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Sample records for lectin mbl co-receptor

  1. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, M W

    1998-08-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is the most intensively studied human collectin. It is recognized to be a versatile macro-molecule with many of the functional characteristics of IgM, IgG and Clq. In the presence of calcium the protein can bind to a wide spectrum of oligosaccharides through multiple lectin domains. Such binding to the repeating sugar arrays on microbial surfaces may result in direct uptake by one or more collectin receptors on phagocyte surface or may trigger the activation of a pro-serine protease complex (MASP 1 and MASP 2) leading to cleavage of C4 and C2 of the classical complement pathway. Although serum levels of MBL are normally rather low (1500 micrograms/litre) there is increasing evidence that the protein plays an important role in immune defence, particularly during the phase of primary contact with a microorganism. This is suggested by the observed association of an increased incidence of infections in individuals with structural mutations in exon 1 of the MBL gene. A cluster of such mutations in codons 52, 54 and 57 lead to secondary structural abnormalities of the collagenous triple helix and a failure to form biologically functional higher order oligomers. The codon 54 mutation has been identified in several Eurasian populations whereas the codon 57 mutation is characteristic of sub-Saharan populations. One intriguing paradox arising from the MBL genotyping studies is the observation that in many populations there are surprisingly high frequencies of either the codon 54 or codon 57 mutation, suggesting that there may be some biological advantage associated with absence of the protein. Nevertheless, various groups have reported either low serum levels of MBL or an increased frequency of the structural gene mutations in patients with suspected immunodeficiencies, those with frequent unexplained infections and those with systemic lupus erythematosus. There is also evidence that the rate of progression of AIDS in HIV positive men is faster

  2. Is mannan-binding lectin (MBL) detectable on monocytes and monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells?

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shirley L; Downing, Ian; Turner, Marc; Kilpatrick, David C

    2008-12-01

    MBL (mannan-binding lectin; also called mannose-binding lectin) is a circulating C-type lectin with a collagen-like region synthesized mainly by the liver. MBL may influence susceptibility to infection in recipients of stem cell transplants, and it has even been suggested that the MBL status of a donor can influence the recipient's susceptibility to post-transplant infections. We have previously reported that MBL can be detected on human monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells, based on detection using biotinylated anti-MBL, suggesting that those cells could synthesize MBL. If true, permanent MBL replacement therapy could be achieved by stem cell infusions. However, two other groups independently failed to find mbl-2-derived mRNA in monocytes. Therefore, to confirm or refute our previous observations, we used an alternative experimental strategy. Instead of using biotinylated antibody and labelled streptavidin, detection of surface MBL was attempted using MBL-specific primary antibodies (131-1, 131-10 and 131-11) followed by fluorescein-labelled anti-IgG, and controlled by the use of non-specific IgG as primary antibody. Monocytes were counterstained with anti-CD14-PE before FACS analysis. Adherent monocytes were also cultured for 48 h in serum-free medium or converted into immature dendritic cells by culture with IL-4 (interleukin-4) and GM-CSF (granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor). During FACS analysis, the dendritic cells were gated after counter-staining with anti-CD1a-PE. MBL was readily detected on the surface of fresh monocytes using all three specific anti-MBL monoclonal antibodies, but specific anti-MBL binding was greatly diminished after monocytes had been cultured for 2 days in serum-free medium. Moreover, we could not detect any MBL present on the surface of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. We therefore conclude that MBL is indeed present on the surface of fresh human monocytes. However, in view of the mRNA findings of others and our

  3. Interaction of human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) with Yersinia enterocolitica lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kasperkiewicz, Katarzyna; Swierzko, Anna S; Bartlomiejczyk, Marcin A; Cedzynski, Maciej; Noszczynska, Magdalena; Duda, Katarzyna A; Michalski, Mateusz; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-09-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is involved in the interaction between Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and host. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), complement-activating soluble pattern-recognition receptor targets microbial glycoconjugates, including LPS. We studied its interactions with a set of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 LPS mutants. The wild-type strain LPS consists of lipid A (LA) substituted with an inner core oligosaccharide (IC) which in turn is substituted either with the O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) or the outer core hexasaccharide (OC), and sometimes also with the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA). The LPS mutants produced truncated LPS, missing OPS, OC or both, or, in addition, different IC constituents or ECA. MBL bound to LA-IC, LA-IC-OPS and LA-IC-ECA but not LA-IC-OC structures. Moreover, LA-IC substitution with both OPS and ECA prevented the lectin binding. Sequential truncation of the IC heptoses demonstrated that the MBL targets the IC heptose region. Furthermore, microbial growth temperature influenced MBL binding; binding was stronger to bacteria grown at room temperature (22°C) than to bacteria grown at 37°C. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that MBL can interact with Y. enterocolitica LPS, however, the in vivo significance of that interaction remains to be elucidated.

  4. Lack of association between genetic variants in the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene and HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Paola; Seripa, Davide; Matera, Maria G; Rinaldi, Monica; Signori, Emanuela; Gravina, Carolina; Gallo, Antonietta P; Prencipe, Maria; Grandone, Elvira; Mariani, Luciano; Cordiali, Paola; Di Carlo, Aldo; Stentella, Patrizia; Pachì, Antonio; Fazio, Vito M

    2007-01-01

    Genetic variants in the immunomodulatory gene mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2), were associated with risk, severity, and frequency of viral infections. In a case-control setting, we investigated the association of MBL2 functional polymorphisms with Human Papillomas Virus (HPV) infection. No differences between cases (HPV(+)) and controls (HPV(-)) were found in the distribution of each single genotypes or allele. Haplotype analysis did not show any difference between HPV+ and HPV(-) groups.

  5. A journey through the lectin pathway of complement-MBL and beyond.

    PubMed

    Garred, Peter; Genster, Ninette; Pilely, Katrine; Bayarri-Olmos, Rafael; Rosbjerg, Anne; Ma, Ying Jie; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole

    2016-11-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), collectin-10, collectin-11, and the ficolins (ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3) are soluble pattern recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. These proteins act as mediators of host defense and participate in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. They bind to conserved pathogen-specific structures and altered self-antigens and form complexes with the pentraxins to modulate innate immune functions. All molecules exhibit distinct expression in different tissue compartments, but all are found to a varying degree in the circulation. A common feature of these molecules is their ability to interact with a set of serine proteases named MASPs (MASP-1, MASP-2, and MASP-3). MASP-1 and -2 trigger the activation of the lectin pathway and MASP-3 may be involved in the activation of the alternative pathway of complement. Furthermore, MASPs mediate processes related to coagulation, bradykinin release, and endothelial and platelet activation. Variant alleles affecting expression and structure of the proteins have been associated with a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases, most commonly as disease modifiers. Notably, the severe 3MC (Malpuech, Michels, Mingarelli, and Carnevale) embryonic development syndrome originates from rare mutations affecting either collectin-11 or MASP-3, indicating a broader functionality of the complement system than previously anticipated. This review summarizes the characteristics of the molecules in the lectin pathway.

  6. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  7. Extreme High Prevalence of a Defective Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL2) Genotype in Native South American West Andean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O.; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations. PMID:25313559

  8. A two-nucleotide deletion renders the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene nonfunctional in Danish Landrace and Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Bergman, I M; Edman, K; van As, P; Huisman, A; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2014-03-01

    The mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) are central components of innate immunity, facilitating phagocytosis and inducing the lectin activation pathway of the complement system. Previously, it has been found that certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine MBL1 and MBL2 (pMBL1, pMBL2) affect mRNA expression, serum concentration, and susceptibility to disease, but the combinatory effect of pMBL1 and pMBL2 genotypes needs further elucidation. In the present study, pMBL1 and pMBL2 alleles, combined pMBL haplotypes, and MBL-A concentration in serum were analyzed in purebred Landrace (N = 30) and Duroc (N = 10) pigs. Furthermore, the combined pMBL haplotypes of 89 Piètrain × (Large White × Landrace) crossbred pigs were studied, and the genotypes of 67 crossbreds challenged with Escherichia coli were compared to their individual disease records. In the purebred animals, three non-synonymous SNPs and a two-nucleotide deletion were detected in the coding sequence of pMBL2. The two-nucleotide deletion was present at a frequency of 0.88 in the Landrace pigs and 0.90 in the Duroc pigs, respectively. In the crossbreds, the T allele of the SNP G949T in pMBL1-previously shown to have profound effect on MBL-A concentration even in the heterozygote condition-was detected in 47 % of the animals. Finally, an association was found between low-producing MBL genotypes and low body weight on the day of weaning in the same animals.

  9. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and mannan-binding lectin (MBL): on constant alert in a hostile environment.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingrid-Maria

    2011-05-01

    In the beginning were neither B cells nor T cells nor antibodies, but innate immune defense alone. The primary functional theme of innate immunity is the distinction between self and non-self, which is maintained by a vast number of cellular and subcellular components. In this context, the immense importance of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is well established. Positive (Darwinian) selection seems to be acting on the ligand-binding domains of these molecules, suggesting a selection pattern similar to that previously observed in the MHC proteins. In sharp contrast to TLRs, the biological significance of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is controversial, and, concerning humans, it has been suggested that low concentration of MBL in serum represents a selective advantage. In this mini-review, based on a doctoral thesis, evolutionary aspects of TLRs and MBL are discussed.

  10. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) codon 54 (rs1800450) polymorphism predisposes towards medium vessel vasculitis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vir Singh; Devaraju, Panneer; Misra, Durga Prasanna; Jain, Vikramraj K; Usdadiya, Jignesh Babulal; Antony, Paul T; Gulati, Reena

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multiple etiological factors. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a key role in innate immunity by activating antibody-independent lectin complement pathway, opsonisation, phagocytosis, and immune complex (IC) clearance. Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter and coding regions of MBL gene affect the circulatory levels and biological activity of MBL. Defects in MBL can lead to defective opsonisation and, hence, hamper clearance of apoptotic debris, the persistence of which can drive autoantibody formation in lupus. The exon1 variants at codon 52, 54, and 57 have been reported to augment the risk of SLE in different ethnic populations. Three hundred South Indian Tamil patients with SLE and 460 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls were genotyped for three polymorphisms at codon 52, 54, and 57 in exon1 of MBL gene by Taqman real-time PCR. The three polymorphisms in exon1 of MBL were observed not to confer risk of developing SLE. However, MBL codon 54 rs1800450 polymorphism was associated with the development of medium vessel vasculitis and gangrene (OR-2.29, CI 95% 1.08-4.83, p = 0.02), whereas, the ancestral allele G conferred protection (OR-0.44, CI 95% 0.21-0.93, p = 0.02). Genetic variants in the exon1 of MBL gene per se are not risk factors for SLE in South Indian Tamils. However, the association of codon 54 (rs1800450) with medium vessel vasculitis suggests that it may be a genetic modifier of clinical phenotype in SLE.

  11. Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene, MBL2, Polymorphisms Do Not Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Meningococcal Disease in a Population of Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Lundbo, Lene F.; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Clausen, Louise N.; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Konradsen, Helle B.; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Nørgaard, Mette; Benfield, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neisseria meningitidis is the cause of meningococcal bacteremia and meningitis, and nasopharyngeal colonization with this pathogen is common. The incidence of invasive disease is highest in infants, whereas adolescents more often are carriers. Altered regulation or dysfunction of the innate immune system may predispose to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). In this study, we investigated the effect of genetic variation in the mannose-binding lectin gene, MBL2, and its promoter on susceptibility to IMD and IMD-associated mortality among children. Methods. Children (<5 years) diagnosed during 1982–2007 with IMD and controls were identified through Danish national registries. DNA was obtained from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. The associations between MBL2 diplotypes and IMD susceptibility and 30- and 90-day mortality were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results. We included 1351 children: 406 with meningitis, 272 with bacteremia, and 673 age- and sex-matched controls. Of the children studied, 1292 (96%) were successfully genotyped and assigned MBL2 diplotypes. The median age in IMD cases was 19.1 months (interquartile range [IQR], 8.8–32.2 months). Children with defective MBL2 diplotypes were not at higher risk for meningococcal meningitis than children with intermediate and normal diplotypes (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], .47–1.02). Similar results were found for children with bacteremia and defective diplotypes (OR = 0.84; 95% CI, .53–1.32) as well as for all cases (OR = 0.75; 95% CI, .56–1.01). There was no association between MBL2 diplotypes and mortality. Conclusions. Defective MBL2 diplotypes did not predict either an increased IMD susceptibility or mortality in a Danish population of children. PMID:26464842

  12. Mannose-binding lectin 2 (Mbl2) gene polymorphisms are related to protein plasma levels, but not to heart disease and infection by Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, M.A.F.; Gomes, S.T.M.; Almeida, N.C.C.; Souza, M.I.M.; Costa, S.R.C.F.; Hermes, R.B.; Lima, S.S.; Zaninotto, M.M.; Fossa, M.A.A.; Maneschy, M.A.; Martins-Feitosa, R.N.; Azevedo, V.N.; Machado, L.F.A.; Ishak, M.O.G.; Ishak, R.; Vallinoto, A.C.R.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in exon 1 of the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene was evaluated in a sample of 159 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (71 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery and 300 control subjects) to investigate a possible association between polymorphisms and heart disease with Chlamydia infection. The identification of the alleles B and D was performed using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and of the allele C was accomplished through PCR assays followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme. The comparative analysis of allelic and genotypic frequencies between the three groups did not reveal any significant difference, even when related to previous Chlamydia infection. Variations in the MBL plasma levels were influenced by the presence of polymorphisms, being significantly higher in the group of cardiac patients, but without representing a risk for the disease. The results showed that despite MBL2 gene polymorphisms being associated with the protein plasma levels, the polymorphisms were not enough to predict the development of heart disease, regardless of infection with both species of Chlamydia. PMID:27982280

  13. Quantitative Characterization of the Activation Steps of Mannan-binding Lectin (MBL)-associated Serine Proteases (MASPs) Points to the Central Role of MASP-1 in the Initiation of the Complement Lectin Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Megyeri, Márton; Harmat, Veronika; Major, Balázs; Végh, Ádám; Balczer, Júlia; Héja, Dávid; Szilágyi, Katalin; Datz, Dániel; Pál, Gábor; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Dobó, József

    2013-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, have been thought to autoactivate when MBL/ficolin·MASP complexes bind to pathogens triggering the complement lectin pathway. Autoactivation of MASPs occurs in two steps: 1) zymogen autoactivation, when one proenzyme cleaves another proenzyme molecule of the same protease, and 2) autocatalytic activation, when the activated protease cleaves its own zymogen. Using recombinant catalytic fragments, we demonstrated that a stable proenzyme MASP-1 variant (R448Q) cleaved the inactive, catalytic site Ser-to-Ala variant (S646A). The autoactivation steps of MASP-1 were separately quantified using these mutants and the wild type enzyme. Analogous mutants were made for MASP-2, and rate constants of the autoactivation steps as well as the possible cross-activation steps between MASP-1 and MASP-2 were determined. Based on the rate constants, a kinetic model of lectin pathway activation was outlined. The zymogen autoactivation rate of MASP-1 is ∼3000-fold higher, and the autocatalytic activation of MASP-1 is about 140-fold faster than those of MASP-2. Moreover, both activated and proenzyme MASP-1 can effectively cleave proenzyme MASP-2. MASP-3, which does not autoactivate, is also cleaved by MASP-1 quite efficiently. The structure of the catalytic region of proenzyme MASP-1 R448Q was solved at 2.5 Å. Proenzyme MASP-1 R448Q readily cleaves synthetic substrates, and it is inhibited by a specific canonical inhibitor developed against active MASP-1, indicating that zymogen MASP-1 fluctuates between an inactive and an active-like conformation. The determined structure provides a feasible explanation for this phenomenon. In summary, autoactivation of MASP-1 is crucial for the activation of MBL/ficolin·MASP complexes, and in the proenzymic phase zymogen MASP-1 controls the process. PMID:23386610

  14. Mannose Binding Lectin and Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Children with Cardiomyopathy: No Association with MBL2 Codon 54 A/B Genotype, but an Association between MIF -173 CC Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Col-Araz, Nilgun; Oguzkan-Balci, Sibel; Baspinar, Osman; Sever, Tugce; Balat, Ayse; Pehlivan, Sacide

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial inflammation is one of the commonest mechanisms in cardiomyopathy (CMP). Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a key molecule in innate immunity, while macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a constitutive element of the host defenses. We investigated the possible association between polymorphisms of MBL2 and MIF genes and CMP in Turkish children. Twenty-children with CMP and 30 healthy controls were analyzed for codon 54 A/B polymorphism in MBL, and -173 G/C polymorphism in MIF genes by using PCR-RFLP methods. No significant difference was found between genotypes and alleles of MBL2 gene codon 54 A/B polymorphism in patients and controls (p>0.05). However, serum uric acid levels was found higher in dilated CMP patients with AA genotype. Frequency of MIF -173 CC genotype was significantly higher in patients (p<0.05), and sodium levels were higher in patients with MIF -173 CC genotype. This study is the first to investigate the MBL and MIF gene polymorphisms in Turkish children with CMP. We conclude that CC genotype of MIF (-173) polymorphism may be a risk factor for CMP patients. However, further studies with larger samples are needed to address the exact role of this polymorphism in CMP. PMID:22927777

  15. Genetically Determined MBL Deficiency Is Associated with Protection against Chronic Cardiomyopathy in Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Márcia I.; Chiminacio Neto, Nelson; Padeski, Marcela C.; Barros, Ana Cláudia M.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, whose sugar moieties are recognized by mannan binding lectin (MBL), a soluble pattern-recognition molecule that activates the lectin pathway of complement. MBL levels and protein activity are affected by polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene. We sequenced the MBL2 promoter and exon 1 in 196 chronic CD patients and 202 controls. The MBL2*C allele, which causes MBL deficiency, was associated with protection against CD (P = 0.007, OR = 0.32). Compared with controls, genotypes with this allele were completely absent in patients with the cardiac form of the disease (P = 0.003). Furthermore, cardiac patients with genotypes causing MBL deficiency presented less heart damage (P = 0.003, OR = 0.23), compared with cardiac patients having the XA haplotype causing low MBL levels, but fully capable of activating complement (P = 0.005, OR = 7.07). Among the patients, those with alleles causing MBL deficiency presented lower levels of cytokines and chemokines possibly implicated in symptom development (IL9, p = 0.013; PDGFB, p = 0.036 and RANTES, p = 0.031). These findings suggest a protective effect of genetically determined MBL deficiency against the development and progression of chronic CD cardiomyopathy. PMID:26745156

  16. Genetically Determined MBL Deficiency Is Associated with Protection against Chronic Cardiomyopathy in Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Luz, Paola Rosa; Miyazaki, Márcia I; Chiminacio Neto, Nelson; Padeski, Marcela C; Barros, Ana Cláudia M; Boldt, Angelica B W; Messias-Reason, Iara J

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, whose sugar moieties are recognized by mannan binding lectin (MBL), a soluble pattern-recognition molecule that activates the lectin pathway of complement. MBL levels and protein activity are affected by polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene. We sequenced the MBL2 promoter and exon 1 in 196 chronic CD patients and 202 controls. The MBL2*C allele, which causes MBL deficiency, was associated with protection against CD (P = 0.007, OR = 0.32). Compared with controls, genotypes with this allele were completely absent in patients with the cardiac form of the disease (P = 0.003). Furthermore, cardiac patients with genotypes causing MBL deficiency presented less heart damage (P = 0.003, OR = 0.23), compared with cardiac patients having the XA haplotype causing low MBL levels, but fully capable of activating complement (P = 0.005, OR = 7.07). Among the patients, those with alleles causing MBL deficiency presented lower levels of cytokines and chemokines possibly implicated in symptom development (IL9, p = 0.013; PDGFB, p = 0.036 and RANTES, p = 0.031). These findings suggest a protective effect of genetically determined MBL deficiency against the development and progression of chronic CD cardiomyopathy.

  17. Characterization of mannose binding lectin from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity capable of activating the lectin pathway of the complement system. A MBL gene was isolated from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The deduced protein contains a canonical collagen-like domain, a carbohydrate recognition d...

  18. Ureaplasma urealyticum binds mannose-binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Benstein, Barbara D; Ourth, Donald D; Crouse, Dennis T; Shanklin, D Radford

    2004-10-01

    Mannose-binding C-type lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity in mammals. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an acute phase protein, acts as an opsonin for phagocytosis and also activates the mannan-binding lectin complement pathway. It may play a particularly significant role during infancy before adequate specific protection can be provided by the adaptive immune system. Ureaplasma urealyticum has been linked to several diseases including pneumonia and chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants. We therefore investigated the ability of U. urealyticum to bind MBL. A guinea pig IgG anti-rabbit-MBL antiserum was produced. An immunoblot (dot-blot) assay done on nitrocellulose membrane determined that the anti-MBL antibody had specificity against both rabbit and human MBL. Pure cultures of U. urealyticum, serotype 3, were used to make slide preparations. The slides containing the organisms were then incubated with nonimmune rabbit serum containing MBL. Ureaplasma was shown to bind rabbit MBL with an immunocytochemical assay using the guinea pig IgG anti-rabbit MBL antiserum. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-guinea pig IgG was used to localize the reaction. The anti-MBL antiserum was also used in an immunocytochemical assay to localize U. urealyticum in histological sections of lungs from mice specifically infected with this organism. The same method also indicated binding of MBL by ureaplasma in human lung tissue obtained at autopsy from culture positive infants. Our results demonstrate that ureaplasma has the capacity to bind MBL. The absence of MBL may play a role in the predisposition of diseases related to this organism.

  19. Mannose-binding lectin may affect pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Çalkavur, Şebnem; Erdemir, Gülin; Onay, Hüseyin; Altun Köroğlu, Özge; Yalaz, Mehmet; Zekioğlu, Osman; Aksu, Güzide; Özkınay, Ferda; Akercan, Fuat; Kültürsay, Nilgün

    2015-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a component of the innate immune system and acts as a complement activator through the lectin pathway. Genetic variations of MBL and low MBL levels cause several infection problems, which may also be related to pregnancy problems. We aimed to investigate the role of MBL gene codon 54 polymorphism and serum MBL levels in pregnancy problems and premature delivery. In this prospective study, MBL gene codon 54 polymorphism and serum MBL levels were studied in 45 mothers who delivered earlier than 35 gestational weeks. The frequency of MBL gene codon 54 variant allele B was much higher (homozygous 4.4% and heterozygous 33.3%) in the study group mothers than the previously reported frequency in the healthy Turkish population (homozygous 2-6%, heterozygous 12-20%). MBL variant allele B frequency was closely related to low MBL levels (<0.1 μg/ml), vaginitis and increased IL-6 levels. The median MBL levels were lower than the critical level of 0.1 μg/ ml in study mothers who had recurrent miscarriage, infertility, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm premature rupture of membranes with duration of longer than 72 hours, tocolysis, histological chorioamnionitis, urinary tract infection and vaginitis. MBL gene codon 54 variant allele B is related to low serum MBL levels, increased IL-6 levels, genitourinary infections and may cause pregnancy-related problems such as infertility, recurrent miscarriage and preterm delivery.

  20. Genetic association study between mbl2 and asthma phenotypes in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ting Fan; Tang, Nelson L S; Sung, Ying Man; Li, Chung Yi; Ma, Suk Ling; Lam, Christopher W K; Wong, Gary W K

    2006-11-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a member of the innate immune system, initiates complement deposition on microbial surfaces. MBL deficiency is associated with severe respiratory infections. Polymorphisms in the MBL gene (mbl2) were associated with the susceptibility and severity of autoimmune diseases. This study investigated whether mbl2 polymorphisms at positions -550 and -221 and at codon-54 are associated with asthma phenotypes in Chinese children. Asthmatics aged 5-18 yr and non-allergic controls were eligible, and their plasma total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentrations were measured by micro-particle immunoassay and fluorescent enzyme immunoassay. mbl2 polymorphisms were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Three hundred and seventeen asthmatic children and 140 controls were recruited, with their mean (s.d.) log-transformed plasma total IgE being 2.61 (0.61) and 1.77 (0.77), respectively (p < 0.0001). Polymorphisms at -550 and codon-54 (p < 0.0001 for both) but not at -221 (p = 0.534) of mbl2 were significantly associated with plasma MBL concentrations. mbl2 genotypes were not associated with asthma, atopy, sensitization to individual aeroallergens or spirometric variable. Subjects with LYB haplotype had the lowest plasma MBL concentrations (p < 0.0001), but two- and three-loci mbl2 haplotypes were also not associated with asthma diagnosis. However, patients with LY and LYB haplotypes were less likely to be atopic (p = 0.006 and 0.031). Subjects with LY and LYA were also less likely to be sensitized to cockroach (p = 0.035 and 0.047). The latter three associations became insignificant when adjusted for multiple comparisons. Despite the importance of MBL in innate immunity, our mbl2 polymorphisms only show weak association with asthma and atopy in children.

  1. Differential ability to resist to complement lysis and invade host cells mediated by MBL in R4 and 860 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Evans-Osses, Ingrid; Mojoli, Andres; Beltrame, Marcia Holsbach; da Costa, Denise Endo; DaRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; de Messias-Reason, Iara; Ramirez, Marcel Ivan

    2014-03-18

    To produce an infection Trypanosoma cruzi must evade lysis by the complement system. During early stages of infection, the lectin pathway plays an important role in host defense and can be activated by binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens. We hypothesized that MBL has a dual role during parasite-host cell interaction as lectin complement pathway activator and as binding molecule to invade the host cell. We used two polarized strains of T. cruzi, R4 (susceptible) and 860 (resistant) strains, to investigate the role of MBL in complement-mediated lysis. Interestingly R4, but not 860 metacyclic strain, markedly increases the invasion of host cells, suggesting that MBL drives the invasion process while the parasite deactivates the Lectin complement pathway.

  2. Association of TNF, MBL, and VDR Polymorphisms with Leprosy Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Bishwa R.; Macdonald, Murdo; Berrington, William R.; Misch, E. Ann; Ranjit, Chaman; Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Kaplan, Gilla; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although genetic variants in tumor necrosis factor (TNF), mannose binding lectin (MBL), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been associated with leprosy clinical outcomes these findings have not been extensively validated. Methods We used a case-control study design with 933 patients in Nepal, which included 240 patients with type I reversal reaction (RR), and 124 patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) reactions. We compared genotype frequencies in 933 cases and 101 controls of 7 polymorphisms, including a promoter region variant in TNF (G−308A), three polymorphisms in MBL (C154T, G161A and G170A), and three variants in VDR (FokI, BsmI, and TaqI). Results We observed an association between TNF −308A and protection from leprosy with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.29 to 0.95, P = 0.016). MBL polymorphism G161A was associated with protection from lepromatous leprosy (OR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.12–0.85), P = 0.010). VDR polymorphisms were not associated with leprosy phenotypes. Conclusion These results confirm previous findings of an association of TNF −308A with protection from leprosy and MBL polymorphisms with protection from lepromatous leprosy. The statistical significance was modest and will require further study for conclusive validation. PMID:20650301

  3. Near-planar Solution Structures of Mannose-binding Lectin Oligomers Provide Insight on Activation of Lectin Pathway of Complement

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ami; Phillips, Anna; Gor, Jayesh; Wallis, Russell; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    The complement system is a fundamental component of innate immunity that orchestrates complex immunological and inflammatory processes. Complement comprises over 30 proteins that eliminate invading microorganisms while maintaining host cell integrity. Protein-carbohydrate interactions play critical roles in both the activation and regulation of complement. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) activates the lectin pathway of complement via the recognition of sugar arrays on pathogenic surfaces. To determine the solution structure of MBL, synchrotron x-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the carbohydrate-recognition domains in the MBL dimer, trimer, and tetramer are positioned close to each other in near-planar fan-like structures. These data were subjected to constrained modeling fits. A bent structure for the MBL monomer was identified starting from two crystal structures for its carbohydrate-recognition domain and its triple helical region. The MBL monomer structure was used to identify 10–12 near-planar solution structures for each of the MBL dimers, trimers, and tetramers starting from 900 to 6,859 randomized structures for each. These near-planar fan-like solution structures joined at an N-terminal hub clarified how the carbohydrate-recognition domain of MBL binds to pathogenic surfaces. They also provided insight on how MBL presents a structural template for the binding and auto-activation of the MBL-associated serine proteases to initiate the lectin pathway of complement activation. PMID:22167201

  4. Software Review: An MBL Smorgasbord.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Reviews software packages used in microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) experiments. They include programs for a precision timer, frequency meter, heat and light experiments, sound experiments, spectrum analysis, biofeedback analysis, and others. Reviews include a brief description, source, current cost, and equipment requirements. (JN)

  5. A Meta-analysis of MBL2 Polymorphisms and Tuberculosis Risk

    PubMed Central

    Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Mandal, Raju K.; Akhter, Naseem; Dar, Sajad A.; Jawed, Arshad; Wahid, Mohd; Mahto, Harishankar; Panda, Aditya K.; Lohani, Mohtashim; Haque, Shafiul

    2016-01-01

    MBL2 gene encodes mannose-binding lectin, is a member of innate immune system. Earlier studies revealed that MBL2 gene variants, rs1800451, rs1800450, rs5030737, rs7096206, rs11003125 and rs7095891 are associated with impaired serum level and susceptibility to TB, but their results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis was performed by including 22 studies (7095 TB-patients and 7662 controls) and data were analyzed with respect to associations between alleles, genotypes and minor allele carriers to evaluate the potential association between MBL2 polymorphisms and TB risk. Statistically significant results were found only for the homozygous variant genotype (CC vs. AA: p = 0.045; OR = 0.834, 95% CI = 0.699 to 0.996) of rs1800451 and showed reduced risk of TB in overall population. However, other genetic models of rs1800450, rs5030737, rs7096206, rs11003125, rs7095891 and combined rs1800450, rs1800451, rs5030737 polymorphisms of MBL2 gene did not reveal any association with TB risk. Stratified analysis by ethnicity showed decreased risk of TB in African population for rs1800450 and rs1800451. Whereas, no association was observed between other MBL2 polymorphisms and TB risk in all the evaluated ethnic populations. In conclusion, MBL2 rs1800450 and rs1800451 polymorphisms play a protective role in TB infection and reinforce their critical significance as a potential genetic marker for TB resistance. PMID:27876780

  6. Association of MBL With Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms in Bakery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Moon Kyung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Baker's asthma is the most prevalent occupational asthma, and IgE-mediated response is known as a major pathogenesis. However, recent studies have suggested the involvement of innate immune response because wheat flour contains bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides. To further understand a role of innate immune response in the development of work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS) in bakery workers, we investigated mannose-binding lectin (MBL), one of the initiating components of the complement cascade in a single cohort of bakery workers. A total of 373 bakery workers completed a questionnaire regarding WRS. The bakery workers were divided into 2 groups according to previous history of allergic rhinitis (AR)/bronchial asthma (BA): those with history of AR/BA (group I) and those without (group II). We measured serum MBL levels by using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and genotyped 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MBL2 gene (226G>A in exon 1, -554G>C, -431A>C, and -225G>C in the promoter) by using TaqMan assays. Fifty-nine subjects (15.5%) were previously diagnosed with AR/BA, and 64 subjects (16.8%) complained of WRS. No significant differences were found in serum MBL levels between groups I and II. However, in group II subjects, but not in group I subjects, the serum MBL levels were significantly higher in bakery workers with WRS than in those without. In addition, the serum MBL levels were significantly different according to genetic polymorphisms of the MBL2 gene and its haplotypes. In conclusion, serum MBL, affected by genetic polymorphisms, may be associated with WRS in bakery workers with no previous history of AR/BA. PMID:27826966

  7. Human mannose-binding lectin inhibitor prevents myocardial injury and arterial thrombogenesis in a novel animal model.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Vasile I; Tan, Ying S; McClure, Erin E; La Bonte, Laura R; Zou, Chenhui; Gorsuch, William B; Stahl, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    Myocardial infarction and coagulation disorders are leading causes of disability and death in the world. An important role of the lectin complement pathway in myocardial infarction and coagulation has been demonstrated in mice genetically deficient in lectin complement pathway proteins. However, these studies are limited to comparisons between wild-type and deficient mice and lack the ability to examine reversal/inhibition of injury after disease establishment. We developed a novel mouse that expresses functional human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) 2 under the control of Mbl1 promoter. Serum MBL2 concentrations averaged approximately 3 μg/mL in MBL2(+/+)Mbl1(-/-)Mbl2(-/-) [MBL2 knock in (KI)] mice. Serum MBL2 level in MBL2 KI mice significantly increased after 7 (8 μg/mL) or 14 (9 μg/mL) days of hyperglycemia compared to normoglycemic mice (P < 0.001). Monoclonal antibody 3F8 inhibited C3 deposition on mannan-coated plates in MBL2 KI, but not wild-type, mice. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in MBL2 KI mice revealed that 3F8 preserved cardiac function and decreased infarct size and fibrin deposition in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 3F8 prevented ferric chloride-induced occlusive arterial thrombogenesis in vivo. MBL2 KI mice represent a novel animal model that can be used to study the lectin complement pathway in acute and chronic models of human disease. Furthermore, these novel mice demonstrate the therapeutic window for MBL2 inhibition for effective treatment of disease and its complications.

  8. Human Mannose-Binding Lectin Inhibitor Prevents Myocardial Injury and Arterial Thrombogenesis in a Novel Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Vasile I.; Tan, Ying S.; McClure, Erin E.; La Bonte, Laura R.; Zou, Chenhui; Gorsuch, William B.; Stahl, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and coagulation disorders are leading causes of disability and death in the world. An important role of the lectin complement pathway in myocardial infarction and coagulation has been demonstrated in mice genetically deficient in lectin complement pathway proteins. However, these studies are limited to comparisons between wild-type and deficient mice and lack the ability to examine reversal/inhibition of injury after disease establishment. We developed a novel mouse that expresses functional human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) 2 under the control of Mbl1 promoter. Serum MBL2 concentrations averaged approximately 3 μg/mL in MBL2+/+Mbl1−/−Mbl2−/− [MBL2 knock in (KI)] mice. Serum MBL2 level in MBL2 KI mice significantly increased after 7 (8 μg/mL) or 14 (9 μg/mL) days of hyperglycemia compared to normoglycemic mice (P < 0.001). Monoclonal antibody 3F8 inhibited C3 deposition on mannan-coated plates in MBL2 KI, but not wild-type, mice. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in MBL2 KI mice revealed that 3F8 preserved cardiac function and decreased infarct size and fibrin deposition in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 3F8 prevented ferric chloride–induced occlusive arterial thrombogenesis in vivo. MBL2 KI mice represent a novel animal model that can be used to study the lectin complement pathway in acute and chronic models of human disease. Furthermore, these novel mice demonstrate the therapeutic window for MBL2 inhibition for effective treatment of disease and its complications. PMID:25482922

  9. Modeling and MBL: Software Tools for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.

    Recent technological advances and new software packages put unprecedented power for experimenting and theory-building in the hands of students at all levels. Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) and model-solving tools illustrate the educational potential of the technology. These tools include modeling software and three MBL packages (which are…

  10. Lectin-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection via Soluble and Transmembrane C-type Lectin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lear, Calli; Chen, Li; Yantosca, L. Michael; Scully, Corinne; Sarraju, Ashish; Sokolovska, Anna; Zariffard, M. Reza; Eisen, Damon P.; Mungall, Bruce A.; Kotton, Darrell N.; Omari, Amel; Huang, I-Chueh; Farzan, Michael; Takahashi, Kazue; Stuart, Lynda; Stahl, Gregory L.; Ezekowitz, Alan B.; Spear, Gregory T.; Olinger, Gene G.; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Michelow, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key soluble effector of the innate immune system that recognizes pathogen-specific surface glycans. Surprisingly, low-producing MBL genetic variants that may predispose children and immunocompromised individuals to infectious diseases are more common than would be expected in human populations. Since certain immune defense molecules, such as immunoglobulins, can be exploited by invasive pathogens, we hypothesized that MBL might also enhance infections in some circumstances. Consequently, the low and intermediate MBL levels commonly found in human populations might be the result of balancing selection. Using model infection systems with pseudotyped and authentic glycosylated viruses, we demonstrated that MBL indeed enhances infection of Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and West Nile viruses in low complement conditions. Mechanistic studies with Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviruses confirmed that MBL binds to N-linked glycan epitopes on viral surfaces in a specific manner via the MBL carbohydrate recognition domain, which is necessary for enhanced infection. MBL mediates lipid-raft-dependent macropinocytosis of EBOV via a pathway that appears to require less actin or early endosomal processing compared with the filovirus canonical endocytic pathway. Using a validated RNA interference screen, we identified C1QBP (gC1qR) as a candidate surface receptor that mediates MBL-dependent enhancement of EBOV infection. We also identified dectin-2 (CLEC6A) as a potentially novel candidate attachment factor for EBOV. Our findings support the concept of an innate immune haplotype that represents critical interactions between MBL and complement component C4 genes and that may modify susceptibility or resistance to certain glycosylated pathogens. Therefore, higher levels of native or exogenous MBL could be deleterious in the setting of relative hypocomplementemia which can occur genetically or because of immunodepletion during active

  11. High levels of serum mannose-binding lectin are associated with the severity of clinical signs of leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, K A; Vasconcelos, L R S; Coelho, L C B B; Lima Filho, J L; Cavalcanti, M S M; Moura, P

    2009-04-01

    The clinical heterogeneity observed in leptospirosis may be associated with host factors or bacteria virulence. Human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes many pathogens, and low levels of this lectin are associated with susceptibility to infection. MBL is also implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory process. We determined the levels of serum MBL during leptospirosis infection. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to detect the immunoreactive serum MBL. The ELISA plates were coated with monoclonal antibody to MBL and bound MBL or recombinant human MBL were detected by rabbit anti-human MBL serum. HRPO-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody was used for detection of the reaction. Two groups of patients seen at referral hospitals in Recife, PE, Brazil, were divided according to the year of infection, 2001 (N = 61) or 2002 (N = 57) and compared in terms of disease severity and levels of serum MBL. A group of healthy volunteers (N = 97) matched by age, gender, and ethnic background was used as control. Patients infected in 2001 had more severe outcomes than those infected in 2002, including jaundice, hemorrhage, respiratory alteration, and renal complication (P = 0.0009; chi-square test). The frequency of patients producing serum MBL >1000 ng/mL was higher in the 2001 group than in the 2002 and control groups (P < 0.01), suggesting an association of MBL level with disease severity. The involvement of MBL and genetic variation of the MBL2 gene should be further evaluated to establish the role of this lectin in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis.

  12. Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis: A short review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Epp Boschmann, Stefanie; Goeldner, Isabela; Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Schiel, Wagner; Aoyama, Fernanda; de Messias-Reason, Iara J

    2016-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a pattern recognition receptor of the lectin pathway of complement system. MBL binds to carbohydrates on microorganism's surfaces leading to complement activation, opsonization and phagocytosis. Polymorphisms in the MBL gene (MBL2) are associated with variations on MBL serum levels and with the susceptibility to various infectious and autoimmune diseases. The involvement of the lectin pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been demonstrated by several studies and although MBL has been considered to have a dual role in the pathogenesis of the disease, the association between MBL and RA remains inconclusive. In an attempt to clarify this relationship, we developed this short review summarizing accumulated evidences in regard to MBL and RA and a meta-analysis to evaluate the influence of MBL2 polymorphisms on the susceptibility to RA. Among a total of 217 articles that were identified following a predefined search strategy on PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, only 13 met all inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Data assessment was conducted by three independent investigators and presented in odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using forest plot charts. Both heterogeneity and publication bias were analyzed. The results of the meta-analysis evidenced that MBL2 low producing OO and XX genotypes do not confer higher risk to RA, even when data were analyzed according to cohort's ethnicity. Further studies are needed in order to clarify the importance of other genes of the lectin pathway in the pathogenesis of RA.

  13. Diabetes Is Associated with Increased Autoreactivity of Mannan-Binding Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) has been reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. MBL is a pattern-recognition molecule of the innate immune system that initiates the lectin pathway of the complement system upon recognition of evolutionary conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns or to altered self-tissue. Our group have previously shown direct effects of MBL on diabetes-induced kidney damage, and we hypothesized that MBL may cause autoactivation of the complement system via binding to neoepitopes induced by hyperglycemia. In the present study, we induced diabetes in MBL knockout mice and in wild type C57BL/6J mice by low-dose streptozotocin injection and measured blood glucose and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio to monitor development of diabetes. After 24 weeks, fluorescently labelled recombinant MBL was injected intravenously in diabetic MBL knockout mice after which the distribution was investigated using in vivo fluorescence imaging. Mice were subjected to in vivo and ex vivo imaging 24 hours after injection. MBL was found to accumulate in the kidneys of diabetic mice as compared to healthy control mice (p < 0.0001). These findings support the hypothesis of a significant role of MBL and the complement system in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:28349070

  14. Improvements on the purification of mannan-binding lectin and demonstration of its Ca(2+)-independent association with a C1s-like serine protease.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, S M; Chung, M C; Kon, O L; Thiel, S; Lee, S H; Lu, J

    1996-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), previously called 'mannan-binding protein' or MBP, is a plasma C-type lectin which, upon binding to carbohydrate structures on micro-organisms, activates the classical pathway of complement. Purification of MBL relies on its Ca(2+)-dependent affinity for carbohydrate, but existing methods are susceptible to contamination by anti-carbohydrate antibodies. In the present study a sequential-sugar-elution method has been developed which can achieve a preparation of virtually pure MBL and its associated serine protease (MBL-associated serine protease, MASP) by two steps of affinity chromatography. In further separation of MASP from MBL, it was found that activated MASP was associated with MBL independent of Ca2+. Since MBL was found to bind to underivatized Sepharose 4B, the MBL-MASP complex was purified using Sepharose 4B and protease inhibitors were included to purify the complex with MASP in its proenzyme form. Analysis of thus-purified MBL-MASP complex by gel filtration on a Sephacryl S-300 column at pH 7.8 showed that the proenzyme MASP was also associated with MBL independently of Ca2+, but that the complex could be disrupted at a low pH (5.0). Therefore the mechanism of MBL-MASP-mediated complement activation appears to be significantly different from the C1-mediated classical pathway. PMID:8912663

  15. Genetics Home Reference: mannose-binding lectin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... MBL2 gene. Mannose-binding lectin plays an important role in the body's immune response by attaching to foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, or yeast and turning on (activating) the complement system . The complement system is a group of immune system proteins that work together to ...

  16. Plasma mannose-binding lectin is stimulated by PPARα in humans.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Stienstra, Rinke; de Wit, Nicole J; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Haluzik, Martin; Mensink, Ronald P; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2012-03-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) is a major transcriptional regulator of lipid metabolism in liver and represents the molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrate drugs. Effects of PPARα on lipid metabolism are partially mediated by circulating proteins such as FGF21 and ANGPTL4. The present study was undertaken to screen for and identify circulating proteins produced by human liver that are under the control of PPARα. Toward that aim, primary human hepatocytes were treated with the synthetic PPARα agonist Wy-14643 and whole genome expression data selected for secreted proteins. Expression of FGF21, ANGPTL4, and mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a soluble mediator of innate immunity and primary component of the lectin branch of the complement system, was markedly upregulated by Wy-14643 in primary human hepatocytes. Mice express two MBL isomers, Mbl1 and Mbl2. Mbl1 mRNA was weakly induced by Wy-14643 in primary mouse hepatocytes and remained unaltered by Wy-14643 in mouse liver. Mbl2 mRNA was unchanged by Wy-14643 in primary mouse hepatocytes and was strongly reduced by Wy-14643 in mouse liver. Remarkably, plasma Mbl1 levels were increased by chronic PPARα activation in lean and obese mice. Importantly, in two independent clinical trials, treatment with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate at 200 mg/day for 6 wk and 3 mo increased plasma MBL levels by 73 (P = 0.0016) and 86% (P = 0.017), respectively. It is concluded that hepatocyte gene expression and plasma levels of MBL are stimulated by PPARα and fenofibrate in humans, linking PPARα to regulation of innate immunity and complement activation in humans and suggesting a possible role of MBL in lipid metabolism.

  17. Annotation and genetic diversity of the chicken collagenous lectins.

    PubMed

    Hamzić, Edin; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2015-06-01

    Collectins and ficolins are multimeric proteins present in various tissues and are actively involved in innate immune responses. In chickens, six different collagenous lectins have been characterized so far: mannose-binding lectin (MBL), surfactant protein A (SP-A), collectin 10 (COLEC10), collectin 11 (COLEC11), collectin 12 (COLEC12), lung lectin (LL) and one ficolin (FCN). However, the structural and functional features of the chicken collectins and ficolin are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were: (i) to make an overview of the genetic structure and function of chicken collectins and the ficolin, (ii) to investigate the variation in the chicken collectins and the ficolin gene in different chicken populations, and (iii) to assess the presence of MBL gene variants in different chicken populations. We performed comparative genomic analysis using publically available data. The obtained results showed that collectins and ficolins have conserved protein sequences and gene structure across all vertebrate groups and this is especially notable for COLEC10, COLEC11 and COLEC12. For the purpose of studying the genetic variation, 179 animals from 14 populations were genotyped using 31 SNPs covering five genomic regions. The obtained results revealed low level of heterozygosity in the collagenous lectins except for the COLEC12 gene and the LL-SPA-MBL region compared to heterozygosity at neutral microsatellite markers. In addition, the MBL gene variants were assessed in different chicken populations based on the polymorphisms in the promoter region. We observed 10 previously identified MBL variants with A2/A8 and A4 as the most frequent alleles.

  18. Polymorphisms in the lectin pathway of complement activation influence the incidence of acute rejection and graft outcome after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Golshayan, Déla; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Bibert, Stéphanie; Pyndiah, Nitisha; Manuel, Oriol; Binet, Isabelle; Buhler, Leo H; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Mueller, Thomas; Steiger, Jürg; Pascual, Manuel; Meylan, Pascal; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

    2016-04-01

    There are conflicting data on the role of the lectin pathway of complement activation and its recognition molecules in acute rejection and outcome after transplantation. To help resolve this we analyzed polymorphisms and serum levels of lectin pathway components in 710 consecutive kidney transplant recipients enrolled in the nationwide Swiss Transplant Cohort Study, together with all biopsy-proven rejection episodes and 1-year graft and patient survival. Functional mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels were determined in serum samples, and previously described MBL2, ficolin 2, and MBL-associated serine protease 2 polymorphisms were genotyped. Low MBL serum levels and deficient MBL2 diplotypes were associated with a higher incidence of acute cellular rejection during the first year, in particular in recipients of deceased-donor kidneys. This association remained significant (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.18-2.60) in a Cox regression model after adjustment for relevant covariates. In contrast, there was no significant association with rates of antibody-mediated rejection, patient death, early graft dysfunction or loss. Thus, results in a prospective multicenter contemporary cohort suggest that MBL2 polymorphisms result in low MBL serum levels and are associated with acute cellular rejection after kidney transplantation. Since MBL deficiency is a relatively frequent trait in the normal population, our findings may lead to individual risk stratification and customized immunosuppression.

  19. Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Patients With Candiduria

    PubMed Central

    Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314

  20. Intracellular mannose binding lectin mediates subcellular trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in neurons.

    PubMed

    Teodorof, C; Divakar, S; Soontornniyomkij, B; Achim, C L; Kaul, M; Singh, K K

    2014-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the brain early during infection and leads to severe neuronal damage and central nervous system impairment. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), a neurotoxin, undergoes intracellular trafficking and transport across neurons; however mechanisms of gp120 trafficking in neurons are unclear. Our results show that mannose binding lectin (MBL) that binds to the N-linked mannose residues on gp120, participates in intravesicular packaging of gp120 in neuronal subcellular organelles and also in subcellular trafficking of these vesicles in neuronal cells. Perinuclear MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes were observed and MBL facilitated the subcellular trafficking of gp120 via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi vesicles. The functional carbohydrate recognition domain of MBL was required for perinuclear organization, distribution and subcellular trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes. Nocodazole, an agent that depolymerizes the microtubule network, abolished the trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicles, suggesting that these vesicular complexes were transported along the microtubule network. Live cell imaging confirmed the association of the MBL:gp120 complexes with dynamic subcellular vesicles that underwent trafficking in neuronal soma and along the neurites. Thus, our findings suggest that intracellular MBL mediates subcellular trafficking and transport of viral glycoproteins in a microtubule-dependent mechanism in the neurons.

  1. Intracellular Mannose Binding Lectin Mediates Subcellular Trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Teodorof, C; Divakar, S; Soontornniyomkij, B; Achim, CL; Kaul, M; Singh, KK

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus -1 (HIV-1) enters the brain early during infection and leads to severe neuronal damage and central nervous system impairment. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), a neurotoxin, undergoes intracellular trafficking and transport across neurons; however mechanisms of gp120 trafficking in neurons are unclear. Our results show that mannose binding lectin (MBL) that binds to the N-linked mannose residues on gp120, participates in intravesicular packaging of gp120 in neuronal subcellular organelles and also in subcellular trafficking of these vesicles in neuronal cells. Perinuclear MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes were observed and MBL facilitated the subcellular trafficking of gp120 via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi vesicles. The functional carbohydrate recognition domain of MBL was required for perinuclear organization, distribution and subcellular trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes. Nocodazole, an agent that depolymerizes the microtubule network, abolished the trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicles, suggesting that these vesicular complexes were transported along the microtubule network. Live cell imaging confirmed the association of the MBL:gp120 complexes with dynamic subcellular vesicles that underwent trafficking in neuronal soma and along the neurites. Thus, our findings suggest that intracellular MBL mediates subcellular trafficking and transport of viral glycoproteins in a microtubule-dependent mechanism in the neurons. PMID:24825317

  2. Mycobacterial antigen 85 complex (Ag85) as a target for ficolins and mannose-binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Świerzko, Anna S; Bartłomiejczyk, Marcin A; Brzostek, Anna; Łukasiewicz, Jolanta; Michalski, Mateusz; Dziadek, Jarosław; Cedzyński, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    The pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) able to activate complement via the lectin pathway are suspected to be involved in the interaction between pathogenic Mycobacteria and the host immune response. Recently, we have found strong interactions between 25 and 35kDa mycobacterial cell fractions and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins. Here we demonstrate that two biologically important mycobacterial structures, mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) and the antigen 85 (Ag85) complex, induce activation of the lectin pathway of complement. The strong interaction of recombinant MBL with purified ManLAM was confirmed, but no binding of recombinant ficolins (ficolin-1, -2, -3) with this structure was observed. Interestingly, all PRMs tested reacted with the mycobacterial antigen 85 (Ag85) complex. Based on the use of specific inhibitors (mannan for MBL, acetylated bovine serum albumin for ficolin-1 and -2, Hafnia alvei PCM 1200 lipopolysaccharide for ficolin-3), we concluded that carbohydrate-recognition (MBL) and fibrinogen-like domains (ficolins) were involved in these interactions. Our results indicate that the mycobacterial antigen 85 complex is a target for ficolins and MBL. Furthermore, those PRMs also bound to fibronectin and therefore might influence the Ag85 complex-dependent interaction of Mycobacterium with the extracellular matrix.

  3. Association study between mannose-binding lectin haplotypes and X gene mutation of hepatitis B virus from treatment naïve patients

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chenghao; Lin, Yong; Mao, Qianguo; Wu, Daitze; Zhu, Lina; Najera, Isabel; Garcia-Alcalde, Fernando; Niu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Mannose binding lectin (MBL) plays important role in the innate immunity of human. Mutations in the MBL2 gene can significantly change the serum level of MBL, and consequently alter the susceptibility and progression of infectious disease. However, the association between the MBL2 profile and the HBV mutation and quasispecies complexity has not yet been reported. Our approach includes the study of the MBL2 gene genotype as well as ultra-deep sequencing of the HBV viruses obtained from the plasma of 50 treatment naïve patients with chronic HBV infection. We found that the liver function was better among patients within the high MBL2 group with respect to those within the medium/low MBL2 group. Likewise, the number of mutations in the HBV X gene as well as the viral quasispecies complexity were significantly higher in medium/low MBL2 production group. Nucleotide substitution rates were also higher within the medium/low MBL2 production group in all positions described to have an influence in liver cancer development, except for A1499G. In this work we show that the MBL2 profile may have an impact on the HBV X gene mutations as well as on viral quasispecies complexity. PMID:27824315

  4. The Lipopolysaccharide Structures of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Determine the Attachment of Human Mannose-Binding Lectin to Intact Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Devyatyarova-Johnson, Marina; Rees, Ian H.; Robertson, Brian D.; Turner, Malcolm W.; Klein, Nigel J.; Jack, Dominic L.

    2000-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of the innate immune system. It binds to the arrays of sugars commonly presented by microorganisms and activates the complement system independently of antibody. Despite detailed knowledge of the stereochemical basis of MBL binding, relatively little is known about how bacterial surface structures influence binding of the lectin. Using flow cytometry, we have measured the binding of MBL to a range of mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Neisseria gonorrhoeae which differ in the structure of expressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For both organisms, the possession of core LPS structures led to avid binding of MBL, which was abrogated by the addition of O antigen (Salmonella serovar Typhimurium) or sialic acid (N. gonorrhoeae). Truncation of the LPS within the core led to lower levels of MBL binding. It was not possible to predict the magnitude of MBL binding from the identity of the LPS terminal sugar alone, indicating that the three-dimensional disposition of LPS molecules is probably also of importance in determining MBL attachment. These results further support the hypothesis that LPS structure is a major determinant of MBL binding. PMID:10858200

  5. Complementary Roles of the Classical and Lectin Complement Pathways in the Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Rosbjerg, Anne; Genster, Ninette; Pilely, Katrine; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Stahl, Gregory L.; Garred, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus infections are associated with a high mortality rate for immunocompromised patients. The complement system is considered to be important in protection against this fungus, yet the course of activation is unclear. The aim of this study was to unravel the role of the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways under both immunocompetent and immunocompromised conditions to provide a relevant dual-perspective on the response against A. fumigatus. Conidia (spores) from a clinical isolate of A. fumigatus were combined with various human serum types (including serum deficient of various complement components and serum from umbilical cord blood). We also combined this with inhibitors against C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and ficolin-2 before complement activation products and phagocytosis were detected by flow cytometry. Our results showed that alternative pathway amplified complement on A. fumigatus, but required classical and/or lectin pathway for initiation. In normal human serum, this initiation came primarily from the classical pathway. However, with a dysfunctional classical pathway (C1q-deficient serum), lectin pathway activated complement and mediated opsonophagocytosis through MBL. To model the antibody-decline in a compromised immune system, we used serum from normal umbilical cords and found MBL to be the key complement initiator. In another set of experiments, serum from patients with different kinds of immunoglobulin insufficiencies showed that the MBL lectin pathway contribution was highest in the samples with the lowest IgG/IgM binding. In conclusion, lectin pathway appears to be the primary route of complement activation in the absence of anti-A. fumigatus antibodies, whereas in a balanced immune state classical pathway is the main activator. This suggests a crucial role for the lectin pathway in innate immune protection against A. fumigatus in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27857715

  6. Deficiency in Mannose-Binding Lectin-Associated Serine Protease-2 Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carolina H.; Lynch, Nicholas J.; Stover, Cordula M.; Ali, Youssif M.; Valck, Carolina; Noya-Leal, Francisca; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease, a chronic illness affecting 10 million people around the world. The complement system plays an important role in fighting microbial infections. The recognition molecules of the lectin pathway of complement activation, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins, and CL-11, bind to specific carbohydrates on pathogens, triggering complement activation through MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2). Previous in vitro work showed that human MBL and ficolins contribute to T. cruzi lysis. However, MBL-deficient mice are only moderately compromised in their defense against the parasite, as they may still activate the lectin pathway through ficolins and CL-11. Here, we assessed MASP-2-deficient mice, the only presently available mouse line with total lectin pathway deficiency, for a phenotype in T. cruzi infection. Total absence of lectin pathway functional activity did not confer higher susceptibility to T. cruzi infection, suggesting that it plays a minor role in the immune response against this parasite. PMID:25548381

  7. Activation of the lectin complement pathway in post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Satoshi; Matsushita, Misao; Fujita, Teizo; Takeshita, Morishige; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the correlation between complement pathways and clinicopathological findings in post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis (PSAGN). Immunohistological staining was performed on renal specimens obtained from 18 patients with PSAGN and 20 controls, using antibodies against IgG, IgA, IgM, C1q, C3c, C4, fibrinogen, factor B, C4-binding protein (C4-bp), C5b-9, CD59, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1). Controls showed no deposition of any antibody. In seven patients, glomerular deposits of C3c, C4, factor B, C4-bp, C5b-9, CD59, MBL and MASP-1 were found. In the remaining 11 patients, glomerular deposits of neither C4 nor MBL/MASP-1 were found, and glomerular deposits of C3c, factor B, C5b-9 and CD59 were evident. C4-bp was detected in seven of these 11 patients. Glomerular deposits of fibrinogen were detected in five of seven patients with MBL/MASP-1 deposits and in only two of 11 patients without MBL/MASP-1 deposits. Hematuria was prolonged in three of seven patients with MBL/MASP-1 deposits through follow up, whereas urinalysis was normal in all patients without MBL/MASP-1 deposits. However, the histological indicators were not different between the two groups. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report to show that complement activation through both the alternative and lectin pathways is evident in some patients with PSAGN. Complement activation is promoted in situ in the glomerulus.

  8. Elevated Serum Levels of Mannose-Binding Lectin and Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ling-Zhi; Tong, Qiang; Xu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation and complement activation initiated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. We investigated serum MBL levels in type 2 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and with persistent normoalbuminuria. Method Serum MBL levels were determined in 242 type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy and 242 type 2 diabetes with persistent normoalbuminuria matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, as well as in 100 healthy control subjects. The prediction value of MBL was compared with HbA1c, Hs-CRP and with other known predictors. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Results The serum MBL levels were significantly higher in diabetes with DN as compared to with persistent normoalbuminuria (P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common factors showed that serum MBL levels≥2950ug/L was an independent indictor of DN (OR=7.55; 95%CI: 3.44–19.04). Based on the ROC curve, the optimal cutoff value of serum MBL levels as an indicator for diagnosis of DN was projected to be 2950ug/L, which yielded a sensitivity of 77.2 % and a specificity of 80.8%, with the area under the curve at 0.809 (95%CI, 0.769—0.848). Conclusion Our findings suggested that MBL may be involved in the pathogenesis of DN in type 2 diabetes, and that determination of MBL status might be used to identify patients at increased risk of developing nephropathy complications. PMID:25803807

  9. Mannose-Binding Lectin: Biologic Characteristics and Role in the Susceptibility to Infections and Ischemia-Reperfusion Related Injury in Critically Ill Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Moriondo, Maria; Bertaina, Chiara; Mondì, Vito; Inglese, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a member of the collectin family, belonging to the innate immunity system. Genetic, biologic, and clinical properties of MBL have been widely investigated throughout the last decades, although some interesting aspects of its potential clinical relevance are still poorly understood. Low circulating concentrations of MBL have been associated with increased risk of infection and poor neurologic outcome in neonates. On the other hand, an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response by the neonatal intestine after the exposure to luminal bacteria, leading to an increased production of MBL, may be involved in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge about genetic and biologic characteristics of MBL and its role in the susceptibility to infections and to ischemia-reperfusion related tissue injuries to better explore its clinical relevance during the perinatal period and the possible future therapeutic applications. PMID:28246614

  10. The Lectin Pathway of Complement and Rheumatic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Beltrame, Marcia Holsbach; Catarino, Sandra Jeremias; Goeldner, Isabela; Boldt, Angelica Beate Winter; de Messias-Reason, Iara José

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of host defense against infection and is comprised of humoral and cellular mechanisms that recognize potential pathogens within minutes or hours of entry. The effector components of innate immunity include epithelial barriers, phagocytes, and natural killer cells, as well as cytokines and the complement system. Complement plays an important role in the immediate response against microorganisms, including Streptococcus sp. The lectin pathway is one of three pathways by which the complement system can be activated. This pathway is initiated by the binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), collectin 11 (CL-K1), and ficolins (Ficolin-1, Ficolin-2, and Ficolin-3) to microbial surface oligosaccharides and acetylated residues, respectively. Upon binding to target molecules, MBL, CL-K1, and ficolins form complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2 (MASP-1 and MASP-2), which cleave C4 and C2 forming the C3 convertase (C4b2a). Subsequent activation of complement cascade leads to opsonization, phagocytosis, and lysis of target microorganisms through the formation of the membrane-attack complex. In addition, activation of complement may induce several inflammatory effects, such as expression of adhesion molecules, chemotaxis and activation of leukocytes, release of reactive oxygen species, and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. In this chapter, we review the general aspects of the structure, function, and genetic polymorphism of lectin-pathway components and discuss most recent understanding on the role of the lectin pathway in the predisposition and clinical progression of Rheumatic Fever. PMID:25654073

  11. Characterization of the oligomer structure of recombinant human mannan-binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia H; Weilguny, Dietmar; Matthiesen, Finn; McGuire, Kirsten A; Shi, Lei; Højrup, Peter

    2005-03-25

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) belongs to a family of proteins called the collectins, which show large differences in their ultrastructures. These differences are believed to be determined by different N-terminal disulfide-bonding patterns. So far only the bonding pattern of two of the simple forms (recombinant rat MBL-C and bovine CL-43) have been determined. Recombinant MBL expressed in human cells was purified, and the structure of the N-terminal region was determined. Preliminary results on human plasma-derived MBL revealed high similarity to the recombinant protein. Here we report the structure of the N-terminal part of recombinant human MBL and present a model to explain the oligomerization pattern. Using a strategy of consecutive enzymatic digestions and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, we succeeded in identifying a number of disulfide-linked peptides from the N-terminal cysteine-rich region. Based on these building blocks, we propose a model that can explain the various oligomeric forms found in purified MBL preparations. Furthermore, the model was challenged by the production of cysteine to serine mutants of the three N-terminally situated cysteines. The oligomerization patterns of these mutants support the proposed model. The model indicates that the polypeptide dimer is the basic unit in the oligomerization.

  12. Rapid Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus Pathogens from Infected Clinical Samples Using Magnetic Beads Coated with Fc-Mannose Binding Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, B.; Gamini, N.; Rodas, M.; Penary, M.; Giordano, G.; Oswald, E.; Super, M.; Ingber, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe how Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can be rapidly isolated from clinical samples of articular fluid and synovial tissue using magnetic beads coated with the engineered chimeric human opsonin protein, Fc-mannose-binding lectin (FcMBL). The FcMBL-beads were used to capture and magnetically remove bacteria from purified cultures of 12 S. aureus strains, and from 8 articular fluid samples and 4 synovial tissue samples collected from patients with osteoarthritis or periprosthetic infections previously documented by positive S. aureus cultures. While the capture efficiency was high (85%) with purified S. aureus strains grown in vitro, direct FcMBL-bead capture from the clinical samples was initially disappointing (< 5% efficiency). Further analysis revealed that inhibition of FcMBL binding was due to coating of the bacteria by immunoglobulins and immune cells that masked FcMBL binding sites, and to the high viscosity of these complex biological samples. Importantly, capture of pathogens using the FcMBL-beads was increased to 76% efficiency by pretreating clinical specimens with hypotonic washes, hyaluronidase and a protease cocktail. Using this approach, S. aureus bacteria could be isolated from infected osteoarthritic tissues within 2 hours after sample collection. This FcMBL-enabled magnetic method for rapid capture and concentration of pathogens from clinical samples could be integrated upstream of current processes used in clinical microbiology laboratories to identify pathogens and perform antibiotic sensitivity testing when bacterial culture is not possible or before colonies can be detected. PMID:27275840

  13. The three-dimensional structure of codakine and related marine C-type lectins.

    PubMed

    Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Markiv, Anatoly; Smith-Ravin, Juliette

    2007-10-01

    Codakine is a new Ca(2+)-dependent mannose-binding C-type lectin (MBL) isolated from the gill tissue of the tropical clam, Codakia orbicularis. Bioinformatic analyses with the BLAST program have revealed similarities with marine lectins involved in immunity whose three-dimensional (3D) structures were unknown up until recently. In this article, we present bioinformatic analyses of marine lectins that are homologous to codakine, in particular lectins from the sea worm Laxus oneistus, named mermaid. These lectins are involved in the symbiotic association with sulphur-oxidizing bacteria which are closely related to the C. orbicularis gill symbiont. Using homology modelling, folding that is characteristic of C-type lectins was observed in all the marine Ca(2+)-dependent lectins studied, with conservation of random coiled structures of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and Ca(2+)-binding sites. Like codakine, the marine lectins analysed contain a signal peptide commonly found in secreted and transmembrane proteins. The majority of the predictive 3D models established from the lectins exhibit a common feature, namely the involvement in invertebrate and vertebrate immunity (dendritic cell receptor, macrophage receptor, etc.). These bioinformatic analyses and the literature data support the hypothesis that codakine, like the L. oneistus mermaids, is probably involved in the cellular mediation of symbiosis and defence against pathogenic microorganisms.

  14. Association of mannose-binding lectin levels and invasive fungal disease in hematologic malignancy patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Riwes, M M; Leather, H; Neal, D; Bennett, C; Sugrue, M; Cline, C; Stokes, J; Hiemenz, J; Hsu, J; Wingard, J R

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have suggested an association of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency with infections. In this study, we investigated the association between MBL deficiency and invasive fungal disease (IFD) in hematologic malignancy patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. MBL levels were quantified at the start of treatment in 152 patients who were followed for 6 months and scored as developing IFD or not. Forty-five patients (29.6%) developed IFD, of which 21 (46.7% of IFD cases and 13.8% of patients) were proven or probable IFD. Fifty-nine (38.8%) had MBL levels <1000 ng/mL. The rates of all IFD in patients with MBL levels below and above 1000 ng/mL were 33.9% and 26.9%, respectively (P=0.356). The rates of proven or probable IFD in patients with MBL levels below and above 1000 ng/mL were 11.9% and 15.1%, respectively (P=0.579). MBL levels <1000 ng/mL were not predictors of death (P=0.233). As expected, IFD was associated with death (P<0.0001). Our findings indicate that MBL levels <1000 ng/mL were not associated with an increased risk of developing IFD or overall survival.

  15. Classical and lectin complement pathway activity in polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; Cats, Elisabeth A; Vlam, Lotte; Heezius, Erik; Rooijakkers, Suzan; Herpers, Bjorn; de Jong, Ben A W; Rijkers, Ger; van Strijp, Jos; Notermans, Nicolette C; van den Berg, Leonard H; van der Pol, W-Ludo

    2016-01-15

    Polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy (IgM-PNP) is a slowly progressive, sensorimotor neuropathy. It is assumed that complement activation contributes to IgM-PNP pathogenesis. We investigated whether innate differences in complement activity of the classical and mannose binding lectin (MBL) pathways are associated with IgM-PNP or its severity. We measured complement activity using ELISA and determined MBL serumc oncentrations and MBL gene polymorphisms in 83 patients and 83 healthy controls. We did not observe differences between IgM-PNP patients and healthy controls nor associations with different disease severities. Differences in innate complement activity are not likely to explain susceptibility to or severity of IgM-PNP.

  16. Multivalent 3D Display of Glycopolymer Chains for Enhanced Lectin Interaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kenneth; Kasko, Andrea M

    2015-08-19

    Synthetic glycoprotein conjugates were synthesized through the polymerization of glycomonomers (mannose and/or galactose acrylate) directly from a protein macroinitiator. This design combines the multivalency of polymer structures with 3D display of saccharides randomly arranged around a central protein structure. The conjugates were tested for their interaction with mannose binding lectin (MBL), a key protein of immune complement. Increasing mannose number (controlled through polymer chain length) and density (controlled through comonomer feed ratio of mannose versus galactose) result in greater interaction with MBL. Most significantly, mannose glycopolymers displayed in a multivalent and 3D configuration from the protein exhibit dramatically enhanced interaction with MBL compared to linear glycopolymer chains with similar total valency but lacking 3D display. These findings demonstrate the importance of the 3D presentation of ligand structures for designing biomimetic materials.

  17. Role of genetic polymorphisms in factor H and MBL genes in Tunisian patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gorgi, Yousr; Hbibi, Imen; Sfar, Imen; Gargueh, Tahar; Cherif, Majda; Goucha Louzir, Rim; Daghbouj, Raoudha; Aouadi, Houda; Makhlouf, Mouna; Ben Romdhane, Thouraya; Jendoubi-Ayed, Salwa; Amri, Mohamed; Kheder, Adel; Lakhoua, Mohaled R; Ben Abdallah, Taïeb; Ayed, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) remain poorly understood. Several different polymorphic genes have been investigated in order to demonstrate their possible association with this disease. It is evident that mainly alternative and lectin pathways complement activation and play an important role in renal injury of IgAN. This study was conducted to determine eventual deficiencies of factor H in the SCR20 gene region and to look for a possible association between the polymorphism (+54) exon 1 of the MBL gene and the predisposition in Tunisian patients with IgAN. We then evaluated the effects of these FH mutations and/or this MBL polymorphism on nephropathy susceptibility and progression. Polymorphism A/B (+54) in the exon1 of the MBL gene and analysis within the C-terminal domain of the protein SCR20 in the exon 22 of the factor H (FH) gene were conducted in 36 sporadic IgAN Tunisian patients and 117 age and gender matched healthy subjects recruited from blood donors, by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and direct sequencing respectively. The analysis of the Gly54Asp (+54) mutation of the MBL gene according to the criteria of gravity of the IgAN reveals that the patients with genotype AB present more frequently with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with those of genotype AA [OR: 8, CI (1.74–54.49), P = 0.019]. Moreover, the variant allele B was statistically more frequent than the allele A in patients with an association with initial arterial high blood pressure, ESRD and class V of the Haas classification compared to those without this association (P = 0.009). The direct sequencing of exon 22 (SCR 20) of FH gene did not reveal any abnormal mutational deficiency for this factor in all patients and controls. The data did not support the hypothesis that FH is a susceptibility factor for the IgAN. However the data did show there was an association between AB (+54) exon1 MBL genotype and severe

  18. Genetic and Phenotypic Screening of Mannose-Binding Lectin in Relation to Risk of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Infections in Women of North India: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Namarta; Singh, Jatinder; Sharma, Sujata; Arora, Hardesh; Kaur, Manpreet

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent Vulvovaginal Infections (RVVI) is common problem associated with women of reproductive age. The function and deleterious effect of Mannose Binding Lectin 2 (MBL2) common polymorphisms are reported to be associated with various diseases. However, the role of MBL2 promoter gene polymorphisms and their combined effect with structural variant along with Serum Mannose Binding Lectin (sMBL) levels in RVVI has not been investigated. The study included 258 RVVI cases and 203 age matched healthy controls. These were investigated for the distribution of MBL2 codon 54 and promoter polymorphisms by Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR). sMBL levels were quantified by Enzyme Linked Immnosorbent Assay (ELISA). The frequency of X allele and its genotypes was significantly high in cases than controls conferring risk toward RVVI and its types (p < 0.05). The HXPA (OR; 2.0), LXQB (OR; 1.43) haplotypes were associated with susceptibility to RVVI cases while haplotype LYQB significantly protected against RVVI (OR; 0.58), Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) (OR; 0.27) and Mixed Infections (MI) cases (OR; 0.62) with high frequency observed in controls (p < 0.05). Mean sMBL levels were significantly low in RVVI, BV, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC), and MI cases compared to controls (p < 0.05). VVC patient showed significantly low sMBL levels than RVVI and MI cases (p < 0.05). The mean sMBL levels segregated based on MBL2 genotypes and haplotypes showed significant difference in different cases groups with controls. The findings of the present study suggested that MBL2 Y/X polymorphism and low sMBL levels were associated with susceptibility to RVVI either it is BV, VVC, or MI. Thus MBL deficiency in women with RVVI may contribute to decreased efficiency in clearing of pathogens. Hence, specific measures like administration of purified or recombinant MBL might decrease the incidence of vaginal infections recurrences and more-effective treatment. PMID

  19. The bacteria binding glycoprotein salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp340) activates complement via the lectin pathway.

    PubMed

    Leito, Jelani T D; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; van Houdt, Michel; van den Berg, Timo K; Wouters, Diana

    2011-10-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), also known as gp-340 and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1, is a glycoprotein that is present in tears, lung fluid and mucosal surfaces along the gastrointestinal tract. It is encoded by the Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 gene, a member of the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich group B protein superfamily. SAG aggregates bacteria thus promoting their clearance from the oral cavity and activates the complement system. Complement proteins may enter the oral cavity in case of serum leakage, which occurs after mucosal damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mode of complement activation. We showed a dose-dependent C4 deposition on SAG-coated microplates showing that either the classical or lectin pathway of complement was activated. Antibodies against mannose binding lectin inhibited C4 deposition and SAG induced no C4 deposition in MBL deficient sera showing SAG activated complement through the MBL pathway. Periodate treatment of SAG abolished MBL pathway activation consistent with an involvement of SAG glycans in complement activation. This provides the first evidence for a role of SAG in complement activation through the MBL pathway and suggests a potential role of SAG as a complement activating factor at the mucosal epithelia.

  20. Direct Complement Restriction of Flavivirus Infection Requires Glycan Recognition by Mannose Binding Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Anja; Lin, Tsai-Yu; Beasley, David W.; Stover, Cordula M.; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Pierson, Theodore C.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY An intact complement system is crucial for limiting West Nile virus (WNV) dissemination. Herein, we define how complement directly restricts flavivirus infection in an antibody-independent fashion. Mannose binding lectin (MBL) recognized N-linked glycans on the structural proteins of WNV and Dengue virus (DENV), resulting in neutralization through a C3 and C4-dependent mechanism that utilized both the canonical and bypass lectin activation pathways. For WNV, neutralization occurred with virus produced in insect cells, whereas for DENV, neutralization of insect and mammalian cell-derived virus was observed. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the MBL-dependent neutralization occurred in part, by blocking viral fusion. Experiments in mice showed an MBL-dependent accelerated intravascular clearance of DENV or a WNV mutant with two N-linked glycans on its E protein, but not with wild type WNV. Our studies show that MBL recognizes terminal mannose containing carbohydrates on flaviviruses, resulting in neutralization and efficient clearance in vivo. PMID:20709295

  1. Large Capacitance Measurement by Multiple Uses of MBL Charge Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung Sook; Chae, Min; Kim, Jung Bog

    2010-01-01

    A recent article by Morse described interesting electrostatics experiments using an MBL charge sensor. In this application, the charge sensor has a large capacitance compared to the charged test object, so nearly all charges can be transferred to the sensor capacitor from the capacitor to be measured. However, the typical capacitance of commercial…

  2. Mannose-binding lectin genotypes: potential role in tubal damage and adverse IVF outcome.

    PubMed

    Laisk, Triin; Peters, Maire; Salumets, Andres

    2011-12-01

    The innate immune system provides the first-line defence against genital tract pathogens and is also involved in establishing and maintaining a successful pregnancy. Genetic variation of factors regulating immune response can be associated with complications after genital tract infections and may lead to unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. This study focused on four polymorphisms in the mannose binding lectin gene (MBL2) and assessed their significance in tubal damage and female fertility by comparing genotype frequencies among 388 controls and women with tubal factor infertility (n=155) or previous ectopic pregnancy (n=178). The high-producing MBL2 genotype HYA/LYA was found to have a protective effect, while the hyper-producing MBL2 genotype HYA/HYA and low-producing MBL2 genotypes were associated with susceptibility to tubal factor infertility. Also, the low-producing genotypes showed association with early pregnancy loss in IVF treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that certain MBL2 genotypes can be associated with tubal damage in patients with evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and additionally may contribute to the pathogenesis of early pregnancy loss.

  3. Smoking status interacts with the association between mannose-binding lectin serum levels and gene polymorphism and the carriage of oropharyngeal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jounio, Ulla; Rantala, Aino; Bloigu, Aini; Juvonen, Raija; Lajunen, Taina; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, Sylvi; Peitso, Ari; Vainio, Olli; Harju, Terttu; Saukkoriipi, Annika; Leinonen, Maija

    2010-03-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) role in the carriage of oropharyngeal bacteria is not known. We investigated the association of smoking, MBL2 polymorphisms, and MBL concentrations with oropharyngeal carriage of respiratory bacteria in young men. Oropharyngeal specimens, MBL concentrations, and MBL2 gene polymorphisms were measured in 124 asthmatic and 394 nonasthmatic Finnish military recruits. The carriage rates of S. pneumoniae (p = 0.002), N. meningitidis (p = 0.005), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (p < 0.001) throughout the military service were significantly higher among smokers than in nonsmokers. An MBL level below the median proved to be a significant risk factor for the carriage of N. meningitidis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.6) and beta-hemolytic streptococci (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.2) in the nonsmokers and a borderline significant risk factor for the carriage of S. pneumoniae (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 0.9-2.6), whereas low MBL levels producing MBL2 haplotypes (LXA/LXA, LXA/O, HYA/O, LYA/O, O/O) seemed to be associated with the carriage of N. meningitidis (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.4) and S. pneumoniae (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.9-2.7). Thus, MBL deficiency may predispose nonsmokers to oropharyngeal carriage of these bacteria. We hypothesize that the major factor contributing to elevated bacterial carriage in smokers might be increased bacterial adherence to epithelial cells, which obscures the effect of MBL.

  4. Levels of mannose-binding lectin in individuals with visceral leishmaniasis in the northeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E L; Campos Júnior, M; Monteiro, S G; Costa, G C; Magalhães, A L P; Santos, M D C; Caldas, A J M; Pimentel, M M G

    2015-12-29

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the seven priority endemic diseases in the world. The clinical outcome of many infections is not only dependent on the pathogenic organism, but also on the genetic variability of the host susceptibility to infection. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a protein that plays an important role in the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of MBL between healthy controls and carriers of VL. The VL cases were recruited randomly from the main hospitals and referral outpatient clinics for VL in São Luís, and from home visits. Determination of MBL protein levels was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 161 patients with VL and the 161 healthy controls, 60.9 and 67.1% had high levels of MBL, respectively. There was no significant difference in MBL levels between cases and controls. Low socioeconomic status and living conditions are conducive to the occurrence of VL. Owing to the small number of existing studies, it is extremely important to conduct further studies on MBL levels and susceptibility to VL, especially in regions where the disease is endemic, such as Maranhão, Brazil.

  5. Association between mannose-binding lectin variants, haplotypes and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chenghao; Lin, Yong; Cai, Lin; Mao, Qianguo; Niu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    The innate immunity gene mannose-binding lectin2 (MBL2) has played an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and the relationship between MBL2 variants and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk has not yet been identified. In total, 315 HCC cases and 315 healthy controls were enrolled and blood samples were acquired. High resolution melt analysis (HRM) was employed to genotype 6 polymorphisms in MBL2 gene. Increased HCC risk in carriers of LL genotype of −550 polymorphism with an adjusted OR (AOR) of 1.61 (95%CI = 1.00–2.57) was observed but no significant association detected in HL genotype. Both YX and XX genotype demonstrated a significantly elevated HCC risk in the analysis of −221 polymorphism. The B variants in codon 54 was also significantly associated with elevated HCC risk. HYB was identified as the protective factor of HCC while LXB was significantly associated with increase HCC risk. ELISA technique revealed that the MBL2 protein was significantly reduced in HCC cases. Moreover, both IL-1β and IL-6 were inversely associated with plasma MBL2 level.The mutations in MBL2 could lead to compromised innate immunity, and possibly lead to elevated HCC risk, and a novel haplotype HXB has been identified with a rate of 12.5%. PMID:27557564

  6. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M; Ryan, Christopher M; Johnson, Patricia J; O'Keefe, Barry R; Secor, W Evan; Anderson, Deborah J; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas.

  7. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Johnson, Patricia J.; O’Keefe, Barry R.; Secor, W. Evan; Anderson, Deborah J.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas. PMID:26252012

  8. Cyborg lectins: novel leguminous lectins with unique specificities.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Maruyama, I N; Osawa, T

    2000-01-01

    Bauhinia purpurea lectin (BPA) is one of the beta-galactose-binding leguminous lectins. Leguminous lectins contain a long metal-binding loop, part of which determines their carbohydrate-binding specificities. Random mutations were introduced into a portion of the cDNA coding BPA that corresponds to the carbohydrate-binding loop of the lectin. An library of the mutant lectin expressed on the surface of lambda foo phages was screened by the panning method. Several phage clones with an affinity for mannose or N-acetylglucosamine were isolated. These results indicate the possibility of making artificial lectins (so-called "cyborg lectins") with distinct and desired carbohydrate-binding specificities.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel lectin from the mushroom Armillaria luteo-virens

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, K.; Liu, Q.H.; Ng, T.B.; Liu, H.Z.; Li, J.Q.; Chen, G.; Sheng, H.Y.; Xie, Z.L.; Wang, H.X. . E-mail: hxwang@cau.edu.cn

    2006-07-14

    From the dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Armillaria luteo-virens, a dimeric lectin with a molecular mass of 29.4 kDa has been isolated. The purification procedure involved (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, and Q-Sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin could not be inhibited by simple sugars but was inhibited by the polysaccharide inulin. The activity was stable up to 70 {sup o}C but was acid- and alkali-labile. Salts including FeCl{sub 3}, AlCl{sub 3}, and ZnCl{sub 2} inhibited the activity whereas MgCl{sub 2}, MnCl{sub 2}, and CaCl{sub 2} did not. The lectin stimulated mitogenic response of mouse splenocytes with the maximal response achieved by 1 {mu}M lectin. Proliferation of tumor cells including MBL2 cells, HeLa cells, and L1210 cells was inhibited by the lectin with an IC{sub 5} of 2.5, 5, and 10 {mu}M, respectively. However, proliferation of HepG2 cells was not affected. The novel aspects of the isolated lectin include a novel N-terminal sequence, fair thermostability, acid stability, and alkali stability, together with potent mitogenic activity toward spleen cells and antiproliferative activity toward tumor cells.

  10. Frequent IgG subclass and mannose binding lectin deficiency in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Sabrina; Loebel, Madlen; Mooslechner, Agnes A; Knops, Michael; Hanitsch, Leif G; Grabowski, Patricia; Wittke, Kirsten; Meisel, Christian; Unterwalder, Nadine; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a severe disease characterized by various symptoms of immune dysfunction. CFS onset is typically with an infection and many patients suffer from frequently recurrent viral or bacterial infections. Immunoglobulin and mannose binding lectin (MBL) deficiency are frequent causes for increased susceptibility to infections. In this study we retrospectively analysed 300 patients with CFS for immunoglobulin and MBL levels, and B-cell subset frequencies. 25% of the CFS patients had decreased serum levels of at least one antibody class or subclass with IgG3 and IgG4 subclass deficiencies as most common phenotypes. However, we found elevated immunoglobulin levels with an excess of IgM and IgG2 in particular in another 25% of patients. No major alteration in numbers of B cells and B-cell subsets was seen. Deficiency of MBL was found in 15% of the CFS patients in contrast to 6% in a historical control group. In a 2nd cohort of 168 patients similar frequencies of IgG subclass and MBL deficiency were found. Thus, humoral immune defects are frequent in CFS patients and are associated with infections of the respiratory tract.

  11. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphic variants predispose to the development of bronchopulmonary complications but have no influence on other clinical and laboratory symptoms or signs of common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Litzman, J; Freiberger, T; Grimbacher, B; Gathmann, B; Salzer, U; Pavlík, T; Vlček, J; Postránecká, V; Trávníčková, Z; Thon, V

    2008-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), activating protein of the lectin pathway of the complement system, is an important component of the non-specific immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms, both in the coding and promoter regions, lead to low or deficient serum MBL levels. Low serum MBL levels were shown to be associated with serious infectious complications, mainly in patients in whom other non-specific immune system barriers were disturbed (granulocytopenia, cystic fibrosis). We have analysed two promoter (−550 and −221) and three exon (codons 52, 54 and 57) MBL2 polymorphisms in a total of 94 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) from two immunodeficiency centres. Low-producing genotypes were associated with the presence of bronchiectasis (P = 0·009), lung fibrosis (P = 0·037) and also with respiratory insufficiency (P = 0·029). We could not demonstrate any association of MBL deficiency with age at onset of clinical symptoms, age at diagnosis, the number of pneumonias before diagnosis or serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA and IgM levels before initiation of Ig treatment. No association with emphysema development was observed, such as with lung function test abnormalities. No effect of MBL2 genotypes on the presence of diarrhoea, granuloma formation, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, frequency of respiratory tract infection or the number of antibiotic courses of the patients was observed. Our study suggests that low MBL-producing genotypes predispose to bronchiectasis formation, and also fibrosis and respiratory insufficiency development, but have no effect on other complications in CVID patients. PMID:18637104

  12. Lectins with anti-HIV activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Akkouh, Ouafae; Ng, Tzi Bun; Singh, Senjam Sunil; Yin, Cuiming; Dan, Xiuli; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wenliang; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai

    2015-01-06

    Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin) lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana) lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus). The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Lectin affinity electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    An interaction or a binding event typically changes the electrophoretic properties of a molecule. Affinity electrophoresis methods detect changes in the electrophoretic pattern of molecules (mainly macromolecules) that occur as a result of biospecific interactions or complex formation. Lectin affinity electrophoresis is a very effective method for the detection and analysis of trace amounts of glycobiological substances. It is particularly useful for isolating and separating the glycoisomers of target molecules. Here, we describe a sensitive technique for the detection of glycoproteins separated by agarose gel-lectin affinity electrophoresis that uses antibody-affinity blotting. The technique is tested using α-fetoprotein with lectin (Lens culinaris agglutinin and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin)-agarose gels.

  14. Immunogenetics shows that not all MBL are equal: the larger the clone, the more similar to CLL.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Anna; Dagklis, Antonis; Scarfò, Lydia; Jelinek, Diane; Newton, Darren; Bennett, Fiona; Almeida, Julia; Rodriguez-Caballero, Arancha; Allgood, Sallie; Lanasa, Mark; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Orlandi, Ester; Veronese, Silvio; Montillo, Marco; Rawstron, Andy; Shanafelt, Tait; Orfao, Alberto; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Ghia, Paolo

    2013-05-30

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) -like monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) shares common immunophenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities with CLL, from which it is discriminated by a cutoff value of 5 × 10(9)/L circulating clonal B cells. However, the clonal size in MBL is extremely variable and allows discrimination of two distinct entities (high-count [HC] and low-count [LC]-MBL) based on a cutoff value of 0.5 × 10(9)/L clonal B cells. HC-MBL is associated with lymphocytosis and progresses to CLL requiring treatment at a rate of 1.1% per year, whereas LC-MBL is found in the general population only through high-sensitivity techniques and carries limited, if any, risk of progression. We performed an immunogenetic profiling of 333 cases with CLL-like MBL supplemented by detailed comparisons with CLL, focusing especially on CLL Rai stage 0 (CLL-0). LC- and HC-MBL had similar somatic hypermutation status, yet different IGHV gene repertoires and frequencies of B-cell receptor (BcR) stereotypy. In particular, stereotyped BcRs were infrequent in LC-MBL and were often not CLL specific. In contrast, HC-MBL exhibited clear immunogenetic similarities to CLL-0. These findings indicate that LC-MBL may not represent a true preleukemic condition, thus differing from HC-MBL/CLL-0 in which the identification of factors endowing malignant potential is strongly warranted.

  15. Lectin typing of Campylobacter isolates.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, N; Benjamin, J; Skirrow, M B

    1990-01-01

    Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni, C coli, C fetus and C laridis were tested for agglutination reactions with a panel of five lectins: Arachis hypogaea, Bauhinia purpurea, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum vulgaris and Wisteria floribunda. Twenty three patterns of agglutination (lectin types) were recorded among 376 isolates. Patterns were consistent and reproducible. Only 4.5% of isolates were untypable because of autoagglutination. Some lectin types were found exclusively or predominantly in a species, but others were shared between species. Forty two per cent of C jejuni and 35% of C coli isolates belonged to lectin type 4. There was no apparent correlation between lectin type and serotype; different lectin types were found among strains of single Penner and Lior serotypes. Lectin typing is a simple and economical procedure suitable for use in non-specialist laboratories, either as an adjunct to serogrouping or, after further development, as a sole typing scheme. PMID:2262570

  16. Variants of the mannose-binding lectin gene in the Benin population: heterozygosity for the p.G57E allele may confer a selective advantage.

    PubMed

    Dossou-Yovo, Omer Placide; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Hauchecorne, Michelle; Zaccaria, Isabelle; Ducrocq, Rolande; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Rahimy, Mohamed Chérif; Elion, Jacques

    2007-12-01

    Human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with mutations in the promoter region and in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. Such deficiency has been correlated with elevated incidence of infections in infancy and in immunocompromised adults. We determined the distribution profile of the MBL2 gene variants in the general population of Benin (West Africa) and in a vulnerable subset of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) (SS homozygotes). Five hundred forty-two healthy individuals (274 newborns, 268 adults) and 128 patients with SCD (35 newborns, 93 children) were screened for the common variant alleles in the MBL2 secretor haplotype region (exon 1 and promoter). The p.G57E variant allele was the most frequent allele compared to p.G54D (27.5% vs. 1.6%, respectively). The p.R52C allele was not found in this population. There was no difference in allele or genotype frequencies between healthy newborns and newborns with SCD. Alleles associated with MBL deficiency were more frequent in adults than in newborns (69.8% vs. 57.3%, respectively; p = 0.002). This enrichment was exclusively due to an elevated proportion of heterozygotes for the p.G57E allele (47.0% vs. 35.3%, respectively; p = 0.004), supporting a potential selective advantage of this genotype. Our results, compared to those reported in other African countries, support the implication of the MBL2 gene in various major infections in Africa, such as meningitis and tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients.

  17. Variants of the mannose-binding lectin gene in the Benin population: heterozygosity for the p.G57E allele may confer a selective advantage. 2007.

    PubMed

    Dossou-Yovo, Omer Placide; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Hauchecorne, Michelle; Zaccaria, Isabelle; Ducrocq, Rolande; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Rahimy, Mohamed Chérif; Elion, Jacques

    2009-12-01

    Human mannose- binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with mutations in the promoter region and in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. Such deficiency has been correlated with elevated incidence of infections in infancy and in immunocompromised adults. We determined the distribution profile of the MBL2 gene variants in the general population of Benin (West Africa) and in a vulnerable subset of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) (SS homozygotes). Five hundred forty-two healthy individuals (274 newborns, 268 adults) and 128 patients with SCD (35 newborns, 93 children) were screened for the common variant alleles in the MBL2 secretor haplotype region (exon 1 and promoter). The p.G57E variant allele was the most frequent allele compared to p.G54D (27.5% vs. 1.6%, respectively). The p.R52C allele was not found in this population. There was no difference in allele or genotype frequencies between healthy newborns and newborns with SCD. Alleles associated with MBL deficiency were more frequent in adults than in newborns (69.8% vs. 57.3%, respectively; p=0.002). This enrichment was exclusively due to an elevated proportion of heterozygotes for the p.G57E allele (47.0% vs. 35.3%,respectively; p=0.004), supporting a potential selective advantage of this genotype. Our results, compared to those reported in other African countries, support the implication of the MBL2 gene in various major infections in Africa, such as meningitis and tuberculosis in HIV- positive patients.

  18. Conidiogenic effects of mannose-binding lectins isolated from cotyledons of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Hossein; Leung, David W M; Cole, Anthony L J

    2011-01-01

    Effect of proteinaceous extracts from red kidney bean cotyledons on mycelium of Alternaria alternata growing on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates was investigated. Unexpectedly, conidia formation was induced in response to applied crude extracts. A PDA disc method was developed to quantify conidia formed. A purified fraction retaining conidiation inducing effect (CIE) was obtained following several protein purification procedures including the last step of eluting bound proteins from an Affi-gel blue gel column. Based on MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization) mass spectrometric analysis, a previously identified mannose-binding lectin (MBL) called PvFRIL (Phaseolus vulgaris fetal liver tyrosine kinase 3-receptor interacting lectin) was present in this conidiation inducing fraction. The PvFRIL was subsequently purified using a single step mannose-agarose affinity column chromatography. When the lectin was applied exogenously to A. alternata, increased conidiation resulted. The conidia produced in response to the MBL were similar to those induced by other methods and their germ tubes were longer after 12 h growth than those induced under white light. To our knowledge this is the first report of exogenous application of a PvFRIL or another purified protein from a plant inducing conidia formation in a fungus.

  19. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  20. Glycan and lectin biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Belický, Štefan; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    A short description about the importance of glycan biorecognition in physiological (blood cell type) and pathological processes (infections by human and avian influenza viruses) is provided in this review. Glycans are described as much better information storage media, compared to proteins or DNA, due to the extensive variability of glycan structures. Techniques able to detect an exact glycan structure are briefly discussed with the main focus on the application of lectins (glycan-recognising proteins) in the specific analysis of glycans still attached to proteins or cells/viruses. Optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric and micromechanical biosensors with immobilised lectins or glycans able to detect a wide range of analytes including whole cells/viruses are also discussed. PMID:27365034

  1. MASP-3 is the exclusive pro-factor D activator in resting blood: the lectin and the alternative complement pathways are fundamentally linked

    PubMed Central

    Dobó, József; Szakács, Dávid; Oroszlán, Gábor; Kortvely, Elod; Kiss, Bence; Boros, Eszter; Szász, Róbert; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Pál, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    MASP-3 was discovered 15 years ago as the third mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease of the complement lectin pathway. Lacking any verified substrate its role remained ambiguous. MASP-3 was shown to compete with a key lectin pathway enzyme MASP-2 for MBL binding, and was therefore considered to be a negative complement regulator. Later, knock-out mice experiments suggested that MASP-1 and/or MASP-3 play important roles in complement pro-factor D (pro-FD) maturation. However, studies on a MASP-1/MASP-3-deficient human patient produced contradicting results. In normal resting blood unperturbed by ongoing coagulation or complement activation, factor D is present predominantly in its active form, suggesting that resting blood contains at least one pro-FD activating proteinase that is not a direct initiator of coagulation or complement activation. We have recently showed that all three MASPs can activate pro-FD in vitro. In resting blood, however, using our previously evolved MASP-1 and MASP-2 inhibitors we proved that neither MASP-1 nor MASP-2 activates pro-FD. Other plasma proteinases, particularly MASP-3, remained candidates for that function. For this study we evolved a specific MASP-3 inhibitor and unambiguously proved that activated MASP-3 is the exclusive pro-FD activator in resting blood, which demonstrates a fundamental link between the lectin and alternative pathways. PMID:27535802

  2. Untwisting the mystery of supercoiling: Mbl configuration in growing bacterial filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sulav; Setlow, Barbara; Setlow, Peter; Wolgemuth, Charles

    2005-03-01

    Bacillus subtilis, a commonly studied prokaryote form long filaments, or chains of cells, when the cells fail to separate upon replication. These mutants undergo supercoiling where the bacterial filament buckles and wraps about itself like an over-twisted phone cord. It has long been supposed that twisting stress is generated in the cell wall during growth and causes this coiling. But, the twisting mechanism has remained an enigma. A recently discovered actin-like protein, Mbl, forms helical structures under the cell wall and controls cell morphogenesis in B. subtilis. Based on these findings, a new model suggests how these helical structures could lead to supercoiling. We report here experiments connecting growth, Mbl structure, and supercoiling. We have studied the helical pitch of the Mbl under regular growth conditions, various concentrations of xylose, and under the influence of different concentrations of ammonium and magnesium. These experiments demonstrate how growth effects the configuration of the Mbl cables and suggest that growth induced deformation of the Mbl cables generate twist in the filaments, which eventually leads to supercoiling in bacterial filaments.

  3. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance, susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri and levels of mannose binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brian C; Peatman, E; Ourth, D D; Waldbieser, G C

    2015-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE; containing the essential oils carvacrol, thymol, anethol, and limonene) on growth performance and disease susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Two hundred and fifty juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (7.2 ± 0.1 g) were allotted into the following treatments: Control (floating diet) and EO (floating diet supplemented with essential oils). The fish were fed their respective diets for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, all fish were exposed to virulent E. ictaluri by bath immersion (1.9 × 10(7) cfu/mL; final concentration). Plasma and tissue samples were taken to quantify protein and mRNA expression levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL). Weight gain and food conversion ratio were similar between treatments. After exposing fish to virulent E. ictaluri and monitoring mortality for 21 days, survival was 43% higher (69.5 vs 48.4%) in fish fed EO compared to fish not treated with EO (P < 0.05). One day after challenge, plasma MBL levels were down-regulated in the non-treated fish compared to non-challenged fish. In the EO fish, MBL levels were similar to non-challenged fish but significantly higher than non-treated fed fish (P < 0.001). By d 7, plasma MBL levels increased in non-treated fed fish to levels observed in the EO and non-challenged fish. On d 14, MBL mRNA levels were upregulated 15-fold in fish fed EO compared to non-treated fed fish and non-challenged fish (P < 0.001). The results demonstrate that essential oils improved survival of channel catfish challenged with E. ictaluri. Mechanisms through which essential oils improve survival may involve MBL.

  4. Limited effect of recombinant human mannose-binding lectin on the infection of novel influenza A (H7N9) virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlei; Cao, Yang; Qin, Kun; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Donghong; Li, Zi; Xin, Li; Shu, Yuelong; Zhou, Jianfang

    2015-02-27

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern-recognition molecule in serum, recognizes specific hexose sugars rich in mannose and N-acetylglucosamine on bacterium, yeasts, viruses as well as apoptotic cells. It has been well-identified that MBL has antiviral effects via binding to seasonal influenza H1 and H3 subtype viruses. Influenza A (H7N9) virus, a novel reassortant virus to human population, possesses the surface hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from duck and wild-bird influenza viruses and internal genes from poultry H9N2 viruses. As of Dec 7th, 2014, a total of 467 human infections and 183 fatal cases have been identified. Here, recombinant human (rh) MBL was tested for its binding and effects on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and NA activity inhibition (NAI) of avian H7N9, H9N2 and human H3N2 viruses. We discovered that rhMBL exhibited a strong binding to H7N9 virus as human H3N2 did at high virus titers. However, it performed a significantly weaker HI activity effect on H7N9 comparing to those of H3N2 and H9N2, even at a much higher concentration (3.67 ± 0.33 vs. 0.026 ± 0.001 and 0.083 ± 0.02 μg/mL, respectively). Similarly, minor NAI effect of rhMBL, even at up to 10 μg/mL, was found on H7N9 virus while it displayed significant effects on both H3N2 and H9N2 at a lowest concentration of 0.0807 ± 0.009 and 0.0625 μg/mL, respectively. The HI and NAI effects of rhMBL were calcium-dependent and mediated by lectin domain. Our findings suggest that MBL, the host innate molecule, has differential interference effects with human and avian influenza virus and limited antiviral effect against H7N9 virus.

  5. Lectins and Tetrahymena - A review.

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2016-09-01

    The unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena is a complete organism, one of the most highly developed protozoans, which has specialized organelles performing each of the functions characteristic to the cells of higher ranked animals. It is also able to produce, store, and secrete hormones of higher ranked animals and also react to them. It produces lectins that can bind them and has functions, which are influenced by exogenous lectins. The review lists the observations on the relationship between lectins and Tetrahymena and try to construe them on the basis of the data, which are at our disposal. Considering the data, lectins can be used by Tetrahymena as materials for influencing conjugation, for stimulating hormone receptors, and by this, mimic the hormonal functions. Lectins can influence phagocytosis and movement of the cells as well as the cell division. As Tetrahymena can recognize both related and hostile cells by the help of lectins and surface sugars, it could be surmised a complex predator-prey system. This could determine the survival of the population as well as the nourishment conditions. When Tetrahymena is pathogenic, it can use lectins as virulence factors.

  6. MBL-II-141, a chromone derivative, enhances irinotecan (CPT-11) anticancer efficiency in ABCG2-positive xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Honorat, Mylène; Guitton, Jérôme; Gauthier, Charlotte; Bouard, Charlotte; Lecerf-Schmidt, Florine; Peres, Basile; Terreux, Raphaël; Gervot, Héloïse; Rioufol, Catherine; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Puisieux, Alain; Di Pietro, Attilio; Payen, Léa

    2014-01-01

    ABCG2 is responsible for the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, and strongly modulates cancer outcomes. Its high expression at a number of physiological barriers, including blood-brain and intestinal barriers, impacts on drug pharmacokinetics parameters. We characterized MBL-II-141, a specific and potent ABCG2 inhibitor. Combination of 10 mg/kg MBL-II-141 with the anticancer agent CPT-11 completely blocked the growth of 90% freshly implanted ABCG2-positive tumors. Moreover, the same combination slowed the growth of already established tumors. As required for preclinical development, we defined the main pharmacokinetics parameters of MBL-II-141 and its influence on the kinetics of CPT-11 and its active metabolite SN-38 in mice. MBL-II-141 distribution into the brain occurred at a low, but detectable, level. Interestingly, preliminary data suggested that MBL-II-141 is well tolerated (at 50 mg/kg) and absorbed upon force-feeding. MBL-II-141 induced a potent sensitization of ABCG2-positive xenografts to CPT-11 through in vivo ABCG2 inhibition. MBL-II-141 strongly increased CPT-11 levels in the brain, and therefore would be a valuable agent to improve drug distribution into the brain to efficiently treat aggressive gliomas. Safety and other pharmacological data strongly support the reglementary preclinical development of MBL-II-141. PMID:25474134

  7. Integrating Physics and Math through Microcomputer-Based Laboratories (MBL): Effects on Discourse Type, Quality, and Mathematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma B.; Jurdak, Murad E.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to understand the nature of discourse in terms of knowledge types and cognitive process, source of utterances (student or teacher), and time use in microcomputer-based labs (MBL) and verification type labs (VTL) and to gain an understanding of the role of MBL in promoting mathematization. The study was conducted in…

  8. The Global Challenge in Neuroscience Education and Training: The MBL Perspective.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Rae; Castañeda, Edward; Davis, Graeme W; Fenton, André A; Hofmann, Hans A; King, Jean; Ryan, Timothy A; Trujillo, Keith A

    2016-11-02

    The greatest challenge in moving neuroscience research forward in the 21st century is recruiting, training, and retaining the brightest, rigorous, and most diverse scientists. The MBL research training courses Neurobiology and Neural Systems & Behavior, and the Summer Program in Neuroscience, Excellence, and Success provide a model for full immersion, discovery-based training while enhancing cultural, geographic, and racial diversity.

  9. Use of lectins in immunohematology

    PubMed Central

    Gorakshakar, Ajit C.; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins present in seeds of many plants, especially corals and beans, in fungi and bacteria, and in animals. Apart from their hemagglutinating property, a wide range of functions have been attributed to them. Their importance in the area of immunohematology is immense. They are used to detect specific red cell antigens, to activate different types of lymphocytes, in order to resolve problems related to polyagglutination and so on. The introduction of advanced biotechnological tools generates new opportunities to exploit the properties of lectins, which were not used earlier. Stem cell research is a very important area in transplant medicine. Certain lectins detect surface markers of stem cell. Hence, they are used to understand the developmental biology of stem cells. The role of various lectins in the areas of transfusion and transplant medicine is discussed in detail in this review. PMID:27011665

  10. Murine Hyperglycemic Vasculopathy and Cardiomyopathy: Whole-Genome Gene Expression Analysis Predicts Cellular Targets and Regulatory Networks Influenced by Mannose Binding Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Chenhui; La Bonte, Laura R.; Pavlov, Vasile I.; Stahl, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, in the absence of type 1 or 2 diabetes, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have previously demonstrated a central role for mannose binding lectin (MBL)-mediated cardiac dysfunction in acute hyperglycemic mice. In this study, we applied whole-genome microarray data analysis to investigate MBL’s role in systematic gene expression changes. The data predict possible intracellular events taking place in multiple cellular compartments such as enhanced insulin signaling pathway sensitivity, promoted mitochondrial respiratory function, improved cellular energy expenditure and protein quality control, improved cytoskeleton structure, and facilitated intracellular trafficking, all of which may contribute to the organismal health of MBL null mice against acute hyperglycemia. Our data show a tight association between gene expression profile and tissue function which might be a very useful tool in predicting cellular targets and regulatory networks connected with in vivo observations, providing clues for further mechanistic studies. PMID:22375142

  11. One-dimensional photochemical study of H2O2, CH3OOH, and HCHO in the marine boundary (MBL) layer (MBL) during PEM-TROPICS (B)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Lee, M.; Heikes, B.

    2003-04-01

    This study was motivated by the discrepancies found between observational data, collected in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during several large scale field campaigns, and photochemical model simulations appropriate to these campaigns. In particular, for chemical species (H( 2 )O( 2 ), CH( 3 )OOH, and HCHO) theory and measurement remain unresolved. The temporal and spatial distribution and behavior of these key species indicates they are subject to chemical and physical processes such as gas-phase chemistry, scavenging by seasalt particles, seasalt aerosol chemistry involving halogen species, air-sea gas exchange, and FT-MBL exchange. We attempted to resolve the previous disagreements and to identify dominant processes controlling the species by incorporating of these processes into a single model. A one-dimensional photochemical model was developed and verified against observational data from PEM-Tropics (B). A series of model simulations were conducted with varied chemical schemes and material boundary flux conditions. The results highlighted that two processes; the FT-to-MBL O( 3 ) transport and dry deposition critically influence the abundance of H( 2 )O( 2 ), CH( 3 )OOH, and HCHO. This study also demonstrated that gas-phase chemistry alone with rationalized fluxes was capable of capturing the behavior of CH( 3 )OOH and HCHO and other processes, including scavenging by seasalt particles and seasalt aerosol chemistry involving halogen species, were found to be negligible under conditions of this study. There was a general agreement between the observations and theory for O( 3 ), OH, CH( 3 )OOH, HCHO, and NO( x ). However, there remain gaps for H( 2 )O( 2 ). By taking into account a wet removal rate of 1( × )10( -5 ) s( -1 ), the model could reproduce the observation.

  12. Heparin-coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits selectively deplete the pattern recognition molecule ficolin-2 of the lectin complement pathway in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hein, E; Munthe-Fog, L; Thiara, A S; Fiane, A E; Mollnes, T E; Garred, P

    2015-02-01

    The complement system can be activated via the lectin pathway by the recognition molecules mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and the ficolins. Ficolin-2 exhibits binding against a broad range of ligands, including biomaterials in vitro, and low ficolin-2 levels are associated with increased risk of infections. Thus, we investigated the biocompatibility of the recognition molecules of the lectin pathway in two different types of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits. Bloods were drawn at five time-points before, during and postoperatively from 30 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups using different coatings of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits, Phisio® (phosphorylcholine polymer coating) and Bioline® (albumin-heparin coating). Concentrations of MBL, ficolin-1, -2 and -3 and soluble C3a and terminal complement complex (TCC) in plasma samples were measured. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was evaluated with C4, C3 and TCC as output. There was no significant difference between the two circuit materials regarding MBL, ficolin-1 and -3. In the Bioline® group the ficolin-2 levels decreased significantly after initiation of surgery (P < 0.0001) and remained reduced throughout the sampling period. This was not seen for Phisio®-coated circuits. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was reduced significantly in both groups after start of operation (P < 0.0001), whereas soluble C3a and TCC in the samples were increased (P < 0.0001). Ficolin-2 was depleted from plasma during cardiac surgery when using heparin-coated bypass circuits and did not reach baseline level 24 h postoperation. These findings may have implications for the postoperative susceptibility to infections in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation procedures.

  13. Genotypic Prediction of Co-receptor Tropism of HIV-1 Subtypes A and C.

    PubMed

    Riemenschneider, Mona; Cashin, Kieran Y; Budeus, Bettina; Sierra, Saleta; Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Elham; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Kaiser, Rolf; Gorry, Paul R; Heider, Dominik

    2016-04-29

    Antiretroviral treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infections with CCR5-antagonists requires the co-receptor usage prediction of viral strains. Currently available tools are mostly designed based on subtype B strains and thus are in general not applicable to non-B subtypes. However, HIV-1 infections caused by subtype B only account for approximately 11% of infections worldwide. We evaluated the performance of several sequence-based algorithms for co-receptor usage prediction employed on subtype A V3 sequences including circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and subtype C strains. We further analysed sequence profiles of gp120 regions of subtype A, B and C to explore functional relationships to entry phenotypes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that state-of-the-art algorithms are not useful for predicting co-receptor tropism of subtype A and its CRFs. Sequence profile analysis of gp120 revealed molecular variability in subtype A viruses. Especially, the V2 loop region could be associated with co-receptor tropism, which might indicate a unique pattern that determines co-receptor tropism in subtype A strains compared to subtype B and C strains. Thus, our study demonstrates that there is a need for the development of novel algorithms facilitating tropism prediction of HIV-1 subtype A to improve effective antiretroviral treatment in patients.

  14. Genotypic Prediction of Co-receptor Tropism of HIV-1 Subtypes A and C

    PubMed Central

    Riemenschneider, Mona; Cashin, Kieran Y.; Budeus, Bettina; Sierra, Saleta; Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Elham; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Kaiser, Rolf; Gorry, Paul R.; Heider, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infections with CCR5-antagonists requires the co-receptor usage prediction of viral strains. Currently available tools are mostly designed based on subtype B strains and thus are in general not applicable to non-B subtypes. However, HIV-1 infections caused by subtype B only account for approximately 11% of infections worldwide. We evaluated the performance of several sequence-based algorithms for co-receptor usage prediction employed on subtype A V3 sequences including circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and subtype C strains. We further analysed sequence profiles of gp120 regions of subtype A, B and C to explore functional relationships to entry phenotypes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that state-of-the-art algorithms are not useful for predicting co-receptor tropism of subtype A and its CRFs. Sequence profile analysis of gp120 revealed molecular variability in subtype A viruses. Especially, the V2 loop region could be associated with co-receptor tropism, which might indicate a unique pattern that determines co-receptor tropism in subtype A strains compared to subtype B and C strains. Thus, our study demonstrates that there is a need for the development of novel algorithms facilitating tropism prediction of HIV-1 subtype A to improve effective antiretroviral treatment in patients. PMID:27126912

  15. Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation Is Associated with Vulnerability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Perego, Carlo; Zangari, Rosalia; De Blasio, Daiana; Oggioni, Marco; De Nigris, Francesca; Snider, Francesco; Garred, Peter; Ferrante, Angela M. R.; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. By using a novel histology-based method to quantify plaque instability here, we assess whether lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation, a major inflammation arm, could represent an index of plaque instability. Plaques from 42 consecutive patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the lipid core, cholesterol clefts, hemorrhagic content, thickness of tunica media, and intima, including or not infiltration of cellular debris and cholesterol, were determined. The presence of ficolin-1, -2, and -3 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL), LP initiators, was assessed in the plaques by immunofluorescence and in plasma by ELISA. LP activation was assessed in plasma by functional in vitro assays. Patients presenting low stenosis (≤75%) had higher hemorrhagic content than those with high stenosis (>75%), indicating increased erosion. Increased hemorrhagic content and tunica media thickness, as well as decreased lipid core and infiltrated content were associated with vulnerable plaques and therefore used to establish a plaque vulnerability score that allowed to classify patients according to plaque vulnerability. Ficolins and MBL were found both in plaques’ necrotic core and tunica media. Patients with vulnerable plaques showed decreased plasma levels and intraplaque deposition of ficolin-2. Symptomatic patients experiencing a transient ischemic attack had lower plasma levels of ficolin-1. We show that the LP initiators are present within the plaques and their circulating levels change in atherosclerotic patients. In particular, we show that decreased ficolin-2 levels are associated with rupture-prone vulnerable plaques, indicating its potential use as marker for cardiovascular risk assessment in atherosclerotic patients. PMID:28360913

  16. Lectins Offer New Perspectives in the Development of Macrophage-Targeted Therapies for COPD/Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Mukaro, Violet R.; Bylund, Johan; Hodge, Greg; Holmes, Mark; Jersmann, Hubertus; Reynolds, Paul N.; Hodge, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the defective ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to phagocytose apoptotic cells (‘efferocytosis’) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema (COPD) could be therapeutically improved using the C-type lectin, mannose binding lectin (MBL), although the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. An S-type lectin, galectin-3, is also known to regulate macrophage phenotype and function, via interaction with its receptor CD98. We hypothesized that defective expression of galectin/CD98 would be associated with defective efferocytosis in COPD and that mechanisms would include effects on cytoskeletal remodeling and macrophage phenotype and glutathione (GSH) availability. Galectin-3 was measured by ELISA in BAL from controls, smokers and current/ex-smokers with COPD. CD98 was measured on AM using flow cytometry. We assessed the effects of galectin-3 on efferocytosis, CD98, GSH, actin polymerisation, rac activation, and the involvement of PI3K (using β-actin probing and wortmannin inhibition) in vitro using human AM and/or MH-S macrophage cell line. Significant decreases in BAL galectin-3 and AM CD98 were observed in BAL from both current- and ex-smoker COPD subjects vs controls. Galectin 3 increased efferocytosis via an increase in active GTP bound Rac1. This was confirmed with β-actin probing and the role of PI3K was confirmed using wortmannin inhibition. The increased efferocytosis was associated with increases in available glutathione and expression of CD98. We provide evidence for a role of airway lectins in the failed efferocytosis in COPD, supporting their further investigation as potential macrophage-targeted therapies. PMID:23441163

  17. Using MBL To Verify Newton's Second Law and the Impulse-Momentum Relationship with an Arbitrary Changing Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo; Gelbman, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    Uses microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) to teach Newton's second law and the impulse-momentum relationship with a high degree of precision and accuracy while applying forces that change in an arbitrary way. (YDS)

  18. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with normal lymphocyte counts is associated with decreased numbers of normal circulating B-cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, Alexander W; Almeida, Julia; Nieto, Wendy G; Teodosio, Cristina; Rodriguez-Caballero, Arancha; Romero, Alfonso; López, Antonio; Fernandez-Navarro, Paulino; Vega, Tomas; Perez-Andres, Martin; Valent, Peter; Jäger, Ulrich; Orfao, Alberto

    2012-07-01

    Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with normal lymphocyte counts is associated with decreased numbers of normal circulating B-cell subsets.Little is known about the distribution of normal lymphoid cells and their subsets in the peripheral blood (PB) of subjects with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). In our study, we compared the absolute number of PB lymphoid cells and their subpopulations in 95 MBL cases with normal lymphocyte counts vs. 617 age-/sex-matched non-MBL healthy subjects (controls), using highly sensitive flow cytometry. MBL cases showed significantly reduced numbers of normal circulating B-cells, at the expense of immature and naive B-cells; in addition, CD4+CD8+ double-positive T-cells and CD8+ T-cells were significantly lower and higher vs. controls, respectively. Moreover, most normal B-cell subsets were significantly decreased in PB at >1% MBL-counts, vs. "low-count" MBL cases, and lower amounts of immature/naive B-cells were detected in biclonal (particularly in cases with coexisting CLL-like- and non-CLL-like B-cell clones) vs. monoclonal MBL subjects. In summary, our results show imbalanced (reduced) absolute numbers of recently produced normal circulating B-cells (e.g., immature and naıve B-cells) in MBL, which becomes more pronounced as the MBL cell count increases.

  19. A simple structure-based model for the prediction of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 enters host cells through interaction of its V3 loop (which is part of the gp120 protein) with the host cell receptor CD4 and one of two co-receptors, namely CCR5 or CXCR4. Entry inhibitors binding the CCR5 co-receptor can prevent viral entry. As these drugs are only available for CCR5-using viruses, accurate prediction of this so-called co-receptor tropism is important in order to ensure an effective personalized therapy. With the development of next-generation sequencing technologies, it is now possible to sequence representative subpopulations of the viral quasispecies. Results Here we present T-CUP 2.0, a model for predicting co-receptor tropism. Based on our recently published T-CUP model, we developed a more accurate and even faster solution. Similarly to its predecessor, T-CUP 2.0 models co-receptor tropism using information of the electrostatic potential and hydrophobicity of V3-loops. However, extracting this information from a simplified structural vacuum-model leads to more accurate and faster predictions. The area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) achieved with T-CUP 2.0 on the training set is 0.968±0.005 in a leave-one-patient-out cross-validation. When applied to an independent dataset, T-CUP 2.0 has an improved prediction accuracy of around 3% when compared to the original T-CUP. Conclusions We found that it is possible to model co-receptor tropism in HIV-1 based on a simplified structure-based model of the V3 loop. In this way, genotypic prediction of co-receptor tropism is very accurate, fast and can be applied to large datasets derived from next-generation sequencing technologies. The reduced complexity of the electrostatic modeling makes T-CUP 2.0 independent from third-party software, making it easy to install and use. PMID:25120583

  20. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  1. Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas Spp. in ICU Patients with Special Reference to ESBL, AMPC, MBL and Biofilm Production

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Richa; Malik, Abida; Rizvi, Meher; Ahmed, S. Moied

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas spp. have been reported to be the important cause of ICU infections. The appearance of ESBL, AmpC and MBL genes and their spread among bacterial pathogens is a matter of great concern. Biofilm production also attributes to antimicrobial resistance due to close cell to cell contact that permits bacteria to more effectively transfer plasmids to one another. This study aimed at determining the incidence of ESBL, AmpC, MBL and biofilm producing Pseudomonas spp. in ICU patients. Material and Methods: The clinical specimens were collected aseptically from 150 ICU patients from February 2012 to October 2013. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. ESBLs and AmpC were detected phenotypically and genotypically. MBL was detected by modified Hodge and imipenem-EDTA double-disk synergy test. Results: Pseudomonas spp. 35(28%) were the most prevalent pathogen in ICU infections. Multidrug resistance and biofilm production was observed in 80.1% and 60.4% isolates, respectively. Prevalence of ESBL, AmpC and MBL was 22.9%, 42.8% and 14.4%, respectively. The average hospital stay was 25 days and was associated with 20% mortality. Conclusions: A regular surveillance is required to detect ESBL, AmpC and MBL producers especially in ICU patients. Carbapenems should be judiciously used to prevent their spread. The effective antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and piperacillin-tazobactum should be used after sensitivity testing. PMID:27013841

  2. Plant as a plenteous reserve of lectin

    PubMed Central

    Hivrale, AU; Ingale, AG

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are clusters of glycoproteins of nonimmune foundation that combine specifically and reversibly to carbohydrates, mainly the sugar moiety of glycoconjugates, resulting in cell agglutination and precipitation of glycoconjugates. They are universally distributed in nature, being established in plants, fungi, viruses, bacteria, crustacea, insects, and animals, but leguminacae plants are rich source of lectins. The present review reveals the structure, biological properties, and application of plant lectins. PMID:24084524

  3. Influence of Lectins on Constricting Ring Formation by Arthrobotrys dactyloides.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T; Davis, E L; Walter, D E

    1991-04-01

    Incubation of Arthrobotrys dactyloides conidia in the presence of Radopholus citrophilus in lectin solutions with their corresponding sugars did not alter the stimulation of trap formation in solutions containing lectins alone. The lack of inhibition of lectin-stimulated trap formation by sugars or by lectin denaturation and the lack of lectin specificity indicate that the carbohydrate-binding regions of the particular lectins studied are not the stimulatory moieties of these macromolecules.

  4. Essential Role for the Lectin Pathway in Collagen Antibody-Induced Arthritis Revealed Through Use of Adenovirus Programming Complement Inhibitor MAp44 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Nirmal K.; Mehta, Gaurav; Kjaer, Troels R.; Takahashi, Minoru; Schaack, Jerome; Morrison, Thomas E.; Thiel, Steffen; Arend, William P.; Holers, V. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies using mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and complement C4 deficient mice have suggested that the lectin pathway (LP) is not required for the development of inflammatory arthritis in the collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model. MBL, ficolins and collectin-11 are key LP pattern recognition molecules that associate with three serine proteases, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3, and also with two MBL-associated proteins designated sMAP and MAp44. Recent studies have shown that MAp44, an alternatively spliced product of the MASP-1/3 gene, is a competitive inhibitor of the binding of the recognition molecules to all three MASPs. In these studies we examined the effect of treatment of mice with adenovirus (Ad) programmed to express human MAp44 (AdhMAp44) on the development of CAIA. AdhMAp44 and Ad programming Green fluorescent protein (AdGFP) expression were injected intraperitoneally in C57BL/6 wild-type mice prior to the induction of CAIA. AdhMAp44 significantly reduced the clinical disease activity score (CDA) by 81% compared to mice injected with AdGFP. Similarly, histopathologic injury scores for inflammation, pannus, cartilage and bone damage, as well as C3 deposition in the cartilage and synovium, were significantly reduced by AdhMAp44 pretreatment. Mice treated with AdmMAp44, programming expression of mouse MAp44, also showed significantly decreased CDA and histopathologic injury scores. Additionally, administration of AdhMAp44 significantly diminished the severity of Ross River Virus-induced arthritis, a LP-dependent model. Our study provides conclusive evidence that an intact complement LP is essential to initiate CAIA, and that MAp44 may be an appropriate treatment for inflammatory arthritis. PMID:25070856

  5. Lectins and their application to clinical microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    Slifkin, M; Doyle, R J

    1990-01-01

    Lectins are generally associated with plant or animal components, selectively bind carbohydrates, and interact with procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Lectins have various specificities that are associated with their ability to interact with acetylaminocarbohydrates, aminocarbohydrates, sialic acids, hexoses, pentoses, and as other carbohydrates. Microbial surfaces generally contain many of the sugar residues that react with lectins. Lectins are presently used in the clinical laboratory to type blood cells and are used in a wide spectrum of applications, including, in part, as carriers of chemotherapeutic agents, as mitogens, for fractionation of animal cells, and for investigations of cellular surfaces. Numerous studies have shown that lectins can be used to identify rapidly certain microorganisms isolated from a clinical specimen or directly in a clinical specimen. Lectins have been demonstrated to be important diagnostic reagents in the major realms of clinical microbiology. Thus, they have been applied in bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and virology for the identification and/or differentiation of various microorganisms. Lectins have been used successfully as epidemiologic as well as taxonomic markers of specific microorganisms. Lectins provide the clinical microbiologist with cost-effective and potential diagnostic reagents. This review describes the applications of lectins in clinical microbiology. Images PMID:2200603

  6. Early Changes of Mannose-Binding Lectin, H-Ficolin, and Procalcitonin in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Işlak Mutcal, Sibel; Saltoğlu, Neşe; Balkan, İlker İnanç; Özaras, Reşat; Yemişen, Mücahit; Mete, Bilgül; Tabak, Fehmi; Mert, Ali; Öztürk, Recep; Öngören, Şeniz; Başlar, Zafer; Aydın, Yıldız; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan; Soysal, Teoman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The significance of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and H-ficolin deficiency in febrile neutropenic (FN) patients and the correlation of these markers along with consecutive C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels during the infectious process are investigated. Materials and Methods: Patients with any hematological malignancies who were defined to have “microbiologically confirmed infection”, “clinically documented infection”, or “fever of unknown origin” were included in this single-center prospective observational study. Serum levels of CRP, PCT, MBL, and H-ficolin were determined on 3 separate occasions: at baseline (between hospital admission and chemotherapy), at the onset of fever, and at the 72nd hour of fever. Results: Forty-six patients (54% male, mean age 41.7 years) with 61 separate episodes of FN were evaluated. Eleven patients (23.9%) had “microbiologically confirmed infection”, 17 (37%) had “clinically documented infection”, and 18 (39.1%) had “fever of unknown origin”. Fourteen (30.4%) patients had low (<500 ng/mL) initial MBL levels and 7 (15.21%) had low (<12,000 ng/mL) H-ficolin levels. Baseline MBL and H-ficolin levels did not significantly change on the first and third days of fever (p=0.076). Gram-negative bacteremia more frequently occurred in those with low initial MBL levels (p=0.006). PCT levels were significantly higher in those with microbiologically documented infections. Mean and median PCT levels were significantly higher in cases with bacteremia. There was no significant difference between hemoculture-positive and-negative patients in terms of CRP levels. Conclusion: Monitoring serum H-ficolin levels was shown to be of no benefit in terms of predicting severe infection. Low baseline MBL levels were correlated with high risk of gram-negative bacteremia; however, no significant correlation was shown in the follow-up. Close monitoring of PCT levels is warranted to provide more accurate and

  7. Complement Activation by Giardia duodenalis Parasites through the Lectin Pathway Contributes to Mast Cell Responses and Parasite Control

    PubMed Central

    Li, Erqiu; Tako, Ernest A.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease in the world. While numerous studies have identified important contributions of adaptive immune responses to parasite control, much less work has examined innate immunity and its connections to the adaptive response during this infection. We explored the role of complement in immunity to Giardia using mice deficient in mannose-binding lectin (Mbl2) or complement factor 3a receptor (C3aR). Both strains exhibited delayed clearance of parasites and a reduced ability to recruit mast cells in the intestinal submucosa. C3aR-deficient mice had normal production of antiparasite IgA, but ex vivo T cell recall responses were impaired. These data suggest that complement is a key factor in the innate recognition of Giardia and that recruitment of mast cells and activation of T cell immunity through C3a are important for parasite control. PMID:26831470

  8. Hepatitis C virus has a genetically determined lymphotropism through co-receptor B7.2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Lin; Huang, Jeffrey Y.; Wang, Chun-Hsiang; Tahara, Stanley M; Zhou, Lin; Kondo, Yasuteru; Schechter, Joel; Su, Lishan; Lai, Michael M C.; Wakita, Takaji; Cosset, François-Loïc; Jung, Jae U; Machida, Keigo

    2017-01-01

    B-cell infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been a controversial topic. To examine whether HCV has a genetically determined lymphotropism through a co-receptor specific for the infection by lymphotropic HCV, we established an infectious clone and chimeric virus of hepatotropic and lymphotropic HCV strains derived from an HCV-positive B-cell lymphoma. The viral envelope and 5′-UTR sequences of the lymphotropic HCV strain were responsible for the lymphotropism. Silencing of the virus sensor, RIGI, or overexpression of microRNA-122 promoted persistent viral replication in B cells. By cDNA library screening, we identified an immune cell-specific, co-stimulatory receptor B7.2 (CD86) as a co-receptor of lymphotropic HCV. Infection of B cells by HCV inhibited the recall reaction to antigen stimulation. Together, a co-receptor B7.2 enabled lymphotropic HCV to infect memory B cells, leading to inhibition of memory B-cell function and persistent HCV infection in HCV-infected hosts. PMID:28067225

  9. Lectin engineering, a molecular evolutionary approach to expanding the lectin utilities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2015-04-27

    In the post genomic era, glycomics--the systematic study of all glycan structures of a given cell or organism--has emerged as an indispensable technology in various fields of biology and medicine. Lectins are regarded as "decipherers of glycans", being useful reagents for their structural analysis, and have been widely used in glycomic studies. However, the inconsistent activity and availability associated with the plant-derived lectins that comprise most of the commercially available lectins, and the limit in the range of glycan structures covered, have necessitated the development of innovative tools via engineering of lectins on existing scaffolds. This review will summarize the current state of the art of lectin engineering and highlight recent technological advances in this field. The key issues associated with the strategy of lectin engineering including selection of template lectin, construction of a mutagenesis library, and high-throughput screening methods are discussed.

  10. Investigating Chemistry Students' Learning about the Relationship between the Temperature and the Pressure of a Gas Using a Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL): A Word of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on practices related to the use of a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) in a high school chemistry course in which students studied gases and kinetic theory. Reports that little or no higher order thinking was employed as students engaged in using the MBL and that some alternative conceptions were still evident. (Contains 42 references.)…

  11. Exploring the Phenomenon of "Change of Phase" of Pure Substances Using the Microcomputer-Based-Laboratory (MBL) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierri, Evgenia; Karatrantou, Anthi; Panagiotakopoulos, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We examined how first year students (10th grade) of Greek Senior High School could conceptualize the influence of the molecular weight of saturated fatty acids on the melting and the freezing point, during the "change of phase" phenomenon using the Microcomputer-Based Laboratory (MBL) system. Students had to freeze a melted substance,…

  12. C-type lectins facilitate tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dongbing; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Songbai; Su, Chunjie; Zhang, Yonglian

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis, a life-threatening complication of cancer, leads to the majority of cases of cancer-associated mortality. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. C-type lectins are a large group of proteins, which share structurally homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and possess diverse physiological functions, including inflammation and antimicrobial immunity. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the contribution of C-type lectins in different steps of the metastatic spread of cancer. Notably, a substantial proportion of C-type lectins, including selectins, mannose receptor (MR) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial cell C-type lectin, are important molecular targets for the formation of metastases in vitro and in vivo. The present review summarizes what has been found regarding C-type lectins in the lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis of cancer. An improved understanding the role of C-type lectins in cancer metastasis provides a comprehensive perspective for further clarifying the molecular mechanisms of cancer metastasis and supports the development of novel C-type lectins-based therapies the for prevention of metastasis in certain types of cancer. PMID:28123516

  13. C-type lectins facilitate tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dongbing; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Songbai; Su, Chunjie; Zhang, Yonglian

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis, a life-threatening complication of cancer, leads to the majority of cases of cancer-associated mortality. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. C-type lectins are a large group of proteins, which share structurally homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and possess diverse physiological functions, including inflammation and antimicrobial immunity. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the contribution of C-type lectins in different steps of the metastatic spread of cancer. Notably, a substantial proportion of C-type lectins, including selectins, mannose receptor (MR) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial cell C-type lectin, are important molecular targets for the formation of metastases in vitro and in vivo. The present review summarizes what has been found regarding C-type lectins in the lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis of cancer. An improved understanding the role of C-type lectins in cancer metastasis provides a comprehensive perspective for further clarifying the molecular mechanisms of cancer metastasis and supports the development of novel C-type lectins-based therapies the for prevention of metastasis in certain types of cancer.

  14. Agglutination of Helicobacter pylori coccoids by lectins

    PubMed Central

    Khin, Mar Mar; Hua, Jie Song; Ng, Han Cong; Wadström, Torkel; Ho, Bow

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study the agglutination pattern of Helicobacter pylori coccoid and spiral forms. METHODS: Assays of agglutination and agglutination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins. RESULTS: Strong agglutination was observed with mannose-specific Concanavalin A (Con A), fucose-specific Tetragonolobus purpureas (Lotus A) and N-acetyl glucosamine-specific Triticum vulgaris (WGA) lectins. Mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of H. pylori coccoids as compared to the spirals. Specific carbohydrates, glycoproteins and mucin were shown to inhibit H. pylori lectin-agglutination reactions. Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells with formalin and sulphuric acid did not alter the agglutination patterns with lectins. However, sodium periodate treatment of bacterial cells were shown to inhibit agglutination reaction with Con A, Lotus A and WGA lectins. On the contrary, enzymatic treatment of coccoids and spirals did not show marked inhibition of H. pylori lectin agglutination. Interes tingly, heating of H. pylori cells at 60 °C for 1 h was shown to augment the agglutination with all of the lectins tested. CONCLUSION: The considerable differences in lectin agglutination patterns seen among the two differentiated forms of H. pylori might be attributable to the structural changes during the events of morphological transformation, resulting in exposing or masking some of the sugar residues on the cell surface. Possibility of various sugar residues on the cell wall of the coccoids may allow them to bind to different carbohydrate receptors on gastric mucus and epithelial cells. The coccoids with adherence characteristics like the spirals could aid in the pathogenic process of Helicobacter infection. This may probably lead to different clinical outcome of H. pylori associated gastroduodenal disease. PMID:11819557

  15. Spectral characters of lectin saccharide interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deyu; Jiang, Duxiao; Yuan, Chunwei

    1999-09-01

    In this paper we report attempts to directly detect the interaction behavior between erythrocyte and lectin concanavalin a (Con A) as well as phaseolus vulgaris (PHA) on the polystyrene film surface. In the procedure, an optical transducer based reflectance interferometry was set up and used to detect the film thickness change during the lectin adsorption and lectin- erythrocyte interaction. The specific interactions among Con A, PHA and erythrocyte were obtained. The solubility monosaccharide inhibition test confirmed that there is affinity between (alpha) - D-mannose and Con A.

  16. Peptide and protein-based inhibitors of HIV-1 co-receptors

    PubMed Central

    von Recum, Horst A; Pokorski, Jonathan K

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) afflicts an estimated 30 million people globally, making it a continuing pandemic. Despite major research efforts, the rate of new infections has remained relatively static over time. This article reviews an emerging strategy for the treatment of HIV, the inhibition of the co-receptors necessary for HIV entry, CCR5 and CXCR4. The aim of this article is to highlight potential therapeutics derived from peptides and proteins that show particular promise in HIV treatment. Molecules that act on CCR5, CXCR4 or on both receptors will be discussed herein. PMID:23856897

  17. Galactose-specific seed lectins from Cucurbitaceae.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Musti J; Marapakala, Kavitha; Sultan, Nabil Ali M; Kenoth, Roopa

    2015-01-01

    Lectins, the carbohydrate binding proteins have been studied extensively in view of their ubiquitous nature and wide-ranging applications. As they were originally found in plant seed extracts, much of the work on them was focused on plant seed lectins, especially those from legume seeds whereas much less attention was paid to the lectins from other plant families. During the last two decades many studies have been reported on lectins from the seeds of Cucurbitaceae species. The main focus of the present review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on these proteins, especially with regard to their physico-chemical characterization, interaction with carbohydrates and hydrophobic ligands, 3-dimensional structure and similarity to type-II ribosome inactivating proteins. The future outlook of research on these galactose-specific proteins is also briefly considered.

  18. Co-receptor and co-stimulation blockade for mixed chimerism and tolerance without myelosuppressive conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Graca, Luis; Daley, Stephen; Fairchild, Paul J; Cobbold, Stephen P; Waldmann, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Background A major challenge in the application of marrow transplantation as a route to immunological tolerance of a transplanted organ is to achieve hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment with minimal myelosuppressive treatments. Results We here describe a combined antibody protocol which can achieve long-term engraftment with clinically relevant doses of MHC-mismatched bone marrow, without the need for myelosuppressive drugs. Although not universally applicable in all strains, we achieved reliable engraftment in permissive strains with a two-stage strategy: involving first, treatment with anti-CD8 and anti-CD4 in advance of transplantation; and second, treatment with antibodies targeting CD4, CD8 and CD40L (CD154) at the time of marrow transplantation. Long-term mixed chimerism through co-receptor and co-stimulation blockade facilitated tolerance to donor-type skin grafts, without any evidence of donor-antigen driven regulatory T cells. Conclusion We conclude that antibodies targeting co-receptor and co-stimulatory molecules synergise to enable mixed hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance, showing that neither cytoreductive conditioning nor 'megadoses' of donor bone marrow are required for donor HSC to engraft in permissive strains. PMID:16638128

  19. CD36 is a co-receptor for hepatitis C virus E1 protein attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun-Jun; Li, Jian-Rui; Huang, Meng-Hao; Ma, Lin-Lin; Wu, Zhou-Yi; Jiang, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Jing; Li, Yu-Huan; Han, Yan-Xing; Li, Hu; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, Yan-Xiang; Song, Dan-Qing; Peng, Zong-Gen; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a membrane protein related to lipid metabolism. We show that HCV infection in vitro increased CD36 expression in either surface or soluble form. HCV attachment was facilitated through a direct interaction between CD36 and HCV E1 protein, causing enhanced entry and replication. The HCV co-receptor effect of CD36 was independent of that of SR-BI. CD36 monoclonal antibodies neutralized the effect of CD36 and reduced HCV replication. CD36 inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO), which directly bound CD36 but not SR-BI, significantly interrupted HCV entry, and therefore inhibited HCV replication. SSO’s antiviral effect was seen only in HCV but not in other viruses. SSO in combination with known anti-HCV drugs showed additional inhibition against HCV. SSO was considerably safe in mice. Conclusively, CD36 interacts with HCV E1 and might be a co-receptor specific for HCV entry; thus, CD36 could be a potential drug target against HCV. PMID:26898231

  20. Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Failure in a Patient with C7 Deficiency and a Decreased Anticapsular Antibody Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    assay; Ig, immunoglobulin ; MASP2, mannose binding lectin associated serine protease; MBL, mannose binding lectin; TCCD, terminal complement...in orange. Abbreviations: MBL, mannose binding lectin; MASP2, mannose binding lectin associated serine protease 2; lg, immunoglobulin

  1. Identification of mycobacterial lectins from genomic data.

    PubMed

    Abhinav, K V; Sharma, Alok; Vijayan, M

    2013-04-01

    Sixty-four sequences containing lectin domains with homologs of known three-dimensional structure were identified through a search of mycobacterial genomes. They appear to belong to the β-prism II, the C-type, the Microcystis virdis (MV), and the β-trefoil lectin folds. The first three always occur in conjunction with the LysM, the PI-PLC, and the β-grasp domains, respectively while mycobacterial β-trefoil lectins are unaccompanied by any other domain. Thirty heparin binding hemagglutinins (HBHA), already annotated, have also been included in the study although they have no homologs of known three-dimensional structure. The biological role of HBHA has been well characterized. A comparison between the sequences of the lectin from pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria provides insights into the carbohydrate binding region of the molecule, but the structure of the molecule is yet to be determined. A reasonable picture of the structural features of other mycobacterial proteins containing one or the other of the four lectin domains can be gleaned through the examination of homologs proteins, although the structure of none of them is available. Their biological role is also yet to be elucidated. The work presented here is among the first steps towards exploring the almost unexplored area of the structural biology of mycobacterial lectins.

  2. Mercury chemistry in the MBL: Modeling results including Hg + halogen atom reaction rate constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgecock, I. M.; Pirrone, N.

    2003-04-01

    The inclusion, of recently published kinetic data for the reactions between gas phase elemental Hg and halogen atoms and molecules, in a photochemical box model including aerosols of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL), suggests that the cycling of Hg over the world's oceans may be much more dynamic than was once thought, as a direct result of halogen activation from marine aerosols. The rate of gas phase oxidation of Hg(0) in the model leads to high concentrations of gas phase oxidised Hg (Hg(II)), which is deposited to the sea surface either directly from the gas phase or indirectly via scavenging by sea salt and non-sea-salt sulphate aerosol particles and subsequent deposition. The model base run predicts Hg(II) concentrations higher than those measured in the marine atmosphere, and a lifetime for Hg(0) of a matter of days, rather than months as has been generally assumed. In light of previous measurements and the known stability of the hemispherical background concentration of Hg(0) the influence of liquid water content (the number of deliquescent aerosol droplets), cloud optical depth at the top of the boundary layer, and the Henry's Law constants for HgCl2 and HgBr2 have been investigated. In order to maintain a stable background concentration of Hg(0) a source strength (for emission from the sea, or entrainment from the free troposphere) of at least 15 ng m-2 hr-1 is required, which seems most unlikely considering results from flux chamber experiments. The model therefore either overestimates the rate of gas phase oxidation or lacks a fundamental reduction process. The evidence from studies of mercury depletion events in the Arctic troposphere lend support to the fast reaction between Hg(0) and Br containing radicals which have been included in the model, it is necessary therefore to investigate homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms for the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) in order to explain the measured Hg(II) concentrations in the MBL and the stable

  3. Intercomparisons of marine boundary layer cloud properties from the ARM CAP-MBL campaign and two MODIS cloud products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Song, Hua; Ma, Po-Lun; Ghan, Steven J.; Platnick, Steven; Minnis, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    From April 2009 to December 2010, the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program carried out an observational field campaign on Graciosa Island, targeting the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the Azores region. In this paper, we present an intercomparison of the MBL cloud properties, namely, cloud liquid water path (LWP), cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud-droplet effective radius (CER), among retrievals from the ARM mobile facility and two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products (Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-MODIS and Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-MODIS). A total of 63 daytime single-layer MBL cloud cases are selected for intercomparison. Comparison of collocated retrievals indicates that the two MODIS cloud products agree well on both COT and CER retrievals, with the correlation coefficient R > 0.95, despite their significant difference in spatial sampling. In both MODIS products, the CER retrievals based on the 2.1 µm band (CER2.1) are significantly larger than those based on the 3.7 µm band (CER3.7). The GSFC-MODIS cloud product is collocated and compared with ground-based ARM observations at several temporal-spatial scales. In general, the correlation increases with more precise collocation. For the 63 selected MBL cloud cases, the GSFC-MODIS LWP and COT retrievals agree reasonably well with the ground-based observations with no apparent bias and correlation coefficient R around 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. However, GSFC-MODIS CER3.7 and CER2.1 retrievals have a lower correlation (R 0.5) with the ground-based retrievals. For the 63 selected cases, they are on average larger than ground observations by about 1.5 µm and 3.0 µm, respectively. Taking into account that the MODIS CER retrievals are only sensitive to cloud top reduces the bias only by 0.5 µm.

  4. Do human polyoma viruses and human immunodeficiency virus share common co-receptors?

    PubMed

    Borissov, Kalin; Tsekov, Iliya; Gavazova, Rayna; Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Argirova, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Host and/or viral factors involved in human polyomavirus (HPoV) infection in persons living with HIV remain unknown. A hypothesis is outlined suggesting the importance of the co-receptors CCR5, CCR2, and CXCR4 not only for HIV, but also for HPoV. Functionally capable receptors coded by wild-type (wt) genotypes could facilitate internalization of HPoV in the cell resulting in brain and/or kidney infection/s in HIV infected individuals. Forty-nine Bulgarians with HIV, all treated by HAART, without neurological and/or kidney disorders, were tested for JCV and BKV and genotyped for CCR5 (CCR5del32), CCR2 (CCR2-64I), and CXCR4 (SDF1-3'A). In 27/49 (55.1%) individuals a co-infection with HPoV was identified-BKV in 12/49 (24.5%), JCV-in another 12/49 (24.5%), and both viruses-in 3/49 (6.1%). A high frequency of wt CCR5 was found in patients with HPoV (91.7% for BKV and JCV and in 100% with both viruses). V/V of CCR2 was presented in 75% for BKV and JCV and in 66.7% for BKV plus JCV. SDF1-3'G/G predominated in JCV infected patients (75%), while G/A and A/A genotypes were more frequent in patients with BKV (41.7%). Also, 21/22 (95.4%) persons without HPoV infection were heterozygous for SDF1 and CCR2. The number of individuals bearing wt of all co-receptors in the group of persons not infected with HPoV was lower (P = 0.03) than that with polymorphism/s in one or two genes (SDF1 and CCR2) in the same group. The results suggest a probable role of co-receptors used by HIV to facilitate infection with HPoV.

  5. Modeling halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer 2. Interactions with sulfur and the cloud-covered MBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, Roland; Sander, Rolf; Bott, Andreas; Crutzen, Paul J.

    2002-09-01

    A companion paper presented a numerical one-dimensional model of the marine boundary layer (MBL) including chemical reactions in the gas and aqueous phase, focusing on the reaction cycles of halogen compounds. In this paper we study interactions between halogen and sulfur chemistry. HOCl and HOBr were found to be generally more important than H2O2 or O3 in the oxidation of S(IV) in sea salt aerosols in the cloud-free MBL. The inclusion of halogen chemistry lead to an increase in the oxidation of DMS of roughly 63%. This additional oxidation is caused by BrO. The model was also expanded for the study of the cloudy MBL. We found that the effects of stratiform clouds on the evolution and diurnal cycle of halogen species are widespread; they are not restricted to cloud layers. The diurnal variation of gas and aqueous phase bromine was the opposite of that in cloud-free runs. Oxidation of S(IV) by HOBr and HOCl was important for cloud droplets, too. However, the relative importance of these oxidants changed compared to the cloud-free runs.

  6. Science Teacher Learning of MBL-Supported Student-Centered Science Education in the Context of Secondary Education in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voogt, Joke; Tilya, Frank; van den Akker, Jan

    2009-10-01

    Science teachers from secondary schools in Tanzania were offered an in-service arrangement to prepare them for the integration of technology in a student-centered approach to science teaching. The in-service arrangement consisted of workshops in which educative curriculum materials were used to prepare teachers for student-centered education and for the use and application of Microcomputer Based Laboratories (MBL)—a specific technology application for facilitating experiments in science education. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to study whether the in-service arrangement impacted teacher learning. Teacher learning was determined by three indicators: (1) the ability to conduct MBL-supported student centered science lessons, (2) teachers' reflection on those lessons and (3) students' perceptions of the classroom environment. The results of the research indicate that the teachers' were able to integrate MBL in their science lessons at an acceptable level and that they were able to create a classroom environment which was appreciated by their students as more investigative and open-ended.

  7. Epidemiological characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Schalla, W O; Whittington, W L; Rice, R J; Larsen, S A

    1985-01-01

    A total of 101 isolates of penicillinase-producing and non-penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae with known nutritional requirements, plasmid content, and serovars, were examined for lectin agglutination patterns. These isolates were from outbreaks in Georgia, California, Hawaii, and Pennsylvania. Cell suspensions made from 16- to 18-h cultures were mixed with 14 different lectins, and the resultant agglutination patterns were classified as agglutination groups. Among the 101 isolates tested, 24 different agglutination groups were demonstrated. Of the organisms tested, 55% were located in 3 of the 24 groups, and 86% of the isolates reacted with the lectins Trichosanthes kinlowii, Griffonia simplicifolia I, peanut agglutinin, soybean agglutinin, potato agglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin. One isolate did not react with peanut or potato agglutinin, five isolates lacked reactivity with potato agglutinin, and six isolates did not react with wheat germ agglutinin. Of the wheat germ-negative isolates, four were from Pennsylvania and were identical with regard to auxotype, plasmid content, serovar, and lectin group. The other two wheat germ-negative isolates were from California and were unrelated by the same criteria to the four Pennsylvania isolates and to each other. Among the isolates tested, there were no differences in lectin groups with regard to the sex of the patient. In the Georgia collection, agglutination with one lectin group was confined to isolates of serogroup IA. This association was not observed for the other geographic areas. Some isolates showing identical auxotype, plasmid content, and serovars could be differentiated based on lectin agglutination patterns, whereas other isolates were identical by all testing criteria. PMID:3930560

  8. Growth factor and co-receptor release by structural regulation of substrate metalloprotease accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Liseth M.; Hartmann, Monika; Schubach, Salome; Ma, Junzhi; Herrlich, Peter; Herrlich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Release of cytokines, growth factors and other life-essential molecules from precursors by a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteases (ADAMs) is regulated with high substrate-specificity. We hypothesized that this is achieved by cleavage-regulatory intracellular-domain (ICD)-modifications of the precursors. We show here that cleavage-stimuli-induced specific ICD-modifications cause structural substrate changes that enhance ectodomain sensitivity of neuregulin-1 (NRG1; epidermal-growth-factor) or CD44 (receptor-tyrosine-kinase (RTK) co-receptor) to chymotrypsin/trypsin or soluble ADAM. This inside-out signal transfer required substrate homodimerization and was prevented by cleavage-inhibitory ICD-mutations. In chimeras, regulation could be conferred to a foreign ectodomain, suggesting a common higher-order structure. We predict that substrate-specific protease-accessibility-regulation controls release of numerous ADAM substrates. PMID:27876763

  9. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential.

    PubMed

    Gardères, Johan; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2015-08-07

    An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.

  10. C-terminal tail of FGF19 determines its specificity toward Klotho co-receptors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinle; Lemon, Bryan; Li, XiaoFan; Gupte, Jamila; Weiszmann, Jennifer; Stevens, Jennitte; Hawkins, Nessa; Shen, Wenyan; Lindberg, Richard; Chen, Jin-Long; Tian, Hui; Li, Yang

    2008-11-28

    FGF19 subfamily proteins (FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23) are unique members of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis in an endocrine fashion. Their activities require the presence of alpha or betaKlotho, two related single-pass transmembrane proteins, as co-receptors in relevant target tissues. We previously showed that FGF19 can bind to both alpha and betaKlotho, whereas FGF21 and FGF23 can bind only to either betaKlotho or alphaKlotho, respectively in vitro. To determine the mechanism regulating the binding and specificity among FGF19 subfamily members to Klotho family proteins, chimeric proteins between FGF19 subfamily members or chimeric proteins between Klotho family members were constructed to probe the interaction between those two families. Our results showed that a chimera of FGF19 with the FGF21 C-terminal tail interacts only with betaKlotho and a chimera with the FGF23 C-terminal tail interacts only with alphaKlotho. FGF signaling assays also reflected the change of specificity we observed for the chimeras. These results identified the C-terminal tail of FGF19 as a region necessary for its recognition of Klotho family proteins. In addition, chimeras between alpha and betaKlotho were also generated to probe the regions in Klotho proteins that are important for signaling by this FGF subfamily. Both FGF23 and FGF21 require intact alpha or betaKlotho for signaling, respectively, whereas FGF19 can signal through a Klotho chimera consisting of the N terminus of alphaKlotho and the C terminus of betaKlotho. Our results provide the first glimpse of the regions that regulate the binding specificity between this unique family of FGFs and their co-receptors.

  11. Immune Receptors and Co-receptors in Antiviral Innate Immunity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Bianca C.; Calil, Iara P.; Machado, João Paulo B.; Santos, Anésia A.; Fontes, Elizabeth P. B.

    2017-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens using an innate immune system that is broadly divided into PTI (pathogen-associated molecular pattern- or PAMP-triggered immunity) and ETI (effector-triggered immunity). PTI is activated upon perception of PAMPs, conserved motifs derived from pathogens, by surface membrane-anchored pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). To overcome this first line of defense, pathogens release into plant cells effectors that inhibit PTI and activate effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS). Counteracting this virulence strategy, plant cells synthesize intracellular resistance (R) proteins, which specifically recognize pathogen effectors or avirulence (Avr) factors and activate ETI. These coevolving pathogen virulence strategies and plant resistance mechanisms illustrate evolutionary arms race between pathogen and host, which is integrated into the zigzag model of plant innate immunity. Although antiviral immune concepts have been initially excluded from the zigzag model, recent studies have provided several lines of evidence substantiating the notion that plants deploy the innate immune system to fight viruses in a manner similar to that used for non-viral pathogens. First, most R proteins against viruses so far characterized share structural similarity with antibacterial and antifungal R gene products and elicit typical ETI-based immune responses. Second, virus-derived PAMPs may activate PTI-like responses through immune co-receptors of plant PTI. Finally, and even more compelling, a viral Avr factor that triggers ETI in resistant genotypes has recently been shown to act as a suppressor of PTI, integrating plant viruses into the co-evolutionary model of host-pathogen interactions, the zigzag model. In this review, we summarize these important progresses, focusing on the potential significance of antiviral immune receptors and co-receptors in plant antiviral innate immunity. In light of the innate immune system, we also discuss a newly uncovered layer of

  12. A rainbow trout lectin with multimeric structure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L E; Thiel, S; Petersen, T E; Jensenius, J C

    1997-04-01

    A novel lectin has been identified in rainbow trout serum and plasma. The lectin binds to Sepharose (an agarose polymer) in a calcium-dependent manner. Glucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, mannose, N-acetyl-mannosamine, L-fucose, maltose and alpha-methyl-mannoside are good inhibitors of this binding, whereas glucosamine and D-fucose inhibits to a lesser degree and mannosamine and galactose do not inhibit the binding to Sepharose. When analysed by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions, the lectin appears as a characteristic ladder of bands with approximately 16 kDa between consecutive bands. Upon reduction, the lectin appears as a 16-kDa band. On size-exclusion chromatography of trout serum and plasma, the protein emerges over a broad range corresponding to sizes from about 2000 kDa to less than 200 kDa. The NH2-terminal sequence (AAENRNQXPPG) shows no significant homology with known proteins. Because of the characteristic appearance in non-reducing SDS-PAGE and the lectin activity, we propose to name the protein "ladderlectin."

  13. Isolation, characterization and molecular cloning of a leaf-specific lectin from ramsons (Allium ursinum L.).

    PubMed

    Smeets, K; Van Damme, E J; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1997-11-01

    Lectins were isolated from roots and leaves of ramsons and compared to the previously described bulb lectins. Biochemical analyses indicated that the root lectins AUAIr and AUAIIr are identical to the bulb lectins AUAI and AUAII, whereas the leaf lectin AUAL has no counterpart in the bulbs. cDNA cloning confirmed that the leaf lectin differs from the bulb lectins. Northern blot analysis further indicated that the leaf lectin is tissue-specifically expressed. Sequence comparisons revealed that the ramsons leaf lectin differs considerably from the leaf lectins of garlic, leek, onion and shallot.

  14. Pentraxin 3, ficolin-2 and lectin pathway associated serine protease MASP-3 as early predictors of myocardial infarction - the HUNT2 study

    PubMed Central

    Vengen, Inga Thorsen; Enger, Tone Bull; Videm, Vibeke; Garred, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The lectin complement pathway is suggested to play a role in atherogenesis. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3), ficolin-1, ficolin-2, ficolin-3, MBL/ficolin/collectin-associated serine protease-3 (MASP-3) and MBL/ficolin/collectin-associated protein-1 (MAP-1) are molecules related to activation of the lectin complement pathway. We hypothesized that serum levels of these molecules may be associated with the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). In a Norwegian population-based cohort (HUNT2) where young to middle-aged relatively healthy Caucasians were followed up for a first-time MI from 1995–1997 through 2008, the 370 youngest MI patients were matched by age (range 29–62 years) and gender to 370 controls. After adjustments for traditional risk factors, the two highest tertiles of PTX3 and the highest tertiles of ficolin-2 and MASP-3 were associated with MI, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.65 (1.10–2.47) and 2.79 (1.83–4.24) for PTX3, 1.55 (1.04–2.30) for ficolin-2, and 0.63 (0.043–0.94) for MASP-3. Ficolin-1, ficolin-3 and MAP-1 were not associated with MI. In a multimarker analysis of all associated biomarkers, only PTX3 and MASP-3 remained significant. PTX-3 and MASP-3 enhanced prediction of MI compared to the traditional Framingham risk score alone (AUC increased from 0.64 to 0.68, p = 0.006). These results support the role of complement-dependent inflammation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. PMID:28216633

  15. Unfolding energetics and stability of banana lectin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Garima; Sinha, Sharmistha; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2008-08-01

    The unfolding pathway of banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca was determined by isothermal denaturation induced by the chaotrope GdnCl. The unfolding was found to be a reversible process. The data obtained by isothermal denaturation provided information on conformational stability of banana lectin. The high values of DeltaG of unfolding at various temperatures indicated the strength of intersubunit interactions. It was found that banana lectin is a very stable and denatures at high chaotrope concentrations only. The basis of the stability may be attributed to strong hydrogen bonds of the order 2.5-3.1 A at the dimeric interface along with the presence of water bridges. This is perhaps very unique example in proteins where subunit association is not a consequence of the predominance of hydrophobic interactions.

  16. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Alona; Vaknin, Karin; Gdalevsky, Garik; Vyazmensky, Maria; Marks, Robert S.; Taube, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential. PMID:26629902

  17. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Alona; Vaknin, Karin; Gdalevsky, Garik; Vyazmensky, Maria; Marks, Robert S; Taube, Ran; Engel, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential.

  18. Deletion of wboA Enhances Activation of the Lectin Pathway of Complement in Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Prada, Carmen M.; Nikolich, Mikeljon; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M.; Schurig, Gerhardt G.; Hadfield, Ted L.; Hoover, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Brucella spp. are gram-negative intracellular pathogens that survive and multiply within phagocytic cells of their hosts. Smooth organisms present O polysaccharides (OPS) on their surface. These OPS help the bacteria avoid the bactericidal action of serum. The wboA gene, coding for the enzyme glycosyltransferase, is essential for the synthesis of O chain in Brucella. In this study, the sensitivity to serum of smooth, virulent Brucella melitensis 16M and B. abortus 2308, rough wboA mutants VTRM1, RA1, and WRR51 derived from these two Brucella species, and the B. abortus vaccine strain RB51 was assayed using normal nonimmune human serum (NHS). The deposition of complement components and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) on the bacterial surface was detected by flow cytometry. Rough B. abortus mutants were more sensitive to the bactericidal action of NHS than were rough B. melitensis mutants. Complement components were deposited on smooth strains at a slower rate compared to rough strains. Deposition of iC3b and C5b-9 and bacterial killing occurred when bacteria were treated with C1q-depleted, but not with C2-depleted serum or NHS in the presence of Mg-EGTA. These results indicate that (i) OPS-deficient strains derived from B. melitensis 16M are more resistant to the bactericidal action of NHS than OPS-deficient strains derived from B. abortus 2308, (ii) both the classical and the MBL-mediated pathways are involved in complement deposition and complement-mediated killing of Brucella, and (iii) the alternative pathway is not activated by smooth or rough brucellae. PMID:11401980

  19. Role of Lectins in Plant-Microorganism Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pueppke, Steven G.; Bauer, Wolfgang D.; Keegstra, Kenneth; Ferguson, Ardene L.

    1978-01-01

    Three different assay procedures have been used to quantitate the levels of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) lectin in various tissues of soybean plants. The assays used were a standard hemagglutination assay, a radioimmunoassay, and an isotope dilution assay. Most of the lectin in seeds was found in the cotyledons, but lectin was also detected in the embryo axis and the seed coat. Soybean lectin was present in all of the tissues of young seedlings, but decreased as the plants matured and was not detectable in plants older than 2 to 3 weeks. Soybean lectin isolated from seeds of several soybean varieties were identical when compared by several methods. PMID:16660384

  20. In vivo efficacy of biapenem with ME1071, a novel metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) inhibitor, in a murine model mimicking ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kaku, Norihito; Harada, Yosuke; Migiyama, Yohei; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Shigeki; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Izumikawa, Koichi; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yasuoka, Akira; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-09-01

    ME1071, a maleic acid derivative, is a novel, specific inhibitor of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). In vitro, ME1071 can potentiate the activity of carbapenems against MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To confirm the clinical efficacy of ME1071 in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by MBL-producing P. aeruginosa, a mouse model that mimics VAP by placement of a plastic tube in the bronchus was used. Biapenem (100 mg/kg) or ME1071 plus biapenem (each 100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally every 12 h beginning at 12 h after inoculation. Survival was evaluated over 7 days. At 30 h post infection, mice were sacrificed and the numbers of viable bacteria in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were compared. Histopathological analysis of lung specimens was also performed. The pharmacokinetics of ME1071 was analysed after initial treatment. The ME1071 plus biapenem combination group displayed significantly longer survival compared with the control and biapenem monotherapy groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, the number of viable bacteria in the lungs was significantly lower in the combination group (P<0.05). Histopathological examination of lung specimens indicated that progression of lung inflammation was prevented in the combination group. Furthermore, total cell and neutrophil counts, as well as cytokine levels, in BALF were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the combination group. The percentage time above the MIC (%T>MIC) for biapenem without ME1071 was 0% in plasma; however, this value was elevated to 10.8% with ME1071. These results suggest that ME1071 is potent and effective for treatment of VAP caused by MBL-producing P. aeruginosa.

  1. Fruit-specific lectins from banana and plantain.

    PubMed

    Peumans, W J; Zhang, W; Barre, A; Houlès Astoul, C; Balint-Kurti, P J; Rovira, P; Rougé, P; May, G D; Van Leuven, F; Truffa-Bachi, P; Van Damme, E J

    2000-09-01

    One of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe bananas (Musa acuminata L.) and plantains (Musa spp.) has been identified as a lectin. The banana and plantain agglutinins (called BanLec and PlanLec, respectively) were purified in reasonable quantities using a novel isolation procedure, which prevented adsorption of the lectins onto insoluble endogenous polysaccharides. Both BanLec and PlanLec are dimeric proteins composed of two identical subunits of 15 kDa. They readily agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and exhibit specificity towards mannose. Molecular cloning revealed that BanLec has sequence similarity to previously described lectins of the family of jacalin-related lectins, and according to molecular modelling studies has the same overall fold and three-dimensional structure. The identification of BanLec and PlanLec demonstrates the occurrence of jacalin-related lectins in monocot species, suggesting that these lectins are more widespread among higher plants than is actually believed. The banana and plantain lectins are also the first documented examples of jacalin-related lectins, which are abundantly present in the pulp of mature fruits but are apparently absent from other tissues. However, after treatment of intact plants with methyl jasmonate, BanLec is also clearly induced in leaves. The banana lectin is a powerful murine T-cell mitogen. The relevance of the mitogenicity of the banana lectin is discussed in terms of both the physiological role of the lectin and the impact on food safety.

  2. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W.; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  3. Mushroom lectins: specificity, structure and bioactivity relevant to human disease.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-04-08

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell-cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity.

  4. BAD-lectins: boronic acid-decorated lectins with enhanced binding affinity for the selective enrichment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Wei; Chien, Chih-Wei; Lin, Po-Chiao; Huang, Li-De; Chen, Chang-Yang; Wu, Sz-Wei; Han, Chia-Li; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2013-09-03

    The weak and variable binding affinities exhibited by lectin-carbohydrate interactions have often compromised the practical utility of lectin in capturing glycoproteins for glycoproteomic applications. We report here the development and applications of a new type of hybrid biomaterial, namely a boronic acid-decorated lectin (BAD-lectin), for efficient bifunctional glycoprotein labeling and enrichment. Our binding studies showed an enhanced affinity by BAD-lectin, likely to be mediated via the formation of boronate ester linkages between the lectin and glycan subsequent to the initial recognition process and thus preserving its glycan-specificity. Moreover, when attached to magnetic nanoparticles (BAD-lectin@MNPs), 2 to 60-fold improvement on detection sensitivity and enrichment efficiency for specific glycoproteins was observed over the independent use of either lectin or BA. Tested at the level of whole cell lysates for glycoproteomic applications, three different types of BAD-lectin@MNPs exhibited excellent specificities with only 6% overlapping among the 295 N-linked glycopeptides identified. As many as 236 N-linked glycopeptides (80%) were uniquely identified by one of the BAD-lectin@MNPs. These results indicated that the enhanced glycan-selective recognition and binding affinity of BAD-lectin@MNPs will facilitate a complementary identification of the under-explored glycoproteome.

  5. [Can mannose-binding lectin and plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor be used in diagnosis and treatment monitorization of brucellosis patients?].

    PubMed

    Karsen, Hasan; Cesur, Salih; Karaağaç, Leman; Binici, Irfan; Fidan, Yasemin; Oğüş, Elmas; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (SuPAR) levels in monitoring the treatment in patients with brucellosis, by comparing their levels before and after treatment with the values obtained from healthy control group. Thirty brucellosis patients (mean age: 25.8 ± 12.2 years; 15 were male) and 28 healthy controls (mean age: 29.3 ± 12.3 years; 15 were male) were included in the study. Patients were diagnosed with brucellosis according to the characteristic clinical findings and by brucella standard tube agglutination test (SAT) titer ≥ 1/160 and/or blood culture positivity. Serum MBL (Antibodyshop, Denmark) and plasma SuPAR (Virogates, Denmark) levels were investigated with commercial ELISA kits. In our study, no statistical significance was observed between the pre-treatment (13.8 ± 13.4 ng/ml) and post-treatment (12.4 ± 13.1 ng/ml) MBL levels of the patient group and MBL levels of the control group (16.5 ± 14.8 ng/ml) (p> 0.05). Moreover, the mean SuPAR levels measured in pre-treatment and post-treatment plasma samples of the brucellosis patients was 5.1 ± 1.9 ng/ml and 2.9 ± 1.3 ng/ml, respectively, while the mean SuPAR level was 1.8 ± 0.5 ng/ml in the control group. The difference between mean SuPAR levels of patients in pre- and post-treatment samples was found statistically significant (p< 0.001). In addition SuPAR levels were significantly higher in patients before and after treatment than the control group (p> 0.001). In conclusion, plasma SuPAR level would be a useful marker for the diagnosis and treatment follow up of the patients with brucellosis.

  6. Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheard, Laura B; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin; Withers, John; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Hinds, Thomas R; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Sharon, Michal; Browse, John; He, Sheng Yang; Rizo, Josep; Howe, Gregg A; Zheng, Ning

    2011-11-07

    Jasmonates are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates jasmonate signalling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of jasmonate perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true Arabidopsis jasmonate receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved {alpha}-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the jasmonate co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs.

  7. Lectin-binding by sporozoites of Elmeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

    2002-02-01

    Sporozoites of Eimeria tenella were reacted in vitro with 19 different lectins characterized with a variety of carbohydrate-binding properties. Nine lectins caused sporozoite agglutination, which was inhibited by the specific carbohydrates mannose, sialic acid, melibiose, D-galactose, or D-galNAc. When intact live or fixed whole sporozoites were reacted with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectins, another nine lectins bound to sporozoites, giving weak to strong fluorescence but not agglutination. Of these, all nine lectins bound to surface sites, but four also bound to the refractile body. Two of the agglutinating lectins also bound to intracellular organelles of air-dried sporozoites. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that biotinylated lectins bound a wide variety of parasite proteins. Lectins with similar carbohydrate specificities had some similarity in binding patterns of parasite proteins, as well as marked differences. In a few cases lectins with different carbohydrate specificities bound common protein bands. Only one lectin (Dolichos biflorus) showed no evidence of binding to whole sporozoites, organelles, or proteins.

  8. Lectins, Interconnecting Proteins with Biotechnological/Pharmacological and Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Priscila Marcelino dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are proteins extensively used in biomedical applications with property to recognize carbohydrates through carbohydrate-binding sites, which identify glycans attached to cell surfaces, glycoconjugates, or free sugars, detecting abnormal cells and biomarkers related to diseases. These lectin abilities promoted interesting results in experimental treatments of immunological diseases, wounds, and cancer. Lectins obtained from virus, microorganisms, algae, animals, and plants were reported as modulators and tool markers in vivo and in vitro; these molecules also play a role in the induction of mitosis and immune responses, contributing for resolution of infections and inflammations. Lectins revealed healing effect through induction of reepithelialization and cicatrization of wounds. Some lectins have been efficient agents against virus, fungi, bacteria, and helminths at low concentrations. Lectin-mediated bioadhesion has been an interesting characteristic for development of drug delivery systems. Lectin histochemistry and lectin-based biosensors are useful to detect transformed tissues and biomarkers related to disease occurrence; antitumor lectins reported are promising for cancer therapy. Here, we address lectins from distinct sources with some biological effect and biotechnological potential in the diagnosis and therapeutic of diseases, highlighting many advances in this growing field. PMID:28367220

  9. AMD3100, a small molecule inhibitor of HIV-1 entry via the CXCR4 co-receptor.

    PubMed

    Donzella, G A; Schols, D; Lin, S W; Esté, J A; Nagashima, K A; Maddon, P J; Allaway, G P; Sakmar, T P; Henson, G; De Clercq, E; Moore, J P

    1998-01-01

    The bicyclam AMD3100 (formula weight 830) blocks HIV-1 entry and membrane fusion via the CXCR4 co-receptor, but not via CCR5. AMD3100 prevents monoclonal antibody 12G5 from binding to CXCR4, but has no effect on binding of monoclonal antibody 2D7 to CCR5. It also inhibits binding of the CXC-chemokine, SDF-1alpha, to CXCR4 and subsequent signal transduction, but does not itself cause signaling and has no effect on RANTES signaling via CCR5. Thus, AMD3100 prevents CXCR4 functioning as both a HIV-1 co-receptor and a CXC-chemokine receptor. Development of small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry is feasible.

  10. HBV Viral Load and Liver Enzyme Levels May Be Associated with the Wild MBL2 AA Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Tuane Carolina Ferreira; Araújo, Mauro Sérgio; Freitas Queiroz, Maria Alice; Conde, Simone Regina Souza da Silva; Demachki, Sâmia; Martins-Feitosa, Rosimar Neris; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira; Ishak, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the frequencies of rs1800450 (MBL ⁎B, G>A), rs1800451 (MBL ⁎C, G>A), and rs5030737 (MBL ⁎D, C>T) polymorphisms in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene among patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Blood samples from patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV; n = 65), hepatitis C virus (HCV; n = 92), and a noninfected control group (n = 300) were investigated. The presence of polymorphisms was detected using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to correlate with liver disease pathogenesis and fibrosis staging according to the Metavir classification. The genotypic and allelic frequencies showed no significant differences between the groups, but patients with active HBV and the wild AA genotype presented a positive correlation between increased transaminase and HBV DNA levels and the presence of mild to moderate fibrosis. Patients with HCV and the wild AA genotype presented mild inflammation and higher HCV RNA levels, although the same association was not observed for the fibrosis scores. The results suggest that the mutations in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene do not contribute directly to the clinical and laboratory features of HCV and HBV infections, but further studies should be performed to confirm whether the wild AA genotype has indirect effect on disease progression.

  11. Identification of New Agonists and Antagonists of the Insect Odorant Receptor Co-Receptor Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sisi; Luetje, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insects detect attractive and aversive chemicals using several families of chemosensory receptors, including the OR family of olfactory receptors, making these receptors appealing targets for the control of insects. Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, comprised of at least one common subunit (the odorant receptor co-receptor subunit, Orco) and at least one variable odorant specificity subunit. Each of the many ORs of an insect species is activated or inhibited by an unique set of odorants that interact with the variable odorant specificity subunits, making the development of OR directed insect control agents complex and laborious. However, several N-,2-substituted triazolothioacetamide compounds (VUAA1, VU0450667 and VU0183254) were recently shown to act directly on the highly conserved Orco subunit, suggesting that broadly active compounds can be developed. We have explored the chemical space around the VUAA1 structure in order to identify new Orco ligands. Principal Findings We screened ORs from several insect species, using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and an electrophysiological assay, with a panel of 22 compounds structurally related to VUAA1. By varying the nitrogen position in the pyridine ring and altering the moieties decorating the phenyl ring, we identified two new agonists and a series of competitive antagonists. Screening smaller compounds, similar to portions of the VUAA1 structure, also yielded competitive antagonists. Importantly, we show that Orco antagonists inhibit odorant activation of ORs from several insect species. Detailed examination of one antagonist demonstrated inhibition to be through a non-competitive mechanism. Conclusions A similar pattern of agonist and antagonist sensitivity displayed by Orco subunits from different species suggests a highly conserved binding site structure. The susceptibility to inhibition of odorant activation by Orco antagonism is conserved across disparate insect species

  12. A case-based reasoning system for genotypic prediction of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark C; Paquet, Agnes C; Huang, Wei; Napolitano, Laura; Frantzell, Arne; Toma, Jonathan; Stawiski, Eric W; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Petropoulos, Christos J; Whitcomb, Jeannette; Coakley, Eoin; Haddad, Mojgan

    2013-08-01

    Accurate co-receptor tropism (CRT) determination is critical for making treatment decisions in HIV management. We created a genotypic tropism prediction tool by utilizing the case-based reasoning (CBR) technique that attempts to solve new problems through applying the solution from similar past problems. V3 loop sequences from 732 clinical samples with diverse characteristics were used to build a case library. Additional sequence and molecular properties of the V3 loop were examined and used for similarity assessment. A similarity metric was defined based on each attribute's frequency in the CXCR4-using viruses. We implemented three other genotype-based tropism predictors, support vector machines (SVM), position specific scoring matrices (PSSM), and the 11/25 rule, and evaluated their performance as the ability to predict CRT compared to Monogram's enhanced sensitivity Trofile(®) assay (ESTA). Overall concordance of the CBR based tropism prediction algorithm was 81%, as compared to ESTA. Sensitivity to detect CXCR4 usage was 90% and specificity was at 73%. In comparison, sensitivity of the SVM, PSSM, and the 11/25 rule were 85%, 81%, and 36% respectively while achieving a specificity of 90% by SVM, 75% by PSSM, and 97% by the 11/25 rule. When we evaluated these predictors in an unseen dataset, higher sensitivity was achieved by the CBR algorithm (87%), compared to SVM (82%), PSSM (76%), and the 11/25 rule (33%), while maintaining similar level of specificity. Overall this study suggests that CBR can be utilized as a genotypic tropism prediction tool, and can achieve improved performance in independent datasets compared to model or rule based methods.

  13. Trace amines inhibit insect odorant receptor function through antagonism of the co-receptor subunit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sisi; Luetje, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Many insect behaviors are driven by olfaction, making insect olfactory receptors (ORs) appealing targets for insect control.  Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, with each receptor thought to be composed of a representative from a large, variable family of odorant binding subunits and a highly conserved co-receptor subunit (Orco), assembled in an unknown stoichiometry.  Synthetic Orco directed agonists and antagonists have recently been identified.  Several Orco antagonists have been shown to act via an allosteric mechanism to inhibit OR activation by odorants.  The high degree of conservation of Orco across insect species results in Orco antagonists having broad activity at ORs from a variety of insect species and suggests that the binding site for Orco ligands may serve as a modulatory site for compounds endogenous to insects or may be a target of exogenous compounds, such as those produced by plants.  To test this idea, we screened a series of biogenic and trace amines, identifying several as Orco antagonists.  Of particular interest were tryptamine, a plant-produced amine, and tyramine, an amine endogenous to the insect nervous system.  Tryptamine was found to be a potent antagonist of Orco, able to block Orco activation by an Orco agonist and to allosterically inhibit activation of ORs by odorants.  Tyramine had effects similar to those of tryptamine, but was less potent.  Importantly, both tryptamine and tyramine displayed broad activity, inhibiting odorant activation of ORs of species from three different insect orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera), as well as odorant activation of six diverse ORs from a single species (the human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae).  Our results suggest that endogenous and exogenous natural compounds serve as Orco ligands modulating insect olfaction and that Orco can be an important target for the development of novel insect repellants. PMID:25075297

  14. YodL and YisK Possess Shape-Modifying Activities That Are Suppressed by Mutations in Bacillus subtilis mreB and mbl

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yi; Sperber, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many bacteria utilize actin-like proteins to direct peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis. MreB and MreB-like proteins are thought to act as scaffolds, guiding the localization and activity of key PG-synthesizing proteins during cell elongation. Despite their critical role in viability and cell shape maintenance, very little is known about how the activity of MreB family proteins is regulated. Using a Bacillus subtilis misexpression screen, we identified two genes, yodL and yisK, that when misexpressed lead to loss of cell width control and cell lysis. Expression analysis suggested that yodL and yisK are previously uncharacterized Spo0A-regulated genes, and consistent with these observations, a ΔyodL ΔyisK mutant exhibited reduced sporulation efficiency. Suppressors resistant to YodL's killing activity occurred primarily in mreB mutants and resulted in amino acid substitutions at the interface between MreB and the highly conserved morphogenic protein RodZ, whereas suppressors resistant to YisK occurred primarily in mbl mutants and mapped to Mbl's predicted ATP-binding pocket. YodL's shape-altering activity appears to require MreB, as a ΔmreB mutant was resistant to the effects of YodL but not YisK. Similarly, YisK appears to require Mbl, as a Δmbl mutant was resistant to the cell-widening effects of YisK but not of YodL. Collectively, our results suggest that YodL and YisK likely modulate MreB and Mbl activity, possibly during the early stages of sporulation. IMPORTANCE The peptidoglycan (PG) component of the cell envelope confers structural rigidity to bacteria and protects them from osmotic pressure. MreB and MreB-like proteins are thought to act as scaffolds for PG synthesis and are essential in bacteria exhibiting nonpolar growth. Despite the critical role of MreB-like proteins, we lack mechanistic insight into how their activities are regulated. Here, we describe the discovery of two B. subtilis proteins, YodL and YisK, which modulate MreB and Mbl

  15. A profile of protein-protein interaction: Crystal structure of a lectin-lectin complex.

    PubMed

    Surya, Sukumaran; Abhilash, Joseph; Geethanandan, Krishnan; Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu; Haridas, Madhathilkovilakathu

    2016-06-01

    Proteins may utilize complex networks of interactions to create/proceed signaling pathways of highly adaptive responses such as programmed cell death. Direct binary interactions study of proteins may help propose models for protein-protein interaction. Towards this goal we applied a combination of thermodynamic kinetics and crystal structure analyses to elucidate the complexity and diversity in such interactions. By determining the heat change on the association of two galactose-specific legume lectins from Butea monosperma (BML) and Spatholobus parviflorus (SPL) belonging to Fabaceae family helped to compute the binding equilibrium. It was extended further by X-ray structural analysis of BML-SPL binary complex. In order to chart the proteins interacting mainly through their interfaces, identification of the nature of forces which stabilized the association of the lectin-lectin complex was examined. Comprehensive analysis of the BMLSPL complex by isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystal structure threw new light on the lectin-lectin interactions suggesting of their use in diverse areas of glycobiology.

  16. Using Single Lectins to Enrich Glycoproteins in Conditioned Media.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Manveen K; Fanayan, Susan

    2015-08-03

    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins that can recognize and bind to carbohydrates conjugated to proteins and lipids. Coupled with mass spectrometry technologies, lectin affinity chromatography is becoming a popular approach for identification and quantification of glycoproteins in complex samples such as blood, tumor tissues, and cell lines. Given the commercial availability of a large number of lectins that recognize diverse sugar structures, it is now possible to isolate and study glycoproteins for biological and medical research. This unit provides a general guide to single-lectin-based enrichment of glycoproteins from serum-free conditioned media. Due to the unique carbohydrate specificity of most lectins and the complexity of the samples, optimization steps may be required to evaluate different elution buffers and methods as well as binding conditions, for each lectin, for optimal recovery of bound glycoproteins.

  17. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1994-01-04

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  18. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.

    1994-01-04

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon. .

  19. Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.

    1984-09-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various /sup 125/I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

  20. Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    de Miranda Santos, I K; Pereira, M E

    1984-09-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various 125I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

  1. A comparison of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin with its deglycosylated derivative.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D C; Graham, C; Urbaniak, S J; Jeffree, C E; Allen, A K

    1984-06-15

    A deglycosylated derivative of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin was prepared with the use of trifluoromethanesulphonic acid. Its properties were generally similar to those of the native lectin, but differences were evident in terms of relative agglutinating activity towards sheep, (untreated) human and trypsin-treated human erythrocytes. The two forms of tomato lectin were used in conjunction with a battery of specific antisera to investigate structural relatedness among solanaceous lectins. Immunological cross-reactivity between tomato, potato and Datura lectins depends on the integrity of the glycosylated region of those lectins; that between Datura lectin and other seed lectins, however, has a separate structural basis.

  2. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Containing a Glypican 5 Core and 2-O-Sulfo-iduronic Acid Function as Sonic Hedgehog Co-receptors to Promote Proliferation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Rochelle M.; Hecht, Marie-Lyn; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Cohen, Samuel M.; Noti, Christian; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Fuller, Maria; Chan, Jennifer A.; Hopwood, John J.; Seeberger, Peter H.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is crucial for growth, cell fate determination, and axonal guidance in the developing nervous system. Although the receptors Patched (Ptch1) and Smoothened (Smo) are required for Shh signaling, a number of distinct co-receptors contribute to these critical responses to Shh. Several membrane-embedded proteins such as Boc, Cdo, and Gas1 bind Shh and promote signaling. In addition, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have also been implicated in the initiation of Shh responses. However, the attributes of HSPGs that function as co-receptors for Shh have not yet been defined. Here, we identify HSPGs containing a glypican 5 core protein and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid residues at the nonreducing ends of the glycans as co-receptors for Shh. These HSPG co-receptors are expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors and promote Shh binding and signaling. At the subcellular level, these HSPG co-receptors are located adjacent to the primary cilia that act as Shh signaling organelles. Thus, Shh binds to HSPG co-receptors containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid to promote neural precursor proliferation. PMID:23867465

  3. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid function as Sonic Hedgehog co-receptors to promote proliferation.

    PubMed

    Witt, Rochelle M; Hecht, Marie-Lyn; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Cohen, Samuel M; Noti, Christian; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Fuller, Maria; Chan, Jennifer A; Hopwood, John J; Seeberger, Peter H; Segal, Rosalind A

    2013-09-06

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is crucial for growth, cell fate determination, and axonal guidance in the developing nervous system. Although the receptors Patched (Ptch1) and Smoothened (Smo) are required for Shh signaling, a number of distinct co-receptors contribute to these critical responses to Shh. Several membrane-embedded proteins such as Boc, Cdo, and Gas1 bind Shh and promote signaling. In addition, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have also been implicated in the initiation of Shh responses. However, the attributes of HSPGs that function as co-receptors for Shh have not yet been defined. Here, we identify HSPGs containing a glypican 5 core protein and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid residues at the nonreducing ends of the glycans as co-receptors for Shh. These HSPG co-receptors are expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors and promote Shh binding and signaling. At the subcellular level, these HSPG co-receptors are located adjacent to the primary cilia that act as Shh signaling organelles. Thus, Shh binds to HSPG co-receptors containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid to promote neural precursor proliferation.

  4. Plasmid Profile Analysis and bla VIM Gene Detection of Metalo β-lactamase (MBL) Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    M, Jeya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent colonizer of hospitalized patients. They are responsible for serious infections such as meningitis, urological infections, septicemia and pneumonia. Carbapenem resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is currently increasingly reported which is often mediated by production of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL). Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates may involve reduced cell wall permeability, production of chromosomal and plasmid mediated β lactamases, aminoglycosides modifying enzymes and an active multidrug efflux mechanism. Objective: This study is aimed to detect the presence and the nature of plasmids among metallo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Also to detect the presence of bla VIM gene from these isolates. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showing the metalo-β-lactamase enzyme (MBL) production were isolated. The MBL production was confirmed by three different methods. From the MBL producing isolates plasmid extraction was done by alkaline lysis method. Plasmid positive isolates were subjected for blaVIM gene detection by PCR method. Results: Two thousand seventy six clinical samples yielded 316 (15.22%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, out of which 141 (44.62%) were multidrug resistant. Among them 25 (17.73%) were metallo-β-lactamase enzyme producers. Plasmids were extracted from 18 out of 25 isolates tested. Five out of 18 isolates were positive for the blaVIM gene detection by the PCR amplification. Conclusion: The MBL producers were susceptible to polymyxin /colistin with MIC ranging from 0.5 – 2μg/ml. Molecular detection of specific genes bla VIM were positive among the carbapenem resistant isolates. PMID:25120980

  5. A Lagrangian model investigation of chemico-microphysical evolution of northeast Asian pollution plumes within the MBL during TRACE-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. M.; Song, C. H.; Cho, H. J.; Kim, J.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kurata, G.; Thongboonchoo, N.; He, Z.; Kim, H. S.

    2007-12-01

    In this work, we determine the major channels through which air pollutants, mainly originating in Northeast Asian mega-cities, flow out into the Northwestern Pacific atmosphere. For this purpose, comprehensive backward/forward trajectory analyses are conducted. Two important channels along which pollutants from the Northeast Asian mega-cities flow out are defined, and are labeled as ¢®¡ÆDC8 transport path¢®¡¾ and ¢®¡ÆP3B transport path¢®¡¾. We then comprehensively examine the chemico-microphysical transformations of the anthropogenic pollutants from the Northeast Asian mega-cities along the two major transport paths, using a new Lagrangian forward-trajectory photochemical model. In the newly developed model, state-of-the-science parameterizations for considering chemico-microphysical aging processes and atmospheric aerosol processes are incorporated. As air masses travel toward low latitudes through the marine boundary layer (MBL), the temperature increases along the trajectories and large amounts of PAN experience thermal decomposition. By this process, PAN can be an important supplier of NO2 in the remote MBL. The O3 productions in the remote Northwestern Pacific MBL are fueled and maintained by NOx provided from the PAN decomposition. High O3 levels (> 50 ppb) are observed within the remote MBL of the Northwestern Pacific Oceans from several TRACE- P DC8 and P3B measurements under the continental outflow situations. Gas-phase SO2 is continuously converted into nss-sulfate via heterogeneous oxidation reaction with H2O2 at a particle pH of 2~5. The Lagrangian-trajectory modeling studies also indicate that in the remote MBL of Northwestern Pacific Ocean under continental outflow situations, conditions are unfavorable for nucleation events, because of the depletion of SO2, the large aerosol surface areas available for H2SO4 sink, and high temperatures.

  6. Isothermal calorimetric analysis of lectin-sugar interaction.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yoichi; Matsuo, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful tool for analyzing lectin-glycan interactions because it can measure the binding affinity and thermodynamic properties such as ∆H and ΔS in a single experiment without any chemical modification or immobilization. Here we describe a method for preparing glycan and lectin solution to minimize the buffer mismatch, setting parameters, and performing experiments.

  7. Glycan profiling of endometrial cancers using lectin microarray.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Masashi; Yamazaki-Inoue, Mayu; Sugiyama, Taro; Miyazawa, Masaki; Muramatsu, Toshinari; Nakamura, Kyoko; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Mikami, Mikio

    2012-10-01

    Cell surface glycans change during the process of malignant transformation. To characterize and distinguish endometrial cancer and endometrium, we performed glycan profiling using an emerging modern technology, lectin microarray analysis. The three cell lines, two from endometrial cancers [well-differentiated type (G1) and poorly differentiated type (G3)] and one from normal endometrium, were successfully categorized into three independent groups by 45 lectins. Furthermore, in cancer cells, a clear difference between G1 and G3 type was observed for the glycans recognized with six lectins, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), Sambucus sieboldiana agglutinin (SSA), Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), Trichosanthes japonica agglutinin I (TJA-I), Amaranthus caudatus agglutinin (ACA), and Bauhinia purpurea lectin (BPL). The lectin microarray analysis using G3 type tissues demonstrated that stage I and stage III or IV were distinguished depending on signal pattern of three lectins, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), BPL, and ACA. In addition, the analysis of the glycans on the ovarian cancer cells showed that only anticancer drug-sensitive cell lines had almost no activities to specific three lectins. Glycan profiling by the lectin microarray may be used to assess the characteristics of tumors and potentially to predict the success of chemotherapy treatment.

  8. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Gardères, Johan; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2015-01-01

    An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest. PMID:26262628

  9. Lectin-binding properties of Aeromonas caviae strains

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-de-Souza, Cláudio M.; Hirata-Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Freitas-Almeida, Angela C.; Andrade, Arnaldo F. B.

    2008-01-01

    The cell surface carbohydrates of four strains of Aeromonas caviae were analyzed by agglutination and lectin-binding assays employing twenty highly purified lectins encompassing all sugar specificities. With the exception of L-fucose and sialic acid, the sugar residues were detected in A. caviae strains. A marked difference, however, in the pattern of cell surface carbohydrates in different A. caviae isolates was observed. Specific receptors for Tritricum vulgaris (WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum (STA) (D-GlcNAc-binding lectins) were found only in ATCC 15468 strain, whereas Euonymus europaeus (EEL, D-Gal-binding lectin) sites were present exclusively in AeQ32 strain, those for Helix pomatia (HPA, D-GalNAc-binding lectin) in AeC398 and AeV11 strains, and for Canavalia ensiformes (Con A, D-Man-binding lectin) in ATCC 15468, AeC398, AeQ32 and AeV11 strains, after bacterial growing at 37°C. On the other hand, specific receptors for WGA and EEL were completely abrogated growing the bacteria at 22°C. Binding studies with 125I- labeled lectins from WGA, EEL and Con A were performed. These assays essentially confirmed the selectivity, demonstrated in the agglutination assays of these lectins for the A. caviae strains. PMID:24031204

  10. A developmentally regulated lectin in Bufo arenarum embryos.

    PubMed

    Elola, M T; Fink-de-Cabutti, N E; Herkovits, H

    1987-01-01

    We report the levels of an endogenous beta-galactoside lectin activity from Bufo arenarum whole embryos extracts and specific inhibition by saccharides at different developmental stages. Specific activity measured against trypsinized rabbit red blood cells showed relatively high and fluctuating levels during early stages (up to about 76 h post-fertilization) which fell to significantly lower and more constant values at late stages (77-264 h post-fertilization). Lactose is the most potent inhibitor of this lectin activity, and saccharides having alpha-galactoside configurations are weaker inhibitors. At the last embryonic stage, the agglutinating activity showed a different sugar specificity which suggests either the modification of the preexistent lectin or the synthesis of another type of lectin. The possible physiological roles of these lectins in the blockage of polyspermy or in embryonic cell-cell interactions are discussed.

  11. Diversified Carbohydrate-Binding Lectins from Marine Resources

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Tomohisa; Watanabe, Mizuki; Naganuma, Takako; Muramoto, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Marine bioresources produce a great variety of specific and potent bioactive molecules including natural organic compounds such as fatty acids, polysaccharides, polyether, peptides, proteins, and enzymes. Lectins are also one of the promising candidates for useful therapeutic agents because they can recognize the specific carbohydrate structures such as proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, resulting in the regulation of various cells via glycoconjugates and their physiological and pathological phenomenon through the host-pathogen interactions and cell-cell communications. Here, we review the multiple lectins from marine resources including fishes and sea invertebrate in terms of their structure-activity relationships and molecular evolution. Especially, we focus on the unique structural properties and molecular evolution of C-type lectins, galectin, F-type lectin, and rhamnose-binding lectin families. PMID:22312473

  12. Structure-function relationship of monocot mannose-binding lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Barre, A; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Rougé, P

    1996-01-01

    The monocot mannose-binding lectins are an extended superfamily of structurally and evolutionarily related proteins, which until now have been isolated from species of the Amaryllidaceae, Alliaceae, Araceae, Orchidaceae, and Liliaceae. To explain the obvious differences in biological activities, the structure-function relationships of the monocot mannose-binding lectins were studied by a combination of glycan-binding studies and molecular modeling using the deduced amino acid sequences of the currently known lectins. Molecular modeling indicated that the number of active mannose-binding sites per monomer varies between three and zero. Since the number of binding sites is fairly well correlated with the binding activity measured by surface plasmon resonance, and is also in good agreement with the results of previous studies of the biological activities of the mannose-binding lectins, molecular modeling is of great value for predicting which lectins are best suited for a particular application. PMID:8972598

  13. MMBL proteins: from lectin to bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; Loris, Remy; De Mot, René

    2012-12-01

    Arguably, bacteriocins deployed in warfare among related bacteria are among the most diverse proteinacous compounds with respect to structure and mode of action. Identification of the first prokaryotic member of the so-called MMBLs (monocot mannose-binding lectins) or GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin) lectin family and discovery of its genus-specific killer activity in the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas has added yet another kind of toxin to this group of allelopathic molecules. This novel feature is reminiscent of the protective function, on the basis of antifungal, insecticidal, nematicidal or antiviral activity, assigned to or proposed for several of the eukaryotic MMBL proteins that are ubiquitously distributed among monocot plants, but also occur in some other plants, fish, sponges, amoebae and fungi. Direct bactericidal activity can also be effected by a C-type lectin, but this is a mammalian protein that limits mucosal colonization by Gram-positive bacteria. The presence of two divergent MMBL domains in the novel bacteriocins raises questions about task distribution between modules and the possible role of carbohydrate binding in the specificity of target strain recognition and killing. Notably, bacteriocin activity was also demonstrated for a hybrid MMBL protein with an accessory protease-like domain. This association with one or more additional modules, often with predicted peptide-hydrolysing or -binding activity, suggests that additional bacteriotoxic proteins may be found among the diverse chimaeric MMBL proteins encoded in prokaryotic genomes. A phylogenetic survey of the bacterial MMBL modules reveals a mosaic pattern of strongly diverged sequences, mainly occurring in soil-dwelling and rhizosphere bacteria, which may reflect a trans-kingdom acquisition of the ancestral genes.

  14. HIV-1 envelope, integrins and co-receptor use in mucosal transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Cicala, Claudia; Arthos, James; Fauci, Anthony S

    2011-01-27

    It is well established that HIV-1 infection typically involves an interaction between the viral envelope protein gp120/41 and the CD4 molecule followed by a second interaction with a chemokine receptor, usually CCR5 or CXCR4. In the early stages of an HIV-1 infection CCR5 using viruses (R5 viruses) predominate. In some viral subtypes there is a propensity to switch to CXCR4 usage (X4 viruses). The receptor switch occurs in ~ 40% of the infected individuals and is associated with faster disease progression. This holds for subtypes B and D, but occurs less frequently in subtypes A and C. There are several hypotheses to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms that lead to switching of co-receptor usage; however, there is no definitive explanation for either. One important consideration regarding transmission is that signaling by R5 gp120 may facilitate transmission of R5 viruses by inducing a permissive environment for HIV replication. In the case of sexual transmission, infection by HIV requires the virus to breach the mucosal barrier to gain access to the immune cell targets that it infects; however, the immediate events that follow HIV exposure at genital mucosal sites are not well understood. Upon transmission, the HIV quasispecies that is replicating in an infected donor contracts through a "genetic bottleneck", and often infection results from a single infectious event. Many details surrounding this initial infection remain unresolved. In mucosal tissues, CD4(+) T cells express high levels of CCR5, and a subset of these CD4(+)/CCR5(high) cells express the integrin α₄β₇, the gut homing receptor. CD4(+)/CCR5(high)/ α4β7(high) T cells are highly susceptible to infection by HIV-1 and are ideal targets for an efficient productive infection at the point of transmission. In this context we have demonstrated that the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 binds to α₄β₇ on CD4(+) T cells. On CD4(+)/CCR5(high)/ α4β7(high) T cells,

  15. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age.

  16. Lectin binding to cystic stages of Taenia taeniaeformis.

    PubMed

    Sandeman, R M; Williams, J F

    1984-10-01

    Studies of membrane glycoconjugates of Taenia taeniaeformis were initiated by assays of the lectin binding characteristics of 35-day-old cysticerci. Parasites fixed in glutaraldehyde were incubated with one of the following FITC-labelled lectins: Concanavalin A (Con A), Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), fucose binding protein (FBP) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and either their specific or a nonspecific sugar. Ultraviolet microscopy revealed that only Con A and LCA bound in large amounts to the surface of cysticerci. This binding was partly inhibited by the specific sugar, but the nonspecific sugar had little effect. The lectin not removed by either of the sugars may have been bound nonspecifically to the charged glycocalyx. Lectins were primarily bound on the anterior third of the parasite around the scolex invagination. Kinetic studies of lectin interactions were carried out with LCA and RCA by spectrophotofluorometric analysis of the amount bound specifically or nonspecifically over a range of lectin concentrations. Lens culinaris lectin binding was found to be specific and involve 2 receptors which showed large differences in their affinity for lectin and prevalence on the surface. Ricinus communis lectin did not bind specifically but nonspecific interactions were observed. Adherence of small numbers of host cells was shown to have no measurable effect on the lectin binding characteristics. The results suggest that the major surface carbohydrates exposed are D-mannose and/or D-glucose residues with the other sugar groups poorly represented. This relatively homogeneous surface may have implications for the antigenicity of the parasite in its host.

  17. Isolation and characterization of lectins and lectin-alliinase complexes from bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum) and ramsons (Allium ursinum).

    PubMed

    Smeets, K; Van Damme, E J; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1997-04-01

    A procedure developed to separate the homodimeric and heterodimeric mannose-binding lectins from bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and ramsons (Allium ursinum L.) also enabled the isolation of stable lectin-alliinase complexes. Characterization of the individual lectins indicated that, in spite of their different molecular structure, the homomeric and heteromeric lectins resemble each other reasonably well with respect to their agglutination properties and carbohydrate-binding specificity. However, a detailed analysis of the lectin-alliinase complexes from garlic and ramsons bulbs demonstrated that only the heterodimeric lectins are capable of binding to the glycan chains of the alliinase molecules (EC 4.4.1.4). Moreover, it appears that only a subpopulation of the alliinase molecules is involved in the formation of lectin-alliinase complexes and that the complexed alliinase contains more glycan chains than the free enzyme. Finally, some arguments are given that the lectin-alliinase complexes do not occur in vivo but are formed in vitro after homogenization of the tissue.

  18. The Liverwort Contains a Lectin That Is Structurally and Evolutionary Related to the Monocot Mannose-Binding Lectins1

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, Willy J.; Barre, Annick; Bras, Julien; Rougé, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Van Damme, Els J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A mannose (Man)-binding lectin has been isolated and characterized from the thallus of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. N-terminal sequencing indicated that the M. polymorpha agglutinin (Marpola) shares sequence similarity with the superfamily of monocot Man-binding lectins. Searches in the databases yielded expressed sequence tags encoding Marpola. Sequence analysis, molecular modeling, and docking experiments revealed striking structural similarities between Marpola and the monocot Man-binding lectins. Activity and specificity studies further indicated that Marpola is a much stronger agglutinin than the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin and exhibits a preference for methylated Man and glucose, which is unprecedented within the family of monocot Man-binding lectins. The discovery of Marpola allows us, for the first time, to corroborate the evolutionary relationship between a lectin from a lower plant and a well-established lectin family from flowering plants. In addition, the identification of Marpola sheds a new light on the molecular evolution of the superfamily of monocot Man-binding lectins. Beside evolutionary considerations, the occurrence of a G. nivalis agglutinin homolog in a lower plant necessitates the rethinking of the physiological role of the whole family of monocot Man-binding lectins. PMID:12114560

  19. Genetic interactions between the hedgehog co-receptors Gas1 and Boc regulate cell proliferation during murine palatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Guilherme M.; Seppala, Maisa; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N.; Fan, Chen-Ming; Cobourne, Martyn T.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal regulation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been described in a variety of human cancers and developmental anomalies, which highlights the essential role of this signaling molecule in cell cycle regulation and embryonic development. Gas1 and Boc are membrane co-receptors for Shh, which demonstrate overlapping domains of expression in the early face. This study aims to investigate potential interactions between these co-receptors during formation of the secondary palate. Mice with targeted mutation in Gas1 and Boc were used to generate Gas1; Boc compound mutants. The expression of key Hedgehog signaling family members was examined in detail during palatogenesis via radioactive in situ hybridization. Morphometric analysis involved computational quantification of BrdU-labeling and cell packing; whilst TUNEL staining was used to assay cell death. Ablation of Boc in a Gas1 mutant background leads to reduced Shh activity in the palatal shelves and an increase in the penetrance and severity of cleft palate, associated with failed elevation, increased proliferation and reduced cell death. Our findings suggest a dual requirement for Boc and Gas1 during early development of the palate, mediating cell cycle regulation during growth and subsequent fusion of the palatal shelves. PMID:27811357

  20. HIV co-receptor tropism prediction remains stable over time in treatment-naïve patients.

    PubMed

    Philip, Keir Ej; Macartney, Malcolm J; Conibear, Tim Cr; Smith, Colette J; Marshall, Neal; Johnson, Margaret A; Haque, Tanzina; Webster, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    HIV co-receptor tropism determination is essential before prescribing the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc. British HIV Association guidelines suggest tropism testing may remain valid for only 90 days in antiretroviral-naïve patients. We aimed to determine the accuracy of this figure. Tropism was assessed in 26 antiretroviral-naïve patients with ongoing viral replication, sampled yearly from first clinic visit. The V3 region of HIV-1 was sequenced in triplicate, then tropism predicted using the Geno2Pheno system. Baseline tropism prediction remained valid for a median of 52 months (range 7-81). For 19/26 individuals baseline tropism remained unchanged throughout a median of 54 months follow-up; 18 R5 tropic and 1 X4 tropic. In seven patients (27%) baseline tropism switched at least once (range 1-4 switches) during follow-up; however, their baseline tropism prediction remained valid for a median of 45 months. Co-receptor tropism in treatment-naïve patients with ongoing viral replication appears highly stable over time, suggesting that baseline genotypic tropism prediction may be valid for a longer duration in patients delaying ART initiation. In this study, baseline tropism prediction remained valid for a median of 52 months, suggesting current guidelines recommending repeat testing after 90 days may be excessively conservative in their assessment of tropism stability.

  1. [Separation of osteoclasts by lectin affinity chromatography].

    PubMed

    Itokazu, M; Tan, A; Tanaka, S

    1991-09-01

    Newborn rat calvaria bone cells obtained by digestion were fractionated on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) sepharose 6MB for osteoclast isolation. The initial nonspecific binding cells which were passed through the WGA sepharose column by a buffer acquired a high enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, but not that of acid phosphatase. However, elution of cells using a buffer with the addition of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in a high acid phosphatase activity but no alkaline phosphatase activity. The former WGA binding negative fraction enriched osteoblasts averaging 30 microns in size. The latter WGA binding positive fraction enriched osteoclasts ranging from 20 microns to 60 microns in size. The electron-microscope clearly demonstrated the cellular details of osteoclasts. Isolated cell counts showed a ratio of six to four. These results indicate that our method of osteoclast isolation is simple and useful in lectin affinity chromatography because all cells have sugar moieties on their surface and the binding of osteoclasts can be reversed by the addition of specific lectin-binding sugars to the eluting buffer.

  2. Bridging lectin binding sites by multivalent carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Valentin; Pieters, Roland J

    2013-05-21

    Carbohydrate-protein interactions are involved in a multitude of biological recognition processes. Since individual protein-carbohydrate interactions are usually weak, multivalency is often required to achieve biologically relevant binding affinities and selectivities. Among the possible mechanisms responsible for binding enhancement by multivalency, the simultaneous attachment of a multivalent ligand to several binding sites of a multivalent receptor (i.e. chelation) has been proven to have a strong impact. This article summarizes recent examples of chelating lectin ligands of different size. Covered lectins include the Shiga-like toxin, where the shortest distance between binding sites is ca. 9 Å, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) (shortest distance between binding sites 13-14 Å), LecA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (shortest distance 26 Å), cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin (shortest distance 31 Å), anti-HIV antibody 2G12 (shortest distance 31 Å), concanavalin A (ConA) (shortest distance 72 Å), RCA120 (shortest distance 100 Å), and Erythrina cristagalli (ECL) (shortest distance 100 Å). While chelating binding of the discussed ligands is likely, experimental proof, for example by X-ray crystallography, is limited to only a few cases.

  3. Lectin domains at the frontiers of plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Lannoo, Nausicaä; Van Damme, Els J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are under constant attack from pathogens and herbivorous insects. To protect and defend themselves, plants evolved a multi-layered surveillance system, known as the innate immune system. Plants sense their encounters upon perception of conserved microbial structures and damage-associated patterns using cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Plant lectins and proteins with one or more lectin domains represent a major part of these receptors. The whole group of plant lectins comprises an elaborate collection of proteins capable of recognizing and interacting with specific carbohydrate structures, either originating from the invading organisms or from damaged plant cell wall structures. Due to the vast diversity in protein structures, carbohydrate recognition domains and glycan binding specificities, plant lectins constitute a very diverse protein superfamily. In the last decade, new types of nucleocytoplasmic plant lectins have been identified and characterized, in particular lectins expressed inside the nucleus and the cytoplasm of plant cells often as part of a specific plant response upon exposure to different stress factors or changing environmental conditions. In this review, we provide an overview on plant lectin motifs used in the constant battle against pathogens and predators during plant defenses. PMID:25165467

  4. Extensive amino acid sequence homologies between animal lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Paroutaud, P.; Levi, G.; Teichberg, V.I.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have established the amino acid sequence of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from the electric eel and the sequences of several peptides from a similar lectin isolated from human placenta. These sequences were compared with the published sequences of peptides derived from the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from human lung and with sequences deduced from cDNAs assigned to the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins from chicken embryo skin and human hepatomas. Significant homologies were observed. One of the highly conserved regions that contains a tryptophan residue and two glutamic acid resides is probably part of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding site, which, on the basis of spectroscopic studies of the electric eel lectin, is expected to contain such residues. The similarity of the hydropathy profiles and the predicted secondary structure of the lectins from chicken skin and electric eel, in spite of differences in their amino acid sequences, strongly suggests that these proteins have maintained structural homologies during evolution and together with the other ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins were derived form a common ancestor gene.

  5. Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

  6. Use of labeled tomato lectin for imaging vasculature structures.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Richard T; Levine, Samantha T; Haynes, Sherry M; Gutierrez, Paula; Baratta, Janie L; Tan, Zhiqun; Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    Intravascular injections of fluorescent or biotinylated tomato lectin were tested to study labeling of vascular elements in laboratory mice. Injections of Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin) (50-100 µg/100 µl) were made intravascularly, through the tail vein, through a cannula implanted in the jugular vein, or directly into the left ventricle of the heart. Tissues cut for thin 10- to 12-µm cryostat sections, or thick 50- to 100-µm vibratome sections, were examined using fluorescence microscopy. Tissue labeled by biotinylated lectin was examined by bright field microscopy or electron microscopy after tissue processing for biotin. Intravascular injections of tomato lectin led to labeling of vascular structures in a variety of tissues, including brain, kidney, liver, intestine, spleen, skin, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and experimental tumors. Analyses of fluorescence in serum indicated the lectin was cleared from circulating blood within 2 min. Capillary labeling was apparent in tissues collected from animals within 1 min of intravascular injections, remained robust for about 1 h, and then declined markedly until difficult to detect 12 h after injection. Light microscopic images suggest the lectin bound to the endothelial cells that form capillaries and endothelial cells that line some larger vessels. Electron microscopic studies confirmed the labeling of luminal surfaces of endothelial cells. Vascular labeling by tomato lectin is compatible with a variety of other morphological labeling techniques, including histochemistry and immunocytochemistry, and thus appears to be a sensitive and useful method to reveal vascular patterns in relationship to other aspects of parenchymal development, structure, and function.

  7. Lectin domains at the frontiers of plant defense.

    PubMed

    Lannoo, Nausicaä; Van Damme, Els J M

    2014-01-01

    Plants are under constant attack from pathogens and herbivorous insects. To protect and defend themselves, plants evolved a multi-layered surveillance system, known as the innate immune system. Plants sense their encounters upon perception of conserved microbial structures and damage-associated patterns using cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Plant lectins and proteins with one or more lectin domains represent a major part of these receptors. The whole group of plant lectins comprises an elaborate collection of proteins capable of recognizing and interacting with specific carbohydrate structures, either originating from the invading organisms or from damaged plant cell wall structures. Due to the vast diversity in protein structures, carbohydrate recognition domains and glycan binding specificities, plant lectins constitute a very diverse protein superfamily. In the last decade, new types of nucleocytoplasmic plant lectins have been identified and characterized, in particular lectins expressed inside the nucleus and the cytoplasm of plant cells often as part of a specific plant response upon exposure to different stress factors or changing environmental conditions. In this review, we provide an overview on plant lectin motifs used in the constant battle against pathogens and predators during plant defenses.

  8. Cloning and Characterization of Root-Specific Barley Lectin 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, David R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1989-01-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNA library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A+) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A+) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16666982

  9. Purification, some properties of a D-galactose-binding leaf lectin from Erythrina indica and further characterization of seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Konozy, Emadeldin H E; Mulay, Ranjana; Faca, Vitor; Ward, Richard John; Greene, Lewis Joel; Roque-Barriera, Maria Cristina; Sabharwal, Sushma; Bhide, Shobhana V

    2002-10-01

    Lectin from a leaf of Erythrina indica was isolated by affinity chromatography on Lactamyl-Seralose 4B. Lectin gave a single band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In SDS-gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions Erythrina indica leaf lectin (EiLL) split into two bands with subunit molecular weights of 30 and 33 kDa, whereas 58 kDa was obtained for the intact lectin by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. EiLL agglutinated all human RBC types, with a slight preference for the O blood group. Lectin was found to be a glycoprotein with a neutral sugar content of 9.5%. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin was directed towards D-galactose and its derivatives with pronounced preference for lactose. EiLL had pH optima at pH 7.0; above and below this pH lectin lost sugar-binding capability rapidly. Lectin showed broad temperature optima from 25 to 50 degrees C; however, at 55 degrees C EiLL lost more than 90% of its activity and at 60 degrees C it was totally inactivated. The pI of EiLL was found to be 7.6. The amino acid analysis of EiLL indicated that the lectin was rich in acidic as well as hydrophobic amino acids and totally lacked cysteine and methionine. The N-terminal amino acids were Val-Glu-Thr-IIe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Glu-Phe-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asn-Asp-X-Leu-Thr-Gln-Glu-Gly-Ala-Ala-Leu-. Chemical modification studies of both EiLL and Erythrina indica seed lectin (EiSL) with phenylglyoxal, DEP and DTNB revealed an absence of arginine, histidine and cysteine, respectively, in or near the ligand-binding site of both lectins. Modification of tyrosine with NAI led to partial inactivation of EiLL and EiSL; however, total inactivation was observed upon NBS-modification of two tryptophan residues in EiSL. Despite the apparent importance of these tryptophan residues for lectin activity they did not seem to have a direct role in binding haptenic sugar as D-galactose did not protect lectin from inactivation by NBS.

  10. Role of Mannose-Binding Lectin Deficiency in HIV-1 and Schistosoma Infections in a Rural Adult Population in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B. L.; Chasela, Charles; Madsen, Hans O.; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Kallestrup, Per; Christiansen, Michael; Gomo, Exnevia; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian; Munyati, Shungu; Kurewa, Edith N.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Garred, Peter; Mduluza, Takafira

    2015-01-01

    Background Polymorphism in the MBL2 gene lead to MBL deficiency, which has been shown to increase susceptibility to various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. We assessed role of MBL deficiency in HIV-1 and schistosoma infections in Zimbabwean adults enrolled in the Mupfure Schistosomiasis and HIV Cohort (MUSH Cohort). Methods HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections were determined at baseline. Plasma MBL concentration was measured by ELISA and MBL2 genotypes determined by PCR. We calculated and compared the proportions of plasma MBL deficiency, MBL2 structural variant alleles B (codon 54A>G), C (codon 57A>G), and D (codon 52T>C) as well as MBL2 promoter variants -550(H/L), -221(X/Y) and +4(P/Q) between HIV-1 and schistosoma co-infection and control groups using Chi Square test. Results We assessed 379 adults, 80% females, median age (IQR) 30 (17–41) years. HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni prevalence were 26%, 43% and 18% respectively in the MUSH baseline survey. Median (IQR) plasma MBL concentration was 800μg/L (192-1936μg/L). Prevalence of plasma MBL deficiency was 18% with high frequency of the C (codon 57G>A) mutant allele (20%). There was no significant difference in median plasma MBL levels between HIV negative (912μg/L) and HIV positive (688μg/L), p = 0.066. However plasma MBL levels at the assay detection limit of 20μg/L were more frequent among the HIV-1 infected (p = 0.007). S. haematobium and S. mansoni infected participants had significantly higher MBL levels than uninfected. All MBL2 variants were not associated with HIV-1 infection but promoter variants LY and LL were significantly associated with S. haematobium infection. Conclusion Our data indicate high prevalence of MBL deficiency, no evidence of association between MBL deficiency and HIV-1 infection. However, lower plasma MBL levels were protective against both S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections and MBL2 promoter and variants LY and LL increased susceptibility to

  11. Self-assembled carbohydrate-based vesicles for lectin targeting.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Marinalva Cardoso; Micheletto, Yasmine Miguel Serafini; da Silveira, Nadya Pesce; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Giacomelli, Fernando Carlos; de Lima, Vânia Rodrigues; Frizon, Tiago Elias Allievi; Dal-Bó, Alexandre Gonçalves

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the physicochemical interactions between vesicles formed by phosphatidylcholine (PC) and glycosylated polymeric amphiphile N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminyl-PEG900-docosanate (C22PEG900GlcNAc) conjugated with Bauhinia variegata lectin (BVL). Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins capable of binding glycosylated membrane components. Accordingly, the surface functionalization by such entities is considered a potential strategy for targeted drug delivery. We observed increased hydrodynamic radii (RH) of PC+C22PEG900GlcNAc vesicles in the presence of lectins, suggesting that this aggregation was due to the interaction between lectins and the vesicular glycosylated surfaces. Furthermore, changes in the zeta potential of the vesicles with increasing lectin concentrations implied that the vesicular glycosylated surfaces were recognized by the investigated lectin. The presence of carbohydrate residues on vesicle surfaces and the ability of the vesicles to establish specific interactions with BVL were further explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. The results indicated that the thickness of the hydrophilic layer was to some extent influenced by the presence of lectins. The presence of lectins required a higher degree of polydispersity as indicated by the width parameter of the log-normal distribution of size, which also suggested more irregular structures. Reflectance Fourier transform infrared (HATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis.) analyses revealed that the studied lectin preferentially interacted with the choline and carbonyl groups of the lipid, thereby changing the choline orientation and intermolecular interactions. The protein also discretely reduced the intermolecular communication of the hydrophobic acyl chains, resulting in a disordered state.

  12. In vivo biosynthetic studies of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.M.; Etzler, M.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The in vivo biosynthesis of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin was studied by pulse-chase labeling experiments using ({sup 35}S)methionine and ({sup 14}C)glucosamine. These studies demonstrate that each of the two mature lectin subunit types are derived by the processing of separate glycosylated precursors. The appearance of the precursor to subunit I before the precursor to subunit II supports the possibility raised by previous studies that both subunit types of this lectin may originate from a single gene product.

  13. [Spreading and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance of microorganisms, producing beta-lactamases. Phenotypical screening for MBL producers (carbapenemases B1) among strains of Pseudomonas genus, isolated in cases of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, D V; Egorov, A M

    2007-01-01

    Intrahospital strains (215) of the bacterial genus Pseudomonas isolated from patients of 30 Medical centers of 15 Russian regions have been investigated for antibiotic resistance. The bacterial cultures resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem were considered as metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producers. Production of subclass B1 MBL (carbapenemases) was evaluated by means of the double-disk approximation test using MBL inhibitor, EDTA. There were 55 P. aeroginosa strains (25.6%) resistant to imipenem and meropenem simultaneously; 19 isolates (8.8%) of P. aeroginosa were characterized by synergism between carbapenem and EDTA. The subclass B1 MBL producers are widely distributed in the intrahospital strain obtained from Moscow, Yaroslavl, Ekaterinburg, Omsk, and Tomsk hospitals.

  14. Specific interaction of lectins with liposomes and monolayers bearing neoglycolipids.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Vincent; Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Boullanger, Paul; Baszkin, Adam; Rosilio, Véronique

    2003-10-01

    The interaction of three lectins (wheat germ, Ulex europaeus I, and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinins: WGA, UEA-I and LTA) with either N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or L-fucose neoglycolipids incorporated into phospholipid monolayers and liposome bilayers was studied at the air/water interface and in bulk solution. The results show that for both systems studied, synthesized neoglycolipids were capable of binding their specific lectin and that, in general, the binding of lectins increased with the increase in the molar fraction of the saccharide derivative incorporated in either the monolayers or bilayers. However, whereas for UEA-I, molecular recognition was enhanced by a strong hydrophobic interaction, for WGA and LTA successful recognition was predominantly related to the distance between neighboring sugar groups. The observed lengthy adsorption times of these lectins onto their specific ligands were attributed to interfacial conformational changes occurring in the proteins upon their adsorption at the interfaces.

  15. Molecular cloning of mannose-binding lectins from Clivia miniata.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, E J; Smeets, K; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1994-03-01

    Screening of a cDNA library constructed from total RNA isolated from young developing ovaries of Clivia miniata Regel with the amaryllis lectin cDNA clone resulted in the isolation of four different isolectin clones which clearly differ from each other in their nucleotide sequences and hence also in their deduced amino acid sequences. Apparently the lectin is translated from an mRNA of ca. 800 nucleotides encoding a precursor polypeptide of 163 amino acids. Northern blot analysis of total RNA isolated from different tissues of Clivia miniata has shown that the lectin is expressed in most plant tissues with very high lectin mRNA concentrations in the ovary and the seed endosperm.

  16. Effect of plant lectins on Ustilago maydis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Santiago, A P; Saavedra, E; Pérez Campos, E; Córdoba, F

    2000-12-01

    Ustilago maydis is an edible parasitic basidiomycete, which specifically infects corn (Zea mays) and teocintle (Z. diploperennis). To characterise the interaction between the basidiomycete and its host organism, we tested the effect of plant lectins with well-known sugar specificity on the growth and germination of U. maydis spores. Lectins specific for N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, such as those from Dolichos biflorus and Phaseolus lunatus, and the wheatgerm agglutinin specific for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine inhibited spore germination, but were ineffective in modifying U. maydis cell growth. The galactose-specific lectin from the corn coleoptyle inhibited both germination and cell growth, while the lectin concanavalin A (mannose/glucose specific) activated spore germination and growth. Our results suggest that specific saccharide-containing receptors participate in regulating the growth and maturation of U. maydis spores.

  17. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  18. An alternate high yielding purification method for Clitoria ternatea lectin.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Aabgeena; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2007-10-01

    In our previous publication we had reported the purification and characterization of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin from its seeds on fetuin CL agarose affinity column, designated CTA [A. Naeem, S. Haque, R.H. Khan. Protein J., 2007]. Since CTA binds beta-d-galactosides, this lectin can be used as valuable tool for glycobiology studies in biomedical and cancer research. So an attempt was made for a high yielding alternative purification method employing the use of asialofetuin CL agarose column for the above-mentioned lectin, designated CTL. The fetuin affinity purified agglutinin was found similar to asialofetuin affinity purified lectin in SDS pattern, HPLC and N-terminal sequence. The content of lectin was found to be 30mg/30g dry weight of pulse. The yield was 2.8% as compared to 0.3% obtained on fetuin column. The number of tryptophan and tyrosine estimated was four and six per subunit.

  19. Development and Distribution of Dolichos biflorus Lectin as Measured by Radioimmunoassay 1

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Craig F.; Etzler, Marilynn E.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay, capable of detecting the Dolichos biflorus lectin at concentrations as low as 400 ng/ml, was developed and used to follow the distribution of this lectin in the plant during its life cycle. The lectin was first detected in the seeds of the plant 27 days after flowering and rapidly attained the high level of lectin present in the mature seed. The lectin content of the plant is highest in the seeds and cotyledons and decreases as the storage materials of the cotyledons decrease. A low but measurable amount of material that reacts with antibodies to the seed lectin was detected in the leaves, stems, and pods of the plant. This material gives a precipitin band of only partial identity to the seed lectin when tested in immunodiffusion against antiserum to the seed lectin. No lectin was detected by the radioimmunoassay in the roots of the plant at any stage of development. ImagesFIG. 4 PMID:16660399

  20. A Lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with Midgut Surface of Lutzomyia migonei, Unlike Its Homologues, Cratylia floribunda Lectin and Canavalia gladiata Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro Tínel, Juliana Montezuma Barbosa; Benevides, Melina Fechine Costa; Frutuoso, Mércia Sindeaux; Rocha, Camila Farias; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Martins, Jorge Luiz; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe), D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL) was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL) and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL). Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania. PMID:25431778

  1. Interactions between Rhizobia and Lectins of Lentil, Pea, Broad Bean, and Jackbean 1

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peter P.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative method was developed to measure the binding of fluorescent-labeled lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.), and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis L., DC.) lectins to various Rhizobium strains. Lentil lectin bound to three of the five Rhizobium leguminosarum strains tested. The number of lentil lectin molecules bound per R. leguminosarum 128C53 cell was 2.1 × 104. Lentil lectin also bound to R. japonicum 61A133. Pea and broad bean lectins bound to only two of the five strains of R. leguminosarum, whereas concanavalin A (jackbean lectin) bound to all strains of R. leguminosarum, R. phaseoli, R. japonicum, and R. sp. tested. Since these four lectins have similar sugarbinding properties but different physical properties, the variation in bindings of these lectins to various Rhizobium strains indicates that binding of lectin to Rhizobium is determined not only by the sugar specificity of the lectin but also by its physical characteristics. The binding of lentil lectin and concanavalin A to R. leguminosarum 128C53 could be inhibited by glucose, fructose, and mannose. However, even at 150 millimolar glucose, about 15% of the binding remained. The binding of lentil lectin to R. japonicum 61A133 could be inhibited by glucose but not by galactose. It is concluded that the binding site of lentil lectin to R. japonicum is different from the binding site of soybean lectin to R. japonicum. PMID:16661328

  2. A lectin with some unique characteristics from the samta tomato.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Ng, T B

    2006-04-01

    A lectin, with a molecular mass of 79 kDa, and with specificity toward rhamnose and O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was isolated from samta tomato fruits. The procedure entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. The lectin was stable up to 70 degrees C. The lectin activity was potentiated by NaOH solutions (25-100 mM), but was reduced by 50 and 100 mM HCl solutions. The activity of the lectin was reduced in the presence of CaCl(2), MgCl(2) and ZnCl(2), but was potentiated by 5 and 10 mM AlCl(3) solutions. The lectin stimulated the mitogenic response in mouse splenocytes and inhibited human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 6.2 microM.

  3. Structures and binding specificity of galactose- and mannose-binding lectins from champedak: differences from jackfruit lectins.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Othman, Shatrah; Hashim, Onn H; Cogdell, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Galactose-binding and mannose-binding lectins from the champedak fruit, which is native to South-east Asia, exhibit useful potential clinical applications. The specificity of the two lectins for their respective ligands allows the detection of potential cancer biomarkers and monitoring of the glycosylated state of proteins in human serum and/or urine. To fully understand and expand the use of these natural proteins, their complete sequences and crystal structures are presented here, together with details of sugar binding.

  4. Utilization of lectin-histochemistry in forensic neuropathology: lectin staining provides useful information for postmortem diagnosis in forensic neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Katsuji; Tanegashima, Akio; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Ushiyama, Ikuko; Ikemoto, Keiko; Yamasaki, Shigeru; Nishimura, Akiyoshi; Rand, Steven; Brinkmann, Bernd

    2003-09-01

    We have investigated the deposition of glycoconjugates in human brain tissue with or without brain disorders. In this review we describe the application of lectin-histochemistry techniques to forensic neuropathology. Lectin staining is able to reveal several kinds of carbohydrate-related depositions in addition to the conventional degenerative changes including senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and corpora amylacea. The senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles were clearly stained by Con A, PSA and GSI lectins, the corpora amylacea which is relevant to repeated brain hypoxia and mitochondrial damage was also easily detected by these and many other kinds of lectins. Amorphous spaces were detected around blood vessels and independently from blood vessels by lectin staining in the white matter from patients with brain disorders or severe edema. The white matter lesions were not considered relevant for forensic pathology, until a large group of cerebral white matter lesions were detected in the elderly with increasing frequency by modern neuro-imaging methods. The spherical deposits were newly detected by lectin staining in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation chiefly from patients with schizophrenia or cognitive dysfunctions.

  5. [MBL quality control survey of autoantibodies--25 years of activity and its achievement--mainly antinuclear antibodies].

    PubMed

    Tsunekawa, Shinji; Arai, Jiro; Ishihara, Yasushi; Fujii, Yoshihisa

    2010-02-01

    Annual MBL Quality Control Survey of Autoantibodies has continued to this day since it started in 1983 as the only quality control survey of autoantibodies in Japan. The survey has aimed at unification and standardization of measurement value, as well as finding out between-laboratory differences in results through reporting the results of tabulation to the participating laboratories. For carrying out the survey, we intend to make our efforts to promote assurance and standardization of the quality control of the autoantibodies. The number of participant on this survey has been increasing every year and more than 500 laboratories participate not only in Japan but also from Asia and European countries. The laboratories that participated in this survey are the ones that usually perform ANA test, anti-DNA antibodies test, anti-ENA antibodies test, AMA test, ASMA test, anti-cardiolipin antibodies test and anti-CCP antibodies test. The purpose of the survey is to standardize antinuclear antibodies testing value in semi quantitative assay using ANA control serum or our titer control HEPASERA-1. We got 12% increase from 79% to 91% in 1986 using ANA control serum. Additionally, we reached 97% (86% to 97%) of convergence in 2001 by using HEPASERA-1, which contains 4 major pattern titer controls from 1993. In 2007, coefficient of variation (CV) for anti-dsDNA antibodies was 13%, showing better result than 25% of the first survey in 1993. We started secondary survey for laboratories which reported a result far apart. In the secondary survey, we made investigation for cause and improvement action. We conclude quality control survey is useful for autoantibodies testing for its result convergence.

  6. Lectin-like molecules in transcriptome of Littorina littorea hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Gorbushin, Alexander M; Borisova, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    The common periwinkle Littorina littorea was introduced in the list of models for comparative immunobiology as a representative of phylogenetically important taxon Caenogastropoda. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of Littorina littorea hemocytes from 182 million mRNA-Seq pair-end 100 bp reads into a total of 15,526 contigs clustered in 4472 unigenes. The transcriptome profile was analyzed for presence of carbohydrate-binding molecules in a variety of architectural contexts. Hemocytes' repertoire of lectin-like proteins bearing conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) is highly diversified, including 11 of 15 lectin families earlier described in animals, as well as the novel members of lectin family found for the first time in mollusc species. The new molluscan lineage-specific domain combinations were confirmed by cloning and sequencing, including the fuco-lectin related molecules (FLReMs) composed of N-terminal region with no sequence homology to any known protein, a middle Fucolectin Tachylectin-4 Pentaxrin (FTP) domain, and a C-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat region. The repertoire of lectin-like molecules is discussed in terms of their potential participation in the receptor phase of immune response. In total, immune-associated functions may be attributed to 70 transcripts belonging to 6 lectin families. These lectin-like genes show low overlap between species of invertebrates, suggesting relatively rapid evolution of immune-associated genes in the group. The repertoire provides valuable candidates for further characterization of the gene functions in mollusc immunity.

  7. Interaction of lectins with membrane receptors on erythrocyte surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sung, L A; Kabat, E A; Chien, S

    1985-08-01

    The interactions of human genotype AO erythrocytes (red blood cells) (RBCs) with N-acetylgalactosamine-reactive lectins isolated from Helix pomatia (HPA) and from Dolichos biflorus (DBA) were studied. Binding curves obtained with the use of tritium-labeled lectins showed that the maximal numbers of lectin molecules capable of binding to human genotype AO RBCs were 3.8 X 10(5) and 2.7 X 10(5) molecules/RBC for HPA and DBA, respectively. The binding of one type of lectin may influence the binding of another type. HPA was found to inhibit the binding of DBA, but not vice versa. The binding of HPA was weakly inhibited by a beta-D-galactose-reactive lectin isolated from Ricinus communis (designated RCA1). Limulus polyphemus lectin (LPA), with specificity for N-acetylneuraminic acid, did not influence the binding of HPA but enhanced the binding of DBA. About 80% of LPA receptors (N-acetylneuraminic acid) were removed from RBC surfaces by neuraminidase treatment. Neuraminidase treatment of RBCs resulted in increases of binding of both HPA and DBA, but through different mechanisms. An equal number (7.6 X 10(5) of new HPA sites were generated on genotypes AO and OO RBCs by neuraminidase treatment, and these new sites accounted for the enhancement (AO cells) and appearance (OO cells) of hemagglutinability by HPA. Neuraminidase treatment did not generate new DBA sites, but increased the DBA affinity for the existing receptors; as a result, genotype AO cells increased their hemagglutinability by DBA, while OO cells remained unagglutinable. The use of RBCs of different genotypes in binding assays with 3H-labeled lectins of known specificities provides an experimental system for studying cell-cell recognition and association.

  8. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Conceição, Fabricio R; McBride, Alan J A; Pinto, Luciano da S

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  9. Structure Predictions of Two Bauhinia variegata Lectins Reveal Patterns of C-Terminal Properties in Single Chain Legume Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Gustavo M. S. G.; Conceição, Fabricio R.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Pinto, Luciano da S.

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and –II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins. PMID:24260572

  10. Probing the cons and pros of lectin-induced immunomodulation: case studies for the mistletoe lectin and galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Gabius, H J

    2001-07-01

    When imagining to monitor animal cells through a microscope with resolution at the molecular level, a salient attribute of their surfaces will be the abundance of glycan chains. They present galactosides at their termini widely extending like tentacles into the extracellular space. Their spatial accessibility and their potential for structural variability endow especially these glycan parts with capacity to act as docking points for molecular sensors (sugar receptors such as lectins). Binding and ligand clustering account for transmission of post-binding signals into the cell interior. The range of triggered activities has turned plant lectins into popular tools in cell biology and immunology. Potential for clinical application has been investigated rigorously only in recent years. As documented in vitro and in vivo for the galactoside-specific mistletoe lectin, its apparent immunomodulatory capacity reflected in upregulation of production of proinflammatory cytokines will not necessarily be clinically favorable but a double-edged sword. In fact, lectin application has been shown to stimulate tumor growth in cell lines, histocultures of human tumors and in two animal models using chemical carcinogenesis or tumor transplantation. When testing immunological effects of the endogenous lectin galectin-1, protection against disorders mediated by activated T cells came up for consideration. Elimination of these cells via CD7-dependent induction of apoptosis, and a shift to the Th2 response by the galectin, are factors to ameliorate disease states. This result encourages further efforts with other galectins. Functional redundancy, synergism, diversity or antagonism among galectins are being explored to understand the actual role of this class of endogenous lectins in inflammation. Regardless of the results of further preclinical testing for galectin-1, these two case studies break new ground in our understanding how glycans as ligands for lectins convey reactivity to

  11. Prevalence of the F-type lectin domain.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Ritika; Khatri, Indu; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Ramya, T N C

    2015-08-01

    F-type lectins are fucolectins with characteristic fucose and calcium-binding sequence motifs and a unique lectin fold (the "F-type" fold). F-type lectins are phylogenetically widespread with selective distribution. Several eukaryotic F-type lectins have been biochemically and structurally characterized, and the F-type lectin domain (FLD) has also been studied in the bacterial proteins, Streptococcus mitis lectinolysin and Streptococcus pneumoniae SP2159. However, there is little knowledge about the extent of occurrence of FLDs and their domain organization, especially, in bacteria. We have now mined the extensive genomic sequence information available in the public databases with sensitive sequence search techniques in order to exhaustively survey prokaryotic and eukaryotic FLDs. We report 437 FLD sequence clusters (clustered at 80% sequence identity) from eukaryotic, eubacterial and viral proteins. Domain architectures are diverse but mostly conserved in closely related organisms, and domain organizations of bacterial FLD-containing proteins are very different from their eukaryotic counterparts, suggesting unique specialization of FLDs to suit different requirements. Several atypical phylogenetic associations hint at lateral transfer. Among eukaryotes, we observe an expansion of FLDs in terms of occurrence and domain organization diversity in the taxa Mollusca, Hemichordata and Branchiostomi, perhaps coinciding with greater emphasis on innate immune strategies in these organisms. The naturally occurring FLDs with diverse domain organizations that we have identified here will be useful for future studies aimed at creating designer molecular platforms for directing desired biological activities to fucosylated glycoconjugates in target niches.

  12. Lectin histochemistry of palatine glands in the developing rat.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Zaki; Kitaura, Hideki; Honma, Shiho; Wakisaka, Satoshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the binding pattern of lectins, soybean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and succinylated WGA (sucWGA) in the developing rat palatine glands. In adult rats, heterogeneous lectin binding patterns were revealed between the anterior and posterior portions of palatine glands, as DBA, VVA, and WGA were bound more intensely and broadly in the posterior portion. SBA, PNA, and sucWGA showed far less reactivity in the anterior than in the posterior portion. At embryonic day 18 (E18), weak labeling was observed with UEA-I and WGA at the basal membrane of terminal buds, UEA-I and PNA labeled the epithelial cord, and there was no apparent binding for SBA, DBA, VVA, and sucWGA. At E20, after acinar lumenization, all lectins were detected at the acinar cell basal membranes. After birth, all lectins detectably labeled at the mucous cell apical membranes and progressively, with maturation, extended from the apical to basal portions of the cytoplasm. Apparent serous cells were observed around postnatal day 10 (PN10) and bound UEA-I. Lectins reached peak reactivity at PN21 and the binding patterns became identical to those of adults around PN28.

  13. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  14. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Koosha, Mona; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Abolhasani, Mandan; Charedar, Soroor; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Methods: Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed) were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups). Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+) glucose, D (+) galactose, D (+) mannose, D (−) fructose, D (−) arabinose, L (−) fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin. Results: The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose. Conclusion: The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules) in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins. PMID:23785692

  15. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    The olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the Corriedale sheep were examined using lectin histochemistry in order to clarify the histochemical and glycohistochemical differences between these two tissues. The olfactory epithelium was stained with 13 lectins out of 21 lectins examined, while the respiratory epithelium was positive to 16 lectins. The free border of both of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia was stained with 12 lectins: Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120), Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). The associated glands of the olfactory mucosa, Bowman's glands, were stained with 13 lectins. While both the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands were stained with 8 lectins; five of them (WGA, s-WGA, STL, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) and ECL) were mutually positive among the Bowman's glands, mucous nasal glands and the goblet cells. These findings indicate that the glycohistochemical characteristics of the free borders of both olfactory and respiratory epithelia are similar to each other, suggesting that secretions from the Bowman's glands and those of the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands are partially exchanged between the surface of two epithelia to contribute the functions of the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory receptor cells, respectively.

  16. Recombinant lectins: an array of tailor-made glycan-interaction biosynthetic tools.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2013-03-01

    Lectins are a heterogeneous group of proteins found in plants, animals and microorganisms, which possess at least one non-catalytic domain that binds reversibly to specific mono- or oligosaccharides. The range of lectins and respective biological activities is unsurprising given the immense diversity and complexity of glycan structures and the multiple modes of interaction with proteins. Recombinant DNA technology has been traditionally used for cloning and characterizing newly discovered lectins. It has also been employed as a means of producing pure and sequence-defined lectins for different biotechnological applications. This review focuses on the production of recombinant lectins in heterologous organisms, and highlighting the Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris expression systems, which are the most employed. The choice of expression host depends on the lectin. Non-glycosylated recombinant lectins are produced in E. coli and post-translational modified recombinant lectins are produced in eukaryotic organisms, namely P. pastoris and non-microbial hosts such as mammalian cells. Emphasis is given to the applications of the recombinant lectins especially (a) in cancer diagnosis and/or therapeutics, (b) as anti-microbial, anti-viral, and anti-insect molecules or (c) in microarrays for glycome profiling. Most reported applications are from recombinant plant lectins. These applications benefit from the tailor-made design associated with recombinant production and will aid in unraveling the complex biological mechanisms of glycan-interactions, bringing recombinant lectins to the forefront of glycobiology. In conclusion, recombinant lectins are developing into valuable biosynthetic tools for biomedical research.

  17. Quantitation of Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes Using Agarose Containing Wheat Germ Lectin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    SIl Quantitation of Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes Using Agarose Containing Wheat Germ Lectin A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the...16 Wheat Germ Lectin Electrophoresis to Quantitate Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes ................ 16 Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme...vs Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis ......................... 40 Clinical Correlation Using Wheat Germ Lectin 45 Placental Alkaline Phosphatase

  18. Characterization of cervical cancer stem cell-like cells: phenotyping, stemness, and human papilloma virus co-receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Santiago-López, Luz; Cruz-Domínguez, Verónica B; Toledo-Guzmán, Mariel E; Hernández-Cueto, Daniel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Garrido, Efraín; Cantú De León, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2016-05-31

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) exhibit high tumorigenic capacity in several tumor models. We have now determined an extended phenotype for cervical cancer stem cells. Our results showed increased CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ expression in these cells, together with higher Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDHbright)activity in Cervical CSC (CCSC) enriched in cervospheres. An increase in stem cell markers, represented by OCT-4, Nanog, and β-catenin proteins, was also observed, indicating that under our culture conditions, CCSC are enriched in cervospheres, as compared to monolayer cultures. In addition, we were able to show that an increased ALDHbright activity correlated with higher tumorigenic activity. Flow cytometry and immunflorescence assays demonstrated that CCSC in cervosphere cultures contain a sub-population of cells that contain Annexin II, a Human papillomavirus (HPV) co-receptor. Taken together, under our conditions there is an increase in the number of CCSC in cervosphere cultures which exhibit the following phenotype: CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ and high ALDH activity, which in turn correlates with higher tumorigenicity. The presence of Annexin II and CD49f in CCSC opens the possibility that normal cervical stem cells could be the initial target of infection by high risk HPV.

  19. Characterization of cervical cancer stem cell-like cells: phenotyping, stemness, and human papilloma virus co-receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Santiago-López, Luz; Cruz-Domínguez, Verónica B.; Toledo-Guzmán, Mariel E.; Hernández-Cueto, Daniel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Garrido, Efraín; De León, David Cantú; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) exhibit high tumorigenic capacity in several tumor models. We have now determined an extended phenotype for cervical cancer stem cells. Our results showed increased CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ expression in these cells, together with higher Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDHbright)activity in Cervical CSC (CCSC) enriched in cervospheres. An increase in stem cell markers, represented by OCT-4, Nanog, and β-catenin proteins, was also observed, indicating that under our culture conditions, CCSC are enriched in cervospheres, as compared to monolayer cultures. In addition, we were able to show that an increased ALDHbright activity correlated with higher tumorigenic activity. Flow cytometry and immunflorescence assays demonstrated that CCSC in cervosphere cultures contain a sub-population of cells that contain Annexin II, a Human papillomavirus (HPV) co-receptor. Taken together, under our conditions there is an increase in the number of CCSC in cervosphere cultures which exhibit the following phenotype: CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ and high ALDH activity, which in turn correlates with higher tumorigenicity. The presence of Annexin II and CD49f in CCSC opens the possibility that normal cervical stem cells could be the initial target of infection by high risk HPV. PMID:27008711

  20. First report of a healthy Indian heterozygous for delta 32 mutant of HIV-1 co-receptor-CCR5 gene.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Goila, R; Shahi, S; Banerjea, A

    1998-01-30

    The beta-chemokine receptor, CCR5, is a major co-receptor for macrophage tropic non-syncytia-inducing isolates of HIV-1. Recently a 32 bp homozygous deletion in the coding region of CCR5 has been reported in a very small percentage (< 1%) of Caucasian individuals who remain uninfected, despite multiple exposure to the wild-type virus. This mutant allele in the heterozygous form (CCR5/32 ccr5) was readily detected in a normal unrelated Caucasian population of European heritage with varying frequencies (13-20%). However, when a large number of the non-Caucasian population (261 Africans and 423 Asians) were screened for the presence of this deleted allele, not a single case of either homozygous or heterozygous mutant for delta 32 allele of CCR5 was detected. We screened 100 normal individuals and found a single heterozygous case with an identical 32 bp deletion in CCR5 gene reported earlier, the rest possessed wild-type alleles. This deleted gene was inherited in Mendelian fashion among the family members of this individual. Thus, the frequency of this deleted allele in India among unrelated normal individuals is likely to be very low (< 1%). We observed a moderate transdominant effect of this mutant allele in a fusion assay. Finally, we show a significant inhibition of fusion of cell membranes when the 176-bp region of CCR5 was used as an antisense.

  1. Role of Wnt Co-receptor LRP6 in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinlu; Lu, Wenyan; Chen, Dongquan; Xu, Bo; Li, Yonghe

    2017-03-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) is an essential Wnt co-receptor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Although studies have shown an increased expression of LRP6 in several types of cancer, its function in tumor development and progression remains to be elucidated. We herein demonstrated that LRP6 expression is up-regulated in human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients and human TNBC cell lines, and that knockdown of LRP6 expression and treatment of recombinant Mesd protein (a specific inhibitor of LRP6) significantly decreased cell migration and invasion of TNBC MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells. Interestingly, the effects of LRP6 knockdown and Mesd treatment on TNBC cell migration and invasion were more prominent than on TNBC cell proliferation/viability. Mechanistically, LRP6 knockdown and Mesd treatment inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling and decreased the expression of S100A4, a mediator of cancer metastasis and a specific target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, in TNBC cells. Together, our data suggest that LRP6 promotes TNBC cell migration and invasion by regulating the expression and function of S100A4 via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropilin-1 functions as a VEGFR2 co-receptor to guide developmental angiogenesis independent of ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Maria V; Hagan, Nellwyn; Tata, Aleksandra; Oh, Won-Jong; Lacoste, Baptiste; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Kopycinska, Justyna; Bischoff, Joyce; Wang, Jia-Huai; Gu, Chenghua

    2014-09-22

    During development, tissue repair, and tumor growth, most blood vessel networks are generated through angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of this process and currently both VEGF and its receptors, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and Neuropilin1 (NRP1), are targeted in therapeutic strategies for vascular disease and cancer. NRP1 is essential for vascular morphogenesis, but how NRP1 functions to guide vascular development has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we generated a mouse line harboring a point mutation in the endogenous Nrp1 locus that selectively abolishes VEGF-NRP1 binding (Nrp1(VEGF-)). Nrp1(VEGF-) mutants survive to adulthood with normal vasculature revealing that NRP1 functions independent of VEGF-NRP1 binding during developmental angiogenesis. Moreover, we found that Nrp1-deficient vessels have reduced VEGFR2 surface expression in vivo demonstrating that NRP1 regulates its co-receptor, VEGFR2. Given the resources invested in NRP1-targeted anti-angiogenesis therapies, our results will be integral for developing strategies to re-build vasculature in disease.

  3. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as chaperones and co-receptors for FERONIA receptor kinase signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Cheung, Alice Y; Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Liu, Ming-Che; Maman, Jacob; Luu, Emily J; Wu, Brendan W; Gates, Laura; Jalal, Methun; Kwong, Amy; Carpenter, Hunter; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2015-06-08

    The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this interaction is pivotal for FER function. LLG1 interacts with FER in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, and loss of LLG1 function induces cytoplasmic retention of FER, consistent with transport of FER from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a complex with LLG1. We further demonstrate that LLG1 is a component of the FER-regulated RHO GTPase signaling complex and that fer and llg1 mutants display indistinguishable growth, developmental and signaling phenotypes, analogous to how lre and fer share similar reproductive defects. Together our results support LLG1/LRE acting as a chaperone and co-receptor for FER and elucidate a mechanism by which GPI-APs enable the signaling capacity of a cell surface receptor.

  4. The Wnt Co-Receptor Lrp5 Is Required for Cranial Neural Crest Cell Migration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Bernd; Tao, Shijie; Yu, Tingsheng; Huysseune, Ann; Witten, Paul Eckhard; Winkler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    During vertebrate neurulation, cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), delaminate from the neural plate border, and migrate as separate streams into different cranial regions. There, they differentiate into distinct parts of the craniofacial skeleton. Canonical Wnt signaling has been shown to be essential for this process at different levels but the involved receptors remained unclear. Here we show that the frizzled co-receptor low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) plays a crucial role in CNCC migration and morphogenesis of the cranial skeleton. Early during induction and migration of CNCCs, lrp5 is expressed ubiquitously but later gets restricted to CNCC derivatives in the ventral head region besides different regions in the CNS. A knock-down of lrp5 does not interfere with induction of CNCCs but leads to reduced proliferation of premigratory CNCCs. In addition, cell migration is disrupted as CNCCs are found in clusters at ectopic positions in the dorsomedial neuroepithelium after lrp5 knock-down and transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. These migratory defects consequently result in malformations of the craniofacial skeleton. To date, Lrp5 has mainly been associated with bone homeostasis in mammals. Here we show that in zebrafish, lrp5 also controls cell migration during early morphogenetic processes and contributes to shaping the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:26121341

  5. Studies on lectins. XLIX. The use of glycosyl derivatives of Dextran T-500 for affinity electrophoresis of lectins.

    PubMed

    Cerovský, V; Tichá, M; Horejsi, V; Kocourek, J

    1980-09-01

    p-Aminophenyl glycosides and glycosylamines were coupled to periodate oxidized Dextran T-500 either directly or through an epsilon-aminocaproic acid spacer. The new glycosylated derivatives of dextran specifically precipitate lectins having the appropriate carbohydrate specificity, and thus were used in the preparation of affinity gels for affinity electrophoresis of lectins. The apparent strength of interaction of several lectins with carbohydrate residues immobilized in this way was less than with carbohydrates immobilized in O-glycosyl polyacrylamide copolymers. The presence of epsilon-aminocaproic spacer had no effect on the strength of interaction. The advantages of this type of macromolecular derivative of the ligand for affinity electrophoresis and some differences between the glycosylated dextrans and O-glycosyl polyacrylamide copolymers are discussed. Dextrans containing bound p-aminophenyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside and p-aminophenyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside were used to study the binding properties of concanavalin A and the lectin from Lathyrus sativus seeds. For the investigation of interaction of lectins from Ricinus communis and Glycine soja seeds, dextran derivatives containing bound p-aminophenyl alpha- and beta-D-galactopyranosides and alpha- and beta-D-galactopyranosylamines were used.

  6. Isolation and biochemical characterization of Apios tuber lectin.

    PubMed

    Kenmochi, Eri; Kabir, Syed Rashel; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Naude, Ryno; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Muramoto, Koji

    2015-01-09

    Apios tuber lectin, named ATL, was isolated from Apios americana Medikus by two chromatography steps, hydrophobic chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The minimum concentration required for the hemagglutination activity toward rabbit erythrocytes of ATL was 4 μg/mL. ATL was composed of a homodimer of 28.4 kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of ATL was similar to those of other legume lectins. The lectin showed moderate stability toward heating and acidic pH, and the binding affinity against several monosaccharides, such as D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine. ATL also bound to desialylated or agalactosylated glycoproteins such as asialo and agalacto transferrin. ATL decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, suggesting the effect on the tight junction-mediated paracellular transport.

  7. Parkia pendula lectin as histochemistry marker for meningothelial tumour.

    PubMed

    Beltrão, E I C; Medeiros, P L; Rodrigues, O G; Figueredo-Silva, J; Valença, M M; Coelho, L C B B; Carvalho, L B

    2003-01-01

    Lectins have been intensively used in histochemical techniques for cell surface characterization. These proteins are involved in several biological processes and their use as histochemical markers have been evaluated since they can indicate differences in cell surfaces. Parkia pendula lectin (PpeL) was evaluated as histochemical marker for meningothelial meningioma biopsies. Tissue slices were incubated with PpeL conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (PpeL-HRP) and Concanavalin A-HRP (ConA-HPR) and the binding visualized with diaminobenzidine and hydrogen peroxide. The lectin-tissue binding was inhibited with D-glucose. PpeL showed to be a useful tool for the characterization of meningothelial tumour and clinico-pathological diagnosis.

  8. Lectin histochemical studies on the vomeronasal organ of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ of sheep was examined using lectin histochemistry in order to compare the types and amounts of the glycoconjugates among various components of the vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia. In the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) stained particular cells, located at the same level as the vomeronasal receptor cells, while the distribution, shape and number of the stained cells did not correspond to those of the vomeronasal receptor cells. Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L) labeled the basal cells of both vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia. While, Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL) and Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120) labeled the basal cells of the sensory epithelium, and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I) stained the basal cells of the non-sensory epithelium, respectively. Seventeen lectins labeled the free border of both vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia, while Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), Jacalin and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA) labeled neither free border of the sensory nor that of non-sensory epithelia. The expression pattern of glycoconjugate was similar, but not identical, in the free border between the sensory and non-sensory epithelia. These results indicate that there are dissimilar features in the type and amount of glycoconjugates between the vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia, and at the same time, among the various cell types either in the vomeronasal sensory or non-sensory epithelium.

  9. Purification of a thermostable antinociceptive lectin isolated from Andira anthelmia.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Nascimento, Francisco Lucas Faustino do; Silva, Mayara Torquato Lima; Nobre, Camila Bezerra; Moreira, Cleane Gomes; Brizeno, Luiz André Cavalcante; da Ponte, Edson Lopes; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2016-06-01

    Andira anthelmia (tribe Dalbergieae), a plant from Brazilian Amazon, possesses a seed lectin that was purified by affinity chromatography in sepharose-mannose. This novel Dalbergieae lectin, named AAL, agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes treated with trypsin. The hemagglutinating activity of AAL was maintained after incubation at a wide range of temperature (40 to 70 °C) and pH, was shown to be dependent on divalent cations, and was inhibited by d-mannose and d-sucrose. AAL showed an electrophoretic profile in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis similar to other lectins of the tribe Dalbergieae, presenting a double band of molecular weight with approximately 20 kDa and other minor bands of 17, 15, and 13 kDa, being the smaller fragment glycosylated. AAL injected by intravenous route in mice showed antinociceptive activity in two behavioral tests (writhing and formalin). In the writhing test induced by acetic acid, AAL showed inhibitory effect at 0.01 mg/kg (68%), 0.1 mg/kg (46%) and 1 mg/kg (74%). In the formalin test, AAL (0.1 mg/kg) inhibited by 48% the licking time in the inflammatory phase, an effect that was recovered by the lectin association with mannose. In conclusion, AAL presents analgesic effect involving the lectin domain via peripheral mechanisms of inflammatory nociception. This activity highlights the importance of lectins as tools to be used for understanding the interaction of protein-carbohydrate in processes associated to inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Lectin binding to olfactory system in a shark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, V; Ciani, F

    1993-01-01

    Lectin histochemical studies were performed on the olfactory system of Scyliorhinus canicula to identify specific glycoconjugates on the cell surface of primary olfactory neurons. The olfactory receptor cells, the olfactory nerve fibers and their terminals in the bulbs were labelled with SBA, BSA-I and BSA-I-B4. The lectin staining patterns indicate that the membranes of small-spotted catshark olfactory neurons had glycoproteins with alpha-galactose residues. This carbohydrate moiety could be related to modulation of the cell-cell interactions in the olfactory system.

  11. Ribosome-inactivating lectins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Battelli, M G; Barbieri, L; Bolognesi, A; Buonamici, L; Valbonesi, P; Polito, L; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Stirpe, F

    1997-05-26

    Lectins from Aegopodium podagraria (APA), Bryonia dioica (BDA), Galanthus nivalis (GNA), Iris hybrid (IRA) and Sambucus nigra (SNAI), and a new lectin-related protein from Sambucus nigra (SNLRP) were studied to ascertain whether they had the properties of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP). IRA and SNLRP inhibited protein synthesis by a cell-free system and, at much higher concentrations, by cells and had polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity, thus behaving like non-toxic type 2 (two chain) RIP. APA and SNAI had much less activity, and BDA and GNA did not inhibit protein synthesis.

  12. Systematic donor blood qualification by flow cytometry would have been able to avoid CLL-type MBL transmission after unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Christophe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Collonge-Rame, Marie Agnès; Larosa, Fabrice; Blanc, Michel; Behar, Catherine; Giannoli, Catherine; Garnier, Frédérico; Tiberghien, Pierre; Deconinck, Eric; Rohrlich, Pierre Simon

    2012-03-01

    The current screening for eligibility of unrelated volunteer marrow donors comprises a complete clinical check-up, a blood CBC and serum protein immunoelectrophoresis. This allows to eliminate acute leukemias, myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders, myelomas and MGUS. To date, the risk of transmission of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) disease is only evaluated by the clinical evaluation and CBC. We report here the case of a CLL-type MBL disease occurring in a 12-year-old boy after unrelated BMT. Deep biological investigations, as Immunophenotyping, cytogenetic and molecular biology allow us to determine the donor origin of the CLL clone. In 2010, 14.2% donor (105/737) for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were over 45y. It is currently estimated (USA) that 1 in 210 men and women will be diagnosed with CLL during their lifetime. Given the long asymptomatic phase of CLL, this raises the case for a detection strategy analog to that used for MGUS and myeloma through serum protein electrophoresis. This case-report, to our knowledge, of a CLL-type MBL unrelated donor-to-recipient transmission through BMT raises ethical and practical questions, such as the proper information about disease transmission risk. The cost-effectiveness of a systematic peripheral blood Immunophenotyping in donors elder than 40y at time of stem cell donation should be evaluated.

  13. CD8 Co-receptor promotes susceptibility of CD8+ T cells to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated suppression

    PubMed Central

    Zloza, Andrew; Jagoda, Michael C.; Lyons, Gretchen E.; Graves, Michael C.; Kohlhapp, Frederick J.; O’Sullivan, Jeremy A.; Lacek, Andrew T.; Nishimura, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cell function depends on a finely orchestrated balance of activation/suppression signals. While the stimulatory role of the CD8 co-receptor and pleiotropic capabilities of TGF-β have been studied individually, the influence of CD8 co-receptor on TGF-β function in CD8+ T cells is unknown. Here, we show that while CD8 enhances T cell activation, it also enhances susceptibility to TGF-β-mediated immune suppression. Using Jurkat cells expressing a full-length, truncated or no αβCD8 molecule, we demonstrate that cells expressing full-length αβCD8 were highly susceptible, αβCD8-truncated cells were partially susceptible, and CD8-deficient cells were completely resistant to suppression by TGF-β. Additionally, we determined that inhibition of Lck rendered mouse CD8+ T cells highly resistant to TGF-β suppression. Resistance was not associated with TGF-β receptor expression but did correlate with decreased Smad3 and increased Smad7 levels. These findings highlight a previously unrecognized third role for CD8 co-receptor which appears to prepare activated CD8+ T cells for response to TGF-β. Based on the important role which TGF-β-mediated suppression plays in tumor immunology, these findings unveil necessary considerations in formulation of CD8+ T cell-related cancer immunotherapy strategies. PMID:21193909

  14. Crystal Structure of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type a in Complex With the Cell Surface Co-Receptor GT1b-Insight Into the Toxin-Neuron Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Stenmark, P.; Dupuy, J.; Inamura, A.; Kiso, M.; Stevens, R.C.

    2009-05-26

    Botulinum neurotoxins have a very high affinity and specificity for their target cells requiring two different co-receptors located on the neuronal cell surface. Different toxin serotypes have different protein receptors; yet, most share a common ganglioside co-receptor, GT1b. We determined the crystal structure of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain (residues 873-1297) alone and in complex with a GT1b analog at 1.7 A and 1.6 A, respectively. The ganglioside GT1b forms several key hydrogen bonds to conserved residues and binds in a shallow groove lined by Tryptophan 1266. GT1b binding does not induce any large structural changes in the toxin; therefore, it is unlikely that allosteric effects play a major role in the dual receptor recognition. Together with the previously published structures of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B in complex with its protein co-receptor, we can now generate a detailed model of botulinum neurotoxin's interaction with the neuronal cell surface. The two branches of the GT1b polysaccharide, together with the protein receptor site, impose strict geometric constraints on the mode of interaction with the membrane surface and strongly support a model where one end of the 100 A long translocation domain helix bundle swing into contact with the membrane, initiating the membrane anchoring event.

  15. The use of lectin microarray for assessing glycosylation of therapeutic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycans or carbohydrates attached to therapeutic glycoproteins can directly affect product quality, safety and efficacy, and therefore must be adequately analyzed and controlled throughout product life cycles. However, the complexity of protein glycosylation poses a daunting analytical challenge. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a lectin microarray for assessing protein glycans. Using commercial lectin chips, which contain 45 lectins toward distinct glycan structures, we were able to determine the lectin binding patterns of a panel of 15 therapeutic proteins, including 8 monoclonal antibodies. Lectin binding signals were analyzed to generate glycan profiles that were generally consistent with the known glycan patterns for these glycoproteins. In particular, the lectin-based microarray was found to be highly sensitive to variations in the terminal carbohydrate structures such as galactose versus sialic acid epitopes. These data suggest that lectin microarray could be used for screening glycan patterns of therapeutic glycoproteins. PMID:26918373

  16. Purification and characterization of a new type lactose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Konami, Y; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T

    1991-02-01

    A new type lactose-binding lectin was purified from extracts of Ulex europaeus seeds by affinity chromatography on a column of galactose-Sepharose 4B, followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. This lectin, designated as Ulex europaeus lectin III (UEA-III), was found to be inhibited by lactose. The dimeric lectin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 70,000 Da; it consists of two apparently identical subunits of a molecular mass of 34,000 Da. Compositional analysis showed that this lectin contains 30% carbohydrate and a large amount of aspartic acid, serine and valine, but no sulfur-containing amino acids. The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of L-fucose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin I (UEA-I) and di-N-acetylchitobiose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin II (UEA-II), both of which we have already purified and characterized, and that of UEA-III were determined and compared.

  17. Lectin coated MgO nanoparticle: its toxicity, antileishmanial activity, and macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Ali; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Kazemi, Bahram; Allaveisie, Azra; Masoudi, Alireza; Daliri, Karim; Sedighi, Najme; Ranjbari, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate toxicity of uncoated magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs), MgO NPs coated with Peanut agglutinin (PNA) lectin, and PNA alone on the promastigotes of Leishmania major (L. major) and macrophages of BALB/c mice. On the other hand, antileishmanial property of uncoated MgO NPs, lectin coated MgO NPs, and PNA lectin alone was evaluated, and also macrophage activation was investigated after treatment with these materials by measurement of nitrite, H2O2, and some interleukins. This study showed that PNA lectin and lectin coated MgO NPs had approximately no toxicity on L. major and macrophages, but some toxic effects were observed for uncoated MgO NPs, especially at concentration of 500 µg/mL. Interestingly, lectin coated MgO NPs had the highest antileishmanial activity and macrophage activation, compared with uncoated MgO NPs and PNA lectin.

  18. MuSK is a BMP co-receptor that shapes BMP responses and calcium signaling in muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Atilgan; Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Ozdeslik, Rana N.; Schmiedel, Carolyn; Mentzer, Sarah; Schorl, Christoph; Oancea, Elena; Thompson, Thomas B.; Fallon, Justin R.

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) function in most tissues but have cell type-specific effects. Given the relatively small number of BMP receptors, this exquisite signaling specificity requires additional molecules to regulate this pathway’s output. The receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) is critical for neuromuscular junction formation and maintenance. Here, we show that MuSK also promotes BMP signaling in muscle cells. MuSK bound to BMP4 and related BMPs with low nanomolar affinity in vitro and to the type I BMP receptors ALK3 and ALK6 in a ligand-independent manner both in vitro and in cultured myotubes. High-affinity binding to BMPs required the third, alternatively spliced MuSK immunoglobulin-like domain. In myoblasts, endogenous MuSK promoted BMP4-dependent phosphorylation of SMADs and transcription of Id1, which encodes a transcription factor involved in muscle differentiation. Gene expression profiling showed that MuSK was required for the BMP4-induced expression of a subset of genes in myoblasts, including regulator of G protein signaling 4 (Rgs4). In myotubes, MuSK enhanced the BMP4-induced expression of a distinct set of genes, including transcripts characteristic of slow muscle. MuSK-mediated stimulation of BMP signaling required type I BMP receptor activity but was independent of MuSK tyrosine kinase activity. MuSK-dependent expression of Rgs4 resulted in the inhibition of Ca2+ signaling induced by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in myoblasts. These findings establish that MuSK has dual roles in muscle cells, acting both as a tyrosine kinase-dependent synaptic organizing molecule and as a BMP co-receptor that shapes BMP transcriptional output and cholinergic signaling. PMID:27601729

  19. Defining Binding Efficiency and Specificity of Auxins for SCFTIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA Co-receptor Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Structure–activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure–activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding. PMID:24313839

  20. Genetic predisposition of variants in TLR2 and its co-receptors to severe malaria in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Subhendu; Kar, Avishek; Tripathy, Sagnika; Mohapatra, Manoj K; Dhangadamajhi, Gunanidhi

    2016-02-01

    Although the role of TLRs signalling in malaria pathogenesis is well established, contribution of individual TLR to clinical outcome of malaria still remains inconclusive. Given the importance of TLR2 and its co-receptors in recognising distinct structural forms of key malaria toxins and mediating innate immune response, it is essential to delineate their genetic contribution. Variants in TLR1 (I602S) and TLR6 (P249S) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP methods, and TLR2 (I/D) was genotyped by PCR in 200 samples each from uncomplicated malaria (UM) and severe malaria (SM). Further, SM was categorised into its sub-clinical groups (CM and NCSM or SOD and MODS) and analysed. The results showed the PP genotype of TLR6 (P249S) to be significantly more common in UM (P < 0.0001), whereas the 'SS' genotype was the risk factor for SM including its sub-clinical categories. The TLR1 (602S) and TLR2 (D) variants were significantly high in patients with CM; however, negative LD was observed between TLR2 and TLR6 in NCSM and MODS. Haplotype analysis showed significantly high frequency of I-I-S haplotype in all forms of subclinical SM and was associated with low parasite load in SM (P = 0.013). The haplotypes I-D-S and S-I-P were significantly high in SOD and CM, respectively. The TLR6 '249S' variant appeared to be the dominant determinant for genetic predisposition to SM and that its association with either TLR2 'D' or TLR1 '602S' modulates for CM development. The present study opens up several new avenues for their exploration and validation in future studies in different global settings for malaria.

  1. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  2. Momordica charantia seed lectin: toxicity, bacterial agglutination and antitumor properties.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Nabi, Md Mahamodun; Nurujjaman, Md; Abu Reza, Md; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Uz Zaman, Rokon; Khalid-Bin-Ferdaus, Khandaker Md; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Md Masudul Hasan; Hossain, Md Anowar; Uddin, Md Salim; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat

    2015-03-01

    In last three decades, several studies were carried out on the D-galactose-specific lectin of Momordica charantia seeds (MCL). In the present study, in vitro growth inhibition (8-23 %) at different concentrations (6-24 μg/ml) of MCL was observed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MCL also showed 28, 45, and 75 % growth inhibitions against EAC cells when administered 1.2, 2.0, and 2.8 mg/kg/day (i.p.), respectively for five consequent days in vivo in mice. After lectin treatment, the level of red blood cell and hemoglobin was increased significantly with the decrease of white blood cell and maintained the normal level when compared with EAC-bearing control and normal mice without EAC cells. Although MCL caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of EAC cells, any irregular shape or apoptotic morphological alterations in the lectin-treated EAC cells was not observed by an optical and fluorescence microscope. Lectin showed toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with an LC50 value of 49.7 μg/ml. Four out of seven pathogenic bacteria were agglutinated by MCL in the absence of inhibitory sugar D-lactose/D-galactose. In conclusion, MCL showed strong cytotoxic effect and therefore can be used as a potent anticancer chemotherapeutic agent.

  3. Lectin Binding to Radopholus citrophilus and R. similis Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T; Gottwald, T R

    1992-06-01

    Lectin-binding glycoproteins in seven populations of two burrowing nematode sibling species were probed with five different biotinylated lectins on Western blots, and differences were correlated with nematode ability to parasitize citrus and to overcome citrus rootstock resistance. Banding patterns of molecular weight standards were fit best by an exponential decay function, and a predictive equation was used to estimate molecular weights (r(2) = 0.999). A band (131 kDa) that labeled with the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) occurred in extracts from cuticles and egg shells of populations of Radopholus citrophilus that parasitize citrus. Wheat germ agglutin labeled a band (58 kDa) in aqueous homogenates of populations that reproduce in roots of citrus rootstock normally resistant to burrowing nematodes. The two sibling species R. citrophilus and R. similis were distinguished by a high molecular weight Con A-labeled band (608 kDa) from cuticle and egg shells. Probing blots with the lectin Limulus polyphemus agglutinin indicated that each population contained a band (12-16 kDa) specifically inhibited by the addition of 25 mM neuraminic acid, suggesting that glycoproteins with sialic acid moieties are present in burrowing nematodes.

  4. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lectins As Targets for Novel Antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Grishin, A. V.; Krivozubov, M. S.; Karyagina, A. S.; Gintsburg, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most widespread and troublesome opportunistic pathogens that is capable of colonizing various human tissues and organs and is often resistant to many currently used antibiotics. This resistance is caused by different factors, including the acquisition of specific resistance genes, intrinsic capability to diminish antibiotic penetration into the bacterial cell, and the ability to form biofilms. This situation has prompted the development of novel compounds differing in their mechanism of action from traditional antibiotics that suppress the growth of microorganisms or directly kill bacteria. Instead, these new compounds should decrease the pathogens’ ability to colonize and damage human tissues by inhibiting the virulence factors and biofilm formation. The lectins LecA and LecB that bind galactose and fucose, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides containing these sugars, are among the most thoroughly-studied targets for such novel antibacterials. In this review, we summarize the results of experiments highlighting the importance of these proteins for P. aeruginosa pathogenicity and provide information on existing lectins inhibitors and their effectiveness in various experimental models. Particular attention is paid to the effects of lectins inhibition in animal models of infection and in clinical practice. We argue that lectins inhibition is a perspective approach to combating P. aeruginosa. However, despite the existence of highly effective in vitro inhibitors, further experiments are required in order to advance these inhibitors into pre-clinical studies. PMID:26085942

  5. Peanut lectin-binding sites in large bowel carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cooper, H S

    1982-10-01

    Peanut lectin is known to bind to B-D-Gal-(1 leads to 3)-D-GalNac which provides antigenic determination for the T (TAg) blood group antigen. We examined 33 rectosigmoid carcinomas and 15 corresponding controls for their ability to express peanut lectin-binding sites. In controls one could localize TAg to the supranuclear portion of the cell, however, in cancers one noticed a cytostructural relocalization of TAg with the following two major patterns: localization to the region of the glycocalyx and localization intracytoplasmically in the apical portion of the cell. These two patterns were associated with glandular differentiation. Less frequently noted or in association with the above was a mucin glob-like pattern and/or a fine diffuse intracytoplasmic pattern associated with solid, nonglandular areas. The more poorly differentiated cancers less frequently expressed peanut lectin-binding sites. Benign (nontransitional zone) epithelium in those patients whose tumor expressed TAg was negative for peanut lectin-binding sites in 66 per cent of the cases. Reduced tumoral glycosyltransferases may explain this increased synthesis of TAg in cancers as compared with controls, if one considers TAg to be an incomplete glycoprotein of the MN blood group system.

  6. Interactions of lectins with plasma membrane glycoproteins of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Nachbar, M S; Oppenheim, J D; Aull, F

    1976-02-06

    Several aspects of the interaction of various lectins with the surface of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells are described. The order of agglutinating activity for various lectins is Ricinus communis greater than wheat germ greater than or equal to concanavalin A greater than or equal to soybean greater than Limulus polyphemus. No agglutination was noted for Ulex europaeus. Using 125I-labeled lectins it was determined that there are 1.6 and 7 times as many Ricinus communis lectin binding sites for concanavalin A and soybean lectins. Sodium deoxycholate-solubilized plasma membrane material was subjected to lectin affinity chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The lectin receptors of the plasma membrane appeared to be heterogeneous and some qualitative differences could be discerned among the electrophoretically analyzed material, which bound to and was specifically eluted from the various lectin affinity columns. The characteristics of elution of bound material from individual lectin columns indicated secondary hydrophobic interactions between concanavalin A or wheat germ agglutinin and their respective lectin receptor molecules.

  7. Properties of Lectins in the Root and Seed of Lotononis bainesii1

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ian J.; Strijdom, Barend W.

    1984-01-01

    A lectin was purified from the root of Lotononis bainesii Baker by affinity chromatography on Sepharose-blood group substance A + H. The molecular weight of the lectin was estimated by gel filtration to be 118,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the lectin was a tetramer composed of two slightly different subunits with respective molecular weights of 32,000 and 35,000. The lectin had a hexose content of 12% (w/w) and contained the sugars fucose, glucosamine, mannose, and xylose. Root lectin hemagglutination was preferentially inhibited by disaccharides with terminal nonreducing galactose residues. Antigens capable of cross-reaction with root lectin antibody were not detected in the seed of L. bainesii. A lectin from the seed of L. bainesii was partially purified by adsorption to pronase-treated rabbit erythrocytes. The lectin preparation had a molecular weight of approximately 200,000. Galactose and galactono-1,4-lactone inhibited seed lectin hemagglutination but lactose was ineffective. There was no evidence that the root of L. bainesii contained material antigenically related to the seed lectin. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663508

  8. Isolation and partial characterization of a lectin from ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria) rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Peumans, W J; Nsimba-Lubaki, M; Peeters, B; Broekaert, W F

    1985-05-01

    A lectin has been isolated from rhizomes of ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria) using a combination of affinity chromatography on erythrocyte membrane proteins immobilized on cross-linked agarose and hydroxyapatite, and ion-exchange chromatography. The molecular structure of the lectin was determined by gelfiltration, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. It has an unusually high Mr (about 480000) and is most probably an octamer composed of two distinct types of subunits with slightly different Mr (about 60000). Hapten inhibition assays indicated that the Aegopodium lectin is preferentially inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine. Nevertheless, it does not agglutinate preferentially blood-group-A erythrocytes. The ground-elder lectin is a typical non-seed lectin, which occurs virtually exclusively in the underground rhizomes. In this organ it is an abundant protein as it represents up to 5% of the total protein content. The lectin content of the rhizome tissue varies strongly according to its particular location along the organ. In addition, the lectin content changes dramatically as a function of the seasons. The ground-elder lectin differs from all other plant lectins by its unusually high molecular weight. In addition, it is the first lectin to be isolated from a species of the family Apiaceae.

  9. In vivo effect of statins on the expression of the HIV co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    -term administration of statins at therapeutic doses, does not significantly affect the expression of HIV-1 co-receptors or of their ligands. In addition it is important to point out that based on the results obtained, therapeutic administration of statins in HIV-infected patients with lipid disorders is safe in terms of selecting X4 strains. PMID:23634877

  10. Blocking of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum lectins by diverse mammalian milks.

    PubMed

    Zinger-Yosovich, K D; Iluz, D; Sudakevitz, D; Gilboa-Garber, N

    2010-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum morbid and mortal infections are initiated by bacterial adherence to host-cell receptors via their adhesins, including lectins (which also contribute to bacterial biofilm formation). Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a galactophilic lectin, PA-IL (LecA), and a fucophilic (Lewis-specific) lectin, PA-IIL (LecB), and C. violaceum produces a fucophilic (H-specific) lectin, CV-IIL. The antibiotic resistance of these bacteria prompted the search for glycosylated receptor-mimicking compounds that would function as glycodecoys for blocking lectin attachment to human cell receptors. Lectins PA-IL and PA-IIL have been shown to be useful for such glycodecoy probing, clearly differentiating between human and cow milks. This article describes their usage, together with CV-IIL and the plant lectin concanavalin A, for comparing the anti-lectin-dependent adhesion potential of diverse mammalian milks. The results show that the diverse milks differ in blocking (hemagglutination inhibition) and differential binding (Western blots) of these lectins. Human milk most strongly inhibited the 3 bacterial lectins (with PA-IIL superiority), followed by alpaca, giraffe, and monkey milks, whereas cow milk was a weak inhibitor. Lectin PA-IL was inhibited strongly by human, followed by alpaca, mare, giraffe, buffalo, and monkey milks, weakly by camel milk, and not at all by rabbit milk. Lectins PA-IIL and CV-IIL were also most sensitive to human milk, followed by alpaca, monkey, giraffe, rabbit, and camel milks but negligibly sensitive to buffalo and mare milks. Plant lectin concanavalinA, which was used as the reference, differed from them in that it was much less sensitive to human milk and was equally as sensitive to cow milk. These results have provided important information on the anti-lectin-dependent adhesion potential of the diverse milks examined. They showed that human followed by alpaca, giraffe, and Rhesus monkey milks efficiently

  11. Antibiotic resistance pattern and evaluation of metallo-beta lactamase genes (VIM and IMP) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing MBL enzyme, isolated from patients with secondary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Kiana; Ataei, Behrouz; Roshandel, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most common causes of hospital-acquired secondary infections in hospitalized patients is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of IMP and VIM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (carbapenem resistant and producer MBL enzyme) in patients with secondary immunodeficiency. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 96 patients with secondary immunodeficiency hospitalized in the Al-Zahra hospital were selected. Carbapenem resistant strains isolated and modified Hodge test was performed in order to confirm the presence of the metallo carbapenemase enzyme. Under the standard conditions they were sent to the central laboratory for investigating nosocomial infection Multiplex PCR. Results: Of 96 samples 28.1% were IMP positive, 5.2% VIM positive and 3.1% both VIM and IMP positive. The prevalence of multidrug resistance in the IMP and/or VIM negative samples was 29%, while all 5 VIM positive samples have had multidrug resistance. Also the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in IMP positive samples were 96.3% and in IMP and VIM positive samples were 100%. According to Fisher’s test, the prevalence of multi-drug resistance based on gene expression has significant difference (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that, a significant percentage of patients with secondary immunodeficiency that suffer nosocomial infections with multidrug resistance, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are probably MBL-producing gene positive. Therefore the cause of infection should be considered in the hospital care system to identify their features, the presence of genes involved in the development of multi-drug resistance and antibiotic therapy. PMID:27563634

  12. Heregulin-dependent activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt via the ErbB2/ErbB3 co-receptor.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, N J; Kim, M S; Koland, J G

    2001-11-09

    The ErbB2/ErbB3 heregulin co-receptor has been shown to couple to phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase in a heregulin-dependent manner. The recruitment and activation of PI 3-kinase by this co-receptor is presumed to occur via its interaction with phosphorylated Tyr-Xaa-Xaa-Met (YXXM) motifs occurring in the ErbB3 C terminus. In this study, mutant ErbB3 receptor proteins expressed in COS7 cells were used to investigate PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathways activated by the ErbB2/ErbB3 co-receptor. We observed that a mutant ErbB3 protein with each of its six YXXM motifs containing a Tyr --> Phe substitution was unable to bind either the p85 regulatory or p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase. However, restoration of a single YXXM motif was sufficient to mediate association with the PI 3-kinase holoenzyme, although at a lower level than wild-type ErbB3. When ErbB3 YXXM motifs were restored in pairs, evidence for cooperativity between two, those incorporating Tyr-1273 and Tyr-1286, was observed. Interestingly, we have shown that an apparent association of PI 3-kinase activity with ErbB2/Neu was due to the residual presence of ErbB3 in ErbB2 immunoprecipitates. The necessity of ErbB3 association with PI 3-kinase for downstream signaling to the effector kinase Akt was also investigated. Here, the heregulin-dependent translocation of Akt to the plasma membrane and its subsequent activation was observed in intact NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Recruitment of PI 3-kinase to ErbB3 was required for both activities, and it appeared that ErbB2 activation alone was not sufficient to activate PI 3-kinase signaling in these cells.

  13. Histochemical characterization of the lectin-binding sites in the equine vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-young; Kang, Tae-young; Lee, Yong-duk; Shin, Tae-kyun

    2003-04-01

    The binding specificities of various lectins, such as the Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), soybean agglutinin (SBA), and the Bandeiraea simplicifolia BS-1 (Isolectin B4), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I) lectins, were studied in the vomeronasal organ of the horse. The microvilli of the vomeronasal sensory epithelium were positive for DBA, SBA, Isolectin B4, WGA, PNA, and UEA-I. The receptor cells showed intense reactivity for DBA and WGA. Lectins were not detected in the supporting cells or basal cells. The Jacobson's glands were positive for WGA and UEA-I, but lectins were absent from the nerve bundles. From these results, we postulate that several lectin-binding carbohydrates on the microvilli and neurosensory cells are associated with chemoreception in the horse. In addition, the differential lectin-binding patterns in the horse suggest that the carbohydrates present in this particular sense organ are species-specific.

  14. Isolation of the galactose-binding lectin that mediates the in vitro adherence of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Petri, W A; Smith, R D; Schlesinger, P H; Murphy, C F; Ravdin, J I

    1987-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica adheres to human colonic mucus, colonic epithelial cells, and other target cells via a galactose (Gal) or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) inhibitable surface lectin. Blockade of this adherence lectin with Gal or GalNAc in vitro prevents amebic killing of target cells. We have identified and purified the adherence lectin by two methods: affinity columns derivatized with galactose monomers or galactose terminal glycoproteins, and affinity columns and immunoblots prepared with monoclonal antibodies that inhibit amebic adherence. By both methods the adherence lectin was identified as a 170-kD secreted and membrane-bound amebic protein. The surface location of the lectin was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence. Purified lectin competitively inhibited amebic adherence to target cells by binding to receptors on the target Chinese hamster ovary cells in a Gal-inhibitable manner. Images PMID:2890654

  15. Leguminous lectins as tools for studying the role of sugar residues in leukocyte recruitment.

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, N M; Teixeira, E H; Assreuy, A M; Cavada, B S; Flores, C A; Ribeiro, R A

    1999-01-01

    The natural physiological ligands for selectins are oligosaccharides found in glycoprotein or glycolipid molecules in cell membranes. In order to study the role of sugar residues in the in vivo lectin anti-inflammatory effect, we tested three leguminous lectins with different carbohydrate binding affinities in the peritonitis and paw oedema models induced by carrageenin in rats. L. sericeus lectin was more anti-inflammatory than D. virgata lectin, the effects being reversed by their specific binding sugars (N-acetylglucosamine and alpha-methylmannoside, respectively). However, V. macrocarpa, a galactose-specific lectin, was not anti-inflammatory. The proposed anti-inflammatory activity of lectins could be due to a blockage of neutrophil-selectin carbohydrate ligands. Thus, according to the present data, we suggest an important role for N-acetylglucosamine residue as the major ligand for selectins on rat neutrophil membranes. PMID:10704148

  16. A galactose-specific lectin from the hemolymph of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Mori, K

    1989-01-01

    1. A lectin in the serum of Pinctada fucata martensii was purified by a combination of affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B coupled with bovine submaxillary gland mucine, anion exchange chromatography on Mono Q and gel filtration on Superose 6. 2. The purified lectin was indicated to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide electrophoresis and rechromatography on Mono Q. 3. The purified lectin was approximately 440,000 in molecular weight and was composed of identical subunits with a molecular weight of approximately 20,000. 4. D-galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine gave a 50% inhibition of agglutination of horse erythrocytes by the lectin at 0.3 and 1.2 mM, respectively. 5. The antibody obtained from rabbit immunized with the purified lectin was monospecific to the lectin judged from the hemagglutination blocking test, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting.

  17. Lectin Activation in Giardia lamblia by Host Protease: A Novel Host-Parasite Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Boaz; Ward, Honorine; Keusch, Gerald T.; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

    1986-04-01

    A lectin in Giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. Incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. Accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and Pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. When activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. The lectin was most specific to mannose-6-phosphate and apparently was bound to the plasma membrane. Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of hostparasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site.

  18. Could plant lectins become promising anti-tumour drugs for causing autophagic cell death?

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Luo, Y; Zhou, T-T; Zhang, W-Z

    2013-10-01

    Plant lectins, a group of highly diverse carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin, are ubiquitously distributed through a variety of plant species, and have recently drawn rising attention due to their remarkable ability to kill tumour cells using mechanisms implicated in autophagy. In this review, we provide a brief outline of structures of some representative plant lectins such as concanavalin A, Polygonatum cyrtonema lectin and mistletoe lectins. These can target autophagy by modulating BNIP-3, ROS-p38-p53, Ras-Raf and PI3KCI-Akt pathways, as well as Beclin-1, in many types of cancer cells. In addition, we further discuss how plant lectins are able to kill cancer cells by modulating autophagic death, for therapeutic purposes. Together, these findings provide a comprehensive perspective concerning plant lectins as promising new anti-tumour drugs, with respect to autophagic cell death in future cancer therapeutics.

  19. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  20. Isolation and partial characterization of a lectin from a false brome grass (Brachypodium sylvaticum).

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, W J; Spaepen, C; Stinissen, H M; Carlier, A R

    1982-01-01

    A lectin has been isolated from embryos of a false brome grass species (Brachypodium sylvaticum) by affinity chromatography on immobilized N-acetylglucosamine. It is a dimeric protein of two identical subunits of mol.wt. 18 000. Although it resembles cereal lectins with respect to its biochemical and physicochemical properties, it differs structurally in several aspects from wheat-germ-agglutinin-like lectins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6816219

  1. Pharmacological inhibition of mannose-binding lectin ameliorates neurobehavioral dysfunction following experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Daiana; Fumagalli, Stefano; Longhi, Luca; Orsini, Franca; Palmioli, Alessandro; Stravalaci, Matteo; Vegliante, Gloria; Zanier, Elisa R; Bernardi, Anna; Gobbi, Marco; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia

    2017-03-01

    Mannose-binding lectin is present in the contusion area of traumatic brain-injured patients and in that of traumatic brain-injured mice, where mannose-binding lectin-C exceeds mannose-binding lectin-A. The reduced susceptibility to traumatic brain injury of mannose-binding lectin double knock-out mice (mannose-binding lectin(-/-)) when compared to wild type mice suggests that mannose-binding lectin may be a therapeutic target following traumatic brain injury. Here, we evaluated the effects of a multivalent glycomimetic mannose-binding lectin ligand, Polyman9, following traumatic brain injury in mice. In vitro surface plasmon resonance assay indicated that Polyman9 dose-dependently inhibits the binding to immobilized mannose residues of plasma mannose-binding lectin-C selectively over that of mannose-binding lectin-A. Male C57Bl/6 mice underwent sham/controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury and intravenous treatment with Polyman9/saline. Ex-vivo surface plasmon resonance studies confirmed that Polyman9 effectively reduces the binding of plasma mannose-binding lectin-C to immobilized mannose residues. In vivo studies up to four weeks post injury, showed that Polyman9 induces significant improvement in sensorimotor deficits (by neuroscore and beam walk), promotes neurogenesis (73% increase in doublecortin immunoreactivity), and astrogliosis (28% increase in glial fibrillary acid protein). Polyman9 administration in brain-injured mannose-binding lectin(-/-) mice had no effect on post-traumatic brain-injured functional deficits, suggestive of the specificity of its neuroprotective effects. The neurobehavioral efficacy of Polyman9 implicates mannose-binding lectin-C as a novel therapeutic target for traumatic brain injury.

  2. Griffithsin: An Antiviral Lectin with Outstanding Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Lusvarghi, Sabrina; Bewley, Carole A.

    2016-01-01

    Griffithsin (GRFT), an algae-derived lectin, is one of the most potent viral entry inhibitors discovered to date. It is currently being developed as a microbicide with broad-spectrum activity against several enveloped viruses. GRFT can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at picomolar concentrations, surpassing the ability of most anti-HIV agents. The potential to inhibit other viruses as well as parasites has also been demonstrated. Griffithsin’s antiviral activity stems from its ability to bind terminal mannoses present in high-mannose oligosaccharides and crosslink these glycans on the surface of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Here, we review structural and biochemical studies that established mode of action and facilitated construction of GRFT analogs, mechanisms that may lead to resistance, and in vitro and pre-clinical results that support the therapeutic potential of this lectin. PMID:27783038

  3. Parallel quantification of lectin-glycan interaction using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yoichi; Seko, Akira; Sakono, Masafumi; Hachisu, Masakazu; Koizumi, Akihiko; Fujikawa, Kohki; Ito, Yukishige

    2013-06-28

    Using ultrafiltration membrane, a simple method for screening protein-ligand interaction was developed. The procedure comprises three steps: mixing ligand with protein, ultrafiltration of the solution, and quantification of unbound ligands by HPLC. By conducting analysis with variable protein concentrations, affinity constants were easily obtained. Multiple ligands can be analyzed simultaneously as a mixture, when concentration of ligands was controlled. Feasibility of this method for lectin-glycan interaction analysis was examined using fluorescently labeled high-mannose-type glycans and recombinant intracellular lectins or endo-α-mannosidase mutants. Estimated Ka values of malectin and VIP36 were in good agreement indeed with those evaluated by conventional methods such as isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) or frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). Finally, several mutants of endo-α-mannosidase were produced and their affinities to monoglucosylated glycans were evaluated.

  4. Gliadins bind to reticulin in a lectin-like manner.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, D J; Leonard, J N; Hobday, C M; Griffiths, C E; Powles, A V; Haffenden, G P; Fry, L

    1987-01-01

    It has previously been reported that gliadins bind to reticulin in tissue sections. Three lines of evidence are reported in this study which indicate that the gliadins bind to reticulins because they are lectins which bind to sugars expressed on glycoproteins in reticulin and other sites. First, immunofluorescence studies on tissue sections showed that although gliadin binding is largely confined to areas rich in reticulin, it is, nonetheless, also seen in one or two other sites devoid of reticulin. Second, by using fluorescein-labelled lectins of known specificity, it has been shown that the areas to which gliadins bind in tissue sections (including those sites devoid of reticulin) are rich in particular sugars. Third, it has been shown that one of these sugars, alpha-D-mannose, partially inhibited gliadin binding to tissue sections.

  5. Purification and biological effects of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) seed lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de; Aragao, Karoline Saboia; Gomes, Raphaela Cardoso; Freitas Pires, Alana de; Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Oliveira Toyama, Daniela de; Nunes de Alencar, Nylane Maria; Criddle, David Neil; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio . E-mail: assreuy@uece.br; Cavada, Benildo Sousa . E-mail: bscavada@ufc.br

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the purification and characterization of a new N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific lectin from Araucaria angustifolia (AaL) seeds (Araucariaceae) and its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. AaL was purified using a combination of affinity chromatography on a chitin column and ion exchange chromatography on Sephacel-DEAE. The pure protein has 8.0 kDa (SDS-PAGE) and specifically agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes, effect that was independent of the presence of divalent cations and was inhibited after incubation with glucose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. AaL showed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, shown by scanning electron microscopy. AaL, intravenously injected into rats, showed anti-inflammatory effect, via carbohydrate site interaction, in the models of paw edema and peritonitis. This lectin can be used as a tool for studying bacterial infections and inflammatory processes.

  6. Lectins as membrane components of mitochondria from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Bowles, D J; Schnarrenberger, C; Kauss, H

    1976-11-15

    1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of the membranes with lactose before tha usual extraction procedure showed that lactose could extract lectins that normally required more harsh treatment of the membrane for solubilization. 4. Lectins extracted from inner membranes were purified by affinity chromatography on agarose gel. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified samples in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that at least part of the lectin present in inner mitochondrial membrane was identical with the R. communis agglutinin of mol.wt. 120 000.

  7. Factors affecting binding of galacto ligands to Actinomyces viscosus lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Heeb, M J; Marini, A M; Gabriel, O

    1985-01-01

    The specificity requirements for the binding of Actinomyces viscosus T14V were examined by testing simple sugars, oligopeptides, and glycoproteins as inhibitors of the aggregation of glycoprotein-coated latex beads and washed A. viscosus cells. Lactose was the most inhibitory simple sugar; D-fucose and D-galactose were equally inhibitory, methyl-alpha-D-fucoside was slightly less inhibitory, and L-fucose and raffinose were not inhibitory. The concentration of galactose residues required for 50% inhibition of aggregation was 15 times higher in the form of lactose than in the form of asialoglycoprotein, suggesting an enhancement of lectin binding when galactose residues are clustered. However, when the inhibitory power of bi-, tri-, and tetraantennary asialooligopeptides of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was compared with that of equivalent concentrations of galactose in the form of lactose, the biantennary form was slightly less effective than lactose, the triantennary form was approximately as effective as lactose, and the tetraantennary form was slightly more effective than lactose. Steric interference may prevent this type of clustering from enhancing lectin binding. The O-linked asialooligopeptides of asialofetuin were 10 times more inhibitory than an equivalent concentration of galactose in the form of N-linked asialooligopeptides. Thus, galactose beta-1----3 linked to N-acetylgalactosamine exhibits greater specificity for the A. viscosus lectin than does galactose beta-1----4 linked to N-acetylglucosamine. These results, taken together with previously reported data, are consistent with a lectin of low affinity, binding enhanced by multivalency, and specificity for beta-linked galactose. PMID:2578122

  8. Microencapsulation of lectin anti-cancer agent and controlled release by alginate beads, biosafety approach.

    PubMed

    El-Aassar, M R; Hafez, Elsayed E; El-Deeb, Nehal M; Fouda, Moustafa M G

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered as one of the most aggressive cancer worldwide. In Egypt, the prevalence of HCC is increasing during last years. Recently, drug-loaded microparticles were used to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. This study is designed to evaluate the anticancer potentialities of lectins against HCC while hinting to its safety usage. The aim is also extended to encapsulate lectins in alginate microbeads for oral drug delivery purposes. The extracted lectins showed anti-proliferative effect against HCC with a percentage of 60.76% by using its nontoxic dose with an up-regulation of P53 gene expression. Concerning the handling of lectin alginate microbeads for oral drug delivery, the prepared lectin alginate beads were ∼100μm in diameter. The efficiency of the microcapsules was checked by scanning electron microscopy, the SEM showed the change on the alginate beads surface revealing the successful lectin encapsulation. The release of lectins from the microbeads depended on a variety of factors as the microbeads forming carriers and the amount-encapsulated lectins. The Pisum sativum extracted lectins may be considered as a promising agent in controlling HCC and this solid dosage form could be suitable for oral administration complemented with/or without the standard HCC drugs.

  9. A lectin-mediated resistance of higher fungi against predators and parasites.

    PubMed

    Bleuler-Martínez, S; Butschi, A; Garbani, M; Wälti, M A; Wohlschlager, T; Potthoff, E; Sabotiĉ, J; Pohleven, J; Lüthy, P; Hengartner, M O; Aebi, M; Künzler, M

    2011-07-01

    Fruiting body lectins are ubiquitous in higher fungi and characterized by being synthesized in the cytoplasm and up-regulated during sexual development. The function of these lectins is unclear. A lack of phenotype in sexual development upon inactivation of the respective genes argues against a function in this process. We tested a series of characterized fruiting body lectins from different fungi for toxicity towards the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. Most of the fungal lectins were found to be toxic towards at least one of the three target organisms. By altering either the fungal lectin or the glycans of the target organisms, or by including soluble carbohydrate ligands as competitors, we demonstrate that the observed toxicity is dependent on the interaction between the fungal lectins and specific glycans in the target organisms. The toxicity was found to be dose-dependent such that low levels of lectin were no longer toxic but still led to food avoidance by C. elegans. Finally, we show, in an ecologically more relevant scenario, that challenging the vegetative mycelium of Coprinopsis cinerea with the fungal-feeding nematode Aphelenchus avenae induces the expression of the nematotoxic fruiting body lectins CGL1 and CGL2. Based on these findings, we propose that filamentous fungi possess an inducible resistance against predators and parasites mediated by lectins that are specific for glycans of these antagonists.

  10. Parkia pendula seed lectin: potential use to treat cutaneous wounds in healthy and immunocompromised mice.

    PubMed

    Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Silva, Flávio de Oliveira; Schirato, Giuliana Viegas; Porto, Camila Souza; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria dos Anjos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2014-03-01

    Parkia pendula seed lectin was used to treat cutaneous wounds of normal and immunocompromised mice, inducing cicatrization. Methotrexate (0.8 mg/kg/week) was used as immunosuppressive drug. Wounds were produced in the dorsal region (1 cm(2)) of female albino Swiss mice (Mus musculus), health and immunocompromised. Wounds were daily topically treated with 100 μL of the following solutions: (1) control (NaCl 0.15 M), (2) control Im (0.15 M NaCl), (3) P. pendula seed lectin (100 μg/mL), and (4) P. pendula seed lectin Im (100 μg/mL). Clinical evaluation was performed during 12 days. Biopsies for histopathology analysis and microbiological examinations were carried out in the second, seventh, and 12th days. The presence of edema and hyperemia was observed in all groups during inflammatory period. The first crust was detected from the second day, only in the groups treated with P. pendula seed lectin. Microbiological analysis of wounds from day 0 to day 2 did not show bacterium at P. pendula seed lectin group; however, Staphylococcus sp. was detected every day in the other groups. The lectin markedly induced a total wound closing at P. pendula seed lectin and P. pendula seed lectin Im groups on 11th day of evolution. The present study suggests that P. pendula seed lectin is a biomaterial potential to show pharmacological effect in the repair process of cutaneous wounds.

  11. Toxicity and binding profile of lectins from the Genus canavalia on brine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Melo, Arthur Alves; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Romulo Farias; Barroso-Neto, Ito Liberato; Silva, Suzete Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Sousa Cavada, Benildo; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins.

  12. Cloning and characterization of the lectin cDNA clones from onion, shallot and leek.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, E J; Smeets, K; Engelborghs, I; Aelbers, H; Balzarini, J; Pusztai, A; van Leuven, F; Goldstein, I J; Peumans, W J

    1993-10-01

    Characterization of the lectins from onion (Allium cepa), shallot (A. ascalonicum) and leek (A. porrum) has shown that these lectins differ from previously isolated Alliaceae lectins not only in their molecular structure but also in their ability to inhibit retrovirus infection of target cells. cDNA libraries constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA isolated from young shoots of onion, shallot and leek were screened for lectin cDNA clones using colony hybridization. Sequence analysis of the lectin cDNA clones from these three species revealed a high degree of sequence similarity both at the nucleotide and at the amino acid level. Apparently the onion, shallot and leek lectins are translated from mRNAs of ca. 800 nucleotides. The primary translation products are preproproteins (ca. 19 kDa) which are converted into the mature lectin polypeptides (12.5-13 kDa) after post-translational modifications. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA has shown that the lectins are most probably encoded by a family of closely related genes which is in good agreement with the sequence heterogeneity found between different lectin cDNA clones of one species.

  13. Development of gastrointestinal surface. VIII. Lectin identification of carbohydrate differences

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, K.Y.; Bresson, J.L.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-05-01

    Binding of microvillus membranes (MVM) from newborn and adult rats by concanavalin A (Con A), Ulex europaeus (UEA I), Dolichos bifluorus (DBA), and Triticum vulgaris (WGA) was examined to determine the availability of carbohydrate-containing sites for these lectins on the intestinal surface during development. Consistent patterns of differences in the reaction of MVM with these lectins were found. Con A and UEA had much higher reactivities to MVM of adult than newborn rats. /sup 125/I-labeled-UEA gel overlay experiments revealed the abundance of UEA-binding sites in MVM of adult rat in contrast to the two binding sites in MVM of a newborn rat. DBA bound only to MVM of the adults, and very few binding sites were found in immature MVM. In contrast to these lectins, WGA binding was much higher in MVM of the newborns and decreased with maturation. Additional experiments on the age dependence of UEA and DBA reactivities revealed that the most striking changes occur in animals from 2 to 2 wk of age. In MVM from 2-wk-old rats, there were only 13.9% and < 0.2% of the adult binding capacities for UEA and DBA, respectively. By the time the animals were 4 wk old, the binding capacity for UEA had attained close to the level of the adults, whereas for DBA it reached 71.3% of the adult value. These results provide definite evidence of changes in the intestinal surface during perinatal development.

  14. Engineering a Therapeutic Lectin by Uncoupling Mitogenicity from Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Michael D.; Boudreaux, Daniel M.; Salmon, Loïc; Chugh, Jeetender; Winter, Harry C.; Meagher, Jennifer L.; André, Sabine; Murphy, Paul V.; Oscarson, Stefan; Roy, René; King, Steven; Kaplan, Mark H.; Goldstein, Irwin J.; Tarbet, E. Bart; Hurst, Brett L.; Smee, Donald F.; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Hoffmann, Hans-Heinrich; Xue, Yi; Rice, Charles M.; Schols, Dominique; Garcia, J. Victor; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.; Markovitz, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A key effector route of the Sugar Code involves lectins that exert crucial regulatory controls by targeting distinct cellular glycans. We demonstrate that a single amino acid substitution in a banana lectin, replacing histidine 84 with a threonine, significantly reduces its mitogenicity while preserving its broad-spectrum antiviral potency. X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and glycocluster assays reveal that loss of mitogenicity is strongly correlated with loss of pi-pi stacking between aromatic amino acids H84 and Y83, which removes a wall separating two carbohydrate binding sites, thus diminishing multivalent interactions. On the other hand, monovalent interactions and antiviral activity are preserved by retaining other wild-type conformational features and possibly through unique contacts involving the T84 side chain. Through such fine-tuning, target selection and downstream effects of a lectin can be modulated so as to knock down one activity while preserving another, thus providing tools for therapeutics and for understanding the Sugar Code. PMID:26496612

  15. Fluorescent lectins for local in vivo visualization of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    KleinJan, Gijs Hendrik; Buckle, Tessa; van Willigen, Danny Michel; van Oosterom, Matthias Nathanaël; Spa, Silvia Johara; Kloosterboer, Harmen Egbert; van Leeuwen, Fijs Willem Bernhard

    2014-07-08

    Damage to peripheral nerves caused during a surgical intervention often results in function loss. Fluorescence imaging has the potential to improve intraoperative identification and preservation of these structures. However, only very few nerve targeting agents are available. This study describes the in vivo nerve staining capabilities of locally administered fluorescent lectin-analogues. To this end WGA, PNA, PHA-L and LEL were functionalized with Cy5 (λex max 640 nm; λem max 680 nm). Transfer of these imaging agents along the sciatic nerve was evaluated in Thy1-YFP mice (n = 12) after intramuscular injection. Migration from the injection site was assessed in vivo using a laboratory fluorescence scanner and ex vivo via fluorescence confocal microscopy. All four lectins showed retrograde movement and staining of the epineurium with a signal-to-muscle ratio of around two. On average, the longest transfer distance was obtained with WGA-Cy5 (0.95 cm). Since WGA also gave minimal uptake in the lymphatic system, this lectin type revealed the highest potential as a migration imaging agent to visualize nerves.

  16. Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J

    1976-12-01

    Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle. (Localizabión de receptores para lectinas durante el ciclo celular). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 100-104, 1976. The topographic distribution of specific cell surface receptors for concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin was studied by ultrastructural labeling in the course of the cell cycle. C12TSV5 cells were synchronized by double thymidine block or mechanical selection (shakeoff). They were labeled by means of lectin-peroxidase techniques while in G1 S, G2 and M phases of the cycle. The results obtained were similar for both lectins employed. Interphase cells (G1 S, G2) present a stlihtly discontinous labeling pattern that is similar to the one observed on unsynchronized cells of the same line. Cells in mitosis, on the contrary, present a highly discontinous distribution of reaction product. This pattern disappears after the cells enters G1 and is not present on mitotic cells fixed in aldehyde prior to labeling.

  17. Lectins influence chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in limb bud mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Monsefi, Malihezaman; Ghasemi, Mansoureh

    2011-02-01

    The role of cell surface glycoproteins in cell behavior can be characterized by their interactions with plant lectins. This study was designed to identify the effects of lectins on chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in limb bud mesenchymal cells in vitro. Limb bud mesenchymal cells from mouse embryos were cultured in high-density micromass culture. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (ConA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) were added separately to the culture media. Cells were cultured for 5 or 9 days, and cell viability was assayed by neutral red on day 5. The micromasses were stained with alcian blue, alizarin red S and Von Kossa stains, and alkaline phosphatase assays were also done. Dolichos biflorus agglutinin induced an increase in chondrogenesis, calcium precipitation and proteoglycan production. ConA and PNA did not affect chondrocyte differentiation but induced chondrocytes to produce more proteoglycan. Wheat germ agglutinin reduced chondrification and ossification but induced mesenchymal cells to store lipid droplets. Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 was toxic and significantly reduced cell survival. In conclusion, DBA was the most effective inducer of ossification and chondrification. Wheat germ agglutinin induced adipogenesis instead. These assays showed that lectins play important roles in limb bud development.

  18. Regional differences in lectin binding patterns of vestibular hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. A.; Schuff, N. R.; Bancroft, J.

    1993-01-01

    Surface glycoconjugates of hair cells and supporting cells in the vestibular endorgans of the bullfrog were identified using biotinylated lectins with different carbohydrate specificities. Lectin binding in hair cells was consistent with the presence of glucose and mannose (CON A), galactose (RCA-I), N-acetylglucosamine (WGA), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA), but not fucose (UEA-I) residues. Hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus, unlike those in the utriculus and semicircular canals, did not strain for N-acetylglucosamine (WGA) or N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA). By contrast, WGA and, to a lesser extent, VVA, differentially stained utricular and semicircular canal hair cells, labeling hair cells located in peripheral, but not central, regions. In mammals, WGA uniformly labeled Type I hair cells while labeling, as in the bullfrog, Type II hair cells only in peripheral regions. These regional variations were retained after enzymatic digestion. We conclude that vestibular hair cells differ in their surface glycoconjugates and that differences in lectin binding patterns can be used to identify hair cell types and to infer the epithelial origin of isolated vestibular hair cells.

  19. Regional differences in lectin binding patterns of vestibular hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.; Bancroft, J.

    1994-01-01

    Surface glycoconjugates of hair cells and supporting cells in the vestibular endorgans of the bullfrog were identified using biotinylated lectins with different carbohydrate specificities. Lectin binding in hair cells was consistent with the presence of glucose and mannose (CON A), galactose (RCA-I), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA), but not fucose (UEA-I) residues. Hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus, unlike those in the utriculus and semicircular canals, did not stain for N-acetylglucosamine (WGA) or N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA). By contrast, WGA and, to a lesser extent, VVA, differentially stained utricular and semicircular canal hair cells, labeling hair cells located in peripheral, but not central, regions. In mammals, WGA uniformly labeled Type 1 hair cells while labeling, as in the bullfrog, Type 2 hair cells only in peripheral regions. These regional variations were retained after enzymatic digestion. We conclude that vestibular hair cells differ in their surface glycoconjugates and that differences in lectin binding patterns can be used to identify hair cell types and to infer the epithelial origin of isolated vestibular hair cells.

  20. Ganoderma lucidum: a source for novel bioactive lectin.

    PubMed

    U Girjal, Vinay; Neelagund, Shivayogeeswar; Krishnappa, Madappa

    2011-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is known for its high medicinal value, clinically used in treatment for various diseases. We have selected this mushroom for isolation of novel bioactive lectin. The isolation procedure comprised of ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE- cellulose and affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel. Purified lectin was monomer with a molecular mass of 15 kDa, determined by SDS-PAGE, Gel filtration, MALDI-ToF. It showed hemagglutinating activity against both human and animal erythrocytes. The hemagglutination activity was not inhibited by simple sugars but inhibited by glycoproteins. The activity was maximal at pH range 4.0-9.0 and at temperature up to 60° C. The hemagglutination activity was stable even in the presence of 10mM EDTA and other divalent metal cations such as CaCl2, MgCl2, ZnCl2, and MnCl2. Lectin was shown antifungal activity against following pathogens Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus Niger, Colletotrichum musae, Botrytis cinerea, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton interdigitale, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis.

  1. Crystal structure of a symbiosis-related lectin from octocoral.

    PubMed

    Kita, Akiko; Jimbo, Mitsuru; Sakai, Ryuichi; Morimoto, Yukio; Miki, Kunio

    2015-09-01

    D-Galactose-binding lectin from the octocoral, Sinularia lochmodes (SLL-2), distributes densely on the cell surface of microalgae, Symbiodinium sp., an endosymbiotic dinoflagellate of the coral, and is also shown to be a chemical cue that transforms dinoflagellate into a non-motile (coccoid) symbiotic state. SLL-2 binds with high affinity to the Forssman antigen (N-acetylgalactosamine(GalNAc)α1-3GalNAcβ1-3Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc-ceramide), and the presence of Forssman antigen-like sugar on the surface of Symbiodinium CS-156 cells was previously confirmed. Here we report the crystal structures of SLL-2 and its GalNAc complex as the first crystal structures of a lectin involved in the symbiosis between coral and dinoflagellate. N-Linked sugar chains and a galactose derivative binding site common to H-type lectins were observed in each monomer of the hexameric SLL-2 crystal structure. In addition, unique sugar-binding site-like regions were identified at the top and bottom of the hexameric SLL-2 structure. These structural features suggest a possible binding mode between SLL-2 and Forssman antigen-like pentasaccharide.

  2. The mannose-specific lectins from ramsons (Allium ursinum L.) are encoded by three sets of genes.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, J M; Smeets, K; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1993-10-01

    Lectin cDNA clones encoding the two mannose-binding lectins from ramsons (allium ursinum L.) bulbs, AUAI and AUAII (AUA, Allium ursinum agglutinin), were isolated and characterized. Sequence comparison of the different cDNA clones isolated revealed three types of lectin clones called LECAUAG0, LECAUAG1 and LECAUAG2, which besides the obvious differences in their sequences also differ from each other in the number of potential glycosylation sites within the C-terminal peptide of the lectin precursor. In vivo biosynthesis studies of the ramson lectins have shown that glycosylated lectin precursors occur in the organelle fraction of radioactively labeled ramson bulbs. Despite the similarities between the A. ursinum and the A. sativum (garlic) lectins at the protein level, molecular cloning of the two ramson lectins has shown that the lectin genes in A. ursinum are organized differently. Whereas in A. sativum the lectin polypeptides of the heterodimeric ASAI are encoded by one large precursor, those of the heterodimeric AUAI lectin are derived from two different precursors. These results are confirmed by Northern blot hybridization of A. ursinum RNA which, after hybridization with a labeled lectin cDNA, reveals only one band of 800 nucleotides in contrast to A. sativum RNA which yields two bands of 1400 and 800 nucleotides. Furthermore it is shown that the two mannose-binding lectins are differentially expressed.

  3. Interaction of linear manno-oligosaccharides with three mannose-specific bulb lectins. Comparison with mannose/glucose-binding lectins.

    PubMed

    Kaku, H; Goldstein, I J

    1992-05-22

    Three new mannose-binding lectins, isolated from daffodil (NPA), amaryllis (HHA), and snowdrop (GNA) bulbs, are capable of precipitating with a linear mannopentaose (Man alpha 1-3Man alpha 1-3Man alpha 1-3Man alpha 1-2Man). NPA and HHA reacted strongly with the mannopentaose whereas GNA gave a precipitate only at concentrations greater than 500 microM. A phosphate group at C-6 of the nonreducing terminal mannosyl group prevented precipitation in all three cases. The reduced (NaBH4) mannopentaose, Man4Man-ol, did not precipitate with GNA or NPA, but was active with HHA. This activity was lost when Man4Man-ol was converted (NaIO4 then NaBH4; mild acid hydrolysis of the reduced product) into trisaccharide derivatives. With alpha-D-Manp-OMe the three lectins gave UV difference spectra having large positive peaks at 292-293 and 283-284 nm, and a small positive peak at 275 nm, characteristic of tryptophanyl and tyrosyl residues. The association constants for the interaction with alpha-D-Manp-OMe were very low (NPA, 86; HHA, 66; and GNA, 41 M-1), but the lectins bound methyl (1----3)-alpha-mannobioside with increased affinity (K for NPA 540, for HHA 2400, and for GNA 200 M-1). The bulb lectins lack binding sites for hydrophobic ligands, as judged by their failure to interact with the fluorescent probes 8-anilino-1-napthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) and 6-p-toluidino-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (TNS).

  4. Genetic polymorphism in CD14 gene, a co-receptor of TLR4 associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Shweta; Duseja, Ajay; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Singla, Bhupesh; Chakraborti, Anuradha; Das, Ashim; Ray, Pallab; Dhiman, Radha K; Chawla, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the pathogenic role of toll-like receptor (TLR) gene polymorphisms in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS Two hundred and fifty subjects (NAFLD = 200, healthy volunteers = 50) underwent polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism to assess one polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene (A753G), two polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene (TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile allele), and two polymorphisms in the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) (C-159T and C-550T) gene, a co-receptor of TLR4. Association of TLR gene polymorphisms with NAFLD and its severity was evaluated by genetic models of association. RESULTS On both multiplicative and recessive models of gene polymorphism association, there was significant association of CD14 C (-159) T polymorphism with NAFLD; patients with TT genotype had a 2.6 fold increased risk of developing NAFLD in comparison to CC genotype. There was no association of TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR4 Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile, and CD14 C (-550) T polymorphisms with NAFLD. None of the TLR gene polymorphisms had an association with histological severity of NAFLD. CONCLUSION Patients with CD14 C (-159) T gene polymorphism, a co-receptor of TLR4, have an increased risk of NAFLD development. PMID:27895422

  5. Evidence for export of a muscle lectin from cytosol to extracellular matrix and for a novel secretory mechanism

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    A soluble lactose-binding lectin with subunit Mr of 14,500 is believed to function by interacting with extracellular glycoconjugates, because it has been detected extracellularly by immunohistochemistry. This localization has been questioned, however, since the lectin lacks a secretion signal sequence, which challenges the contention that it is secreted. We have demonstrated externalization of this lectin from C2 mouse muscle cells by both immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled protein and immunohistochemical localization. We further show that externalization of the lectin is a developmentally regulated process that accompanies myoblast differentiation and that the lectin codistributes with laminin in myotube extracellular matrix. Immunohistochemical localization during intermediate stages of externalization suggests that the lectin becomes concentrated in evaginations of plasma membrane, which pinch off to form labile lectin- rich extracellular vesicles. This suggests a possible mechanism for lectin export from the cytosol to the extracellular matrix. PMID:2335567

  6. Targeted delivery of antigen to hamster nasal lymphoid tissue with M-cell-directed lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Giannasca, P J; Boden, J A; Monath, T P

    1997-01-01

    The nasal cavity of a rodent is lined by an epithelium organized into distinct regional domains responsible for specific physiological functions. Aggregates of nasal lymphoid tissue (NALT) located at the base of the nasal cavity are believed to be sites of induction of mucosal immune responses to airborne antigens. The epithelium overlying NALT contains M cells which are specialized for the transcytosis of immunogens, as demonstrated in other mucosal tissues. We hypothesized that NALT M cells are characterized by distinct glycoconjugate receptors which influence antigen uptake and immune responses to transcytosed antigens. To identify glycoconjugates that may distinguish NALT M cells from other cells of the respiratory epithelium (RE), we performed lectin histochemistry on sections of the hamster nasal cavity with a panel of lectins. Many classes of glycoconjugates were found on epithelial cells in this region. While most lectins bound to sites on both the RE and M cells, probes capable of recognizing alpha-linked galactose were found to label the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) almost exclusively. By morphological criteria, the FAE contains >90% M cells. To determine if apical glycoconjugates on M cells were accessible from the nasal cavity, an M-cell-selective lectin and a control lectin in parallel were administered intranasally to hamsters. The M-cell-selective lectin was found to specifically target the FAE, while the control lectin did not. Lectin bound to M cells in vivo was efficiently endocytosed, consistent with the role of M cells in antigen transport. Intranasal immunization with lectin-test antigen conjugates without adjuvant stimulated induction of specific serum immunoglobulin G, whereas antigen alone or admixed with lectin did not. The selective recognition of NALT M cells by a lectin in vivo provides a model for microbial adhesin-host cell receptor interactions on M cells and the targeted delivery of immunogens to NALT following intranasal

  7. The Distribution of Lectins across the Phylum Nematoda: A Genome-Wide Search

    PubMed Central

    Bauters, Lander; Naalden, Diana; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes are a very diverse phylum that has adapted to nearly every ecosystem. They have developed specialized lifestyles, dividing the phylum into free-living, animal, and plant parasitic species. Their sheer abundance in numbers and presence in nearly every ecosystem make them the most prevalent animals on earth. In this research nematode-specific profiles were designed to retrieve predicted lectin-like domains from the sequence data of nematode genomes and transcriptomes. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that play numerous roles inside and outside the cell depending on their sugar specificity and associated protein domains. The sugar-binding properties of the retrieved lectin-like proteins were predicted in silico. Although most research has focused on C-type lectin-like, galectin-like, and calreticulin-like proteins in nematodes, we show that the lectin-like repertoire in nematodes is far more diverse. We focused on C-type lectins, which are abundantly present in all investigated nematode species, but seem to be far more abundant in free-living species. Although C-type lectin-like proteins are omnipresent in nematodes, we have shown that only a small part possesses the residues that are thought to be essential for carbohydrate binding. Curiously, hevein, a typical plant lectin domain not reported in animals before, was found in some nematode species. PMID:28054982

  8. The Distribution of Lectins across the Phylum Nematoda: A Genome-Wide Search.

    PubMed

    Bauters, Lander; Naalden, Diana; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2017-01-04

    Nematodes are a very diverse phylum that has adapted to nearly every ecosystem. They have developed specialized lifestyles, dividing the phylum into free-living, animal, and plant parasitic species. Their sheer abundance in numbers and presence in nearly every ecosystem make them the most prevalent animals on earth. In this research nematode-specific profiles were designed to retrieve predicted lectin-like domains from the sequence data of nematode genomes and transcriptomes. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that play numerous roles inside and outside the cell depending on their sugar specificity and associated protein domains. The sugar-binding properties of the retrieved lectin-like proteins were predicted in silico. Although most research has focused on C-type lectin-like, galectin-like, and calreticulin-like proteins in nematodes, we show that the lectin-like repertoire in nematodes is far more diverse. We focused on C-type lectins, which are abundantly present in all investigated nematode species, but seem to be far more abundant in free-living species. Although C-type lectin-like proteins are omnipresent in nematodes, we have shown that only a small part possesses the residues that are thought to be essential for carbohydrate binding. Curiously, hevein, a typical plant lectin domain not reported in animals before, was found in some nematode species.

  9. Mechanism of entomotoxicity of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Van Damme, Els J M; De Vos, Winnok H; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-09-01

    Plant lectins have received a lot of attention because of their insecticidal properties. When orally administered in artificial diet or in transgenic plants, lectins provoke a wide range of detrimental effects, including alteration of the digestive enzyme machinery, fecundity drop, reduced feeding, changes in oviposition behavior, growth and development inhibition and mortality. Although many studies reported the entomotoxicity of lectins, only a few of them investigated the mode of action by which lectins exert toxicity. In the present paper we have studied for the first time the insecticidal potential of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) (HHA) bulbs against the larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). Bioassays on neonate larvae showed that this mannose-specific lectin affected larval growth, causing a development retardation and larval weight decrease. Using primary cell cultures from S. littoralis midguts and confocal microscopy we have elucidated FITC-HHA binding and internalization mechanisms. We found that HHA did not exert a toxic effect on S. littoralis midgut cells, but HHA interaction with the brush border of midgut cells interfered with normal nutrient absorption in the S. littoralis midgut, thereby affecting normal larval growth in vivo. This study thus confirms the potential of mannose-specific lectins as pest control agents and sheds light on the mechanism underlying lectin entomotoxicity.

  10. Preparation and biological properties of a melibiose binding lectin from Bauhinia variegata seeds.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peng; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2008-11-26

    A dimeric 64-kDa melibiose-binding lectin was isolated from the seeds of Bauhinia variegata. The isolation procedure comprised affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Mono Q, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The lectin was adsorbed on the first two chromatographic media. Its hemagglutinating activity was stable after 30-min exposure to temperatures up to 70 degrees C. Since lectins may demonstrate biological activities such as antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, antifungal, antiviral, and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities, the isolated lectin was tested for these activities. It was found that the lectin inhibited proliferation in hepatoma HepG2 cells and breast cancer MCF7 cells with an IC(50) of 1.4 microM and 0.18 microM, respectively. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity was inhibited with an IC(50) of 1.02 microM. The lectin and concanavalin A (Con A) evoked maximal mitogenic response from mouse splenocytes at similar concentrations, but the maximal response to B. variegata lectin was only 1/5 of that induced by Con A in magnitude. B. variegata lectin was devoid of antifungal activity.

  11. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Irimura, Tatsuro; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. {yields} Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. {yields} Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. {yields} C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. {yields} Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of the banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca.

    PubMed

    Singh, D D; Saikrishnan, K; Kumar, Prashant; Dauter, Z; Sekar, K; Surolia, A; Vijayan, M

    2004-11-01

    The banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca, MW 29.4 kDa, has been isolated, purified and crystallized. The trigonal crystals contain one dimeric molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement to a resolution of 3 A. The structure of the subunit is similar to that of jacalin-like lectins.

  13. Architecture of Deinococcus geothermalis biofilms on glass and steel: a lectin study.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Minna; Neu, Thomas R; Raulio, Mari; Kolari, Marko; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2008-07-01

    Deinococcus geothermalis is resistant to chemical and physical stressors and forms tenuous biofilms in paper industry. The architecture of its biofilms growing on glass and on stainless acid proof steel was studied with confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescent lectins and nanobeads as in situ probes. Hydrophobic nanobeads adhered to the biofilms but did not penetrate to biofilm interior. In contrast, the biofilms were readily permeable towards many different lectins. A skeletal network of glycoconjugates, reactive with Dolichos biflorus and Maclura pomifera lectins, was prominent in the space inside the biofilm colony core but absent on the exterior. Cells in the core space of the biofilm were interconnected by a network of adhesion structures, reactive with Amaranthus caudatus lectin but with none of the 65 other tested lectins. The glycoconjugates connecting the individual cells to steel reacted with Phaseolus vulgaris lectin whereas those connecting to glass mainly reacted with A. caudatus lectin. Envelopes of all cells in the D. geothermalis biofilm reacted with several other lectins, with many different specificities. We conclude that numerous different glycoconjugates are involved in the adhesion and biofilm formation of D. geothermalis, possibly contributing its unique survival capacity when exposed to dehydration, biocidal chemicals and other extreme conditions.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Messenger RNAs for Seed Lectin and Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor in Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Vodkin, Lila O.

    1981-01-01

    The mRNAs for seed lectin and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor of soybean have been highly enriched by immunoadsorption of the polysomes synthesizing these proteins. Polysomes isolated from developing seed of variety Williams were incubated with monospecific rabbit antibodies produced against lectin subunits or trypsin inhibitor protein. The polysomal mixture was passed over a column containing goat anti-rabbit antibodies bound to Sepharose. Bound polysomes were eluted and the mRNA was selected by passage over oligo(dT)-cellulose. Lectin complementary DNA hybridized to an 1150-nucleotide message and trypsin inhibitor complementary DNA hybridized to a 770-nucleotide message in blotting experiments using total poly(A) RNA. Translation of soybean lectin mRNA using a rabbit reticulocyte lysate yielded a major polypeptide of 32,300 whereas the molecular weight for purified lectin subunits was 30,000. Trypsin inhibitor mRNA directed the synthesis of a 23,800-dalton polypeptide as compared to 21,500 daltons for trypsin inhibitor marker protein. Lectin specific polysomes could not be obtained from a soybean variety which lacks detectable lectin protein whereas trypsin inhibitor-specific polysomes were bound by immunoselection. These results confirmed the specificity of the immunoadsorption procedure and strongly indicated that the lectinless variety was deficient or substantially reduced in functional lectin mRNA. Images PMID:16661996

  15. Translational control of discoidin lectin expression in drsA suppressor mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, S; Leone, S; Ostermeyer, E

    1991-01-01

    Genetic analysis in Dictyostelium discoideum has identified regulatory genes which control the developmental expression of the discoidin lectin multigene family. Among these, the drsA mutation is a dominant second-site suppressor of another mutation, disB, which has the discoidinless phenotype. We now demonstrate a novel mechanism by which the drsA allele exerts its suppressive effect on the disB mutation. Interestingly, drsA does not merely bypass the disB mutation and restore the wild-type pattern of lectin expression. Rather, drsA mutant cells have high levels of discoidin lectin synthesis during growth but do not express lectins during aggregation. In contrast, wild-type cells only express lectin protein during the aggregation period of development. Phenocopies of the drsA mutation show a pattern of discoidin expression similar to that seen in the bona fide mutant. These data suggest that there may be a mechanism of negative feedback, resulting from the high levels of discoidin lectin made during growth, which inhibits further discoidin lectin expression during development. Northern (RNA) analysis of developing drsA mutant cells shows that these cells contain high levels of discoidin mRNA, although no discoidin lectin protein is being translated from these messages. Therefore, expression of the discoidin gene family can be controlled at the level of translation as well as transcription. Images PMID:2038325

  16. Small unilamellar vesicles as reagents: a chemically defined, quantitative assay for lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Rando, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Samll unilamellar vesicles containing synthetic glycolipids can be prepared. These vesicles are aggregated by the appropriate lectin (Orr et al., 1979; Rando and Bangerter, 1979; Slama and Rando, 1980). It is shown here that extent of aggregation of these vesicles as measured by light scattering at 360 nm, is, under certain conditions, linear with amount of lectin added. This forms the basis of a rapid and simple quantitative assay for lectins using the modified vesicles as a defined chemical substrate. The assay is sensitive to lectin concentrations in the low ..mu..g range. The assay is applied here to studies on concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin and the ..cap alpha..-fucosyl binding lectin from Ulex europaeus (Type I).

  17. Assessment of weak sugar-binding ability using lectin tetramer and membrane-based glycans.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    To consider biological significance of glycosylation of proteins, it is necessary to evaluate the importance of sugar-recognition processes mediated by lectins. Though the interaction between sugars and proteins, especially animal lectins, is quite weak with K d approximately 10(-4) M, cellular and molecular recognitions mediated via sugar-protein interaction increase their avidity by 1-3 orders of magnitude by the self-association of both receptors and their ligands on cell surfaces. To assess the weak interaction between lectins and their sugar ligands, we established lectin tetramer binding to cell surface glycans using flow cytometry. This strategy is highly sensitive, and useful to determine whether or not a putative lectin domain may have sugar-binding ability.

  18. Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Smagghe, Guy

    2006-09-01

    A set of 14 plant lectins was screened in a binary choice bioassay for inhibitory activity on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Coating of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) with a 0.05% (w/v) solution of plant lectins caused a significant reduction in egg laying. Control experiments with heat inactivated lectin and BSA indicated that the observed deterrent effects are specific and require carbohydrate-binding activity. However, no clear correlation could be established between deterrent activity and sugar-binding specificity/molecular structure of the lectins. Increasing the insect density reduced the inhibitory effect of the lectins confirming that female insects are capable of adjusting their oviposition rates as a function of host availability.

  19. High-resolution crystal structures of Colocasia esculenta tarin lectin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patricia R; Meagher, Jennifer L; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J; Paschoalin, Vânia M F; Silva, Joab T; Stuckey, Jeanne A

    2017-01-01

    Tarin, the Colocasia esculenta lectin from the superfamily of α-d-mannose-specific plant bulb lectins, is a tetramer of 47 kDa composed of two heterodimers. Each heterodimer possesses homologous monomers of ~11.9 (A chain) and ~12.7 (B chain) kDa. The structures of apo and carbohydrate-bound tarin were solved to 1.7 Å and 1.91 Å, respectively. Each tarin monomer forms a canonical β-prism II fold, common to all members of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) family, which is partially stabilized by a disulfide bond and a conserved hydrophobic core. The heterodimer is formed through domain swapping involving the C-terminal β-strand and the β-sheet on face I of the prism. The tetramer is assembled through the dimerization of the B chains from heterodimers involving face II of each prism. The 1.91 Å crystal structure of tarin bound to Manα(1,3)Manα(1,6)Man reveals an expanded carbohydrate-binding sequence (QxDxNxVxYx4/6WX) on face III of the β-prism. Both monomers possess a similar fold, except for the length of the loop, which begins after the conserved tyrosine and creates the binding pocket for the α(1,6)-terminal mannose. This loop differs in size and amino-acid composition from 10 other β-prism II domain proteins, and may confer carbohydrate-binding specificity among members of the GNA-related lectin family.

  20. Dietary garlic (Allium sativum) lectins, ASA I and ASA II, are highly stable and immunogenic.

    PubMed

    Clement, Fatima; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2010-10-01

    The immunomodulatory proteins present in garlic have recently been shown to be identical to the garlic lectins ASA I and ASA II [Clement F, Pramod SN, Venkatesh YP. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2010; 10: 316-324]. In this study, the stability of garlic lectins as a function of pH, temperature and denaturants has been examined in relation to biological activity (hemagglutination and hagocytosis). Stability of garlic lectins in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) was assessed by their hemagglutination activity, immunoreactivity, and intactness by SDS-PAGE. Garlic lectins were moderately stable in SGF for up to 30 min; while they retained hemagglutination activities, immunoreactivity with the respective rabbit antiserum decreased immediately (0.5 min) to 10-30%. ASA I retained ~80% hemagglutination activity in the pH range 2-12; however, ASA II retained only 40% in the pH ranges 2-4 and 10-12. Garlic lectins exposed to 60 °C (30 min) and pepsin (1 and 2 min) retained hemagglutination and phagocytic activities. Urea (4M) and Gdn.HCl (2M) did not affect hemagglutination. The immunogenicity of garlic lectins upon oral feeding in BALB/c mice was examined. A lectin-specific serum IgG response was seen in mice comparable to the oral immunogen, phytohemagglutinin. The recovered lectin in feces of mice administered with garlic lectins showed antigenicity identical to that of the administered proteins. The stabilities of the garlic lectins, their ability to withstand the gastrointestinal passage, and their recognition by the immune system upon oral feeding reinforce the reported presence of natural antibodies to garlic proteins in normal human sera.

  1. Adaptive evolution of a novel Drosophila lectin induced by parasitic wasp attack.

    PubMed

    Keebaugh, Erin S; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has long been used as a model for the molecular genetics of innate immunity. Such work has uncovered several immune receptors that recognize bacterial and fungal pathogens by binding unique components of their cell walls and membranes. Drosophila also act as hosts to metazoan pathogens such as parasitic wasps, which can infect a majority of individuals in natural populations, but many aspects of their immune responses against these more closely related pathogens are poorly understood. Here, we present data describing the transcriptional induction and molecular evolution of a candidate Drosophila anti-wasp immunity gene, lectin-24A. Lectin-24A has a secretion signal sequence and its lectin domain suggests a function in sugar group binding. Transcript levels of lectin-24A were induced significantly stronger and faster following wasp attack than following wounding or bacterial infection, demonstrating lectin-24A is not a general stress response or defense response gene but is instead part of a specific response against wasps. The major site of lectin-24A transcript production is the fat body, the main humoral immune tissue of flies. Interestingly, lectin-24A is a new gene of the D. melanogaster/Drosophila simulans clade, displaying very little homology to any other Drosophila lectins. Population genetic analyses of lectin-24A DNA sequence data from African and North American populations of D. melanogaster and D. simulans revealed gene length polymorphisms segregating at high frequencies as well as strong evidence of repeated and recent selective sweeps. Thus, lectin-24A is a rapidly evolving new gene that has seemingly developed functional importance for fly resistance against infection by parasitic wasps.

  2. Lectin sensitized anisotropic silver nanoparticles for detection of some bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Vardan K; Bazukyan, Inga L

    2013-03-05

    A method of bacteria detection by sensitized anisotropic silver nanoparticles is presented. Anisotropic silver nanoparticles with two bands of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are prepared and sensitized with potato lectin. These nanoparticles are able to detect three bacterial species: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The interaction of these bacteria with such nanoparticles induces drastic changes in optical spectra of nanoparticles that are correlated with bacteria titer. The maximal sensitivity is observed for S. aureus (up to 1.5×10(4) mL(-1)).

  3. Probing lectin and sperm with carbohydrate-modified quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Anandakathir; Fang, Jim-Min; Chou, Pi-Tai; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Chu, Rea-Min; Lee, Shyh-Jye

    2005-10-01

    We report the encapsulation of quantum dots with biologically important beta-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in different ratios, together with studies of their specific/sensitive multivalent interactions with lectins and sperm by fluorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering microscopy, confocal imaging techniques, and flow cytometry. These GlcNAc-encapsulated quantum dots (QDGLNs) specifically bind to wheat germ agglutinin, and cause fluorescence quenching and aggregation. Further studies of QDGLNs and the mannose-encapsulated QDs (QDMANs) with sperm revealed site-specific interactions, in which QDGLNs bind to the head of the sperm, while QDMANs spread over the whole sperm body.

  4. Analysis of EST and lectin expressions in hemocytes of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) (Bivalvia: Mollusca) infected with Perkinsus olseni.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Young-Mee; Park, Kyung-Il; Kim Cho, Somi; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Cho, Moonjae

    2006-01-01

    The hemocytes of invertebrates play key roles in both cellular and humoral immune reactions by phagocytosis or delivering immune factors such as lectin and anti-microbial peptides. Bacterial infection causes changes in components such as lectins, anti-bacterial peptides, and lysosomal enzymes of plasma or hemolymph in molluscs. Previously, we found that infection with the protozoan parasite, Perkinsus, increases lectin synthesis in hemocytes. In order to investigate the patterns of genes expressed in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) infected with the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni, we constructed a cDNA library and sequenced 1850 clones (expressed sequence tags). A total of 79 ESTs, were related to 29 functional immune genes such as C-type lectin, lysozyme, and cystatin B, in Manila clams. Lectins were the largest group of immune-function ESTs found in our Manila clams library. Among 7 lectin clones, two full length cDNAs of lectins were cloned. MCL-3, which is a simple C-type lectin composed of 151 amino acids, has a relatively short signal sequence of 17aa and single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 residues. It is highly homologous to eel C-type lectin. The sequence of mc-sialic acid-binding lectin consists of 168 amino acid residues with molecular weight of 19.2 and shows high homology to sialic acid-binding lectin from the snail, Cepaea hortensis. The expression of 7 different lectins in hemocytes was analyzed by RT-PCR using gene-specific primers. Hemocytes from Perkinsus-infected clam expressed different sets of lectins than with Vibrio infection. These results demonstrate that several lectins are involved in Manila clam innate immunity and different challenges induce expression of different lectins.

  5. Extraction and purification of a lectin from red kidney bean and preliminary immune function studies of the lectin and four Chinese herbal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yufang; Hou, Yubao; Yanyan, Liu; Qin, Guang; Li, Jichang

    2010-01-01

    Reversed micelles were used to extract lectin from red kidney beans and factors affecting reverse micellar systems (pH value, ionic strength and extraction time) were studied. The optimal conditions were extraction at pH 4-6, back extraction at pH 9-11, ion strength at 0.15 M NaCl, extraction for 4-6 minutes and back extraction for 8 minutes. The reverse micellar system was compared with traditional extraction methods and demonstrated to be a time-saving method for the extraction of red kidney bean lectin. Mitogenic activity of the lectin was reasonably good compared with commercial phytohemagglutinin (extracted from Phaseolus vulgaris) Mitogenic properties of the lectin were enhanced when four Chinese herbal polysaccharides were applied concurrently, among which 50 μg/mL Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharides (APS) with 12.5 μg/mL red kidney bean lectin yielded the highest mitogenic activity and 100 mg/kg/bw APS with 12.5 mg/kg/bw red kidney bean lectin elevated mouse nonspecific immunity.

  6. Response to Vicriviroc in Treatment-Experienced Subjects Using an Enhanced Sensitivity Co-receptor Tropism Assay: Reanalysis of AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5211

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhaohui; Gulick, Roy M.; Krambrink, Amy; Coakley, Eoin; Hughes, Michael D.; Han, Dong; Flexner, Charles; Wilkin, Timothy J.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Greaves, Wayne L.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced sensitivity Trofile assay was used to re-test co-receptor usage at study screening and entry for the 118 ACTG A5211 treatment-experienced subjects who had CCR5-tropic (R5) virus by the original Trofile assay at study screening. Among 90 vicriviroc recipients, a significantly (P<0.001) greater mean reduction in HIV-1 RNA was observed in 72 subjects with R5 virus versus 15 subjects reclassified with dual/mixed-tropic viruses at screening: −1.11 vs. −0.09 (day 14), −1.91 vs. −0.57 (week 24) log10 copies/mL, respectively. Results suggest that the enhanced sensitivity assay is a better screening tool for determining patient eligibility for CCR5 antagonist therapy. PMID:19874179

  7. Two novel lectins from Parkia biglandulosa and Parkia roxburghii: isolation, physicochemical characterization, mitogenicity and anti-proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navjot; Singh, Jatinder; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Agrewala, Javed N; Kaur, Manpreet

    2005-08-01

    Two mannose/glucose specific seed lectins were isolated from Parkia biglandulosa and Parkia roxburghii and were characterized w.r.t various physicochemical properties. Unlike other Parkia lectins a comparison of native and subunit molecular mass showed that both Parkia lectins were heterotetramers. Parkia biglandulosa lectin was found to be T-cell mitogen as revealed by IL-2 bioassay. These lectins showed anti-proliferative effect on two murine macrophage cancer cell lines i.e. P 388DI (50%) and J774 (70%). In addition Parkia roxburghii also inhibited proliferation of HB98 (65.47%), a B-cell hybridoma cell line.

  8. A 19-Month Climatology of Marine Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Properties Derived From DOE ARM AMF Deployment at the Azores: Part I: Cloud Fraction and Single-Layered MBL Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Kennedy, Aaron; Minnis, Patrick; Wood, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A 19-month record of total, and single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high (> 6 km) cloud fractions (CFs), and the single-layered marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties has been generated from ground-based measurements taken at the ARM Azores site between June 2009 and December 2010. It documents the most comprehensive and longest dataset on marine cloud fraction and MBL cloud properties to date. The annual means of total CF, and single-layered low, middle, and high CFs derived from ARM radar-lidar observations are 0.702, 0.271, 0.01 and 0.106, respectively. More total and single-layered high CFs occurred during winter, while single-layered low CFs were greatest during summer. The diurnal cycles for both total and low CFs are stronger during summer than during winter. The CFs are bimodally distributed in the vertical with a lower peak at approx. 1 km and higher one between 8 and 11 km during all seasons, except summer, when only the low peak occurs. The persistent high pressure and dry conditions produce more single-layered MBL clouds and fewer total clouds during summer, while the low pressure and moist air masses during winter generate more total and multilayered-clouds, and deep frontal clouds associated with midlatitude cyclones.

  9. Prevention of allograft HCV recurrence with peri-transplant human monoclonal antibody MBL-HCV1 combined with a single oral direct-acting antiviral: A proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Smith, H L; Chung, R T; Mantry, P; Chapman, W; Curry, M P; Schiano, T D; Boucher, E; Cheslock, P; Wang, Y; Molrine, D C

    2017-03-01

    Patients with active hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at transplantation experience rapid allograft infection, increased risk of graft failure and accelerated fibrosis. MBL-HCV1, a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the HCV envelope, was combined with a licensed oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) to prevent HCV recurrence post-transplant in an open-label exploratory efficacy trial. Eight subjects received MBL-HCV1 beginning on the day of transplant with telaprevir initiated between days 3 and 7 post-transplantation. Following FDA approval of sofosbuvir, two subjects received MBL-HCV1 starting on the day of transplant with sofosbuvir initiated on day 3. Combination treatment was administered for 8-12 weeks or until the stopping rule for viral rebound was met. The primary endpoint was undetectable HCV RNA at day 56 with exploratory endpoints of sustained virologic response (SVR) at 12 and 24 weeks post-treatment. Both subjects receiving mAb and sofosbuvir achieved SVR24. Four of eight subjects in the mAb and telaprevir group met the primary endpoint; one subject achieved SVR24 and three subjects relapsed 2-12 weeks post-treatment. The other four subjects experienced viral breakthrough. There were no serious adverse events related to study treatment. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that peri-transplant immunoprophylaxis combined with a single oral direct-acting antiviral in the immediate post-transplant period can prevent HCV recurrence.

  10. The degradation of lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors during germination of white kidney beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Savelkoul, F H; Tamminga, S; Leenaars, P P; Schering, J; Ter Maat, D W

    1994-04-01

    White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cv Processor, contain a relatively high content of phaseolin (storage protein), lectins and a special group of glycoproteins as well as a considerable amount of protein-type trypsin inhibitors. Protein digestion of raw 'Processor' beans in monogastrics, for example pigs, is disturbed by poorly digested, phaseolin lectins, which can bind to carbohydrates in brush border membranes of the small intestinal epithelium, and trypsin inhibitors. The effect of the germination of white kidney beans on lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors was studied in order to achieve a degradation of lectins, phaseolin and trypsin inhibitors and an increase of in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein of bean flour. Therefore, whole bean extracts were examined throughout a germination period of up to seven days for their lectin and phaseolin pattern, lectin content, binding capacities of functional lectins towards brush border membranes and trypsin inhibitor content. In addition the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin of the protein from flours of (un)germinated white kidney beans was studied. SDS-PAGE demonstrated a degradation of E-lectins and a disappearance of L-lectins and phaseolin during germination. Results indicated a decrease of the lectin content by 85%, a loss of binding capacities of functional lectins towards brush border membranes by 91%, and a decrease of trypsin inhibitors by 76%, in bean flour after germination for seven days. A maximum in in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of protein from bean flour was already established after germination for half a day.

  11. Isolation and characterization of two Korean mistletoe lectins.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Bong; Song, Seong Kyu; Yoon, Taek Joon; Yoo, Yung Choon; Lee, Kwan Hee; Her, Erk; Kim, Jong Bae

    2007-11-30

    Two isolectins (KML-IIU and the KML-IIL) were individually isolated from the previously reported Korean mistletoe lectin, KML-C, by using an immunoaffinity column. Molecular weights of the KML-IIU and the KML-IIL were 64 kDa and 60 kDa respectively. Both of the lectins were composed of heterogeneous A and B subunits linked with a disulfide bond, and showed the same carbohydrate-binding specificities for Gal and GalNAc. However, they are different not only in biophysical properties (glycosylation and amino acid compositions) but also bioactivities (cell killing and cytokine induction). The KML-IIL showed 17-145 times stronger in cytotoxicities to various human and mouse cancer cell lines than the KML-IIU. The KML-IIL also induced TNF-alpha secretion from mouse peritoneal macrophages 4.5 times better than the KML-IIU. The results demonstrated isolectins in Korean mistletoe were varied in bioactivities and the KML-IIL may be developed as an anti-cancer agent.

  12. Anti-Neuroblastoma Properties of a Recombinant Sunflower Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Pinedo, Marcela; Genoula, Melanie; Silveyra, María Ximena; De Oliveira Carvalho, André; Regente, Mariana; Del Río, Marianela; Ribeiro Soares, Júlia; Moreira Gomes, Valdirene; De La Canal, Laura

    2017-01-01

    According to their sugar recognition specificity, plant lectins are proposed as bioactive proteins with potential in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Helja is a mannose-specific jacalin-like lectin from sunflower which was shown to inhibit the growth of certain fungi. Here, we report its recombinant expression in a prokaryotic system and its activity in neurobalstoma cells. Helja coding sequence was fused to the pET-32 EK/LIC, the enterokinase/Ligation-independent cloning vector and a 35 kDa protein was obtained in Escherichia coli representing Helja coupled to thioredoxin (Trx). The identity of this protein was verified using anti-Helja antibodies. This chimera, named Trx-rHelja, was enriched in the soluble bacterial extracts and was purified using Ni+2-Sepharose and d-mannose-agarose chromatography. Trx-rHelja and the enterokinase-released recombinant Helja (rHelja) both displayed toxicity on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastomas. rHelja decreased the viability of these tumor cells by 75% according to the tetrazolium reduction assay, and microscopic analyses revealed that the cell morphology was disturbed. Thus, the stellate cells of the monolayer became spheroids and were isolated. Our results indicate that rHelja is a promising tool for the development of diagnostic or therapeutic methods for neuroblastoma cells, the most common solid tumors in childhood. PMID:28075401

  13. Altered binding of Ulex europaeus I lectin to psoriatic epidermis.

    PubMed

    Kariniemi, A L; Holthöfer, H; Miettinen, A; Virtanen, I

    1983-11-01

    We have used Ulex europaeus I (UEA I) lectin, specific for alpha-L-fucose-containing glycoconjugates, in fluorescence microscopy to stain cryostat sections of human skin from normal persons and patients with psoriasis and lichen simplex. In normal skin the upper layers of the stratum spinosum and the stratum granulosum were strongly reactive with UEA I, whereas the lower layers of the epidermis did not react. The staining intensity of the upper epidermis was similar to that of the endothelium of dermal blood vessels. Biopsies of the lesional skin of lichen simplex showed an intense UEA I-specific staining throughout the whole epidermis, similar in intensity to that seen in the upper epidermis of normal skin. In psoriatic lesions positive UEA I-specific fluorescence was seen throughout the whole epidermis, but the fluorescence was more faint and often granular. In uninvolved skin of psoriatic patients the whole epidermis showed a diffuse UEA I-specific fluorescence, differing in this respect from normal skin. In normal skin UEA I binds to epidermal cells which are at a certain state of differentiation. The results with psoriatic epidermis confirm that both uninvolved and lesional epidermis have a defect in epidermal maturation, as shown by the altered binding of UEA I lectin.

  14. Lectin functionalized quantum dots for recognition of mammary tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Beate S.; de Farias, Patricia M. A.; de Menezes, Frederico D.; de C. Ferreira, Ricardo; Júnior, Severino A.; Figueiredo, Regina C. B. Q.; Beltrão, Eduardo I. C.

    2006-02-01

    In this study we use CdS/Cd(OH) II quantum dots functionalized with concanavalin-A (Con-A) lectin, specific to glucose/mannose residues, to investigate cell alterations regarding carbohydrate profile in human mammary tissues diagnosed as fibroadenoma (benign tumor). These particles were functionalized with glutaraldehyde and Con-A and incubated with tissue sections of normal and to Fibroadenoma, a benign type of mammary tumor. The tissue sections were deparafinized, hydrated in graded alcohol and treated with a solution of Evans Blue in order to avoid autofluorescence. The fluorescence intensity of QD-Con-A stained tissues showed different patterns, which reflect the carbohydrate expression of glucose/mannose in fibroadenoma when compared to the detection of the normal carbohydrate expression. The pattern of unspecific labeling of the tissues with glutaraldehyde functionalized CdS/Cd(OH) II quantum dots is compared to the targeting driven by the Con-A lectin. The preliminary findings reported here support the use of CdS/Cd(OH) II quantum dots as specific probes of cellular alterations and their use in diagnostics.

  15. Detection of colorectal dysplasia using fluorescently labelled lectins

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Joe Chin-Hun; Ibrahim, Ashraf E. K.; Dawson, Sarah; Parashar, Deepak; Howat, William J.; Guttula, Kiran; Miller, Richard; Fearnhead, Nicola S.; Winton, Douglas J.; Neves, André A.; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening using conventional colonoscopy lacks molecular information and can miss dysplastic lesions. We tested here the ability of fluorescently labelled lectins to distinguish dysplasia from normal tissue when sprayed on to the luminal surface epithelium of freshly resected colon tissue from the Apcmin mouse and when applied to fixed human colorectal tissue sections. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) showed significantly decreased binding to adenomas in the mouse tissue and in sections of human colon from 47 patients. Changes in WGA binding to the human surface epithelium allowed regions containing normal epithelium (NE) or hyperplastic polyps (HP) to be distinguished from regions containing low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or carcinoma (C), with 81% sensitivity, 87% specificity and 93% positive predictive value (PPV). Helix pomatia agglutinin (HGA) distinguished epithelial regions containing NE from regions containing HP, LGD, HGD or C, with 89% sensitivity, 87% specificity and 97% PPV. The decreased binding of WGA and HPA to the luminal surface epithelium in human dysplasia suggests that these lectins may enable more sensitive detection of disease in the clinic using fluorescence colonoscopy. PMID:27071814

  16. Characterization of Caenorhabditis Elegans Lectin-Binding Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Link, C. D.; Silverman, M. A.; Breen, M.; Watt, K. E.; Dames, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    We have identified 45 mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans that show ectopic surface binding of the lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and soybean agglutinin (SBA). These mutations are all recessive and define six genes: srf-2, srf-3, srf-4, srf-5, srf-8 and srf-9. Mutations in these genes fall into two phenotypic classes: srf-2, -3, -5 mutants are grossly wild-type, except for their lectin-binding phenotype; srf-4, -8, -9 mutants have a suite of defects, including uncoordinated movement, abnormal egg laying, and defective copulatory bursae morphogenesis. Characterization of these pleiotropic mutants at the cellular level reveals defects in the migration of the gonadal distal tip cell and in axon morphology. Unexpectedly, the pleiotropic mutations also interact with mutations in the lin-12 gene, which encodes a putative cell surface receptor involved in the control of cell fate. We propose that the underlying defect in the pleiotropic mutations may be in the general processing or secretion of extracellular proteins. PMID:1516818

  17. Use of lectin-functionalized particles for oral immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Diesner, Susanne C; Wang, Xue-Yan; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Untersmayr, Eva; Gabor, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy, in recent times, has found its application in a variety of immunologically mediated diseases. Oral immunotherapy may not only increase patient compliance but may, in particular, also induce both systemic as well as mucosal immune responses, due to mucosal application of active agents. To improve the bioavailability and to trigger strong immunological responses, recent research projects focused on the encapsulation of drugs and antigens into polymer particles. These particles protect the loaded antigen from the harsh conditions in the GI tract. Furthermore, modification of the surface of particles by the use of lectins, such as Aleuria aurantia lectin, wheatgerm agglutinin or Ulex europaeus-I, enhances the binding to epithelial cells, in particular to membranous cells, of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Membranous cell-specific targeting leads to an improved transepithelial transport of the particle carriers. Thus, enhanced uptake and presentation of the encapsulated antigen by antigen-presenting cells favor strong systemic, but also local, mucosal immune responses. PMID:22834202

  18. Proteins with an Euonymus lectin-like domain are ubiquitous in Embryophyta

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cloning of the Euonymus lectin led to the discovery of a novel domain that also occurs in some stress-induced plant proteins. The distribution and the diversity of proteins with an Euonymus lectin (EUL) domain were investigated using detailed analysis of sequences in publicly accessible genome and transcriptome databases. Results Comprehensive in silico analyses indicate that the recently identified Euonymus europaeus lectin domain represents a conserved structural unit of a novel family of putative carbohydrate-binding proteins, which will further be referred to as the Euonymus lectin (EUL) family. The EUL domain is widespread among plants. Analysis of retrieved sequences revealed that some sequences consist of a single EUL domain linked to an unrelated N-terminal domain whereas others comprise two in tandem arrayed EUL domains. A new classification system for these lectins is proposed based on the overall domain architecture. Evolutionary relationships among the sequences with EUL domains are discussed. Conclusion The identification of the EUL family provides the first evidence for the occurrence in terrestrial plants of a highly conserved plant specific domain. The widespread distribution of the EUL domain strikingly contrasts the more limited or even narrow distribution of most other lectin domains found in plants. The apparent omnipresence of the EUL domain is indicative for a universal role of this lectin domain in plants. Although there is unambiguous evidence that several EUL domains possess carbohydrate-binding activity further research is required to corroborate the carbohydrate-binding properties of different members of the EUL family. PMID:19930663

  19. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Charlene Cheuk Wing; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-11-01

    Lectins have captured the attention of a large number of researchers on account of their various exploitable activities, including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, as well as HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities. A mannose/glucose-specific lectin was isolated from green split peas (a variety of Pisum sativum) and characterized. The purification step involved anion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, cation-exchange chromatography on an SP-Sepharose column, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Superdex 200. The purified lectin had a native molecular mass of around 50 kDa as determined by size exclusion chromatography. It appeared as a heterotetramer, composed of two distinct polypeptide bands with a molecular mass of 6 and 19 kDa, respectively, in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The N-terminal sequence of green split pea lectin shows some degree of homology compared to lectins from other legume species. Its hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by glucose, mannose, and sucrose, and attenuated at pH values higher than 12 or lower than 3. Hemagglutinating activity was preserved at temperatures lower than 80 °C. The lectin did not show antifungal activity toward fungi including Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Green split pea lectin showed a mitogenic effect toward murine splenocytes and could inhibit the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  20. Lectin-Like Molecules of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Inhibit Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Mariya I.; Imholz, Nicole C. E.; Verhoeven, Tine L. A.; Balzarini, Jan; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Schols, Dominique; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Increased antibiotic resistance has catalyzed the research on new antibacterial molecules and alternative strategies, such as the application of beneficial bacteria. Since lectin molecules have unique sugar-recognizing capacities, and pathogens are often decorated with sugars that affect their survival and infectivity, we explored whether lectins from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG have antipathogenic properties. Methods The genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG was screened for the presence of lectin-like proteins. Two genes, LGG_RS02780 and LGG_RS02750, encoding for polypeptides with an N-terminal conserved L-type lectin domain were detected and designated Llp1 (lectin-like protein 1) and Llp2. The capacity of Llp1 and Llp2 to inhibit biofilm formation of various pathogens was investigated. Sugar specificity was determined by Sepharose beads assays and glycan array screening. Results The isolated lectin domains of Llp1 and Llp2 possess pronounced inhibitory activity against biofilm formation by various pathogens, including clinical Salmonella species and uropathogenic E. coli, with Llp2 being more active than Llp1. In addition, sugar binding assays with Llp1 and Llp2 indicate specificity for complex glycans. Both proteins are also involved in the adhesion capacity of L. rhamnosus GG to gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelial cells. Conclusions Lectins isolated from or expressed by beneficial lactobacilli could be considered promising bio-active ingredients for improved prophylaxis of urogenital and gastrointestinal infections. PMID:27537843

  1. Chemical modification studies on a lectin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast).

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, M; Basu, J; Ghosh, A; Chakrabarti, P

    1987-01-01

    The effect of chemical modification on a galactose-specific lectin isolated from a fatty acid auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated in order to identify the type of amino acids involved in its agglutinating activity. Modification of 50 free amino groups with succinic anhydride or citraconic anhydride led to an almost complete loss of activity. This could not be protected by the inhibitory sugar methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside. Treatment with N-bromosuccinimide and N-acetylimidazole, for the modification of tryptophan and tyrosine residues, did not affect lectin activity. Modification of carboxy groups with glycine ethyl ester greatly affected lectin activity, although sugars afford partial protection. Modification of four thiol groups with N-ethylmaleimide was accompanied by a loss of 85% of the agglutinating activity, and two thiol groups were found to be present at the sugar-binding site of the lectin. Modification of 18 arginine residues with cyclohexane-1,2-dione and 26 histidine residues with ethoxyformic anhydride led to a loss of lectin activity. However, in these cases, modification was not protected by the abovementioned inhibitory sugar, suggesting the absence of these groups at the sugar-binding site. In all the cases, immunodiffusion studies with modified lectin showed no gross structural changes which could disrupt antigenic sites of the lectin. Images Fig. 5. PMID:3128265

  2. Effective inhibition of melanosome transfer to keratinocytes by lectins and niacinamide is reversible.

    PubMed

    Greatens, Amanda; Hakozaki, Tomohiro; Koshoffer, Amy; Epstein, Howard; Schwemberger, Sandy; Babcock, George; Bissett, Donald; Takiwaki, Hirotsugu; Arase, Seiji; Wickett, R Randall; Boissy, Raymond E

    2005-07-01

    Skin pigmentation results in part from the transfer of melanized melanosomes synthesized by melanocytes to neighboring keratinocytes. Plasma membrane lectins and their glycoconjugates expressed by these epidermal cells are critical molecules involved in this transfer process. In addition, the derivative of vitamin B(3), niacinamide, can inhibit melanosome transfer and induce skin lightening. We investigated the effects of these molecules on the viability of melanocytes and keratinocytes and on the reversibility of melanosome-transfer inhibition induced by these agents using an in vitro melanocyte-keratinocyte coculture model system. While lectins and neoglycoproteins could induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner to melanocytes or keratinocytes in monoculture, similar dosages of the lectins, as opposed to neoglycoproteins, did not induce apoptosis to either cell type when treated in coculture. The dosages of lectins and niacinamide not affecting cell viability produced an inhibitory effect on melanosome transfer, when used either alone or together in cocultures of melanocytes-keratinocytes. Cocultures treated with lectins or niacinamide resumed normal melanosome transfer in 3 days after removal of the inhibitor, while cocultures treated with a combination of lectins and niacinamide demonstrated a lag in this recovery. Subsequently, we assessed the effect of niacinamide on facial hyperpigmented spots using a vehicle-controlled, split-faced design human clinical trial. Topical application of niacinamide resulted in a dose-dependent and reversible reduction in hyperpigmented lesions. These results suggest that lectins and niacinamide at concentrations that do not affect cell viability are reversible inhibitors of melanosome transfer.

  3. A novel L-fucose-binding lectin from Fenneropenaeus indicus induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Biji; Ghosh, Krishna; Yadav, Nitin; Kanade, Santosh R

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are omnipresent in almost all life forms, being the proteins which specifically bind to carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface; they have been explored for their anti-tumour activities. In this study, we purified a fucose specific-lectin (IFL) from Fenneropenaeus indicus haemolymph using fucose-affinity column and characterized for its haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity, dependency on cations and cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The lectin showed non-specificity against human erythrocytes. It was a Ca(2+)-dependent lectin which remained stable over wide pH and temperature ranges. The lectin showed effective dose dependent cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as evidenced by DNA ladder assay and PARP cleavage in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, an increased p21 level corresponding to cyclin D downregulation in response to IFL treatment was observed which might work as probable factors to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Therefore, we report a novel lectin from the prawn haemolymph with high specificity for L-fucose and antiproliferative towards human cancer cells. However, further establishment of the modus operandi of this lectin is required to enable its biotechnological applications.

  4. Synthesis of a selective inhibitor of a fucose binding bacterial lectin from Burkholderia ambifaria.

    PubMed

    Richichi, Barbara; Imberty, Anne; Gillon, Emilie; Bosco, Rosa; Sutkeviciute, Ieva; Fieschi, Franck; Nativi, Cristina

    2013-06-28

    Burkholderia ambifaria is a bacterium member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), a closely related group of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for "cepacia syndrome" in immunocompromised patients. B. ambifaria produces BambL, a fucose-binding lectin that displays fine specificity to human fucosylated epitopes. Here, we report the first example of a synthetic ligand able to selectively bind, in the micromolar range, the pathogen-lectin BambL. The synthetic routes for the preparation of the α conformationally constrained fucoside are described, focusing on a totally diastereoselective inverse electron demand [4 + 2] Diels-Alder reaction. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) demonstrated that this compound binds to the pathogen-associated lectin BambL with an affinity comparable to that of natural fucose-containing oligosaccharides. No binding was observed by LecB, a fucose-binding lectin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the differences in affinity between the two lectins could be rationalized by modeling. Furthermore, SPR analyses showed that this fucomimetic does not bind to the human fucose-binding lectin DC-SIGN, thus supporting the selective binding profile towards B. ambifaria lectin.

  5. Isolation and analysis of mannose/trehalose/maltose specific lectin from jack bean with antibruchid activity.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Velayutham, Veeramani; Kamalanathan, Tamilarasan; Periasamy, Mullainadhan; Munusamy, Arumugam; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-10-01

    A lectin with insecticidal property against the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus was successfully isolated from the seeds of Canavalia virosa using standard affinity chromatography. The isolated molecule typically behaved like a lectin in its characteristics. It agglutinated indicator red blood cells (RBC) in its native as well as enzyme treated conditions. The enzyme treated RBC types exhibited a very high hemagglutination (HA) titre values and this property of isolated molecule behaved like arcelin, the lectin-like molecules reported from several species of Phaseolus. As a characteristic feature of a lectin, the isolated molecule effectively inhibited the agglutination of indicator RBC types with simple and complex carbohydrates including glycoproteins. This nature of the isolated molecule also relate with characteristic feature of arcelin isoforms in inhibiting HA activity with complex glycoproteins as reported in many studies. Most interestingly, the present study disclosed trehalose as a potent inhibitor of C. virosa lectin. Therefore, feeding insect pests on the lectin like arcelin could serve as antibiosis factor/anti-insect activity. The molecular characteristics of this isolated molecule and its mass studies too revealed its homology with arcelin, arcelin-1, 2 and 6 isoforms of P. vulgaris and lectin from Canavalia cathartica, C. lineata and C. brasiliensis.

  6. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, E.C.; Barondes, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found.

  7. Characterization and molecular cloning of mannose-binding lectins from the Orchidaceae species Listera ovata, Epipactis helleborine and Cymbidium hybrid.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, J M; Smeets, K; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1994-04-15

    Mannose-binding lectins were purified from the leaves of three Orchidaceae species, namely Listera ovata (twayblade), Epipactis helleborine (broad-leaved helleborine) and Cymbidium hybrid, using affinity chromatography on Mannose - Sepharose-4B. Apparently, the Orchidaceae lectins are dimeric proteins composed of lectin subunits of 12-13 kDa. All of the isolated lectins exhibit exclusive specificity towards mannose. A cDNA library constructed from poly(A) rich RNA isolated from leaves of L. ovata was screened for cDNA clones encoding the lectin using colony hybridization. Since N-terminal sequence analysis of the twayblade lectin revealed some sequence similarity to the previously cloned mannose-binding lectin Hippeastrum hybrid (amaryllis) ovaries, the amaryllis lectin cDNA clone was used as a probe to screen the L. ovata library. Subsequently, the cDNA clone encoding the L. ovata lectin was used to screen the cDNA libraries from the taxonomically related orchid species Cymbidium hybrid and E. helleborine. Sequence analysis of the lectin cDNA clones from different Orchidaceae species revealed approximately 50% sequence similarity both at the nucleotide and amino acid level. The Orchidaceae lectins are apparently translated from mRNAs consisting of approximately 800 nucleotides. The primary translation products are preproproteins which are converted into the mature lectins following post-translational modifications. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA has shown that the lectins are most probably encoded by a family of closely related genes which is in good agreement with the sequence heterogeneity found between different lectin cDNA clones of one species.

  8. Physicochemical properties and oxidative inactivation of soluble lectin from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) brain.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sabika; Banu, Naheed

    2008-03-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present in a wide variety of plants and animals, which serve various important physiological functions. A soluble beta-galactoside binding lectin has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from buffalo brain using ammonium sulphate precipitation (40-70%) and gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G50-80 column. The molecular weight of buffalo brain lectin (BBL) as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions was 14.2 kDa, however, with gel filtration it was 28.5 kDa, revealing the dimeric form of protein. The neutral sugar content of the soluble lectin was estimated to be 3.3%. The BBL showed highest affinity for lactose and other sugar moieties in glycosidic form, suggesting it to be a beta-galactoside binding lectin. The association constant for lactose binding as evidenced by Scatchard analysis was 6.6 x 10(3) M(-1) showing two carbohydrate binding sites per lectin molecule. A total inhibition of lectin activity was observed by denaturants like guanidine HCl, thiourea and urea at 6 M concentration. The treatment of BBL with oxidizing agent destroyed its agglutination activity, abolished its fluorescence, and shifted its UV absorption maxima from 282 to 250 nm. The effect of H2O2 was greatly prevented by lactose indicating that BBL is more stable in the presence of its specific ligand. The purified lectin was investigated for its brain cell aggregation properties by testing its ability to agglutinate cells isolated from buffalo and goat brains. Rate of aggregation of buffalo brain cells by purified protein was more than the goat brain cells. The data from above study suggests that the isolated lectin may belong to the galectin-1 family but is glycosylated unlike those purified till date.

  9. Seasonal lectin binding variations of thumb pad in the frog (Pelophylax ridibundus).

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Engin; Bolkent, Sehnaz

    2014-01-01

    The thumb pad is one of the most common secondary sexual characteristics in frogs. Although it is known that amphibian skin has affinity for several lectins, there is no report regarding lectin-binding affinity of the thumb pad or its structural components. This study investigated localization and seasonal variation of specific carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates in both the epidermal and dermal components of the frog thumb pad at the light microscopic level using lectin histochemistry. The study consisted of four seasonal groups of the frog species, Pelophylax ridibundus (Synonym of Rana ridibunda): active, prehibernating, hibernating and posthibernating. Four horseradish peroxidase conjugated lectins were employed. It was found that dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and ulex europaeus (UEAI) gave positive reactions in both epidermal layers and breeding glands. These three lectins bound specific secretory cells in the breeding glands, and the distribution of the cells and epithelial lectin reactions exhibited seasonal changes. In addition, UEA-I and peanut agglutinin (PNA) showed an affinity in granular glands and the granular zone of mixed glands. Generally, epidermal lectin binding showed dense affinity during the posthibernation period. DBA, UEA-I, and WGA-specific cells in the mucous gland decreased gradually until the posthibernation period. These findings suggest that differences of lectin binding in the thumb pad may be related to functional activities and, thus, seasonal adaptations. Moreover, the presence of specific lectin-binding cells in the breeding glands indicated that they consisted of heterogeneous secretory cell composition or that the cells were at different secretory stages.

  10. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of carbohydrate binding to the basic lectin from winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus).

    PubMed

    Khan, M I; Sastry, M V; Surolia, A

    1986-03-05

    A basic lectin (pI approximately 10.0) was purified to homogeneity from the seeds of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) by affinity chromatography on Sepharose 6-aminocaproyl-D-galactosamine. The lectin agglutinated trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes and had a relative molecular mass of 58,000 consisting of two subunits of Mr 29,000. The lectin binds to N-dansylgalactosamine, leading to a 15-fold increase in dansyl fluorescence with a concomitant 25-nm blue shift in the emission maximum. The lectin has two binding sites/dimer for this sugar and an association constant of 4.17 X 10(5) M-1 at 25 degrees C. The strong binding to N-dansylgalactosamine is due to a relatively positive entropic contribution as revealed by the thermodynamic parameters: delta H = -33.62 kJ mol-1 and delta S0 = -5.24 J mol-1 K-1. Binding of this sugar to the lectin shows that it can accommodate a large hydrophobic substituent on the C-2 carbon of D-galactose. Studies with other sugars indicate that a hydrophobic substituent in alpha-conformation at the anomeric position increases the affinity of binding. The C-4 and C-6 hydroxyl groups are critical for sugar binding to this lectin. Lectin difference absorption spectra in the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine indicate perturbation of tryptophan residues on sugar binding. The results of stopped flow kinetics with N-dansylgalactosamine and the lectin are consistent with a simple one-step mechanism for which k+1 = 1.33 X 10(4) M-1 s-1 and k-1 = 3.2 X 10(-2) s-1 at 25 degrees C. This k-1 is slower than any reported for a lectin-monosaccharide complex so far. The activation parameters indicate an enthalpically controlled association process.

  11. Putative glycoprotein and glycolipid polymorphonuclear leukocyte receptors for the Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 fimbrial lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, A L; Ruhl, S; Joralmon, R A; Brennan, M J; Sutphin, M J; Cisar, J O

    1995-01-01

    Recognition of receptors on sialidase-treated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) by the Gal/GalNAc lectin associated with the type 2 fimbriae of certain strains of actinomyces results in activation of the PMNs, phagocytosis, and destruction of the bacteria. In the present study, plant lectins were utilized as probes to identify putative PMN receptors for the actinomyces lectin. The Gal-reactive lectin from Ricinus communis (RCAI), the Gal/GalNAc-reactive lectins from R. communis (RCAII) and Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), as well as the Gal beta 1-3GalNAc-specific lectins from Arachis hypogaea (PNA) and Agaricus bisporus (ABA) inhibited killing of Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 by sialidase-treated PMNs. These five lectins detected a 130-kDa surface-labeled glycoprotein on nitrocellulose transfers of PMN extracts separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This glycoprotein was revealed only after treatment of the transfers with sialidase, a condition analogous to the sialidase dependence of the lectin-mediated biological responses of the PMNs to the actinomyces. The mannose-reactive lectin concanavalin A did not inhibit killing of the actinomyces and failed to detect the 130-kDa glycoprotein but did block PMN-dependent killing of Escherichia coli B, a bacterium that possesses mannose-sensitive fimbriae. Therefore, the PMN glycoprotein receptor for A. naeslundii is clearly distinct from those recognized by E. coli. Two major putative glycolipid receptors were also identified by actinomyces and RCAI overlays on sialidase-treated thin-layer chromatograms of PMN gangliosides. Thus, both a 130-kDa glycoprotein and certain gangliosides are implicated in the attachment of the actinomyces to PMNs. PMID:7790078

  12. Receptor mobility and the binding of cells to lectin-coated fibers

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The ability of cells to bind to nylon fibers coated with lectin molecules interspaced with varying numbers of albumin molecules has been analyzed. The cells used were lymphoma cells, normal lymphocytes, myeloid leukemia cells, and normal and transformed fibroblasts, and the fibers were coated with different densities of concanavalin A or the lectins from soybean or wheat germ. Cells fixed with glutaraldehyde did not bind to lectin-coated fibers. The number of cells bound to fibers could be increased by increasing the density of lectin molecules on the fiber, the density of specific receptors on the cell, or the mobility of the receptors. It is suggested that binding of cells to fibers involves alignment and binding of specific cell surface receptors with lectin molecules immobilized on the fibers, and that this alignment requires short-range rapid lateral mobility (RLM) of the receptors. The titration of cell binding to fibers coated with different densities of lectin and albumin has been used to measure the relative RLM of unoccupied cell surface receptors for the lectin. The results indicate a relationship of RLM to lectin-induced cell-to-cell binding. The RLM or receptors for concanavalin A (Con A) was generally found to be higher than that of receptors for the lectins from wheat germ or soybean. Receptor RLM could be decreased by use of metabolic inhibitors or by lowering the temperature. Receptors for Con A had a lower RLM on normal fibroblasts than on SV40-transformed fibroblasts, and trypsinization of normal fibroblasts increased Con A receptor RLM. Normal lymphocytes, lymphoma cells, and lines of myeloid leukemia cells that can be induced to differentiate had a high receptor RLM, whereas lines of myeloid leukemia cells that could not be induced to differentiate had a low receptor RLM. These results suggest that the RLM of Con A receptors is related to the transformation of fibroblasts and the ability of myeloid leukemia cells to undergo differentiation PMID

  13. Recognition of a CD4+ mouse medullary thymocyte subpopulation by Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Lascurain, R; Chávez, R; Gorocica, P; Pérez, A; Montaño, L F; Zenteno, E

    1994-01-01

    We have used the Gal beta(1-->3)GalNAc-specific Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin to isolate a thymus cell subpopulation which is different from that sorted with Arachis hypogaea lectin. The cells recognized by A. leucocarpus lectin were predominantly CD4+, whereas a minor proportion of CD8+ cells (approximately 11%) were also identified. The A. leucocarpus-positive cells were located in the thymus medulla and the cortico-medullary junction. The cortex was negative for A. leucocarpus cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7835965

  14. Genomic sequence and organization of two members of a human lectin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Gitt, M.A.; Barondes, S.H. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced the genomic DNA encoding a human dimeric soluble lactose-binding lectin. The gene has four exons, and its upstream region contains sequences that suggest control by glucocorticoids, heat (environmental) shock, metals, and other factors. They have also isolated and sequenced three exons of the gene encoding another human putative lectin, the existence of which was first indicated by isolation of its cDNA. Comparisons suggest a general pattern of genomic organization of members of this lectin gene family.

  15. Cell- and region-specific expression of sugar chains in the mouse epididymal epithelium using lectin histochemistry combined with immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Shota; Fukui, Tatsuya; Sawaguchi, Akira; Yoshinaga, Kazuya

    2012-02-01

    To understand the cytochemical properties of epididymal epithelial cells, the characteristics of glycoconjugates in the mouse epididymis were examined using the technique of lectin histochemistry combined with immunohistochemistry. Characteristic staining patterns depending on the type of lectins were observed in the epididymal epithelium. Principal cells expressed N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), and Fucose in the proximal region of the epididymis and Mannose, Glucose, and Galactose in the distal region of the epididymis. Basal cells expressed Mannose, Glucose, Galactose, and GlcNAc in the proximal region and Galactose in the distal region. On the other hand, clear cells expressed various sugar residues and differences among regions were not observed. Interestingly, principal cells, clear cells, and basal cells specifically reacted with Ulex Europaeus-Agglutinin I (UEA-I lectin), Maackia Amurensis-Lectin I (MAL-I lectin), and Griffonia simplicifolia Lectin I-B4 (GS-I B lectin), respectively. These findings indicate that the selectivity in lectin reactivity for distinct cell types and segment-dependent staining in the epididymis may be related to cellular and regional differences in function. Furthermore, because some lectins stain particular cells or cellular compartments selectively, these lectins could be useful markers for histopathological evaluation of diseases or diagnosis of male infertility.

  16. A novel L-type lectin was required for the multiplication of WSSV in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clakii).

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunjia; Wang, Yuqing; Zhao, Lingling; Qin, Zhendong; Yuan, Junfa; Qin, Qiwei; Lin, Li; Lan, Jiangfeng

    2016-08-01

    L-type lectins are involved in glycoproteins secretory pathways and are associated with many immune responses. There is growing evidence that L-type lectins are also involved in viral replication. In this study, a novel L-type lectin (named as PcL-lectin) was identified from red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clakii). Gene sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis results showed that the PcL-lectin was a kind of endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment-53 (ERGIC-53). The expression level of PcL-lectin was significantly down regulated in crayfish after challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Recombinant PcL-lectin protein facilitated the replication of WSSV in crayfish. In addition, WSSV replication was decreased when endogenous PcL-lectin was knocked down by RNA interference in crayfish. Furthermore, PcL-lectin may interact with VP24, an envelope protein of WSSV. Our results suggest that PcL-lectin may be required for the multiplication of WSSV, and will pave a new way for the developing of strategies against WSSV infection.

  17. Biodiversity of mannose-specific lectins within Narcissus species.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Susanna; Codina, Carlos; Bastida, Jaume; Viladomat, Francesc; Davidson, Elaine; Stewart, Derek

    2002-04-24

    Mannose-specific lectins (MSLs) were isolated from the bulbs of 27 species of wild Spanish Narcissi and compared to the commercially available MSL from daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus, NPA). Molecular weight analysis showed the monomers of all the MSLs were at, or around, 12.5 kD. Haemagglutination assays showed that the MSLs exhibited activities at up to four times greater than that displayed by NPA and other MSLs derived from other species such as Galanthus nivalus (snowdrop) and Allium ursinum (ramson). Elution profiles from ion exchange chromatography exhibited similarities for species within the same taxonomic section suggesting that this method could aid in species classification. Further analysis by isoelectric focusing showed many isolectins are present in vivo and that even within a single peak from ion exchange chromatography there are numerous isolectins present. The basis of the isolectin heterogeneity is suggested to reside in the tetraploidy (sometime triploidy) nature of Narcissus genes.

  18. Data on IL-17 production induced by plant lectins

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We reported in article da Silva et al. (2016) [2] that ArtinM induces the IL-17 production through interaction with CD4+ T cells and stimulation of IL-23 and IL-1. Besides ArtinM, other plant lectins (PLs) induce IL-17 production by murine spleen cells. The IL-17 production induced by PLs was evaluated regarding the involvement of IL-23, IL-6, Th1-, and Th2-cytokines. Furthermore, the effect exerted TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 on the PLs׳ performance in the induction of IL-17 was examined. The current data were compared to the known ArtinM ability to induce Th17 immunity. PMID:27222857

  19. Atomic- Resolution Crystal Structure of the Antiviral Lectin Scytovirin

    SciTech Connect

    Moulaei,T.; Botos, I.; Ziolkowska, N.; Bokesch, H.; Krumpe, L.; McKee, T.; O'Keefe, B.; Dauter, Z.; Wlodawer, A.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structures of the natural and recombinant antiviral lectin scytovirin (SVN) were solved by single-wavelength anomalous scattering and refined with data extending to 1.3 Angstroms and 1.0 Angstroms resolution, respectively. A molecule of SVN consists of a single chain 95 amino acids long, with an almost perfect sequence repeat that creates two very similar domains (RMS deviation 0.25 Angstroms for 40 pairs of Ca atoms). The crystal structure differs significantly from a previously published NMR structure of the same protein, with the RMS deviations calculated separately for the N- and C-terminal domains of 5.3 Angstroms and 3.7 Angstroms, respectively, and a very different relationship between the two domains. In addition, the disulfide bonding pattern of the crystal structures differs from that described in the previously published mass spectrometry and NMR studies.

  20. [Dynamic of lectin activity during germination of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, N V

    2006-01-01

    PHA quantity and activity dynamics during early germination of bean seed were investigated. Electrophoretic characteristics, subunits composition and carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectin extracted from white kidney bean cv. Bilozerna were studied. It was shown that investigated lectin consisted of 2 subunits E and L with molecular weight 34 and 36 kDa, respectively, analogously to purified PHA ("Serva", Germany), and specifically bound N-acetyl-D-galactosamin and galactose. During germination both quantity and activity of PHA were dramatically decreasing in embryonic axes and in cotyledons, possibly, as a result of the lectin release from seeds to the environment. It is very likely that one of the defence mechanisms of germinating seeds is related with the releasing of lectins that are able to bind components of the bacterial cell wall and to inhibit their growth.

  1. Novel hemagglutinating, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the intermediate subunit of Entamoeba histolytica lectin.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kentaro; Yahata, Kazuhide; Gopal Dhoubhadel, Bhim; Fujii, Yoshito; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2015-09-10

    Galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica, a common protozoan parasite, has roles in pathogenicity and induction of protective immunity in mouse models of amoebiasis. The lectin consists of heavy (Hgl), light (Lgl), and intermediate (Igl) subunits. Hgl has lectin activity and Lgl does not, but little is known about the activity of Igl. In this study, we assessed various regions of Igl for hemagglutinating activity using recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. We identified a weak hemagglutinating activity of the protein. Furthermore, we found novel hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the lectin, which resided in the carboxy-terminal region of the protein. Antibodies against Igl inhibited the hemolytic activity of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. This is the first report showing hemagglutinating, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of an amoebic molecule, Igl.

  2. Mechanisms of the insecticidal action of TEL (Talisia esculenta lectin) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Castro, Márcia Mota; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado

    2004-06-01

    Plant lectins have insecticidal activity that is probably mediated through their ability to bind carbohydrates. To examine the influence of sugars on the insecticidal activity of a lectin from Talisia esculenta seeds (TEL), the lectin was mixed with mannose, glucose, or mannose plus glucose. Mannose abolished the insecticidal activity. Affinity chromatography showed that TEL bound to midgut proteins of the insect Callosobruchus maculatus. Immunoblotting showed that TEL recognized some proteins, probably glycoproteins, present in the midgut membrane of this insect. The principal proteases responsible for digestive proteolysis in fourth instar larvae of C. maculatus were purified by chromatography on activated thiol-Sepharose. These purified proteases were unable to digest TEL after a 15-h incubation. These results suggest that the insecticidal activity of TEL involves a specific carbohydrate-lectin interaction with glycoconjugates on the surface of digestive tract epithelial cells, as well as binding to assimilatory glycoproteins present in midgut extracts and resistance to enzymatic digestion by cysteine proteinases.

  3. Lectin-Magnetic Beads for Plasma Membrane Isolation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Liu, Hsuan-Chen; Chuang, Carol; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2015-07-01

    Plasma membrane proteins mainly function to transmit external signals into the cell. Many plasma membrane receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g., HER2 and EGFR) are known to mediate oncogenic progression, making them prime targets for cancer therapy. Recently, it has become important to identify plasma membrane proteins that are differentially expressed in normal versus cancer cells, in drug-sensitive versus drug-resistant cells, or among tumor cells that metastasize to different organ sites because these differentially expressed membrane proteins may lead to the identification of therapeutic targets or diagnostic markers. In addition, there is an increased interest in identifying cell-surface proteins that could serve as markers for stem cells, progenitor cells, or cells of different lineages. Traditionally, membrane isolation requires multiple centrifugation steps to isolate different organelles based on their density. With the advent of affinity matrix technology, it is possible to separate organelles based on their molecular differences. A defining characteristic of the plasma membrane is that plasma membrane proteins are more extensively glycosylated than are intracellular membrane proteins. As a result, affinity chromatography employing lectin, a carbohydrate-binding protein, is commonly used to isolate plasma membrane proteins. We have extended this concept for plasma membrane isolation by using concanavalin A (ConA), a lectin with mannose specificity. Here we describe a protocol that uses immobilized ConA bound to magnetic beads to isolate plasma membranes from homogenized cell lysates. The captured plasma membrane proteins are then solubilized from the ConA-magnetic beads by detergents in the presence of a competing sugar, methyl α-mannopyranoside.

  4. Evidence for an increase in positive surface charge and an increase in susceptibility to trypsin of Sarcophaga lectin (from the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina) on its interaction with galactose, a hapten sugar of the lectin.

    PubMed

    Komano, H; Kurama, T; Nagasawa, Y; Natori, S

    1992-05-15

    When Sarcophaga lectin (from the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina), an insect humoral lectin, was eluted from a column of DEAE-cellulose in the presence of galactose (a hapten sugar of this lectin), it emerged at a lower salt concentration than when galactose was absent. In the presence of galactose the lectin was, in addition, more susceptible to trypsin digestion. The lectin was found to have an affinity for basic proteins such as histone H3 and sarcotoxin IA, but this property was lost in the presence of galactose. These results suggested that the lectin changes its conformation on interaction with galactose. This change is suggested to result in the exposure of some hidden lysine and/or arginine residues.

  5. Evidence for an increase in positive surface charge and an increase in susceptibility to trypsin of Sarcophaga lectin (from the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina) on its interaction with galactose, a hapten sugar of the lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Komano, H; Kurama, T; Nagasawa, Y; Natori, S

    1992-01-01

    When Sarcophaga lectin (from the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina), an insect humoral lectin, was eluted from a column of DEAE-cellulose in the presence of galactose (a hapten sugar of this lectin), it emerged at a lower salt concentration than when galactose was absent. In the presence of galactose the lectin was, in addition, more susceptible to trypsin digestion. The lectin was found to have an affinity for basic proteins such as histone H3 and sarcotoxin IA, but this property was lost in the presence of galactose. These results suggested that the lectin changes its conformation on interaction with galactose. This change is suggested to result in the exposure of some hidden lysine and/or arginine residues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:1599400

  6. Glycoconjugates in the mandibular salivary gland of adult dogs revealed by lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Pedini, V; Ceccarelli, P; Gargiulo, A M

    1994-11-01

    The glycosidic residues in the mandibular glands of five adult dogs were studied by using seven different lectin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates. In some cases a treatment with sialidase preceded the lectin staining. The mucous acinar cells contained oligosaccharides with alpha- and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine and fucose residues, whereas the demilunar cells contained glycoconjugates rich in sialic acid linked to the penultimate disaccharide galactosyl-(beta 1-->3) N-acetylgalactosamine.

  7. Lectin staining patterns in human gastric mucosae with and without exposure to Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Junior, Mario R.; Cavalcanti, Carmelita L.B.; Pontes-Filho, Nicodemos T.; Carvalho Jr, Luiz B.; Beltrão, Eduardo I. C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate qualitative changes in the glycoconjugate expression in human gastric tissue of positive and negative patients for Helicobacter pylori, through lectins: Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) and Concanavalin A (Con A). The lectins recognized differently the glycoconjugates in the superficial mucous layer at the gastric tissues. The results suggest a significant change in the carbohydrate moieties present on the surface of the gastric cells during infection. PMID:24031208

  8. Lectin Binding to the Root and Root Hair Tips of the Tropical Legume Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, R. W.; Rolfe, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    Ten fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectins were tested on the roots of the tropical legume Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb. Four of these (concanavalin A, peanut agglutinin, Ricinis communis agglutinin I [RCA-I], wheat germ agglutinin) were found to bind to the exterior of root cap cells, the root cap slime, and the channels between epidermal cells in the root elongation zone. One of these lectins, RCA-I, bound to the root hair tips in the mature and emerging hair zones and also to sites at which root hairs were only just emerging. There was no RCA-I binding to immature trichoblasts. Preincubation of these lectins with their hapten sugars eliminated all types of root cell binding. By using a microinoculation technique, preincubation of the root surface with RCA-I lectin was found to inhibit infection and nodulation by Rhizobium spp. Preincubation of the root surface with the RCA-I hapten β-d-galactose or a mixture of RCA-I lectin and its hapten failed to inhibit nodulation. Application of RCA-I lectin to the root surface caused no apparent detrimental effects to the root hair cells and did not prevent the growth of root hairs. The lectin did not prevent Rhizobium sp. motility or viability even after 24 h of incubation. It was concluded that the RCA-I lectin-specific sugar β-d-galactose may be involved in the recognition or early infection stages, or both, in the Rhizobium sp. infection of M. atropurpureum. Images PMID:16346989

  9. Interactions with lectins and agglutination profiles of clinical, food, and environmental isolates of Listeria.

    PubMed Central

    Facinelli, B; Giovanetti, E; Casolari, C; Varaldo, P E

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of preliminary trials with 14 collection strains of Listeria, five lectins (Canavalia ensiformis, concanavalin A; Griffonia simplicifolia lectin I; Helix pomatia agglutinin; Ricinus communis agglutinin; and Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin) were selected to set up a microtiter agglutination assay. The lectin agglutination profiles of 174 clinical, food, and environmental strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were investigated. Data on the standard determination of the antigenic structure were available for clinical strains; nonclinical isolates were assigned to serogroup 1 or 4 with commercial antisera. The listeria-lectin interaction was related to serological type rather than species; in particular, the strains assigned to serogroup 1 or belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, and 7 were never agglutinated by G. simplicifolia lectin I. The five-lectin set proved to be capable of detecting differences between serologically identical isolates of L. monocytogenes. Of the 150 isolates of this species, 144 were distributed over 15 different lectin agglutination profiles and 6 autoagglutinated, the overall typeability being 96%. However, the profiles encountered among L. monocytogenes isolates were not randomly distributed. With strains assigned to serogroup 1 or belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 3b, the clinical isolates fell into only two of the eight patterns recorded overall; with strains of serogroup 4 and serovar 4b, food and environmental isolates were distributed over eight of the nine patterns found in total, while clinical isolates were distributed over five patterns. In a comparative study of 15 epidemiologically relevant isolates of L. monocytogenes from five distinct outbreaks, strains with identical phage types and/or DNA fingerprints displayed identical lectin profiles. The heterogeneity of agglutination profiles may form the basis of a new approach to L. monocytogenes typing

  10. Isolation and antiproliferative activity of Lotus corniculatus lectin towards human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Shaista; Majeed, Rabiya; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Ishfak; Rakhshanda, Syed; Qurishi, Yasrib; Sharma, P R; Hamid, Abid; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Rabia

    2013-12-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the anti cancer activity of a lectin isolated from Lotus corniculatus seeds. A tetrameric 70kDa galactose specific lectin was purified using two step simple purification protocol which involved affinity chromatography on AF-BlueHC650M and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The lectin was adsorbed on AF-BlueHC650M and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 yielded a major peak absorbance that gave two bands of 15kDa and 20kDa in SDS PAGE. Hemagglutination activity was completely preserved, when the temperature was in the range of 20-60°C. However, drastic reduction in activity occurred at temperatures above 60°C. Full hemagglutination activity was retained at ambient pH 4-12. Thereafter no activity was observed above pH 13. Hemaglutination of the lectin was inhibited by d-galactose. The lectin showed a strong antiproliferative activity towards human leukemic (THP-1) cancer cells followed by lung cancer (HOP62) cells and HCT116 with an IC50 of 39μg/ml and 50μg/ml and 60μg/ml respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in the percentage of cells in sub G0G1 phase confirming that Lotus corniculatus lectin induced apoptosis. Morphological observations showed that Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) treated THP-1 cells displayed apparent apoptosis characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of membrane enclosed apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) effectively inhibits the cell migration in a dose dependent manner as indicated by the wound healing assay.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of lectin receptor-like kinases in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yongil; Labbé, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; Yang, Xiaohan; Jawdy, Sara S.; Kennedy, Megan; Johnson, Jenifer; Sreedasyam, Avinash; Schmutz, Jeremy; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Chen, Jin -Gui

    2016-09-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) belong to a large protein family with over 600 members in Arabidopsis and over 1000 in rice. Among RLKs, the lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) possess a characteristic extracellular carbohydrate-binding lectin domain and play important roles in plant development and innate immunity. In addition, there are 75 and 173 LecRLKs in Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. However, little is known about LecRLKs in perennial woody plants.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of lectin receptor-like kinases in Populus

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yongil; Labbé, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; ...

    2016-09-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) belong to a large protein family with over 600 members in Arabidopsis and over 1000 in rice. Among RLKs, the lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) possess a characteristic extracellular carbohydrate-binding lectin domain and play important roles in plant development and innate immunity. In addition, there are 75 and 173 LecRLKs in Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. However, little is known about LecRLKs in perennial woody plants.

  13. Metal ions in sugar binding, sugar specificity and structural stability of Spatholobus parviflorus seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, Joseph; Dileep, Kalarickal Vijayan; Palanimuthu, Muthusamy; Geethanandan, Krishnan; Sadasivan, Chittalakkotu; Haridas, Madhathilkovilakath

    2013-08-01

    Spatholobus parviflorus seed lectin (SPL) is a heterotetrameric lectin, with two α and two β monomers. In the crystal structure of SPL α monomer, two residues at positions 240 and 241 are missing. This region was modeled based on the positional and sequence similarities. The role of metal ions in SPL structure was analyzed by 10 ns molecular dynamics simulation. MD simulations were performed in the presence and absence of metal ions to explain the loss of haemagglutinating property of the lectin due to demetallization. Demetallized structure was found to deviate drastically at the metal binding loop region. Affinity of different sugars like N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc), D-galactose and lactose towards the native and demetallized protein was calculated by molecular docking studies. It was found that the sugar binding site got severely distorted in demetallized lectin. Consequently, sugar binding ability of lectin might be decreasing in the demetallized condition. Isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) analysis of the sugars in the presence of native and demetallized protein confirmed the in silico results. It was observed after molecular dynamics simulations, that significant structural deviations were not caused in the quaternary structure of demetallized lectin. It was confirmed that the structural changes modified the sugar binding ability, as well as sugar specificity of the present lectin. The role of metal ions in sugar binding is described based on the in silico studies and ITC analysis. A comprehensive analysis of the ITC data suggests that the sugar specificity of the metal bound lectin and the loss of sugar specificity due to metal chelation are not linear.

  14. Seasonal Fluctuations of Lectins in Barks of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) 1

    PubMed Central

    Nsimba-Lubaki, Makuta; Peumans, Willy J.

    1986-01-01

    Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) agglutinins, which are abundantly present in the bark of both species, display seasonal fluctuations with regard to their content in this tissue. These seasonal changes result apparently from a circa-annual rhythm of lectin accumulation and depletion during autumn and spring, respectively. Because the bark of trees can be considered as a type of vegetative storage tissue, the results suggest that bark lectins behave as typical storage proteins. Images Fig. 4 PMID:16664696

  15. Stability of Curcuma longa rhizome lectin: Role of N-linked glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Himadri; Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal

    2016-04-01

    Curcuma longa rhizome lectin, a mannose-binding protein of non-seed portions of turmeric, is known to have antifungal, antibacterial and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. We studied the role of complex-type glycans attached to asparagine (Asn) 66 and Asn 110 to elucidate the role of carbohydrates in lectin activity and stability. Apart from the native lectin, the characteristics of a deglycosylated Escherichia coli expressed lectin, high-mannose oligosaccharides at both asparagines and its glycosylation mutants N66Q and N110Q expressed in Pichia pastoris, were compared to understand the relationship between glycosylation and activity. Far UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra, fluorescence emission maximum, hemagglutination assay show no change in secondary or tertiary structures or sugar-binding properties between wild-type and aforementioned recombinant lectins under physiological pH. But reduced agglutination activity and loss of tertiary structure are observed in the acidic pH range for the deglycosylated and the N110Q protein. In thermal and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnCl)-induced unfolding, the wild-type and high-mannose lectins possess higher stability compared with the deglycosylated recombinant lectin and both mutants, as measured by a higher Tm of denaturation or a greater free energy change, respectively. Reversibility experiments after thermal denaturation reveal that deglycosylated proteins tend to aggregate during thermal inactivation but the wild type shows a much greater recovery to the native state upon refolding. These results suggest that N-glycosylation in turmeric lectin is important for the maintenance of its proper folding upon changes in pH, and that the oligosaccharides help in maintaining the active conformation and prevent aggregation in unfolded or partially folded molecules.

  16. A C-Type Lectin from Bothrops jararacussu Venom Disrupts Staphylococcal Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Raphael Contelli; Fabres-Klein, Mary Hellen; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Feio, Renato Neves; Malouin, François; Ribon, Andréa de Oliveira Barros

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a major threat to animal health and the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a contagious pathogen that is usually associated with persistent intramammary infections, and biofilm formation is a relevant aspect of the outcome of these infections. Several biological activities have been described for snake venoms, which led us to screen secretions of Bothrops jararacussu for antibiofilm activity against S. aureus NRS155. Crude venom was fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography, and the fractions were tested against S. aureus. Biofilm growth, but not bacterial growth, was affected by several fractions. Two fractions (15 and 16) showed the best activities and were also assayed against S. epidermidis NRS101. Fraction 15 was identified by TripleTOF mass spectrometry as a galactose-binding C-type lectin with a molecular weight of 15 kDa. The lectin was purified from the crude venom by D-galactose affinity chromatography, and only one peak was observed. This pure lectin was able to inhibit 75% and 80% of S. aureus and S. epidermidis biofilms, respectively, without affecting bacterial cell viability. The lectin also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both bacterial biofilms. The antibiofilm activity was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. A pre-formed S. epidermidis biofilm was significantly disrupted by the C-type lectin in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, the lectin demonstrated the ability to inhibit biofilm formation by several mastitis pathogens, including different field strains of S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. chromogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. These findings reveal a new activity for C-type lectins. Studies are underway to evaluate the biological activity of these lectins in a mouse mastitis model. PMID:25811661

  17. Lectin binding pattern and proteoglycan distribution in human eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Sames, K; Moll, I; van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Schumacher, U

    1999-11-01

    The distribution pattern of glycoconjugates in human eccrine sweat glands has been studied by the binding of newly discovered lectins and by antibodies against a chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulphate glycosaminoglycans. Mannose-specific lectins labelled large intracellular granules, part of which could be extended cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus. In contrast, lectins specific for terminal mannose/glucose residues predominantly labelled basement membranes and the glycocalyx. Lectins recognizing terminal N-acetylgalactosamine groups left most parts of the glands unstained, but stained some dark cells intensely. These last cells were also intensively labelled by N-acetylglucosamine-specific and by fucose-specific lectins. Sialic acid residues were preferentially located in luminal borders of secretory coils. No terminal galactose residues were detected. All antibodies against chondroitin glycoconjugates stained large granules similar to those revealed by the mannose-specific lectins in the secretory cells. The basement membrane is only stained by the proteoglycan antibody and the chondroitin-6-sulphate antibody. Thus, a complex composition of glycoconjugates exists not only in matrix elements but also in the cells of eccrine glands of the human skin. A possible secretion of glycoconjugates is discussed.

  18. Integrated Microfluidic Lectin Barcode Platform for High-Performance Focused Glycomic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yuqin; Zeng, Yun; Zeng, Yong

    2016-02-02

    Protein glycosylation is one of the key processes that play essential roles in biological functions and dysfunctions. However, progress in glycomics has considerably lagged behind genomics and proteomics, due in part to the enormous challenges in analysis of glycans. Here we present a new integrated and automated microfluidic lectin barcode platform to substantially improve the performance of lectin array for focused glycomic profiling. The chip design and flow control were optimized to promote the lectin-glycan binding kinetics and speed of lectin microarray. Moreover, we established an on-chip lectin assay which employs a very simple blocking method to effectively suppress the undesired background due to lectin binding of antibodies. Using this technology, we demonstrated focused differential profiling of tissue-specific glycosylation changes of a biomarker, CA125 protein purified from ovarian cancer cell line and different tissues from ovarian cancer patients in a fast, reproducible, and high-throughput fashion. Highly sensitive CA125 detection was also demonstrated with a detection limit much lower than the clinical cutoff value for cancer diagnosis. This microfluidic platform holds the potential to integrate with sample preparation functions to construct a fully integrated "sample-to-answer" microsystem for focused differential glycomic analysis. Thus, our technology should present a powerful tool in support of rapid advance in glycobiology and glyco-biomarker development.

  19. Postnatal morphological and lectin histochemical observation of the submucosal glands of rat nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Zaki; Wakisaka, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    The development of submucosal glands of rat nasopharynx was studied with respect to their morphological maturation and glycoprotein alterations during the postnatal period. This study examined the histological morphology with hematoxylin-eosin and the binding pattern of lectins, soybean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and succinylated WGA (sucWGA) on frozen sections from newborn into adulthood. At birth, nasopharyngeal glands consisted of rudimentary secretory units which by postnatal day 3 (PN3) showed the characteristic features of salivary glands comprised of mixed mucous and serous cells. With maturation, serous cells increased in number and were arranged in clusters. Lectin reactivity at birth was detected at the acinar cell basal membranes for DBA, SBA, VVA, UEA-1 and PNA. At PN3, lectins labeled the apical cytoplasm and basolateral membranes of mucous cells and progressively with maturation, extended from the apical to basal portions of the cytoplasm with variable reactivity of VVA, PNA and sucWGA. Serous cells were labeled by UEA-1 starting from PN10 and also by PNA in adults. Ducts showed variable lectin reaction on the luminal membrane with strong reactivity of DBA and UEA-1 at PN21. Taken together, lectin histochemistry indicated the transitional occurrence of glycoproteins depending on the stage of maturation of the glands. Moreover, these results emphasize the difference in the morphology and lectin histochemistry between the nasopharyngeal and palatine glands.

  20. A Lectin-Based Glycomic Approach to Identify Characteristic Features of Xenopus Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Onuma, Yasuko; Tateno, Hiroaki; Tsuji, Shingo; Hirabayashi, Jun; Ito, Yuzuru; Asashima, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface glycans show dynamic changes during cell differentiation. Several glycans are useful biomarkers of tumors, stem cells, and embryogenesis. Glycomic studies have been performed using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, which are powerful tools for glycan structural analysis but are difficult to use for small sample sizes. Recently, a lectin microarray system was developed for profiling cell surface glycome changes to terminal carbohydrate chains and branch types, using sample sizes of a few micrograms. In this study, we used the lectin microarray system for the first time to investigate stage-specific glycomes in Xenopus laevis embryos. Unsupervised cluster analysis of lectin microarray data indicated that glycan profiles changed sequentially during development. Nine lectin probes showed significantly different signals between early and the late-stage embryos: 4 showed higher signals in the early stages, and 5 exhibited higher signals in the late stages. The gene expression profiles of relevant glycosyltransferase genes support the lectin microarray data. Therefore, we have shown that lectin microarray is an effective tool for high-throughput glycan analysis in Xenopus embryogenesis, allowing glycan profiling of early embryos and small biopsy specimens. PMID:23457585

  1. Integrated Microfluidic Lectin Barcode Platform for High-Performance Focused Glycomic Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yuqin; Zeng, Yun; Zeng, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the key processes that play essential roles in biological functions and dysfunctions. However, progress in glycomics has considerably lagged behind genomics and proteomics, due in part to the enormous challenges in analysis of glycans. Here we present a new integrated and automated microfluidic lectin barcode platform to substantially improve the performance of lectin array for focused glycomic profiling. The chip design and flow control were optimized to promote the lectin-glycan binding kinetics and speed of lectin microarray. Moreover, we established an on-chip lectin assay which employs a very simple blocking method to effectively suppress the undesired background due to lectin binding of antibodies. Using this technology, we demonstrated focused differential profiling of tissue-specific glycosylation changes of a biomarker, CA125 protein purified from ovarian cancer cell line and different tissues from ovarian cancer patients in a fast, reproducible, and high-throughput fashion. Highly sensitive CA125 detection was also demonstrated with a detection limit much lower than the clinical cutoff value for cancer diagnosis. This microfluidic platform holds the potential to integrate with sample preparation functions to construct a fully integrated “sample-to-answer” microsystem for focused differential glycomic analysis. Thus, our technology should present a powerful tool in support of rapid advance in glycobiology and glyco-biomarker development.

  2. Integrated Microfluidic Lectin Barcode Platform for High-Performance Focused Glycomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuqin; Zeng, Yun; Zeng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the key processes that play essential roles in biological functions and dysfunctions. However, progress in glycomics has considerably lagged behind genomics and proteomics, due in part to the enormous challenges in analysis of glycans. Here we present a new integrated and automated microfluidic lectin barcode platform to substantially improve the performance of lectin array for focused glycomic profiling. The chip design and flow control were optimized to promote the lectin-glycan binding kinetics and speed of lectin microarray. Moreover, we established an on-chip lectin assay which employs a very simple blocking method to effectively suppress the undesired background due to lectin binding of antibodies. Using this technology, we demonstrated focused differential profiling of tissue-specific glycosylation changes of a biomarker, CA125 protein purified from ovarian cancer cell line and different tissues from ovarian cancer patients in a fast, reproducible, and high-throughput fashion. Highly sensitive CA125 detection was also demonstrated with a detection limit much lower than the clinical cutoff value for cancer diagnosis. This microfluidic platform holds the potential to integrate with sample preparation functions to construct a fully integrated “sample-to-answer” microsystem for focused differential glycomic analysis. Thus, our technology should present a powerful tool in support of rapid advance in glycobiology and glyco-biomarker development. PMID:26831207

  3. Vimentin and desmin possess GlcNAc-binding lectin-like properties on cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ise, Hirohiko; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Goto, Mitsuaki; Sato, Takao; Kawakubo, Masatomo; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ikeda, Uichi; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2010-07-01

    Vimentin and desmin are intermediate filament proteins found in various mesenchymal and skeletal muscle cells, respectively. These proteins play an important role in the stabilization of the cytoplasmic architecture. Here, we found, using artificial biomimicking glycopolymers, that vimentin and desmin possess N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding lectin-like properties on the cell surfaces of various vimentin- and desmin-expressing cells such as cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The rod II domain of these proteins was demonstrated to be localized to the cell surface and to directly bind to the artificial biomimicking GlcNAc-bearing polymer, by confocal laser microscopy and surface plasmon resonance analysis. These glycopolymers strongly interact with lectins and are useful tools for the analysis of lectin-carbohydrate interactions, since glycopolymers binding to lectins can induce the clustering of lectins due to multivalent glycoside ligand binding. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and pull-down assay with His-tagged vimentin-rod II domain protein showed that the vimentin-rod II domain interacts with O-GlcNAc proteins. These results suggest that O-GlcNAc proteins might be one candidate for physiological GlcNAc-bearing ligands with which vimentin and desmin interact. These findings demonstrate a novel function of vimentin and desmin that does not involve stabilization of the cytoplasmic architecture by which these proteins interact with physiological GlcNAc-bearing ligands such as O-GlcNAc proteins on the cell surface through their GlcNAc-binding lectin-like properties.

  4. Effect of leguminous lectins on the growth of Rhizobium tropici CIAT899.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Cunha, Cláudio Oliveira; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Bastos, Rafaela Mesquita; Mercante, Fábio Martins; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2013-05-17

    Rhizobium tropici is a Gram-negative bacterium that induces nodules and fixed atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and some other leguminous species. Lectins are proteins that specifically bind to carbohydrates and, consequently, modulate different biological functions. In this study, the d-glucose/ d-mannose-binding lectins (from seeds of Dioclea megacarpa, D. rostrata and D. violacea) and D-galactose-binding lectins (from seeds of Bauhinia variegata, Erythina velutina and Vatairea macrocarpa) were purified using chromatographic techniques and evaluated for their effect on the growth of R. tropici CIAT899. All lectins were assayed with a satisfactory degree of purity according to SDS-PAGE analysis, and stimulated bacterial growth; in particular, the Dioclea rostrata lectin was the most active among all tested proteins. As confirmed in the present study, both d-galactose- and d-glucose/d-mannose-binding lectins purified from the seeds of leguminous plants may be powerful biotechnological tools to stimulate the growth of R. tropici CIAT99, thus improving symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and common bean and, hence, the production of this field crop.

  5. Ultrasensitive impedimetric lectin biosensors with efficient antifouling properties applied in glycoprofiling of human serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Bertok, Tomas; Klukova, Ludmila; Sediva, Alena; Kasak, Peter; Semak, Vladislav; Micusik, Matej; Omastova, Maria; Chovanová, Lucia; Vlček, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Vikartovska, Alica; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasensitive impedimetric lectin biosensors recognising different glycan entities on serum glycoproteins were constructed. Lectins were immobilised on novel mixed self-assembled monolayer containing 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid for covalent immobilisation of lectins and betaine terminated thiol to resist non-specific interactions. Construction of biosensors based on Concanavalin A (Con A), Sambucus nigra agglutinin type I (SNA) and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) on polycrystalline gold electrodes was optimised and characterised with a battery of tools including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, various electrochemical techniques, QCM, FTIR spectroscopy, AFM, XPS and compared with a protein/lectin microarray. The lectin biosensors were able to detect glycoproteins from 1 fM (Con A), 10 fM (RCA) or 100 fM (SNA) with a linear range spanning 6 (SNA), 7 (RCA) or 8 (Con A) orders of magnitude. Furthermore, a detection limit for the Con A biosensor down to 1 aM was achieved in a sandwich configuration. A non-specific binding of proteins for the Con A biosensor was only 6.1% (probed with an oxidised invertase) of the signal towards its analyte invertase and a negligible non-specific interaction of the Con A biosensor was observed in diluted human sera (1000x), as well. The performance of the lectin biosensors was finally tested by glycoprofiling of human serum samples from healthy individuals and those having rheumatoid arthritis, which resulted in distinct glycan pattern between these two groups. PMID:23808876

  6. Advances in lectin microarray technology: Optimized protocols for piezoelectric print conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pilobello, Kanoelani T.; Agrawal, Praveen; Rouse, Richard; Mahal, Lara K.

    2015-01-01

    Lectin microarray technology has been used to profile the glycosylation of a multitude of biological and clinical samples, leading to new clinical biomarkers and advances in glycobiology. Lectin microarrays, which include over 90 plant lectins, recombinant lectins, and selected antibodies, are used to profile N-linked, O-linked, and glycolipid glycans. The specificity and depth of glycan profiling depends upon the carbohydrate-binding proteins arrayed. Our current set targets mammalian carbohydrates including fucose, high mannose, branched and complex N-linked, α- and β- Galactose and GalNAc, α-2,3- and α-2,6- sialic acid, LacNAc and Lewis X epitopes. In previous protocols, we have described the use of a contact microarray printer for lectin microarray manufacture. Herein, we present an updated protocol using a non-contact, piezoelectric printer, which leads to increased lectin activity on the array. We describe optimization of print conditions and sample hybridization, and methods of analysis. PMID:23788322

  7. Molecular cloning of a lectin cDNA from Alocasia macrorrhiza and prediction of its characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya-Ran; Wang, Jie; Huang, Bing-Qiu; Hou, Xue-Wen

    2006-12-01

    The cDNA of Alocasia macrorrhiza lectin (aml, GenBank accession number: DQ340864) was cloned by RACE-PCR and its characteristics were predicted by various bioinformatics tools. GSPs (Gene Specific Primers) were designed according to the conserved regions of the genes encoded for lectins and similar proteins from the same family Araceae. Total RNAs were extracted from the tubers of A macrorrhiza by Qiagen RNeasy mini kit. The 3'- and 5'-RACE-PCRs were performed with the isolated total RNAs by SMART(TM)RACE cDNA amplification kit from BD Biosciences Clontech Company, respectively. The purified PCR products were ligated with pMD 18-T vector, and the confirmed clones were sequenced. The full-length cDNA of aml was obtained by combination of 3'- and 5'-end sequences, and was then confirmed by full-length 3'-RACE-PCR. The aml cDNA is 1 124 bp long. The deduced amino acid length of AML lectin is 270 aa. Its relative molecular weight is 29.7 kD. The results of homologous analysis showed a high similarity between AML and other mannose-binding lectins and similar proteins from Araceae family. Two typical B-lectin domains and three mannose- binding motifs were found in the sequence of AML. With all these taken together, it can be concluded that this newly cloned aml cDNA encodes for a mannose-binding lectin.

  8. Isolation and Partial Characterization of a New Lectin from Seeds of the Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus) 1

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, Willy J.; De Ley, Marc; Stinissen, Hetty M.; Broekaert, Willem F.

    1985-01-01

    Seeds of the greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) contain a lectin which could be isolated using a combination of affinity chromatography on chitin and ion exchange chromatography on sulphopropyl-Sephadex. The purified lectin was partially characterized with respect to its biochemical and physicochemical properties. It is a small dimeric protein composed of two different subunits of Mr 9,500 and 11,500, respectively. Its amino acid composition is typified by high contents of glycine and cysteine. No covalently bound carbohydrate could be detected. Hapten inhibition experiments indicated that the lectin exhibits specificity towards oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, the potency of inhibition increasing with chain length up to four residues. The greater celandine lectin is the first lectin to be isolated from a species belonging to the plant family Papaveraceae (poppy family). Although it represents a new type of plant lectin, resemblances to phytohemaglutinins from diverse taxonomic origin are obvious. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16664249

  9. Fluorescein Isothiocyanate-Labeled Lectin Analysis of the Surface of the Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Yagoda-Shagam, Janet; Barton, Larry L.; Reed, William P.; Chiovetti, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The cell surface of Azospirillum brasilense was probed by using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lectins, with binding determined by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry. Cells from nitrogen-fixing or ammonium-assimilating cultures reacted similarly to FITC-labeled lectins, with lectin binding in the following order: Griffonia simplicifolia II agglutinin > Griffonia simplicifolia I agglutinin > Triticum vulgaris agglutinin > Glycine max agglutinin > Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin > Limax flavus agglutinin > Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin. The fluorescence intensity of cells labeled with FITC-labeled G. simplicifolia I, C. ensiformis, T. vulgaris, and G. max agglutinins was influenced by lectin concentration. Flow cytometry measurements of lectin binding to cells was consistent with measurements of agglutination resulting from lectin-cell interaction. Capsules surrounding nitrogen-fixing and ammonium-assimilating cells were readily demonstrated by light and transmission electron microscopies. Images PMID:16347693

  10. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

    PubMed Central

    Soffan, Alan; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies. PMID:27606688

  11. Neuropilin 1 binds platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-D and is a co-receptor in PDGF-D/PDGF receptor β signaling.

    PubMed

    Muhl, Lars; Folestad, Erika Bergsten; Gladh, Hanna; Wang, Yixin; Moessinger, Christine; Jakobsson, Lars; Eriksson, Ulf

    2017-03-02

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-D is a PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) specific ligand implicated in a number of pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, but its biological function remains incompletely understood.In this study, we demonstrate that PDGF-D binds directly to NRP1, with the requirement of the C-terminal Arg residue of PDGF-D. Stimulation with PDGF-D, but not PDGF-B, induced PDGFRβ/NRP1 complex formation in fibroblasts. Additionally, PDGF-D induced translocation of NRP1 to cell-cell junctions in endothelial cells, independent of PDGFRβ, altering the availability of NRP1 for VEGF-A/VEGF receptor 2 signaling. PDGF-D showed differential effects on pericyte behavior in ex vivo sprouting assays, compared to PDGF-B. Furthermore, PDGF-D induced PDGFRβ/NRP1 interaction in the trans-configuration between endothelial cells and pericytes.In summary, we show that NRP1 can act as a co-receptor for PDGF-D in PDGFRβ signaling, possibly implicated in intercellular communication in the vascular wall.

  12. The isolation of novel phage display-derived human recombinant antibodies against CCR5, the major co-receptor of HIV.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Moria; Herschhorn, Alon; Britan-Rosich, Yelena; Kotler, Moshe; Benhar, Itai; Hizi, Amnon

    2013-08-01

    Selecting for antibodies against specific cell-surface proteins is a difficult task due to many unrelated proteins that are expressed on the cell surface. Here, we describe a method to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against native cell-surface proteins. We applied this method to isolate antibodies that selectively recognize CCR5, which is the major co-receptor for HIV entry (consequently, playing a pivotal role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis). We employed a phage screening strategy by using cells that co-express GFP and CCR5, along with an excess of control cells that do not express these proteins (and are otherwise identical to the CCR5-expressing cells). These control cells are intended to remove most of the phages that bind the cells nonspecifically; thus leading to an enrichment of the phages presenting anti-CCR5-specific antibodies. Subsequently, the CCR5-presenting cells were quantitatively sorted by flow cytometry, and the bound phages were eluted, amplified, and used for further successive selection rounds. Several different clones of human single-chain Fv antibodies that interact with CCR5-expressing cells were identified. The most specific monoclonal antibody was converted to a full-length IgG and bound the second extracellular loop of CCR5. The experimental approach presented herein for screening for CCR5-specific antibodies can be applicable to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against any cell-surface expressed protein of interest.

  13. Frequencies of 32 base pair deletion of the (Delta 32) allele of the CCR5 HIV-1 co-receptor gene in Caucasians: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, Gérard

    2002-05-01

    The CCR5 gene encodes for the co-receptor for the major macrophage-tropics strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), and a mutant allele of this gene (Delta 32) provide to homozygotes a strong resistance against infection by HIV. The frequency of the Delta 32 allele was investigated in 40 populations of 8842 non-infected subjects coming from Europe, the Middle-East and North Africa. A clear north-south decreasing gradient was evident for Delta 32 frequencies, with a significant correlation coefficient (r=0.83). The main frequency value of Delta 32 for Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland (0.134) is significantly (chi(2)=63.818, P<0.001) highest than the Delta 32 mean value, indicating that probably the Vikings might have been instrumental in disseminating the Delta 32 allele during the eighth to the tenth centuries during historical times. Possibly variola virus has discriminated the Delta 32 carriers in Europe since the eighth century AD, explaining the high frequency of the Delta 32 allele in Europe today.

  14. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Signalling Up-Regulates Expression of the HIV Co-Receptor G-Protein Coupled Receptor 15 on Human CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, Miriam; Rethi, Bence; Jansson, Marianne; Dillon, Stephanie; Lee, Eric; Lantto, Rebecka; Wilson, Cara; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Chiodi, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Background Many HIV-2 and SIV isolates, as well as some HIV-1 strains, can use the orphan 7-transmembrane receptor GPR15 as co-receptor for efficient entry into host cells. GPR15 is expressed on central memory and effector memory CD4+ T cells in healthy individuals and a subset of these cells is susceptible to HIV-1 and SIV infection. However, it has not been determined whether GPR15 expression is altered in the context of HIV-1 infection. Results Here, we show that GPR15 expression in CD4+ T cells is markedly up-regulated in some HIV-1 infected individuals compared to the rest of the infected patients and to healthy controls. Infection of the PM1 T cell line with primary HIV-1 isolates was found to up-regulate GPR15 expression on the infected cells, indicating that viral components can induce GPR15 expression. Up-regulation of GPR15 expression on CD4+ T cells was induced by activation of Toll-like receptor 3 signalling via TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and was more prominent on gut-homing compared to lymph node-homing CD4+ T cells. Conclusion These results suggest that infection-induced up-regulation of GPR15 expression could increase susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to HIV infection and target cell availability in the gut in some infected individuals. PMID:24558379

  15. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    PubMed

    Soffan, Alan; Antony, Binu; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies.

  16. The olfactory co-receptor Orco from the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) and the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria): identification and expression pattern.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Krieger, Jürgen; Zhang, Long; Breer, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In locusts, olfaction plays a crucial role for initiating and controlling behaviours, including food seeking and aggregation with conspecifics, which underlie the agricultural pest capacity of the animals. In this context, the molecular basis of olfaction in these insects is of particular interest. Here, we have identified genes of two orthopteran species, Locusta migratoria and Schistocera gregaria, which encode the olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco). It was found that the sequences of LmigOrco and SgreOrco share a high degree of identity to each other and also to Orco proteins from different insect orders. The Orco-expressing cells in the antenna of S. gregaria and L. migratoria were visualized by in situ hybridization. Orco expression could be assigned to clusters of cells in sensilla basiconica and few cells in sensilla trichodea, most likely representing olfactory sensory neurons. No Orco-positive cells were detected in sensilla coeloconica and sensilla chaetica. Orco expression was found already in all nymphal stages and was verified in some other tissues which are equipped with chemosensory hairs (mouthparts, tarsi, wings). Together, the results support the notion for a decisive role of Orco in locust olfaction.

  17. The sclerostin-neutralizing antibody AbD09097 recognizes an epitope adjacent to sclerostin's binding site for the Wnt co-receptor LRP6

    PubMed Central

    Boschert, V.; Frisch, C.; Back, J. W.; van Pee, K.; Weidauer, S. E.; Muth, E.-M.; Schmieder, P.; Beerbaum, M.; Knappik, A.; Timmerman, P.

    2016-01-01

    The glycoprotein sclerostin has been identified as a negative regulator of bone growth. It exerts its function by interacting with the Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6, blocks the binding of Wnt factors and thereby inhibits Wnt signalling. Neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies are able to restore Wnt activity and enhance bone growth thereby presenting a new osteoanabolic therapy approach for diseases such as osteoporosis. We have generated various Fab antibodies against human and murine sclerostin using a phage display set-up. Biochemical analyses have identified one Fab developed against murine sclerostin, AbD09097 that efficiently neutralizes sclerostin's Wnt inhibitory activity. In vitro interaction analysis using sclerostin variants revealed that this neutralizing Fab binds to sclerostin's flexible second loop, which has been shown to harbour the LRP5/6 binding motif. Affinity maturation was then applied to AbD09097, providing a set of improved neutralizing Fab antibodies which particularly bind human sclerostin with enhanced affinity. Determining the crystal structure of AbD09097 provides first insights into how this antibody might recognize and neutralize sclerostin. Together with the structure–function relationship derived from affinity maturation these new data will foster the rational design of new and highly efficient anti-sclerostin antibodies for the therapy of bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27558933

  18. Genetic analysis of HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 02_AG, B and C subtype-specific envelope sequences from Northern India and their predicted co-receptor usage

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemic in India is largely driven by subtype C but other subtypes or recombinants have also been reported from several states of India. This is mainly due to the co-circulation of other genetic subtypes that potentially can recombine to generate recombinant/mosaic genomes. In this study, we report detail genetic characterization of HIV-1 envelope sequences from North India (Delhi and neighboring regions). Six of 13 were related to subtype C, one B and the rest six showed relatedness with CRF02_AG strain. The subtype C possessed the highly conserved GPGQ motif but subtype B possessed the GPGR motif in the V3 loop as observed earlier. While most of the sequences suggested CCR5 co-receptor usage, one subtype C sample clearly indicated CXCR4 usage. A successful mother to child transmission was established in two pairs. Thus, co-circulation of multiple subtypes (B and C) and the recombinant CRF02_AG strains in North India suggests a rapidly evolving scenario of HIV-1 epidemic in this region with impact on vaccine formulation. Since this is the first report of CRF02_AG envelope from India, it will be important to monitor the spread of this strain and its impact on HIV-1 transmission in India. PMID:19954551

  19. A Conserved Aspartic Acid Is Important for Agonist (VUAA1) and Odorant/Tuning Receptor-Dependent Activation of the Insect Odorant Co-Receptor (Orco)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Brijesh N.; Taylor, Robert W.; Pask, Gregory M.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Newcomb, Richard D.; Christie, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Insect odorant receptors function as heteromeric odorant-gated cation channels comprising a conventional odorant-sensitive tuning receptor, and a conserved co-receptor (Orco). An Orco agonist, VUAA1, is able to activate both heteromeric and homomeric Orco-containing channels. Very little is known about specific residues in Orco that contribute to cation permeability and gating. We investigated the importance of two conserved Asp residues, one in each of transmembrane domains 5 and 7, for channel function by mutagenesis. Drosophila melanogaster Orco and its substitution mutants were expressed in HEK cells and VUAA1-stimulated channel activity was determined by Ca2+ influx and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Substitution of D466 in transmembrane 7 with amino acids other than glutamic acid resulted in a substantial reduction in channel activity. The D466E Orco substitution mutant was ∼2 times more sensitive to VUAA1. The permeability of the D466E Orco mutant to cations was unchanged relative to wild-type Orco. When D466E Orco is co-expressed with a conventional tuning odorant receptor, the heteromeric complex also shows increased sensitivity to an odorant. Thus, the effect of the D466E mutation is not specific to VUAA1 agonism or dependent on homomeric Orco assembly. We suggest the gain-of-activation characteristic of the D466E mutant identifies an amino acid that is likely to be important for activation of both heteromeric and homomeric insect odorant receptor channels. PMID:23894621

  20. Purification and characterization of two types of Cytisus sessilifolius anti-H(O) lectins by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Konami, Y; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T

    1991-02-01

    Two anti-H(O) lectins were separated from extracts of Cytisus sessilifolius seeds by successive affinity chromatographies on columns of di-N-acetylchitobiose- and galactose-Sepharose 4B. One was found to be inhibited most by di-N-acetylchitotriose or tri-N-acetylchitotriose [Cytisus-type anti-H(O) lectin designated as Cytisus sessilifolius lectin I (CSA-I)] and the other anti-H(O) lectin was inhibited by galactose or lactose and designated as Cytisus sessilifolius lectin II (CSA-II). These two anti-H(O) lectins were further purified by gel filtration on TSK-Gel G3000SW. These preparations were homogeneous as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The molecular masses of the purified lectins I and II were found to be 95,000 and 68,000 Da, respectively, by gel filtration on TSK-Gel G3000SW. On polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-mercaptoethanol, both lectins gave a single component of molecular masses of 27,000 +/- 2,000 and 34,000 +/- 2,000 Da, respectively, suggesting that the lectins I and II were composed of four and two apparently identical subunits, respectively. Lectins I and II contain 38% and 13% carbohydrate, respectively, and only very small amounts of cysteine and methionine, but they are rich in aspartic acid, serine and glycine. The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of these two lectins were determined and compared with those of several lectins already published.

  1. MBL Experiment in Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluck, Paul

    2002-04-01

    Among the series of beautiful take-home experiments designed by A.P. French and J.G. King for MIT students, the one on angular momentum studies the loss and conservation of angular momentum using a small dc motor as generator. Here we describe a version of the experiment that increases its accuracy, enables students to perform detailed rotational dynamics calculations, and sharpens the ability to isolate the region where the collision occurs.

  2. Optimizing the Multivalent Binding of the Bacterial Lectin LecA by Glycopeptide Dendrimers for Therapeutic Purposes.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Benjamin

    2016-06-27

    Bacterial lectins are nonenzymatic sugar-binding proteins involved in the formation of biofilms and the onset of virulence. The weakness of individual sugar-lectin interactions is compensated by the potentially large number of simultaneous copies of such contacts, resulting in high overall sugar-lectin affinities and marked specificities. Therapeutic compounds functionalized with sugar residues can compete with the host glycans for binding to lectins only if they are able to take advantage of this multivalent binding mechanism. Glycopeptide dendrimers, featuring treelike topologies with sugar moieties at their leaves, have already shown great promise in this regard. However, optimizing the dendrimers' amino acid sequence is necessary to match the dynamics of the lectin active sites with that of the multivalent ligands. This work combines long-time-scale coarse-grained simulations of dendrimers and lectins with a reasoned exploration of the dendrimer sequence space in an attempt to suggest sequences that could maximize multivalent binding to the galactose-specific bacterial lectin LecA. These candidates are validated by simulations of mixed dendrimer/lectin solutions, and the effects of the dendrimers on lectin dynamics are discussed. This approach is an attractive first step in the conception of therapeutic compounds based on the dendrimer scaffold and contributes to the understanding of the various classes of multivalency that underpin the ubiquitous "sugar code".

  3. Purification and Characterization of a Mucin Specific Mycelial Lectin from Aspergillus gorakhpurensis: Application for Mitogenic and Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Kaur, Hemant Preet; Singh, Jatinder

    2014-01-01

    Background Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins or glycoproteins that bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates present on the apposing cells, which are responsible for their ability to agglutinate red blood cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, etc. Interest in lectins has been intensified due to their carbohydrate specificity as they can be valuable reagents for the investigation of cell surface sugars, purification and characterization of glycoproteins. The present study reports the purification, characterization and evaluation of mitogenic and antimicrobial potential of a mycelial lectin from Aspergillus gorakhpurensis. Methods Affinity chromatography on mucin-sepharose column was carried out for purification of Aspergillus gorakhpurensis lectin. The lectin was characterized for physico-chemical parameters. Mitogenic potential of the lectin was evaluated against splenocytes of Swiss albino mice by MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity of the purified lectin has also been evaluated by disc diffusion assay. Results Single-step affinity purification resulted in 18.6-fold purification of the mycelial lectin. The molecular mass of the lectin was found to be 70 kDa and it was composed of two subunits of 34.8 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis. pH optima of the lectin was found to be 6.5–9.5, while optimum temperature for lectin activity was 20–30°C. Lectin was stable within a pH range of 7.0–10.5 and showed fair thermostability. EDTA did not affect lectin activity whereas it was found susceptible to the denaturants tested. MTT assay revealed strong mitogenic potential of A. gorakhpurensis lectin at a concentration upto 150 µg/mL. Antimicrobial activity assay showed its potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcous aureus and Escherichia coli and marginal antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion This is the first report on the mitogenic and antimicrobial potential of

  4. Protein regulation and Apoptotic induction in human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7) through lectin from G. beauts.

    PubMed

    Ponraj, Thondhi; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vivek, Raju; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2017-02-01

    Lectins are proteins that show a variety of biological activities. Nevertheless, information on lectin from Gluttonous beauts and their anticancer activities are very limited. In this study, we purified a lectin from hemolymph of G. beauts and identified its molecular weight to be 66kDa. The effect of lectin at different concentrations (μg/mL) on the cell growth and apoptosis were evaluated against MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells, whereas cytotoxicity to the MCF-7 cells mediated by lectin was observed and the mechanism of action of the lectin in including apoptosis in cancer cells via the intrinsic pathway was also proposed. The MCF-7 cells were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation. In MCF-10A cells lectin did not show any adverse effect even at higher concentration. Cell cycle analysis also showed a significant cell cycle arrest on selected cells after lectin treatment. Western blotting suggested that lectin up regulates the apoptotic protein expression in MCF-7 cells while it down regulates the level of Bcl-2 expression.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis

    SciTech Connect

    Nagano, Celso S.; Gallego del Sol, Francisca; Cavada, Benildo S.; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago Do; Nunes, Eudismar Vale; Sampaio, Alexandre H.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2005-11-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a red marine alga lectin isolated from H. musciformis is reported. HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis, defines a novel lectin family. Orthorhombic crystals of HML belonging to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} grew within three weeks at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected at 2.4 Å resolution. HML is the first marine alga lectin to be crystallized.

  6. Analysis of co-receptor usage of circulating viral and proviral HIV genome quasispecies by ultra-deep pyrosequencing in patients who are candidates for CCR5 antagonist treatment.

    PubMed

    Abbate, I; Rozera, G; Tommasi, C; Bruselles, A; Bartolini, B; Chillemi, G; Nicastri, E; Narciso, P; Ippolito, G; Capobianchi, M R

    2011-05-01

    UDPS combined with genotypic algorithms for prediction of HIV-1 co-receptor usage may provide quantitative data about the tropism of each variant present in the viral quasispecies. The aim of the present study was to assess co-receptor usage by ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS), in comparison with the reference phenotypic test (Trofile), in patients who are candidates for CCR5 antagonist treatment, in both circulating and proviral HIV-1. Seventeen patients who were tested by Trofile were enrolled. UDPS of the V3 loop region was carried out on both plasma RNA and proviral DNA. Genotypic prediction of co-receptor usage was established by position-specific score matrices (PSSM) and confirmed, in discordant cases, with geno2pheno. Genetic heterogeneity of the RNA and DNA quasispecies was assessed as well. A total of 196,729 V3 sequences were considered (mean coverage per site, 6346). Concordance between phenotypic test and UDPS with PSSM was 0.82. Geno2pheno results were in line with those obtained with PSSM. Proviral quasispecies were more heterogeneous than those found in circulating HIV. In most patients eligible for CCR5 antagonist treatment, X4 variants were detected in proviral DNA, ranging from 1.0% to 52.7%. UDPS combined with genotypic algorithms for co-receptor usage prediction highlighted the presence of minority variants, with a discordant tropism with respect to the predominant population, in both circulating viral and proviral HIV. In most patients treated with Maraviroc the virological response was independent of the presence of X4 in proviral DNA. The clinical impact of minority X4 variants present in patients who are candidates for anti-CCR5 antagonists remains a crucial point to be addressed.

  7. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction based on lectin-induced erythrocyte agglutination: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Reichert, Thomas; Laffers, Wiebke; Marecka, Monika; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Piltz, Joachim; Esche, Hans-Jürgen; Wolf, Günther; Dähnert, Ingo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is an acute life-threatening disease with a high incidence worldwide. Aim of this study was to test lectin-carbohydrate binding-induced red blood cell (RBC) agglutination as an innovative tool for fast, precise and cost effective diagnosis of MI. Five lectins (Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA), Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA), Artocarpus agglutinin (ArA), Triticum agglutinin (TA)) were tested for ability to differentiate between agglutination characteristics in patients with MI (n = 101) or angina pectoris without MI (AP) (n = 34) and healthy volunteers (HV) as control (n =68) . RBC agglutination was analyzed by light absorbance of a stirred RBC suspension in the green to red light spectrum in an agglutimeter (amtec, Leipzig, Germany) for 15 min after lectin addition. Mean cell count in aggregates was estimated from light absorbance by a mathematical model. Each lectin induced RBC agglutination. RCA led to the strongest RBC agglutination (~500 RBCs/aggregate), while the others induced substantially slower agglutination and lead to smaller aggregate sizes (5-150 RBCs/aggregate). For all analyzed lectins the lectin-induced RBC agglutination of MI or AP patients was generally higher than for HV. However, only PHA induced agglutination that clearly distinguished MI from HV. Variance analysis showed that aggregate size after 15 min. agglutination induced by PHA was significantly higher in the MI group (143 RBCs/ aggregate) than in the HV (29 RBC-s/aggregate, p = 0.000). We hypothesize that pathological changes during MI induce modification of the carbohydrate composition on the RBC membrane and thus modify RBC agglutination. Occurrence of carbohydrate-lectin binding sites on RBC membranes provides evidence about MI. Due to significant difference in the rate of agglutination between MI > HV the differentiation between these groups is possible based on PHA-induced RBC-agglutination. This novel assay

  8. A glucuronic acid binding leguminous lectin with mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-02-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa lectin was purified from seeds of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivar number 1. The purification protocol entailed Q-Sepharose, Affi-gel blue gel, Mono S and Superdex 75. The lectin-enriched fraction was adsorbed on Q-Sepharose and Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Hemagglutinating activity was adsorbed on Mono S and eluted with a linear 0.3-1 M NaCl gradient. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a single absorbance peak which appeared as a single 32-kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate poylacylamide gel electrophoresis. Full hemagglutinating activity was observed when the lectin was exposed to a pH ranging from 3 to 11. About 50% activity remained at pH 12, and about 25% at pH 0 to pH 2. Activity was totally abolished at pH 13-14. The activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was 20 °C-60 °C. However, only 50% and 12.5% of the activity remained at 65 °C and 70 °C, respectively. Activity was barely discernible at 75 °C and completely abrogated at and above 80 °C. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucuronic acid. Maximum mitogenic activity of the lectin toward murine splenocytes occurred at a lectin concentration of 0.488 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucuronic acid. The lectin did not exhibit antiproliferative activity toward hepatoma (HepG2) cells, breast cancer (MCF7) cells, and nasopharynegeal carcinoma CNE stage 1 and stage 2 cells. It was also devoid of significant anti-HIV reverse transcriptase activity.

  9. Lectin binding patterns and carbohydrate mediation of sperm binding to llama oviductal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Apichela, Silvana A; Valz-Gianinet, Jorge N; Schuster, Stefanie; Jiménez-Díaz, María A; Roldán-Olarte, Eugenia M; Miceli, Dora C

    2010-04-01

    Sperm binding to oviductal epithelium would be involved in sperm reservoir formation in the utero tubal junction (UTJ). Although in other mammals sperm-oviduct interaction has been proved to be mediated by carbohydrate-recognition mechanisms, the factors implicated in the sperm adhesion to oviductal epithelium of llama are still unknown. In order to assess the role of carbohydrates present in the mucosa surface, we examined the distribution of glycoconjugates in the llama oviduct by confocal lectin-histochemistry. Mannosyl, glucosyl, N-acetylglucosaminyl, galactosyl, N-acetylgalactosaminyl and sialic acid residues were detected in the oviductal mucose glycocalyx. By incubation of UTJ oviductal explants with LCA, DBA, UEA-1 or PNA lectin previous to co-culture with sperm, we observed a significant decrease in sperm binding only with LCA lectin. In the mucosa surface there were numerous d-glucosyl and D-manosyl residues, which were spotted by this lectin. Probably, this fact promotes the whole covering of the oviduct luminal surface by the sugar-lectin complex, preventing sperm access and adhesion of further residues. However, sperm incubation with mannose or glucose does not significantly prevent binding, which means that glucose and mannose would not be involved in a specific sperm-oviduct interaction. On the other hand, we observed a high reduction in sperm binding to UTJ explants with N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose (p<0.001). Coincidentally, binding sites for N-acetylgalactosamine-PAA-FITC conjugate were observed on the whole surface of the sperm, supporting the concept that llama sperm have lectin-like molecules in their surface, as is the case in other mammals. Probably, these lectin-like molecules, by means of N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose recognition, could link the sperm to the oviductal mucosa with the purpose of forming storing sites in the UTJ. Our results support the idea that more than one carbohydrate could participate in sperm reservoir

  10. Interaction of Lens culinaris lectin, concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin and wheat germ agglutinin with the cell surface of normal and transformed rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, J; Neupert, G; Thoss, K

    1975-01-01

    The observation of BOREK et al. (1973) on nonagglutinability of transformed rat liver cells by Lens culinaris lectin and our ultrastructural findings of a greater mobility of the Lens culinaris lectin receptors on transformed rat liver cells as compared to normal rat liver cells (ROTH 1975) initiated the present agglutination experiments on liver cells with lectins. For agglutination assay the microhemadsorption technique after FURMANSKI et al. (1973) was used with exception of several tests on EDTA-detached cells. The transformed rat liver cells exhibited, in contrast to the findings of BOREK et al. (1973), a positive microhemadsorption with Lens culinaris lectin as well as with Concanavalin A, Ricinus communis lectin and wheat germ agglutinin whereas the normal rat liver cells became positive only after a brief trypsin treatment. The significance of the difference in agglutinability of rat liver cells with Lens culinaris lectin and the other lectins used is discussed with regard to the cell-cell interaction mediated by lectins.

  11. Structural and functional characterization of the GalNAc/Gal-specific lectin from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.

    PubMed

    Candy, Laure; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Menu-Bouaouiche, Laurence; Erard, Monique; Rougé, Pierre

    2003-08-22

    The lectin found in mycelium and sclerotes of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a homodimer consisting of two identical non-covalently bound subunits of 16,000 Da. CD spectra analysis revealed that the S. sclerotiorum agglutinin (SSA) contains predominantly beta-sheet structures. SSA exhibits specificity towards GalNAc whereby the hydroxyls at positions 4 and 6 of the pyranose ring play a key role in the interaction with simple sugars. The carbohydrate-binding site of SSA can also accommodate disaccharides. The N-terminal sequence of SSA shares no significant similarity with any other protein except a lectin from the Sclerotiniaceae species Ciborinia camelliae. A comparison of SSA and the lectins from C. camelliae and some previously characterized lectins indicates that the Sclerotiniaceae lectins form a homogeneous family of fungal lectins. This newly identified lectin family, which is structurally unrelated to any other family of fungal lectins, is most probably confined to the Ascomycota.

  12. Terminal N-Acetylgalactosamine-Specific Leguminous Lectin from Wisteria japonica as a Probe for Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Keisuke; Teruya, Futaba; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Millettia japonica was recently reclassified into the genus Wisteria japonica based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Because the seed of Wisteria floribunda expresses leguminous lectins with unique N-acetylgalactosamine-binding specificity, we purified lectin from Wisteria japonica seeds using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Glycan microarray analysis demonstrated that unlike Wisteria floribunda and Wisteria brachybotrys lectins, which bind to both terminal N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues, Wisteria japonica lectin (WJA) specifically bound to both α- and β-linked terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, but not galactose residues on oligosaccharides and glycoproteins. Further, frontal affinity chromatography using more than 100 2-aminopyridine-labeled and p-nitrophenyl-derivatized oligosaccharides demonstrated that the ligands with the highest affinity for Wisteria japonica lectin were GalNAcβ1-3GlcNAc and GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, with Ka values of 9.5 × 104 and 1.4 × 105 M-1, respectively. In addition, when binding was assessed in a variety of cell lines, Wisteria japonica lectin bound specifically to EBC-1 and HEK293 cells while other Wisteria lectins bound equally to all of the cell lines tested. Wisteria japonica lectin binding to EBC-1 and HEK293 cells was dramatically decreased in the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine, but not galactose, mannose, or N-acetylglucosamine, and was completely abrogated by β-hexosaminidase-digestion of these cells. These results clearly demonstrate that Wisteria japonica lectin binds to terminal N-acetylgalactosamine but not galactose. In addition, histochemical analysis of human squamous cell carcinoma tissue sections demonstrated that Wisteria japonica lectin specifically bound to differentiated cancer tissues but not normal tissue. This novel binding characteristic of Wisteria japonica lectin has the potential to become a powerful tool for clinical applications. PMID:24349556

  13. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri; Ryu, Shi Yong; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-{kappa}B-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-{beta} gene and IFN-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  14. CD14 Is a Co-Receptor for TLR4 in the S100A9-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Response in Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhifei; Riva, Matteo; Björk, Per; Swärd, Karl; Mörgelin, Matthias; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The cytosolic Ca2+-binding S100A9 and S100A8 proteins form heterodimers that are primarily expressed in human neutrophils and monocytes. We have recently shown that S100A9 binds to TLR4 in vitro and induces TLR4-dependent NF-κB activation and a pro-inflammatory cytokine response in monocytes. In the present report we have further investigated the S100A9-mediated stimulation of TLR4 in monocytes. Using transmission immunoelectron microscopy, we detected focal binding of S100A9 to monocyte membrane subdomains containing the caveolin-1 protein and TLR4. Furthermore, the S100A9 protein was detected in early endosomes of the stimulated cells, indicating that the protein could be internalized by endocytosis. Although stimulation of monocytes with S100A9 was strictly TLR4-dependent, binding of S100A9 to the plasma membrane and endocytosis of S100A9 was still detectable and coincided with CD14 expression in TLR4-deficient cells. We therefore investigated whether CD14 would be involved in the TLR4-dependent stimulation and could show that the S100A9-induced cytokine response was inhibited both in CD14-deficient cells and in cells exposed to CD14 blocking antibodies. Further, S100A9 was not internalized into CD14-deficient cells suggesting a direct role of CD14 in endocytosis of S100A9. Finally, we could detect satiable binding of S100A9 to CD14 in surface plasmon resonance experiments. Taken together, these results indicate that CD14 is a co-receptor of TLR4 in the S100A9-induced cytokine response. PMID:27228163

  15. Unmasking of CD22 Co-receptor on Germinal Center B-cells Occurs by Alternative Mechanisms in Mouse and Man.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Matthew S; Kawasaki, Norihito; Peng, Wenjie; Wang, Shui-Hua; He, Yuan; Arlian, Britni M; McBride, Ryan; Kannagi, Reiji; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Paulson, James C

    2015-12-11

    CD22 is an inhibitory B-cell co-receptor whose function is modulated by sialic acid (Sia)-bearing glycan ligands. Glycan remodeling in the germinal center (GC) alters CD22 ligands, with as yet no ascribed biological consequence. Here, we show in both mice and humans that loss of high affinity ligands on GC B-cells unmasks the binding site of CD22 relative to naive and memory B-cells, promoting recognition of trans ligands. The conserved modulation of CD22 ligands on GC B-cells is striking because high affinity glycan ligands of CD22 are species-specific. In both species, the high affinity ligand is based on the sequence Siaα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc, which terminates N-glycans. The human ligand has N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) as the sialic acid, and the high affinity ligand on naive B-cells contains 6-O-sulfate on the GlcNAc. On human GC B-cells, this sulfate modification is lost, giving rise to lower affinity CD22 ligands. Ligands of CD22 on naive murine B-cells do not contain the 6-O-sulfate modification. Instead, the high affinity ligand for mouse CD22 has N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) as the sialic acid, which is replaced on GC B-cells with Neu5Ac. Human naive and memory B-cells express sulfated glycans as high affinity CD22 ligands, which are lost on GC B-cells. In mice, Neu5Gc-containing glycans serve as high affinity CD22 ligands that are replaced by Neu5Ac-containing glycans on GC B-cells. Our results demonstrate that loss of high affinity CD22 ligands on GC B-cells occurs in both mice and humans through alternative mechanisms, unmasking CD22 relative to naive and memory B-cells.

  16. AMIGO3 is an NgR1/p75 co-receptor signalling axon growth inhibition in the acute phase of adult central nervous system injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Douglas, Michael R; John, Gabrielle; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the injured adult CNS is reportedly inhibited by myelin-derived inhibitory molecules, after binding to a receptor complex comprised of the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1) and two transmembrane co-receptors p75/TROY and LINGO-1. However, the post-injury expression pattern for LINGO-1 is inconsistent with its proposed function. We demonstrated that AMIGO3 levels were significantly higher acutely than those of LINGO-1 in dorsal column lesions and reduced in models of dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN) axon regeneration. Similarly, AMIGO3 levels were raised in the retina immediately after optic nerve crush, whilst levels were suppressed in regenerating optic nerves, induced by intravitreal peripheral nerve implantation. AMIGO3 interacted functionally with NgR1-p75/TROY in non-neuronal cells and in brain lysates, mediating RhoA activation in response to CNS myelin. Knockdown of AMIGO3 in myelin-inhibited adult primary DRG and retinal cultures promoted disinhibited neurite growth when cells were stimulated with appropriate neurotrophic factors. These findings demonstrate that AMIGO3 substitutes for LINGO-1 in the NgR1-p75/TROY inhibitory signalling complex and suggests that the NgR1-p75/TROY-AMIGO3 receptor complex mediates myelin-induced inhibition of axon growth acutely in the CNS. Thus, antagonizing AMIGO3 rather than LINGO-1 immediately after CNS injury is likely to be a more effective therapeutic strategy for promoting CNS axon regeneration when combined with neurotrophic factor administration.

  17. Mosquito C-type lectins maintain gut microbiome homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rudian; Liu, Jianying; Liu, Qiyong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2016-01-01

    The long-term evolutionary interaction between the host immune system and symbiotic bacteria determines their cooperative rather than antagonistic relationship. It is known that commensal bacteria have evolved a number of mechanisms to manipulate the mammalian host immune system and maintain homeostasis. However, the strategies employed by the microbiome to overcome host immune responses in invertebrates still remain to be understood. Here, we report that the gut microbiome in mosquitoes utilizes C-type lectins (mosGCTLs) to evade the bactericidal capacity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Aedes aegypti mosGCTLs facilitate colonization by multiple bacterial strains. Furthermore, maintenance of the gut microbial flora relies on the expression of mosGCTLs in A. aegypti. Silencing the orthologues of mosGCTL in another major mosquito vector (Culex pipiens pallens) also impairs the survival of gut commensal bacteria. The gut microbiome stimulates the expression of mosGCTLs, which coat the bacterial surface and counteract AMP activity. Our study describes a mechanism by which the insect symbiotic microbiome offsets gut immunity to achieve homeostasis. PMID:27170846

  18. The peanut lectin-binding glycoproteins of human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, A.I. ); Keeble, S.; Watt, F.M. )

    1988-08-01

    The peanut lectin (PNA) is known to bind more strongly to keratinocytes that are undergoing terminal differentiation than to proliferating keratinocytes. In order to investigate the significance of this change in cell-surface carbohydrate authors have identified the PNA-binding glycoproteins of cultured human keratinocytes and antibodies against them. Two heavily glycosylated bands of 110 and 250 kDa were resolved by PAGE of ({sup 14}C)galactose- or ({sup 14}C)mannose- and ({sup 14}C)glucosamine-labeled cell extracts eluted with galactose from PNA affinity columns. The higher molecular weight band was also detected on PNA blots of unlabeled cell extracts transferred to nitrocellulose. Both bands were sensitive to pronase digestion, but only the 250-kDa band was digested with trypsin. A rabbit antiserum that we prepared (anti-PNA-gp) immunoprecipitated both bands from cell extracts. In contrast to PNA, anti-PNA-gp bound equally to proliferating and terminally differentiating cells, indicating that some epitope(s) of the PNA-binding glycoproteins is present on the cell surface prior to terminal differentiation. When keratinocytes grown as a monolayer in low-calcium medium were switched to medium containing 2 mM calcium ions in order to induce desmosome formation and stratification, there was a dramatic redistribution of the PNA-binding glycoproteins, which became concentrated at the boundaries between cells. This may suggest a role for the glycoproteins in cell-cell interactions during stratification.

  19. C-type lectin receptors in tuberculosis: what we know.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Surabhi; Klassert, Tilman E; Slevogt, Hortense

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB), is recognized by a number of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), either soluble or predominantly expressed on the surface of various cells of innate and adaptive immunity. C-type lectin receptors (CTLRs) are a class of PRRs which can recognize a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands, thereby playing a crucial role in immunity, as well as in maintaining homeostasis. Mtb surface ligands, including mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan and cord factor, are important immune modulators which recently have been found to be directly recognized by several CTLRs. Receptor ligation is followed by cellular activation, mainly via nuclear factor κB mediated by a series of adaptors with subsequent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mtb recognition by CTLRs and their cross talk with other PRRs on immune cells is of key importance for the better understanding of the Mtb-induced complexity of the host immune responses. Epidemiological studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several PRRs, as well as the adaptors in their signaling cascades, are directly involved in the susceptibility for developing disease and the disease outcome. In addition, an increasing number of CTLRs have been studied for their functional effects in the pathogenesis of TB. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the various roles played by different CTLRs in TB, as well as the role of their SNPs associated with disease susceptibility and outcome in different human populations.

  20. Lectin-Based Characterization of Vascular Cell Microparticle Glycocalyx

    PubMed Central

    Scruggs, April K.; Cioffi, Eugene A.; Cioffi, Donna L.; King, Judy A. C.; Bauer, Natalie N.

    2015-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are released constitutively and from activated cells. MPs play significant roles in vascular homeostasis, injury, and as biomarkers. The unique glycocalyx on the membrane of cells has frequently been exploited to identify specific cell types, however the glycocalyx of the MPs has yet to be defined. Thus, we sought to determine whether MPs, released both constitutively and during injury, from vascular cells have a glycocalyx matching those of the parental cell type to provide information on MP origin. For these studies we used rat pulmonary microvascular and artery endothelium, pulmonary smooth muscle, and aortic endothelial cells. MPs were collected from healthy or cigarette smoke injured cells and analyzed with a panel of lectins for specific glycocalyx linkages. Intriguingly, we determined that the MPs released either constitutively or stimulated by CSE injury did not express the same glycocalyx of the parent cells. Further, the glycocalyx was not unique to any of the specific cell types studied. These data suggest that MPs from both normal and healthy vascular cells do not share the parental cell glycocalyx makeup. PMID:26274589

  1. Decreased levels of heat shock proteins in gut epithelial cells after exposure to plant lectins

    PubMed Central

    Ovelgonne, J; Koninkx, J; Pusztai, A; Bardocz, S; Kok, W; Ewen, S; Hendriks, H; van Dijk, J E

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The enterocytes of the intestinal epithelium are regularly exposed to potentially harmful substances of dietary origin, such as lectins. Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) by this epithelium may be part of a protective mechanism developed by intestinal epithelial cells to deal with noxious components in the intestinal lumen.
AIM—To investigate if the lectins PHA, a lectin from kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and WGA, a lectin from wheat germ (Triticum aestivum) could modify the heat shock response in gut epithelial cells and to establish the extent of this effect.
METHODS—Jejunal tissue sections from PHA and WGA fed rats were screened for expression of HSP70, HSP72, and HSP90 using monoclonal antibodies. Differentiated Caco-2 cells, the in vitro counterpart of villus enterocytes, were exposed to 100 µg/ml of PHA-E4 or WGA for 48 hours and investigated for changes in DNA and protein synthesis by double labelling with [2-14C]thymidine and L-[methyl-3H]methionine. The relative concentrations of HSP60, HSP70, HSP72, and HSP90 and binding protein (BiP) in these cells exposed to lectins were analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. To establish if lectin exposed differentiated Caco-2 cells were still capable of producing a heat shock response, these cells received a heat shock (40°C, 41°C, and 42°C) for one hour and were allowed to recover for six hours at 37°C. During heat shock and recovery periods, lectin exposure was continued.
RESULTS—Constitutive levels of HSPs were measured in the intestinal cells of lactalbumin fed (control) rats, as may be expected from the function of this tissue. However, in PHA and WGA fed rats a marked decline in the binding of antibodies against several HSPs to the intestinal epithelium was found. These results were confirmed by in vitro experiments using differentiated Caco-2 cells exposed to PHA-E4 and WGA. However, after exposure to lectins, these cells were still capable

  2. Carbohydrate-binding specificity of the daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) and amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybr.) bulb lectins.

    PubMed

    Kaku, H; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Goldstein, I J

    1990-06-01

    The carbohydrate binding specificity of the daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus; NPA) and amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybr.; HHA) lectins, isolated from extracts of their bulbs by affinity chromatography on immobilized mannose, was studied by quantitative precipitation, sugar hapten inhibition, and affinity chromatography on the immobilized lectins. These lectins gave strong precipitation reactions with several yeast mannans, but did not precipitate with alpha-D-glucans (e.g., dextrans and glycogen). Interestingly, both lectins reacted strongly with yeast galactomannans having multiple nonreducing terminal alpha-D-galactosyl groups, a synthetic linear alpha-1,6-mannan, and an alpha-1,3-mannan (DP = 30). Treatment of the linear alpha-1,3-mannan with periodate, resulting in oxidation of the terminal, nonreducing mannosyl group, did not reduce its reactivity with NPA or HHA. Taken together, these observations suggest that NPA and HHA react not only with terminal but also with internal alpha-D-mannosyl residues. Sugar hapten inhibition studies showed these lectins to possess the greatest specific activity for alpha-D-mannosyl units whereas D-Glc and D-GlcNAc did not inhibit either lectin precipitation system. Of the oligosaccharides tested, the best inhibitor of NPA interaction was alpha-1,6-linked mannotriose, which was twice as good an inhibitor as Man alpha 1,6Man alpha-O-Me and 10 times better than methyl alpha-D-mannoside. On the other hand, oligosaccharides containing either 1,3- or 1,6-linked mannosyl units were good inhibitors of the HHA-mannan precipitation system (6- to 20-fold more active than D-Man). These results indicate that both lectins appear to possess an extended binding site(s) complementary to at least three 1,6-linked alpha-mannosyl units. Various glycosylasparagine glycopeptides which contain alpha-1,6-Man units were retarded on the immobilized NPA column. On the other hand, those containing either alpha-1,3- or alpha-1,6-mannosyl residues were

  3. New mannose-specific lectins from garlic (Allium sativum) and ramsons (Allium ursinum) bulbs.

    PubMed

    Kaku, H; Goldstein, I J; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J

    1992-05-22

    Two new mannose-binding lectins were isolated from garlic (Allium sativum, ASA) and ramsons (Allium ursinum, AUA) bulbs, of the family Alliaceae, by affinity chromatography on immobilized mannose. The carbohydrate-binding specificity of these two lectins was studied by quantitative precipitation and hapten-inhibition assay. ASA reacted strongly with a synthetic linear (1----3)-alpha-D-mannan and S. cerevisiae mannan, weakly with a synthetic (1----6)-alpha-D-mannan, and failed to precipitate with galactomannans from T. gropengiesseri and T. lactis-condensi, a linear mannopentaose, and murine IgM. On the other hand, AUA gave a strong reaction of precipitation with murine IgM, and good reactions with S. cerevisiae mannan and both synthetic linear mannans, suggesting that the two lectins have somewhat different binding specificities for alpha-D-mannosyl units. Of the saccharides tested as inhibitors of precipitation, those with alpha-(1----3)-linked mannosyl units were the best inhibitors of ASA, the alpha-(1----2)-, alpha-(1----4)-, and alpha-(1----6)-linked mannobioses and biosides having less than one eighth the affinity of the alpha-(1----3)-linked compounds. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of ASA exhibits 79% homology with that of AUA, and moderately high homology (53%) with that of snowdrop bulb lectin, also an alpha-D-mannosyl-binding lectin.

  4. Inhibition of Pasteurella multocida Adhesion to Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium Using Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Magda Patricia; Martinez, Nhora María; Patiño, María del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a panel of lectins to inhibit the ability of Pasteurella multocida to adhere to and affect the rabbit respiratory epithelium. Nasal septa from rabbit fetuses were cultured with various lectins before the addition of P. multocida. The percentage of bacteria adhering to the epithelium was evaluated semiquantitatively by indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) staining. The goblet cells (GCs) were counted in semithin sections stained with toluidine blue and served as the main morphological criterion to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the lectins. The lectins PNA, WGA, RCA120, and DBA significantly inhibited the adhesion of P. multocida to the ciliated epithelium (P < 0.05) and prevented the pathogen-induced increase in the number of GCs (P < 0.05) compared with those of positive control tissues. In addition, VVA, SJA, UEA I, DSL, SBA, and ECL significantly inhibited the increase in GCs compared with that of the control tissues. The results suggest that less aggressive therapeutic strategies, such as treatment with lectins, may represent alternative approaches to control bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:25810949

  5. Lectin histochemistry as a predictor of dysplasia grade in colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Lazaris, A C; Chatzigianni, E B; Paraskevakou, H; Tseleni-Balafouta, S; Davaris, P S

    2000-01-01

    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins that bind to specific cellular carbohydrates, commonly affecting cellular physiology. Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA), ulex europaeus isoagglutinin-I (UEA-I), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA) are among the most well studied lectins in various tissues. The purpose of this study was to detect the above lectins binding sites and so examine alterations in glycoconjugate expression in neoplastic cells of 52 colorectal adenomas with various clinicopathologic characteristics and proliferation rates. Lectin histochemistry was performed in paraffin sections with and without neuraminidase treatment. Proliferative fraction was determined by immunolabelling for Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. PHA was the more frequently positive lectin in the examined specimens; however, it was simultaneously detected in normal colonic mucosa and so was WGA. The frequency of high grade dysplasia was significantly greater in older patients and in samples with UEA-I positivity without neuraminidase pretreatment. UEA-I-reactive adenomas were generally characterized by high cell proliferation rates. A statistical model based on patients age and UEA-I binding without neuraminidase treatment can generally predict grade of dysplasia in 83% of adenomas and particularly high grade dysplasia in up to 93% of adenomas; so, such a model may be potentially useful for the early detection of neoplasia, for instance in exfoliative cells from the large intestine.

  6. Efficiency of mannose-binding plant lectins in controlling a homopteran insect, the red cotton bug.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anita; Banerjee, Santanu; Majumder, Pralay; Das, Sampa

    2002-11-06

    Yield losses of different crops due to the attack of various classes of insects are a worldwide problem. Sucking type homopteran pests causing damage to many crop species are not controlled by commonly known insecticidal proteins, namely, Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin (Bt). This study describes the purification of mannose-binding lectins from three different monocotyledonous plants (Allium sativum, Colocasia esculenta, and Diffenbachia sequina) and their effects on a homopteran insect, the red cotton bug. All of them had a detrimental effect on the growth and development of the insect, where A. sativum bulb lectin showed the highest mortality of all, in particular. The same bulb lectin not only affected the growth and fecundity of the insect but also imparted drastic changes in the color, weight, and size, even on the second generation of the insects which have been reared on artificial diet supplemented with a sublethal dose of the lectin. Thus, this finding opens up a possibility of using this lectin as an important component in crop management.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of chitin-binding lectin from Canna limbata seeds.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Theolyta S; Teixeira, Claudener S; Falcão, Maria A P; Junior, Vanir R Pinto; Santiago, Mayara Quiroz; Benevides, Raquel G; Delatorre, Plínio; Martins, Jorge L; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna S; Cavada, Benildo S; Campesatto, Eliane A; Rocha, Bruno A M

    2013-12-01

    Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of proteins or glycoproteins with at least one noncatalytic domain binding reversibly to a specific mono- or oligosaccharide. Monocot mannose-binding lectins are an extended superfamily of structurally and evolutionarily related proteins. In this study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of monocot lectin from the Canna limbata seeds (CLL). To accomplish this, CLL was purified and subjected to pharmacological assays: abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate and Zymosan A-induced peritonitis tests. The CLL was purified by chromatographic chitin column, and the relative mass of 21 kDa observed in electrophoresis was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry, which also revealed that purified CLL consists of a dimer having a weight of 49,676 Da. The CLL showed nociceptive activity in the acetic acid test as well as peripheral antinociceptive response. The CLL also showed anti-inflammatory effect with the reduction of inflammation in the formalin test and neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity. This is the first report of anti-inflammatory activity for a monocot lectin, and it suggests a new pharmacological tool to understand inflammatory and antinociceptive processes mediated through lectins.

  8. Glycan heterogeneity on gold nanoparticles increases lectin discrimination capacity in label-free multiplexed bioassays†

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Lucienne; Vlachou, Denise; Richards, Sarah-Jane; Gibson, Matthew I.

    2016-01-01

    The development of new analytical tools as point-of-care biosensors is crucial to combat the spread of infectious diseases, especially in the context of drug-resistant organisms, or to detect biological warfare agents. Glycan/lectin interactions drive a wide range of recognition and signal transduction processes within nature and are often the first site of adhesion/recognition during infection making them appealing targets for biosensors. Glycosylated gold nanoparticles have been developed that change colour from red to blue upon interaction with carbohydrate-binding proteins and may find use as biosensors, but are limited by the inherent promiscuity of some of these interactions. Here we mimic the natural heterogeneity of cell-surface glycans by displaying mixed monolayers of glycans on the surface of gold nanoparticles. These are then used in a multiplexed, label-free bioassay to create ‘barcodes’ which describe the lectin based on its binding profile. The increased information content encoded by using complex mixtures of a few sugars, rather than increased numbers of different sugars makes this approach both scalable and accessible. These nanoparticles show increased lectin identification power at a range of lectin concentrations, relative to single-channel sensors. It was also found that some information about the concentration of the lectins can be extracted, all from just a simple colour change, taking this technology closer to being a realistic biosensor. PMID:27181289

  9. [Lectin histochemical studies on the musk gland in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus)].

    PubMed

    Aoki-Komori, S; Saito, T R; Umeda, M; Sugiyama, M; Takahashi, K W; Taniguchi, K

    1993-07-01

    The musk gland of the adult house musk shrews (Suncus murinus) of both sexes was studied lectin histochemically. The musk gland was a kind of scent gland, consisted of congregation of branched or unbranched simple tubuloalveolar gland holocrine in nature and was attached by an apocrine gland-like structure (sweat gland) in the deeper layer of its periphery. Acinar cells of the musk gland were distinguishable into three type from basal to luminal parts of the acinus; immature cells, mature cells and degenerating cells. There was no histological difference between both sexes. Lectin-binding pattern of the musk gland was examined in comparison with that of the sweat gland and ordinary sebaceous gland by histochemical staining techniques using seven lectins: ConA, RCA I, PNA, SBA, UEA-I, DBA, WGA, WGA and PNA labelled the duct of the musk gland more intense than the acinus. Several lectins showed a tendency to label the cells situated near the luminal surface more intense than those near the basement membrane in both the acinus and duct of the musk gland. In the sweat gland and ordinary sebaceous gland, the lectin-binding pattern was different with each other and from that in the musk gland. These findings suggest that the musk gland, sweat gland, and ordinary sebaceous gland are different to each other in nature of cells and the secretion.

  10. Different bindings to lectin in human submandibular gland after enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    Takai, Y; Noda, Y; Sumitomo, S; Sagara, S; Mori, M

    1986-01-01

    Lectin binding affinities were described in human submandibular gland (SMG) in the paraffin sections following alpha-amylase, sialidase, and trypsin digestions. Lectins in the present study were used Con A (Glc, Man binding lectins), PNA, and SBA(Gal, GalNAc), RCA-1(Gal), DBA(GalNAc), WGA(GlcNAc), and UEA-1(Fuc). Lectin stainings in serous and mucous acinar cells and ductal epithelia were reported to compare enzyme treated and nontreated sections. Amylase treatment showed increasing Con A staining in connective tissue fibers and no marked changes in SMG to lectin bindings. Sialidase digestion was characteristically intense in PNA and SBA bindings in SMG cells, and also enhanced staining to UEA-1 in serous and duct cells and to WGA in mucous and duct cells were noted. Trypsin digestion indicated a slight increase to Con A binding, and was relatively strong to UEA-1 in serous and duct cells and a little strong to WGA. The results suggested that SMG serous cells contain higher amounts of Gal, GalNAc, and Fuc residues; and mucous cells were also abundant in Gal, GalNAc, and GlcNAc residues.

  11. Structural characterization of novel chitin-binding lectins from the genus Artocarpus and their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Melissa B; Lopes, José L S; Soares-Costa, Andréa; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina; Moreira, Renato A; Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Beltramini, Leila M

    2006-01-01

    Two novel chitin-binding lectins from seeds of Artocarpus genus were described in this paper, one from A. integrifolia (jackfruit) and one from A. incisa (breadfruit). They were purified from saline crude extract of seeds using affinity chromatography on chitin column, size-exclusion chromatography and reverse-phase chromatography on the C-18 column. Both are 14 kDa proteins, made up of 3 chains linked by disulfide bonds. The partial amino acid sequences of the two lectins showed they are homologous to each other but not to other plant chitin-binding proteins. Thus, they cannot be classified in any known plant chitin-binding protein family, particularly because of their inter-chain covalent bonds. Their circular dichroism spectra and deconvolution showed a secondary structure content of beta-sheet and unordered elements. The lectins were thermally stable until 80 degrees C and structural changes were observed below pH 6. Both lectins inhibited the growth of Fusarium moniliforme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and presented hemagglutination activity against human and rabbit erythrocytes. These lectins were denoted jackin (from jackfruit) and frutackin (from breadfruit).

  12. Structural characterization of a lectin from Canavalia virosa seeds with inflammatory and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Osterne, Vinicius Jose Silva; Silva-Filho, Jose Caetano; Santiago, Mayara Queiroz; Pinto-Junior, Vanir Reis; Almeida, Alysson Chaves; Barreto, Adolph Annderson Gonçalves Costa; Wolin, Ingrid Alessandra Victoria; Nascimento, Ana Paula Machado; Amorim, Renata Morais Ferreira; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias; Delatorre, Plinio; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2017-01-01

    A lectin from Canavalia virosa, Diocleinae subtribe, was purified by affinity chromatography with Sephadex G-50 matrix and named ConV. The primary structure of ConV was obtained by mass spectrometry and crystals were obtained by the vapor diffusion method at 293K and belonged to orthorhombic space group P21221 with two molecules in its asymmetric unit. The structure obtained presented Rfactor and Rfree of 18.91% and 24.92% respectively, with no residues in nonallowed regions of Ramachandran plot. The crystal structure was solved at 2.53Å and was demonstrated to be very similar to other lectins from the same subtribe. In inflammatory tests, ConV elicited paw edema, but incubation of lectin with glucose beforehand was able to reduce the edematogenic effect, indicating the involvement of the carbohydrate recognition domain in this process. The lectin also showed toxicity to rat C6 glioma cells, disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm) and decreasing cell viability, indicating an anticancer potential for ConV. In silico studies confirmed that ConV interacts strongly with carbohydrates that comprise the N-glycans of glycoproteins. This finding corroborates the hypothesis which holds that the lectin domain interacts with glycans in molecular targets and that this contributes to the effects observed in biological activities.

  13. Purification and molecular cloning of a new galactose-specific lectin from Bauhinia variegata seeds.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciano S; Nagano, Celso S; Oliveira, Taianá M; Moura, Tales R; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Debray, Henri; Pinto, Vicente P; Dellagostin, Odir A; Cavada, Benildo S

    2008-09-01

    A new galactose-specific lectin was purified from seeds of a Caesalpinoideae plant, Bauhinia variegata, by affinity chromatography on lactose-agarose. Protein extracts haemagglutinated rabbit and human erythrocytes (native and treated with proteolytic enzymes), showing preference for rabbit blood treated with papain and trypsin. Among various carbohydrates tested, the lectin was best inhibited by D-galactose and its derivatives, especially lactose. SDS-PAGE showed that the lectin, named BVL, has a pattern similar to other lectins isolated from the same genus, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin (BPA). The molecular mass of BVL subunit is 32 871 Da, determined by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. DNA extracted from B.variegata young leaves and primers designed according to the B. purpurea lectin were used to generate specific fragments which were cloned and sequenced, revealing two distinct isoforms. The bvl gene sequence comprised an open reading frame of 876 base pairs which encodes a protein of 291 amino acids. The protein carried a putative signal peptide. The mature protein was predicted to have 263 amino acid residues and 28 963 Da in size.

  14. Determining the binding affinities of prostate-specific antigen to lectins: SPR and microarray approaches.

    PubMed

    Damborský, Pavel; Zámorová, Martina; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common newly diagnosed cancers among men and we focused on its traditional biomarker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), using targeted glycomics-based strategies. The aberrant glycosylation pattern of PSA may serve as a valuable tool for improving PCa diagnosis including its early-stage. In this study, we evaluated the usability of two techniques, surface plasmon resonance and protein microarray assay, for the study and characterization of interactions of PSA (both free and complexed) with six lectins (SNA, ConA, RCA, AAL, WGA and MAA II). The information on the character of such interactions is important for the application of lectins as prospective bioreceptors for biomarker glycoprofiling in a follow-up biosensing assays. SPR as well as established bioanalytical techniques allowed determination of KD values of PSA-lectin interactions in a more reliable way than protein microarray. The protein microarray method did not allow accurate quantification of KD values. However, the features of a microarray approach, such as speed and costs, enabled the screening and estimation of the nature of lectin-glycan biomarker interaction in an effective and time-saving way. All of the tested lectins interacted with commercial PSA standard isolated from healthy persons, except MAA II which reacted only very weakly.

  15. Purification and characterization of a novel beta-D-galactosides-specific lectin from Clitoria ternatea.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Aabgeena; Haque, Shabirul; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2007-09-01

    A lectin present in seeds of Clitoria ternatea agglutinated trypsin-treated human B erythrocytes. The sugar specificity assay indicated that lectin belongs to Gal/Gal NAc-specific group. Hence the lectin, designated C. ternatea agglutinin (CTA), was purified by the combination of acetic acid precipitation, salt fractionation and affinity chromatography. HPLC gel filtration, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry indicated that the native lectin is composed of two identical subunits of molecular weight 34.7 kDa associated by non covalent bonds. The N-terminal sequence of CTA shared homology with Glycine max and Pisum sativum. Complete sequence was also found to be homologous to S-64 protein of Glycine max, suggesting that CTA probably exhibits both hemagglutination and probably sugar uptake activity. The carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin was investigated by quantitative turbidity measurements, and percent inhibition assays. Based on these assays, we conclude that CTA binds beta-D: -galactosides, and also may has an extended specificity towards non-reducing terminal Neu5Acalpha2,6Gal.

  16. Structure prediction and functional analysis of a non-permutated lectin from Dioclea grandiflora.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Bruno Lopes; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Simões, Rafael da Conceição; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape da Silva; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Legume lectins have been widely studied and applied for many purposes in the last few decades, but many of their physiological aspects remain elusive. The Diocleinae legume subtribe, which includes intensively explored lectins, such as ConA, presents an unusual and extensive post-translational process which results in minor alterations in protein structure, in turn making its function elusive. Despite previous reports about Diocleinae precursor activity, no structural or functional analyses have ever been carried out to understand the impacts of post-translational processing relative to lectin structure and binding specificity. Here we analyzed the functionality of a non glycosylated, recombinantly expressed lectin precursor from Dioclea grandiflora through inhibition assays, corroborating the experimental data with structural information generated by molecular modeling, docking calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that Diocleinae precursors are active and share the same carbohydrate specificity as mature lectins. At the same time, however, subtle structural alterations were detected and mostly result in an "incomplete" functionality of the precursor, as consequence of an immature binding site and an unstructured tetramer interface, affecting carbohydrate binding and oligomer formation, respectively.

  17. Chemical Lectinology: Tools for Probing the Ligands and Dynamics of Mammalian Lectins In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Belardi, Brian; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The importance and complexity associated with the totality of glycan structures, i.e. the glycome, has garnered significant attention from chemists and biologists alike. However, what is lacking from this biochemical picture is how cells, tissues, and organisms interpret glycan patterns and translate this information into appropriate responses. Lectins, glycan-binding proteins, are thought to bridge this gap by decoding the glycome and dictating cell fate based on the underlying chemical identities and properties of the glycome. Yet, our understanding of the in vivo ligands and function for most lectins is still incomplete. This review focuses on recent advances in chemical tools to study the specificity and dynamics of mammalian lectins in live cells. A picture emerges of lectin function that is highly sensitive to its organization, which in turn drastically shapes immunity and cancer progression. We hope this review will inspire biologists to make use of these new techniques and stimulate chemists to continue developing innovative approaches to probe lectin biology in vivo. PMID:26256477

  18. Effect of chum salmon egg lectin on tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Ryo; Yamamoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Naude, Ryno; Muramoto, Koji

    2015-05-05

    The effect of a chum salmon egg lectin (CSL3) on tight junction (TJ) of Caco-2 cell monolayers was investigated. The lectin opened TJ as indicated by the decrease of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) value and the increase of the permeation of lucifer yellow, which is transported via the TJ-mediated paracellular pathway. The effects of CSL3 were inhibited by the addition of 10 mM L-rhamnose or D-galactose which were specific sugars for CSL3. The lectin increased the intracellular Ca2+ of Caco-2 cell monolayers, that could be inhibited by the addition of L-rhamnose. The fluorescence immunostaining of β-actin in Caco-2 cell monolayers revealed that the cytoskeleton was changed by the CSL3 treatment, suggesting that CSL3 depolymerized β-actin to cause reversible TJ structural and functional disruption. Although Japanese jack bean lectin and wheat germ lectin showed similar effects in the decrease of the TER values and the increase of the intracellular Ca2+, they could not be inhibited by the same concentrations of simple sugars, such as D-glucose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.

  19. Rapid affinity-purification and physicochemical characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.

    PubMed

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-04-21

    The chito-oligosaccharide-specific lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on chitin. After SDS/PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, the pumpkin phloem lectin yielded a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa, whereas ESI-MS (electrospray ionization MS) gave the molecular masses of the subunit as 24645 Da. Analysis of the CD spectrum of the protein indicated that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 9.7% alpha-helix, 35.8% beta-sheet, 22.5% beta-turn and 32.3% unordered structure. Saccharide binding did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The haemagglutinating activity of pumpkin phloem lectin was mostly unaffected in the temperature range 4-70 degrees C, but a sharp decrease was seen between 75 and 85 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetric and CD spectroscopic studies suggest that the lectin undergoes a co-operative thermal unfolding process centred at approx. 81.5 degrees C, indicating that it is a relatively stable protein.

  20. Identification of Novel Pathways in Plant Lectin-Induced Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zheng; Sun, Rong; Yu, Tian; Liu, Rong; Cheng, Li-Jia; Bao, Jin-Ku; Zou, Liang; Tang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Plant lectins have been investigated to elucidate their complicated mechanisms due to their remarkable anticancer activities. Although plant lectins seems promising as a potential anticancer agent for further preclinical and clinical uses, further research is still urgently needed and should include more focus on molecular mechanisms. Herein, a Naïve Bayesian model was developed to predict the protein-protein interaction (PPI), and thus construct the global human PPI network. Moreover, multiple sources of biological data, such as smallest shared biological process (SSBP), domain-domain interaction (DDI), gene co-expression profiles and cross-species interolog mapping were integrated to build the core apoptotic PPI network. In addition, we further modified it into a plant lectin-induced apoptotic cell death context. Then, we identified 22 apoptotic hub proteins in mesothelioma cells according to their different microarray expressions. Subsequently, we used combinational methods to predict microRNAs (miRNAs) which could negatively regulate the abovementioned hub proteins. Together, we demonstrated the ability of our Naïve Bayesian model-based network for identifying novel plant lectin-treated cancer cell apoptotic pathways. These findings may provide new clues concerning plant lectins as potential apoptotic inducers for cancer drug discovery. PMID:26867193

  1. Biochemical and structural analysis of Helix pomatia agglutinin. A hexameric lectin with a novel fold.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jean-Frederic; Lescar, Julien; Chazalet, Valérie; Audfray, Aymeric; Gagnon, Jean; Alvarez, Richard; Breton, Christelle; Imberty, Anne; Mitchell, Edward P

    2006-07-21

    Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) is a N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) binding lectin found in the albumen gland of the roman snail. As a constituent of perivitelline fluid, HPA protects fertilized eggs from bacteria and is part of the innate immunity system of the snail. The peptide sequence deduced from gene cloning demonstrates that HPA belongs to a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins recently identified in several invertebrates. This domain is also present in discoidin from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Investigation of the lectin specificity was performed with the use of glycan arrays, demonstrating that several GalNAc-containing oligosaccharides are bound and rationalizing the use of this lectin as a cancer marker. Titration microcalorimetry performed on the interaction between HPA and GalNAc indicates an affinity in the 10(-4) M range with an enthalpy-driven binding mechanism. The crystal structure of HPA demonstrates the occurrence of a new beta-sandwich lectin fold. The hexameric quaternary state was never observed previously for a lectin. The high resolution structure complex of HPA with GalNAc characterizes a new carbohydrate binding site and rationalizes the observed preference for alphaGalNAc-containing oligosaccharides.

  2. Identification of Novel Pathways in Plant Lectin-Induced Cancer Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zheng; Sun, Rong; Yu, Tian; Liu, Rong; Cheng, Li-Jia; Bao, Jin-Ku; Zou, Liang; Tang, Yong

    2016-02-08

    Plant lectins have been investigated to elucidate their complicated mechanisms due to their remarkable anticancer activities. Although plant lectins seems promising as a potential anticancer agent for further preclinical and clinical uses, further research is still urgently needed and should include more focus on molecular mechanisms. Herein, a Naïve Bayesian model was developed to predict the protein-protein interaction (PPI), and thus construct the global human PPI network. Moreover, multiple sources of biological data, such as smallest shared biological process (SSBP), domain-domain interaction (DDI), gene co-expression profiles and cross-species interolog mapping were integrated to build the core apoptotic PPI network. In addition, we further modified it into a plant lectin-induced apoptotic cell death context. Then, we identified 22 apoptotic hub proteins in mesothelioma cells according to their different microarray expressions. Subsequently, we used combinational methods to predict microRNAs (miRNAs) which could negatively regulate the abovementioned hub proteins. Together, we demonstrated the ability of our Naïve Bayesian model-based network for identifying novel plant lectin-treated cancer cell apoptotic pathways. These findings may provide new clues concerning plant lectins as potential apoptotic inducers for cancer drug discovery.

  3. A lectin-based gold nanoparticle assay for probing glycosylation of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pomales, Germarie; Morris, Todd A; Falabella, James B; Tarlov, Michael J; Zangmeister, Rebecca A

    2012-09-01

    We report a glycoanalysis method in which lectins are used to probe the glycans of therapeutic glycoproteins that are adsorbed on gold nanoparticles. A model mannose-presenting glycoprotein, ribonuclease B (RNase B), and the therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab, were found to adsorb spontaneously and non-specifically to bare gold nanoparticles such that glycans were accessible for lectin binding. Addition of a multivalent binding lectin, such as concanavalin A (Con A), to a solution of the modified gold nanoparticles resulted in cross-linking of the nanoparticles. This phenomenon was evidenced within 1 min by a change in the hydrodynamic diameter, D(H), measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and a shift and increase in absorbance of the plasmon resonance band of the gold nanoparticles. By combining the sugar-binding specificity and the cross-linking capabilities of lectins, the non-specific adsorption of glycoproteins to gold surfaces, and the unique optical reporting properties of gold nanoparticles, a glycosylation pattern of rituximab could be generated. This assay provides advantages over currently used glycoanalysis methods in terms of short analysis time, simplicity of the conjugation method, convenience of simple spectroscopic detection, and feasibility of providing glycan characterization of the protein drug product by using a variety of binding lectins.

  4. Reverse lectin ELISA for detecting fucosylated forms of α1-acid glycoprotein associated with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stål, Per; Zenlander, Robin; Edenvik, Pia; Alexandersson, Catharina; Haglund, Mats; Rydén, Ingvar; Påhlsson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Altered fucosylation of glycoproteins is associated with development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Lectins have been commonly used to assay changes in fucosylation of plasma glycoproteins. In the present study a recombinantly engineered form of the fucose binding lectin Aleuria aurantia (AAL) consisting of a single binding site for fucose (S2), was used to construct a reverse lectin ELISA method. Microtiter plates coated with the S2 lectin were used to capture glycoproteins from plasma samples followed by antibody detection of S2-bound fucosylated α1-acid glycoprotein (S2-bound AGP). The method was used to compare the level of S2-bound AGP in serum samples from a small cohort of patients with hepatitis, cirrhosis or HCC. Using the reverse S2 lectin ELISA it was shown that the levels of S2-bound AGP was significantly higher in HCC patients compared to non-cancer patients and that there was also a significant elevation of S2-bound AGP in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis patients. There was no correlation between the level of S2-bound AGP and total AGP concentration. The performance of S2-bound AGP in differentiating HCC from cirrhosis samples or hepatitis samples were compared to other markers. A combination of S2-bound AGP, α-fetoprotein and AGP concentration showed performances giving area under receiver operating curves of 0.87 and 0.95 respectively. PMID:28296934

  5. Isolation, characterization, molecular cloning and molecular modelling of two lectins of different specificities from bluebell (Scilla campanulata) bulbs.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, L M; Van Damme, E J; Barre, A; Allen, A K; Van Leuven, F; Reynolds, C D; Rouge, P; Peumans, W J

    1999-01-01

    Two lectins have been isolated from bluebell (Scilla campanulata) bulbs. From their isolation by affinity chromatography, they are characterized as a mannose-binding lectin (SCAman) and a fetuin-binding lectin (SCAfet). SCAman preferentially binds oligosaccharides with alpha(1,3)- and alpha(1,6)-linked mannopyranosides. It is a tetramer of four identical protomers of approx. 13 kDa containing 119 amino acid residues; it is not glycosylated. The fetuin-binding lectin (SCAfet), which is not inhibited by any simple sugars, is also unglycosylated. It is a tetramer of four identical subunits of approx. 28 kDa containing 244 residues. Each 28 kDa subunit is composed of two 14 kDa domains. Both lectins have been cloned from a cDNA library and sequenced. X-ray crystallographic analysis and molecular modelling studies have demonstrated close relationships in sequence and structure between these lectins and other monocot mannose-binding lectins. A refined model of the molecular evolution of the monocot mannose-binding lectins is proposed. PMID:10229686

  6. Affinity of a galactose-specific legume lectin from Dolichos lablab to adenine revealed by X-ray cystallography.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Kartika N; Latha, Vakada Lavanya; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar; Suguna, Kaza

    2013-07-01

    Crystal structure analysis of a galactose-specific lectin from a leguminous food crop Dolichos lablab (Indian lablab beans) has been carried out to obtain insights into its quaternary association and lectin-carbohydrate interactions. The analysis led to the identification of adenine binding sites at the dimeric interfaces of the heterotetrameric lectin. Structural details of similar adenine binding were reported in only one legume lectin, Dolichos biflorus, before this study. Here, we present the structure of the galactose-binding D. lablab lectin at different pH values in the native form and in complex with galactose and adenine. This first structure report on this lectin also provides a high resolution atomic view of legume lectin-adenine interactions. The tetramer has two canonical and two DB58-like interfaces. The binding of adenine, a non-carbohydrate ligand, is found to occur at four hydrophobic sites at the core of the tetramer at the DB58-like dimeric interfaces and does not interfere with the carbohydrate-binding site. To support the crystallographic observations, the adenine binding was further quantified by carrying out isothermal calorimetric titration. By this method, we not only estimated the affinity of the lectin to adenine but also showed that adenine binds with negative cooperativity in solution.

  7. High mannose-specific lectin Msl mediates key interactions of the vaginal Lactobacillus plantarum isolate CMPG5300

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Shweta; Petrova, Mariya I.; Imholz, Nicole C. E.; Verhoeven, Tine L. A.; Noppen, Sam; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan; Schols, Dominique; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the interaction potential of the human vaginal isolate Lactobacillus plantarum CMPG5300, its genome was mined for genes encoding lectin-like proteins. cmpg5300.05_29 was identified as the gene encoding a putative mannose-binding lectin. Phenotypic analysis of a gene knock-out mutant of cmpg5300.05_29 showed that expression of this gene is important for auto-aggregation, adhesion to the vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm formation and binding to mannosylated glycans. Purification of the predicted lectin domain of Cmpg5300.05_29 and characterization of its sugar binding capacity confirmed the specificity of the lectin for high- mannose glycans. Therefore, we renamed Cmpg5300.05_29 as a mannose-specific lectin (Msl). The purified lectin domain of Msl could efficiently bind to HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 and Candida albicans, and showed an inhibitory activity against biofilm formation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Thus, using a combination of molecular lectin characterization and functional assays, we could show that lectin-sugar interactions play a key role in host and pathogen interactions of a prototype isolate of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota. PMID:27853317

  8. Fluorescence Lectin Bar-Coding of Glycoconjugates in the Extracellular Matrix of Biofilm and Bioaggregate Forming Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Thomas R.; Kuhlicke, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Microbial biofilm systems are defined as interface-associated microorganisms embedded into a self-produced matrix. The extracellular matrix represents a continuous challenge in terms of characterization and analysis. The tools applied in more detailed studies comprise extraction/chemical analysis, molecular characterization, and visualisation using various techniques. Imaging by laser microscopy became a standard tool for biofilm analysis, and, in combination with fluorescently labelled lectins, the glycoconjugates of the matrix can be assessed. By employing this approach a wide range of pure culture biofilms from different habitats were examined using the commercially available lectins. From the results, a binary barcode pattern of lectin binding can be generated. Furthermore, the results can be fine-tuned and transferred into a heat map according to signal intensity. The lectin barcode approach is suggested as a useful tool for investigating the biofilm matrix characteristics and dynamics at various levels, e.g. bacterial cell surfaces, adhesive footprints, individual microcolonies, and the gross biofilm or bio-aggregate. Hence fluorescence lectin bar-coding (FLBC) serves as a basis for a subsequent tailor-made fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) of a particular biofilm. So far, the lectin approach represents the only tool for in situ characterization of the glycoconjugate makeup in biofilm systems.  Furthermore, lectin staining lends itself to other fluorescence techniques in order to correlate it with cellular biofilm constituents in general and glycoconjugate producers in particular. PMID:28208623

  9. Binding and cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis lectins to HeLa cells, Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Aizono, Y; Funatsu, G

    1984-08-01

    The binding of Ricinus communis lectins to HeLa cells, Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and human erythrocytes was studied in detail. Scatchard plots of binding of 125I-lectins to these cells gave biphasic lines except for HeLa cells at 0 degree C. The association constants of lectins for the three cell types at 37 degrees C were lower than those at 0 degree C. The numbers of total binding sites were estimated to be 7 to 16 X 10(7) per HeLa cell, 3 to 4 X 10(7) per Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cell and 0.4 to 1 X 10(6) per erythrocyte. A fraction, 16 to 27% of the total amount of cell-bound lectin at 37 degrees C, appeared to be bound irreversibly as judged by non-removal on washing with 0.1 M lactose, whereas no lectin was irreversibly bound at 0 degree C. In the case of erythrocytes, no lectin became irreversibly bound even at 37 degrees C. The toxicity of lectins on HeLa cells and Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells was investigated. The toxicity of ricin D was 50 times for Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and 140 times for HeLa cells as much as that for castor bean hemagglutinin. As to the sensitivities of both cell types to these lectins, it became apparent that Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells were more susceptible than HeLa cells.

  10. Effect of Algae and Plant Lectins on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Clinically Relevant Bacteria and Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Silva, Helton Colares; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Cavada, Benildo; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250 μg/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Vatairea macrocarpa (VML), Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL), Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL), and Hypnea musciformis (HML) showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining) and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units). The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins. PMID:24982871

  11. A comparative study of lectin affinity based plant n-glycoproteome profiling using tomato fruit as a model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) can provide a valuable front-end enrichment strategy for the study of N-glycoproteins and has been used to characterize a broad range eukaryotic N-glycoproteomes. Moreover, studies with mammalian systems have suggested that the use of multiple lectins with differ...

  12. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Xia, Lixin; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel), Mono Q (anion exchanger), and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion). The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

  13. Hemagglutinating activity and conformation of a lactose-binding lectin from mushroom Agrocybe cylindracea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhao, Xi; Xu, Xiao-Chao; Li, Ling-Rui; Liu, Yan-Hong; Zhong, Shao-Dong; Bao, Jin-Ku

    2008-03-01

    A lactose-binding lectin (Agrocybe cylindracea Lectin, ACL) purified from fruiting bodies of the mushroom A. cylindracea was investigated to determine the hemagglutinating activity and conformation changes after chemical modification, removal of metal ion and treatment at different temperatures and pH. ACL agglutinated both rabbit and human erythrocytes and its hemagglutinating activity could be inhibited by lactose. This lectin was stable in the pH range of 6-9 and temperature up to 60 degrees C. Fluorescence quenching and modification of tryptophan residues indicated that there were about two tryptophan residues in ACL molecule and one of them might be located on the surface, while the other was buried in the hydrophobic shallow groove near the surface. Chemical modification of serine/threonine and histidine showed that the partial necessity of these residues for the hemagglutinating activity of ACL. However, modifications of arginine, tyrosine and cysteine residues had no effect on its agglutinating activity.

  14. Solid-phase assay of lectin activity using HRP-conjugated glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kojima-Aikawa, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Various enzyme-conjugated probes have been widely used for detection of specific interactions between biomolecules. In the case of glycan-protein interaction, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated glycoproteins (HRP-GPs) are useful for the detection of carbohydrate-binding activity of plant and animal lectins. In this chapter, a typical solid-phase assay of the carbohydrate-binding activity of Sophora japonica agglutinin I, a Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin, using HRP-conjugated asialofetuin is described. HRP-GPs are versatile tools for probing lectin activities in crude extracts, screening many samples at one time, and applicable not only for solid-phase binding assays but also samples which are dot- or Western-blotted onto the membrane.

  15. Cross-linked leucaena seed gum matrix: an affinity chromatography tool for galactose-specific lectins.

    PubMed

    Seshagirirao, Kottapalli; Leelavathi, Chaganti; Sasidhar, Vemula

    2005-05-31

    A cross-linked leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) seed gum (CLLSG) matrix was prepared for the isolation of galactose-specific lectins by affinity chromatography. The matrix was evaluated for affinity with a known galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). The matrix preparation was simple and inexpensive when compared to commercial galactose-specific matrices (i.e. about 1.5 US dollars/100 ml of matrix). The current method is also useful for the demonstration of the affinity chromatography technique in laboratories. Since leucaena seeds are abundant and inexpensive, and the matrix preparation is easy, CLLSG appears to be a promising tool for the separation of galactose-specific lectins.

  16. Jejunal ultrastructural changes induced by kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectins in rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M A; Mancini Filho, J; Lajolo, F M

    1984-02-01

    Rats maintained for a period of 5 days on a diet containing purified lectins extracted from a Brazilian variety (called 'Jalo') of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed marked ultrastructural changes in the epithelium of the proximal jejunum, while both pair-fed and ad-libitum-fed controls did not. The jejunal absorptive cells of rats fed a diet containing lectins exhibited conspicuous abnormalities of the microvilli. They were shorter, slightly thicker, irregular and more sparse; some were bi- or tri-furcated, sharing a common base of implantation. A slightly disorganized terminal web was present below the brush border. The supranuclear cytoplasm of a great number of cells exhibited large cytolysosomes. Comparison with the results of pair-feeding suggests that purified bean lectins have a direct causative role in the pathogenesis of absorptive cell changes in the jejunal villi of rats. The possible pathogenic mechanism of these lesions is discussed.

  17. Jejunal ultrastructural changes induced by kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectins in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M. A.; Mancini Filho, J.; Lajolo, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    Rats maintained for a period of 5 days on a diet containing purified lectins extracted from a Brazilian variety (called 'Jalo') of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed marked ultrastructural changes in the epithelium of the proximal jejunum, while both pair-fed and ad-libitum-fed controls did not. The jejunal absorptive cells of rats fed a diet containing lectins exhibited conspicuous abnormalities of the microvilli. They were shorter, slightly thicker, irregular and more sparse; some were bi- or tri-furcated, sharing a common base of implantation. A slightly disorganized terminal web was present below the brush border. The supranuclear cytoplasm of a great number of cells exhibited large cytolysosomes. Comparison with the results of pair-feeding suggests that purified bean lectins have a direct causative role in the pathogenesis of absorptive cell changes in the jejunal villi of rats. The possible pathogenic mechanism of these lesions is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6696828

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the lectin from Dioclea rostrata Benth seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Delatorre, Plínio; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Melo, Luciana Magalhães; Souza, Emmanuel Prata de; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias da; Benevides, Raquel G.; Oliveira, Taiana Maia de; Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Bezerra, Maria Júlia Barbosa; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra da; Freire, Valder Nogueira; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2006-02-01

    D. rostrata lectin was crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group I222 and diffracted to 1.87 Å resolution. Lectins from the Diocleinae subtribe (Leguminosae) are highly similar proteins that promote various biological activities with distinctly differing potencies. The structural basis for this experimental data is not yet fully understood. Dioclea rostrata lectin was purified and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion at 293 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.51, b = 88.22, c = 87.76 Å. Assuming the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be about 47.9%. A complete data set was collected at 1.87 Å resolution.

  19. Structure of a lectin from the sea mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (CGL)

    PubMed Central

    Jakób, Michał; Lubkowski, Jacek; O’Keefe, Barry R.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    CGL is a 150 amino-acid residue lectin that was originally isolated from the sea mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. It is specific for binding GalNAc/Gal-containing carbohydrate moieties and in general does not share sequence homology with other known galectins or lectins. Since CGL displays antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities, and interacts with high affinity with mucin-type receptors, which are abundant on some cancer cells, knowledge of its structure is of significant interest. Conditions have been established for the expression, purification and crystallization of a recombinant variant of CGL. The crystal structure of recombinant CGL was determined and refined at a resolution of 2.12 Å. The amino-acid sequence of CGL contains three homologous regions (73% similarity) and the folded protein has a β-trefoil topology. Structural comparison of CGL with the closely related lectin MytiLec allowed description of the glycan-binding pockets. PMID:26527272

  20. Effect of lectin from Chelidonium majus L. on normal and cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Fik, E; Wołuń-Cholewa, M; Kistowska, M; Warchoł, J B; Goździcka-Józefiak, A

    2001-01-01

    Lectin from Chelidonium majus L. (CML) significantly stimulates the proliferation of human lymphocytes and has hemagglutination activity towards group B human erythrocytes and potent antimicrobial properties against multiresistant enterococci and staphylococci. In the present work we describe the effect of lectin from Chelidonium majus L on normal and cancercells in culture in vitro. The studies were performed on three types of cells: CHO, R2C and on normal mouse fibroblasts. Effects on the cultures were examined 24 h after addition of CML. Exposure to CML resulted in growth inhibition of CHO and R2C cells but not of fibroblasts. Moreover, evident apoptotic lesions were observed in CHO cells and less well marked apoptotic lesions in R2C cells. In contrast, only insignificant numbers of fibroblasts reacted to the applied lectin.

  1. High Bacterial Agglutination Activity in a Single-CRD C-Type Lectin from Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gasmi, Leila; Ferré, Juan; Herrero, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-interacting proteins that play a pivotal role in multiple physiological and developmental aspects of all organisms. They can specifically interact with different bacterial and viral pathogens through carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). In addition, lectins are also of biotechnological interest because of their potential use as biosensors for capturing and identifying bacterial species. In this work, three C-type lectins from the Lepidoptera Spodoptera exigua were produced as recombinant proteins and their bacterial agglutination properties were characterized. The lowest protein concentration producing bacterial agglutination against a panel of different Gram+ and Gram− as well as their carbohydrate binding specificities was determined for the three lectins. One of these lectins, BLL2, was able to agglutinate cells from a broad range of bacterial species at an extremely low concentration, becoming a very interesting protein to be used as a biosensor or for other biotechnological applications involving bacterial capture. PMID:28257054

  2. Community-Based Network Study of Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions in Plant Lectins Using Glycan Array Data

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Adeel; Lee, Juyong; Lee, Jooyoung

    2014-01-01

    Lectins play major roles in biological processes such as immune recognition and regulation, inflammatory responses, cytokine signaling, and cell adhesion. Recently, glycan microarrays have shown to play key roles in understanding glycobiology, allowing us to study the relationship between the specificities of glycan binding proteins and their natural ligands at the omics scale. However, one of the drawbacks in utilizing glycan microarray data is the lack of systematic analysis tools to extract information. In this work, we attempt to group various lectins and their interacting carbohydrates by using community-based analysis of a lectin-carbohydrate network. The network consists of 1119 nodes and 16769 edges and we have identified 3 lectins having large degrees of connectivity playing the roles of hubs. The community based network analysis provides an easy way to obtain a general picture of the lectin-glycan interaction and many statistically significant functional groups. PMID:24755681

  3. High Bacterial Agglutination Activity in a Single-CRD C-Type Lectin from Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gasmi, Leila; Ferré, Juan; Herrero, Salvador

    2017-03-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-interacting proteins that play a pivotal role in multiple physiological and developmental aspects of all organisms. They can specifically interact with different bacterial and viral pathogens through carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). In addition, lectins are also of biotechnological interest because of their potential use as biosensors for capturing and identifying bacterial species. In this work, three C-type lectins from the Lepidoptera Spodoptera exigua were produced as recombinant proteins and their bacterial agglutination properties were characterized. The lowest protein concentration producing bacterial agglutination against a panel of different Gram+ and Gram- as well as their carbohydrate binding specificities was determined for the three lectins. One of these lectins, BLL2, was able to agglutinate cells from a broad range of bacterial species at an extremely low concentration, becoming a very interesting protein to be used as a biosensor or for other biotechnological applications involving bacterial capture.

  4. Rapid assays for lectin toxicity and binding changes that reflect altered glycosylation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Pamela; Sundaram, Subha

    2014-06-03

    Glycosylation engineering is used to generate glycoproteins, glycolipids, or proteoglycans with a more defined complement of glycans on their glycoconjugates. For example, a mammalian cell glycosylation mutant lacking a specific glycosyltransferase generates glycoproteins, and/or glycolipids, and/or proteoglycans with truncated glycans missing the sugar transferred by that glycosyltransferase, as well as those sugars that would be added subsequently. In some cases, an alternative glycosyltransferase may then use the truncated glycans as acceptors, thereby generating a new or different glycan subset in the mutant cell. Another type of glycosylation mutant arises from gain-of-function mutations that, for example, activate a silent glycosyltransferase gene. In this case, glycoconjugates will have glycans with additional sugar(s) that are more elaborate than the glycans of wild type cells. Mutations in other genes that affect glycosylation, such as nucleotide sugar synthases or transporters, will alter the glycan complement in more general ways that usually affect several types of glycoconjugates. There are now many strategies for generating a precise mutation in a glycosylation gene in a mammalian cell. Large-volume cultures of mammalian cells may also generate spontaneous mutants in glycosylation pathways. This article will focus on how to rapidly characterize mammalian cells with an altered glycosylation activity. The key reagents for the protocols described are plant lectins that bind mammalian glycans with varying avidities, depending on the specific structure of those glycans. Cells with altered glycosylation generally become resistant or hypersensitive to lectin toxicity, and have reduced or increased lectin or antibody binding. Here we describe rapid assays to compare the cytotoxicity of lectins in a lectin resistance test, and the binding of lectins or antibodies by flow cytometry in a glycan-binding assay. Based on these tests, glycosylation changes expressed

  5. Ultrasensitive impedimetric lectin biosensors with efficient antifouling properties applied in glycoprofiling of human serum samples.

    PubMed

    Bertok, Tomas; Klukova, Ludmila; Sediva, Alena; Kasák, Peter; Semak, Vladislav; Micusik, Matej; Omastova, Maria; Chovanová, Lucia; Vlček, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Vikartovska, Alica; Tkac, Jan

    2013-08-06

    Ultrasensitive impedimetric lectin biosensors recognizing different glycan entities on serum glycoproteins were constructed. Lectins were immobilized on a novel mixed self-assembled monolayer containing 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid for covalent immobilization of lectins and betaine terminated thiol to resist nonspecific interactions. Construction of biosensors based on Concanavalin A (Con A), Sambucus nigra agglutinin type I (SNA), and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) on polycrystalline gold electrodes was optimized and characterized with a battery of tools including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, various electrochemical techniques, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and compared with a protein/lectin microarray. The lectin biosensors were able to detect glycoproteins from 1 fM (Con A), 10 fM (Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), or 100 fM (SNA) with a linear range spanning 6 (SNA), 7 (RCA), or 8 (Con A) orders of magnitude. Furthermore, a detection limit for the Con A biosensor down to 1 aM was achieved in a sandwich configuration. A nonspecific binding of proteins for the Con A biosensor was only 6.1% (probed with an oxidized invertase) of the signal toward its analyte invertase and a negligible nonspecific interaction of the Con A biosensor was observed in diluted human sera (1000×), as well. The performance of the lectin biosensors was finally tested by glycoprofiling of human serum samples from healthy individuals and those having rheumatoid arthritis, which resulted in a distinct glycan pattern between these two groups.

  6. Flow cytometric analysis of lectin binding to in vitro-cultured Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, J.D.; Jenkins, J.A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2004-01-01

    Parasite surface glycoconjugates are frequently involved in cellular recognition and colonization of the host. This study reports on the identification of Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates by flow cytometric analyses of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectin binding. Lectin-binding specificity was confirmed by sugar inhibition and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. Clear, measurable fluorescence peaks were discriminated, and no parasite autofluorescence was observed. Parasites (GTLA-5 and Perkinsus-1 strains) harvested during log and stationary phases of growth in a protein-free medium reacted strongly with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin, which bind to glucose-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, respectively. Both P. marinus strains bound with lower intensity to Maclura pomifera agglutinin, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin, soybean agglutinin (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectins), peanut agglutinin (PNA) (terminal galactose specific), and Griffonia simplicifolia II (GlcNAc specific). Only background fluorescence levels were detected with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (L-fucose specific) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (sialic acid specific). The lectin-binding profiles were similar for the 2 strains except for a greater relative binding intensity of PNA for Perkinsus-1 and an overall greater lectin-binding capacity of Perkinsus-1 compared with GTLA-5. Growth stage comparisons revealed increased lectin-binding intensities during stationary phase compared with log phase of growth. This is the first report of the identification of surface glycoconjugates on a Perkinsus spp. by flow cytometry and the first to demonstrate that differential surface sugar expression is growth phase and strain dependent. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2004.

  7. A novel core fucose-specific lectin from the mushroom Pholiota squarrosa.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Tateno, Hiroaki; Dohra, Hideo; Moriwaki, Kenta; Miyoshi, Eiji; Hirabayashi, Jun; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2012-10-05

    Fucα1-6 oligosaccharide has a variety of biological functions and serves as a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma because of the elevated presence of fucosylated α-fetoprotein (AFP) in this type of cancer. In this study we purified a novel Fucα1-6-specific lectin from the mushroom Pholiota squarrosa by ion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography on thyroglobulin-agarose. The purified lectin was designated as PhoSL (P. squarrosa lectin). SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicate that PhoSL has a molecular mass of 4.5 kDa and consists of 40 amino acids (NH(2)-APVPVTKLVCDGDTYKCTAYLDFGDGRWVAQWDTNVFHTG-OH). Isoelectric focusing of the lectin showed bands near pI 4.0. The lectin activity was stable between pH 2.0 and 11.0 and at temperatures ranging from 0 to 100 °C for incubation times of 30 min. When PhoSL was investigated with frontal affinity chromatography using 132 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides, it was found that the lectin binds only to core α1-6-fucosylated N-glycans and not to other types of fucosylated oligosaccharides, such as α1-2-, α1-3-, and α1-4-fucosylated glycans. Furthermore, PhoSL bound to α1-6-fucosylated AFP but not to non-fucosylated AFP. In addition, PhoSL was able to demonstrate the differential expression of α1-6 fucosylation between primary and metastatic colon cancer tissues. Thus, PhoSL will be a promising tool for analyzing the biological functions of α1-6 fucosylation and evaluating Fucα1-6 oligosaccharides as cancer biomarkers.

  8. Hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibit human lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Melinn, M; McLaughlin, H

    1986-06-01

    The role of oxygen-derived free radicals (ODFR) in lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (LDCC) in humans was investigated. The hydroxyl radical traps thiourea, methanol, ethanol and phenol were effective in inhibiting LDCC, as was DABCO, a singlet oxygen quencher. The proposed pathway of hydroxyl radical production in living cells is either an iron catalysed Haber-Weiss reaction or a Fenton reaction. The effect of inhibitors of these pathways was investigated. The superoxide anion scavengers superoxide dismutase, ferricytochrome c and Tiron were without effect. It was shown that Tiron inhibits the lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence produced by the action of xanthine oxidase, and also the lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence produced by activated PMN, suggesting that this agent (Tiron) scavenges intracellular superoxide anion. Catalase gave slight inhibition of LDCC only. The ferric iron chelator desferrioxamine gave no protection of the target cells, while the ferrous chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline, inhibited LDCC and partially prevented the detection of hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fe2+-H2O2 system. Cibacron blue, an agent that inhibits NAD(P)H linked enzymes, also inhibited LDCC. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and salicylate were without effect, while the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited cytolysis. None of the LDCC inhibitors was cytotoxic to the effector cells or to the target cells, neither did they inhibit lymphocyte-target binding. The findings would suggest that hydroxyl radicals have a role to play in human T-cell mediated cytolysis, either as the active lytic agent or as an epiphenomenon.

  9. Cloning and analysis of rat osteoclast inhibitory lectin gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jin-Xing; Zheng, Fang; Li, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Li-Ling; Sun, Zi-Yang; Jiao, Yan-Li; Wang, Bao-Li

    2009-03-01

    Osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL) is a novel regulator of bone remodeling, however, little is known concerning how OCIL is regulated to date. In this study, approximately 4.4 kb of the 5'-flanking sequence of rat OCIL gene was cloned into the promoter-less reporter vector pGL3-basic and transiently transfected into three different cell lines. The differences in the levels of luciferase activity paralleled well with the levels of OCIL mRNA expression in these cells, suggesting that the regulation of rat OCIL gene expression occurs mainly at the transcriptional level. Additional luciferase assays using a series of constructs containing unidirectionally deleted fragments showed that the construct-1819/pGL3 (-1819 to +118) exhibited the highest luciferase activity, suggesting the presence of functional promoter in this region. The region from -4370 to -2805 might contain negative regulatory elements, while the region from -1819 to -1336 might have important positive regulatory elements that enhance OCIL transcription. Sequence analysis of the promoter revealed the absence of both TATA and CAAT boxes. However, in the proximal promoter region (-81 to +118), several potential transcription factor binding sites that may be responsible for the basal transcriptional activity of rat OCIL promoter were observed. The promoter contains several potential Sp1 binding sites, and cotransfection of a shRNA expression plasmid that knockdowns Sp1 significantly reduced OCIL promoter activity and endogenous gene expression and moreover, overexpressing Sp7, a Sp1 family member that also binds to Sp1 binding sequence, increased OCIL promoter activity and gene expression, suggesting a role of Sp1 family proteins in regulation of OCIL transcription.

  10. Differentiation of Bacillus Anthracis and Other Bacillus Species by Use of Lectins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-18

    GlcNAc Ulex eurpaes ( UEA - I ) a-L- Fuc Ulex europaeus ( UEA -1I) (V- PlcNAc) > 0--D-GlcNAc 2 ý-Specificities of all lectins werE obtained from E-Y...from B. anthracis and the related OD ~YI 113 EITIO OP NOV61 I OSSL~rtUNCLASSIFIED’ Y 8 3 7 2 03 9 SECUR4TY CLASSIFICATION OF rthS PAGE (w7bma Daie d...Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick, MD 21701 Aoaession For Short title: Lectin -1B. anthracis interaction I RA *Correspondent author (502

  11. Affinity of bronchial secretion glycoproteins and cells of human bronchial mucosa for Ricinus communis lectins.

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, M; Lamblin, G; Degand, P; Roussel, P; Mazzuca, M

    1977-01-01

    The coupling of Ricinus communis lectins to Sephadex G 25 was used in order to study mucins and other glycoproteins from human bronchial secretion. The major part of human bronchial mucins and other glycoproteins such as immunoglobulins A, bronchotransferrin and alpha1-antichymotrypsin were isolated by this procedure. A parallel study of human bronchial mucosa was achieved with peroxidase labeled Ricinus communis lectins; this study characterized goblet cells and mucous cells which contain mucins, and serous cells which are involved in the synthesis or the secretion of the other glycoproteins.

  12. Inactivation and fragmentation of lectin from Bothrops leucurus snake venom by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, E. S.; Souza, M. A. A.; Vaz, A. F. M.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.; Aguiar, J. S.; Silva, T. G.; Guarnieri, M. C.; Melo, A. M. M. A.; Oliva, M. L. V.; Correia, M. T. S.

    2012-04-01

    Gamma radiation alters the molecular structure of biomolecules and is able to mitigate the action of snake venoms and their isolated toxins. The effect of γ-radiation on the folding of Bothrops lecurus venom lectin was measured by a hemagglutinating assay, intrinsic and bis-ANS fluorescence. Intrinsic and bis-ANS fluorescence analyses indicated that irradiation caused unfolding followed by aggregation of the lectin. Our results suggest that irradiation can lead to significant changes in the protein structure, which may promote the loss of its binding property and toxic action.

  13. An insecticidal N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectin gene from Griffonia simplicifolia (Leguminosae).

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, K; Huesing, J E; Shade, R E; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M; Murdock, L L

    1996-01-01

    Griffonia simplicifolia II, an N-acetylglucosamine-specific legume lectin, has insecticidal activity when fed to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). A cDNA clone encoding G. simplicifolia II was isolated from a leaf cDNA library, sequenced, and expressed in a bacterial expression system. The recombinant protein exhibited N-acetylglucosamine-binding and insecticidal activity against cowpea weevil, indicating that glycosylation and multimeric structure are not required for these properties. These results support the hypothesis that genes of the legume lectin gene family encode proteins that function in plant defense against herbivores. PMID:8587982

  14. Unmasking of CD22 Co-receptor on Germinal Center B-cells Occurs by Alternative Mechanisms in Mouse and Man*

    PubMed Central

    Macauley, Matthew S.; Kawasaki, Norihito; Peng, Wenjie; Wang, Shui-Hua; He, Yuan; Arlian, Britni M.; McBride, Ryan; Kannagi, Reiji; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Paulson, James C.

    2015-01-01

    CD22 is an inhibitory B-cell co-receptor whose function is modulated by sialic acid (Sia)-bearing glycan ligands. Glycan remodeling in the germinal center (GC) alters CD22 ligands, with as yet no ascribed biological consequence. Here, we show in both mice and humans that loss of high affinity ligands on GC B-cells unmasks the binding site of CD22 relative to naive and memory B-cells, promoting recognition of trans ligands. The conserved modulation of CD22 ligands on GC B-cells is striking because high affinity glycan ligands of CD22 are species-specific. In both species, the high affinity ligand is based on the sequence Siaα2–6Galβ1–4GlcNAc, which terminates N-glycans. The human ligand has N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) as the sialic acid, and the high affinity ligand on naive B-cells contains 6-O-sulfate on the GlcNAc. On human GC B-cells, this sulfate modification is lost, giving rise to lower affinity CD22 ligands. Ligands of CD22 on naive murine B-cells do not contain the 6-O-sulfate modification. Instead, the high affinity ligand for mouse CD22 has N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) as the sialic acid, which is replaced on GC B-cells with Neu5Ac. Human naive and memory B-cells express sulfated glycans as high affinity CD22 ligands, which are lost on GC B-cells. In mice, Neu5Gc-containing glycans serve as high affinity CD22 ligands that are replaced by Neu5Ac-containing glycans on GC B-cells. Our results demonstrate that loss of high affinity CD22 ligands on GC B-cells occurs in both mice and humans through alternative mechanisms, unmasking CD22 relative to naive and memory B-cells. PMID:26507663

  15. Graphene oxide-based electrochemical label-free detection of glycoproteins down to aM level using a lectin biosensor.

    PubMed

    Klukova, L; Filip, J; Belicky, S; Vikartovska, A; Tkac, J

    2016-07-21

    A label-free ultrasensitive impedimetric biosensor with lectin immobilised on graphene oxide (GO) for the detection of glycoproteins from 1 aM is shown here. This is the first time a functional lectin biosensor with lectin directly immobilised on a graphene-based interface without any polymer modifier has been described. The study also shows that hydrophilic oxidative debris present on GO has a beneficial effect on the sensitivity of (8.46 ± 0.20)% per decade for the lectin biosensor compared to the sensitivity of (4.52 ± 0.23)% per decade for the lectin biosensor built up from GO with the oxidative debris washed out.

  16. Affinophoresis of pea lectin and fava bean lectin with an anionic affinophore, bearing rho-aminophenyl-alpha-D-mannoside as an affinity ligand.

    PubMed

    Shimura, K; Kasai, K

    1987-07-29

    Affinophoresis is an electrophoretic separation technique for biological polymers with the aid of an affinophore, which is a macromolecular polyelectrolyte bearing affinity ligands. The affinophore migrates rapidly in an electric field, and consequently the electrophoretic mobility of molecules having an affinity for the ligand is specifically changed. An anionic affinophore-bearing mannosyl residue was synthesized for the affinophoresis of lectins. rho-Aminophenyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside and aminomethanesulphonic acid were coupled to about one-tenth and one-fifth, respectively, of the carboxyl groups of succinyl-poly-L-lysine with an average degree of polymerization of 120 by the use of a water-soluble carbodiimide. Extracts of seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) or fava bean (Vicia fava) were subjected to two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, in which the first dimension was ordinary agarose gel electrophoresis and the second dimension was affinophoresis with the affinophore. The separated proteins were stained with Coomassie Blue R250. The lectins in both seed extracts were separated from a diagonal line formed by other proteins in the extracts. About 10 ng of the separated pea lectin was detected on a nitrocellulose blot by immunostaining with a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated second antibody.

  17. A galactose-binding lectin isolated from Aplysia kurodai (sea hare) eggs inhibits streptolysin-induced hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Watanabe, Miharu; Ishizaki, Naoto; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Yasushi; Suzuki, Jun; Dogasaki, Chikaku; Rajia, Sultana; Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Koide, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A; Sugawara, Shigeki; Hosono, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Fujii, Yuki; Iriko, Hideyuki; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-05

    A specific galactose-binding lectin was shown to inhibit the hemolytic effect of streptolysin O (SLO), an exotoxin produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. Commercially available lectins that recognize N-acetyllactosamine (ECA), T-antigen (PNA), and Tn-antigen (ABA) agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes, but had no effect on SLO-induced hemolysis. In contrast, SLO-induced hemolysis was inhibited by AKL, a lectin purified from sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) eggs that recognizes α-galactoside oligosaccharides. This inhibitory effect was blocked by the co-presence of d-galactose, which binds to AKL. A possible explanation for these findings is that cholesterol-enriched microdomains containing glycosphingolipids in the erythrocyte membrane become occupied by tightly stacked lectin molecules, blocking the interaction between cholesterol and SLO that would otherwise result in penetration of the membrane. Growth of S. pyogenes was inhibited by lectins from a marine invertebrate (AKL) and a mushroom (ABA), but was promoted by a plant lectin (ECA). Both these inhibitory and promoting effects were blocked by co-presence of galactose in the culture medium. Our findings demonstrate the importance of glycans and lectins in regulating mechanisms of toxicity, creation of pores in the target cell membrane, and bacterial growth.

  18. Unusual sugar specificity of banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca and its probable evolutionary origin. Crystallographic and modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, D D; Saikrishnan, K; Kumar, Prashant; Surolia, A; Sekar, K; Vijayan, M

    2005-10-01

    The crystal structure of a complex of methyl-alpha-D-mannoside with banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca reveals two primary binding sites in the lectin, unlike in other lectins with beta-prism I fold which essentially consists of three Greek key motifs. It has been suggested that the fold evolved through successive gene duplication and fusion of an ancestral Greek key motif. In other lectins, all from dicots, the primary binding site exists on one of the three motifs in the three-fold symmetric molecule. Banana is a monocot, and the three motifs have not diverged enough to obliterate sequence similarity among them. Two Greek key motifs in it carry one primary binding site each. A common secondary binding site exists on the third Greek key. Modelling shows that both the primary sites can support 1-2, 1-3, and 1-6 linked mannosides with the second residue interacting in each case primarily with the secondary binding site. Modelling also readily leads to a bound branched mannopentose with the nonreducing ends of the two branches anchored at the two primary binding sites, providing a structural explanation for the lectin's specificity for branched alpha-mannans. A comparison of the dimeric banana lectin with other beta-prism I fold lectins, provides interesting insights into the variability in their quaternary structure.

  19. Use of Aleuria alantia Lectin Affinity Chromatography to Enrich Candidate Biomarkers from the Urine of Patients with Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Sarah R.; Gordon, Naheema S.; Goldsmith, James C.; Wei, Wenbin; Zeegers, Maurice P.; James, Nicholas D.; Knowles, Margaret A.; Bryan, Richard T.; Ward, Douglas G.

    2015-01-01

    Developing a urine test to detect bladder tumours with high sensitivity and specificity is a key goal in bladder cancer research. We hypothesised that bladder cancer-specific glycoproteins might fulfill this role. Lectin-ELISAs were used to study the binding of 25 lectins to 10 bladder cell lines and serum and urine from bladder cancer patients and non-cancer controls. Selected lectins were then used to enrich glycoproteins from the urine of bladder cancer patients and control subjects for analysis by shotgun proteomics. None of the lectins showed a strong preference for bladder cancer cell lines over normal urothlelial cell lines or for urinary glycans from bladder cancer patients over those from non-cancer controls. However, several lectins showed a strong preference for bladder cell line glycans over serum glycans and are potentially useful for enriching glycoproteins originating from the urothelium in urine. Aleuria alantia lectin affinity chromatography and shotgun proteomics identified mucin-1 and golgi apparatus protein 1 as proteins warranting further investigation as urinary biomarkers for low-grade bladder cancer. Glycosylation changes in bladder cancer are not reliably detected by measuring lectin binding to unfractionated proteomes, but it is possible that more specific reagents and/or a focus on individual proteins may produce clinically useful biomarkers. PMID:28248271

  20. Cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of tepary bean lectins on C33-A, MCF-7, SKNSH, and SW480 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Morales-González, José A; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Cruz-Castañeda, Areli; Bautista, Mirandeli; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara

    2014-07-07

    For many years, several studies have been employing lectin from vegetables in order to prove its toxic effect on various cell lines. In this work, we analyzed the cytotoxic, antiproliferative, and post-incubatory effect of pure tepary bean lectins on four lines of malignant cells: C33-A; MCF-7; SKNSH, and SW480. The tests were carried out employing MTT and 3[H]-thymidine assays. The results showed that after 24 h of lectin exposure, the cells lines showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect, the effect being higher on MCF-7, while C33-A showed the highest resistance. Cell proliferation studies showed that the toxic effect induced by lectins is higher even when lectins are removed, and in fact, the inhibition of proliferation continues after 48 h. Due to the use of two techniques to analyze the cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect, differences were observed in the results, which can be explained by the fact that one technique is based on metabolic reactions, while the other is based on the 3[H]-thymidine incorporated in DNA by cells under division. These results allow concluding that lectins exert a cytotoxic effect after 24 h of exposure, exhibiting a dose-dependent effect. In some cases, the cytotoxic effect is higher even when the lectins are eliminated, however, in other cases, the cells showed a proliferative effect.

  1. Lectin-carbohydrate interactions on nanoporous gold monoliths.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yih Horng; Fujikawa, Kohki; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Alla, Allan J; Ganesh, N Vijaya; Demchenko, Alexei V; Stine, Keith J

    2013-07-01

    Monoliths of nanoporous gold (np-Au) were modified with self-assembled monolayers of octadecanethiol (C18-SH), 8-mercaptooctyl α-D-mannopyranoside (αMan-C8-SH), and 8-mercapto-3,6-dioxaoctanol (HO-PEG2-SH), and the loading was assessed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Modification with mixed SAMs containing αMan-C8-SH (at a 0.20 mole fraction in the SAM forming solution) with either octanethiol or HO-PEG2-SH was also investigated. The np-Au monoliths modified with αMan-C8-SH bind the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A), and the additional mass due to bound protein was assessed using TGA analysis. A comparison of TGA traces measured before and after exposure of HO-PEG2-SH modified np-Au to Con A showed that the non-specific binding of Con A was minimal. In contrast, np-Au modified with octanethiol showed a significant mass loss due to non-specifically adsorbed Con A. A significant mass loss was also attributed to binding of Con A to bare np-Au monoliths. TGA revealed a mass loss due to the binding of Con A to np-Au monoliths modified with pure αMan-C8-SH. The use of mass losses determined by TGA to compare the binding of Con A to np-Au monoliths modified by mixed SAMs of αMan-C8-SH and either octanethiol or HO-PEG2-SH revealed that binding to mixed SAM modified surfaces is specific for the mixed SAMs with HO-PEG2-SH but shows a significant contribution from non-specific adsorption for the mixed SAMs with octanethiol. Minimal adsorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and peanut agglutinin (PNA) towards the mannoside modified np-Au monoliths was demonstrated. A greater mass loss was found for Con A bound onto the monolith than for either IgG or PNA, signifying that the mannose presenting SAMs in np-Au retain selectivity for Con A. TGA data also provide evidence that Con A bound to the αMan-C8-SH modified np-Au can be eluted by flowing a solution of methyl α-D-mannopyranoside through the structure. The presence of Con A proteins on the modified np-Au surface was

  2. Topology of the disulfide bonds in the antiviral lectin scytovirin

    PubMed Central

    Moulaei, Tinoush; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew; Yuan, Weirong; Pohl, Jan; Lu, Wuyuan; Haugh-Krumpe, Lauren; O'Keefe, Barry R; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The antiviral lectin scytovirin (SVN) contains a total of five disulfide bonds in two structurally similar domains. Previous reports provided contradictory results on the disulfide pairing in each individual domain, and we have now re-examined the disulfide topology. N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry were used to analyze proteolytic fragments of native SVN obtained at acidic pH, yielding the assignment as Cys7–Cys55, Cys20–Cys32, Cys26–Cys38, Cys68–Cys80, and Cys74–Cys86. We also analyzed the N-terminal domain of SVN (SD1, residues 1–48) prepared by expression/oxidative folding of the recombinant protein and by chemical synthesis. The disulfide pairing in the chemically synthesized SD1 was forced into predetermined topologies: SD1A (Cys20–Cys26, Cys32–Cys38) or SD1B (Cys20–Cys32, Cys26–Cys38). The topology of native SVN was found to be in agreement with the SD1B and the one determined for the recombinant SD1 domain. Although the two synthetic forms of SD1 were distinct when subjected to chromatography, their antiviral properties were indistinguishable, having low nM activity against HIV. Tryptic fragments, the “cystine clusters” [Cys20–Cys32/Cys26–Cys38; SD1] and [Cys68–Cys80/Cys74–C-86; SD2], were found to undergo rapid disulfide interchange at pH 8. This interchange resulted in accumulation of artifactual fragments in alkaline pH digests that are structurally unrelated to the original topology, providing a rational explanation for the differences between the topology reported herein and the one reported earlier (Bokesh et al., Biochemistry 2003;42:2578–2584). Our observations emphasize the fact that proteins such as SVN, with disulfide bonds in close proximity, require considerable precautions when being fragmented for the purpose of disulfide assignment. PMID:20572021

  3. Identification of aberrantly expressed glycans in gastric cancer by integrated lectin microarray and mass spectrometric analyses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Guan, Feng; Li, Dongliang; Tan, Zengqi; Yang, Ganglong; Wu, Yanli; Huang, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer progression is usually associated with alterations of glycan expression patterns. Little is known regarding global glycomics in gastric cancer, the most common type of epithelial cancer. We integrated lectin microarray and mass spectrometry (MS) methods to profile glycan expression in three gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, HGC-27, and MGC-803) and one normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). Significantly altered glycans were confirmed by lectin staining and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The three cancer cell lines showed increased levels of core-fucosylated N-glycans, GalNAcα-Ser/Thr (Tn antigen), and Sia2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc N-glycans, but reduced levels of biantennary N-glycans, Galβ1-3GalNAcα-Ser/Thr (T antigen), and (GlcNAc)n N-glycans. Lectin histochemistry was used to validate aberrant expression of four representative glycans (core-fucosylation, Sia2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc, biantennary N-glycans, T antigen, recognized respectively by lectins LCA, SNA, PHA-E+L, and ACA) in clinical gastric cancer samples. Lower binding capacity for ACA was correlated with significantly poorer patient prognosis. Our findings indicate for the first time that glycans recognized by LCA, ACA, and PHA-E+L are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer, and suggest that ACA is a potential prognostic factor for gastric cancer. PMID:27895315

  4. Feline lectin activity is critical for the cellular entry of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Regan, Andrew D; Ousterout, David G; Whittaker, Gary R

    2010-08-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis is a lethal disease of felids caused by systemic infection with a feline coronavirus. Here, we report identification and analysis of the feline homologue to the human lectin DC-SIGN and show that it is a coreceptor for virulent strains of serotype 1 and serotype 2 feline coronaviruses.

  5. Transmission-blocking antibodies against mosquito C-type lectins for dengue prevention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Jianying; Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Siyin; Qin, Chengfeng; Xiang, Ye; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2014-02-01

    C-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. Several C-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. We previously identified a C-type lectin in Aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific C-type lectin-1 (mosGCTL-1), facilitating the attachment of West Nile virus (WNV) on the cell membrane. Here, we first identified that 9 A. aegypti mosGCTL genes were key susceptibility factors facilitating DENV-2 infection, of which mosGCTL-3 exhibited the most significant effect. We found that mosGCTL-3 was induced in mosquito tissues with DENV-2 infection, and that the protein interacted with DENV-2 surface envelop (E) protein and virions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the other identified mosGCTLs interacted with the DENV-2 E protein, indicating that DENV may employ multiple mosGCTLs as ligands to promote the infection of vectors. The vectorial susceptibility factors that facilitate pathogen invasion may potentially be explored as a target to disrupt the acquisition of microbes from the vertebrate host. Indeed, membrane blood feeding of antisera against mosGCTLs dramatically reduced mosquito infective ratio. Hence, the immunization against mosGCTLs is a feasible approach for preventing dengue infection. Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden.

  6. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jaeyoun; Park, Changnam; Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-01-01

    The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3. PMID:27169676

  7. Developmental Regulation of Lectin and Alliinase Synthesis in Garlic Bulbs and Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, K.; Van Damme, EJM.; Peumans, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    Using a combination of northern blot analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a detailed study was made of the temporal and spatial regulation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) lectins and alliinase throughout the life cycle of the plant. The two bulb-specific lectins (ASAI and ASAII), which are the most predominant bulb proteins, accumulate exclusively in the developing garlic cloves and progressively disappear when the old clove is consumed by the plant. On the basis of these observations, ASAI and ASAII can be regarded as typical vegetative storage proteins. The leaf-specific lectin (ASAL), on the contrary, is specifically synthesized in young leaves and remains present until withering. Because ASAL is only a minor protein, it probably fulfills a specific function in the plant. Unlike the lectins, alliinase is present in large quantities in bulbs as well as in leaves. Moreover, intact alliinase mRNAs are present in both tissues as long as they contain living cells. The latter observation is in good agreement with the possible involvement of alliinase in the plant's defense against pathogens and/or predators. PMID:12223641

  8. Expression of soybean lectin in transgenic tobacco results in enhanced resistance to pathogens and pests.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peipei; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Xiaohui; Xie, Yongli; Wu, Huijun; Gao, Xuewen

    2013-10-01

    Lectins are proteins of non-immune origin that specifically interact with carbohydrates, known to play important roles in the defense system of plants. In this study, in order to study the function of a new soybean lectin (SBL), the corresponding encoding gene lec-s was introduced into tobacco plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot analyses had revealed that the lec-s gene was stable integrated into the chromosome of the tobacco. The results of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) also indicated that the lec-s gene in the transgenic tobacco plants could be expressed under the control of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Evaluation agronomic of the performance had showed that the transgenic plants could resist to the infection of Phytophthora nicotianae. Insect bioassays using detached leaves from transgenic tobacco plants demonstrated that the ectopically expressed SBL significantly (P.0.05) reduced the weight gain of larvae of the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). Further on, the lectins retarded the development of the larvae and their metamorphosis. These findings suggest that soybean lectins have potential as a protective agent against pathogens and insect pests through a transgenic approach.

  9. Purification of a secreted lectin from Andrias davidianus skin and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Qu, Min; Tong, Changqing; Kong, Liang; Yan, Xin; Chernikov, Oleg V; Lukyanov, Pavel A; Jin, Qiao; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A lectin secreted from Andrias davidianus skin (ADL) was purified by affinity chromatography on porcine stomach mucin (type III) (PSM)-crosslinked albumin, followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and HPLC on TSK gel G3000PWXL. The purified lectin was found to be a dimeric protein, as revealed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis. SDS-PAGE showed that the ADL protein had a molecular mass of 17 kDa. ADL produced an 8.5 kDa band when examined using SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. ADL agglutinated native and trypsinized human B erythrocytes. The hemagglutination activity was inhibited by glycoproteins, such as PSM and asialo-PSM, but not by any of the monosaccharides tested. The activity was stable between 4 °C and 50 °C. Significant ADL activity was observed between pH 4–5. The lectin reaction did not depend on the presence of the divalent cation Ca2+ or Mg2+. The N-terminal ADL sequence was determined to be VGYTVGATPM. The lectin exhibited antibacterial activity, involving growth and respiration inhibition in Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella sp. Furthermore, ADL showed inhibition activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These findings suggest that ADL plays an important role in the innate immunity of A. davidianus on the body surface.

  10. Lectin Digestibility and Stability of Elderberry Antioxidants to Heat Treatment In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Pilar; Cabrero, Patricia; Cordoba-Diaz, Damian; Cordoba-Diaz, Manuel; Garrosa, Manuel; Girbés, Tomás

    2017-01-06

    Elderberry contains healthy low molecular weight nutraceuticals and lectins which are sequence-related to the elderberry allergen Sam n1. Some of these lectins are type II ribosome-inactivating proteins. The sensitivity of native lectins present in elderberry fruits and bark to the proteolysis triggered by in vitro simulated gastric and duodenal fluids has been investigated. It was found that these lectins are refractory to proteolysis. Nonetheless, incubation for 5-10 min in a boiling water bath completely sensitized them to the hydrolytic enzymes in vitro. Under these conditions neither total Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent reactive compounds, total anthocyanins and the mixture of cyanidin-3-glucoside plus cyanidin-3-sambubioside, nor antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities were affected by more than 10% for incubations of up to 20 min. Therefore, short-time heat treatment reduces potential allergy-related risks deriving from elderberry consumption without seriously affecting its properties as an antioxidant and free-radical scavenging food.

  11. Evaluation of glycophenotype in breast cancer by quantum dot-lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Camila G; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Tenório, Denise P L; Santos, Beate S; Beltrão, Eduardo I C; Fontes, Adriana; Carvalho, Luiz B

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface glycoconjugates play an important role in differentiation/dedifferentiation processes and lectins are employed to evaluate them by several methodologies. Fluorescent probes are considered a valuable tool because of their ability to provide a particular view, and are more detailed and sensitive in terms of cell structure and molecular content. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression and distribution of glycoconjugates in normal human breast tissue, and benign (fibroadenoma), and malignantly transformed (invasive ductal carcinoma) breast tissues. For this, we used mercaptosuccinic acid-coated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with concanavalin A (Con A) or Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I) lectins to detect α-D-glucose/mannose and L-fucose residues, respectively. The QD-lectin conjugates were evaluated by hemagglutination activity tests and carbohydrate inhibition assays, and were found to remain functional, keeping their fluorescent properties and carbohydrate recognition ability. Fluorescence images showed that different regions of breast tissue expressed particular types of carbohydrates. While the stroma was preferentially and intensely stained by QD-Con A, ductal cells were preferentially labeled by QD-UEA I. These results indicate that QD-lectin conjugates can be used as molecular probes and can help to elucidate the glycoconjugate profile in biological processes.

  12. Evaluation of glycophenotype in breast cancer by quantum dot-lectin histochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Camila G; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Tenório, Denise PL; Santos, Beate S; Beltrão, Eduardo IC; Fontes, Adriana; Carvalho, Luiz B

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface glycoconjugates play an important role in differentiation/dedifferentiation processes and lectins are employed to evaluate them by several methodologies. Fluorescent probes are considered a valuable tool because of their ability to provide a particular view, and are more detailed and sensitive in terms of cell structure and molecular content. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression and distribution of glycoconjugates in normal human breast tissue, and benign (fibroadenoma), and malignantly transformed (invasive ductal carcinoma) breast tissues. For this, we used mercaptosuccinic acid-coated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with concanavalin A (Con A) or Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I) lectins to detect α-D-glucose/mannose and L-fucose residues, respectively. The QD-lectin conjugates were evaluated by hemagglutination activity tests and carbohydrate inhibition assays, and were found to remain functional, keeping their fluorescent properties and carbohydrate recognition ability. Fluorescence images showed that different regions of breast tissue expressed particular types of carbohydrates. While the stroma was preferentially and intensely stained by QD-Con A, ductal cells were preferentially labeled by QD-UEA I. These results indicate that QD-lectin conjugates can be used as molecular probes and can help to elucidate the glycoconjugate profile in biological processes. PMID:24324334

  13. Developmental changes affecting lectin binding in the vomeronasal organ of domestic pigs, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Park, Junwoo; Lee, Wonho; Jeong, Chanwoo; Kim, Hwangryong; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental changes of glycoconjugate patterns in the porcine vomeronasal organs (VNOs) and associated glands (Jacobson's glands) from prenatal (9 weeks of gestation) and postnatal (2 days after birth) to the sexually mature stage (6 months old). The VNO of pigs (Sus scrofa) was examined using the following: Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA). At the fetal stage, all lectins examined were detected mainly in the free border of the vomeronasal epithelium, but few (WGA and UEA-I) and or absent in the VNO cell bodies. At the postnatal and sexually mature stages, the reactivity of some lectins, including WGA, UEA-I, DBA and SBA, were shown to increase in the VNO sensory epithelium as well as the free border. The increased reactivity of lectins as development progressed was also observed in Jacobson's gland acini. These findings suggest that binding sites of lectins, including those of WGA, UEA-I, DBA, and SBA, increase during development from fetal to postnatal growth, possibly contributing to the increased ability of chemoreception in the pig.

  14. ConA and UEA-I lectin histochemistry of parotid gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Ana Paula V; Rego, Moacyr J B M; Cavalacanti, Carmelita L B; Carvalho, Luiz B; Beltrão, Eduardo I C

    2010-03-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) corresponds to 5-12% of all salivary gland tumours, and is classified as low, intermediate or high grade. Traditionally, immunohistochemistry was considered as the complementary tool for diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasia. Lectin histochemistry has also been increasingly used in recent years. In this work, lectins were used as histochemical markers for normal and transformed parotid glands. Biopsy specimens of 15 cases diagnosed as MEC (low, intermediate and high grade) of the parotid gland were trypsin- and methanol-H(2)O(2)-treated and incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated lectins, Concanavalin A (Con A-HRP) and Ulex europeus I (UEA-I-HRP). Con A stained the neoplasic cells of MEC (all grades). In high and intermediate cases, ductal cells were weakly stained by Con A. UEA-I weakly stained normal cells of the excretory duct and neoplasic cells in high grade. Neoplasic cells in intermediate grade were moderately stained and in low grade, the cell membrane was intensely stained with UEA-I. Stroma presented a direct relation between malignancy and staining intensity for UEA-I. The results indicated that lectin histochemistry distinguished the cell biology among histological grades of MEC.

  15. Purification and some characteristics of a beta-galactoside binding soluble lectin from amphibian ovary.

    PubMed

    Fink de Cabutti, N E; Caron, M; Joubert, R; Elola, M T; Bladier, D; Herkovitz, J

    1987-11-02

    Soluble extracts of Bufo ovaries agglutinate sialidase-treated rabbit erythrocytes. Unlike other amphibian lectins this agglutination activity does not require the presence of calcium ions. It is specifically inhibited by D-galactose and its derivatives. Thiodi-D-galactoside is the most potent saccharide inhibitor followed by lactose and methyl-beta-D-galactoside, respectively. D-Fucose, D-glucose and D-mannose do not inhibit the activity at concentrations at or above 100 mM. The lectin has been purified 500-fold to apparent homogeneity from the ovaries by salt extraction and affinity chromatography on lactose-aminophenyl-agarose, with a yield of about 0.2%. The molecular mass determined by gel filtration under native conditions was 30 kDa; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in SDS gave a molecular mass of 15 kDa, suggesting that the lectin is a dimer. The lectin has an isoelectric point of 40 and contains a high proportion of acidic amino acids.

  16. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  17. Rat and human colonic mucins bind to and inhibit adherence lectin of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K; Petri, W A; Innes, D J; Ravdin, J I

    1987-01-01

    Establishment of adherence by Entamoeba histolytica is mediated by a 170-kD Gal/GalNAc inhibitable lectin and is required for cytolysis and phagocytosis of mammalian target cells. We studied the biochemical mechanisms of the in vitro interaction between rat and human colonic mucins and axenic E. histolytica trophozoites. Crude mucus prevented amebic adherence to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by up to 70%. Purification of the colonic mucins by Sepharose 4B chromatography, nuclease digestion, and cesium chloride gradient centrifugation resulted in a 1,000-fold enrichment of the inhibitory mucins. Purified rat mucin inhibited amebic adherence to and cytolysis of homologous rat colonic epithelial cells. Oxidation and enzymatic cleavage of rat mucin Gal and GalNAc residues completely abrogated mucin inhibition of amebic adherence. The binding of rat 125I-mucin to amebae was galactose specific, saturable, reversible, and pH dependent. A monoclonal antibody specific for the 170-kD amebic Gal/GalNAc lectin completely inhibited the binding of rat 125I-mucin. Rat mucin bound to Affigel affinity purified the amebic lectin from conditioned medium. Colonic mucin glycoproteins act as an important host defense by binding to the parasite's adherence lectin, thus preventing amebic attachment to and cytolysis of host epithelial cells. Images PMID:2890655

  18. Docking, synthesis, and NMR studies of mannosyl trisaccharide ligands for DC-SIGN lectin.

    PubMed

    Reina, José J; Díaz, Irene; Nieto, Pedro M; Campillo, Nuria E; Páez, Juan A; Tabarani, Georges; Fieschi, Franck; Rojo, Javier

    2008-08-07

    DC-SIGN, a lectin, which presents at the surface of immature dendritic cells, constitutes nowadays a promising target for the design of new antiviral drugs. This lectin recognizes highly glycosylated proteins present at the surface of several pathogens such as HIV, Ebola virus, Candida albicans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, etc. Understanding the binding mode of this lectin is a topic of tremendous interest and will permit a rational design of new and more selective ligands. Here, we present computational and experimental tools to study the interaction of di- and trisaccharides with DC-SIGN. Docking analysis of complexes involving mannosyl di- and trisaccharides and the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of DC-SIGN have been performed. Trisaccharides Manalpha1,2[Manalpha1,6]Man 1 and Manalpha1,3[Manalpha1,6]Man 2 were synthesized from an orthogonally protected mannose as a common intermediate. Using these ligands and the soluble extracellular domain (ECD) of DC-SIGN, NMR experiments based on STD and transfer-NOE were performed providing additional information. Conformational analysis of the mannosyl ligands in the free and bound states was done. These studies have demonstrated that terminal mannoses at positions 2 or 3 in the trisaccharides are the most important moiety and present the strongest contact with the binding site of the lectin. Multiple binding modes could be proposed and therefore should be considered in the design of new ligands.

  19. Glycoconjugate profiles of the lancelet (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) ovary: a lectin histochemical study by laser confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Del Buono, Francesca; Candiani, Simona; Pestarino, Mario; Focarelli, Riccardo

    2004-08-01

    The presence and the distribution of carbohydrate moieties in ripe lancelet (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) oocytes (mean diameter 130 microm) was studied by lectin histochemistry in combination with enzyme and chemical treatments. Binding sites for eight lectins with specificities towards different glycan moieties were studied on sections of the whole body of mature female lancelets. Only three of the lectins tested reacted positively. Concanavalin-A (ConA)-binding glycoconjugates were localized in the cytoplasm, namely in yolk granules, whereas Artocarpus integrifolia (AIA) and Ricinus communis (RCA) agglutinins bound strongly to extracellular coats of the oocyte identified as the jelly coat and vitelline layer. No other tissues of the lancelet body were found to be positive to any lectin tested, except gut enterocytes which reacted strongly with AIA. Reactivity to ConA was abolished by pretreatment of sections with N-glycosidase F but not by mild alkaline hydrolysis, confirming that the glycoconjugates were of the N-linked type. On the contrary, chemical removal of O-linked chains by mild alkaline hydrolysis abolished AIA and RCA reactivity but had no effect on ConA positivity.

  20. Colocalization of barley lectin and sporamin in vacuoles of transgenic tobacco plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, M.R.; Borkhsenious, O.N.; Raikhel, N.V. ); Matsuoka, K.; Nakamura, K. )

    1993-02-01

    Various targeting motifs have been identified for plant proteins delivered to the vacuole. For barley (Hordeum vulgare) lectin, a typical Gramineae lectin and defense-related protein, the vacuolar information is contained in a carboxyl-terminal propeptide. In contrast, the vacuolar targeting information of sporamin, a storage protein from the tuberous roots of the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), is encoded in an amino-terminal propeptide. Both proteins were expressed simultaneously in transgenic tobacco plants to enable analysis of their posttranslational processing and subcellular localization by pulse-chase labeling and electron-microscopic immunocytochemical methods. The pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that processing and delivery to the vacuole are not impaired by the simultaneous expression of barley lectin and sporamin. Both proteins were targeted quantitatively to the vacuole, indication that the carboxyl-terminal and amino-terminal propeptided are equally recognized by the vacuolar protein-sorting machinery. Double-labeling experiments showed that barley lectin and sporamin accumulate in the same vacuole of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf and root cells. 35 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Cytotoxic, cell agglutinating, and syncytium forming effect of purified lectins from Ricinus communis on cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Koga, M; Ohtsu, M; Funatsu, G

    1979-10-01

    The toxicity of lectins from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), ricin-D, ricin-E, and castor bean hemagglutinin, was investigated on five cultured cell lines. The differential effect of their constituent polypeptide chains was also investigated using these cell lines. Ricin-D, ricin-E, and castor bean hemagglutinin (CBH) possessed cytoagglutinating activity and cytotoxic activity to all five cell lines. These lectins showed the strongest toxicity to L5178Y cells, which are leukemic cells. The toxic activity of ricin-D was stronger than that of CBH in all cell lines. The constituent polypebtide chains of ricin-D and CBH were separated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and designated as isoleucine chain and alanine chain denoted by their N-terminal amino acids. Only alanine chain of ricin-D was toxic to cells grown in vitro, whereas isoleucine chain of ricin-D and alanine chain of CBH were not toxic to the cells. Moreover, it was found that both lectins caused syncytium formation in NIH3T3 cells infected with Moloney leukemia virus and this cell fusion activity was shown to be exclusively associated with the alanine chain. Cytotoxic, cell agglutinating, and syncytium forming effect of the lectins is due to binding of the alanine chain of ricin-D to galactose-like residues of the membrane constituents of these cells.

  2. Lotus corniculatus nodulation specificity is changed by the presence of a soybean lectin gene

    PubMed

    van Rhijn P; Goldberg; Hirsch

    1998-08-01

    Plant lectins have been implicated as playing an important role in mediating recognition and specificity in the Rhizobium-legume nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. To test this hypothesis, we introduced the soybean lectin gene Le1 either behind its own promoter or behind the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into Lotus corniculatus, which is nodulated by R. loti. We found that nodulelike outgrowths developed on transgenic L. corniculatus plant roots in response to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which nodulates soybean and not Lotus spp. Soybean lectin was properly targeted to L. corniculatus root hairs, and although infection threads formed, they aborted in epidermal or hypodermal cells. Mutation of the lectin sugar binding site abolished infection thread formation and nodulation. Incubation of bradyrhizobia in the nodulation (nod) gene-inducing flavonoid genistein increased the number of nodulelike outgrowths on transgenic L. corniculatus roots. Studies of bacterial mutants, however, suggest that a component of the exopolysaccharide surface of B. japonicum, rather than Nod factor, is required for extension of host range to the transgenic L. corniculatus plants.

  3. Spatially well-defined carbohydrate nanoplatforms: synthesis, characterization and lectin interaction study.

    PubMed

    Timmer, B J J; Flos, M Abellán; Jørgensen, L Mønster; Proverbio, D; Altun, S; Ramström, O; Aastrup, T; Vincent, S P

    2016-10-11

    Two novel dodecasubstituted carbohydrate nanoplatforms based on molecular Borromean rings and dodecaamine cages have been prepared for use in evaluating the importance of the spatial distribution of carbohydrates in their interaction with lectins. The binding affinities of the glyconanoplatforms were characterized using quartz crystal microbalance technology and compared with a monovalent reference and dodecaglycosylated fullerenes.

  4. Enrichment and identification of glycoproteins in human saliva using lectin magnetic bead arrays.

    PubMed

    Caragata, Michael; Shah, Alok K; Schulz, Benjamin L; Hill, Michelle M; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2016-03-15

    Aberrant glycosylation of proteins is a hallmark of tumorigenesis and could provide diagnostic value in cancer detection. Human saliva is an ideal source of glycoproteins due to the relatively high proportion of glycosylated proteins in the salivary proteome. Moreover, saliva collection is noninvasive and technically straightforward, and the sample collection and storage is relatively easy. Although differential glycosylation of proteins can be indicative of disease states, identification of differential glycosylation from clinical samples is not trivial. To facilitate salivary glycoprotein biomarker discovery, we optimized a method for differential glycoprotein enrichment from human saliva based on lectin magnetic bead arrays (saLeMBA). Selected lectins from distinct reactivity groups were used in the saLeMBA platform to enrich salivary glycoproteins from healthy volunteer saliva. The technical reproducibility of saLeMBA was analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify the glycosylated proteins enriched by each lectin. Our saLeMBA platform enabled robust glycoprotein enrichment in a glycoprotein- and lectin-specific manner consistent with known protein-specific glycan profiles. We demonstrated that saLeMBA is a reliable method to enrich and detect glycoproteins present in human saliva.

  5. Use of lectins to in situ visualize glycoconjugates of extracellular polymeric substances in acidophilic archaeal biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, R Y; Neu, T R; Bellenberg, S; Kuhlicke, U; Sand, W; Vera, M

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation and the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by meso- and thermoacidophilic metal-oxidiz