species of Artocarpus are very similar.

  1. Interplay between metal binding and cis/trans isomerization in legume lectins: structural and thermodynamic study of P. angolensis lectin.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Buts, Lieven; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2006-08-04

    The interplay between metal binding, carbohydrate binding activity, stability and structure of the lectin from Pterocarpus angolensis was investigated. Removal of the metals leads to a more flexible form of the protein with significantly less conformational stability. Crystal structures of this metal-free form show significant structural rearrangements, although some structural features that allow the binding of sugars are retained. We propose that substitution of an asparagine residue at the start of the C-terminal beta-strand of the legume lectin monomer hinders the trans-isomerization of the cis-peptide bond upon demetallization and constitutes an intramolecular switch governing the isomer state of the non-proline bond and ultimately the lectin phenotype.

  2. Effects of HIV-1 Nef on virus co-receptor expression and cytokine release in human bladder, laryngeal, and intestinal epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Maria Giovanna; Falzano, Loredana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Fiorentini, Carla; Giordani, Luciana; Viora, Marina

    2011-06-01

    HIV infections are mainly acquired by mucosal transmission, through oral, rectal, or genital mucosa. Epithelial cells (EC) are the first cells encountered by HIV during infection through sexual transmission and breastfeeding. EC express several receptors critical for both primary HIV infection and secondary transmission. The regulation of co-receptor expression correlates with changes in susceptibility to infection by HIV-1 strains with different tropism. Moreover, inflammatory responses at mucosal surfaces after HIV-1 transmission may influence disease outcome. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the accessory HIV-1 Nef protein on mucosal EC, using unstimulated or IFN-γ-stimulated HEp-2, T24, and Caco2 cell lines as models for homeostatic or inflamed mucosal tracts. We found that Nef significantly upregulated the expression of CXCR4 on the Caco-2 cell surface and the expression of galactosylceramide on the T24 cell surface. In addition, Nef significantly upregulated IL-6 production by T24 and Caco-2 cells, and TNF-α release by all three cell lines analyzed. Notably, Nef abrogated the IFN-γ-induced modulation of co-receptor expression and cytokine secretion. Our findings suggest that Nef differently regulates co-receptor expression and cytokine secretion at the epithelial level, depending on the anatomical derivation of the cells and the inflammatory status.

  3. Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6 overexpression confers protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced neurotoxicity and reduces tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luqi; Bahety, Priti; Ee, Pui Lai Rachel

    2015-08-01

    Emerging studies have suggested the involvement of dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin cascade in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, genetic variations in Wnt co-receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 6 causing reduced Wnt signaling has been linked to late-onset AD. Here, we hypothesized that overexpression of Wnt co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 would serve as an effective new approach in reducing neurotoxicity induced by oxidative stress and decreasing tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our results showed that overexpression of LRP5 and LRP6 in SH-SY5Y cells activates Wnt signaling and downstream proliferation genes, whereas knockdown of the co-receptors represses Wnt signaling and the transcription of proliferative markers. We further demonstrated that overexpression of LRP5 and LRP6 protects SH-SY5Y from cell death caused by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, inhibits GSK3β activity and subsequently reduces tau phosphorylation. Together, our findings suggest that rescuing LRP5/6-mediated Wnt signaling improves neuronal cell survival and reduces tau phosphorylation, which support the hypothesis that Wnt signaling might be an attractive therapeutic strategy for managing AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CD8 Co-receptor promotes susceptibility of CD8+ T cells to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated suppression

    PubMed Central

    Zloza, Andrew; Jagoda, Michael C.; Lyons, Gretchen E.; Graves, Michael C.; Kohlhapp, Frederick J.; O’Sullivan, Jeremy A.; Lacek, Andrew T.; Nishimura, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cell function depends on a finely orchestrated balance of activation/suppression signals. While the stimulatory role of the CD8 co-receptor and pleiotropic capabilities of TGF-β have been studied individually, the influence of CD8 co-receptor on TGF-β function in CD8+ T cells is unknown. Here, we show that while CD8 enhances T cell activation, it also enhances susceptibility to TGF-β-mediated immune suppression. Using Jurkat cells expressing a full-length, truncated or no αβCD8 molecule, we demonstrate that cells expressing full-length αβCD8 were highly susceptible, αβCD8-truncated cells were partially susceptible, and CD8-deficient cells were completely resistant to suppression by TGF-β. Additionally, we determined that inhibition of Lck rendered mouse CD8+ T cells highly resistant to TGF-β suppression. Resistance was not associated with TGF-β receptor expression but did correlate with decreased Smad3 and increased Smad7 levels. These findings highlight a previously unrecognized third role for CD8 co-receptor which appears to prepare activated CD8+ T cells for response to TGF-β. Based on the important role which TGF-β-mediated suppression plays in tumor immunology, these findings unveil necessary considerations in formulation of CD8+ T cell-related cancer immunotherapy strategies. PMID:21193909

  5. Crystal Structure of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type a in Complex With the Cell Surface Co-Receptor GT1b-Insight Into the Toxin-Neuron Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Stenmark, P.; Dupuy, J.; Inamura, A.; Kiso, M.; Stevens, R.C.

    2009-05-26

    Botulinum neurotoxins have a very high affinity and specificity for their target cells requiring two different co-receptors located on the neuronal cell surface. Different toxin serotypes have different protein receptors; yet, most share a common ganglioside co-receptor, GT1b. We determined the crystal structure of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain (residues 873-1297) alone and in complex with a GT1b analog at 1.7 A and 1.6 A, respectively. The ganglioside GT1b forms several key hydrogen bonds to conserved residues and binds in a shallow groove lined by Tryptophan 1266. GT1b binding does not induce any large structural changes in the toxin; therefore, it is unlikely that allosteric effects play a major role in the dual receptor recognition. Together with the previously published structures of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B in complex with its protein co-receptor, we can now generate a detailed model of botulinum neurotoxin's interaction with the neuronal cell surface. The two branches of the GT1b polysaccharide, together with the protein receptor site, impose strict geometric constraints on the mode of interaction with the membrane surface and strongly support a model where one end of the 100 A long translocation domain helix bundle swing into contact with the membrane, initiating the membrane anchoring event.

  6. Structures and binding specificity of galactose- and mannose-binding lectins from champedak: differences from jackfruit lectins

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Othman, Shatrah; Hashim, Onn H.; Cogdell, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Galactose-binding and mannose-binding lectins from the champedak fruit, which is native to South-east Asia, exhibit useful potential clinical applications. The specificity of the two lectins for their respective ligands allows the detection of potential cancer biomarkers and monitoring of the glycosylated state of proteins in human serum and/or urine. To fully understand and expand the use of these natural proteins, their complete sequences and crystal structures are presented here, together with details of sugar binding. PMID:24915077

  7. Lectin-binding sites in epithelial cells of the mouse prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Sakuda, Kentaro; Yoshida, Ayaka; Muragishi, Ryoki; Yoshinaga, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    The prostate is an exocrine gland in the male reproductive tract that secretes seminal fluids. To gain insight into the cytochemical properties of prostatic epithelial cells, the characteristics of glycoconjugates in mouse prostate sections were examined by lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Characteristic staining patterns were observed, depending on the type of lectins present in the epithelia. Luminal cells reacted specifically with mannose-binding lectins (Galanthus nivalis lectin, Hippeastrum hybrid lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin) and Maclura pomifera lectin in all lobes of the prostate. Luminal cells also expressed galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), and fucose residues in the lateral and ventral lobes. Basal cells expressed GlcNAc and fucose, and reacted with Datura stramonium lectin and Aleuria aurantia lectin in all lobes. These results indicate that in the mouse prostate, the selectivity of lectin-binding sites for distinct cell types and lobe-dependent staining may relate to cellular and regional differences in function. Furthermore, some lectins selectively bound to prostatic epithelial cells, indicating their potential use as markers for the histopathological evaluation of prostatic diseases, cancer diagnosis, or male infertility.

  8. Defining Binding Efficiency and Specificity of Auxins for SCFTIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA Co-receptor Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Structure–activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure–activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding. PMID:24313839

  9. Genetic predisposition of variants in TLR2 and its co-receptors to severe malaria in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Subhendu; Kar, Avishek; Tripathy, Sagnika; Mohapatra, Manoj K; Dhangadamajhi, Gunanidhi

    2016-02-01

    Although the role of TLRs signalling in malaria pathogenesis is well established, contribution of individual TLR to clinical outcome of malaria still remains inconclusive. Given the importance of TLR2 and its co-receptors in recognising distinct structural forms of key malaria toxins and mediating innate immune response, it is essential to delineate their genetic contribution. Variants in TLR1 (I602S) and TLR6 (P249S) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP methods, and TLR2 (I/D) was genotyped by PCR in 200 samples each from uncomplicated malaria (UM) and severe malaria (SM). Further, SM was categorised into its sub-clinical groups (CM and NCSM or SOD and MODS) and analysed. The results showed the PP genotype of TLR6 (P249S) to be significantly more common in UM (P < 0.0001), whereas the 'SS' genotype was the risk factor for SM including its sub-clinical categories. The TLR1 (602S) and TLR2 (D) variants were significantly high in patients with CM; however, negative LD was observed between TLR2 and TLR6 in NCSM and MODS. Haplotype analysis showed significantly high frequency of I-I-S haplotype in all forms of subclinical SM and was associated with low parasite load in SM (P = 0.013). The haplotypes I-D-S and S-I-P were significantly high in SOD and CM, respectively. The TLR6 '249S' variant appeared to be the dominant determinant for genetic predisposition to SM and that its association with either TLR2 'D' or TLR1 '602S' modulates for CM development. The present study opens up several new avenues for their exploration and validation in future studies in different global settings for malaria.

  10. MuSK is a BMP co-receptor that shapes BMP responses and calcium signaling in muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Atilgan; Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Ozdeslik, Rana N.; Schmiedel, Carolyn; Mentzer, Sarah; Schorl, Christoph; Oancea, Elena; Thompson, Thomas B.; Fallon, Justin R.

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) function in most tissues but have cell type-specific effects. Given the relatively small number of BMP receptors, this exquisite signaling specificity requires additional molecules to regulate this pathway’s output. The receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) is critical for neuromuscular junction formation and maintenance. Here, we show that MuSK also promotes BMP signaling in muscle cells. MuSK bound to BMP4 and related BMPs with low nanomolar affinity in vitro and to the type I BMP receptors ALK3 and ALK6 in a ligand-independent manner both in vitro and in cultured myotubes. High-affinity binding to BMPs required the third, alternatively spliced MuSK immunoglobulin-like domain. In myoblasts, endogenous MuSK promoted BMP4-dependent phosphorylation of SMADs and transcription of Id1, which encodes a transcription factor involved in muscle differentiation. Gene expression profiling showed that MuSK was required for the BMP4-induced expression of a subset of genes in myoblasts, including regulator of G protein signaling 4 (Rgs4). In myotubes, MuSK enhanced the BMP4-induced expression of a distinct set of genes, including transcripts characteristic of slow muscle. MuSK-mediated stimulation of BMP signaling required type I BMP receptor activity but was independent of MuSK tyrosine kinase activity. MuSK-dependent expression of Rgs4 resulted in the inhibition of Ca2+ signaling induced by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in myoblasts. These findings establish that MuSK has dual roles in muscle cells, acting both as a tyrosine kinase-dependent synaptic organizing molecule and as a BMP co-receptor that shapes BMP transcriptional output and cholinergic signaling. PMID:27601729

  11. MuSK is a BMP co-receptor that shapes BMP responses and calcium signaling in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Atilgan; Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Ozdeslik, Rana N; Schmiedel, Carolyn; Mentzer, Sarah; Schorl, Christoph; Oancea, Elena; Thompson, Thomas B; Fallon, Justin R

    2016-09-06

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) function in most tissues but have cell type-specific effects. Given the relatively small number of BMP receptors, this exquisite signaling specificity requires additional molecules to regulate this pathway's output. The receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) is critical for neuromuscular junction formation and maintenance. Here, we show that MuSK also promotes BMP signaling in muscle cells. MuSK bound to BMP4 and related BMPs with low nanomolar affinity in vitro and to the type I BMP receptors ALK3 and ALK6 in a ligand-independent manner both in vitro and in cultured myotubes. High-affinity binding to BMPs required the third, alternatively spliced MuSK immunoglobulin-like domain. In myoblasts, endogenous MuSK promoted BMP4-dependent phosphorylation of SMADs and transcription of Id1, which encodes a transcription factor involved in muscle differentiation. Gene expression profiling showed that MuSK was required for the BMP4-induced expression of a subset of genes in myoblasts, including regulator of G protein signaling 4 (Rgs4). In myotubes, MuSK enhanced the BMP4-induced expression of a distinct set of genes, including transcripts characteristic of slow muscle. MuSK-mediated stimulation of BMP signaling required type I BMP receptor activity but was independent of MuSK tyrosine kinase activity. MuSK-dependent expression of Rgs4 resulted in the inhibition of Ca(2+) signaling induced by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in myoblasts. These findings establish that MuSK has dual roles in muscle cells, acting both as a tyrosine kinase-dependent synaptic organizing molecule and as a BMP co-receptor that shapes BMP transcriptional output and cholinergic signaling. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Deletion of the Bombyx mori odorant receptor co-receptor (BmOrco) impairs olfactory sensitivity in silkworms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qun; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Baosheng; Wang, Guirong; Hao, Dejun; Huang, Yongping

    2017-07-01

    Olfaction plays an essential role in many important insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. To detect olfactory stimuli, an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) is required. In this study, we deleted the Orco gene in the Lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori, using a binary transgene-based clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. We initially generated somatic mutations in two targeted sites, from which we obtained homozygous mutants with deletion of a 866 base pair sequence. Because of the flight inability of B. mori, we developed a novel method to examine the adult mating behavior. Considering the specialization in larval feeding, we examined food selection behavior in Orco somatic mutants by the walking trail analysis of silkworm position over time. Single sensillum recordings indicated that the antenna of the homozygous mutant was unable to respond to either of the two sex pheromones, bombykol or bombykal. An adult mating behavior assay revealed that the Orco mutant displayed a significantly impaired mating selection behavior in response to natural pheromone released by a wild-type female moth as well as an 11:1 mixture of bombykol/bombykal. The mutants also exhibited a decreased response to bombykol and, similar to wild-type moths, they displayed no response to bombykal. A larval feeding behavior assay revealed that the Orco mutant displayed defective selection for mulberry leaves and different concentrations of the volatile compound cis-jasmone found in mulberry leaves. Deletion of BmOrco severely disrupts the olfactory system, suggesting that BmOrco is indispensable in the olfactory pathway. The approach used for generating somatic and homozygous mutations also highlights a novel method for mutagenesis. This study on BmOrco function provides insights into the insect olfactory system and also provides a paradigm for agroforestry pest control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lectin coated MgO nanoparticle: its toxicity, antileishmanial activity, and macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Ali; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Kazemi, Bahram; Allaveisie, Azra; Masoudi, Alireza; Daliri, Karim; Sedighi, Najme; Ranjbari, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate toxicity of uncoated magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs), MgO NPs coated with Peanut agglutinin (PNA) lectin, and PNA alone on the promastigotes of Leishmania major (L. major) and macrophages of BALB/c mice. On the other hand, antileishmanial property of uncoated MgO NPs, lectin coated MgO NPs, and PNA lectin alone was evaluated, and also macrophage activation was investigated after treatment with these materials by measurement of nitrite, H2O2, and some interleukins. This study showed that PNA lectin and lectin coated MgO NPs had approximately no toxicity on L. major and macrophages, but some toxic effects were observed for uncoated MgO NPs, especially at concentration of 500 µg/mL. Interestingly, lectin coated MgO NPs had the highest antileishmanial activity and macrophage activation, compared with uncoated MgO NPs and PNA lectin.

  14. The use of lectin microarray for assessing glycosylation of therapeutic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycans or carbohydrates attached to therapeutic glycoproteins can directly affect product quality, safety and efficacy, and therefore must be adequately analyzed and controlled throughout product life cycles. However, the complexity of protein glycosylation poses a daunting analytical challenge. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a lectin microarray for assessing protein glycans. Using commercial lectin chips, which contain 45 lectins toward distinct glycan structures, we were able to determine the lectin binding patterns of a panel of 15 therapeutic proteins, including 8 monoclonal antibodies. Lectin binding signals were analyzed to generate glycan profiles that were generally consistent with the known glycan patterns for these glycoproteins. In particular, the lectin-based microarray was found to be highly sensitive to variations in the terminal carbohydrate structures such as galactose versus sialic acid epitopes. These data suggest that lectin microarray could be used for screening glycan patterns of therapeutic glycoproteins. PMID:26918373

  15. The use of lectin microarray for assessing glycosylation of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    Glycans or carbohydrates attached to therapeutic glycoproteins can directly affect product quality, safety and efficacy, and therefore must be adequately analyzed and controlled throughout product life cycles. However, the complexity of protein glycosylation poses a daunting analytical challenge. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a lectin microarray for assessing protein glycans. Using commercial lectin chips, which contain 45 lectins toward distinct glycan structures, we were able to determine the lectin binding patterns of a panel of 15 therapeutic proteins, including 8 monoclonal antibodies. Lectin binding signals were analyzed to generate glycan profiles that were generally consistent with the known glycan patterns for these glycoproteins. In particular, the lectin-based microarray was found to be highly sensitive to variations in the terminal carbohydrate structures such as galactose versus sialic acid epitopes. These data suggest that lectin microarray could be used for screening glycan patterns of therapeutic glycoproteins.

  16. Purification and characterization of a new type lactose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Konami, Y; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T

    1991-02-01

    A new type lactose-binding lectin was purified from extracts of Ulex europaeus seeds by affinity chromatography on a column of galactose-Sepharose 4B, followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. This lectin, designated as Ulex europaeus lectin III (UEA-III), was found to be inhibited by lactose. The dimeric lectin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 70,000 Da; it consists of two apparently identical subunits of a molecular mass of 34,000 Da. Compositional analysis showed that this lectin contains 30% carbohydrate and a large amount of aspartic acid, serine and valine, but no sulfur-containing amino acids. The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of L-fucose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin I (UEA-I) and di-N-acetylchitobiose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin II (UEA-II), both of which we have already purified and characterized, and that of UEA-III were determined and compared.

  17. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  18. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-05-14

    To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. Lectin microarray can differentiate the different glycopatterns in gastric cancer and

  19. Stimulation of vascular cell proliferation by beta-galactoside specific lectins.

    PubMed

    Sanford, G L; Harris-Hooker, S

    1990-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the effects of various beta-galactoside specific lectins on the growth of vascular cells in vitro. The plant lectins from peanut (Arachis hypogaea), mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), and coral tree (Erythrina corallodendron) were used in these studies with the ultimate purpose of comparing those findings with data derived with the lectin isolated from rat lung. Peanut lectin was added to confluent and subconfluent cultures of smooth muscle cells (SMC), pulmonary arterial (PEC), and aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) at concentrations of 2, 3.5, and 7.0 micrograms/ml. There was a dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation for both confluent and subconfluent SMC, with maximal stimulation noted between 3.5 and 7 micrograms/ml of peanut lectin. A dose-dependent stimulation of PEC proliferation was also found with maximal stimulation between 3.5 and 7.0 micrograms/ml. Peanut lectin did not stimulate BAEC to multiply. The stimulation of PEC and SMC by peanut lectin could be prevented by the addition of 50 mM lactose. Peanut and mushroom lectin stimulated the proliferation of sparse cultures of SMC in a dose-dependent fashion in both standard (10% fetal bovine serum, or FBS) or low (0.5% FBS) serum to about the same degree. Coral tree lectin did not have a significant stimulation of proliferation under either serum conditions. The incorporation of [3H]thymidine into the DNA of PEC was increased 30 and 150% by peanut lectin and lung galaptin, respectively, under standard serum conditions. However, under low serum conditions, both lectins increased incorporation by about the same extent (93 and 78% for peanut lectin and galaptin, respectively). Both lectins produced a 30% increase in DNA synthesis by SMC under standard serum conditions, and about a 200% increase under low serum conditions. These studies indicate that beta-galactoside specific lectins such as lung galaptin have mitogenic activity toward vascular cells.

  20. Molecular basis for peptidoglycan recognition by a bactericidal lectin.

    PubMed

    Lehotzky, Rebecca E; Partch, Carrie L; Mukherjee, Sohini; Cash, Heather L; Goldman, William E; Gardner, Kevin H; Hooper, Lora V

    2010-04-27

    RegIII proteins are secreted C-type lectins that kill Gram-positive bacteria and play a vital role in antimicrobial protection of the mammalian gut. RegIII proteins bind their bacterial targets via interactions with cell wall peptidoglycan but lack the canonical sequences that support calcium-dependent carbohydrate binding in other C-type lectins. Here, we use NMR spectroscopy to determine the molecular basis for peptidoglycan recognition by HIP/PAP, a human RegIII lectin. We show that HIP/PAP recognizes the peptidoglycan carbohydrate backbone in a calcium-independent manner via a conserved "EPN" motif that is critical for bacterial killing. While EPN sequences govern calcium-dependent carbohydrate recognition in other C-type lectins, the unusual location and calcium-independent functionality of the HIP/PAP EPN motif suggest that this sequence is a versatile functional module that can support both calcium-dependent and calcium-independent carbohydrate binding. Further, we show HIP/PAP binding affinity for carbohydrate ligands depends on carbohydrate chain length, supporting a binding model in which HIP/PAP molecules "bind and jump" along the extended polysaccharide chains of peptidoglycan, reducing dissociation rates and increasing binding affinity. We propose that dynamic recognition of highly clustered carbohydrate epitopes in native peptidoglycan is an essential mechanism governing high-affinity interactions between HIP/PAP and the bacterial cell wall.

  1. Molecular basis for peptidoglycan recognition by a bactericidal lectin

    PubMed Central

    Lehotzky, Rebecca E.; Partch, Carrie L.; Mukherjee, Sohini; Cash, Heather L.; Goldman, William E.; Gardner, Kevin H.; Hooper, Lora V.

    2010-01-01

    RegIII proteins are secreted C-type lectins that kill Gram-positive bacteria and play a vital role in antimicrobial protection of the mammalian gut. RegIII proteins bind their bacterial targets via interactions with cell wall peptidoglycan but lack the canonical sequences that support calcium-dependent carbohydrate binding in other C-type lectins. Here, we use NMR spectroscopy to determine the molecular basis for peptidoglycan recognition by HIP/PAP, a human RegIII lectin. We show that HIP/PAP recognizes the peptidoglycan carbohydrate backbone in a calcium-independent manner via a conserved “EPN” motif that is critical for bacterial killing. While EPN sequences govern calcium-dependent carbohydrate recognition in other C-type lectins, the unusual location and calcium-independent functionality of the HIP/PAP EPN motif suggest that this sequence is a versatile functional module that can support both calcium-dependent and calcium-independent carbohydrate binding. Further, we show HIP/PAP binding affinity for carbohydrate ligands depends on carbohydrate chain length, supporting a binding model in which HIP/PAP molecules “bind and jump” along the extended polysaccharide chains of peptidoglycan, reducing dissociation rates and increasing binding affinity. We propose that dynamic recognition of highly clustered carbohydrate epitopes in native peptidoglycan is an essential mechanism governing high-affinity interactions between HIP/PAP and the bacterial cell wall. PMID:20382864

  2. Architectures of Multivalent Glycomimetics for Probing Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, Martina

    Well-defined multivalent glycoconjugates are valued tools in glycoscience and they are particularly valuable for the investigation of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. In addition to the relatively globularly shaped glycodendrimers many other designs have been realized. This chapter gives an overview on the common different architectures and their chemical synthesis by focussing on the achievements made since 2001.

  3. Lectins: a primer for histochemists and cell biologists.

    PubMed

    Manning, Joachim C; Romero, Antonio; Habermann, Felix A; García Caballero, Gabriel; Kaltner, Herbert; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2017-02-01

    An experimental observation on selecting binding partners underlies the introduction of the term 'lectin'. Agglutination of erythrocytes depending on their blood-group status revealed the presence of activities in plant extracts that act in an epitope-specific manner like antibodies. As it turned out, their binding partners on the cell surface are carbohydrates of glycoconjugates. By definition, lectins are glycan-specific (mono- or oligosaccharides presented by glycoconjugates or polysaccharides) receptors, distinguished from antibodies, from enzymes using carbohydrates as substrates and from transporters of free saccharides. They are ubiquitous in Nature and structurally widely diversified. More than a dozen types of folding pattern have evolved for proteins that bind glycans. Used as tool, this capacity facilitates versatile mapping of glycan presence so that plant/fungal and also animal/human lectins have found a broad spectrum of biomedical applications. The functional pairing with physiological counterreceptors is involved in a wide range of cellular activities from cell adhesion, glycoconjugate trafficking to growth regulation and lets lectins act as sensors/effectors in host defense.

  4. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lectins As Targets for Novel Antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Grishin, A. V.; Krivozubov, M. S.; Karyagina, A. S.; Gintsburg, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most widespread and troublesome opportunistic pathogens that is capable of colonizing various human tissues and organs and is often resistant to many currently used antibiotics. This resistance is caused by different factors, including the acquisition of specific resistance genes, intrinsic capability to diminish antibiotic penetration into the bacterial cell, and the ability to form biofilms. This situation has prompted the development of novel compounds differing in their mechanism of action from traditional antibiotics that suppress the growth of microorganisms or directly kill bacteria. Instead, these new compounds should decrease the pathogens’ ability to colonize and damage human tissues by inhibiting the virulence factors and biofilm formation. The lectins LecA and LecB that bind galactose and fucose, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides containing these sugars, are among the most thoroughly-studied targets for such novel antibacterials. In this review, we summarize the results of experiments highlighting the importance of these proteins for P. aeruginosa pathogenicity and provide information on existing lectins inhibitors and their effectiveness in various experimental models. Particular attention is paid to the effects of lectins inhibition in animal models of infection and in clinical practice. We argue that lectins inhibition is a perspective approach to combating P. aeruginosa. However, despite the existence of highly effective in vitro inhibitors, further experiments are required in order to advance these inhibitors into pre-clinical studies. PMID:26085942

  5. Momordica charantia seed lectin: toxicity, bacterial agglutination and antitumor properties.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Nabi, Md Mahamodun; Nurujjaman, Md; Abu Reza, Md; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Uz Zaman, Rokon; Khalid-Bin-Ferdaus, Khandaker Md; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Md Masudul Hasan; Hossain, Md Anowar; Uddin, Md Salim; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat

    2015-03-01

    In last three decades, several studies were carried out on the D-galactose-specific lectin of Momordica charantia seeds (MCL). In the present study, in vitro growth inhibition (8-23 %) at different concentrations (6-24 μg/ml) of MCL was observed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MCL also showed 28, 45, and 75 % growth inhibitions against EAC cells when administered 1.2, 2.0, and 2.8 mg/kg/day (i.p.), respectively for five consequent days in vivo in mice. After lectin treatment, the level of red blood cell and hemoglobin was increased significantly with the decrease of white blood cell and maintained the normal level when compared with EAC-bearing control and normal mice without EAC cells. Although MCL caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of EAC cells, any irregular shape or apoptotic morphological alterations in the lectin-treated EAC cells was not observed by an optical and fluorescence microscope. Lectin showed toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with an LC50 value of 49.7 μg/ml. Four out of seven pathogenic bacteria were agglutinated by MCL in the absence of inhibitory sugar D-lactose/D-galactose. In conclusion, MCL showed strong cytotoxic effect and therefore can be used as a potent anticancer chemotherapeutic agent.

  6. Lectin Binding to Radopholus citrophilus and R. similis Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T; Gottwald, T R

    1992-06-01

    Lectin-binding glycoproteins in seven populations of two burrowing nematode sibling species were probed with five different biotinylated lectins on Western blots, and differences were correlated with nematode ability to parasitize citrus and to overcome citrus rootstock resistance. Banding patterns of molecular weight standards were fit best by an exponential decay function, and a predictive equation was used to estimate molecular weights (r(2) = 0.999). A band (131 kDa) that labeled with the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) occurred in extracts from cuticles and egg shells of populations of Radopholus citrophilus that parasitize citrus. Wheat germ agglutin labeled a band (58 kDa) in aqueous homogenates of populations that reproduce in roots of citrus rootstock normally resistant to burrowing nematodes. The two sibling species R. citrophilus and R. similis were distinguished by a high molecular weight Con A-labeled band (608 kDa) from cuticle and egg shells. Probing blots with the lectin Limulus polyphemus agglutinin indicated that each population contained a band (12-16 kDa) specifically inhibited by the addition of 25 mM neuraminic acid, suggesting that glycoproteins with sialic acid moieties are present in burrowing nematodes.

  7. [Purification of IgY against Salvia bogotensis lectin].

    PubMed

    Barroso, Paola; Murcia, Hansen; Vega, Nohora; Pérez, Gerardo

    2005-12-01

    Egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) have been extensively used in immunology, biochemistry, and biotechnology in studies of human and animal health. However, their use requires two preparatory steps: first, the egg yolk lipids must be removed without impairing the immunoglobin functional properties, and second, the isolation methods must allow high recoveries for further use as detection and purification tools. Because Tn antigen presence serves as a tumoral marker and because S. bogotensis lectin's can specifically recognize this antigen, the current study aims at making available an anti-lectin IgY. This tool will be useful in histochemical and cellular studies involving transformed cells. Anti-lectin IgY was produced by immunization of hens with S. bogotensis lectin, and the effect of antigen dose on IgY levels was assesed. Several methods for lipid removal, IgY extraction and purification were assayed, and yields and purity of IgYs were established for each method. The best delipidation and extraction method included yolk dilution with water under acidic conditions and (NH4)2SO4 60% s precipitation from which 43 mg protein/yolk were recovered. Among the chromatographic methods, thiophilic chromatography permitted the recovery of a substantial quantity of pure IgY (10.4 mg IgY/yolk). With this method, the function and characteristics of IgY were preserved. The best conditions for anti-S. bogotensis functional IgY extraction and purification were established.

  8. Peanut lectin-binding sites in large bowel carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cooper, H S

    1982-10-01

    Peanut lectin is known to bind to B-D-Gal-(1 leads to 3)-D-GalNac which provides antigenic determination for the T (TAg) blood group antigen. We examined 33 rectosigmoid carcinomas and 15 corresponding controls for their ability to express peanut lectin-binding sites. In controls one could localize TAg to the supranuclear portion of the cell, however, in cancers one noticed a cytostructural relocalization of TAg with the following two major patterns: localization to the region of the glycocalyx and localization intracytoplasmically in the apical portion of the cell. These two patterns were associated with glandular differentiation. Less frequently noted or in association with the above was a mucin glob-like pattern and/or a fine diffuse intracytoplasmic pattern associated with solid, nonglandular areas. The more poorly differentiated cancers less frequently expressed peanut lectin-binding sites. Benign (nontransitional zone) epithelium in those patients whose tumor expressed TAg was negative for peanut lectin-binding sites in 66 per cent of the cases. Reduced tumoral glycosyltransferases may explain this increased synthesis of TAg in cancers as compared with controls, if one considers TAg to be an incomplete glycoprotein of the MN blood group system.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of a highly thermostable lectin from Trichosanthes dioica and comparison with other Trichosanthes lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Dharkar, Poorva D.; Anuradha, P.; Gaikwad, Sushama M.; Suresh, C. G.

    2006-03-01

    A lectin from Trichosanthes dioica seeds has been purified and crystallized using 25%(w/v) PEG 2K MME, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 50 µl 0.5%(w/v) n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside as thick needles belonging to hexagonal space group P6{sub 4}. A lectin from Trichosanthes dioica seeds has been purified and crystallized using 25%(w/v) PEG 2K MME, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 50 µl 0.5%(w/v) n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside as thick needles belonging to hexagonal space group P6{sub 4}. Unit-cell parameters were a = b = 167.54, c = 77.42 Å. The crystals diffracted to a Bragg spacing of 2.8 Å. Both the structures of abrin-a and T. kirilowii lectin could be used as a model in structure determination using the molecular-replacement method; however, T. kirilowii lectin coordinates gave better values of reliability and correlation parameters. The thermal, chemical and pH stability of this lectin have also been studied. When heated, its haemagglutination activity remained unaffected up to 363 K. Other stability studies show that 4 M guanidinium hydrochloride (Gdn–HCl) initiates unfolding and that the protein is completely unfolded at 6 M Gdn–HCl. Treatment with urea resulted in a total loss of activity at higher concentrations of denaturant with no major structural changes. The protein remained stable over a wide pH range, from pH 6 to pH 12, except for partial unfolding at extremely alkaline pH. The role of disulfide bonds in the protein stability was found to be insignificant. Rayleigh light-scattering studies showed no molecular aggregation in any of the extreme treated conditions. The unusual stability of this lectin resembles that of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (type II RIPs), which is also supported by structure determination. The structural features observed in a preliminary electron-density map were compared with the other two available Trichosanthes lectin structures.

  10. Visualizing the dental biofilm matrix by means of fluorescence lectin-binding analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tawakoli, Pune N.; Neu, Thomas R.; Busck, Mette M.; Kuhlicke, Ute; Schramm, Andreas; Attin, Thomas; Wiedemeier, Daniel B.; Schlafer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix is a poorly studied, yet important component of dental biofilms. Fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) is a powerful tool to characterize glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. This study aimed to systematically investigate the ability of 75 fluorescently labeled lectins to visualize and quantify extracellular glycoconjugates in dental biofilms. Lectin binding was screened on pooled supragingival biofilm samples collected from 76 subjects using confocal microscopy. FLBA was then performed with 10 selected lectins on biofilms grown in situ for 48 h in the absence of sucrose. For five lectins that proved particularly suitable, stained biovolumes were quantified and correlated to the bacterial composition of the biofilms. Additionally, combinations of up to three differently labeled lectins were tested. Of the 10 lectins, five bound particularly well in 48-h-biofilms: Aleuria aurantia (AAL), Calystega sepiem (Calsepa), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA), Morniga-G (MNA-G) and Helix pomatia (HPA). No significant correlation between the binding of specific lectins and bacterial composition was found. Fluorescently labeled lectins enable the visualization of glycoconjugates in the dental biofilm matrix. The characterization and quantification of glycoconjugates in dental biofilms require a combination of several lectins. For 48-h-biofilms grown in absence of sucrose, AAL, Calsepa, HPA, LEA, and MNA-G are recommendable. PMID:28748044

  11. Isolation and partial characterization of a lectin from ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria) rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Peumans, W J; Nsimba-Lubaki, M; Peeters, B; Broekaert, W F

    1985-05-01

    A lectin has been isolated from rhizomes of ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria) using a combination of affinity chromatography on erythrocyte membrane proteins immobilized on cross-linked agarose and hydroxyapatite, and ion-exchange chromatography. The molecular structure of the lectin was determined by gelfiltration, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. It has an unusually high Mr (about 480000) and is most probably an octamer composed of two distinct types of subunits with slightly different Mr (about 60000). Hapten inhibition assays indicated that the Aegopodium lectin is preferentially inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine. Nevertheless, it does not agglutinate preferentially blood-group-A erythrocytes. The ground-elder lectin is a typical non-seed lectin, which occurs virtually exclusively in the underground rhizomes. In this organ it is an abundant protein as it represents up to 5% of the total protein content. The lectin content of the rhizome tissue varies strongly according to its particular location along the organ. In addition, the lectin content changes dramatically as a function of the seasons. The ground-elder lectin differs from all other plant lectins by its unusually high molecular weight. In addition, it is the first lectin to be isolated from a species of the family Apiaceae.

  12. Interactions of lectins with plasma membrane glycoproteins of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Nachbar, M S; Oppenheim, J D; Aull, F

    1976-02-06

    Several aspects of the interaction of various lectins with the surface of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells are described. The order of agglutinating activity for various lectins is Ricinus communis greater than wheat germ greater than or equal to concanavalin A greater than or equal to soybean greater than Limulus polyphemus. No agglutination was noted for Ulex europaeus. Using 125I-labeled lectins it was determined that there are 1.6 and 7 times as many Ricinus communis lectin binding sites for concanavalin A and soybean lectins. Sodium deoxycholate-solubilized plasma membrane material was subjected to lectin affinity chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The lectin receptors of the plasma membrane appeared to be heterogeneous and some qualitative differences could be discerned among the electrophoretically analyzed material, which bound to and was specifically eluted from the various lectin affinity columns. The characteristics of elution of bound material from individual lectin columns indicated secondary hydrophobic interactions between concanavalin A or wheat germ agglutinin and their respective lectin receptor molecules.

  13. Selective binding of lectins to normal and neoplastic urothelium in rat and mouse bladder carcinogenesis models.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Daša; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Romih, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer adjuvant intravesical therapy could be optimized by more selective targeting of neoplastic tissue via specific binding of lectins to plasma membrane carbohydrates. Our aim was to establish rat and mouse models of bladder carcinogenesis to investigate in vivo and ex vivo binding of selected lectins to the luminal surface of normal and neoplastic urothelium. Male rats and mice were treated with 0.05 % N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) in drinking water and used for ex vivo and in vivo lectin binding experiments. Urinary bladder samples were also used for paraffin embedding, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence labelling of uroplakins. During carcinogenesis, the structure of the urinary bladder luminal surface changed from microridges to microvilli and ropy ridges and the expression of urothelial-specific glycoproteins uroplakins was decreased. Ex vivo and in vivo lectin binding experiments gave comparable results. Jacalin (lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia) exhibited the highest selectivity for neoplastic compared to normal urothelium of rats and mice. The binding of lectin from Amaranthus caudatus decreased in rat model and increased in mouse carcinogenesis model, indicating interspecies variations of plasma membrane glycosylation. Lectin from Datura stramonium showed higher affinity for neoplastic urothelium compared to the normal in rat and mouse model. The BBN-induced animal models of bladder carcinogenesis offer a promising approach for lectin binding experiments and further lectin-mediated targeted drug delivery research. Moreover, in vivo lectin binding experiments are comparable to ex vivo experiments, which should be considered when planning and optimizing future research.

  14. Properties of Lectins in the Root and Seed of Lotononis bainesii1

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ian J.; Strijdom, Barend W.

    1984-01-01

    A lectin was purified from the root of Lotononis bainesii Baker by affinity chromatography on Sepharose-blood group substance A + H. The molecular weight of the lectin was estimated by gel filtration to be 118,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the lectin was a tetramer composed of two slightly different subunits with respective molecular weights of 32,000 and 35,000. The lectin had a hexose content of 12% (w/w) and contained the sugars fucose, glucosamine, mannose, and xylose. Root lectin hemagglutination was preferentially inhibited by disaccharides with terminal nonreducing galactose residues. Antigens capable of cross-reaction with root lectin antibody were not detected in the seed of L. bainesii. A lectin from the seed of L. bainesii was partially purified by adsorption to pronase-treated rabbit erythrocytes. The lectin preparation had a molecular weight of approximately 200,000. Galactose and galactono-1,4-lactone inhibited seed lectin hemagglutination but lactose was ineffective. There was no evidence that the root of L. bainesii contained material antigenically related to the seed lectin. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663508

  15. Microbial F-type lectin domains with affinity for blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sonal; Khairnar, Aasawari; Bishnoi, Ritika; Ramya, T N C

    2017-09-23

    F-type lectins are fucose binding lectins with characteristic fucose binding and calcium binding motifs. Although they occur with a selective distribution in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, most biochemical studies have focused on vertebrate F-type lectins. Recently, using sensitive bioinformatics search techniques on the non-redundant database, we had identified many microbial F-type lectin domains with diverse domain organizations. We report here the biochemical characterization of F-type lectin domains from Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001, Myxococcus hansupus and Leucothrix mucor. We demonstrate that while all these three microbial F-type lectin domains bind to the blood group H antigen epitope on fucosylated glycans, there are fine differences in their glycan binding specificity. Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001 F-type lectin domain binds exclusively to extended H type-2 motif, Myxococcus hansupus F-type lectin domain binds to B, H type-1 and Lewis(b) motifs, and Leucothrix mucor F-type lectin domain binds to a wide range of fucosylated glycans, including A, B, H and Lewis antigens. We believe that these microbial lectins will be useful additions to the glycobiologist's toolbox for labeling, isolating and visualizing glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic resistance pattern and evaluation of metallo-beta lactamase genes (VIM and IMP) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing MBL enzyme, isolated from patients with secondary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Shirani, Kiana; Ataei, Behrouz; Roshandel, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common causes of hospital-acquired secondary infections in hospitalized patients is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of IMP and VIM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (carbapenem resistant and producer MBL enzyme) in patients with secondary immunodeficiency. In a cross sectional study, 96 patients with secondary immunodeficiency hospitalized in the Al-Zahra hospital were selected. Carbapenem resistant strains isolated and modified Hodge test was performed in order to confirm the presence of the metallo carbapenemase enzyme. Under the standard conditions they were sent to the central laboratory for investigating nosocomial infection Multiplex PCR. Of 96 samples 28.1% were IMP positive, 5.2% VIM positive and 3.1% both VIM and IMP positive. The prevalence of multidrug resistance in the IMP and/or VIM negative samples was 29%, while all 5 VIM positive samples have had multidrug resistance. Also the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in IMP positive samples were 96.3% and in IMP and VIM positive samples were 100%. According to Fisher's test, the prevalence of multi-drug resistance based on gene expression has significant difference (P < 0.001). Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that, a significant percentage of patients with secondary immunodeficiency that suffer nosocomial infections with multidrug resistance, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are probably MBL-producing gene positive. Therefore the cause of infection should be considered in the hospital care system to identify their features, the presence of genes involved in the development of multi-drug resistance and antibiotic therapy.

  17. Antibiotic resistance pattern and evaluation of metallo-beta lactamase genes (VIM and IMP) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing MBL enzyme, isolated from patients with secondary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Kiana; Ataei, Behrouz; Roshandel, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most common causes of hospital-acquired secondary infections in hospitalized patients is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of IMP and VIM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (carbapenem resistant and producer MBL enzyme) in patients with secondary immunodeficiency. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 96 patients with secondary immunodeficiency hospitalized in the Al-Zahra hospital were selected. Carbapenem resistant strains isolated and modified Hodge test was performed in order to confirm the presence of the metallo carbapenemase enzyme. Under the standard conditions they were sent to the central laboratory for investigating nosocomial infection Multiplex PCR. Results: Of 96 samples 28.1% were IMP positive, 5.2% VIM positive and 3.1% both VIM and IMP positive. The prevalence of multidrug resistance in the IMP and/or VIM negative samples was 29%, while all 5 VIM positive samples have had multidrug resistance. Also the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in IMP positive samples were 96.3% and in IMP and VIM positive samples were 100%. According to Fisher’s test, the prevalence of multi-drug resistance based on gene expression has significant difference (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that, a significant percentage of patients with secondary immunodeficiency that suffer nosocomial infections with multidrug resistance, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are probably MBL-producing gene positive. Therefore the cause of infection should be considered in the hospital care system to identify their features, the presence of genes involved in the development of multi-drug resistance and antibiotic therapy. PMID:27563634

  18. In vivo effect of statins on the expression of the HIV co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    -term administration of statins at therapeutic doses, does not significantly affect the expression of HIV-1 co-receptors or of their ligands. In addition it is important to point out that based on the results obtained, therapeutic administration of statins in HIV-infected patients with lipid disorders is safe in terms of selecting X4 strains. PMID:23634877

  19. Disruption of the C. elegans Intestinal Brush Border by the Fungal Lectin CCL2 Phenocopies Dietary Lectin Toxicity in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Stutz, Katrin; Kaech, Andres; Aebi, Markus; Künzler, Markus; Hengartner, Michael O.

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin carbohydrate-binding proteins without enzymatic activity towards the bound carbohydrates. Many lectins of e.g. plants or fungi have been suggested to act as toxins to defend the host against predators and parasites. We have previously shown that the Coprinopsis cinerea lectin 2 (CCL2), which binds to α1,3-fucosylated N-glycan cores, is toxic to Caenorhabditis elegans and results in developmental delay and premature death. In this study, we investigated the underlying toxicity phenotype at the cellular level by electron and confocal microscopy. We found that CCL2 directly binds to the intestinal apical surface and leads to a highly damaged brush border with loss of microvilli, actin filament depolymerization, and invaginations of the intestinal apical plasma membrane through gaps in the terminal web. We excluded several possible toxicity mechanisms such as internalization and pore-formation, suggesting that CCL2 acts directly on intestinal apical plasma membrane or glycocalyx proteins. A genetic screen for C. elegans mutants resistant to CCL2 generated over a dozen new alleles in bre 1, ger 1, and fut 1, three genes required for the synthesis of the sugar moiety recognized by CCL2. CCL2-induced intestinal brush border defects in C. elegans are similar to the damage observed previously in rats after feeding the dietary lectins wheat germ agglutinin or concanavalin A. The evolutionary conserved reaction of the brush border between mammals and nematodes might allow C. elegans to be exploited as model organism for the study of dietary lectin-induced intestinal pathology in mammals. PMID:26057124

  20. Purification of the glycoprotein lectin from the broad bean (Vicia faba) and a comparison of its properties with lectins of similar specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, A K; Desai, N N; Neuberger, A

    1976-01-01

    1. The lectin from the broad bean (Vicia faba) was purified by affinity chromatography by using 3-O-methylglucosamine covalently attached through the amino group to CH-Sepharose (an omega-hexanoic acid derivative of agarose). Its composition and the nature of its subunits were compared with concanavalin A and the lectins from pea and lentil. 2. Unlike the other three lectins, broad-bean lectin is a glycoprotein; a glycopeptide containing glucosamine and mannose was isolated from a proteolytic digest. 3. The mol.wt. is about 47500; the glycoprotein consists of two apprently identical subunits, held together by non-covalent forces. Fragments of the subunits, similar to those found in concanavalin A and soya-bean agglutinin, were found in active preparations. 4. Broad-bean lectin was compared with concanavalin A and the lectins from pea and lentil in an investigation of the inhibition of their action by a number of monosaccharides, methyl ethers of monosaccharides, disaccharides and glycopeptides. The most striking differences concern 3-O-substituted monosaccharides, which are strong inhibitors of the action of broad-bean, pea and lentil lectins but not of the action of concanavalin A. There is, however, no strong inhibition of the action of these lectins by 3-Olinked disaccharides. PMID:938471

  1. Blocking of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum lectins by diverse mammalian milks.

    PubMed

    Zinger-Yosovich, K D; Iluz, D; Sudakevitz, D; Gilboa-Garber, N

    2010-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum morbid and mortal infections are initiated by bacterial adherence to host-cell receptors via their adhesins, including lectins (which also contribute to bacterial biofilm formation). Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a galactophilic lectin, PA-IL (LecA), and a fucophilic (Lewis-specific) lectin, PA-IIL (LecB), and C. violaceum produces a fucophilic (H-specific) lectin, CV-IIL. The antibiotic resistance of these bacteria prompted the search for glycosylated receptor-mimicking compounds that would function as glycodecoys for blocking lectin attachment to human cell receptors. Lectins PA-IL and PA-IIL have been shown to be useful for such glycodecoy probing, clearly differentiating between human and cow milks. This article describes their usage, together with CV-IIL and the plant lectin concanavalin A, for comparing the anti-lectin-dependent adhesion potential of diverse mammalian milks. The results show that the diverse milks differ in blocking (hemagglutination inhibition) and differential binding (Western blots) of these lectins. Human milk most strongly inhibited the 3 bacterial lectins (with PA-IIL superiority), followed by alpaca, giraffe, and monkey milks, whereas cow milk was a weak inhibitor. Lectin PA-IL was inhibited strongly by human, followed by alpaca, mare, giraffe, buffalo, and monkey milks, weakly by camel milk, and not at all by rabbit milk. Lectins PA-IIL and CV-IIL were also most sensitive to human milk, followed by alpaca, monkey, giraffe, rabbit, and camel milks but negligibly sensitive to buffalo and mare milks. Plant lectin concanavalinA, which was used as the reference, differed from them in that it was much less sensitive to human milk and was equally as sensitive to cow milk. These results have provided important information on the anti-lectin-dependent adhesion potential of the diverse milks examined. They showed that human followed by alpaca, giraffe, and Rhesus monkey milks efficiently

  2. [Extracellular lectins from saprophytic strains of bacteria of the genus Bacillus (review)].

    PubMed

    Podgorskiĭ, V S; Kovalenko, É A; Karpova, I S; Sashchuk, E V; Get'man, E I

    2014-01-01

    The present review summarizes both the authors' own and other researchers' reports concerning the synthesis and properties of sialic acid-specific extracellular lectins from saprophytic bacteria of the genus Bacillus. Bacilli of this genus isolated from different ecological niches differ with regard to the ability to synthesize lectins. The biphasic temporal pattern of lectin synthesis in culture and the effect of cultivation conditions on lectin production have been demonstrated. The advantages of the technological procedure used for the isolation and purification of these biopolymers have been characterized. Specificity towards sialic acid, which is characteristic only of a small number of lectins from bacilli and underlies a wide range of biological effects of these proteins, receives particular attention. Adaptation mechanisms involving lectins--carbohydrate-recognizing proteins--are suggested to have developed in saprophytic bacilli to ensure the survival of these organisms in a constantly changing environment.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice lectin from Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yen-Chieh; Lin, Yi-Hung; Shih, Chia-Hao; Shih, Chun-Liang; Chang, Tschining; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2006-02-01

    Rice lectin was crystallized and analyzed by X-ray crystallography. Lectins with sugar-binding specificity are widely distributed in higher plants and various other species. The expression of rice lectin from Oryza sativa is up-regulated in the growing coleoptile when anaerobic stress persists. A rice lectin of molecular weight 15.2 kDa has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. From the diffraction of the lectin crystals at 1.93 Å resolution, the unit cell belongs to space group P3{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.58, b = 98.58, c = 44.72 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates that there are two lectin molecules in an asymmetric unit with a large solvent content, 70.1%.

  4. [Lectin-binding analysis of the biofilm exopolymeric matrix carbohydrate composition of corrosion-aggressive bacteria].

    PubMed

    Purish, L M; Asaulenko, L G; Abdulina, D R; Voĭtchuk, S I; Iutinskaia, G A

    2013-01-01

    The carbohydrate components of biofilms of corrosion-aggressive bacteria were studied by transmisstion electron microscopy using lectins labeled with colloidal gold. N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and neutral carbohydrates D-glucose and D-mannose were found within the exopolymeric matrix. Lectins with equal carbohydrate specificity demonstrated different degrees of interaction with the carbohydrate components of bacterial biofilms. To identify N-acetyl-D-galactosamine in biofilms of Desulfovibrio sp. 10 and Bacillus subtilis 36, the LBA lectin appeared to be most specific; in the case of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in biofilms of B. subtilis 36 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27, the WGA lectin. During visualization of neutral carbohydrates in the studied cultures, the PSA lectin was most specific. We have shown that lectins labeled with colloidal gold could be used as an express method for the identification and localization of carbohydrates in glycopolymers of the biofilm exopolymeric matrix.

  5. Lectin Activation in Giardia lamblia by Host Protease: A Novel Host-Parasite Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Boaz; Ward, Honorine; Keusch, Gerald T.; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

    1986-04-01

    A lectin in Giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. Incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. Accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and Pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. When activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. The lectin was most specific to mannose-6-phosphate and apparently was bound to the plasma membrane. Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of hostparasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site.

  6. Could plant lectins become promising anti-tumour drugs for causing autophagic cell death?

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Luo, Y; Zhou, T-T; Zhang, W-Z

    2013-10-01

    Plant lectins, a group of highly diverse carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin, are ubiquitously distributed through a variety of plant species, and have recently drawn rising attention due to their remarkable ability to kill tumour cells using mechanisms implicated in autophagy. In this review, we provide a brief outline of structures of some representative plant lectins such as concanavalin A, Polygonatum cyrtonema lectin and mistletoe lectins. These can target autophagy by modulating BNIP-3, ROS-p38-p53, Ras-Raf and PI3KCI-Akt pathways, as well as Beclin-1, in many types of cancer cells. In addition, we further discuss how plant lectins are able to kill cancer cells by modulating autophagic death, for therapeutic purposes. Together, these findings provide a comprehensive perspective concerning plant lectins as promising new anti-tumour drugs, with respect to autophagic cell death in future cancer therapeutics.

  7. Leguminous lectins as tools for studying the role of sugar residues in leukocyte recruitment.

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, N M; Teixeira, E H; Assreuy, A M; Cavada, B S; Flores, C A; Ribeiro, R A

    1999-01-01

    The natural physiological ligands for selectins are oligosaccharides found in glycoprotein or glycolipid molecules in cell membranes. In order to study the role of sugar residues in the in vivo lectin anti-inflammatory effect, we tested three leguminous lectins with different carbohydrate binding affinities in the peritonitis and paw oedema models induced by carrageenin in rats. L. sericeus lectin was more anti-inflammatory than D. virgata lectin, the effects being reversed by their specific binding sugars (N-acetylglucosamine and alpha-methylmannoside, respectively). However, V. macrocarpa, a galactose-specific lectin, was not anti-inflammatory. The proposed anti-inflammatory activity of lectins could be due to a blockage of neutrophil-selectin carbohydrate ligands. Thus, according to the present data, we suggest an important role for N-acetylglucosamine residue as the major ligand for selectins on rat neutrophil membranes. PMID:10704148

  8. Activation of phenoloxidase activity by humoral lectin in hemocytes of freshwater crab Paratelphusa jacquemontii.

    PubMed

    Denis, Maghil; Ramasamy, Sivakumar Mullaivanam; Kamalanathan, Tamilarasan; Thayappan, Karthigayani; Mannarreddy, Prabu; Doss, Bhuvaneswari Selvaputhiran; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2017-04-01

    The lectin, Pjlec isolated from the hemolymph of the freshwater crab Paratelphusa jacquemontii hemagglutinated (HA) with mice, rabbit and rat erythrocytes. However, the lectin failed to agglutinate neraminidase treated asialylated erythrocytes showing its sialic acid specificity. The poyacyrlamide gel electrophoresis of lectin yielded 310kDa proteins, on sodium sulphate dodecyl (SDS) gel appeared as a tetramer with subunits of 76kDa. The observation of in vitro phagocytosis in granular hemocytes of lectin opsonized rabbit erythrocyte by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the release of lytic vesicles by exocytosis prior to engulfment. The Pjlec lectin also showed an ability to oxidize L-3, 4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and in hemocyte lysate preparation (HLS) was enhanced on reduction with SDS and on proteolytic cleavage with trypsin. The lectin appeared to have a regulatory role in activation of enzyme activity associated with phagocytosis and melanin formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and Applications of Lectins as Biological Tools in Biomedical Research.

    PubMed

    Dan, Xiuli; Liu, Wenlong; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-03-01

    As a new and burgeoning area following genomics and proteomics, glycomics has become a hot issue due to its pivotal roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Glycans are much more complicated than genes or proteins since glycans are highly branched and dynamic. Antibodies and lectins are the two major molecular tools applied for glycan profiling. Though the study of antibodies and lectins started at almost the same time in 1880s, lectins gained much less attention than the antibodies until recent decades when the importance and difficulties of glycomics were realized. The present review summarizes the discovery history of lectins and their biological functions with a special emphasis on their various applications as biological tools. Both older techniques that had been developed in the last century and new technologies developed in recent years, especially lectin microarrays and lectin-based biosensors, are included in this account. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Isolation of the galactose-binding lectin that mediates the in vitro adherence of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Petri, W A; Smith, R D; Schlesinger, P H; Murphy, C F; Ravdin, J I

    1987-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica adheres to human colonic mucus, colonic epithelial cells, and other target cells via a galactose (Gal) or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) inhibitable surface lectin. Blockade of this adherence lectin with Gal or GalNAc in vitro prevents amebic killing of target cells. We have identified and purified the adherence lectin by two methods: affinity columns derivatized with galactose monomers or galactose terminal glycoproteins, and affinity columns and immunoblots prepared with monoclonal antibodies that inhibit amebic adherence. By both methods the adherence lectin was identified as a 170-kD secreted and membrane-bound amebic protein. The surface location of the lectin was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence. Purified lectin competitively inhibited amebic adherence to target cells by binding to receptors on the target Chinese hamster ovary cells in a Gal-inhibitable manner. Images PMID:2890654

  11. Histochemical characterization of the lectin-binding sites in the equine vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-young; Kang, Tae-young; Lee, Yong-duk; Shin, Tae-kyun

    2003-04-01

    The binding specificities of various lectins, such as the Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), soybean agglutinin (SBA), and the Bandeiraea simplicifolia BS-1 (Isolectin B4), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I) lectins, were studied in the vomeronasal organ of the horse. The microvilli of the vomeronasal sensory epithelium were positive for DBA, SBA, Isolectin B4, WGA, PNA, and UEA-I. The receptor cells showed intense reactivity for DBA and WGA. Lectins were not detected in the supporting cells or basal cells. The Jacobson's glands were positive for WGA and UEA-I, but lectins were absent from the nerve bundles. From these results, we postulate that several lectin-binding carbohydrates on the microvilli and neurosensory cells are associated with chemoreception in the horse. In addition, the differential lectin-binding patterns in the horse suggest that the carbohydrates present in this particular sense organ are species-specific.

  12. A galactose-specific lectin from the hemolymph of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Mori, K

    1989-01-01

    1. A lectin in the serum of Pinctada fucata martensii was purified by a combination of affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B coupled with bovine submaxillary gland mucine, anion exchange chromatography on Mono Q and gel filtration on Superose 6. 2. The purified lectin was indicated to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide electrophoresis and rechromatography on Mono Q. 3. The purified lectin was approximately 440,000 in molecular weight and was composed of identical subunits with a molecular weight of approximately 20,000. 4. D-galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine gave a 50% inhibition of agglutination of horse erythrocytes by the lectin at 0.3 and 1.2 mM, respectively. 5. The antibody obtained from rabbit immunized with the purified lectin was monospecific to the lectin judged from the hemagglutination blocking test, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting.

  13. Heregulin-dependent activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt via the ErbB2/ErbB3 co-receptor.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, N J; Kim, M S; Koland, J G

    2001-11-09

    The ErbB2/ErbB3 heregulin co-receptor has been shown to couple to phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase in a heregulin-dependent manner. The recruitment and activation of PI 3-kinase by this co-receptor is presumed to occur via its interaction with phosphorylated Tyr-Xaa-Xaa-Met (YXXM) motifs occurring in the ErbB3 C terminus. In this study, mutant ErbB3 receptor proteins expressed in COS7 cells were used to investigate PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathways activated by the ErbB2/ErbB3 co-receptor. We observed that a mutant ErbB3 protein with each of its six YXXM motifs containing a Tyr --> Phe substitution was unable to bind either the p85 regulatory or p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase. However, restoration of a single YXXM motif was sufficient to mediate association with the PI 3-kinase holoenzyme, although at a lower level than wild-type ErbB3. When ErbB3 YXXM motifs were restored in pairs, evidence for cooperativity between two, those incorporating Tyr-1273 and Tyr-1286, was observed. Interestingly, we have shown that an apparent association of PI 3-kinase activity with ErbB2/Neu was due to the residual presence of ErbB3 in ErbB2 immunoprecipitates. The necessity of ErbB3 association with PI 3-kinase for downstream signaling to the effector kinase Akt was also investigated. Here, the heregulin-dependent translocation of Akt to the plasma membrane and its subsequent activation was observed in intact NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Recruitment of PI 3-kinase to ErbB3 was required for both activities, and it appeared that ErbB2 activation alone was not sufficient to activate PI 3-kinase signaling in these cells.

  14. Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1) mediates immune responses against Aeromonas hydrophila in vitro and in vivo in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yun-Fei; Shen, Yu-Bang; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Shen-Tong; Meng, Xin-Zhan; Li, Li-Sen; Zhang, Meng; Hu, Mo-Yan; Lv, Li-Qun; Wang, Rong-Quan; Li, Jia-Le

    2017-07-01

    The mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1) gene is a crucial component of the lectin pathway in the complement and coagulation cascade. Although MASP-1 has been found in the immune system of teleosts, its immune functions in response to bacterial infection are unclear. In this study, we identified a MASP-1 homolog (gcMASP-1) in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The full-length 3308-bp gcMASP-1 cDNA includes a 2160-bp open reading frame encoding a protein composed of 719 amino acids with epidermal growth factor-like, complement control protein, and trypsin-like domains. gcMASP-1 shares a high similarity with MASP-1 counterparts in other species, and it is most closely related to Cyprinus carpio MASP-1 and Sinocyclocheilus anshuiensis MASP-1. Transcription of gcMASP-1 was widely distributed in different tissues and induced by Aeromonas hydrophila in vivo and in vitro. Expression of gcMASP-1 was also affected by lipopolysaccharide and flagellin stimulation in vitro. In cells over-expressing gcMASP-1, transcript levels of almost all components, except gcMBL and gcC5, were significantly enhanced, and gcIL1β, gcTNF-α, gcIFN, gcCD59, gcC5aR1, and gcITGβ-2 were significantly upregulated after exposure to A. hydrophila; gcMASP-1 interference downregulated the transcript levels after A. hydrophila challenge. In addition, gcMASP-1 activated NF-κB signaling. These findings indicate the vital role of gcMASP-1 in innate immunity in C. idella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacological inhibition of mannose-binding lectin ameliorates neurobehavioral dysfunction following experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Daiana; Fumagalli, Stefano; Longhi, Luca; Orsini, Franca; Palmioli, Alessandro; Stravalaci, Matteo; Vegliante, Gloria; Zanier, Elisa R; Bernardi, Anna; Gobbi, Marco; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia

    2017-03-01

    Mannose-binding lectin is present in the contusion area of traumatic brain-injured patients and in that of traumatic brain-injured mice, where mannose-binding lectin-C exceeds mannose-binding lectin-A. The reduced susceptibility to traumatic brain injury of mannose-binding lectin double knock-out mice (mannose-binding lectin(-/-)) when compared to wild type mice suggests that mannose-binding lectin may be a therapeutic target following traumatic brain injury. Here, we evaluated the effects of a multivalent glycomimetic mannose-binding lectin ligand, Polyman9, following traumatic brain injury in mice. In vitro surface plasmon resonance assay indicated that Polyman9 dose-dependently inhibits the binding to immobilized mannose residues of plasma mannose-binding lectin-C selectively over that of mannose-binding lectin-A. Male C57Bl/6 mice underwent sham/controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury and intravenous treatment with Polyman9/saline. Ex-vivo surface plasmon resonance studies confirmed that Polyman9 effectively reduces the binding of plasma mannose-binding lectin-C to immobilized mannose residues. In vivo studies up to four weeks post injury, showed that Polyman9 induces significant improvement in sensorimotor deficits (by neuroscore and beam walk), promotes neurogenesis (73% increase in doublecortin immunoreactivity), and astrogliosis (28% increase in glial fibrillary acid protein). Polyman9 administration in brain-injured mannose-binding lectin(-/-) mice had no effect on post-traumatic brain-injured functional deficits, suggestive of the specificity of its neuroprotective effects. The neurobehavioral efficacy of Polyman9 implicates mannose-binding lectin-C as a novel therapeutic target for traumatic brain injury.

  16. Unique posttranslational modifications of chitin-binding lectins of Entamoeba invadens cyst walls.

    PubMed

    Van Dellen, Katrina L; Chatterjee, Anirban; Ratner, Daniel M; Magnelli, Paula E; Cipollo, John F; Steffen, Martin; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2006-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic dysentery and liver abscesses, is spread via chitin-walled cysts. The most abundant protein in the cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens, a model for amebic encystation, is a lectin called EiJacob1. EiJacob1 has five tandemly arrayed, six-Cys chitin-binding domains separated by low-complexity Ser- and Thr-rich spacers. E. histolytica also has numerous predicted Jessie lectins and chitinases, which contain a single, N-terminal eight-Cys chitin-binding domain. We hypothesized that E. invadens cyst walls are composed entirely of proteins with six-Cys or eight-Cys chitin-binding domains and that some of these proteins contain sugars. E. invadens genomic sequences predicted seven Jacob lectins, five Jessie lectins, and three chitinases. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that mRNAs encoding Jacobs, Jessies, and chitinases are increased during E. invadens encystation, while mass spectrometry showed that the cyst wall is composed of an approximately 30:70 mix of Jacob lectins (cross-linking proteins) and Jessie and chitinase lectins (possible enzymes). Three Jacob lectins were cleaved prior to Lys at conserved sites (e.g., TPSVDK) in the Ser- and Thr-rich spacers between chitin-binding domains. A model peptide was cleaved at the same site by papain and E. invadens Cys proteases, suggesting that the latter cleave Jacob lectins in vivo. Some Jacob lectins had O-phosphodiester-linked carbohydrates, which were one to seven hexoses long and had deoxysugars at reducing ends. We concluded that the major protein components of the E. invadens cyst wall all contain chitin-binding domains (chitinases, Jessie lectins, and Jacob lectins) and that the Jacob lectins are differentially modified by site-specific Cys proteases and O-phosphodiester-linked glycans.

  17. Unique Posttranslational Modifications of Chitin-Binding Lectins of Entamoeba invadens Cyst Walls

    PubMed Central

    Van Dellen, Katrina L.; Chatterjee, Anirban; Ratner, Daniel M.; Magnelli, Paula E.; Cipollo, John F.; Steffen, Martin; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2006-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic dysentery and liver abscesses, is spread via chitin-walled cysts. The most abundant protein in the cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens, a model for amebic encystation, is a lectin called EiJacob1. EiJacob1 has five tandemly arrayed, six-Cys chitin-binding domains separated by low-complexity Ser- and Thr-rich spacers. E. histolytica also has numerous predicted Jessie lectins and chitinases, which contain a single, N-terminal eight-Cys chitin-binding domain. We hypothesized that E. invadens cyst walls are composed entirely of proteins with six-Cys or eight-Cys chitin-binding domains and that some of these proteins contain sugars. E. invadens genomic sequences predicted seven Jacob lectins, five Jessie lectins, and three chitinases. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that mRNAs encoding Jacobs, Jessies, and chitinases are increased during E. invadens encystation, while mass spectrometry showed that the cyst wall is composed of an ∼30:70 mix of Jacob lectins (cross-linking proteins) and Jessie and chitinase lectins (possible enzymes). Three Jacob lectins were cleaved prior to Lys at conserved sites (e.g., TPSVDK) in the Ser- and Thr-rich spacers between chitin-binding domains. A model peptide was cleaved at the same site by papain and E. invadens Cys proteases, suggesting that the latter cleave Jacob lectins in vivo. Some Jacob lectins had O-phosphodiester-linked carbohydrates, which were one to seven hexoses long and had deoxysugars at reducing ends. We concluded that the major protein components of the E. invadens cyst wall all contain chitin-binding domains (chitinases, Jessie lectins, and Jacob lectins) and that the Jacob lectins are differentially modified by site-specific Cys proteases and O-phosphodiester-linked glycans. PMID:16682461

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of a lectin from a false brome grass (Brachypodium sylvaticum).

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, W J; Spaepen, C; Stinissen, H M; Carlier, A R

    1982-01-01

    A lectin has been isolated from embryos of a false brome grass species (Brachypodium sylvaticum) by affinity chromatography on immobilized N-acetylglucosamine. It is a dimeric protein of two identical subunits of mol.wt. 18 000. Although it resembles cereal lectins with respect to its biochemical and physicochemical properties, it differs structurally in several aspects from wheat-germ-agglutinin-like lectins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6816219

  19. [Lectins and the problem of phitopatogene recognition by a host plant].

    PubMed

    Babosha, A V

    2008-01-01

    Under consideration are some questions concerning participation of lectins in the plant pathogenesis, including their role in the recognition of microbes and elicitors, and as a protective agent limiting pathogenic growth and displacements. "Classical" lectins also probably play an important role in these processes along with lectin-like receptor kinases. The principal features of those "classical" lectins are their relativly high concentration in the plant tissues, monosaccharide specificity, and limited number of the isolecin forms. Therefore, in supposing their participation in the biological recognition, it is needed to clarify how does a limited number of lectins with a limited number of carbohydrate groups can provide recognition of a potentially huge number of pathogens. This task can be fulfilled by recognition of carbohydrate residues peculiar to a particular microbe group by the "classical" lectins. These recognition processes are similar to acivity of the animal inherited immune system responsible for a rapid primary protection even in animals with well developed antibody system. A mechanism widening the carbohydrate specificity of the carbohydrate-binding center includes interaction with hydrophobic substituents in a carbohydrate residue, as well as lectin modular organization allowing for regulation of lectin binding with oligo- and polysaccharides. The free lectins effect on the microbe growth in both plants and animals. Such an action may be inhibiting in pathogenesis, while in the case of symbiotic relations, the lectin can bear signal that readdresses metabolism of a future symbiont. So, lectins seem to serve as natural deciphering device for information contained in the carbohydrate polymers, and reading of this information is the main lectin function in the cell.

  20. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  1. Stability, subunit interactions and carbohydrate-binding of the seed lectin from Pterocarpus angolensis.

    PubMed

    Echemendia-Blanco, Dannele; Van Driessche, Edilbert; Ncube, Ignatious; Read, John S; Beeckmans, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    From 1 kg of defatted Pterocarpus angolensis (mukwa tree) seed meal, 21.6 grams of an alpha,D-mannose/glucose-specific lectin can be purified on mannose-Sepharose. Relative affinities for several (oligo)saccharides and glycoproteins were studied by haemagglutination-inhibition. Gel filtration shows that the lectin exists as a dimer above pH 5 and as a monomer below pH 3.5. This is confirmed by studies on the release of lectin subunits that were adsorbed from solution to lectin monomers immobilized onto Eupergit-c. From the gel filtration patterns it is calculated that a residue with pK(a) of about 4.4 is involved in dimer dissociation. Titration of glutamic acids (E60, E209) is postulated to be involved. CD spectroscopy shows that the secondary structure of the lectin is unchanged between pH 1 and 12.5, and that the tertiary structure remains unchanged between pH 5 and 12. In the acid pH region, reversible spectral changes occur that may be due to the titration of one or more amino acids with a pK(a) value of 3.9-4.2, probably aspartic acid. These residues are implicated in sugar-binding but not in dimerization of the lectin. Only at pH 12.5, irreversible denaturation occurs. Mukwa lectin displays full carbohydrate-binding capacity between pH 4 and 12, as is concluded from ELLA (Enzyme Linked Lectin Assay) using ovalbumin and fetuin, and from binding of the same glycoproteins to immobilized lectin monomers. The lectin is rapidly and fully reversibly demetallized at pH 2.5 with 5 mM EDTA. The demetallized lectin is completely devoid of sugar-binding activity. Mukwa lectin is a very thermostable molecule (at least till 85 degrees C). However, addition of non-ionic detergents substantially lowers its thermostability.

  2. Intracellular lectins are involved in quality control of glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Glycoprotein quality control is categorized into three kinds of reactions; the folding of nascent glycoproteins, ER-associated degradation of misfolded or unassembled glycoproteins, and transport and sorting of correctly folded glycoproteins. In all three processes, N-glycans on the glycoproteins are used as tags that are recognized by intracellular lectins. We analyzed the functions of these intracellular lectins and their sugar-binding specificities. The results clearly showed that the A, B, and C-arms of high mannose-type glycans participate in the folding, transport and sorting, and degradation, respectively, of newly synthesized peptides. After correctly folded glycoproteins are transported to the Golgi apparatus, N-glycans are trimmed into Man3GlcNAc2 and then rebuilt into various complex-type glycans in the Golgi, resulting in the addition of diverse sugar structures that allow glycoproteins to play various roles outside of the cells. PMID:24522156

  3. The role of lectins in allergic sensitization and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Fabián; Sewell, Herb F; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M

    2013-07-01

    Allergic diseases are a global public health issue affecting millions of persons around the world. However, full understanding of the molecular basis of this group of chronic inflammatory disorders remains rather elusive. Recently, the role of carbohydrates on allergens and their counterstructures on antigen-presenting cells (lectins) have been highlighted as crucial factors in allergen sensitization, which culminates in TH2 cell differentiation and the production of deleterious specific IgE antibodies. Here we review recent progress on the role of different lectins in patients with type I hypersensitivity or allergy, their interplay with other determinants of allergenicity, and ways of developing therapeutic modalities against newly identified targets. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant Lectins as Medical Tools against Digestive System Cancers.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Martínez, Laura Elena; Moreno-Celis, Ulisses; Cervantes-Jiménez, Ricardo; Ferriz-Martínez, Roberto Augusto; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; García-Gasca, Teresa

    2017-07-03

    Digestive system cancers-those of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon-rectum, liver, and pancreas-are highly related to genetics and lifestyle. Most are considered highly mortal due to the frequency of late diagnosis, usually in advanced stages, caused by the absence of symptoms or masked by other pathologies. Different tools are being investigated in the search of a more precise diagnosis and treatment. Plant lectins have been studied because of their ability to recognize and bind to carbohydrates, exerting a variety of biological activities on animal cells, including anticancer activities. The present report integrates existing information on the activity of plant lectins on various types of digestive system cancers, and surveys the current state of research into their properties for diagnosis and selective treatment.

  5. Purification and biological effects of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) seed lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de; Aragao, Karoline Saboia; Gomes, Raphaela Cardoso; Freitas Pires, Alana de; Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Oliveira Toyama, Daniela de; Nunes de Alencar, Nylane Maria; Criddle, David Neil; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio . E-mail: assreuy@uece.br; Cavada, Benildo Sousa . E-mail: bscavada@ufc.br

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the purification and characterization of a new N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific lectin from Araucaria angustifolia (AaL) seeds (Araucariaceae) and its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. AaL was purified using a combination of affinity chromatography on a chitin column and ion exchange chromatography on Sephacel-DEAE. The pure protein has 8.0 kDa (SDS-PAGE) and specifically agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes, effect that was independent of the presence of divalent cations and was inhibited after incubation with glucose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. AaL showed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, shown by scanning electron microscopy. AaL, intravenously injected into rats, showed anti-inflammatory effect, via carbohydrate site interaction, in the models of paw edema and peritonitis. This lectin can be used as a tool for studying bacterial infections and inflammatory processes.

  6. Griffithsin: An Antiviral Lectin with Outstanding Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Lusvarghi, Sabrina; Bewley, Carole A.

    2016-01-01

    Griffithsin (GRFT), an algae-derived lectin, is one of the most potent viral entry inhibitors discovered to date. It is currently being developed as a microbicide with broad-spectrum activity against several enveloped viruses. GRFT can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at picomolar concentrations, surpassing the ability of most anti-HIV agents. The potential to inhibit other viruses as well as parasites has also been demonstrated. Griffithsin’s antiviral activity stems from its ability to bind terminal mannoses present in high-mannose oligosaccharides and crosslink these glycans on the surface of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Here, we review structural and biochemical studies that established mode of action and facilitated construction of GRFT analogs, mechanisms that may lead to resistance, and in vitro and pre-clinical results that support the therapeutic potential of this lectin. PMID:27783038

  7. Gliadins bind to reticulin in a lectin-like manner.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, D J; Leonard, J N; Hobday, C M; Griffiths, C E; Powles, A V; Haffenden, G P; Fry, L

    1987-01-01

    It has previously been reported that gliadins bind to reticulin in tissue sections. Three lines of evidence are reported in this study which indicate that the gliadins bind to reticulins because they are lectins which bind to sugars expressed on glycoproteins in reticulin and other sites. First, immunofluorescence studies on tissue sections showed that although gliadin binding is largely confined to areas rich in reticulin, it is, nonetheless, also seen in one or two other sites devoid of reticulin. Second, by using fluorescein-labelled lectins of known specificity, it has been shown that the areas to which gliadins bind in tissue sections (including those sites devoid of reticulin) are rich in particular sugars. Third, it has been shown that one of these sugars, alpha-D-mannose, partially inhibited gliadin binding to tissue sections.

  8. C-type lectins in immunity: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Dambuza, Ivy M; Brown, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) comprise a large superfamily of proteins, which recognise a diverse range of ligands, and are defined by the presence of at least one C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Of particular interest are the single extracellular CTLD-containing receptors of the ‘Dectin-1’ and ‘Dectin-2’ clusters, which associate with signalling adaptors or possess integral intracellular signalling domains. These CLRs have traditionally been associated with the recognition of fungi, but recent discoveries have revealed diverse and unexpected functions. In this review, we describe their newly identified roles in anti-microbial host defence, homeostasis, autoimmunity, allergy and their functions in the recognition and response to dead and cancerous cells. PMID:25553393

  9. Parallel quantification of lectin-glycan interaction using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yoichi; Seko, Akira; Sakono, Masafumi; Hachisu, Masakazu; Koizumi, Akihiko; Fujikawa, Kohki; Ito, Yukishige

    2013-06-28

    Using ultrafiltration membrane, a simple method for screening protein-ligand interaction was developed. The procedure comprises three steps: mixing ligand with protein, ultrafiltration of the solution, and quantification of unbound ligands by HPLC. By conducting analysis with variable protein concentrations, affinity constants were easily obtained. Multiple ligands can be analyzed simultaneously as a mixture, when concentration of ligands was controlled. Feasibility of this method for lectin-glycan interaction analysis was examined using fluorescently labeled high-mannose-type glycans and recombinant intracellular lectins or endo-α-mannosidase mutants. Estimated Ka values of malectin and VIP36 were in good agreement indeed with those evaluated by conventional methods such as isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) or frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). Finally, several mutants of endo-α-mannosidase were produced and their affinities to monoglucosylated glycans were evaluated.

  10. Genotoxicity evaluation of Moringa oleifera seed extract and lectin.

    PubMed

    Rolim, Lucíola A D M M; Macêdo, Márcia F S; Sisenando, Herbert Ary; Napoleão, Thiago H; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia A F; Coelho, Luana C B B; Medeiros, Silvia R B; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2011-03-01

    This article reports the genotoxicity assessment of an extract of M. oleifera seed powder and the water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL) isolated from seeds. The lectin isolated by chitin chromatography showe