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Sample records for leeches genus hirudo

  1. A new species of the medicinal leech (Oligochaeta, Hirudinida, Hirudo) from Transcaucasia and an identification key for the genus Hirudo.

    PubMed

    Utevsky, Serge Y; Trontelj, Peter

    2005-12-01

    A recent molecular phylogenetic study has suggested that the genus Hirudo contains a neglected species previously known as the orientalis coloration type of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. In this paper, the new species is formally described as Hirudo orientalis sp. n. It can most readily be identified by the grass green coloration of the dorsum, segmentally arranged pairs of black quadrangular or rounded dots on its paramarginal dorsal stripes and similarly arranged, but less regular light-colored markings on the predominantly black venter. It has medium-sized epididymes and an evenly coiled vagina. H. orientalis is known from Transcaucasia, Iran, and Uzbekistan. It is widely used in medicine as the "medicinal leech." Very little is known about its exact distribution, specific habitat, and conservation status. The paper contains an identification key to all species of the genus Hirudo.

  2. Phylogeny and phylogeography of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo): fast dispersal and shallow genetic structure.

    PubMed

    Trontelj, Peter; Utevsky, Serge Y

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) are among the best-studied invertebrates in many aspects of their biology. Yet, relatively little is known about their biogeography, ecology and evolution. Previous studies found vast ranges but suggested low genetic diversity for some species. To examine this apparent contradiction, the phylogeny and phylogeography of the widespread Hirudo verbana, Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo orientalis were investigated in a comparative manner. Populations from across their ranges in Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus and Central Asia, were analyzed by various phylogenetic and population genetic approaches using both mitochondrial (COI and 12S) and nuclear DNA sequences (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2). The populations showed surprisingly little genetic differentiation despite vast ranges. The only clear structure was observed in H. verbana. This species is subdivided into an Eastern (southern Ukraine, North Caucasus, Turkey and Uzbekistan) and a Western phylogroup (Balkans and Italy). The two phylogroups do not overlap, suggesting distinct postglacial colonization from separate refugia. Leeches supplied by commercial facilities belong to the Eastern phylogroup of H. verbana; they originate from Turkey and the Krasnodar Territory in Russia, two leading areas of leech export. H. verbana and H. medicinalis have experienced recent rapid population growth and range expansion, while isolation by distance has shaped the genetic setup of H. orientalis. The habitat of the latter is patchy and scattered about inhospitable arid and alpine areas of Central Asia and Transcaucasia. Centuries of leech collecting and transport across Europe seem not to have affected the natural distribution of genetic diversity, as the observed patterns can be explained by a combination of historical factors and present day climatic influences.

  3. First isolation of a giant virus from wild Hirudo medicinalis leech: Mimiviridae isolation in Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Boughalmi, Mondher; Pagnier, Isabelle; Aherfi, Sarah; Colson, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2013-11-27

    Giant viruses and amoebae are common in freshwater, where they can coexist with other living multicellular organisms. We screened leeches from the species Hirudo medicinalis for giant viruses. We analyzed five H. medicinalis obtained from Tunisia (3) and France (2). The leeches were decontaminated and then dissected to remove internal parts for co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga. The genomes of isolated viruses were sequenced on a 454 Roche instrument, and a comparative genomics analysis was performed. One Mimivirus was isolated and the strain was named Hirudovirus. The genome assembly generated two scaffolds, which were 1,155,382 and 25,660 base pairs in length. Functional annotations were identified for 47% of the genes, which corresponds to 466 proteins. The presence of Mimividae in the same ecological niche as wild Hirudo may explain the presence of the mimivirus in the digestive tract of the leech, and several studies have already shown that viruses can persist in the digestive tracts of leeches fed contaminated blood. As leeches can be used medically and Mimiviruses have the potential to be an infectious agent in humans, patients treated with leeches should be surveyed to investigate a possible connection.

  4. Building exploration with leeches Hirudo verbana.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch

    2015-08-01

    Safe evacuation of people from building and outdoor environments, and search and rescue operations, always will remain actual in course of all socio-technological developments. Modern facilities offer a range of automated systems to guide residents towards emergency exists. The systems are assumed to be infallible. But what if they fail? How occupants not familiar with a building layout will be looking for exits in case of very limited visibility where tactile sensing is the only way to assess the environment? Analogous models of human behaviour, and socio-dynamics in general, are provided to be fruitful ways to explore alternative, or would-be scenarios. Crowd, or a single person, dynamics could be imitated using particle systems, reaction-diffusion chemical medium, electro-magnetic fields, or social insects. Each type of analogous model offer unique insights on behavioural patterns of natural systems in constrained geometries. In this particular paper we have chosen leeches to analyse patterns of exploration. Reasons are two-fold. First, when deprived from other stimuli leeches change their behavioural modes in an automated regime in response to mechanical stimulation. Therefore leeches can give us invaluable information on how human beings might behave under stress and limited visibility. Second, leeches are ideal blueprints of future soft-bodied rescue robots. Leeches have modular nervous circuitry with a rich behavioral spectrum. Leeches are multi-functional, fault-tolerant with autonomous inter-segment coordination and adaptive decision-making. We aim to answer the question: how efficiently a real building can be explored and whether there any dependencies on the pathways of exploration and geometrical complexity of the building. In our case studies we use templates made on the floor plan of real building.

  5. Bacterial symbioses of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael C; Graf, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal microbiomes play important roles in the health and nutrition of animals and humans. The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, serves as a powerful model for the study of microbial symbioses of the gut, due to its naturally limited microbiome compared with other popular models, the ability to cultivate the most abundant microbes, and genetically manipulate one of them, Aeromonas veronii. This review covers the relevance and application of leeches in modern medicine as well as recent discoveries detailing the nature of the gut microbiome. Additionally, the dual life-style of A. veronii allows one to do direct comparisons between colonization factors for beneficial and pathogenic associations, and relevant findings are detailed with respect to their role within the host and pathogenicity to other animals.

  6. Characterization of the digestive-tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis, a european medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Alison S; Siddall, Mark E; Graf, Joerg

    2008-10-01

    FDA-approved, postoperative use of leeches can lead to bacterial infections. In this study, we used culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to characterize the digestive-tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis. Surprisingly, two Aeromonas species, A. veronii and A. jandaei, were cultured. Uncultured Rikenella-like bacteria were most similar to isolates from Hirudo verbana.

  7. Chromosome numbers for three species of medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.).

    PubMed

    Utevsky, Serge; Kovalenko, Nataliya; Doroshenko, Karyna; Petrauskiene, Laima; Klymenko, Vyacheslav

    2009-10-01

    Karyological preparations were made from the testisacs of three medicinal leech species Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758, H. verbana Carena, 1820 and H. orientalis Utevsky & Trontelj, 2005 . The samples originated from different populations in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The chromosome numbers were determined both from mitotic and meiotic stages of spermatogenesis using the propionic haematoxylin staining technique. All three species were found to have different haploid chromosome numbers: H. medicinalis 14, H. verbana 13 and H. orientalis 12, thus corroborating the validity of these taxa. The chromosomes can be classified as meta-, submetacentric and acrocentric. The chromosome numbers obtained are similar to that of the related species Haemopis sanguisuga (Linnaeus, 1758), which has 13 pairs.

  8. Symbiont succession during embryonic development of the European medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana.

    PubMed

    Rio, Rita V M; Maltz, Michele; McCormick, Benjamin; Reiss, Alexander; Graf, Joerg

    2009-11-01

    The European medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, harbors simple microbial communities in the digestive tract and bladder. The colonization history, infection frequency, and growth dynamics of symbionts through host embryogenesis are described using diagnostic PCR and quantitative PCR. Symbiont species displayed diversity in temporal establishment and proliferation through leech development.

  9. Diverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Mark E; Trontelj, Peter; Utevsky, Serge Y; Nkamany, Mary; Macdonald, Kenneth S

    2007-06-22

    The European medicinal leech is one of vanishingly few animal species with direct application in modern medicine. In addition to the therapeutic potential held by many protease inhibitors purified from leech saliva, and notwithstanding the historical association with quackery, Hirudo medicinalis has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a prescription medical device. Accurate annotation of bioactive compounds relies on precise species determination. Interpretations of developmental and neurophysiological characteristics also presuppose uniformity within a model species used in laboratory settings. Here, we show, with mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites, that there are at least three species of European medicinal leech, and that leeches marketed as H. medicinalis are actually Hirudo verbana. Beyond the obvious need for reconsideration of decades of biomedical research on this widely used model organism, these findings impact regulatory statutes and raise concerns for the conservation status of European medicinal leeches.

  10. Diverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis

    PubMed Central

    Siddall, Mark E; Trontelj, Peter; Utevsky, Serge Y; Nkamany, Mary; Macdonald, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    The European medicinal leech is one of vanishingly few animal species with direct application in modern medicine. In addition to the therapeutic potential held by many protease inhibitors purified from leech saliva, and notwithstanding the historical association with quackery, Hirudo medicinalis has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a prescription medical device. Accurate annotation of bioactive compounds relies on precise species determination. Interpretations of developmental and neurophysiological characteristics also presuppose uniformity within a model species used in laboratory settings. Here, we show, with mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites, that there are at least three species of European medicinal leech, and that leeches marketed as H. medicinalis are actually Hirudo verbana. Beyond the obvious need for reconsideration of decades of biomedical research on this widely used model organism, these findings impact regulatory statutes and raise concerns for the conservation status of European medicinal leeches. PMID:17426015

  11. [Hirudo medicinalis-leech applications in plastic and reconstructive microsurgery--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Knobloch, K; Gohritz, A; Busch, K; Spies, M; Vogt, P M

    2007-04-01

    Medical leech therapy has enjoyed a renaissance in the world of reconstructive microsurgery during recent years. Especially venous congestion is decreased using hirudo medicinalis application such as following replantation of amputated fingers or congested flaps. They provide a temporary relief to venous engorgement whilst venous drainage is re-established. Living in symbiosis with Aeromonas hydrophila, who can digest the sixfold blood meal related to their body weight, and a broad number of anticoagulant agents such as the thrombin inhibitor hirudin, apyrase as well as collagenase, hyaluronidase, Factor Xa inhibitor and fibrinase I and II, leeches decrease venous congestion. Laser Doppler flowmetry could demonstrate a significant increase in superficial skin perfusion following leech application 16 mm around the biting zone. Following the initial blood meal accounting for about 2.5 ml, the anticoagulant effect of the various leeches enzymes follows within the next 5-6 hours, which both account for the beneficial effects. Infection associated with leech therapy is a documented complication of leech application, with reported incidences ranging from 2.4 to 20 % and a chinolone antibiotic is currently recommended to face the potential Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Anemia is a second adverse effect during medicinal leech application which has to be taken account with repetitive blood samples. Besides the successful applications of leeches in various applications in plastic and reconstructive microsurgery, randomized-controlled trials are pending to elucidate the value of hirudo medicinalis according to evidence-based criteria above from case series and case studies.

  12. Evaluation of performance characteristics of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) for the treatment of venous congestion.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Michael L; Connor, Nadine P; Heisey, Dennis M; Hartig, Gregory K

    2002-01-01

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) are a standard treatment for venous congestion, a complication that can occur after reconstructive surgery. If the cause of venous congestion cannot be surgically corrected, then medicinal leeches are used to temporarily increase perfusion levels and maintain physiologic requirements within the congested tissue. Leeches increase perfusion within congested tissue by actively drawing off blood as a bloodmeal. Furthermore, the leech bite continues to bleed and relieve congestion after detachment because of the anticoagulation effects of leech saliva left behind in the bite. In a porcine model, a 10 x 10 cm cutaneous flank flap was congested by clamping the venae comitantes. Four medicinal leeches were allowed to attach to the congested flap, and parameters of active feeding and passive bleeding after detachment were recorded. The average bloodmeal volume for the medicinal leeches was 2.45 ml. Average passive bleeding for the first 2 and 4 hours after leech detachment totaled 2.21 and 2.50 ml, respectively, with 90 percent of passive bleeding occurring within 5 hours after detachment. Laser Doppler imaging indicated that the spatial arrangement of surface perfusion increases were localized to a 1.6-cm-diameter circle around the leech head (bite) and corresponded well with the visual return of normal skin tones to the same area. This study provides a realistic and quantitative estimate of the spatial and volumetric characteristics of leech feeding and passive bleeding using a clinically relevant model of acute, severe congestion.

  13. Preventing Infective Complications following Leech Therapy: Elimination of Symbiotic Aeromonas spp. from the Intestine of Hirudo verbana Using Antibiotic Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Litwinowicz, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hirudotherapy is often used successfully in modern medicine, especially in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, Aeromonas infections are the most common complications of post-operative leech application. Hence, prophylactic antibiotic administration is recommended before and during leech therapy. It has been confirmed that patient safety and achieving the desired therapeutic effect depend mainly on the microbiologic purity of the animals used. The aims of this study were to find a safe and practical way to eradicate symbiotic Aeromonas spp. occuring in the intestine of Hirudo verbana. Methods: Leeches were fed artificially with 1.5 mL of sterile defibrinated sheep blood supplemented with ciprofloxacin (CIP) or cefotaxime (CTX), at bacteriostatic concentrations of 0.2 mcg/mL or 1.5 mcg/mL, and bactericidal concentrations of 20 mcg/mL or 50 mcg/mL, respectively. Bacteria were isolated from the leech intestines before and after feeding at different time intervals: 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. Results: Biochemical identification of bacterial isolates from water samples and intestines of H. verbana using the API-NE20 test showed that A. veronii biovar sobria was predominant. Bacteria belonging to the genus Aeromonas were detected in all control leeches. The results showed that optimum eradication of bacteria from leech intestines was obtained using 20 mcg/mL of CIP and 50 mcg/mL of CTX, which decreased the number of Aeromonas spp. to undetectable levels for two weeks after feeding in all treated leeches. A statistically significant reduction in the number of bacterial colonies (p<0.0001) was observed in leeches treated with bacteriostatic concentrations of CIP or CTX; no bacterial growth was found on the plates after only seven days of feeding with antibiotics. All water samples in which the leeches were kept before treatment were contaminated with Aeromonas spp., whereas these samples were negative after antibiotic feeding of

  14. Detection of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus from the Leeches Hemiclepsis marginata and Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Behnam; Abdi, Kazem

    2016-12-01

    Leeches have been reported to harbor several important fish pathogens, including spring viremia of carp virus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and also may contain blood protozoa. In the present study, leeches were collected from water bodies located in Kurdistan province, Iran. The specimens were tested for IHNV, VHSV, and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using the PCR method. The results showed that two different species of leeches, Hemiclepsis marginata and Hirudo medicinalis, were infected by IPNV among the seven species studied. The infected leeches were found in areas that were polluted with untreated sewage coming from upstream fish farms culturing Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, the fish at fish farms in the vicinity had been infected with IPNV 9 months previously. Our results showed that the virus causing infectious pancreatic necrosis is present in the leeches H. marginata and H. medicinalis, suggesting that leeches are a potential source of IPNV in fish farms. Received October 14, 2015; accepted June 1, 2016. PMID:27687675

  15. Scanning behavior in the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana.

    PubMed

    Harley, Cynthia M; Wagenaar, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    While moving through their environment, medicinal leeches stop periodically and wave their head or body back and forth. This activity has been previously described as two separate behaviors: one called 'head movement' and another called 'body waving'. Here, we report that these behaviors exist on a continuum, and provide a detailed description of what we now call 'scanning'. Scanning-related behavior has been thought to be involved in orientation; its function has never before been assessed. While previous studies suggested an involvement of scanning in social behavior, or sucker placement, our behavioral studies indicate that scanning is involved in orienting the leech towards prey stimuli. When such stimuli are present, scanning behavior is used to re-orient the leech in the direction of a prey-like stimulus. Scanning, however, occurs whether or not prey is present, but in the presence of prey-like stimuli scanning becomes localized to the stimulus origin. Most likely, this behavior helps the leech to gain a more detailed picture of its prey target. The display of scanning, regardless of the presence or absence of prey stimuli, is suggestive of a behavior that is part of an internally driven motor program, which is not released by the presence of sensory stimuli. The data herein include first steps to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying this important behavior.

  16. Scanning Behavior in the Medicinal Leech Hirudo verbana

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Cynthia M.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    While moving through their environment, medicinal leeches stop periodically and wave their head or body back and forth. This activity has been previously described as two separate behaviors: one called ‘head movement’ and another called ‘body waving’. Here, we report that these behaviors exist on a continuum, and provide a detailed description of what we now call ‘scanning’. Scanning-related behavior has been thought to be involved in orientation; its function has never before been assessed. While previous studies suggested an involvement of scanning in social behavior, or sucker placement, our behavioral studies indicate that scanning is involved in orienting the leech towards prey stimuli. When such stimuli are present, scanning behavior is used to re-orient the leech in the direction of a prey-like stimulus. Scanning, however, occurs whether or not prey is present, but in the presence of prey-like stimuli scanning becomes localized to the stimulus origin. Most likely, this behavior helps the leech to gain a more detailed picture of its prey target. The display of scanning, regardless of the presence or absence of prey stimuli, is suggestive of a behavior that is part of an internally driven motor program, which is not released by the presence of sensory stimuli. The data herein include first steps to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying this important behavior. PMID:24465907

  17. [Inheritance of reproductive traits of medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis L.)].

    PubMed

    Utevskaia, O M; Atramentova, L A

    2002-01-01

    The phenotype variability and inheritance of reproductive traits were investigated in the medicinal leech. Distribution parameters were determined for the following traits: batch size (X = 4.3 +/- 0.2, sigma = 1.7, CV = 40%, As = 0.23 +/- 0.25, Ex = 0.19 +/- 0.51), number of juveniles in a cocoon (X = 10.9 +/- 0.3, sigma = 4.6, CV = 42%, As = 0.31 +/- 0.15, Ex = 0.23 +/- 0.30), and juvenile weight (X = 32.0 +/- 0.3, sigma = 14.9, CV = 47%, As = 1.38 +/- 0.05, Ex = 3.32 +/- 0.11. A nonlinear negative correlation between the number of juveniles in a cocoon and their weight was found (correlation ratio R = 0.86). It was shown that the environmental variance dominated over the genotypic one in the structure of phenotypic variance of the traits studied. The genetic variability is determined mainly by additive gene interactions and, to a small extent, intralocus dominance. The narrow-sense heritability, h2, for batch size was 0.35-0.40; for the number of juveniles in a cocoon, 0.35; for juvenile weight, 0.42.

  18. Stratified bacterial community in the bladder of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Bomar, Lindsey; Graf, Joerg

    2009-10-01

    Most animals harbour symbiotic microorganisms inside their body, where intimate interactions occur between the partners. The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, possesses 17 pairs of excretory bladders that harbour a large number of intracellular and extracellular symbiotic bacteria. In this study, we characterized the bladder symbionts using molecular phylogenetic analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries suggested that six bacterial species co-colonize the leech bladders. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these species belong to the alpha-Proteobacteria (Ochrobactrum symbiont), beta-Proteobacteria (Beta-1 and Beta-2 symbionts), delta-Proteobacteria (Bdellovibrio symbiont) and Bacteroidetes (Niabella and Sphingobacterium symbionts). Species-specific PCR detection and FISH confirmed the localization of the symbiotic bacteria in the bladders. The Ochrobactrum, Beta-1, Bdellovibrio and Sphingobacterium symbionts were consistently detected in 13 leeches from two populations, while infection rate of the other symbionts ranged between 20% and 100% in the two leech populations. Transmission electron microscopy observations of the bladders revealed epithelial cells harbouring a number of intracellular bacilli and an additional type of extracellular, rod-shaped bacteria in the luminal region. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with group-specific oligonucleotide probes revealed the spatial organization of the bacterial species in the bladder: the Ochrobactrum symbiont was located intracellularly inside epithelial cells; the Bacteroidetes were localized close to the epithelium in the lumen of the bladder; and the Bacteroidetes layer was covered with dense beta-proteobacterial cells. These results clearly demonstrate that a simple but organized microbial community exists in the bladder of the medicinal leech.

  19. Viral infection risks for patients using the finished product Hirudo verbana (medicinal leech).

    PubMed

    von Rheinbaben, Friedrich; Riebe, Oliver; Koehnlein, Johanna; Werner, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    The virological safety of medicinal leeches has to be ensured prior to their use on patients. While leeches can be kept and bred under standardized conditions, feeding them horse blood adds a non-standardized component, which poses some risk of infection of the treated patients. Here, we investigated the speed at which blood-borne viruses are degraded by the microbial flora in the leech intestine, in order to define the safety of the product and the length of the necessary quarantine period prior to its administration to patients. Feeding blood was spiked with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), reovirus, and murine parvovirus (10(7) ID₅₀ ml(-1)). The virus titer in the intestinal contents of the leeches was determined using permissive cell cultures and compared to that of the original virus titer at the following time points: immediately after feeding; after 3, 14, and 30 days; and monthly thereafter until the 7th month. The BVDV titer was below the detection limit of 10(1) TCID₅₀ ml(-1) after 3 months, while reovirus and murine parvovirus titers were undetectable after 4 months. No positive virus findings were obtained at later time points. Thus, when fed the blood of vertebrates, the finished product "Medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana" can be considered virologically safe if the animals are maintained at 20 °C, which corresponds to their natural habitat conditions and ensures a high metabolic rate. Therefore, after the last feeding, a quarantine period of 4-6 months and appropriate care at room temperature, which supports microbial degradation and digestive processes, are recommended.

  20. Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.

  1. Elimination of symbiotic Aeromonas spp. from the intestinal tract of the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, using ciprofloxacin feeding.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Huberman, L; Cohen, R; Temper, V; Adler, A; Galun, R; Block, C

    2010-06-01

    The use of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) in promoting venous drainage in tissues whose vitality is threatened by venous congestion and obstruction, especially in plastic and reconstructive surgery, has been complicated by infections caused by Aeromonas spp. These are leech endosymbionts for which patients undergoing hirudotherapy frequently receive systemic chemoprophylaxis. In order to evaluate the possibility of rendering leeches safe for use on patients, H. medicinalis were fed artificially with a 2 g/L arginine solution (used as a phagostimulant) supplemented with ciprofloxacin (100 mg/L). Aeromonads were detected in 57 out of 80 control leeches (71.3%), but in none of the 56 leeches treated with ciprofloxacin (p <0.001). Treated leeches survived for up to 4 months. Tested weekly, 61% of these leeches took human blood for at least 4 weeks after treatment and all remained negative for aeromonads. All water samples in which leeches were kept before treatment were contaminated with Aeromonas spp.; none were detected in any of the NaCl/arginine solutions with which treated animals were fed. Molecular characterization of two phenotypically distinct isolates using gyrB sequencing showed that one clustered tightly with A. veronii and the other was closely related to A. media. Other environmental bacteria and fungi were isolated from 26.5% of treated leeches that had taken a blood meal 1-4 weeks after treatment. Ciprofloxacin reduced the number of leech-associated aeromonads to undetectable levels for extended periods. Most treated leeches were ready to take a blood meal after treatment, suggesting the possibility of using ciprofloxacin-treated leeches instead of chemoprophylaxis in patients undergoing hirudotherapy.

  2. More than just one: multiplicity of Hirudins and Hirudin-like Factors in the Medicinal Leech, Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian; Mescke, Katharina; Liebig, Stephanie; Mahfoud, Hala; Lemke, Sarah; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2016-02-01

    Blood-sucking leeches like the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, have been used for medical purposes since ancient times. During feeding, medicinal leeches transfer a broad range of bioactive substances into the host's wound to prevent premature hemostasis and blood coagulation. Hirudin is probably the best known of these substances. Despite its long history of investigation, recombinant production and clinical use, there still exist conflicting data regarding the primary structure of hirudin. Entirely unclear is the potential biological significance of three different subtypes and many isoforms of hirudins that have been characterized so far. Furthermore, there is only incomplete information on their cDNA sequences and no information at all on gene structures and DNA sequences are available in the databases. Our efforts to fill these gaps revealed the presence of multiple hirudin-encoding genes in the genome of Hirudo medicinalis. We have strong evidence for the expression of all three subtypes of hirudin within individual leeches and for the expression of additional hirudins or hirudin-like factors that may have different biological functions and may be promising candidates for new drugs.

  3. Historical Article: Hirudo medicinalis: ancient origins of, and trends in the use of medicinal leeches throughout history.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, I S; Rao, J; Izadi, D; Butler, P E

    2004-04-01

    Blood letting and the therapeutic use of Hirudo medicinalis date back to ancient Egypt and the beginning of civilisation. Their popularity has varied over the years, reaching such a peak in Europe between 1825 and 1850 that supplies were exhausted. Towards the end of the century they fell out of favour and, during this period, the leech, once used by the physicians of emperors and influential academic surgeons, became associated with lay therapists and quackery. Leeches have enjoyed a renaissance in reconstructive microsurgery during the last 15 years, having been used by maxillofacial [Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg 41 (2003) 44] and other reconstructive surgeons to aid salvage of compromised microvascular free tissue transfers [Laryngoscope 108 (1998) 1129; Br. J. Plast. Surg. 34 (1984) 358], replanted digits [Int. J. Microsurg. 3 (1981) 265], ears [Ann. Plast. Surg. 43 (1999) 427], lips [Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 102 (1998) 358; J. Reconstr. Microsurg. 9 (1993) 327] and nasal tips [Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 36 (1998) 462]. Peer-reviewed evidence suggests that the survival of compromised, venous-congested tissues is improved by early application of a leech [J. Reconstr. Microsurg. 12 (1996) 165; Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 114 (1988) 1395; Br. J. Plast. Surg. 45 (1992) 235]. Leeches have also recently been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including periorbital haematomas [Br. J. Ophthalmol. 75 (1991) 755], severe macroglossia [Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 125 (2001) 649; J. Laryngol. Otol. 109 (1995) 442] and purpura fulminans [Ann. Plast. Surg. 35 (1995) 300]. The first medicinal leech farm, Biopharm, was set up in Swansea in 1981 by Dr Roy Sawyer, and now supplies leeches to hospitals all over the world. In this paper, we summarise the history of treatment with Hirudo medicinalis from its origin to the present day, and take a brief look at the possible future of the annelid.

  4. Proteins and peptides of the salivary gland secretion of medicinal leeches Hirudo verbana, H. medicinalis, and H. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Baskova, I P; Kostrjukova, E S; Vlasova, M A; Kharitonova, O V; Levitskiy, S A; Zavalova, L L; Moshkovskii, S A; Lazarev, V N

    2008-03-01

    The protein and peptide composition of medicinal leech salivary gland secretion (SGS) was analyzed in preparations obtained in July from three species--Hirudo verbana, H. medicinalis, and H. orientalis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (molecular mass 10-150 kD and pI 3-10) revealed no distinctions in the distribution of over 100 silver-stained proteins. Differences were noted only in intensity of 10 protein spots at 30-90 kD and pI 4.7-7.5. Mass spectrometric profiling of SGS of the three leech species using the Zip-Tip/golden chip scheme and cation-exchanging chips CM-10 revealed over 50 components in SGS of each of the three leech species. It was noted that 30-40% of the individual masses of the SGS of each leech species fall within the masses present in SGS of at least one of the two other species. This rather small part of the total mass may be indicative of a high polymorphism of amino acid sequences or a high frequency of posttranslational modifications of the SGS proteins and peptides. Calculation of Jacquard's coefficient showed that H. medicinalis and H. orientalis are closest to each other in SGS composition, which is consistent with data in the literature on the phylogenetic relationship between these two species of medicinal leech. Comparison of detected molecular masses with those of six known biologically active compounds produced by medicinal leeches revealed their uneven distribution in SGS of each of the three medicinal leech species. This opens prospects for using certain species of medicinal leech for targeted therapy of various pathologies.

  5. Solubilization, molecular forms, purification and substrate specificity of two acetylcholinesterases in the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis).

    PubMed Central

    Talesa, V; Grauso, M; Giovannini, E; Rosi, G; Toutant, J P

    1995-01-01

    Two acetylcholinesterases (AChE) differing in substrate and inhibitor specificities have been characterized in the medical leech (Hirudo medicinalis). A 'spontaneously-soluble' portion of AChE activity (SS-AChE) was recovered from haemolymph and from tissues dilacerated in low-salt buffer. A second portion of AChE activity was obtained after extraction of tissues in low-salt buffer alone or containing 1% Triton X-100 [detergent-soluble (DS-) AChE). Both enzymes were purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on edrophonium- and concanavalin A-Sepharose columns. Denaturing SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions gave one band at 30 kDa for purified SS-AChE and 66 kDa for DS-AChE. Sephadex G-200 chromatography indicated a molecular mass of 66 kDa for native SS-AChE and of 130 kDa for DS-AChE. SS-AChE showed a single peak sedimenting at 5.0 S in sucrose gradients with or without Triton X-100, suggesting that it was a hydrophylic monomer (G1). DS-AChE sedimented as a single 6.1-6.5 S peak in the presence of Triton X-100 and aggregated in the absence of detergent. A treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C suppressed aggregation and gave a 7 S peak. DS-AChE was thus an amphiphilic glycolipid-anchored dimer. Substrate specificities were studied using p-nitrophenyl esters (acetate, propionate and butyrate) and corresponding thiocholine esters as substrates. SS-AChE displayed only limited variations in Km values with charged and uncharged substrates, suggesting a reduced influence of electrostatic interactions in the enzyme substrate affinity. By contrast, DS-AChE displayed higher Km values with uncharged than with charged substrates. SS-AChE was more sensitive to eserine and di-isopropyl fluorophosphate (IC50 5 x 10(-8) and 10(-8) M respectively) than DS-AChE (5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-5) M. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7702560

  6. On exploration of geometrically constrained space by medicinal leeches Hirudo verbana.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Leeches are fascinating creatures: they have simple modular nervous circuitry yet exhibit a rich spectrum of behavioural modes. Leeches could be ideal blue-prints for designing flexible soft robots which are modular, multi-functional, fault-tolerant, easy to control, capable for navigating using optical, mechanical and chemical sensorial inputs, have autonomous inter-segmental coordination and adaptive decision-making. With future designs of leech-robots in mind we study how leeches behave in geometrically constrained spaces. Core results of the paper deal with leeches exploring a row of rooms arranged along a narrow corridor. In laboratory experiments we find that rooms closer to ends of the corridor are explored by leeches more often than rooms in the middle of the corridor. Also, in series of scoping experiments, we evaluate leeches capabilities to navigating in mazes towards sources of vibration and chemo-attraction. We believe our results lay foundation for future developments of robots mimicking behaviour of leeches.

  7. Sodium-magnesium antiport in Retzius neurones of the leech Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed Central

    Günzel, D; Schlue, W R

    1996-01-01

    1. Intracellular free magnesium ([Mg2+]i) and sodium ([Na+]i) concentrations were measured in Retzius neurones of the leech Hirudo medicinalis using ion-sensitive microelectrodes. 2. The mean steady-state values for [Mg2+]i and [Na+]i were 0.46 mM (pMg, 3.34 +/- 0.23; range, 0.1-1.2 mM; n = 32) and 8.95 mM (pNa, 2.05 +/- 0.15; range, 5.1-15.5 mM, n = 21), respectively, at a mean membrane potential (Em) of -35.6 +/- 6.1 mV (n = 32). Thus, [Mg2+]i is far below the value calculated for a passive distribution (16.9 mM) but close to the equilibrium value calculated for a hypothetical 1 Na(+)-1 Mg2+ antiport (0.41 mM). 3. Simultaneous measurements of [Mg2+]i, [Na+]i and Em in Retzius neurones showed that an increase in the extracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]o) resulted in an increase in [Mg2+]i, a parallel decrease in [Na+]i and a membrane depolarization, while a decrease in [Mg2+]o had opposite effects. These results are compatible with calculations based on a 1 Na(+)-1 Mg2+ antiport. 4. Na+ efflux at high [Mg2+]o still occurred when the Na(+)-K+ pump was inhibited by the application of ouabain or in K(+)-free solutions. This efflux was blocked by amiloride. 5. In the absence of extracellular Na+ ([Na+]o), no Mg2+ influx occurred. Mg2+ influx at high [Mg2+]o was even lower than in the presence of [Na+]o. Mg2+ efflux was blocked in the absence of [Na+]o. 6. The rate of Mg2+ extrusion was reduced by lowering [Na+]o, even if the Na+ gradient across the membrane remained almost unchanged. 7. Mg2+ efflux was blocked by amiloride (half-maximal effect at 0.25 mM amiloride; Hill coefficient, 1.3) but not by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA). 8. No changes in intracellular Ca2+ and pH (pHi) could be detected when [Mg2+]o was varied between 1 and 30 mM. 9. Changing pHi by up to 0.4 pH units had no effect on [Mg2+]i. 10. The results suggest the presence of an electrogenic 1 Na(+)-1 Mg2+ antiport in leech Retzius neurones. This antiport can be reversed and is inhibited

  8. Calreticulin contributes to C1q-dependent recruitment of microglia in the leech Hirudo medicinalis following a CNS injury

    PubMed Central

    Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Bocquet-Garcon, Annelise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Vancamp, Christelle; Drago, Francesco; Franck, Julien; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Background The medicinal leech is considered as a complementary and appropriate model to study immune functions in the central nervous system (CNS). In a context in which an injured leech’s CNS can naturally restore normal synaptic connections, the accumulation of microglia (immune cells of the CNS that are exclusively resident in leeches) has been shown to be essential at the lesion to engage the axonal sprouting. HmC1q (Hm for Hirudo medicinalis) possesses chemotactic properties that are important in the microglial cell recruitment by recognizing at least a C1q binding protein (HmC1qBP alias gC1qR). Material/Methods Recombinant forms of C1q were used in affinity purification and in vitro chemotaxis assays. Anti-calreticulin antibodies were used to neutralize C1q-mediated chemotaxis and locate the production of calreticulin in leech CNS. Results A newly characterized leech calreticulin (HmCalR) has been shown to interact with C1q and participate to the HmC1q-dependent microglia accumulation. HmCalR, which has been detected in only some microglial cells, is consequently a second binding protein for HmC1q, allowing the chemoattraction of resident microglia in the nerve repair process. Conclusions These data give new insight into calreticulin/C1q interaction in an immune function of neuroprotection, suggesting another molecular target to use in investigation of microglia reactivity in a model of CNS injury. PMID:24747831

  9. Ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis and sperm in the African medicinal leech Hirudo troctina Johnson, 1816 (Annelida, Hirudinida).

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, Raja; Tekaya, Saïda; Urbisz, Anna Z; Świątek, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the process of spermatogenesis in the leech Hirudo troctina Johnson, 1816 using light, fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy. At the onset of spermatogenesis in testes, the pear-shaped spermatogonia divide mitotically without full cytokinesis and as a result isogenic groups are formed (clusters, clones) with 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 spermatogonia and, finally, 256 primary spermatocytes occur. The final meiotic divisions of spermatocytes give rise to clones with 1024 spermatids. There are hundreds of developing germ-line clones in each testis. In each clone, the male germ cells divide in full synchrony and they are in the same phase of spermatogenesis. During complex spermiogenesis each spermatid becomes a filiform spermatozoon with a helicoid nucleus, which is characterized by the presence of a long acrosome with two regions - anterior and posterior, which are followed by a helicoid nucleus, a midpiece with only one mitochondrion and a long flagellum. Our results were compared to those on other clitellate annelids that have been studied to date, especially to sperm formation in Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1785. Only minor differences were found in the length and the diameter of different organelles and the number of spermatids in germ-line clones.

  10. [Extract of Hirudo medicinalis leeches: biogenic substance for the creation of effective drugs].

    PubMed

    Nikonov, G I; Titova, E A; Lebedeva, A O

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of the extract of medicinal leech Girulux established parameters that enable one to verify the authenticity of related drugs using the characteristics of their UV spectra the and anticoagulant and antithrombin activity. The limits of pH must range from 5.5 to 7.5. Pilot-scale series of medical leech extract are in compliance with terms of "microbiological purity" quality characteristics. The natural storage has been used to assess the temporal stability of leech extract. The obtained characteristics showed that the activity of extract was retained after 3-year storage.

  11. Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michael C.; Bomar, Lindsey; Maltz, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Three anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana, using mucin as the primary carbon and energy source. These strains, designated M3T, M4 and M6, were Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile. Cells were elongated bacilli approximately 2.4 µm long and 0.6 µm wide. Growth only occurred anaerobically under mesophilic and neutral pH conditions. All three strains could utilize multiple simple and complex sugars as carbon sources, with glucose fermented to acid by-products. The DNA G+C contents of strains M3T, M4 and M6 were 44.9, 44.8 and 44.8 mol%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acid of strain M3T was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the three strains shared >99 % similarity with each other and represent a new lineage within the family Rikenellaceae of the order Bacteroidales, phylum Bacteroidetes. The most closely related bacteria to strain M3T based on 16S rRNA gene sequences were Rikenella microfusus DSM 15922T (87.3 % similarity) and Alistipes finegoldii AHN 2437T (87.4 %). On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and physiological evidence, strains M3T, M4 and M6 are proposed as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Rikenellaceae, for which the name Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mucinivorans hirudinis is M3T ( = ATCC BAA-2553T = DSM 27344T). PMID:25563920

  12. Destabilase complexes--natural liposome produced by medicinal leeches Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Nikonov, G I; Titova, E A

    1999-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of destabilase preparation demonstrates the presence of protein combinations with MW 12.3, 25 and 50 kD. Fraction (MW 12.3 D) is a monomer of destabilase aggregation having properties of micellar proteins and represents a stable lipid-protein complex, where the role of lipid component is played by the stable analogue of prostacyclin (MW 391 D). The synthesis of a low molecular fraction of destabilase is fulfilled with bacteria--symbiont of leeches Aeromonas hydrophila. When the destabilase (MW 12.3 kD) contacts with blood a process of complexe formation is triggered with hirudin and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor, forming a stable 'destabilase complex' (DC; MW 25 kD), possessing also a high aggregation capacity. Polymer forms of the destabilase complex form a liposome changing its spatial orientation depending on the nature of the solvent. Such structural organization provides a high stability of DC components and a rapid penetration through cellular membranes (transmembrane transfer) and it also provides prophylactic antithrombotic action in the case of peroral application to animals, due to the blockade of vascular platelets (inhibition of platelet aggregation by prostacyclin analogue) and plasmic (inhibition of thrombin activity and blood plasma kallikrein) links of the hemostasis process. Destabilase fraction with MW 50 kD is a dimer of the destabilase complex. As a result of DC destruction (liposome), hirudin, prostacycline analogue and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor are released.

  13. The Hirudo medicinalis species complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, U.

    2012-05-01

    Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" ( Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic.

  14. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii

    PubMed Central

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Massol, François; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Roger, Emmanuel; Rodet, Franck; Fournier, Isabelle; Thomas, Frédéric; Salzet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish- or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the leech digestive tract and by its symbiont Aeromonas. Immunohistochemistry data and PCR analyses evidenced that leech AMP genes are induced in the gut epithelial cells when Aeromonas load is low (starved animals), while repressed when Aeromonas abundance is the highest (post blood feeding). The asynchronous production of AMPs by both partners suggests that these antibiotic substances (i) provide them with reciprocal protection against invasive bacteria and (ii) contribute to the unusual simplicity of the gut microflora of the leech. This immune benefit substantially reinforces the evidence of an evolutionarily stable association between H. verbana and A. veronii. Altogether these data may provide insights into the processes making the association with an Aeromonas species in the digestive tract either deleterious or beneficial. PMID:26635240

  15. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii.

    PubMed

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Massol, François; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Roger, Emmanuel; Rodet, Franck; Fournier, Isabelle; Thomas, Frédéric; Salzet, Michel

    2015-12-04

    The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish- or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the leech digestive tract and by its symbiont Aeromonas. Immunohistochemistry data and PCR analyses evidenced that leech AMP genes are induced in the gut epithelial cells when Aeromonas load is low (starved animals), while repressed when Aeromonas abundance is the highest (post blood feeding). The asynchronous production of AMPs by both partners suggests that these antibiotic substances (i) provide them with reciprocal protection against invasive bacteria and (ii) contribute to the unusual simplicity of the gut microflora of the leech. This immune benefit substantially reinforces the evidence of an evolutionarily stable association between H. verbana and A. veronii. Altogether these data may provide insights into the processes making the association with an Aeromonas species in the digestive tract either deleterious or beneficial.

  16. Role of the tissue free amino acids in adaptation of medicinal leeches Hirudo medicinalis L., 1758 to extreme climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chernaya, L V; Kovalchuk, L A; Nokhrina, E S

    2016-01-01

    The first comparison of the spectra of free amino acids in tissues of the medicinal leeches H. medicinalis from different climatic and geographical Eurasian areas has been performed. Adaptation of H. medicinalis to extreme climatic conditions occurs via intensification of the amino acid metabolism resulting from a significant increase in the content of essential amino acids. Accumulation of arginine, histidine, and lysine (3.6-, 3.9-, and 2.0-fold increases, respectively) has proved to play a special protective role in adaptation of H. medicinalis to the low positive temperatures.

  17. [Medicinal leeches].

    PubMed

    Massart, D; Sohawon, S; Noordally, O

    2009-01-01

    Leeches are hermaphroditic and hematophagous annelids. One important medical species, Hirudo medicinalis, comes from hirudiniculture of fresh water pools. Thanks to their three mandibles with some 300 teeth on their anterior muscular sucker, they easily grab to tissues and by secreting their saliva containing numerous powerful enzymes, such as hyaluronidase, collagenase and inhibitors of platelet aggregation and coagulation, like hirudin, allow blood sucking. Once they are full of blood (up to 15 g of blood), they detach themselves from their prey. Used ever since the 18th Egyptian Dynasty, leeches became famous during the first part of the XIXth century, thanks to a French physician, François Joseph Victor Broussais, known to his adversaries as the "vampire of medicine" for treating various conditions such as phlebotomy, laryngitis, ocular problems, obesity, mental disorders, etc. Overfishing, therapeutic failures and most particularly, the emergence of hygiene, brought the decline of living leeches. In 1884, an extract of leeches was obtained--hirudin and henceforth used. Nowadays, leeches are still used in microsurgery to enhance the venous circulation in finger reimplantation or skin flap transposition. Hirudin is synthesized through recombinant DNA technology and molecules such as lepirudin and desirudin are available on the market as anticoagulant.

  18. New gammaproteobacteria associated with blood-feeding leeches and a broad phylogenetic analysis of leech endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Susan L; Budinoff, Rebecca B; Siddall, Mark E

    2005-09-01

    Many monophagous animals have coevolutionary relationships with bacteria that provide unavailable nutrients to the host. Frequently, these microbial partners are vertically inherited and reside in specialized structures or tissues. Here we report three new lineages of bacterial symbionts of blood-feeding leeches, one from the giant Amazonian leech, Haementeria ghilianii, and two others from Placobdelloides species. These hosts each possess a different mycetome or esophageal organ morphology where the bacterial cells are located. DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization placed these symbionts in two separate clades in the class Gammaproteobacteria. We also conducted a broad phylogenetic analysis of the herein-reported DNA sequences as well as others from bacterial symbionts reported elsewhere in the literature, including alphaproteobacterial symbionts from the leech genus Placobdella as well as Aeromonas veronii from the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, and a Rickettsia sp. detected in Hemiclepsis marginata. Combined, these results indicate that blood-feeding leeches have forged bacterial partnerships at least five times during their evolutionary history.

  19. A classic model animal in the 21st century: recent lessons from the leech nervous system.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    The medicinal leech (genus Hirudo) is a classic model animal in systems neuroscience. The leech has been central to many integrative studies that establish how properties of neurons and their interconnections give rise to the functioning of the animal at the behavioral level. Leeches exhibit several discrete behaviors (such as crawling, swimming and feeding) that are each relatively simple. Importantly, these behaviors can all be studied - at least at a basal level - in the isolated nervous system. The leech nervous system is particularly amenable to such studies because of its distributed nature; sensory processing and generation of behavior occur to a large degree in iterated segmental ganglia that each contain only ∼400 neurons. Furthermore, the neurons are relatively large and are arranged with stereotyped topography on the surface of the ganglion, which greatly facilitates their identification and accessibility. This Commentary provides an overview of recent work on the leech nervous system, with particular focus on circuits that underlie leech behavior. Studies that combine the unique features of the leech with modern optical and genetic techniques are also discussed. Thus, this Commentary aims to explain the continued appeal of the leech as an experimental animal in the 21st century. PMID:26538172

  20. Leeches of the genus Helobdella as model organisms for Evo-Devo studies.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Weisblat, David A

    2015-12-01

    Model organisms are important tools in modern biology and have been used elucidate mechanism underlying processes, such as development, heredity, neuronal signaling, and phototropism, to name but a few. In this context, the use of model organisms is predicated on uncovering evolutionarily conserved features of biological processes in the expectation that the findings will be applicable to organisms that are either inaccessible or intractable for direct experimentation. For the most part, particular species have been adapted as model organisms because they can be easily reared and manipulated in the laboratory. In contrast, a major goal in the field of evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo) is to identify and elucidate the differences in developmental processes among species associated with the dramatic range of body plans among organisms, and how these differences have emerged over time in various branches of phylogeny. At first glance then, it would appear that the concept of model organisms for Evo-Devo is oxymoronic. In fact, however, laboratory-compatible, experimentally tractable species are of great use for Evo-Devo, subject to the condition that the ensemble of models investigated should reflect the range of taxonomic diversity, and for this purpose glossiphoniid leeches are useful. Four decades ago (1975), leeches of the species-rich genus Helobdella (Lophotrochozoa; Annelida; Clitellata; Hirudinida; Glossiphoniidae) were collected in Stow Lake, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA (USA). These and other Helobdella species may be taken as Evo-Devo models of leeches, clitellate annelids, and the super-phylum Lophotrochozoa. Here we depict/discuss the biology/taxonomy of these Evo-Devo systems, and the challenges of identifying species within Helobdella. In addition, we document that H. austinensis has been established as a new model organism that can easily be cultivated in the laboratory. Finally, we provide an updated scheme illustrating the unique

  1. Detection and selective avoidance of near ultraviolet radiation by an aquatic annelid: the medicinal leech

    PubMed Central

    Jellies, John

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal leeches are aquatic predators that inhabit surface waters during daylight and also leave the water where they might be exposed to less screened light. Whereas the leech visual system has been shown to respond to visible light, leeches in the genus Hirudo do not appear to be as negatively phototactic as one might expect in order to avoid potential ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage. I used high intensity light emitting diodes to test the hypothesis that leeches could detect and specifically avoid near UVR (395–405 nm). Groups of unfed juvenile leeches exhibited a robust negative phototaxis to UVR, but had no behavioral response to blue or red and only a slight negative phototaxis to green and white light. Individual leeches also exhibited a vigorous negative phototaxis to UVR; responding in 100% of trials compared with modest negative responses to visible light (responding in ~8% of the trials). The responses in fed and unfed leeches were comparable for UVR stimuli. The responses depended upon the stimulus site: leeches shortened away from UV light to the head, and extended away from UV light to the tail. Electrophysiological nerve recordings showed that the cephalic eyes responded vigorously to UVR. Additionally, individual leech photoreceptors also showed strong responses to UVR, and a higher-order neuron associated with shortening and rapid behavioral responses, the S-cell, was activated by UVR, on both the head and tail. These results demonstrate that the leech can detect UVR and is able to discriminate behaviorally between UVR and visible light. PMID:24265432

  2. Detection and selective avoidance of near ultraviolet radiation by an aquatic annelid: the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Jellies, John

    2014-03-15

    Medicinal leeches are aquatic predators that inhabit surface waters during daylight and also leave the water where they might be exposed to less screened light. Whereas the leech visual system has been shown to respond to visible light, leeches in the genus Hirudo do not appear to be as negatively phototactic as one might expect in order to avoid potential ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage. I used high intensity light emitting diodes to test the hypothesis that leeches could detect and specifically avoid near UVR (395-405 nm). Groups of unfed juvenile leeches exhibited a robust negative phototaxis to UVR, but had no behavioral response to blue or red and only a slight negative phototaxis to green and white light. Individual leeches also exhibited a vigorous negative phototaxis to UVR; responding in 100% of trials compared with modest negative responses to visible light (responding in ~8% of the trials). The responses in fed and unfed leeches were comparable for UVR stimuli. The responses depended upon the stimulus site: leeches shortened away from UV light to the head, and extended away from UV light to the tail. Electrophysiological nerve recordings showed that the cephalic eyes responded vigorously to UVR. Additionally, individual leech photoreceptors also showed strong responses to UVR, and a higher-order neuron associated with shortening and rapid behavioral responses, the S-cell, was activated by UVR, on both the head and tail. These results demonstrate that the leech can detect UVR and is able to discriminate behaviorally between UVR and visible light.

  3. Medicinal leech therapy (hirudotherapy): a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrit Pal

    2010-11-01

    Hirudotherapy is a treatment using medicinal leeches. Hirudo medicinali, have been used to treat patients for centuries. In the past, leeches have proved to be an effective treatment for a number of conditions including battle wound treatment. Currently leeches may be used to assist in the treatment of abscesses, arthritis, glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, thrombosis and some venous disorders. Medical leeches may also be used in plastic surgery and in some blood circulatory problems. During feeding, leeches secrete a complex mixture of different biologically and pharmacologically active substances into the wound. Hirudin is the prominent constituent of leech saliva. It is sometimes used to describe all the active constituents in the leech saliva. This paper outlines the potential use of leech therapy in current medical care in India.

  4. Systematics of the freshwater leech genus Hirudinaria Whitman, 1886 (Arhynchobdellida, Hirudinidae) from northeastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Tubtimon, Jaruwan; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Kongim, Bangon; Panha, Somsak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In total, 435 specimens of the Southeast Asian freshwater leech species within the Hirudinidae family were collected from 17 locations of various types of aquatic habitats in northeastern Thailand. They were all morphologically placed within the genus Hirudinaria Whitman, 1886 and there were three distinct species: the common Hirudinaria manillensis, 78.2% of all collected specimens and at all 17 locations, Hirudinaria javanica at 20.3% of collected samples and from five locations and a rarer unidentified morphospecies (Hirudinaria sp.) with six samples from only two locations. The karyotypes of these three species were examined across their range in this study area for 38, 11 and 6 adult specimens of Hirudinaria manillensis, Hirudinaria javanica and Hirudinaria sp., respectively. This revealed different chromosome numbers among all three species, with Hirudinaria javanica having n = 13, 2n = 26, Hirudinaria manillensis lacked one small chromosome pair with n = 12, 2n = 24, and the unknown Hirudinaria sp. differed from any known Hirudinaria karyotypes in exhibiting a higher chromosome number (n = 14, 2n = 28) and a gradual change in size from large to small chromosomes. This suggests that the unknown Hirudinaria sp. is a new biological species. However, phylogenetic analysis based upon a 658 bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene placed this unknown morphospecies within the Hirudinaria manillensis clade, perhaps then suggesting a recent sympatric speciation, although this requires further confirmation. Regardless, the chromosomes of all three species were asymmetric, most with telocentric elements. A distinct bi-armed chromosome marker was present on the first chromosome pair in Hirudinaria javanica, whilst it was on pairs 1, 2, 3 and 5 in Hirudinaria manillensis, and on pairs 3 and 5 for the unknown Hirudinaria sp. PMID:25493052

  5. Laboratory and field tests of the effectiveness of the lemon-eucalyptus extract, Citridiol, as a repellent against land leeches of the genus Haemadipsa (Haemadipsidae).

    PubMed

    Kirton, L G

    2005-10-01

    Citridiol is an extract of the leaves of Corymbia citriodora (Myrtaceae), the lemon eucalyptus, and mostly consists of p-menthane-3,8-diol isomers. The effectiveness of this extract as a repellent against land leeches of the genus Haemadipsa (Haemadipsidae), primarily H. sylvestris, was tested in the laboratory and field, in Peninsular Malaysia. The formulation tested, Mosi-guard Natural spray, contained 40% (w/w) Citridiol in a base of ethanol, water and isopropanol. In the laboratory test, specimens of H. sylvestris that were placed within moist, untreated arenas enclosed by treated paper rings made numerous attempts to cross the rings but were prevented or delayed from crossing over, in a dose-dependent manner. Mortality was high among the leeches that attempted to cross over the paper rings that had been sprayed to saturation point but low among the leeches that attempted to cross over paper rings that had only been partially treated, with a droplet-spray. The field study was carried out using indices that were formulated to reflect the severity of leech attack and the degree of repellency. Heavy or moderate spraying of footwear and trouser legs (tucked into socks) not only gave complete protection against bites by H. sylvestris and H. picta but also provided high enough repellency to keep the treated footwear virtually free of leeches. Even a light spray greatly reduced the numbers of leeches on footwear and delayed their progression toward biting the test subjects, although it failed to prevent bites completely. There was no decline in the repellency of the Citridiol when hourly assessments were made over a 6-h test period in the field. The results of the study show that Citridiol is highly repellent as well as toxic to leeches, and can be effectively used to prevent leech bites in the field. PMID:16212803

  6. Characterization of shed medicinal leech mucus reveals a diverse microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brittany M.; Rickards, Allen; Gehrke, Lauren; Rio, Rita V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial transmission through mucosal-mediated mechanisms is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. One example of this occurs with Hirudo verbana, the medicinal leech, where host attraction to shed conspecific mucus facilitates horizontal transmission of a predominant gut symbiont, the Gammaproteobacterium Aeromonas veronii. However, whether this mucus may harbor other bacteria has not been examined. Here, we characterize the microbiota of shed leech mucus through Illumina deep sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) typing with subsequent Sanger Sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene clone library provided qualitative confirmation of the microbial composition. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length 16S rRNA sequences were performed to examine microbial taxonomic distribution. Analyses using both technologies indicate the dominance of the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla within the mucus microbiota. We determined the presence of other previously described leech symbionts, in addition to a number of putative novel leech-associated bacteria. A second predominant gut symbiont, the Rikenella-like bacteria, was also identified within mucus and exhibited similar population dynamics to A. veronii, suggesting persistence in syntrophy beyond the gut. Interestingly, the most abundant bacterial genus belonged to Pedobacter, which includes members capable of producing heparinase, an enzyme that degrades the anticoagulant, heparin. Additionally, bacteria associated with denitrification and sulfate cycling were observed, indicating an abundance of these anions within mucus, likely originating from the leech excretory system. A diverse microbiota harbored within shed mucus has significant potential implications for the evolution of microbiomes, including opportunities for gene transfer and utility in host capture of a diverse group of symbionts. PMID:25620963

  7. [Leeches, today and yesterday present parasites].

    PubMed

    Vera, Cristián; Blu, Antonieta; Torres, Marisa

    2005-03-01

    Leeches are flattened annelids or segmented worms that live in still, warm waters of the pond or in land. They feed of blood or body fluids. Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) have been used in medicine for thousands of years to treat a wide range of ailments. Nowadays, leeches are used successfully for only a few conditions, notably in the field of reconstructive or microsurgery, to salvage tissue flaps and skin grafts whose viability is threatened by venous congestion. However, it is also important to keep it in mind as a differential diagnosis in some circumstances. This review pretends to give an actualize view of a subject that is a part of medical history.

  8. A simple method for the control of medicinal leeches.

    PubMed

    Granzow, Jay W; Armstrong, Milton B; Panthaki, Zubin J

    2004-08-01

    The medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, has been widely used in the salvage of microvascular free flaps. Numerous publications have detailed the biology, use, benefits, and risks of leech therapy. One reported significant risk is the risk of leech movement or migration from the surgical site, possibly into body orifices or even deeper into the wound itself. The authors report a simple method of limiting the movement of medicinal leeches from the surgical site, namely, affixing one end of a surgical suture to the leech and tying the free end to a firm object or dressing. This simple method limits the potential range of movement of the leech and reduces the risk of leech migration to unwanted areas.

  9. Aeromonas species isolated from medicinal leeches.

    PubMed

    Mackay, D R; Manders, E K; Saggers, G C; Banducci, D R; Prinsloo, J; Klugman, K

    1999-03-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila infections are a recognized complication of the use of medicinal leeches. The authors performed an experiment designed to find a safe and practical way to sterilize the leech gut of pathogenic organisms. Leeches were incubated for a 12-hour period in solutions of antibiotic effective against A. hydrophila. The incubations in the antibiotic solutions failed to eradicate pathogenic bacteria from the gut of the leeches. The authors examined cultures of bacteria isolated from the guts of the commonly used Hirudo medicinalis (European leech) and found a wide variety of pathogenic organisms. A. hydrophila is widely believed to be the most common enteric pathogen, but the authors found A. sobria more frequently in their experiment. They also cultured the guts of the leech H. michaelseni recently used clinically in South Africa. A. caviae was the most common pathogen encountered in these leeches. A. caviae and A. sobria cause a spectra of disease similar to A. hydrophila. The authors endorse the current recommendation that all patients who have leech therapy for congested flaps or replants receive broad-spectrum prophylactic antibiotics. This appears to be the safest and simplest way to prevent leech-related infections.

  10. Medicinal leeches used to salvage a traumatic nasal flap.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, B W; Dawson, K H; Murakami, C

    1998-12-01

    We report a case in which medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) were used to rescue a traumatic nasal flap from venous congestion and loss. A healthy 18-year-old had a bicycling accident and, in addition to other facial injuries, presented with a complex full thickness nasal laceration. After he had been resuscitated and the flap sutured, he was treated with two leeches four times a day for 48 h. His recovery was satisfactory and uncomplicated. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be familiar with the use of leeches, as they have a small but occasionally important role in the management of both traumatic and reconstructive flaps.

  11. A systematic overview of the medicinal importance of sanguivorous leeches.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S M Abbas; Jameel, S S; Zaman, F; Jilani, Shazia; Sultana, A; Khan, Shariq A

    2011-03-01

    Leeches are a class of segmented invertebrates, known for their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since antiquity. In Europe, medicinal leeches have recently been rediscovered and are used by maxillofacial and other microsurgeons to aid salvage of compromised venous engorged tissue and amputations, such as digits, ears, and nasal tips. Because of their important salivary components, blood-sucking (sanguivorous) leeches, such as Hirudo medicinalis and related species, have engendered great interest from pharmaceutical companies searching for anticoagulants to prevent blood clotting during microsurgeries. Scientific research reveals that the beneficial effects of leeching, in addition to decongestion, include injection of a cocktail of several medicinally useful bioactive molecules present in their saliva. Owing to its therapeutic potential, the research is continuing as many new salivary compounds are being isolated and synthesized. PMID:21438647

  12. A systematic overview of the medicinal importance of sanguivorous leeches.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S M Abbas; Jameel, S S; Zaman, F; Jilani, Shazia; Sultana, A; Khan, Shariq A

    2011-03-01

    Leeches are a class of segmented invertebrates, known for their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since antiquity. In Europe, medicinal leeches have recently been rediscovered and are used by maxillofacial and other microsurgeons to aid salvage of compromised venous engorged tissue and amputations, such as digits, ears, and nasal tips. Because of their important salivary components, blood-sucking (sanguivorous) leeches, such as Hirudo medicinalis and related species, have engendered great interest from pharmaceutical companies searching for anticoagulants to prevent blood clotting during microsurgeries. Scientific research reveals that the beneficial effects of leeching, in addition to decongestion, include injection of a cocktail of several medicinally useful bioactive molecules present in their saliva. Owing to its therapeutic potential, the research is continuing as many new salivary compounds are being isolated and synthesized.

  13. Discontinuous locomotion and prey sensing in the leech.

    PubMed

    Harley, Cynthia M; Rossi, Matthew; Cienfuegos, Javier; Wagenaar, Daniel

    2013-05-15

    The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, is an aquatic predator that utilizes water waves to locate its prey. However, to reach their prey, the leeches must move within the same water that they are using to sense prey. This requires that they either move ballistically towards a pre-determined prey location or that they account for their self-movement and continually track prey. We found that leeches do not localize prey ballistically. Instead, they require continual sensory information to track their prey. Indeed, in the event that the prey moves, leeches will approach the prey's new location. While leeches need to continually sense water disturbances to update their percept of prey location, their own behavior is discontinuous--prey involves switching between swimming, crawling and non-locomoting. Each of these behaviors may allow for different sensory capabilities and may require different sensory filters. Here, we examined the sensory capabilities of leeches during each of these behaviors. We found that while one could expect the non-locomoting phases to direct subsequent behaviors, crawling phases were more effective than non-locomotor phases for providing direction. During crawling bouts, leeches adjusted their heading so as to become more directed towards the stimulus. This was not observed during swimming. Furthermore, in the presence of prey-like stimuli, leeches crawled more often and for longer periods of time.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Pedobacter sp. Strain Hv1, an Isolate from Medicinal Leech Mucosal Castings

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brittany M.; Beka, Lidia; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    The Pedobacter sp. Hv1 strain was isolated from the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, mucosal castings. These mucosal sheds have been demonstrated to play a role in horizontal symbiont transmission. Here, we report the draft 4.9 Mbp genome sequence of Pedobacter sp. strain Hv1. PMID:26679583

  15. Ecdysone receptor homologs from mollusks, leeches and a polychaete worm.

    PubMed

    Laguerre, Michel; Veenstra, Jan A

    2010-11-01

    The genomes of the mollusk Lottia gigantea, the leech Helobdella robusta and the polychaete worm Capitella teleta each have a gene encoding an ecdysone receptor homolog. Publicly available genomic and EST sequences also contain evidence for ecdysone receptors in the seahare Aplysia californica, the bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes and the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. Three-dimensional models of the ligand binding domains of these predicted ecdysone receptor homologs suggest that each of them could potentially bind an ecdysone-related steroid. Thus, ecdysone receptors are not limited to arthropods and nematodes.

  16. Neural circuits controlling behavior and autonomic functions in medicinal leeches.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Damon G; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2011-09-28

    In the study of the neural circuits underlying behavior and autonomic functions, the stereotyped and accessible nervous system of medicinal leeches, Hirudo sp., has been particularly informative. These leeches express well-defined behaviors and autonomic movements which are amenable to investigation at the circuit and neuronal levels. In this review, we discuss some of the best understood of these movements and the circuits which underlie them, focusing on swimming, crawling and heartbeat. We also discuss the rudiments of decision-making: the selection between generally mutually exclusive behaviors at the neuronal level.

  17. Salivary transcriptome of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora.

    PubMed

    Min, Gi-Sik; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Siddall, Mark E

    2010-12-01

    A variety of bioactive proteins from medicinal leeches, like species of Hirudo , have been characterized and evaluated for their potential therapeutic biomedical properties. However, there has not previously been a comprehensive attempt to fully characterize the salivary transcriptome of a medicinal leech that would allow a clearer understanding of the suite of polypeptides employed by these sanguivorous annelids and provide insights regarding their evolutionary origins. An Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library-based analysis of the salivary transcriptome of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora, reveals a complex cocktail of anticoagulants and other bioactive secreted proteins not previously known to exist in a single leech. Transcripts were identified that correspond to each of saratin, bdellin, destabilase, hirudin, decorsin, endoglucoronidase, antistatin, and eglin, as well as to other previously uncharacterized predicted serine protease inhibitors, lectoxin-like c-type lectins, ficolin, disintegrins and histidine-rich proteins. This work provides a lens into the richness of bioactive polypeptides that are associated with sanguivory. In the context of a well-characterized molecular phylogeny of leeches, the results allow for preliminary evaluation of the relative evolutionary origins and historical conservation of leech salivary components. The goal of identifying evolutionarily significant residues associated with biomedically significant phenomena implies continued insights from a broader sampling of blood-feeding leech salivary transcriptomes.

  18. Host Matters: Medicinal Leech Digestive-Tract Symbionts and Their Pathogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Marden, Jeremiah N.; McClure, Emily A.; Beka, Lidia; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Digestive-tract microbiota exert tremendous influence over host health. Host-symbiont model systems are studied to investigate how symbioses are initiated and maintained, as well as to identify host processes affected by resident microbiota. The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, is an excellent model to address such questions owing to a microbiome that is consistently dominated by two species, Aeromonas veronii and Mucinivorans hirudinis, both of which are cultivable and have sequenced genomes. This review outlines current knowledge about the dynamics of the H. verbana microbiome. We discuss in depth the factors required for A. veronii colonization and proliferation in the leech crop and summarize the current understanding of interactions between A. veronii and its annelid host. Lastly, we discuss leech usage in modern medicine and highlight how leech-therapy associated infections, often attributable to Aeromonas spp., are of growing clinical concern due in part to an increased prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistant strains. PMID:27790190

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of Hirudo nipponia (Annelida, Hirudinea).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunling; Nie, Jing; Hou, Junjie; Xiao, Ling; Lv, Pan

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (14,414 bp) of the blood-feeding leech Hirudo nipponia, which was an important natural medicinal resource, was sequenced and characterized. The genome encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. The content of A + T was 72.60% for H. nipponia (31.69% A, 40.91% T, 15.45% G and 11.95% C). All protein-coding genes started with ATN except for nad3 and nad5, which used GTG as start codon. Eight protein-coding genes stopped with termination codon TAA. Five protein-coding genes used incomplete stop codon TA or T. The A + T-rich region was located between tRNA-Arg and tRNA-His with a length of 83 bp. This is the first report about completely sequenced mitochondrial genome from the family Hirudinidae. The complete mitochondrial genomes of H. nipponia would be useful for the exploration of Hirudinea polygenetic relationships.

  20. The leech: a novel invertebrate model for studying muscle regeneration and diseases.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Annalisa; Banfi, Serena; Bianchi, Cristiano; Gabriella, Greco; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Noonan, Douglas M; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda

    2010-01-01

    We focused our studies on the leech, Hirudo medicinalis. This invertebrate has a relative anatomical simplicity and is a reliable model for studying a variety of basic events, such as tissue repair, which has a striking similarity with vertebrate responses. Hirudo is also a good invertebrate model to test the actions of drugs and gene products, since the responses evoked by the different stimuli are clear and easily detectable due to their small size and anatomical simplicity. Here we review the use of this invertebrate model to investigate muscle regeneration and the role of hematopoietic stem cells in this process. Our recent data, summarized in this review, demonstrate that the injection of an appropriate combination of the matrigel biopolymer supplemented with Vascular Endothelial Growth factor (VEGF) in the leech Hirudo medicinalis is a remarkably effective tool for isolating a specific population of hematopoietic/endothelial precursor cells, which in turn can differentiate in muscle cells. Thus leeches can be considered as a new emerging model for studying endothelial and hematopoietic precursors cells involved in muscle post-natal growth and regeneration processes. PMID:20041825

  1. Differentially Expressed Genes in Hirudo medicinalis Ganglia after Acetyl-L-Carnitine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Federighi, Giuseppe; Macchi, Monica; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Scuri, Rossana; Brunelli, Marcello; Durante, Mauro; Traina, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring substance that, when administered at supra-physiological concentration, is neuroprotective. It is involved in membrane stabilization and in enhancement of mitochondrial functions. It is a molecule of considerable interest for its clinical application in various neural disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and painful neuropathies. ALC is known to improve the cognitive capability of aged animals chronically treated with the drug and, recently, it has been reported that it impairs forms of non-associative learning in the leech. In the present study the effects of ALC on gene expression have been analyzed in the leech Hirudo medicinalis. The suppression subtractive hybridisation methodology was used for the generation of subtracted cDNA libraries and the subsequent identification of differentially expressed transcripts in the leech nervous system after ALC treatment. The method detects differentially but also little expressed transcripts of genes whose sequence or identity is still unknown. We report that a single administration of ALC is able to modulate positively the expression of genes coding for functions that reveal a lasting effect of ALC on the invertebrate, and confirm the neuroprotective and neuromodulative role of the substance. In addition an important finding is the modulation of genes of vegetal origin. This might be considered an instance of ectosymbiotic mutualism. PMID:23308261

  2. A new genus and species of fish leeches Dolichobdella rubra, gen. n., sp. n., (Clitellata, Hirudinida, Piscicolidae) from the northern Sea ofJapan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utevsky, Serge Y.; Chernyshev, Alexei V.

    2013-02-01

    A new species of fish leeches, Dolichobdella rubra gen. n., sp. n., was found in samples collected by RV Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev in the northern Sea of Japan from 470-528 m during the joint Russian-German expedition SoJaBio (Sea of Japan Biodiversity Studies) in August 2010. The leech does not exceed 13 mm in length and has the following morphological characteristics: body elongated, smooth, lacking gills and pulsatile vesicles; eyes and ocelli absent; coloration reddish; female gonopore larger than male one; 6pairs of testisacs; accessory glands, conductive tissue and copulatory area present; ovisacs short; bursa long; coelomic system reduced.

  3. Annelida, Euhirudinea (leeches)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, there are over 600 species of leeches described which occur in freshwater, marine, estuarine, and moist-terrestrial ecosystems. Leeches are included in the Class Clitellata, Subclass Hirudinida, and Superorder Euhirudinea. Seven of the ten families of leeches occur in...

  4. Test of a life support system with Hirudo medicinalis in a sounding rocket.

    PubMed

    Lotz, R G; Baum, P; Bowman, G H; Klein, K D; von Lohr, R; Schrotter, L

    1972-01-01

    Two Nike-Tomahawk rockets each carrying two Biosondes were launched from Wallops Island, Virginia, the first on 10 December 1970 and the second on 16 December 1970. The primary objective of both flights was to test the Biosonde life support system under a near weightless environment and secondarily to subject the Hirudo medicinalis to the combined stresses of a rocket flight. The duration of the weightless environment was approximately 6.5 minutes. Data obtained during the flight by telemetry was used to ascertain the operation of the system and the movements of the leeches during flight. Based on the information obtained, it has been concluded that the operation of the Biosondes during the flight was similar to that observed in the laboratory. The experiment and equipment are described briefly and the flight results presented.

  5. Water and sediment toxicity assessment by use of behavioural responses of medicinal leeches.

    PubMed

    Petrauskiene, Laima

    2003-03-01

    Behaviour has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of chemically induced stress and pathology in aquatic organisms. However, ecotoxicological investigations on medicinal leech are restricted because of scarce leech resources in natural waters. We used artificially bred medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis L.) of two different ages: young (1-2 weeks old) and adult leeches (1 year old). Animals were exposed to: (1) waters of Lake Drukshiai-the cooler of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, (2) sediments of the river Nemunas and (3) solution of heavy metal model mixture (HMMM). The following behavioural responses of leech were investigated: mobility (number of moving individuals within certain periods of time), avoidance response (number of individuals escaping the tested water or sediments) changes in body shape (contractions of some muscles, abnormal position of suckers) and feeding activity (longevity of attachment process, interruptions of feeding bouts, size of blood meal). Mobility of young leeches was increased in the tested waters of Lake Drukshiai, whereas adult leeches showed no changes of this index. Avoidance response as well as impaired feeding activity (prolonged attachment process or completely suppressed attachment reflex, decreased size of blood meal) was observed in young leeches exposed to the waters from Lake Drukshiai and in adult animals exposed to all three kind of trials mentioned above. Avoidance response and changes in mobility were recorded during the first hour of exposure to tested samples; therefore, these responses can be used as an express method for water and sediment pollution assessment. Impaired feeding activity was recorded after 1-3-week exposure: this response may be used in assessing a chronic toxicity of pollution. Medicinal leech, due to its sensitivity, simplicity of measured indices and ease of laboratory maintenance, can be used as a test organism in ecotoxicity studies. PMID:12605921

  6. Water and sediment toxicity assessment by use of behavioural responses of medicinal leeches.

    PubMed

    Petrauskiene, Laima

    2003-03-01

    Behaviour has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of chemically induced stress and pathology in aquatic organisms. However, ecotoxicological investigations on medicinal leech are restricted because of scarce leech resources in natural waters. We used artificially bred medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis L.) of two different ages: young (1-2 weeks old) and adult leeches (1 year old). Animals were exposed to: (1) waters of Lake Drukshiai-the cooler of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, (2) sediments of the river Nemunas and (3) solution of heavy metal model mixture (HMMM). The following behavioural responses of leech were investigated: mobility (number of moving individuals within certain periods of time), avoidance response (number of individuals escaping the tested water or sediments) changes in body shape (contractions of some muscles, abnormal position of suckers) and feeding activity (longevity of attachment process, interruptions of feeding bouts, size of blood meal). Mobility of young leeches was increased in the tested waters of Lake Drukshiai, whereas adult leeches showed no changes of this index. Avoidance response as well as impaired feeding activity (prolonged attachment process or completely suppressed attachment reflex, decreased size of blood meal) was observed in young leeches exposed to the waters from Lake Drukshiai and in adult animals exposed to all three kind of trials mentioned above. Avoidance response and changes in mobility were recorded during the first hour of exposure to tested samples; therefore, these responses can be used as an express method for water and sediment pollution assessment. Impaired feeding activity was recorded after 1-3-week exposure: this response may be used in assessing a chronic toxicity of pollution. Medicinal leech, due to its sensitivity, simplicity of measured indices and ease of laboratory maintenance, can be used as a test organism in ecotoxicity studies.

  7. The use of medical leeches for venous congestion. A review and case report.

    PubMed

    Buote, N J

    2014-01-01

    The medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, has been used for hundreds of years in human medicine for a variety of diseases, most recently including venous congestion following reconstructive surgeries (skin flaps and reimplantations), excessive lingual and periorbital swelling, and non-traditional treatments for osteoarthritis, compartment syndrome and sialoadenitis. The treatment of venous congestion in animals using leeches has been mentioned anecdotally, but the only published report pertains to the use of leeches in a cat suffering from polycythemia vera. We report the use of medical grade leeches in a one-year-old male castrated Domestic Shorthaired cat presenting with severe swelling of the paw after sustaining a constrictive injury from a bandage. The limb use had become compromised and the swelling was not responsive to compression bandages so leech therapy was instituted for four days and the swelling dramatically improved. The patient's limb use improved back to normal and the constrictive wound went on to heal without complication. The use of leeches in this case allowed for resolution of severe venous congestion and a full return to function in this patient with no continued skin loss. The mechanism of action of hirudotherapy for venous congestion is to allow for an alternative egress of pooled venous blood leading to a reduction in capillary pressure and increases in arterial reperfusion of capillary beds. The human and veterinary applications, method, and potential complications with hirudotherapy are discussed in this review.

  8. Leech Therapy- A Holistic Approach of Treatment in Unani (Greeko-Arab) Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Azad Hussain; Ahmad, Tanzeel; Anwar, Mohd; Habib, Shahida; Sofi, Gh; Imam, Hashmat

    2011-01-01

    The Unani System of Medicine also known as Greeko-Arab medicine, founded by Hippocrates is based on the concept of equilibrium and balance of natural body humours (blood, bile, black bile and phlegm). The imbalance in the quality and quantity of these humours leads to diseases whereas restoration of this balance maintains health of a person. The treatment methodology of diseases is based on four therapeutic modalities viz. Regimental therapy, Dieto-therapy, Pharmacotherapy and surgery. Irsale Alaq (Leech or Hirudo therapy) is one of the most important and widely practised methods of regimental therapy used for local evacuation of morbid humours. It is a procedure of treatment with the use of medicinal leeches. It has been suggested and successfully practised by Greeko-Arab physicians in the management of musculoskeletal diseases, gynaecological disorders, chronic skin diseases, thromboembolic diseases, varicose veins, ENT disorders etc since long. According to Unani doctrine, the efficacy of leech therapy is attributed to the analgesic and resolvent activities of leeches. However, from modern perspective, the saliva of leech contains about 100 pharmacologically active biological substances like Hirudin, hyaluronidase, vasodilators, anesthetics, antibacterial, fibrinases, collagenase etc. These substances are injected into human body while sucking of the blood and are responsible for the analgesic, anti inflammatory and anesthetic effects of leech therapy. PMID:22736888

  9. Leech Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Abdualkader, A. M.; Ghawi, A. M.; Alaama, M.; Awang, M.; Merzouk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hematophagous animals including leeches have been known to possess biologically active compounds in their secretions, especially in their saliva. The blood-sucking annelids, leeches have been used for therapeutic purposes since the beginning of civilization. Ancient Egyptian, Indian, Greek and Arab physicians used leeches for a wide range of diseases starting from the conventional use for bleeding to systemic ailments, such as skin diseases, nervous system abnormalities, urinary and reproductive system problems, inflammation, and dental problems. Recently, extensive researches on leech saliva unveiled the presence of a variety of bioactive peptides and proteins involving antithrombin (hirudin, bufrudin), antiplatelet (calin, saratin), factor Xa inhibitors (lefaxin), antibacterial (theromacin, theromyzin) and others. Consequently, leech has made a comeback as a new remedy for many chronic and life-threatening abnormalities, such as cardiovascular problems, cancer, metastasis, and infectious diseases. In the 20th century, leech therapy has established itself in plastic and microsurgery as a protective tool against venous congestion and served to salvage the replanted digits and flaps. Many clinics for plastic surgery all over the world started to use leeches for cosmetic purposes. Despite the efficacious properties of leech therapy, the safety, and complications of leeching are still controversial. PMID:24019559

  10. Structural characterization of a novel neuropeptide from the central nervous system of the leech Erpobdella octoculata. The leech osmoregulator factor.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Bulet, P; Weber, W M; Clauss, W; Verger-Bocquet, M; Malecha, J

    1996-03-22

    Purification of a material immunoreactive to an antiserum against the C-terminal part of the oxytocin (Pro-Leu-Gly-amide) and present in the central nervous system of the Pharyngobdellid leech Erpobdella octoculata was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with both enzyme-linked immunosorbent and dot immunobinding assays for oxytocin. The amino acid sequence of the purified peptide (Ile-Pro-Glu-Pro-Tyr-Val-Trp-Asp) was established by Edman degradation and confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry measurement. When injected in leeches, purified or synthetic peptides exert an anti-diuretic effect, the most effective ranged between 10 pmol and 1 nmol. They provoked an uptake of water 1-2 h post-injection. Furthermore, electrophysiological experiments conducted in the leech Hirudo medicinalis revealed an inhibition of the potency of Na+ conductances of leech skin by this peptide. Immunocytochemical studies with an antiserum against synthetic oxytocin-like molecule provided the cytological basis for existence of a neuropeptide, since large amounts of immunoreactive neurons were detected in the central nervous systems of E. octoculata. The purified molecule is both different to peptides of the oxytocin/vasopressin family and is a novel neuropeptide in the animal kingdom. It was named the leech osmoregulator factor (LORF). An identification of the proteins immunoreactive to an antiserum against oxytocin performed at the level of both central nervous systems extracts and in vitro central nervous system-translated RNA products indicated that in the two cases, a single protein was detected. These proteins with a molecular masses of, respectively, approximately 34 kDa (homodimer of 17 kDa) for the central nervous systems extracts and approximately 19 kDa for in vitro central nervous system-translated RNA products were not recognized by the antiserum against MSEL- and VLDV-neurophysin (proteins associated to oxytocin and vasopressin

  11. Peptides from two sanguinovorous leeches analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric detector

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ling; Nie, Jing; Li, Danping; Chen, Keli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hirudo nipponica Whitman and Poecilobdella manillensis Lesson fall into the family of Hirudinidae Whitman, both of them are sanguinovorous leeches and used a anticoagulant medicines in China. Their medicinal parts are the dried bodies. However, the peptides in the dried body of the two leeches have not been very clear up to now. Objective: To analyze the peptides from two sanguinovorous leeches, H. nipponica and P. manillensis. Materials and Methods: In this article it is reported that the peptides were obtained from anticoagulant active extracted parts of dried bodies of the two leeches and their molecular weights were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry mass spectrometric detector online. Results: Three peptide components were identified from H. nipponica with their molecular weight separately 14998, 15988, and 15956, six peptide components were identified from P. manillensis with molecular weight 9590, 13642, 14998, 17631, 15988, and 16567. Two of peptides from P. manillensis have the same molecular weight 14998 and 15988 as that in H. nipponica. Conclusion: And the two peptides are the main peaks in the base peak ion chromatogram because they occupied a large ratio of total base peak area. Hence the composition of the extracted active part of the two leeches are very close, difference is in that the extract of P. manillensis has more small peptide peaks, but the extract of H. nipponica has not. Furthermore, the tryptic digestion hydrolysates of the extracted active part of each sample were analyzed and the results showed that there were four peaks which only exist in P. manillensis, but not in Hirudo nipponia. They may be the identified peak between the two leeches. This work support the viewpoint that P. manillensis can be used as a medicinal leech as H. nipponia and these peptide components of dried bodies of the two species leeches are a basis for their

  12. Diversity and selective pressures of anticoagulants in three medicinal leeches (Hirudinida: Hirudinidae, Macrobdellidae).

    PubMed

    Kvist, Sebastian; Min, Gi-Sik; Siddall, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    Although medicinal leeches have long been used as treatment for various ailments because of their potent anticoagulation factors, neither the full diversity of salivary components that inhibit coagulation, nor the evolutionary selection acting on them has been thoroughly investigated. Here, we constructed expressed sequence tag libraries from salivary glands of two species of medicinal hirudinoid leeches, Hirudo verbana and Aliolimnatis fenestrata, and identified anticoagulant-orthologs through BLASTx searches. The data set then was augmented by the addition of a previously constructed EST library from the macrobdelloid leech Macrobdella decora. The identified orthologs then were compared and contrasted with well-characterized anticoagulants from a variety of leeches with different feeding habits, including non-sanguivorous species. Moreover, four different statistical methods for predicting signatures of positive and negative evolutionary pressures were used for 10 rounds each to assess the level and type of selection acting on the molecules as a whole and on specific sites. In total, sequences showing putative BLASTx-orthology with five and three anticoagulant-families were recovered in the A. fenestrata and H. verbana EST libraries respectively. Selection pressure analyses predicted high levels of purifying selection across the anticoagulant diversity, although a few isolated sites showed signatures of positive selection. This study represents a first attempt at mapping the anticoagulant repertoires in a comparative fashion across several leech families.

  13. The medicinal leech genome encodes 21 innexin genes: different combinations are expressed by identified central neurons.

    PubMed

    Kandarian, Brandon; Sethi, Jasmine; Wu, Allan; Baker, Michael; Yazdani, Neema; Kym, Eunice; Sanchez, Alejandro; Edsall, Lee; Gaasterland, Terry; Macagno, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Gap junctional proteins are important components of signaling pathways required for the development and ongoing functions of all animal tissues, particularly the nervous system, where they function in the intracellular and extracellular exchange of small signaling factors and ions. In animals whose genomes have been sufficiently sequenced, large families of these proteins, connexins, pannexins, and innexins, have been found, with 25 innexins in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Starich et al. (Cell Commun Adhes 8: 311-314, 2001) and at least 37 connexins in the zebrafish Danio rerio Cruciani and Mikalsen (Biol Chem 388:253-264, 2009). Having recently sequenced the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana genome, we now report the presence of 21 innexin genes in this species, nine more than we had previously reported from the analysis of an EST-derived transcriptomic database Dykes and Macagno (Dev Genes Evol 216: 185-97, 2006); Macagno et al. (BMC Genomics 25:407, 2010). Gene structure analyses show that, depending on the leech innexin gene, they can contain from 0 to 6 introns, with closely related paralogs showing the same number of introns. Phylogenetic trees comparing Hirudo to another distantly related leech species, Helobdella robusta, shows a high degree of orthology, whereas comparison to other annelids shows a relatively low level. Comparisons with other Lophotrochozoans, Ecdyzozoans and with vertebrate pannexins suggest a low number (one to two) of ancestral innexin/pannexins at the protostome/deuterostome split. Whole-mount in situ hybridization for individual genes in early embryos shows that ∼50% of the expressed innexins are detectable in multiple tissues. Expression analyses using quantitative PCR show that ∼70% of the Hirudo innexins are expressed in the nervous system, with most of these detected in early development. Finally, quantitative PCR analysis of several identified adult neurons detects the presence of different combinations of innexin genes

  14. Helobdella (leech): a model for developmental studies.

    PubMed

    Weisblat, David A; Kuo, Dian-Han

    2009-04-01

    Helobdella is a genus of freshwater leeches, several species of which have been used for developmental studies since the 1970s. Helobdella embryos have been used for cell-lineage tracing and dye-mediated photoablation, and they have also been very useful for studies in cellular neurobiology. In this article, we discuss the reasons that Helobdella is used for studying development and some of the questions that are addressed through the use of this organism. PMID:20147121

  15. Physical methods for generating and decoding neural activity in Hirudo verbana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, Benjamin John

    The interface between living nervous systems and hardware is an excellent proving ground for precision experimental methods and information classification systems. Nervous systems are complex (104 -- 10 15(!) connections), fragile, and highly active in intricate, constantly evolving patterns. However, despite the conveniently electrical nature of neural transmission, the interface between nervous systems and hardware poses significant experimental difficulties. As the desire for direct interfaces with neural signals continues to expand, the need for methods of generating and measuring neural activity with high spatiotemporal precision has become increasingly critical. In this thesis, I describe advances I have made in the ability to modify, generate, measure, and understand neural signals both in- and ex-vivo. I focus on methods developed for transmitting and extracting signals in the intact nervous system of Hirudo verbana (the medicinal leech), an animal with a minimally complex nervous system (10000 neurons distributed in packets along a nerve cord) that exhibits a diverse array of behaviors. To introduce artificial activity patterns, I developed a photothermal activation system in which a highly focused laser is used to irradiate carbon microparticles in contact with target neurons. The resulting local temperature increase generates an electrical current that forces the target neuron to fire neural signals, thereby providing a unique neural input mechanism. These neural signals can potentially be used to alter behavioral choice or generate specific behavioral output, and can be used endogenously in many animal models. I also describe new tools developed to expand the application of this method. In complement to this input system, I describe a new method of analyzing neural output signals involved in long-range coordination of behaviors. Leech behavioral signals are propagated between neural packets as electrical pulses in the nerve connective, a bundle of

  16. Alpha-conotoxin ImI disrupts central control of swimming in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Daniel A; Gonzalez, Ruben; Ries, David C; Kristan, William B; French, Kathleen A

    2010-11-26

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) swim using a metachronal, front-to-back undulation. The behavior is generated by central pattern generators (CPGs) distributed along the animal's midbody ganglia and is coordinated by both central and peripheral mechanisms. Here we report that a component of the venom of Conus imperialis, α-conotoxin ImI, known to block nicotinic acetyl-choline receptors in other species, disrupts swimming. Leeches injected with the toxin swam in circles with exaggerated dorsoventral bends and reduced forward velocity. Fictive swimming in isolated nerve cords was even more strongly disrupted, indicating that the toxin targets the CPGs and central coordination, while peripheral coordination partially rescues the behavior in intact animals.

  17. [Medicinal leeches and hirudotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gödekmerdan, Ahmet; Arusan, Suat; Bayar, Batu; Sağlam, Naim

    2011-01-01

    Leeches have been used in the treatment of certain diseases since ancient times. There are a few species of medicinal leeches. However, H. medicinalis and H. verbana are known in Turkey. Currently, Turkey is one of the world's most important leech-exporting countries. Secretion of the salivary glands of medical leeches contains more than 100 bioactive substances. These secretions include vasodilators, bacteriostatic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulants, anti-edematous, which eliminate microcirculatory disorders, restore the damaged vascular permeability of tissues and organs, eliminate hypoxia, reduce blood pressure, increase immune system activity, resolving the cause of pain and improve the bioenergetic status of the organism. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (Food and Drug Authority of USA-FDA) have allowed the sale of leeches in this country, the use for plastic surgery, the general purposes and microsurgery in 2004. Turkey is the richest source in terms of the medical leech. Better evaluation of this valuable commodity and more effective use of hirudotherapy in modern medical practice as supportive treatment is very important.

  18. Identification, isolation and expansion of myoendothelial cells involved in leech muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Annalisa; Banfi, Serena; Gerosa, Laura; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Noonan, Douglas M; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda

    2009-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle in vertebrates contains myoendothelial cells that express both myogenic and endothelial markers, and which are able to differentiate into myogenic cells to contribute to muscle regeneration. In spite of intensive research efforts, numerous questions remain regarding the role of cytokine signalling on myoendothelial cell differentiation and muscle regeneration. Here we used Hirudo medicinalis (Annelid, leech) as an emerging new model to study myoendothelial cells and muscle regeneration. Although the leech has relative anatomical simplicity, it shows a striking similarity with vertebrate responses and is a reliable model for studying a variety of basic events, such as tissue repair. Double immunohistochemical analysis were used to characterize myoendothelial cells in leeches and, by injecting in vivo the matrigel biopolymer supplemented with the cytokine Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), we were able to isolate this specific cell population expressing myogenic and endothelial markers. We then evaluated the effect of VEGF on these cells in vitro. Our data indicate that, similar to that proposed for vertebrates, myoendothelial cells of the leech directly participate in myogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, and that VEGF secretion is involved in the recruitment and expansion of these muscle progenitor cells. PMID:19876402

  19. The leech nervous system: a valuable model to study the microglia involvement in regenerative processes.

    PubMed

    Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Drago, Francesco; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS). During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair. PMID:23878582

  20. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Girardello, Rossana; Tasselli, Stefano; Baranzini, Nicolò; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours) and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks) exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+) are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18), and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health. PMID:26636582

  1. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis

    PubMed Central

    Girardello, Rossana; Tasselli, Stefano; Baranzini, Nicolò; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours) and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks) exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+) are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18), and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health. PMID:26636582

  2. Leeches of the genus Helobdella (Clitellata: Hirudinida) from São Paulo, Brazil with descriptions of two new species using micro-computed tomography and a new record of Barbronia weberi (Blanchard 1897).

    PubMed

    Iwama, Rafael Eiji; Arruda, Eliane Pintor

    2016-01-01

    Leeches are an important group of macroinvertebrates found in the benthic zone of rivers, streams, lakes and ponds. Despite their ecological importance and potential as bioindicators, little is known about the diversity of leeches in Brazil, where only a few sporadic studies have been performed. Six locations in the region of Sorocaba, in the state of São Paulo, were sampled in order to study the diversity of predatory leeches. Besides traditional dissections, micro-computed tomography was used to access the internal morphology of the new species Helobdella chaviensis n. sp. and Helobdella schlenzae n. sp. Four additional native species were found and redescribed using traditional techniques. The invasive species Barbronia weberi (Blanchard 1897) was reported in the Tietê River for the first time. PMID:27470865

  3. Developmental biology of the leech Helobdella.

    PubMed

    Weisblat, David A; Kuo, Dian-Han

    2014-01-01

    Glossiphoniid leeches of the genus Helobdella provide experimentally tractable models for studies in evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo). Here, after a brief rationale, we will summarize our current understanding of Helobdella development and highlight the near term prospects for future investigations, with respect to the issues of: D quadrant specification; the transition from spiral to bilaterally symmetric cleavage; segmentation, and the connections between segmental and non-segmental tissues; modifications of BMP signaling in dorsoventral patterning and the O-P equivalence group; germ line specification and genome rearrangements. The goal of this contribution is to serve as a summary of, and guide to, published work. PMID:25690960

  4. Developmental biology of the leech Helobdella

    PubMed Central

    WEISBLAT, DAVID A.; KUO, DIAN-HAN

    2015-01-01

    Glossiphoniid leeches of the genus Helobdella provide experimentally tractable models for studies in evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo). Here, after a brief rationale, we will summarize our current understanding of Helobdella development and highlight the near term prospects for future investigations, with respect to the issues of: D quadrant specification; the transition from spiral to bilaterally symmetric cleavage; segmentation, and the connections between segmental and non-segmental tissues; modifications of BMP signaling in dorsoventral patterning and the O-P equivalence group; germ line specification and genome rearrangements. The goal of this contribution is to serve as a summary of, and guide to, published work. PMID:25690960

  5. Ocular leech infestation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yueh-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. PMID:25784786

  6. De novo transcriptome assembly databases for the central nervous system of the medicinal leech

    PubMed Central

    Hibsh, Dror; Schori, Hadas; Efroni, Sol; Shefi, Orit

    2015-01-01

    The study of non-model organisms stands to benefit greatly from genetic and genomic data. For a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving neuronal development, and to characterize the entire leech Hirudo medicinalis central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome we combined Trinity for de-novo assembly and Illumina HiSeq2000 for RNA-Seq. We present a set of 73,493 de-novo assembled transcripts for the leech, reconstructed from RNA collected, at a single ganglion resolution, from the CNS. This set of transcripts greatly enriches the available data for the leech. Here, we share two databases, such that each dataset allows a different type of search for candidate homologues. The first is the raw set of assembled transcripts. This set allows a sequence-based search. A comprehensive analysis of which revealed 22,604 contigs with high e-values, aligned versus the Swiss-Prot database. This analysis enabled the production of the second database, which includes correlated sequences to annotated transcript names, with the confidence of BLAST best hit. PMID:25977819

  7. Genetic variation in Whitmania pigra, Hirudo nipponica and Poecilobdella manillensis, three endemic and endangered species in China using SSR and TRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Shi, Hong-Zhuan; Cheng, Bo-Xing; Lu, Yu-Xi; Gou, Ling; Wang, Jia; Shen, Wen-Biao; Yan, Shi-Meng; Wu, Man-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Leeches are not only important medicinal animals worldwide but also are endangered. We aimed to (i) explore the level of genetic diversity within/among populations of three leeches, (ii) assess genetic differentiation among these three leeches, and (iii) discuss an appropriate strategy for conserving leech germplasm. A total of 315 individuals of Whitmania pigra, Hirudo nipponica and Poecilobdella manillensis from 21 populations were collected in China and Vietnam. The genetic structure and genetic diversity among and within the 21 populations were evaluated using target region amplified polymorphism (TRAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Sixteen pairs of TRAP primers generated a total of 398 fragments, of which 396 (99.50%) were polymorphic; fourteen pairs of SSR primers generated a total of 60 fragments, of which 59 (98.33%) were polymorphic. Shannon's index (I) and Nei's gene diversity index (H) for the three leeches were high at the species level (I=0.4980 and H=0.3323 for TRAPs, I=0.4487 and H=0.2969 for SSRs in W. pigra; I=0.4147/0.3769, H=0.2788/0.2566 for H. nipponica; and I=0.4616/0.4717, H=0.3099/0.3203 for P. manillensis). However, low genetic diversity was determined at the population level; the average genetic diversity measures within populations were H=0.1767/0.1376, I=0.2589/0.2043 for W. pigra, H=0.2149/0.2021, I=0.3184/0.3000 for H. nipponica and H=0.2850/0.2724, I=0.4152/0.3967 for P. manillensis. We conclude that there was limited gene exchange within/among populations and species, as the gene flow number (Nm) was 0.5493/0.5807. However, for all three species, the genetic diversity was different at the population level. Gene differentiation (Gst) and Nm were 0.4682 /0.5364 and 0.5678/0.4321 for W. pigra, 0.2294/0.2127 and 1.6797/1.8512 for H. nipponica and 0.1214/0.1496 and 3.6202/2.8412 for P. manillensis. STRUCTURE analysis, Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic means (UPGMA) cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis

  8. Genetic variation in Whitmania pigra, Hirudo nipponica and Poecilobdella manillensis, three endemic and endangered species in China using SSR and TRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Shi, Hong-Zhuan; Cheng, Bo-Xing; Lu, Yu-Xi; Gou, Ling; Wang, Jia; Shen, Wen-Biao; Yan, Shi-Meng; Wu, Man-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Leeches are not only important medicinal animals worldwide but also are endangered. We aimed to (i) explore the level of genetic diversity within/among populations of three leeches, (ii) assess genetic differentiation among these three leeches, and (iii) discuss an appropriate strategy for conserving leech germplasm. A total of 315 individuals of Whitmania pigra, Hirudo nipponica and Poecilobdella manillensis from 21 populations were collected in China and Vietnam. The genetic structure and genetic diversity among and within the 21 populations were evaluated using target region amplified polymorphism (TRAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Sixteen pairs of TRAP primers generated a total of 398 fragments, of which 396 (99.50%) were polymorphic; fourteen pairs of SSR primers generated a total of 60 fragments, of which 59 (98.33%) were polymorphic. Shannon's index (I) and Nei's gene diversity index (H) for the three leeches were high at the species level (I=0.4980 and H=0.3323 for TRAPs, I=0.4487 and H=0.2969 for SSRs in W. pigra; I=0.4147/0.3769, H=0.2788/0.2566 for H. nipponica; and I=0.4616/0.4717, H=0.3099/0.3203 for P. manillensis). However, low genetic diversity was determined at the population level; the average genetic diversity measures within populations were H=0.1767/0.1376, I=0.2589/0.2043 for W. pigra, H=0.2149/0.2021, I=0.3184/0.3000 for H. nipponica and H=0.2850/0.2724, I=0.4152/0.3967 for P. manillensis. We conclude that there was limited gene exchange within/among populations and species, as the gene flow number (Nm) was 0.5493/0.5807. However, for all three species, the genetic diversity was different at the population level. Gene differentiation (Gst) and Nm were 0.4682 /0.5364 and 0.5678/0.4321 for W. pigra, 0.2294/0.2127 and 1.6797/1.8512 for H. nipponica and 0.1214/0.1496 and 3.6202/2.8412 for P. manillensis. STRUCTURE analysis, Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic means (UPGMA) cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis

  9. LEECHES (ANNELIDA: EUHIRUDINEA) OF NORTHERN ARKANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one lotic and lentic environments throughout central and northern Arkansas were surveyed for the presence of leeches during June 2004, and April, July - October, 2005. Fourteen species of leeches (Desserobdella cryptobranchii, Desserobdella phalera, Desserobdella picta, H...

  10. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Macova, Stanislava; Harustiakova, Danka; Kolarova, Jitka; Machova, Jana; Zlabek, Vladimir; Vykusova, Blanka; Randak, Tomas; Velisek, Josef; Poleszczuk, Gorzyslaw; Hajslova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of the river (the first sampling site upstream to the source of contamination and 10 sites downstream). The PCB indicator congeners IUPA no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were measured. Levels were highest at the four sampling sites nearest the source of pollution. The highest values of PCB congeners were found in 1992. PCB content decreased from 1992 to 2003 and with distance from the source. The study indicated that leeches of the genus Erpobdella are a suitable bioindicator of contamination in the surface layer of river sediments. PMID:22573988

  11. [Infections Associated with Treatment with Hirudo medicinalis - Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature].

    PubMed

    Reese, K; Gümbel, D; Seifert, J; Daeschlein, G; Napp, M; Ekkernkamp, A

    2015-06-01

    Medicinal leeches are well-established for promoting venous drainage in transplants/flaps and analgesia in osteoarthritis. Although medicinal leeches are bred and kept under controlled conditions, they are colonised by a genuine species-specific bacterial flora. Therapeutic application of leeches implies skin penetration carrying an a priori risk of infection. We report 2 cases with different indications for medicinal leech therapy. In both cases wound infection occurred in close temporal and spatial correlation or with evidence of a leech-associated germ that could be treated successfully. An unclarified complication rate warrants strict indications for the application of medicinal leeches. Preventive measures are currently tested.

  12. Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure-like behavior and neural hyperactivity in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Elizabeth; Burrell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the capacity of a known pro-epileptic drug, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), to elicit seizure-like activity in the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. During in vivo experiments, PTZ elicited increased motor activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest concentration (10 mM) eliciting episodes of highly uncoordinated exploratory and swimming behavior. Co-application of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin, failed to reduce the absolute amount of PTZ-induced motor behavior, but was able to prevent expression of abnormal exploratory and swimming behaviors. During in vitro experiments in which extracellular recordings of connective nerve activity were made, bath application of 1 μM PTZ in Mg(2+)-free saline elicited a significant increase in spontaneous activity. This PTZ-induced increase in activity was completely inhibited by phenytoin. Interestingly, PTZ-induced hyperactivity was also blocked by co-application of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. These findings suggest that the leech can be a useful system in which to study potential anti-epileptic treatments.

  13. Pruritis and palpable purpura from leeches in the Australian Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Seiverling, Elizabeth V.; Khalsa, Amrit; Ahrns, Hadjh T.

    2014-01-01

    Leeches are prevalent in the Australian Rainforest. We report two cases of leech bites resulting in pruritis and palpable purpura. The dermatologic sequelae of leech bites, differential diagnosis of pruritic palpable purpura, leech bite treatment, prevention, and complications are reviewed. PMID:26839767

  14. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new species of leech (Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinida): Implications for the health of its imperiled amphibian host (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William A.; Moser, William E.; Garst, David W.; Richardson, Dennis J.; Hammond, Charlotte I.; Lazo-Wasem, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) is among the most intriguing and imperiled amphibians in North America. Since the 1970s and 80s, western populations of the Ozark and eastern subspecies in Missouri have declined by nearly 80%. As a result of population declines, the Ozark hellbender was recently federally protected as an endangered species, and the eastern subspecies was granted protection under CITES. Although habitat degradation is probably the biggest threat to hellbender populations, recent evidence suggests that pathogens including chytrid fungus and “flesh-eating” bacteria may also contribute to declines in Ozark hellbenders. Leeches, which are very common on Ozark hellbenders, have recently been implicated as possible vectors of disease among Ozark hellbenders but have not been described in eastern hellbenders or outside of Missouri and Arkansas. We discovered a population of leeches on eastern hellbenders in southwest Virginia and confirmed that the species of leech is within the genus Placobdella, but is morphologically and genetically distinct from all previously described leech species. We named the new species Placobdella appalachiensis sp. n. Moser and Hopkins, based on the mountainous region in which it was discovered. Our surveys over a three consecutive year period suggested that this leech species may be patchily distributed and/or have a narrow geographic range. We consistently detected leeches at one site (mean prevalence in 80 hellbenders = 27.5%; median intensity = 3.0 leeches per parasitized hellbender [range 1 – >250 leeches]) during three years of surveys, but we never found leeches in any of our other seven study sites in two streams (mean prevalence in 139 hellbenders = 0%). We found a significant positive relationship between hellbender body size and the intensity of parasitism, and we suggest the possibility that the behavioral ecology of adults leading up to reproduction may increase their encounter rates

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new species of leech (Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinida): Implications for the health of its imperiled amphibian host (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William A; Moser, William E; Garst, David W; Richardson, Dennis J; Hammond, Charlotte I; Lazo-Wasem, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    The hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) is among the most intriguing and imperiled amphibians in North America. Since the 1970s and 80s, western populations of the Ozark and eastern subspecies in Missouri have declined by nearly 80%. As a result of population declines, the Ozark hellbender was recently federally protected as an endangered species, and the eastern subspecies was granted protection under CITES. Although habitat degradation is probably the biggest threat to hellbender populations, recent evidence suggests that pathogens including chytrid fungus and "flesh-eating" bacteria may also contribute to declines in Ozark hellbenders. Leeches, which are very common on Ozark hellbenders, have recently been implicated as possible vectors of disease among Ozark hellbenders but have not been described in eastern hellbenders or outside of Missouri and Arkansas. We discovered a population of leeches on eastern hellbenders in southwest Virginia and confirmed that the species of leech is within the genus Placobdella, but is morphologically and genetically distinct from all previously described leech species. We named the new species Placobdella appalachiensis sp. n. Moser and Hopkins, based on the mountainous region in which it was discovered. Our surveys over a three consecutive year period suggested that this leech species may be patchily distributed and/or have a narrow geographic range. We consistently detected leeches at one site (mean prevalence in 80 hellbenders = 27.5%; median intensity = 3.0 leeches per parasitized hellbender [range 1 - >250 leeches]) during three years of surveys, but we never found leeches in any of our other seven study sites in two streams (mean prevalence in 139 hellbenders = 0%). We found a significant positive relationship between hellbender body size and the intensity of parasitism, and we suggest the possibility that the behavioral ecology of adults leading up to reproduction may increase their encounter rates with parasites. We

  16. [Design of an electronic leech].

    PubMed

    Lomelí-Mejía, Pedro Alejandro; Domínguez-Rubio, René; Espinosa-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Lecona-Butrón, Hugo; Rodríguez-Reyna, Reynaldo Manuel

    2014-07-01

    This research presents the development of a continual suction electromechanical device (CSED) which emulates the feeding characteristics of a medicinal leech to drain body fluids. After the research, design and building of the device, its performance in normal conditions with fluids of different viscosity was evaluated. Finally, the device was submitted to a test of blood draining in three adult male rabbits NZW with a weight of three kilograms, obtaining drain. PMID:25264804

  17. [Design of an electronic leech].

    PubMed

    Lomelí-Mejía, Pedro Alejandro; Domínguez-Rubio, René; Espinosa-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Lecona-Butrón, Hugo; Rodríguez-Reyna, Reynaldo Manuel

    2014-07-01

    This research presents the development of a continual suction electromechanical device (CSED) which emulates the feeding characteristics of a medicinal leech to drain body fluids. After the research, design and building of the device, its performance in normal conditions with fluids of different viscosity was evaluated. Finally, the device was submitted to a test of blood draining in three adult male rabbits NZW with a weight of three kilograms, obtaining drain.

  18. 33 CFR 207.330 - Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and Pokegama... Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and...

  19. 33 CFR 207.330 - Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mississippi River between Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and Pokegama... Winnibigoshish and Pokegama dams, Leech River between outlet of Leech Lake and Mississippi River, and...

  20. Findings of Bone Scintigraphy After Leech Theraphy

    PubMed Central

    Özyurt, Sinem; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Baskın, Aylin; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2014-01-01

    In this case report, we present a 70 year old female patient who had recieved Leech therapy (hirudotherapy) on her leg without informing referring physician. In dynamic bone scintigraphy there was increased perfusion and hyperemia in her left ankle and leg, also in late static images moderate increased uptake was seen in soft tissue region and at the fracture site of ankle. We learned that she had Leech therapy applied on her leg, which could explain the increased perfusion and hyperemia in dynamic and blood pool phases of bone scintigraphy because of Leech therapy’s dilatory effects on superficial veins. Leech therapy may lead to an increase in perfusion and hyperemia in blood pool phase of bone scintigraphy, which may cause confusion in differential diagnosis. To our best knowledge this report is the first case that shows the scintigraphic findigs after Leech therapy. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24653932

  1. New species of rhynchobdellid leech (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae): a parasite of turtles from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Jiménez, Serapio; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2009-12-01

    A new species of rhynchobdellid leech, Placobdella ringueleti n. sp., is described based on the examination of 25 specimens. Leeches were collected from body appendages of freshwater turtles (Kinosternon leucostomum, Dermatemys mawii, and Staurotypus triporcatus ) from Chiapas, Mexico. The new species resembles other members of the genus in the ocular morphology, bilobated ovaries, and presence of 1 pair of elongated mycetomes, but it is distinguished from them by the dorsal papillar pattern, by having a continuous longitudinal mid-dorsal stripe along the dorsal surface and papillae on the dorsal surface of the posterior sucker. Placobdella ringueleti represents the third species of the genus in Mexico. The type locality of the new species is part of the “El Ocote” Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. PMID:19566347

  2. The Dynamics of Group Formation Among Leeches

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Giacomo; Bianconi, Ginestra; Torre, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Leeches exploring a new environment continuously meet each other and merge in temporary groups. After 2–3 h, leeches become attracted to each other eventually forming a large and stable group. When their number is reduced, leeches remain solitary, behaving independently. Group formation is facilitated by body injection of serotonin (5-HT) and the level of endogenous 5-HT is elevated in leeches forming a large group. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5-HT antagonists prevented injected leeches from joining a large group of conspecifics. When sensilla near the head were ablated or the supraesophageal ganglion disconnected, leeches remained solitary, but explored the environment swimming and crawling. These results suggest that group formation is initiated by a release of 5-HT triggered by sensilla stimulation and its dynamics can be explained by the establishment of a reinforcement dynamics, as observed during human group formation. As 5-HT affects social interactions also in humans, group formation in leeches and humans share a similar dynamics and hormonal control. PMID:22629247

  3. Identification of iron and heme utilization genes in Aeromonas and their role in the colonization of the leech digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Maltz, Michele; LeVarge, Barbara L.; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or proteins for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mini Tn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to utilize iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB) was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted with an antibiotic resistance cassette in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant, yielding an hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A. veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a potential role in virulence factor of other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental) were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed that in contrast to the siderophore utilization genes heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. The importance of heme utilization in the colonization of the leech further confirms that symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar

  4. Identification of iron and heme utilization genes in Aeromonas and their role in the colonization of the leech digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Michele; LeVarge, Barbara L; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or proteins for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mini Tn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to utilize iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB) was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted with an antibiotic resistance cassette in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant, yielding an hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A. veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a potential role in virulence factor of other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental) were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed that in contrast to the siderophore utilization genes heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. The importance of heme utilization in the colonization of the leech further confirms that symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar

  5. Heart Motorneuron Dynamics of Leeches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Palacios, Antonio

    2003-08-01

    The heartbeat of the medicinal leech consists of two intricate patterns of oscillatory behavior, which are driven by two lateral arrays of motorneurons. On one side of the animal the motorneurons oscillate synchronously, while on the other side they produce a peristaltic wave of oscillations. Then every 20 heartbeats, approximately, the two sides alternate their activity. These two rhythms, including the transitions between them, are known to be initiated by a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) network of neurons. The translation mechanism from CPG dynamics to motorneuron activity, however, is not well understood. In this work, we use symmetric systems of differential equations, accompanied with computational simulations, to investigate such mechanism.

  6. Medicinal leech therapy in pain syndromes: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Koeppen, Detlev; Aurich, Michael; Rampp, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Medicinal leech therapy is used in a variety of conditions; most of which have pain as a major symptom. Its mode of action relies on the injection of leech saliva into patients' tissues during the process of blood withdrawal. Leech saliva contains active ingredients with anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, anti-coagulant and blood- and lymph-circulation enhancing properties. A specific analgesic substance within the leech saliva is yet to be identified. Pain relief from leech therapy is rapid, effective and long-lasting in many conditions. This review compiles studies and case reports that provide clinical evidence for leech therapy's analgesic effects.

  7. Medicinal leech therapy and Aeromonas spp. infection.

    PubMed

    Verriere, B; Sabatier, B; Carbonnelle, E; Mainardi, J L; Prognon, P; Whitaker, I; Lantieri, L; Hivelin, M

    2016-06-01

    While the use of medicinal leech therapy (MLT) in reconstructive and orthopaedic surgery is widely described, post-operative complications related to leeches remain a major concern. Aeromonas spp. strains are involved in the majority of reported cases. As surgical success rate is directly impacted, an adapted antibiotic prophylaxis should be instituted in order to minimize these complications. We assessed pharmaceutical process, microbiological control and related infections in order to provide data and choose the appropriate antibiotherapy for patients requiring MLT. We report a clinical and microbiological study over a 24-month period. Clinical data were collected from patients' database, and microbiological analysis both on leeches' tank water and crushed leeches were performed to characterize isolated strains and their susceptibility to antibiotics. A total of 595 leeches were used to treat 28 patients (12 in plastic surgery and 16 in orthopaedic surgery), and three documented cases of post-operative infections were reported. Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 62 % of analyzed batches (75 % of Aeromonas veronii). Eighteen Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 23 water samples and three crushed leeches. Isolates were similar in tank and crushed leeches. Strains were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, aminosides, and third-generation cephalosporins but resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and second-generation cephalosporins. According to collected data, routine tank water microbiological analyses are mandatory in order to identify leeches' batches containing resistant strains and to discard them. In this context, the surgeon is able to select an appropriated antibiotic prophylaxis in order to avoid MLT associated serious post-operative complications.

  8. Reach the Leech: An Unusual Cause of Hematuria.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Sahibzada Nasir; Anwar, Zahid; Sheen, Salman Najam

    2016-02-01

    Leeches are found in fresh water as well as moist marshy tropical areas. Orifical Hirudiniasis is the presence of leech in natural human orifices. Leech have been reported in nose, oropharynx, vagina, rectum and bladder but leech per urethra is very rare. We report a case of leech in urethra causing hematuria and bleeding disorder in the form of epistaxis and impaired clotting profile after use of stream water for ablution. The case was diagnosed after a prolonged diagnostic dilemma. Asingle alive leech was recovered from the urethra after ten days with the help of forceps. The hematuria and epistaxis gradually improved over next 48 hours and the patient became asymptomatic. Natives of leech infested areas should be advised to avoid swimming in fresh water and desist from drinking and using stream water without inspection for leeches. PMID:26876408

  9. From bloodletting to bioconcentration: Science resurrects the leech

    SciTech Connect

    Gorvalski, M.

    1990-07-01

    Leeches are being used by environmental chemists at the Westwater Research Center at the University of British Columbia to measure the contamination levels of local rivers. As the chemical Agent Orange is broken down, chlorinated phenols are released and absorbed by the leeches. The levels of the chlorophenols are too small to be detected by conventional methods, so the leeches are used as monitoring organisms. The leeches are being tested to see if they could be used to monitor other pollutants as well.

  10. Melena revealing a nasopharyngeal leech: a paediatric case.

    PubMed

    El Koraichi, Alae; Ayoubi, Ali; Benjelloun, Mohamed Y; Bentalha, A; El Kettani, Salma E

    2014-03-01

    Leech infestation occurs after swimming or ingestion of freshwater, especially in rural areas. Symptoms are different depending on the binding site of the leech. At the nasopharynx, it is mainly responsible for epistaxis. We report a case of an unknown pharyngeal location of a leech in a three year-old girl responsible for melena and leading to a severe anaemia. PMID:24630513

  11. Aeromonas hydrophila infection associated with the use of medicinal leeches.

    PubMed Central

    Snower, D P; Ruef, C; Kuritza, A P; Edberg, S C

    1989-01-01

    The use of medicinal leeches (Hiruda medicinalis) is becoming more common after plastic surgery to control venous congestion of skin grafts. We describe a patient with Aeromonas hydrophila infection whose graft was treated with medicinal leeches. The infection required systemic antibiotic therapy. A. hydrophila is the predominant bacterial flora in the gut of the leech, where it plays an essential role for the animal in the digestion of blood. The potential for A. hydrophila wound infection, and appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis of the leech or patient, should be considered when medicinal leeches are used. Images PMID:2666448

  12. The contemporary use of the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Bunker, T D

    1981-03-01

    Over 100 000 patients with head injuries are admitted to General Hospitals every year in Britain (Jennet, 1978). A fair proportion of these have periorbital haematoma. Evacuation of the haematoma using a leech is a painless procedure which can be carried out by a nurse. It allows the patient to open his eye and see immediately, relieving him of discomfort and disfigurement. It allows the doctor or nurse to open the eye easily and painlessly for observation of pupil size and reaction. Leeches are cheap and very easily kept. PMID:7263055

  13. Persistence of leech repellents on cloth.

    PubMed

    Nath, D R; Das, N G; Das, S C

    1993-05-01

    Trials on persistence of repellent properties of N, N-diethyl phenyl acetamide (DEPA), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), 3acetyl2(2-6-dimethyl-5-heptenyl)oxazolidine(Citronyl) , dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and N-benzoyl piperidine (NBP) on cloth were conducted against land leeches in evergreen rain and deciduous forests of Assam. Results obtained were compared with volatile oil of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. syn. Z. alatum Roxb (Timur) to evaluate its efficacy as leech repellent. DEPA and DEET were found to be the best. Timur oil was at par with Citronyl and exhibited better results than DMP and NBP.

  14. A new lineage of trypanosomes from Australian vertebrates and terrestrial bloodsucking leeches (Haemadipsidae).

    PubMed

    Hamilton, P B; Stevens, J R; Gidley, J; Holz, P; Gibson, W C

    2005-04-01

    Little is known about the trypanosomes of indigenous Australian vertebrates and their vectors. We surveyed a range of vertebrates and blood-feeding invertebrates for trypanosomes by parasitological and PCR-based methods using primers specific to the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosome isolates were obtained in culture from two common wombats, one swamp wallaby and an Australian bird (Strepera sp.). By PCR, blood samples from three wombats, one brush-tailed wallaby, three platypuses and a frog were positive for trypanosome DNA. All the blood-sucking invertebrates screened were negative for trypanosomes both by microscopy and PCR, except for specimens of terrestrial leeches (Haemadipsidae). Of the latter, two Micobdella sp. specimens from Victoria and 18 Philaemon sp. specimens from Queensland were positive by PCR. Four Haemadipsa zeylanica specimens from Sri Lanka and three Leiobdella jawarerensis specimens from Papua New Guinea were also PCR positive for trypanosome DNA. We sequenced the SSU rRNA and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes in order to determine the phylogenetic positions of the new vertebrate and terrestrial leech trypanosomes. In trees based on these genes, Australian vertebrate trypanosomes fell in several distinct clades, for the most part being more closely related to trypanosomes outside Australia than to each other. Two previously undescribed wallaby trypanosomes fell in a clade with Trypanosoma theileri, the cosmopolitan bovid trypanosome, and Trypanosoma cyclops from a Malaysian primate. The terrestrial leech trypanosomes were closely related to the wallaby trypanosomes, T. cyclops and a trypanosome from an Australian frog. We suggest that haemadipsid leeches may be significant and widespread vectors of trypanosomes in Australia and Asia. PMID:15777919

  15. A new lineage of trypanosomes from Australian vertebrates and terrestrial bloodsucking leeches (Haemadipsidae).

    PubMed

    Hamilton, P B; Stevens, J R; Gidley, J; Holz, P; Gibson, W C

    2005-04-01

    Little is known about the trypanosomes of indigenous Australian vertebrates and their vectors. We surveyed a range of vertebrates and blood-feeding invertebrates for trypanosomes by parasitological and PCR-based methods using primers specific to the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosome isolates were obtained in culture from two common wombats, one swamp wallaby and an Australian bird (Strepera sp.). By PCR, blood samples from three wombats, one brush-tailed wallaby, three platypuses and a frog were positive for trypanosome DNA. All the blood-sucking invertebrates screened were negative for trypanosomes both by microscopy and PCR, except for specimens of terrestrial leeches (Haemadipsidae). Of the latter, two Micobdella sp. specimens from Victoria and 18 Philaemon sp. specimens from Queensland were positive by PCR. Four Haemadipsa zeylanica specimens from Sri Lanka and three Leiobdella jawarerensis specimens from Papua New Guinea were also PCR positive for trypanosome DNA. We sequenced the SSU rRNA and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes in order to determine the phylogenetic positions of the new vertebrate and terrestrial leech trypanosomes. In trees based on these genes, Australian vertebrate trypanosomes fell in several distinct clades, for the most part being more closely related to trypanosomes outside Australia than to each other. Two previously undescribed wallaby trypanosomes fell in a clade with Trypanosoma theileri, the cosmopolitan bovid trypanosome, and Trypanosoma cyclops from a Malaysian primate. The terrestrial leech trypanosomes were closely related to the wallaby trypanosomes, T. cyclops and a trypanosome from an Australian frog. We suggest that haemadipsid leeches may be significant and widespread vectors of trypanosomes in Australia and Asia.

  16. Reproductive strategies of the kangaroo leech, Marsupiobdella africana (Glossiphoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Natasha; Du Preez, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association. PMID:25830114

  17. Reproductive strategies of the kangaroo leech, Marsupiobdella africana (Glossiphoniidae).

    PubMed

    Kruger, Natasha; Du Preez, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association.

  18. Nurses' experiences of leech therapy in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Alison; OBoyle, Colm

    2016-07-14

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' experience of using leech therapy. Leech therapy is useful in promoting revascularisation of skin grafts. Nurse disquiet in their role as leech therapists has been noted. This study explored the experience of Irish nurses. A qualitative design with an interview schedule was used to learn about emotional and practical clinical experiences. Interviews were carried out with seven nurses working with leeches in reconstructive surgery in 2013. These interviews were coded and explored for themes. Results revealed that many nurses feel aversion to the use of leeches. This may be associated with the use of a parasitic organism as treatment in conflict with the nurse's role in cross infection. It was also found that management of a nurse's own and patient's emotional responses is required. In conclusion, preparation for the role of leech therapy beyond the purely practical is necessary, and should explore affective responses of the practitioner and patients. PMID:27409780

  19. Field and experimental evidence of a new caiman trypanosome species closely phylogenetically related to fish trypanosomes and transmitted by leeches

    PubMed Central

    Fermino, Bruno R.; Paiva, Fernando; Soares, Priscilla; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R.; Viola, Laerte B.; Ferreira, Robson C.; Botero-Arias, Robinson; de-Paula, Cátia D.; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmen S.A.; Teixeira, Marta M.G.; Camargo, Erney P.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma terena and Trypanosoma ralphi are known species of the South American crocodilians Caiman crocodilus, Caiman yacare and Melanosuchus niger and are phylogenetically related to the tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma grayi of the African Crocodylus niloticus. These trypanosomes form the Crocodilian clade of the terrestrial clade of the genus Trypanosoma. A PCR-survey for trypanosomes in caiman blood samples and in leeches taken from caimans revealed unknown trypanosome diversity and frequent mixed infections. Phylogenies based on SSU (small subunit) of rRNA and gGAPDH (glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase) gene sequences revealed a new trypanosome species clustering with T. terena and T. ralphi in the crocodilian clade and an additional new species nesting in the distant Aquatic clade of trypanosomes, which is herein named Trypanosoma clandestinus n. sp. This new species was found in Caiman yacare, Caiman crocodilus and M. niger from the Pantanal and Amazonian biomes in Brazil. Large numbers of dividing epimastigotes and unique thin and long trypomastigotes were found in the guts of leeches (Haementeria sp.) removed from the mouths of caimans. The trypanosomes recovered from the leeches had sequences identical to those of T. clandestinus of caiman blood samples. Experimental infestation of young caimans (Caiman yacare) with infected leeches resulted in long-lasting T. clandestinus infections that permitted us to delineate its life cycle. In contrast to T. terena, T. ralphi and T. grayi, which are detectable by hemoculturing, microscopy and standard PCR of caiman blood, T. clandestinus passes undetected by these methods due to very low parasitemia and could be detected solely by the more sensitive nested PCR method. T. clandestinus n. sp. is the first crocodilian trypanosome known to be transmitted by leeches and positioned in the aquatic clade closest to fish trypanosomes. Our data show that caimans can host trypanosomes of the aquatic or

  20. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses of Three Species of Placobdella (Rhynchobdellida: Glossiphoniidae) Confirms a Single Origin of Blood Feeding in Leeches.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Mark E; Brugler, Mercer R; Kvist, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    One of the recalcitrant questions regarding the evolutionary history of clitellate annelids involves the feeding preference of the common ancestor of extant rhynchobdellid (proboscis bearing) and arhynchobdellid (jaw bearing) leeches. Whereas early evidence, based on morphological data, pointed towards independent acquisitions of blood feeding in the 2 orders, molecular-based phylogenetic data suggest that the ancestor of modern leeches was a sanguivore. Here, we use a comparative transcriptomic approach in order to increase our understanding of the diversity of anticoagulation factors for 3 species of the genus Placobdella, for which comparative data have been lacking, and inspect these in light of archetypal anticoagulant data for both arhynchobdellid and other rhynchobdellid species. Notwithstanding the varying levels of host specificity displayed by the 3 different species of Placobdella, transcriptomic profiles with respect to anticoagulation factors were largely similar -this despite the fact that Placobdella kwetlumye only retains a single pair of salivary glands, as opposed to the 2 pairs more common in the genus. Results show that 9 different anticoagulant proteins and an additional 5 putative antihemostasis proteins are expressed in salivary secretions of the 3 species. In particular, an ortholog of the archetypal, single-copy, anticoagulant hirudin (not previously available as comparative data for rhynchobdellids) is present in at least 2 of 3 species examined, corroborating the notion of a single origin of blood feeding in the ancestral leech. PMID:26535976

  1. First record of Limnatis paluda (Hirudinida, Arhynchobdellida, Praobdellidae) from Kazakhstan, with comments on genetic diversity of Limnatis leeches

    PubMed Central

    Dujsebayeva, Tatjana; Nishikawa, Kanto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Sawyer (1986) included three species in the nasal leech genus Limnatis Moquin-Tandon 1827: Limnatis nilotica (Savigny 1822), Limnatis bacescui Manoleli 1972 and Limnatis paluda (Tennent 1859). The first and last species have mainly been identified in Middle Eastern countries (e.g. Kinzelbach and Rückert 1985). The second species has been identified only in Romania Dobruja (Manoleli 1972). Although Limnatis leeches are well known species of endoparasitic leeches, Limnatis nilotica was recorded only once in Kazakhstan (Lukin 1976). New information Specimens of the genus Limnatis from Almaty Province, Kazakhstan are identified as Limnatis paluda. This is the first record of Limnatis paluda from Kazakhstan. Mitochondrial COI and 12S data demonstrated that the present specimens are genetically close to an Israeli specimen identified as Limnatis nilotica. In addition, molecular data suggest that some Limnatis specimens whose DNA sequences have been reported were misidentified. According to the observed phylogenetic relationships, the taxonomic status of the known Limnatis species should be revisited. PMID:25941456

  2. Recommendations for the Use of Leeches in Reconstructive Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A written informed consent should be obtained from the patient before hirudotherapy is initiated. The patients should be treated each day of leech therapy with anti-Aeromonas antibiotics. Leeches should be applied on the darker spots of the reattached body parts or flaps. Usually 1–10 leeches are used for each treatment, while at the beginning, the patient might need two or more treatments per day. Leech therapy is used until venous capillary return is established across the wound border by angiogenesis. Usually the treatment with leeches lasts for 2–6 days. Hematologic evaluations should be performed every 4 hrs and the patient has to receive blood transfusions when the hemoglobin level is lower than 8 g/dL. Signs of regional lymphadenitis, slight swelling, and pain of regional lymph nodes on the side of leech application and subfebrile temperature can occur. Contraindications related to hirudotherapy include arterial insufficiency, hemophilia, hemorrhagic diathesis, hematological malignancies, anemia, hypotension, and sepsis. Leech therapy is not recommended in pregnancy and lactation and in patients with an unstable medical status, history of allergy to leeches or severe allergic diathesis, and disposition to keloid scar formation, as well as in those using anticoagulants and immunosuppressants. PMID:24653746

  3. Leeches--the good, the bad and the wiggly.

    PubMed

    O'Dempsey, Tim

    2012-11-01

    Leeches have been making a remarkable come-back in medical practice in recent years, particularly in reconstructive surgery. This paper opens with a brief review of the historical aspects of the medicinal use of leeches and their recent renaissance in modern medical practice. We then embark on a journey through the murky waters of leech infestation and the potentially life-threatening complications arising from close encounters with these extraordinary creatures. Finally, we get to grips with the tricky issue of safely apprehending and removing uninvited hangers-on.

  4. Comparative Mitogenomics of Leeches (Annelida: Clitellata): Genome Conservation and Placobdella-Specific trnD Gene Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Andrés; Siddall, Mark E.; Latorre, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences, often in combination with nuclear markers and morphological data, are frequently used to unravel the phylogenetic relationships, population dynamics and biogeographic histories of a plethora of organisms. The information provided by examining complete mitochondrial genomes also enables investigation of other evolutionary events such as gene rearrangements, gene duplication and gene loss. Despite efforts to generate information to represent most of the currently recognized groups, some taxa are underrepresented in mitochondrial genomic databases. One such group is leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea: Clitellata). Herein, we expand our knowledge concerning leech mitochondrial makeup including gene arrangement, gene duplication and the evolution of mitochondrial genomes by adding newly sequenced mitochondrial genomes for three bloodfeeding species: Haementeria officinalis, Placobdella lamothei and Placobdella parasitica. With the inclusion of three new mitochondrial genomes of leeches, a better understanding of evolution for this organelle within the group is emerging. We found that gene order and genomic arrangement in the three new mitochondrial genomes is identical to previously sequenced members of Clitellata. Interestingly, within Placobdella, we recovered a genus-specific duplication of the trnD gene located between cox2 and atp8. We performed phylogenetic analyses using 12 protein-coding genes and expanded our taxon sampling by including GenBank sequences for 39 taxa; the analyses confirm the monophyletic status of Clitellata, yet disagree in several respects with other phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphology and analyses of non-mitochondrial data. PMID:27176910

  5. Comparative Mitogenomics of Leeches (Annelida: Clitellata): Genome Conservation and Placobdella-Specific trnD Gene Duplication.

    PubMed

    Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; Manzano-Marín, Alejandro; Kvist, Sebastian; Moya, Andrés; Siddall, Mark E; Latorre, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences, often in combination with nuclear markers and morphological data, are frequently used to unravel the phylogenetic relationships, population dynamics and biogeographic histories of a plethora of organisms. The information provided by examining complete mitochondrial genomes also enables investigation of other evolutionary events such as gene rearrangements, gene duplication and gene loss. Despite efforts to generate information to represent most of the currently recognized groups, some taxa are underrepresented in mitochondrial genomic databases. One such group is leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea: Clitellata). Herein, we expand our knowledge concerning leech mitochondrial makeup including gene arrangement, gene duplication and the evolution of mitochondrial genomes by adding newly sequenced mitochondrial genomes for three bloodfeeding species: Haementeria officinalis, Placobdella lamothei and Placobdella parasitica. With the inclusion of three new mitochondrial genomes of leeches, a better understanding of evolution for this organelle within the group is emerging. We found that gene order and genomic arrangement in the three new mitochondrial genomes is identical to previously sequenced members of Clitellata. Interestingly, within Placobdella, we recovered a genus-specific duplication of the trnD gene located between cox2 and atp8. We performed phylogenetic analyses using 12 protein-coding genes and expanded our taxon sampling by including GenBank sequences for 39 taxa; the analyses confirm the monophyletic status of Clitellata, yet disagree in several respects with other phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphology and analyses of non-mitochondrial data.

  6. Comparative Mitogenomics of Leeches (Annelida: Clitellata): Genome Conservation and Placobdella-Specific trnD Gene Duplication.

    PubMed

    Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; Manzano-Marín, Alejandro; Kvist, Sebastian; Moya, Andrés; Siddall, Mark E; Latorre, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences, often in combination with nuclear markers and morphological data, are frequently used to unravel the phylogenetic relationships, population dynamics and biogeographic histories of a plethora of organisms. The information provided by examining complete mitochondrial genomes also enables investigation of other evolutionary events such as gene rearrangements, gene duplication and gene loss. Despite efforts to generate information to represent most of the currently recognized groups, some taxa are underrepresented in mitochondrial genomic databases. One such group is leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea: Clitellata). Herein, we expand our knowledge concerning leech mitochondrial makeup including gene arrangement, gene duplication and the evolution of mitochondrial genomes by adding newly sequenced mitochondrial genomes for three bloodfeeding species: Haementeria officinalis, Placobdella lamothei and Placobdella parasitica. With the inclusion of three new mitochondrial genomes of leeches, a better understanding of evolution for this organelle within the group is emerging. We found that gene order and genomic arrangement in the three new mitochondrial genomes is identical to previously sequenced members of Clitellata. Interestingly, within Placobdella, we recovered a genus-specific duplication of the trnD gene located between cox2 and atp8. We performed phylogenetic analyses using 12 protein-coding genes and expanded our taxon sampling by including GenBank sequences for 39 taxa; the analyses confirm the monophyletic status of Clitellata, yet disagree in several respects with other phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphology and analyses of non-mitochondrial data. PMID:27176910

  7. Flap infection associated with medicinal leeches in reconstructive surgery: two new drug-resistant organisms.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Christopher; Fritsche, Thomas; Stemper, Mary; Hall, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    The use of medicinal leeches in reconstructive surgery has proven value for the salvage of flaps with venous congestion but is associated with a risk of leech-acquired infection. The most common leech-associated organism is Aeromonas hydrophila, which antibiotic prophylaxis is typically directed against. The authors describe two new multidrug-resistant organisms acquired from medicinal leech therapy that resulted in flap infection. The evaluation of suspected leech-borne infection and management protocol for this leech-acquired resistant multi-organism infection is presented.

  8. Calcium dynamics and compartmentalization in leech neurons.

    PubMed

    Andjelic, Sofija; Torre, Vincent

    2005-12-01

    Calcium dynamics in leech neurons were studied using a fast CCD camera. Fluorescence changes (DeltaF/F) of the membrane impermeable calcium indicator Oregon Green were measured. The dye was pressure injected into the soma of neurons under investigation. DeltaF/F caused by a single action potential (AP) in mechanosensory neurons had approximately the same amplitude and time course in the soma and in distal processes. By contrast, in other neurons such as the Anterior Pagoda neuron, the Annulus Erector motoneuron, the L motoneuron, and other motoneurons, APs evoked by passing depolarizing current in the soma produced much larger fluorescence changes in distal processes than in the soma. When APs were evoked by stimulating one distal axon through the root, DeltaF/F was large in all distal processes but very small in the soma. Our results show a clear compartmentalization of calcium dynamics in most leech neurons in which the soma does not give propagating action potentials. In such cells, the soma, while not excitable, can affect information processing by modulating the sites of origin and conduction of AP propagation in distal excitable processes.

  9. Micromere lineages in the glossiphoniid leech Helobdella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Francoise Z.; Kang, Dongmin; Ramirez-Weber, Felipe-Andres; Bissen, Shirley T.; Weisblat, David A.

    2002-01-01

    In leech embryos, segmental mesoderm and ectoderm arise from teloblasts by lineages that are already relatively well characterized. Here, we present data concerning the early divisions and the definitive fate maps of the micromeres, a group of 25 small cells that arise during the modified spiral cleavage in leech (Helobdella robusta) and contribute to most of the nonsegmental tissues of the adult. Three noteworthy results of this work are as follows. (1) The c"' and dm' clones (3d and 3c in traditional nomenclature) give rise to a hitherto undescribed network of fibers that run from one end of the embryo to the other. (2) The clones of micromeres b" and b"' (2b and 3b in traditional nomenclature) die in normal development; the b" clone can be rescued to assume the normal c" fate if micromere c" or its clone are ablated in early development. (3) Two qualitative differences in micromere fates are seen between H. robusta (Sacramento) and another Helobdella sp. (Galt). First, in Helobdella sp. (Galt), the clone of micromere b" does not normally die, and contributes a subset of the cells arising exclusively from c" in H. robusta (Sacramento). Second, in Helobdella sp. (Galt), micromere c"' makes no definitive contribution, whereas micromere dm' gives rise to cells equivalent to those arising from c"' and dm' in H. robusta (Sacramento).

  10. Investigation into the physiologies of Aeromonas veronii in vitro and inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Bomar, Lindsey; Graf, Joerg

    2012-08-01

    Host-associated microbial communities are widespread in nature and vital to the health and fitness of the host. Deciphering the physiology of the microbiome in vivo is critical to understanding the molecular basis of the symbiosis. Recently, the development and application of high-throughput sequencing techniques, particularly RNA-seq, for studying microbial communities has enabled researchers to address not only which microbes are present in a given community but also how the community functions. For microbes that can also be cultivated in the laboratory, RNA-seq provides the opportunity to identify genes that are differentially expressed during symbiosis by comparing in vitro to in vivo transcriptomes. In the current study, we used RNA-seq to identify genes expressed by the digestive-tract microbiome of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, and by one of the two dominant symbionts, Aeromonas veronii, in a rich medium. We used a comparative approach to identify genes differentially expressed during symbiosis and gain insight into the symbiont's physiology in vivo. Notable findings include evidence for the symbionts experiencing environmental stress, performing arginine catabolism, and expressing noncoding RNAs that are implicated in stationary phase survival, a state in which A. veronii persists for months within the host.

  11. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of leech muscle and nervous system.

    PubMed

    Petroff, O A; Hogan, E; Johansen, J; Kleinhaus, A L

    1987-01-01

    1. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) was used to measure the major intracellular metabolites in perchloric acid extracts of the Macrobdella decora muscle and nervous systems and the Oryctolagus cuniculus cerebrum. 2. Acetate, alanine, choline, glutamate, inositol, and lactate were assigned in the spectrum of leech ventral cord, leech muscle, and rabbit cerebrum. 3. Hirudonine and propionate were clearly observed only in the spectrum of leech muscle. 4. Creatine, N-acetyl aspartate, gamma aminobutyric acid, aspartate, and taurine, distinctive components of spectra of the mammalian cerebrum, were not seen in the invertebrate spectra. 5. 1H NMR spectroscopy provides a simple and rapid means of characterizing the major organic metabolites found in leech muscle and nervous tissues.

  12. NEW HOST DATA FOR THE LEECH OLIGOBDELLA BIANNULATE (EUHIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The leech Oligobdella biannulata is a relatively rare species, endemic to mountain streams of the Southern Blue Ridge Physiographic Zone, exclusive of Virginia. Oligobdella biannulata was originally thought to be host specific to Desmognathus quadramaculatus. However, the host ...

  13. Intermediate filament genes as differentiation markers in the leech Helobdella

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Dian-Han

    2011-01-01

    The intermediate filament (IF) cytoskeleton is a general feature of differentiated cells. Its molecular components, IF proteins, constitute a large family including the evolutionarily conserved nuclear lamins and the more diverse collection of cytoplasmic intermediate filament (CIF) proteins. In vertebrates, genes encoding CIFs exhibit cell/tissue type-specific expression profiles and are thus useful as differentiation markers. The expression of invertebrate CIFs, however, is not well documented. Here, we report a whole-genome survey of IF genes and their developmental expression patterns in the leech Helobdella, a lophotrochozoan model for developmental biology research. We found that, as in vertebrates, each of the leech CIF genes is expressed in a specific set of cell/tissue types. This allows us to detect earliest points of differentiation for multiple cell types in leech development and to use CIFs as molecular markers for studying cell fate specification in leech embryos. In addition, to determine the feasibility of using CIFs as universal metazoan differentiation markers, we examined phylogenetic relationships of IF genes from various species. Our results suggest that CIFs, and thus their cell/tissue-specific expression patterns, have expanded several times independently during metazoan evolution. Moreover, comparing the expression patterns of CIF orthologs between two leech species suggests that rapid evolutionary changes in the cell or tissue specificity of CIFs have occurred among leeches. Hence, CIFs are not suitable for identifying cell or tissue homology except among very closely related species, but they are nevertheless useful species-specific differentiation markers. PMID:21938507

  14. Statistical characterization of social interactions and collective behavior in medicinal leeches.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Giacomo; Torre, Vincent

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we analyzed the behavior and interactions among leeches in the same observation tank. Colored beads were glued onto their skin so that their behavior could be followed and quantified. When two or three leeches were present in the observation tank, they searched around for a maximum of 2 h and their motion and behavior were independent from those of their conspecifics. When the number of leeches in the tank was increased to 10, leeches were attracted to each other and exhibited episodes of highly correlated behavior. Solitary leeches injected with serotonin or dopamine increased the portion of time spent pseudoswimming and crawling, respectively. The behavior of three to five leeches injected with serotonin was not statistically independent, and leeches were attracted to their conspecifics and exhibited episodes of correlated behavior. Therefore, serotonin not only induces pseudoswimming in leeches but also promotes social interactions, characterized by a mutual attraction and by episodes of correlated/collective behavior.

  15. Novel role for Aeromonas jandaei as a digestive tract symbiont of the North American medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Mark E; Worthen, Paul L; Johnson, Matthew; Graf, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The gut bacteria of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora, were characterized. Biochemical tests and DNA sequences indicated that Aeromonas jandaei is the dominant culturable symbiont in leeches from a broad geographic area. In this work we identified a new habitat for A. jandaei, and here we suggest that there is unexpected specificity between leeches and Aeromonas species.

  16. [Review on scientific connotation of leech processed under high temperature].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Ma, Lin; Wang, Shu-bin; Wang, Xuan; Yue, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Animal medicines mainly contain protein which was organic molecule with quaternary structure and had the property of thermal denaturation. When suffering from heat for a consistent time, the native conformation of protein would be destroyed. After denaturation the biological activity of protein will lose and some physicochemical and biochemical properties will be changed. Leech was a classical animal medicine in the views of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which had the functions of breaking stagnant and eliminating blood stasis. In the usage history, it was processed for a long time. No matter stir-frying leech with talc powder embodied in Chinese Pharmacopoeia or stir-baking with wine as a distinctive method in Beijing district, the process procedure was basically performed under high temperature. The purposes and intentions of process are mostly limited to technology conditions at specific historical period. In this article, based on existing processing procedure and its character of Leech, the changes of active components and pharmacological activities before and after processing under high temperature were summarized. The results demonstrate that the protein of leech would be denaturated; some active peptide such as hirudin were partly or totally destroyed; some toxic mineral elements, such as Pb, Hg, Cd, were decreased; at the same time, heating can promote some chemical components transforming into hypoxanthine which had the function of antihypertensive, antiasthmatic and antalgic. Consequently, after processed under high temperature, the purpose of decreasing toxicity and alleviating the strong property was achieved. Pharmacological changes of leech processed under high temperature were mainly manifested in the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity, etc. Based on current processing research status about animal medicine leech, future research methods and directions on scientific connotation of leech processed under high temperature were put forward in

  17. [Review on scientific connotation of leech processed under high temperature].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Ma, Lin; Wang, Shu-bin; Wang, Xuan; Yue, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Animal medicines mainly contain protein which was organic molecule with quaternary structure and had the property of thermal denaturation. When suffering from heat for a consistent time, the native conformation of protein would be destroyed. After denaturation the biological activity of protein will lose and some physicochemical and biochemical properties will be changed. Leech was a classical animal medicine in the views of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which had the functions of breaking stagnant and eliminating blood stasis. In the usage history, it was processed for a long time. No matter stir-frying leech with talc powder embodied in Chinese Pharmacopoeia or stir-baking with wine as a distinctive method in Beijing district, the process procedure was basically performed under high temperature. The purposes and intentions of process are mostly limited to technology conditions at specific historical period. In this article, based on existing processing procedure and its character of Leech, the changes of active components and pharmacological activities before and after processing under high temperature were summarized. The results demonstrate that the protein of leech would be denaturated; some active peptide such as hirudin were partly or totally destroyed; some toxic mineral elements, such as Pb, Hg, Cd, were decreased; at the same time, heating can promote some chemical components transforming into hypoxanthine which had the function of antihypertensive, antiasthmatic and antalgic. Consequently, after processed under high temperature, the purpose of decreasing toxicity and alleviating the strong property was achieved. Pharmacological changes of leech processed under high temperature were mainly manifested in the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity, etc. Based on current processing research status about animal medicine leech, future research methods and directions on scientific connotation of leech processed under high temperature were put forward in

  18. Bed bugs, leeches and hookworm larvae in the skin.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Hengge, Ulrich R

    2009-01-01

    Bed bugs, leeches, and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans are skin infestations that are usually considered of minor importance because they produce discomfort rather than cause or transmit disease. Bed bugs have been increasing tremendously in high-income countries in recent years, causing distress to affected individuals and economic loss. Infestation by land leeches causes mainly unpleasant skin reactions, whereas infestation by aquatic leeches may be more dangerous, leading to anemia and in severe cases, to death. Cutaneous larva migrans produces an intense pruritus that can be exasperating for the patient and cause sleep disturbance. An overview is given of these three infestations with a discussion of the causative agents, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  19. Bronchial Leech Infestation in a 15-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket. PMID:27752380

  20. Infections of Hypostomus spp. by Trypanosoma spp. and leeches: a study of hematology and record of these hirudineans as potential vectors of these hemoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Lincoln Lima; Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Ceccarelli, Paulo Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Among Kinetoplastida, the Trypanosoma is the genus with the highest occurrence infecting populations of marine fish and freshwater in the world, with high levels of prevalence, causing influences fish health and consequent economic losses, mainly for fish populations in situation stress. This study investigated infections of Hypostomus spp. by Trypanosoma spp. and leeches, as well as blood parameters of this host in the network of tributaries of the Tapajós River in the state of Pará, in the eastern Amazon region in Brazil. Of the 47 hosts examined, 89.4% were parasitized by Trypanosoma spp. and 55.4% also had leeches attached around the mouth. The intensity of Trypanosoma spp. increased with the size of the host, but the body conditions were not influenced by the parasitism. The number of red blood cells, and hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), total number of leukocytes and thrombocytes showed variations and negative correlation with the intensity of Trypanosoma spp. in the blood of the hosts. The results suggest that the leeches were vectors of Trypanosoma spp. in Hypostomus spp. PMID:27580397

  1. A Leech Capable of Surviving Exposure to Extremely Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Dai; Miyamoto, Tomoko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    2014-01-01

    It is widely considered that most organisms cannot survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below 0°C, primarily because of the damage caused by the water in cells as it freezes. However, some organisms are capable of surviving extreme variations in environmental conditions. In the case of temperature, the ability to survive subzero temperatures is referred to as cryobiosis. We show that the ozobranchid leech, Ozobranchus jantseanus, a parasite of freshwater turtles, has a surprisingly high tolerance to freezing and thawing. This finding is particularly interesting because the leach can survive these temperatures without any acclimation period or pretreatment. Specifically, the leech survived exposure to super-low temperatures by storage in liquid nitrogen (−196°C) for 24 hours, as well as long-term storage at temperatures as low as −90°C for up to 32 months. The leech was also capable of enduring repeated freeze-thaw cycles in the temperature range 20°C to −100°C and then back to 20°C. The results demonstrated that the novel cryotolerance mechanisms employed by O. jantseanus enable the leech to withstand a wider range of temperatures than those reported previously for cryobiotic organisms. We anticipate that the mechanism for the observed tolerance to freezing and thawing in O. jantseanus will prove useful for future studies of cryopreservation. PMID:24466250

  2. A renin-like enzyme in the leech Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Stefano, G

    1997-07-01

    We report on the biochemical isolation and characterization of a 32 kDa aspartyl protease from the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. Following a three step purification (gel permeation chromatography, pepstatin A-sepharose affinity column separation followed by reversed-phase HPLC) a renin-like enzyme was purified to homogeneity. The first 124 amino acid residues of the N-terminal part of the purified S-pyridylethylated leech renin exhibits a 26.5-35.5% sequence identity with that of mammals. The 20-81 region of leech renin exhibits a 80% sequence homology with the 175-232 region in mammals. This highly conserved region, which is also found in all aspartic proteases, possesses the aspartyl catalytic residue (D11TGSS). Leech renin hydrolyses at neutral pH and at 37 degrees C the Leu10-Leu11 bond of synthetic porcine angiotensinogen tetradecapeptide yielding the angiotensin I and the Leu11-Val12-Tyr13-Ser14 peptides, with a specific activity of 115 microg AI/min/mg (K[M] 22 microM; K[cat], 2.7). This hydrolysis is inhibited by pepstatin A (IC50: 4.6 microM). Moreover, this enzyme is found on a multiple hormone precursor of 19 kDa which exhibits a specific activity of 850 pmol AI/min/mg of renin. This is the first biochemical characterization of a renin-like enzyme in invertebrates and non-mammalian vertebrates.

  3. Leech Lake American Indian Foster Care Project 1978. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker and Associates, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    In its second year the project continued to attempt to reduce the incidence of separation of Indian children from their families and to establish permanent planning for those children who were removed, thus improving the child welfare services to Minnesota Chippewa Indian children and families on the Leech Lake Reservation through direct foster…

  4. Austrobdella cairae n. sp., an Oioxenous Marine Leech (Clitellata: Piscicolidae) from the Banded Guitarfish, Zapteryx exasperata, in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Curran, Stephen S; Phillips, Anna J; Overstreet, Robin M; Benz, George W; Henningsen, Alan D

    2016-04-01

    A new marine leech is herein described from specimens infecting the external surfaces, including the mouth and cloaca, of the banded guitarfish, Zapteryx exasperate, captured in the Gulf of California and eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of San Diego, California. The leech is assigned to Austrobdella by possessing continuous contractile coelomic channels that lie outside the somatic musculature along the lateral edges of the urosome (marginal lacunae), clitellar gland cells densely packed in the urosome, 5 pairs of testisacs, and 6-annulate mid-body somites. The new leech is distinguished from its 6 congeners on the basis of body size (maximum 10 mm long) and shape (sub-cylindrical trachelosome distinctly demarcated from wider urosome that is ventrally flattened, convex dorsally, and narrowing toward caudal sucker that is narrow, 20-25% of maximum body width), number of eyespots (2 pairs), shape and arrangement of the ovisacs (pyriform and limited to somites XII/XIII), and characteristics of the midgut (1 pair of mycetomes, 6 pairs of simple thin-walled crop ceca, ventral postceca wanting, and 2 pairs of dendritic diverticula emerging from anterior portion of thick-walled intestine). The new species occurs in the northeastern Pacific Ocean on a benthic elasmobranch. Examination of host specificity for each Austrobdella species using the quantitative Index of Phylogenetic Host Specificity revealed that the new species is 1 of 4 oioxenous specialists in the genus, and the remaining 3 congeners are relative generalists herein classified as euryxenous. This is the first time host specificity for members of the Piscicolidae has been quantitatively assessed. The analysis suggests that associations between marine leeches belonging in Austrobdella and their vertebrate hosts are driven by ecological influences rather than host taxonomic placement. PMID:26800278

  5. Austrobdella cairae n. sp., an Oioxenous Marine Leech (Clitellata: Piscicolidae) from the Banded Guitarfish, Zapteryx exasperata, in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Curran, Stephen S; Phillips, Anna J; Overstreet, Robin M; Benz, George W; Henningsen, Alan D

    2016-04-01

    A new marine leech is herein described from specimens infecting the external surfaces, including the mouth and cloaca, of the banded guitarfish, Zapteryx exasperate, captured in the Gulf of California and eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of San Diego, California. The leech is assigned to Austrobdella by possessing continuous contractile coelomic channels that lie outside the somatic musculature along the lateral edges of the urosome (marginal lacunae), clitellar gland cells densely packed in the urosome, 5 pairs of testisacs, and 6-annulate mid-body somites. The new leech is distinguished from its 6 congeners on the basis of body size (maximum 10 mm long) and shape (sub-cylindrical trachelosome distinctly demarcated from wider urosome that is ventrally flattened, convex dorsally, and narrowing toward caudal sucker that is narrow, 20-25% of maximum body width), number of eyespots (2 pairs), shape and arrangement of the ovisacs (pyriform and limited to somites XII/XIII), and characteristics of the midgut (1 pair of mycetomes, 6 pairs of simple thin-walled crop ceca, ventral postceca wanting, and 2 pairs of dendritic diverticula emerging from anterior portion of thick-walled intestine). The new species occurs in the northeastern Pacific Ocean on a benthic elasmobranch. Examination of host specificity for each Austrobdella species using the quantitative Index of Phylogenetic Host Specificity revealed that the new species is 1 of 4 oioxenous specialists in the genus, and the remaining 3 congeners are relative generalists herein classified as euryxenous. This is the first time host specificity for members of the Piscicolidae has been quantitatively assessed. The analysis suggests that associations between marine leeches belonging in Austrobdella and their vertebrate hosts are driven by ecological influences rather than host taxonomic placement.

  6. Assessment of genotoxic potency of sulfate-rich surface waters on medicinal leech and human leukocytes using different versions of the Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Mihaljević, Zlatko; Ternjej, Ivančica; Stanković, Igor; Ivković, Marija; Zelježić, Davor; Mladinić, Marin; Kopjar, Nevenka

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how exposure to sulfate-rich surface waters affects the level of primary DNA damage in hemocytes of leech Hirudo medicinalis. Samples of surface water were collected at two sites near a gypsum factory (Knin, Croatia) and two reference sites. In the laboratory, samples were subjected to detailed chemical analysis and used in toxicity testing. For that purpose, previously acclimatized individuals of H. medicinalis were sub-chronically exposed (for 28 days) to tested water samples. Levels of primary DNA damage were evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in hemocytes collected on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of exposure and compared with their baseline values. Genotoxic potency of the water sample with the highest sulfate concentration was further evaluated using the alkaline, neutral and hOGG1-modified Comet assay on human peripheral blood leukocytes exposed ex vivo for 30 min. The purpose was to explore which mechanisms are responsible for DNA damage. Chemical analysis revealed that sulfate concentrations in two water samples collected in Mali Kukar Lake (1630 mg/L SO₄) and Kosovčica River (823.3 mg/L SO₄) exceeded the WHO and US EPA defined limits for sulfate in drinking water. Increased levels of metals were found only in the water sample collected in Mali Kukar Lake. However, of the 65 elements analyzed, only nickel and titanium exceed the value legally accepted in Croatia for drinking water. The levels of DNA damage, estimated by the alkaline Comet assay in hemocytes of medicinal leech, increased with the duration of exposure to two sulfate-rich water samples. Since hemocytes responded sensitively to treatment, they could be used for biomonitoring purposes. As observed on treated human peripheral blood leukocytes, all versions of the Comet assay were effective in detecting DNA damage, which was measured in samples with sulfate concentrations equal to or higher than the legally accepted levels for drinking water

  7. Assessment of genotoxic potency of sulfate-rich surface waters on medicinal leech and human leukocytes using different versions of the Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Mihaljević, Zlatko; Ternjej, Ivančica; Stanković, Igor; Ivković, Marija; Zelježić, Davor; Mladinić, Marin; Kopjar, Nevenka

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how exposure to sulfate-rich surface waters affects the level of primary DNA damage in hemocytes of leech Hirudo medicinalis. Samples of surface water were collected at two sites near a gypsum factory (Knin, Croatia) and two reference sites. In the laboratory, samples were subjected to detailed chemical analysis and used in toxicity testing. For that purpose, previously acclimatized individuals of H. medicinalis were sub-chronically exposed (for 28 days) to tested water samples. Levels of primary DNA damage were evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in hemocytes collected on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of exposure and compared with their baseline values. Genotoxic potency of the water sample with the highest sulfate concentration was further evaluated using the alkaline, neutral and hOGG1-modified Comet assay on human peripheral blood leukocytes exposed ex vivo for 30 min. The purpose was to explore which mechanisms are responsible for DNA damage. Chemical analysis revealed that sulfate concentrations in two water samples collected in Mali Kukar Lake (1630 mg/L SO₄) and Kosovčica River (823.3 mg/L SO₄) exceeded the WHO and US EPA defined limits for sulfate in drinking water. Increased levels of metals were found only in the water sample collected in Mali Kukar Lake. However, of the 65 elements analyzed, only nickel and titanium exceed the value legally accepted in Croatia for drinking water. The levels of DNA damage, estimated by the alkaline Comet assay in hemocytes of medicinal leech, increased with the duration of exposure to two sulfate-rich water samples. Since hemocytes responded sensitively to treatment, they could be used for biomonitoring purposes. As observed on treated human peripheral blood leukocytes, all versions of the Comet assay were effective in detecting DNA damage, which was measured in samples with sulfate concentrations equal to or higher than the legally accepted levels for drinking water

  8. Incidence of the leech Actinobdella pediculata on freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    Actinobdella pediculata (Glossiphoniidae), a freshwater leech, was found attached to freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie during 1991 through 1993. The animal was first observed during routine examinations of freshwater drum collected in May 1991. The leeches were usually attached to the inside, lower portion of the opercula near the isthmus. Incidence of attachment increased with freshwater drum age and length. No noticeable adverse effects on the fish from attachment by the leech were noted.

  9. Presence of the leech Placobdella costata in the south of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Romero, David; Duarte, Jesús; Narváez-Ledesma, Lucía; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Real, Raimundo

    2014-06-01

    Placobdella costata is a leech specific to freshwater turtle Emys orbicularis. Both genera are native to North America and have co-evolved and undergone dispersion through the Palearctic. The leech is present throughout the Mediterranean area, always associated with E. orbicularis. Their only known presence in the Iberian Peninsula is in the north and center of the peninsula. Here we present the first description of the leech in southern Spain (Andalusia) in association with a small fragmented population of fresh-water turtles in which E. orbicularis and Mauremys leprosa coexist. Unusually, the leech was found attached to the carapace of a male M. leprosa.

  10. Presence of the leech Placobdella costata in the south of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Romero, David; Duarte, Jesús; Narváez-Ledesma, Lucía; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Real, Raimundo

    2014-06-01

    Placobdella costata is a leech specific to freshwater turtle Emys orbicularis. Both genera are native to North America and have co-evolved and undergone dispersion through the Palearctic. The leech is present throughout the Mediterranean area, always associated with E. orbicularis. Their only known presence in the Iberian Peninsula is in the north and center of the peninsula. Here we present the first description of the leech in southern Spain (Andalusia) in association with a small fragmented population of fresh-water turtles in which E. orbicularis and Mauremys leprosa coexist. Unusually, the leech was found attached to the carapace of a male M. leprosa. PMID:24827095

  11. Electrogenic sodium-dependent bicarbonate secretion by glial cells of the leech central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The ability to move acid/base equivalents across the membrane of identified glial cells was investigated in isolated segmental ganglia of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. The intracellular pH (pHi) of the glial cells was measured with double-barreled, neutral-ligand, ion- sensitive microelectrodes during step changes of the external pH (pHo 7.4-7.0). The rate of intracellular acidification after the decrease in extracellular pH (pHo) was taken as a measure of the rate of acid/base transport across the glial membrane. Taking into account the total intracellular buffering power, the maximum rate of acid/base flux was 0.4 mM/min in CO2/HCO3-free saline, and 3.92 mM/min in the presence of 5% CO2/10 mM HCO-3, suggesting that the acid/base flux was dependent upon HCO3-. The rate of acid influx/base efflux increased both with the external HCO3- concentration and with increasing pHi (and hence HCO3- i). This suggested that the decrease in pHi was due to HCO3- efflux. The rapid decrease of pHi was accompanied by a HCO3--dependent depolarization of the glial membrane from -74 +/- 5 mV (n = 20) to -54 +/- 7 mV (n = 13). Both this depolarization and the rate of intracellular acidification were greatly reduced by the anion exchange inhibitor 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS; 0.3- 0.5 mM), but were not affected by the removal of external Cl-. Reduction of the external Na+ concentration to one-tenth normal affected the rate of intracellular acidification only in the presence of CO2/HCO3-: the rate increased within the first 3-5 min after lowering external Na+; after longer exposures in low external Na+ the rate decreased, presumably due to depletion of intracellular Na+. Amiloride (1 mM), which inhibits the Na+-H+ exchange in these cells, had no effect on the rate of intracellular acidification. The intracellular Na activity (aNai) of the glial cells was measured to be 5.2 +/- 1.0 mM (n = 8) in CO2/HCO3-free saline; aNai increased to 7.3 +/- 2.2 mM (n = 8

  12. A model for intersegmental coordination in the leech nerve cord.

    PubMed

    Pearce, R A; Friesen, W O

    1988-01-01

    The neuronal circuits that generate swimming movements in the leech were simulated by a chain of coupled harmonic oscillators. Our model incorporates a gradient of rostrocaudally decreasing cycle periods along the oscillator chain, a finite conduction delay for coupling signals, and multiple coupling channels connecting each pair of oscillators. The interactions mediated by these channels are characterized by sinusoidal phase response curves. Investigations of this model were carried out with the aid of a digital computer and the results of a variety of manipulations were compared with data from analogous physiological experiments. The simulations reproduced many aspects of intersegmental coordination in the leech, including the findings that: 1) phase lags between adjacent ganglia are larger near the caudal than the rostral end of the leech nerve cord; 2) intersegmental phase lags increase as the number of ganglia in nerve cord preparations is reduced; 3) severing one of the paired lateral connective nerves can reverse the phase lag across the lesion and 4) blocking synaptic transmission in midganglia of the ventral nerve cord reduces phase lags across the block.

  13. Occurrence of three leech species (Annelida: Hirudinida) on fishes in the Kentucky River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leeches were collected from six fish species distributed among four of ten sites sampled. The leech species observed were Myzobdella reducta (Meyer, 1940) and Myzobdella lugubris Leidy, 1851 of the family Piscicolidae and Placobdella pediculata Hemingway, 1908 of the family Gloss...

  14. Salvage of venous congestion using medicinal leeches for traumatic nasal flap.

    PubMed

    Jose, Mathew; Varghese, Jomy; Babu, Arun

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal leeches are extremely useful and safe in the salvage of venous outflow compromised tissue, particularly in digit replants and various forms of flaps. Although it is unusual for a partial soft tissue avulsion of the face to require medicinal leech therapy, situations may occur in which there is adequate arterial inflow but inadequate venous outflow. In such cases, medicinal leeches may play a very important role in salvaging the soft tissue segment. We report a case of a 34-year-old gentleman who showed signs of venous congestion following primary management for a traumatic nasal flap. Successful salvage of venous congestion was done using medicinal leech therapy, once daily, for 5 days. His recovery deemed satisfactory and uncomplicated. Medicinal leeches are well-known in the treatment of venous congestion or complete venous outflow obstruction in larger pedicled flaps and microvascular transfers. In trauma, it is well established that medicinal leeches are invaluable in treating venous congestion in digit replants and replantation of totally avulsed external ear segments. A limited number of other reports have demonstrated the use of medicinal leeches for salvage of other partially avulsed facial structures. Medicinal leeches have a significant role in the management of traumatic and microvascular flaps, the oral and maxillofacial surgeon should weigh the benefits of such treatment before instituting other expensive or complex treatment modalities.

  15. OCCURRENCE OF TWO LEECH SPECIES (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA) ON FISHES IN THE KENTUCKY RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known specifically on the feeding relationships between parasitic leeches and fish in North America. During an electrofishing survey conducted on the main stem of the Kentucky River in the summer of 2000, the presence of leeches was documented on six species of fish. ...

  16. Chinese Medicinal Leech: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Han; Ren, Ji-Xiang; Wang, Jing-Jing; Ding, Li-Shuai; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Liu, Song-Yan; Gao, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Hirudo (Shuizhi in Chinese) is an important Chinese medicine, which possesses many therapeutic properties for the treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage and other thrombosis-related diseases. The phytochemical investigation gave more than 51 compounds including pteridines, phosphatidylcholines, glycosphingolipids, and sterols, as well as some bioactive peptides from the Shuizhi derived from three animal species recorded in the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pharmacological studies on the Shuizhi have revealed various activities such as anticoagulation, antithrombosis, antiatherosclerosis, antiplatelet aggregation, antitumor and anti-inflammatory as well as hemorheology improvement, and protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, some important issues based on the traditional uses of Shuizhi are still not clear. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Shuizhi. It will provide a potential guidance in exploring main active compounds of Shuizhi and interpreting the action mechanism for the further research. PMID:27274755

  17. Chinese Medicinal Leech: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities.

    PubMed

    Dong, Han; Ren, Ji-Xiang; Wang, Jing-Jing; Ding, Li-Shuai; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Liu, Song-Yan; Gao, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Hirudo (Shuizhi in Chinese) is an important Chinese medicine, which possesses many therapeutic properties for the treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage and other thrombosis-related diseases. The phytochemical investigation gave more than 51 compounds including pteridines, phosphatidylcholines, glycosphingolipids, and sterols, as well as some bioactive peptides from the Shuizhi derived from three animal species recorded in the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pharmacological studies on the Shuizhi have revealed various activities such as anticoagulation, antithrombosis, antiatherosclerosis, antiplatelet aggregation, antitumor and anti-inflammatory as well as hemorheology improvement, and protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, some important issues based on the traditional uses of Shuizhi are still not clear. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Shuizhi. It will provide a potential guidance in exploring main active compounds of Shuizhi and interpreting the action mechanism for the further research.

  18. Medicinal use of leeches in the texts of ancient Greek, Roman and early Byzantine writers.

    PubMed

    Papavramidou, N; Christopoulou-Aletra, H

    2009-09-01

    Blood-letting was a common therapeutic method in antiquity; many means were used to draw blood, including the application of leeches. In this paper, ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine authors up to the 7th century AD were studied, a research that provided us with references that may be divided into two groups: those related to the medicinal use of leeches, and those related to cases in which leeches were swallowed and had to be removed. In the first group, detailed descriptions of the method of usage and of the diseases requiring leeching were found. In the second group, brief reference is made to the problems caused by swallowing leeches, and to the methods used to expel them from the human organism. The earliest references to the medicinal use of leeches may be found in the writings of Theocritus (3rd century BC), Nicander (2nd century BC) and Horace (1st century BC, while the phenomenon of swallowing a leech is first mentioned in one of the Epidaurian 'iamata' dating to the 4th century BC.

  19. Central nervous system regeneration: from leech to opossum.

    PubMed

    Mladinic, M; Muller, K J; Nicholls, J G

    2009-06-15

    A major problem of neurobiology concerns the failure of injured mammalian spinal cord to repair itself. This review summarizes work done on two preparations in which regeneration can occur: the central nervous system of an invertebrate, the leech, and the spinal cord of an immature mammal, the opossum. The aim is to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms that promote and prevent regeneration. In the leech, an individual axon regrows successfully to re-establish connections with its synaptic target, while avoiding other neurons. Functions that were lost are thereby restored. Moreover, pairs of identified neurons become re-connected with appropriate synapses in culture. It has been shown that microglial cells and nitric oxide play key roles in leech CNS regeneration. In the opossum, the neonatal brain and spinal cord are so tiny that they survive well in culture. Fibres grow across spinal cord lesions in neonatal animals and in vitro, but axon regeneration stops abruptly between postnatal days 9 and 12. A comprehensive search has been made in spinal cords that can and cannot regenerate to identify genes and establish their locations. At 9 days, growth-promoting genes, their receptors and key transcription molecules are up-regulated. By contrast at 12 days, growth-inhibitory molecules associated with myelin are prominent. The complete sequence of the opossum genome and new methods for transfecting genes offer ways to determine which molecules promote and which inhibit spinal cord regeneration. These results lead to questions about how basic research on mechanisms of regeneration could be 'translated' into effective therapies for patients with spinal cord injuries. PMID:19525562

  20. Central nervous system regeneration: from leech to opossum.

    PubMed

    Mladinic, M; Muller, K J; Nicholls, J G

    2009-06-15

    A major problem of neurobiology concerns the failure of injured mammalian spinal cord to repair itself. This review summarizes work done on two preparations in which regeneration can occur: the central nervous system of an invertebrate, the leech, and the spinal cord of an immature mammal, the opossum. The aim is to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms that promote and prevent regeneration. In the leech, an individual axon regrows successfully to re-establish connections with its synaptic target, while avoiding other neurons. Functions that were lost are thereby restored. Moreover, pairs of identified neurons become re-connected with appropriate synapses in culture. It has been shown that microglial cells and nitric oxide play key roles in leech CNS regeneration. In the opossum, the neonatal brain and spinal cord are so tiny that they survive well in culture. Fibres grow across spinal cord lesions in neonatal animals and in vitro, but axon regeneration stops abruptly between postnatal days 9 and 12. A comprehensive search has been made in spinal cords that can and cannot regenerate to identify genes and establish their locations. At 9 days, growth-promoting genes, their receptors and key transcription molecules are up-regulated. By contrast at 12 days, growth-inhibitory molecules associated with myelin are prominent. The complete sequence of the opossum genome and new methods for transfecting genes offer ways to determine which molecules promote and which inhibit spinal cord regeneration. These results lead to questions about how basic research on mechanisms of regeneration could be 'translated' into effective therapies for patients with spinal cord injuries.

  1. Genus vesiculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae contains a numbers of viruses that have been taxonomically classified using a combination of serological relatedness, host range, genome organization, pathobiology and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data. There are 11 viruses assigned to the gen...

  2. Heartbeat control in leeches. II. Fictive motor pattern.

    PubMed

    Wenning, Angela; Hill, Andrew A V; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2004-01-01

    The rhythmic beating of the tube-like hearts in the medicinal leech is driven and coordinated by rhythmic activity in segmental heart motor neurons. The motor neurons are controlled by rhythmic inhibitory input from a network of heart interneurons that compose the heartbeat central pattern generator. In the preceding paper, we described the constriction pattern of the hearts in quiescent intact animals and showed that one heart constricts in a rear-to-front wave (peristaltic coordination mode), while the other heart constricts in near unison over its length (synchronous coordination mode) and that they regularly switch coordination modes. Here we analyze intersegmental and side-to-side-coordination of the fictive motor pattern for heartbeat in denervated nerve cords. We show that the intersegmental phase relations among heart motor neurons in both coordination modes are independent of heartbeat period. This finding enables us to combine data from different experiments to form a detailed analysis of the relative phases, duty cycle, and intraburst spike frequency of the bursts of the segmental heart motor neurons. The fictive motor pattern and the constriction pattern seen in intact leeches closely match in their intersegmental and side-to-side coordination, indicating that sensory feedback is not necessary for properly phased intersegmental coordination. Moreover, the regular switches in coordination mode of the fictive motor pattern mimic those seen in intact animals indicating that these switches likely arise by a central mechanism.

  3. STUDIES ON RARE AND POORLY KNOWN LEECHES (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE) IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three taxa within the leech family Glossiphoniidae, Actinobdella inequiannulata, Placobdella hollensis, and Theromyzon spp., though widespread in eastern North America, remain poorly known with respect to their biology and systematics. All three taxa have been collected in New E...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Freshwater Leeches in Lake Gusinoe (Eastern Siberia, Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Kaygorodova, Irina A.; Mandzyak, Nadezhda; Petryaeva, Ekaterina; Pronin, Nikolay M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of leeches from Lake Gusinoe and its adjacent area offered us the possibility to determine species diversity. As a result, an updated species list of the Gusinoe Hirudinea fauna (Annelida, Clitellata) has been compiled. There are two orders and three families of leeches in the Gusinoe area: order Rhynchobdellida (families Glossiphoniidae and Piscicolidae) and order Arhynchobdellida (family Erpobdellidae). In total, 6 leech species belonging to 6 genera have been identified. Of these, 3 taxa belonging to the family Glossiphoniidae (Alboglossiphonia heteroclita f. papillosa, Hemiclepsis marginata, and Helobdella stagnalis) and representatives of 3 unidentified species (Glossiphonia sp., Piscicola sp., and Erpobdella sp.) have been recorded. The checklist gives a contemporary overview of the species composition of leeches and information on their hosts or substrates. The validity of morphological identification of each taxon has been verified by phylogenetic approach with a molecular marker adopted for a DNA barcoding of most invertebrates. PMID:25544958

  5. Simultaneous measurements of intracellular pH in the leech giant glial cell using 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein and ion-sensitive microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Nett, W; Deitmer, J W

    1996-07-01

    We have employed two independent techniques to measure the intracellular pH (pHi) in giant glial cells of the leech Hirudo medicinalis, using the fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and double-barreled neutral-carrier, pH-sensitive microelectrodes, which also record the membrane potential. We have compared two procedures for calibrating the ratio of the BCECF signal, excited at 440 nm and 495 nm: 1) the cell membrane was H(+)-permeabilized with nigericin in high-K+ saline at different external pH (pHo) values, and 2) the pHi of intact cells was perturbed in CO2/HCO3(-) -buffered saline of different pH, and the BCECF ratio was calibrated according to a simultaneous microelectrode pH reading. As indicated by the microelectrode measurements, the pHi did not fully equilibrate to the pHo values in nigericin-containing, high-K+ saline, but deviated by -0.12 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SEM, n = 37) pH units. In intact cells, the microelectrode readings yielded up to 0.15 pH unit lower values than the calibrated BCECF signal. In addition, larger dye injections into the cells (> 100 microM) caused an irreversible membrane potential loss indicative of some damage to the cells. The amplitude and kinetics of slow pHi changes were equally followed by both sensors, and the dye ratio recorded slightly higher amplitudes during faster pHi shifts as induced by the addition and removal of NH4+.

  6. Simultaneous measurements of intracellular pH in the leech giant glial cell using 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein and ion-sensitive microelectrodes.

    PubMed Central

    Nett, W; Deitmer, J W

    1996-01-01

    We have employed two independent techniques to measure the intracellular pH (pHi) in giant glial cells of the leech Hirudo medicinalis, using the fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and double-barreled neutral-carrier, pH-sensitive microelectrodes, which also record the membrane potential. We have compared two procedures for calibrating the ratio of the BCECF signal, excited at 440 nm and 495 nm: 1) the cell membrane was H(+)-permeabilized with nigericin in high-K+ saline at different external pH (pHo) values, and 2) the pHi of intact cells was perturbed in CO2/HCO3(-) -buffered saline of different pH, and the BCECF ratio was calibrated according to a simultaneous microelectrode pH reading. As indicated by the microelectrode measurements, the pHi did not fully equilibrate to the pHo values in nigericin-containing, high-K+ saline, but deviated by -0.12 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SEM, n = 37) pH units. In intact cells, the microelectrode readings yielded up to 0.15 pH unit lower values than the calibrated BCECF signal. In addition, larger dye injections into the cells (> 100 microM) caused an irreversible membrane potential loss indicative of some damage to the cells. The amplitude and kinetics of slow pHi changes were equally followed by both sensors, and the dye ratio recorded slightly higher amplitudes during faster pHi shifts as induced by the addition and removal of NH4+. PMID:8804622

  7. Bacterial symbiont and salivary peptide evolution in the context of leech phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Mark E; Min, Gi-Sik; Fontanella, Frank M; Phillips, Anna J; Watson, Sara C

    2011-11-01

    The evolutionary history of leeches is employed as a general framework for understanding more than merely the systematics of this charismatic group of annelid worms, and serves as a basis for understanding blood-feeding related correlates ranging from the specifics of gut-associated bacterial symbionts to salivary anticoagulant peptides. A variety of medicinal leech families were examined for intraluminal crop bacterial symbionts. Species of Aeromonas and Bacteroidetes were characterized with DNA gyrase B and 16S rDNA. Bacteroidetes isolates were found to be much more phylogenetically diverse and suggested stronger evidence of phylogenetic correlation than the gammaproteobacteria. Patterns that look like co-speciation with limited taxon sampling do not in the full context of phylogeny. Bioactive compounds that are expressed as gene products, like those in leech salivary glands, have 'passed the test' of evolutionary selection. We produced and bioinformatically mined salivary gland EST libraries across medicinal leech lineages to experimentally and statistically evaluate whether evolutionary selection on peptides can identify structure-function activities of known therapeutically relevant bioactive compounds like antithrombin, hirudin and antistasin. The combined information content of a well corroborated leech phylogeny and broad taxonomic coverage of expressed proteins leads to a rich understanding of evolution and function in leech history.

  8. The medical use of leeches in contemporary Spain: between science and tradition.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Jose Ramon; Gonzalez, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In Spain leeches have been used both in popular and scientific medicine throughout its history. In this study we analyze the historical fluctuations of leech therapy. At the start of the 20th century it was still being used in in scientific medicine, as can be seen in the treatment administered to Germán Gamazo, a minister during the reign of Alfonso XII and the regency of Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria, during a serious illness in 1901. Leech therapy was to fall dramatically into disuse and was to survive only in folk medicine, with leeches losing their reputation as a therapeutic agent. The data obtained is the result of a systematic review of the literature and of the major databases in the fields of folklore, ethnography, social anthropology and medical anthropology. Leeches have been used in Spanish folk medicine to treat ailments and disorders in up to 11 categories of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), particularly in the treatment of diseases of the circulatory, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems. According to the available literature, they were part of the folk therapeutic arsenal, at least until the seventies of the last century. Our study also provides information about the medicinal use, commerce and consumption of these animals in recent years.

  9. Allium sativum L.: the anti-immature leech (Limnatis nilotica) activity compared to Niclosomide.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Javad; Mohsenzadegan, Ava; Sadeghian, Sirous; Ahangaran, Majid Gholami

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Allium sativum L. on Limnatis nilotica compared with Niclosomide. In this experimental study in September 2010, a number of leeches (70 in total) from the southern area of Ilam province were prepared, and the effects of methanolic extract of A. sativum L. with Niclosomide as the control drug were compared and distilled water was evaluated as the placebo group which investigated L. nilotica using anti-leech assay. The average time of paralysis and death of L. nilotica for Niclosomide (1,250 mg/kg) and the methanol extract of A. sativum L. (600 μg/ml) were 6.22 ± 2.94 and 68.44 ± 28.39 min, respectively. Distilled water and garlic tablets at a dose of 400 mg were determined as the inert group. In this research, the attraction time of the leeches' death among different treatments is significant. In this study, it was determined that Niclosomide, with an intensity of 4+, and methanolic extracts of A. sativum L., with an intensity of 3+, have a good anti-leech effect and can be shown to be effective in cases of leech biting, while distilled water was negative. PMID:23483830

  10. An Unusual Cause of Bleeding on the Floor of Mouth: Leech Infestation.

    PubMed

    Kantekin, Yunus; Sarı, Kamran; Özkırış, Mahmut; Kapusuz Gencer, Zeliha

    2015-12-01

    Leech infestation is a very rare phenomenon in humans. It mostly occurs in humans when rural untreated water is drunk or while swimming in streams or lakes. When leeches adhere to the mucous membrane, they ingest blood. Thus, they can sometimes cause severe anemia that may require blood transfusion. We report a case that was referred to emergency service with bleeding in the floor of the mouth. A 10-year-old child was referred to the emergency service of a city hospital with a complaint of swelling in the floor of the mouth and spitting of blood. The patient was promptly taken to the operating room. Using local anesthesia, a surgical incision was made, and a moving, dark brown foreign body was removed from the floor of the mouth and identified as a leech. Leech endoparasitism should be considered as a cause of unexplained anemia due to bleeding from the throat. Accordingly, leech infestation must be considered in differential diagnosis when a patient complains of spitting of blood, hoarseness, or dysphagia.

  11. An Unusual Cause of Bleeding on the Floor of Mouth: Leech Infestation.

    PubMed

    Kantekin, Yunus; Sarı, Kamran; Özkırış, Mahmut; Kapusuz Gencer, Zeliha

    2015-12-01

    Leech infestation is a very rare phenomenon in humans. It mostly occurs in humans when rural untreated water is drunk or while swimming in streams or lakes. When leeches adhere to the mucous membrane, they ingest blood. Thus, they can sometimes cause severe anemia that may require blood transfusion. We report a case that was referred to emergency service with bleeding in the floor of the mouth. A 10-year-old child was referred to the emergency service of a city hospital with a complaint of swelling in the floor of the mouth and spitting of blood. The patient was promptly taken to the operating room. Using local anesthesia, a surgical incision was made, and a moving, dark brown foreign body was removed from the floor of the mouth and identified as a leech. Leech endoparasitism should be considered as a cause of unexplained anemia due to bleeding from the throat. Accordingly, leech infestation must be considered in differential diagnosis when a patient complains of spitting of blood, hoarseness, or dysphagia. PMID:26809923

  12. A review of Luxiaria Walker and its allied genus Calletaera Warren (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae) from China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Xue, Dayong; Han, Hongxiang

    2014-08-21

    The genus Luxiaria Walker and its allied genus Calletaera Warren in China, including 16 species in all, are reviewed. Five new species are described: C. obvia sp. nov., C. acuticornuta sp. nov., C. rotundicornuta sp. nov., C. dentata sp. nov., C. trigonoprocessus sp. nov. The species L. acutaria (Snellen, 1877) and L. tephrosaria (Moore, 1868) are newly recorded for China. Two new combinations are established: C. obliquata (Moore, 1888) comb. nov. and C. consimilaria (Leech, 1897) comb. nov. Four new synonyms are established: Eutoea Walker, 1860 (= Bithiodes Warren, 1894 syn. nov.); Calletaera Warren, 1895 (=Bithiodes Warren, 1899 syn. nov.), based on the fixation of nominal type Acidalia inexactata Walker, 1861, for the genus name Bithiodes Warren, 1894; L. emphatica Prout, 1925 (= L. costinota Inoue, 1978 syn. nov.); C. subexpressa (Walker, 1861) (= C. digrammata Wehrli, 1925 syn. nov.). Diagnoses for all Chinese species are provided. Illustrations of external features and genitalia are presented. 

  13. Morphological and genetic variations of the freshwater leech, Hirudinaria spp., in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chong, L K; Ong, Alan H K; Tan, S G; Taranjeet, K A S; Peris, M M; Sana, A M M A; Hassan, H R

    2014-06-01

    In this study the genetic diversity of local freshwater leeches (Hirudinaria spp.) was inferred using mtDNA COI gene analysis and compared with the gross external variations of 26 freshwater leech specimens obtained from the wild and leech farms. Based on a neighbor-joining tree generated from 516 COI base sequences, four distinct clades of Hirudinaria were seen with interspecific genetic divergence in the range of 7.6-14.5%. The external morphological variations based on the presence of stripes, location of gonopores, and anus separated the samples into four morphologically distinct groups matching the four clades obtained from the molecular data. Two black stripes at the ventral region were observed only in specimens found clustered with clades that contained the GenBank-reported H. manillensis, whereas the brown or dark green coloration without stripes on the ventral region was seen in samples that clustered with H. javanica and H. bpling clades. PMID:24535156

  14. The medicinal leech as a convenient tool for water toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Petrauskiene, Laima

    2004-08-01

    Medicinal leeches previously were used in various toxicological and pharmacological studies because they are sensitive and easy to keep under laboratory conditions. Toxicological studies using leeches became restricted when their natural sources decreased dramatically. We breed medicinal leeches under laboratory conditions and have the possibility of using them for various investigations. The aim of the current study was to investigate changes in behavioral and physiological responses of leeches exposed to a heavy metal model mixture (HMMM). The composition of the HMMM was determined on the basis of the average annual amounts of representative metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb) in wastewater discharging from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. An annual average was considered a concentration of 1%. Animals were exposed to 0.13%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% concentrations of the HMMM. The avoidance responses, changes in body weight, feeding behavior, and excretion rates of the leeches were recorded. Avoidance response was observed in animals treated with 1% and 2% concentrations of the HMMM during the first 2 h of exposure. A decrease in body weight was recorded after a 4-week exposure to all tested concentrations. Disturbances in feeding behavior were observed after a 4-week exposure to 0.13%-2% concentrations. An increase in the defecation rate was observed during the 5-week exposure to 0.25%-2% concentrations. The excretion rate via nephridia was decreased during postfeeding period after exposure to 0.25%-2% concentrations. The avoidance response of medicinal leeches can be used as an express method for water quality assessment, whereas physiological responses may be used for the assessment of chronic toxicity of polluted environments.

  15. The physiology and mechanics of undulatory swimming: a student laboratory exercise using medicinal leeches.

    PubMed

    Ellerby, David J

    2009-09-01

    The medicinal leech is a useful animal model for investigating undulatory swimming in the classroom. Unlike many swimming organisms, its swimming performance can be quantified without specialized equipment. A large blood meal alters swimming behavior in a way that can be used to generate a discussion of the hydrodynamics of swimming, muscle mechanics, hydrostatic skeletons, and the physiological features that allow leeches to deal with the volume increase and osmotic load imposed by the meal. Analyses can be carried out at a range of levels tailored to suit a particular class.

  16. Sibling competition in a brood-tending leech

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Martin; Govedich, Fredric R; Bateson, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Conflict among siblings over parental investment, particularly over parental feeding, is a feature of family life in many kinds of animals. In some bird species, the size of prey items provided to juveniles has been implicated as a cause of aggressive competition among sibling chicks, because prey size determines whether dominance allows monopolization of parental offerings. Our experiment was meant to test the generality of this factor in creating intrafamilial conflict. We investigated sibling competition in relation to prey size using the carnivorous, brood-tending leech Helobdella papillornata. We equalized the total amount of food available to H. papillornata broods, but varied the size of individual prey items. Competition, measured by disparity in body size at independence, was more intense in broods provisioned with small items than in broods receiving large items, but similar between broods receiving large items and broods fed ad libitum. These patterns suggest that the intensity of conflict did not depend only on the total food amount, but was enhanced by small prey size. Our results indicate that conflict over the provision of parental resources to offspring can have a similar basis across very dissimilar organisms. PMID:16959636

  17. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic "conservation traps" comparable to amber.

  18. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    PubMed Central

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic “conservation traps” comparable to amber. PMID:23213234

  19. Analysis of responses in visual cells of the leech

    PubMed Central

    Fioravanti, R.; Fuortes, M. G. F.

    1972-01-01

    1. Potentials were recorded from the cytoplasm and from the vacuole of leech photoreceptors. Since the vacuole is lined with microvilli and is connected to the outside by narrow channels, the potential drops between vacuole and outside measure the current through the microvillar membrane. 2. In darkness, the potential of the cytoplasm with respect to the outside is about — 45 mV while the potential of the vacuole is approximately zero. 3. Following illumination the negativity of the cytoplasm decreases and the vacuole becomes negative relative to the outside. 4. For dim intensities, the response to a flash of light may grow proportionately more than the intensity of the flash. This is probably due to development of a depolarizing local response. 5. The resistance from the cytoplasm to the outside was about 150 MΩ in darkness and decreased to approximately 40 MΩ at the peak of the response to a bright flash (on average). Corresponding measurements from the vacuole gave 50 MΩ in darkness and 35 MΩ at the peak of the response. 6. Charging curves produced by steps of constant currents applied to the cytoplasm or to the vacuole include two time constants (about 5 and 50 msec on average). The longer time constant decreases greatly with bright illumination. 7. The results are consistent with the interpretation that the response to light is brought about by an increase of conductance of the microvillar membrane. PMID:4646575

  20. The bacterial community associated with the leech Myzobdella lugubris Leidy 1851 (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae) from Lake Erie, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Schulz, C; Faisal, M

    2010-06-01

    Leeches are widespread in the Great Lakes Basin, yet their potential to harbor disease-causing agents has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacterial community of the commonly occurring leech, Myzobdella lugubris, within the Lake Erie Watershed. Leech samples were collected from the pectoral fins of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, from Lake Erie in commercial trap nets and pooled into two samples based on host attachment. Bacteria from within the viscera of M. lugubris were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA (rDNA) gene of amplified community bacterial DNA extracted from pooled leech homogenate samples and were checked for similarity in two public databases: the Ribosomal Database Project and BLAST. Bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, beta-proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified Bacteria were present in the leech samples. A large number of bacteria found within leeches attached to channel catfish consisted of sequences that could not be classified beyond the Domain Bacteria. However, many of these sequences were homologous (< 45%) to the phylum Bacteroidetes. One of the five genera detected in the leech homogenates was Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a serious fish pathogen that causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease. While the occurrence of genera varies, bacteria associated with the two fish species were similar.

  1. Medicinal Leech Therapy for Glans Penis Congestion After Primary Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias Repair in an Infant: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wagenheim, Gavin N; Au, Jason; Gargollo, Patricio C

    2016-01-01

    Many postoperative complications have been reported after repair of classic bladder exstrophy. We present a case of medicinal leech therapy for glans penis congestion following exstrophy repair in an infant. A 2-week-old male with classic bladder exstrophy underwent complete primary repair. On postoperative day 1, he developed rapidly worsening glans penis venous congestion. Medicinal leech therapy was instituted with antibiotics and blood transfusions to maintain a hematocrit >30%. After 24 hours, venous congestion improved and therapy was discontinued. The patient's remaining hospital course was uncomplicated. Medicinal leeches are an effective therapy to relieve glans penis venous congestion.

  2. [Lysozyme activity of the salivary gland secretion of the medicinal leech H. verbana, H. medicinalis and H. orientalis].

    PubMed

    Baskova, I P; Kharitonova, O V; Zavalova, L L

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland secretions of three species of the medicinal leech differ in the level of lysozyme peptidoglycan-lysing activity. Using the synthetic fluorogenic substrate, 4-methyl-umbelliferyl tetra N-acetyl-beta-chitotetraosid, the glycosidase activity (as one of peptidoglycan-lysing activities) of salivary gland secretion of three species of the medicinal leech was quantitatively evaluated in comparison with egg lysozyme. It is supposed, that lysozyme activity of the leech secretions is determined not only by 5 isoforms of destabilase-lysozyme, but by some other enzymes which can utilize this substrate. These may be lysozymes other than i- (invertebrate) lysozymes (such as destabilase-lysozyme, or related enzymes).

  3. The use of dendrograms to describe the electrical activity of motoneurons underlying behaviors in leeches

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-Hernández, León J.; Bisson, Giacomo; Torre, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The present manuscript aims at identifying patterns of electrical activity recorded from neurons of the leech nervous system, characterizing specific behaviors. When leeches are at rest, the electrical activity of neurons and motoneurons is poorly correlated. When leeches move their head and/or tail, in contrast, action potential (AP) firing becomes highly correlated. When the head or tail suckers detach, specific patterns of electrical activity are detected. During elongation and contraction the electrical activity of motoneurons in the Medial Anterior and Dorsal Posterior nerves increase, respectively, and several motoneurons are activated both during elongation and contraction. During crawling, swimming, and pseudo-swimming patterns of electrical activity are better described by the dendrograms of cross-correlations of motoneurons pairs. Dendrograms obtained from different animals exhibiting the same behavior are similar and by averaging these dendrograms we obtained a template underlying a given behavior. By using this template, the corresponding behavior is reliably identified from the recorded electrical activity. The analysis of dendrograms during different leech behavior reveals the fine orchestration of motoneurons firing specific to each stereotyped behavior. Therefore, dendrograms capture the subtle changes in the correlation pattern of neuronal networks when they become involved in different tasks or functions. PMID:24098274

  4. Morphological and functional characterization of leech circulating blood cells: role in immunity and neural repair.

    PubMed

    Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Vergote, David; Slomianny, Christian; Jouy, Nathalie; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2012-05-01

    Unlike most invertebrates, annelids possess a closed vascular system distinct from the coelomic liquid. The morphology and the function of leech blood cells are reported here. We have demonstrated the presence of a unique cell type which participates in various immune processes. In contrast to the mammalian spinal cord, the leech CNS is able to regenerate and restore function after injury. The close contact of the blood with the nerve cord also led us to explore the participation of blood in neural repair. Our data evidenced that, in addition to exerting peripheral immune functions, leech blood optimizes CNS neural repair through the release of neurotrophic substances. Circulating blood cells also appeared able to infiltrate the injured CNS where, in conjunction with microglia, they limit the formation of a scar. In mammals, CNS injury leads to the generation of a glial scar that blocks the mechanism of regeneration by preventing axonal regrowth. The results presented here constitute the first description of neuroimmune functions of invertebrate blood cells. Understanding the basic function of the peripheral circulating cells and their interactions with lesioned CNS in the leech would allow us to acquire insights into the complexity of the neuroimmune response of the injured mammalian brain. PMID:22159559

  5. LIFE HISTORY AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LEECH OLIGOBDELLA BIANNULATA (MOORE, 1900) (EUHIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONNIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oligobdella biannulata (Moore, 1900) is a rare, endemic leech species originally described from a mountain stream near Blowing Rock, North Carolina. Specimens of O. biannulata were collected seasonally from Fall 1999, to Summer 2002, with new county records in North Carolina and ...

  6. High contrast imaging at the LBT: the LEECH exoplanet imaging survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip; Esposito, Simone; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Defrère, Denis; Bailey, Vanessa; Leisenring, Jarron; Apai, Daniel; Biller, Beth; Bonnefoy, Mickaël.; Brandner, Wolfgang; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin; De Rosa, Robert J.; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Fortney, Jonathan; Henning, Thomas; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kopytova, Taisiya; Maire, Anne-Lise; Males, Jared R.; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Patience, Jenny; Rajan, Abhijith; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Su, Kate; Vaz, Amali; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.; Zimmerman, Neil

    2014-07-01

    In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its ~130-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4-meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reduce the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L' (3.8 μm), as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 μm) of other surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deep mass sensitivity, especially around nearby adolescent (~0.1-1 Gyr) stars. LEECH's contrast is competitive with other extreme adaptive optics systems, while providing an alternative survey strategy. Additionally, LEECH is characterizing known exoplanetary systems with observations from 3-5μm in preparation for JWST.

  7. The Physiology and Mechanics of Undulatory Swimming: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Medicinal Leeches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerby, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The medicinal leech is a useful animal model for investigating undulatory swimming in the classroom. Unlike many swimming organisms, its swimming performance can be quantified without specialized equipment. A large blood meal alters swimming behavior in a way that can be used to generate a discussion of the hydrodynamics of swimming, muscle…

  8. ERPOBDELLA LAHONTANA (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: ARHYNCHOBDELLIDA: ERPOBDELLIDAE), A NEW SPECIES OF FRESHWATER LEECH FROM NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    New species of a leech, Erpobdella lahontana, is described from the Lahontan Basin in California and Nevada of the western United States. This species has four pairs of eyes, the preatrial loops of male paired ducts extend to ganglion XI, and the male and female gonopores are loc...

  9. Effect of taleeq (leech therapy) in dawali (varicose veins).

    PubMed

    Nigar, Zar; Alam, Md Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Dawali (varicose vein) is first described in Ebers Papyrus over 3500 years ago. Dawali is a disease in which veins of legs and feet become dilated, tortuous, and greenish in colour due to excess accumulation of blood which is derived from saudavi madda & balgham ghaleez. The aetiology of varicose veins is still incompletely under stood, despite the fact that it is a very common disease affecting all ages from teenagers to elderly people. The complication of varicose veins like venous eczema, venous pigmentation, lipodermatosclerosis, superficial thrombophlebitis, venous ulceration, etc impair health related quality of life significantly. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Taleeq in Dawali and to provide safe & cost effective alternative treatment. Randomized controlled clinical open trial was conducted in regimenal unit of NIUM Hospital. 50 patients were divided into 2 groups, 30 in test & 20 in control group. Test group was treated with Taleeq on alternate day & control group was treated with grade 2 compression stockings & limb elevation for 2 months. Response was measured by assessment of pain / leg discomfort, limb girth at calf, ankle, and feet, pigmentation area & colour on every 15(th) day. Hb% was assessed on every 15(th) day to check anaemia. Effect on anatomy of vein was assessed by colour flow Doppler USG. Test group showed significant reduction in pain, limb girth, pigmentation, number of perforators. Control group showed significant reduction in pain & limb girth, but there was no improvement on pigmentation. Both groups do not show significant improvement on SFJ & SPJ incompetency. Test group has major effects in improvement of all parameters. Study stresses that leech therapy should be administered in combination with compression stockings & other effective treatment modalities like weight normalization for obese patients, physical therapy, dietary modification etc for optimal results. PMID:22557433

  10. BIOLOGY AND OCCURRENCE OF THE LEECH, ACTINOBDELLA INEQUIANNULATA (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE) PARASITIC ON TWO SPECIES OF SUCKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. This study established the presence of only one species of leech, Actinobdela inequ...

  11. A new leech species (Hirudinida: Erpobdellidae: Erpobdella) from a cave in the West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Joanna M; Bielecki, Aleksander; Kur, Jarosław; Pikuła, Dorota; Kilikowska, Adrianna; Biernacka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Erpobdella borisi n. sp. is a predatory leech inhabiting cave waters in Iran. Probably, it is either a troglobiont or troglophile. The leech has no eyes, and the complete mid-body somite is divided unequally into five annuli. Results of phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters and COI gene sequence indicate the species to be closely related to Erpobdella japonica, E. octoculata and E. testacea. PMID:26623905

  12. A new leech species (Hirudinida: Erpobdellidae: Erpobdella) from a cave in the West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Joanna M; Bielecki, Aleksander; Kur, Jarosław; Pikuła, Dorota; Kilikowska, Adrianna; Biernacka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Erpobdella borisi n. sp. is a predatory leech inhabiting cave waters in Iran. Probably, it is either a troglobiont or troglophile. The leech has no eyes, and the complete mid-body somite is divided unequally into five annuli. Results of phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters and COI gene sequence indicate the species to be closely related to Erpobdella japonica, E. octoculata and E. testacea.

  13. The genus Bipolaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on ...

  14. Localized RNAi and ectopic gene expression in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Shefi, Orit; Simonnet, Claire; Groisman, Alex; Macagno, Eduardo R

    2008-04-17

    In this video, we show the use of a pneumatic capillary gun for the accurate biolistic delivery of reagents into live tissue. We use the procedure to perturb gene expression patterns in selected segments of leech embryos, leaving the untreated segments as internal controls. The pneumatic capillary gun can be used to reach internal layers of cells at early stages of development without opening the specimen. As a method for localized introduction of substances into living tissues, the biolistic delivery with the gun has several advantages: it is fast, contact-free and non-destructive. In addition, a single capillary gun can be used for independent delivery of different substances. The delivery region can have lateral dimensions of approximately 50-150 microm and extends over approximately 15 microm around the mean penetration depth, which is adjustable between 0 and 50 microm. This delivery has the advantage of being able to target a limited number of cells in a selected location intermediate between single cell knock down by microinjection and systemic knockdown through extracellular injections or by means of genetic approaches. For knocking down or knocking in the expression of the axon guidance molecule Netrin, which is naturally expressed by some central neurons and in the ventral body wall, but not the dorsal domain, we deliver molecules of dsRNA or plasmid-DNA into the body wall and central ganglia. This procedure includes the following steps: (i) preparation of the experimental setup for a specific assay (adjusting the accelerating pressure), (ii) coating the particles with molecules of dsRNA or DNA, (iii) loading the coated particles into the gun, up to two reagents in one assay, (iv) preparing the animals for the particle delivery, (v) delivery of coated particles into the target tissue (body wall or ganglia), and (vi) processing the embryos (immunostaining, immunohistochemistry and neuronal labeling) to visualize the results, usually 2 to 3 days after the

  15. Earthquake relocation near the Leech River Fault, southern Vancouver Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Liu, Y.; Regalla, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Leech River Fault (LRF), a northeast dipping thrust, extends across the southern tip of Vancouver Island in Southwest British Columbia, where local tectonic regime is dominated by the subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath the North American plate at the present rate of 40-50 mm/year. British Columbia geologic map (Geoscience Map 2009-1A) shows that this area also consists of many crosscutting minor faults in addition to the San Juan Fault north of the LRF. To investigate the seismic evidence of the subsurface structures of these minor faults and of possible hidden active structures in this area, precise earthquake locations are required. In this study, we relocate 941 earthquakes reported by Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN) catalog from 2000 to 2015 within a 100km x 55km study area surrounding the LRF. We use HypoDD [Waldhauser, F., 2001] double-difference relocation method by combining P/S phase arrivals provided by the CNSN at 169 stations and waveform data with correlation coefficient values greater than 0.7 at 50 common stations and event separation less than 10km. A total of 900 out of the 931 events satisfy the above relocation criteria. Velocity model used is a 1-D model extracted from the Ramachandran et al. (2005) model. Average relative location errors estimated by the bootstrap method are 546.5m (horizontal) and 1128.6m (in depth). Absolute errors reported by SVD method for individual clusters are ~100m in both dimensions. We select 5 clusters visually according to their epicenters (see figure). Cluster 1 is parallel to the LRF and a thrust FID #60. Clusters 2 and 3 are bounded by two faults: FID #75, a northeast dipping thrust marking the southwestern boundary of the Wrangellia terrane, and FID #2 marking the northern boundary. Clusters 4 and 5, to the northeast and northwest of Victoria respectively, however, do not represent the surface traces of any mapped faults. The depth profile of Cluster 5 depicts a hidden northeast

  16. Annotated checklist of the leech species diversity in the Maloe More Strait of Lake Baikal, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Kaygorodova, Irina A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, the very first checklist of the freshwater leeches of Maloe More Strait, a special part of Lake Baikal, is presented. It includes 14 free-living and parasitic species, of which four species belong to endemic Baikal genera – two species from Baicalobdella and one species each from Baicaloclepsis and Codonobdella. The checklist highlights six potentially new morphological species recorded for the first time in the area. The exact systematic position is stated for all leech species. Each species from the list is provided with information on taxonomic synonymy, data on its geographic distribution, and ecological characteristics. New species records are additionally provided with brief morphological characteristics and photos of their external morphology. PMID:26798292

  17. Upper airway obstruction and hemoptysis due to a leech infestation in a child.

    PubMed

    Draiss, G; Razzouki, K; Mouaffak, Y; Bouskraoui, M; Younous, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a 12-year-old child who presented with an 8-day history of cough, respiratory distress, and hemoptysis. He was admitted first to the pediatric intensive care unit to reestablish hemodynamic and respiratory stability. The chest X-ray showed a bilateral alveolar-interstitial syndrome. Four hours after admission, he had a coughing fit, moderately abundant hemoptysis, and a leech appeared in his mouth, which was removed by the mother. Symptoms completely disappeared afterwards. Endoscopy and ear-throat-laryngeal examination done thereafter were normal. The presence of a leech in the larynx has been rarely described in children, but is not a rare cause of hemoptysis. Extraction is imperative and should be performed as soon as the diagnosis is made to avoid a fatal progression. Prevention remains the best treatment. PMID:26655785

  18. A mathematical model of motorneuron dynamics in the heartbeat of the leech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Palacios, A.

    2004-02-01

    The heartbeat of the medicinal leech is driven by direct contact between two arrays of motorneurons and two lateral blood vessels. At any given time, motorneurons exhibit one of two alternating states so that, on one side of the animal, the heart beats in a rear-to-front fashion (peristaltic), while on the other side the heart beats synchronously. Every 20 heartbeats, approximately, the two sides switch modes. It is known that the heartbeat rhythm is generated through burst of oscillatory activity produced by a central pattern generator (CPG) network of neurons. However, to the best of our knowledge, how the CPG activity is translated into peristaltic and synchronous rhythms in the motorneurons is yet unknown. In this work, we use symmetric systems of differential equations, accompanied with computational simulations, to investigate possible mechanisms for generating the motorneuron activity that characterizes the heartbeat of leeches and in particular the switching scenario.

  19. Leech Induced Pyoderma Gangrenosum in an Ulcerative Colitis Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Anahita; Navabakhsh, Behrouz; Izadi Vahedi, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a painful skin lesion that results from excessive inflammatory response to a host of traumatic, inflammatory, or neoplastic processes in susceptible individuals. A clear pathogenetic mechanism as well as an exhaustive list of potential triggers for PG is yet to be fully characterized. This case documents the occurrence of pyoderma gangrenosum following leech-therapy in a patient who is a known case of ulcerative colitis and it deserves attention because leeches have been part of medical armamentarium since ancient times and have re-emerged in the last century relying on their ancient charm and modern research revealing potential benefits of several bioactive substances in their saliva. PMID:26933484

  20. Invertebrate proenkephalin: delta opioid binding sites in leech ganglia and immunocytes.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Stefano, G B

    1997-09-12

    The leech Theromyzon tessulatum and the marine mussel Mytilus edulis immunocytes contain a mammalian-like proenkephalin molecule. The opioid precursor was purified by gel permeation chromatography, anti-Met- and Leu-enkephalin-affinity column separation and then by reversed-phase HPLC. The amino acid sequence analysis, determined by Edman degradation, enzymatic treatments and matrix assisted laser desorption time of flight. The structure of the leech proenkephalin material demonstrates considerable amino acid sequence similarity with amphibian proenkephalin (e.g. 25.4% with Xenopus laevis) but it is smaller, 15 kDa vs. 30 kDa. In contrast, Mytilus proenkephalin is not only larger (26 kDa) but it exhibits a higher sequence identity with guinea pig proenkephalin (50%). Both of the invertebrate materials possess Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin in a ratio of 3:1 for Mytilus and 1:2 in the leech. They also contain Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu and Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe sequences that are flanked by dibasic amino acid residues, demonstrating cleavage sites. Furthermore, using sequence comparison with bovine proenkephalin A (209-237), enkelytin (FAEPLPSEEEGESYSKEVPEMEKRYGGFM), an antibacterial peptide is found in the proenkephalin of both animals and it exhibits a 98% sequence identity with mammalian material. Finally, opioid binding experiments demonstrate the presence in leech ganglia and immunocytes of delta1 and delta2 opioid receptor subtypes as also found human and Mytilus immune cells. This report constitutes the first complete biochemical characterization of mammalian proenkephalin in invertebrates, demonstrating its origin in simpler animals.

  1. Leech egg-laying-like hormone: structure, neuronal distribution and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Verger-Bocquet, M; Vandenbulcke, F; Van Minnen, J

    1997-10-01

    Cells immunoreactive to antisera specifically directed against Lymnaea stagnalis caudo dorsal cells egg-laying hormone (CDCH) or against alpha- and beta-peptides (CDCP), encoded on the egg-laying hormone precursor, were detected in central nervous system (CNS) of the rhynchobdellid leech Theromyzon tessulatum. A co-localization of the CDC-like hormone and CDC-like peptides was found in T. tessulatum as in L. stagnalis CNS. approximately 45 immunoreactive cells to the anti-CDCH were detected in leech brain but this number varies according to the stage of the animal life cycle, i.e. it reaches a maximum just before egg-laying while after it decreases to 2-3 cells. CDCH and alpha-CDCP epitopes recognized by anti-CDCH and anti-alpha-CDCP were contained in neurosecretory granules. Following an extensive purification, including HPGPC and reverse-phase HPLC, the CDC-like hormone contained in the T. tessulatum CNA was isolated. The sequence (GSGVSNGGTEMIQLSHIRERQRYWAQDNLRRRFLEK-amide) was established by a combination of automated Edman degradation, arginyl-endopeptidase digestion, electrospray mass spectrometry measurement and carboxypeptidase A treatment. The results demonstrate that the peptide recognized by the anti-CDCH in the leech CNS possesses 27.8, 37.2 and 47.2% sequence identity with Aplysia parvula, Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica ELH, respectively. This molecule was named the leech egg-laying-like hormone (L-ELH). The secondary structure prediction of the L-ELH and all mollusks ELH, revealed the existence of a conserved segment (segment 29-34) in a strong helicoidal bend that might be important for receptor recognition and/or activation. This finding constitutes the first biochemical characterization of an egg-laying hormone in other invertebrates than mollusks.

  2. Immediate use of medicinal leeches to salvage venous congested reverse pedicled neurocutaneous flaps.

    PubMed

    Gideroglu, Kaan; Yildirim, Serkan; Akan, Mithat; Akoz, Tayfun

    2003-01-01

    Reverse pedicled neurocutaneous flaps have recently become popular for reconstructing soft tissue defects of the lower extremity. Venous congestion is a relatively common problem in these flaps in diabetic patients and those with electric burns, and this may cause partial or complete loss if capillary perfusion is not re-established urgently. We describe our experience of 13 neurocutaneous flaps, of which five developed venous congestion and were treated successfully with leeches placed immediately.

  3. Developmentally regulated multisensory integration for prey localization in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Harley, Cynthia M; Cienfuegos, Javier; Wagenaar, Daniel A

    2011-11-15

    Medicinal leeches, like many aquatic animals, use water disturbances to localize their prey, so they need to be able to determine if a wave disturbance is created by prey or by another source. Many aquatic predators perform this separation by responding only to those wave frequencies representing their prey. As leeches' prey preference changes over the course of their development, we examined their responses at three different life stages. We found that juveniles more readily localize wave sources of lower frequencies (2 Hz) than their adult counterparts (8-12 Hz), and that adolescents exhibited elements of both juvenile and adult behavior, readily localizing sources of both frequencies. Leeches are known to be able to localize the source of waves through the use of either mechanical or visual information. We separately characterized their ability to localize various frequencies of stimuli using unimodal cues. Within a single modality, the frequency-response curves of adults and juveniles were virtually indistinguishable. However, the differences between the responses for each modality (visual and mechanosensory) were striking. The optimal visual stimulus had a much lower frequency (2 Hz) than the optimal mechanical stimulus (12 Hz). These frequencies matched, respectively, the juvenile and the adult preferred frequency for multimodally sensed waves. This suggests that, in the multimodal condition, adult behavior is driven more by mechanosensory information and juvenile behavior more by visual. Indeed, when stimuli of the two modalities were placed in conflict with one another, adult leeches, unlike juveniles, were attracted to the mechanical stimulus much more strongly than to the visual stimulus.

  4. Transmission of Haemogregarina balli from painted turtles to snapping turtles through the leech Placobdella ornata.

    PubMed

    Siddall, M E; Desser, S S

    2001-10-01

    Six leeches (Placobdella ornata) were allowed to feed on a painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) infected with Haemogregarina balli and subjected to a period of diapause before being allowed to feed on 2 laboratory-reared snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Weekly examination of thin blood films revealed infections of the turtles at 130 days postfeeding. These observations provide support for broad host specificity of hemogregarine parasites of chelonians. PMID:11695407

  5. Metabolism of angiotensins by head membranes of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Laurent, V; Salzet, M

    1996-04-15

    Angiotensins (angiotensin I, angiotensin II, angiotensin II-amide) have been isolated in leeches and such peptides are involved in diuresis in these animals. To explore possible inactivation mechanisms of these peptides, angiotensins were incubated with head membranes of the leech T. tessulatum. Membranes derived from head parts of this leech are very rich in peptidases. They contain endopeptidase-24.11-like enzyme (NEP-like) associated with a battery of exopeptidase. The way that angiotensins are degraded by the combined attack of these membrane peptidases has been investigated. The contribution of individual peptidases was assessed by adding inhibitors (phosphoramidon, captopril and amastatin) to the membrane fractions, when they were incubated with the peptides. In the case of angiotensin I, the primary attack was performed by a combined action of the NEP-like and the ACE-like enzymes, followed by aminopeptidase attacks. Angiotensin II and III were hydrolyzed by NEP-like enzyme at the same Tyr-Ile bond, whereas the N-terminal arginine residue of angiotensin III was removed by an arginyl aminopeptidase. These results show that angiotensins are efficiently degraded by membranes and that NEP-like enzyme plays a key role in this process.

  6. Experimental Investigation on the Morphology and Adhesion Mechanism of Leech Posterior Suckers

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenhao

    2015-01-01

    The posterior sucker of a leech represents a fascinating natural system that allows the leech to adhere to different terrains and substrates. However, the mechanism of adhesion and desorption has not yet to be elucidated. In order to better understand how the adhesion is performed, we analyzed the surface structure, adsorption movements, the muscles’ distribution, physical characteristics, and the adsorption force of the leech posterior suckers by experimental investigation. Three conclusions can be drawn based on the obtained experimental results. First, the adhesion by the posterior sucker is wet adhesion, because the surface of the posterior sucker is smooth and the sealing can only be achieved on wet surfaces. Second, the deformation texture, consisting of soft collagen tissues and highly ductile epidermal tissues, plays a key role in adhering to rough surfaces. Finally, the adhesion and desorption is achieved by the synergetic operation of six muscle fibers working in different directions. Concrete saying, directional deformation of the collagen/epithermal interface driven by spatially-distributed muscle fibers facilitates the excretion of fluids in the sucker venter, thus allowing liquid sealing. Furthermore, we found that the adhesion strength is directly related to the size of the contact surface which is generated and affected by the sucker deformation. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers potential cues for developing innovative bio-inspired artificial adhesion systems. PMID:26536352

  7. Characterization of central axon terminals of putative stretch receptors in leeches.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruey-Jane; Friesen, W Otto

    2006-01-10

    Sensory feedback from stretch receptors, neurons that detect position or tension, is crucial for generating normal, robust locomotion. Among the eight pairs of putative stretch receptors associated with longitudinal muscles in midbody segments of medicinal leeches, only the ventral stretch receptor has been characterized in detail. To achieve the identification of all such receptors, we penetrated large axons in the nerve roots of nerve cords from adult leeches with dye-filled (Alexa Fluor hydrazide) electrodes. We identified the terminal arborizations of two additional putative stretch receptors with axons in anterior nerve roots and four more such receptors with axons in posterior roots of midbody ganglia. The axons are nonspiking and are individually identifiable by their entry point into the CNS; their projections within the neuropile; the pattern, extent, and orientation of their terminal branches; and the characteristics of small "spike-like" events. At least two of these axons undergo membrane potential oscillations that are phase locked to the swimming rhythm expressed in nerve cord-body wall preparations and, at a different phase angle, also in isolated nerve cords. Thus the membrane potentials of at least two axons are phasically modulated by the periphery and hence could provide cycle-by-cycle sensory input to coordinate swimming activity. One of these neurons has a soma associated with the dorsal body wall and hence is a putative stretch receptor in dorsal longitudinal muscle. Thus the traveling body wave expressed by swimming leeches may be regulated by sensory feedback from both ventral and dorsal longitudinal muscles.

  8. Decision points: the factors influencing the decision to feed in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Quentin; Kristan, William B

    2012-01-01

    The decision to feed is a complex task that requires making several small independent choices. Am I hungry? Where do I look for food? Is there something better I'd rather be doing? When should I stop? With all of these questions, it is no wonder that decisions about feeding depend on several sensory modalities and that the influences of these sensory systems would be evident throughout the nervous system. The leech is uniquely well suited for studying these complicated questions due to its relatively simple nervous system, its exceptionally well-characterized behaviors and neural circuits, and the ease with which one can employ semi-intact preparations to study the link between physiology and decision-making. We will begin this review by discussing the cellular substrates that govern the decision to initiate and to terminate a bout of feeding. We will then discuss how feeding temporarily blocks competing behaviors from being expressed while the animal continues to feed. Then we will review what is currently known about how feeding affects long-term behavioral choices of the leech. Finally, we conclude with a short discussion of the advantages of the leech's decision-making circuit's design and how this design might be applicable to all decision circuits. PMID:22783162

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition studies by natural leech inhibitors by capillary electrophoresis and competition assay.

    PubMed

    Deloffre, Laurence; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Huybrechts, Roger; Hens, Korneel; Vieau, Didier; Salzet, Michel

    2004-06-01

    A protocol to follow the processing of angiotensin I into angiotensin II by rabbit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and its inhibition by a novel natural antagonist, the leech osmoregulator factor (LORF) using capillary zonal electrophoresis is described. The experiment was carried out using the Beckman PACE system and steps were taken to determine (a) the migration profiles of angiotensin and its yielded peptides, (b) the minimal amount of angiotensin II detected, (c) the use of different electrolytes and (d) the concentration of inhibitor. We demonstrated that LORF (IPEPYVWD), a neuropeptide previously found in leech brain, is able to inhibit rabbit ACE with an IC(50) of 19.8 micro m. Interestingly, its cleavage product, IPEP exhibits an IC(50) of 11.5 micro m. A competition assay using p-benzoylglycylglycylglycine and insect ACE established that LORF and IPEP fragments are natural inhibitors for invertebrate ACE. Fifty-four percent of insect ACE activity is inhibited with 50 micro m IPEP and 35% inhibition with LORF (25 mm). Extending the peptide at both N- and C-terminus (GWEIPEPYVWDES) and the cleavage of IPEP in IP abolished the inhibitory activity of both peptides. Immunocytochemical data obtained with antisera raised against LORF and leech ACE showed a colocalization between the enzyme and its inhibitor in the same neurons. These results showed that capillary zonal electrophoresis is a useful technique for following enzymatic processes with small amounts of products and constitutes the first evidence of a natural ACE inhibitor in invertebrates.

  10. Description of a new leech species of Helobdella (Clitellata: Glossiphoniidae) from Mexico with a review of Mexican congeners and a taxonomic key.

    PubMed

    Salas-Montiel, Ricardo; Phillips, Anna J; De Leon, Gerardo Perez-Ponce; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2014-12-19

    To date, six species of the leech genus Helobdella have been recorded from Mexico: Helobdella atli, Helobdella elongata, Helobdella octatestisaca, Helobdella socimulcensis, Helobdella virginiae and Helobdella temiscoensis n. sp. This new species is characterized by a lanceolate body, the presence of a nuchal scute, uniform brown pigment on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, the absence of papillae, well-separated eyespots, six pairs of testisacs and five pairs of crop caeca, the last of which forms posterior caeca. In addition, we provide new geographic records for Helobdella species from Mexico resulting from our own collections, vouchers deposited at the Colección Nacional de Helmintos from the Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Mexico and vouchers at the Invertebrate Zoology Collection of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (USNM) Washington D.C., USA. We present a comprehensive review of Mexican Helobdella species, including the new species, with notes on the characteristic morphology and geographic distribution of each species with 91 new records from 20 states. In addition, we provide a taxonomic key for the identification of the Mexican species.

  11. Description of a new leech species of Helobdella (Clitellata: Glossiphoniidae) from Mexico with a review of Mexican congeners and a taxonomic key.

    PubMed

    Salas-Montiel, Ricardo; Phillips, Anna J; De Leon, Gerardo Perez-Ponce; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    To date, six species of the leech genus Helobdella have been recorded from Mexico: Helobdella atli, Helobdella elongata, Helobdella octatestisaca, Helobdella socimulcensis, Helobdella virginiae and Helobdella temiscoensis n. sp. This new species is characterized by a lanceolate body, the presence of a nuchal scute, uniform brown pigment on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, the absence of papillae, well-separated eyespots, six pairs of testisacs and five pairs of crop caeca, the last of which forms posterior caeca. In addition, we provide new geographic records for Helobdella species from Mexico resulting from our own collections, vouchers deposited at the Colección Nacional de Helmintos from the Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Mexico and vouchers at the Invertebrate Zoology Collection of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (USNM) Washington D.C., USA. We present a comprehensive review of Mexican Helobdella species, including the new species, with notes on the characteristic morphology and geographic distribution of each species with 91 new records from 20 states. In addition, we provide a taxonomic key for the identification of the Mexican species. PMID:25543724

  12. Differential Expression of Conserved Germ Line Markers and Delayed Segregation of Male and Female Primordial Germ Cells in a Hermaphrodite, the Leech Helobdella

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Vallès, Yvonne; Weisblat, David A.

    2014-01-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are often set aside early in embryogenesis, a strategy that minimizes the risk of genomic damage associated with replication and mitosis during the cell cycle. Here, we have used germ line markers (piwi, vasa, and nanos) and microinjected cell lineage tracers to show that PGC specification in the leech genus Helobdella follows a different scenario: in this hermaphrodite, the male and female PGCs segregate from somatic lineages only after more than 20 rounds of zygotic mitosis; the male and female PGCs share the same (mesodermal) cell lineage for 19 rounds of zygotic mitosis. Moreover, while all three markers are expressed in both male and female reproductive tissues of the adult, they are expressed differentially between the male and female PGCs of the developing embryo: piwi and vasa are expressed preferentially in female PGCs at a time when nanos is expressed preferentially in male PGCs. A priori, the delayed segregation of male and female PGCs from somatic tissues and from one another increases the probability of mutations affecting both male and female PGCs of a given individual. We speculate that this suite of features, combined with a capacity for self-fertilization, may contribute to the dramatically rearranged genome of Helobdella robusta relative to other animals. PMID:24217283

  13. The genus Bipolaris

    PubMed Central

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species’ synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. PMID:25492990

  14. Interaction of leech neurons with topographical gratings: comparison with rodent and human neuronal lines and primary cells

    PubMed Central

    Tonazzini, Ilaria; Pellegrini, Monica; Pellegrino, Mario; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Controlling and improving neuronal cell migration and neurite outgrowth are critical elements of tissue engineering applications and development of artificial neuronal interfaces. To this end, a promising approach exploits nano/microstructured surfaces, which have been demonstrated to be capable of tuning neuronal differentiation, polarity, migration and neurite orientation. Here, we investigate the neurite contact guidance of leech neurons on plastic gratings (GRs; anisotropic topographies composed of alternating lines of grooves and ridges). By high-resolution microscopy, we quantitatively evaluate the changes in tubulin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology and in the neurite and growth cone development. The topography-reading process of leech neurons on GRs is mediated by filopodia and is more responsive to 4-µm-period GRs than to smaller period GRs. Leech neuron behaviour on GRs is finally compared and validated with several other neuronal cells, from murine differentiated embryonic stem cells and primary hippocampal neurons to differentiated human neuroblastoma cells. PMID:24501675

  15. Establishment of segment polarity in the ectoderm of the leech Helobdella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaver, E. C.; Shankland, M.

    2001-01-01

    The segmented ectoderm and mesoderm of the leech arise via a stereotyped cell lineage from embryonic stem cells called teloblasts. Each teloblast gives rise to a column of primary blast cell daughters, and the blast cells generate descendant clones that serve as the segmental repeats of their particular teloblast lineage. We have examined the mechanism by which the leech primary blast cell clones acquire segment polarity - i.e. a fixed sequence of positional values ordered along the anteroposterior axis of the segmental repeat. In the O and P teloblast lineages, the earliest divisions of the primary blast cell segregate anterior and posterior cell fates along the anteroposterior axis. Using a laser microbeam, we ablated single cells from both o and p blast cell clones at stages when the clone was two to four cells in length. The developmental fate of the remaining cells was characterized with rhodamine-dextran lineage tracer. Twelve different progeny cells were ablated, and in every case the ablation eliminated the normal descendants of the ablated cell while having little or no detectable effect on the developmental fate of the remaining cells. This included experiments in which we specifically ablated those blast cell progeny that are known to express the engrailed gene, or their lineal precursors. These findings confirm and extend a previous study by showing that the establishment of segment polarity in the leech ectoderm is largely independent of cell interactions conveyed along the anteroposterior axis. Both intercellular signaling and engrailed expression play an important role in the segment polarity specification of the Drosophila embryo, and our findings suggest that there may be little or no conservation of this developmental mechanism between those two organisms.

  16. Phylogenomics of Reichenowia parasitica, an Alphaproteobacterial Endosymbiont of the Freshwater Leech Placobdella parasitica

    PubMed Central

    Kvist, Sebastian; Narechania, Apurva; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; Fuks, Bella; Siddall, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Although several commensal alphaproteobacteria form close relationships with plant hosts where they aid in (e.g.,) nitrogen fixation and nodulation, only a few inhabit animal hosts. Among these, Reichenowia picta, R. ornata and R. parasitica, are currently the only known mutualistic, alphaproteobacterial endosymbionts to inhabit leeches. These bacteria are harbored in the epithelial cells of the mycetomal structures of their freshwater leech hosts, Placobdella spp., and these structures have no other obvious function than housing bacterial symbionts. However, the function of the bacterial symbionts has remained unclear. Here, we focused both on exploring the genomic makeup of R. parasitica and on performing a robust phylogenetic analysis, based on more data than previous hypotheses, to test its position among related bacteria. We sequenced a combined pool of host and symbiont DNA from 36 pairs of mycetomes and performed an in silico separation of the different DNA pools through subtractive scaffolding. The bacterial contigs were compared to 50 annotated bacterial genomes and the genome of the freshwater leech Helobdella robusta using a BLASTn protocol. Further, amino acid sequences inferred from the contigs were used as queries against the 50 bacterial genomes to establish orthology. A total of 358 orthologous genes were used for the phylogenetic analyses. In part, results suggest that R. parasitica possesses genes coding for proteins related to nitrogen fixation, iron/vitamin B translocation and plasmid survival. Our results also indicate that R. parasitica interacts with its host in part by transmembrane signaling and that several of its genes show orthology across Rhizobiaceae. The phylogenetic analyses support the nesting of R. parasitica within the Rhizobiaceae, as sister to a group containing Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species. PMID:22132238

  17. Phylogenomics of Reichenowia parasitica, an alphaproteobacterial endosymbiont of the freshwater leech Placobdella parasitica.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Sebastian; Narechania, Apurva; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; Fuks, Bella; Siddall, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Although several commensal alphaproteobacteria form close relationships with plant hosts where they aid in (e.g.,) nitrogen fixation and nodulation, only a few inhabit animal hosts. Among these, Reichenowia picta, R. ornata and R. parasitica, are currently the only known mutualistic, alphaproteobacterial endosymbionts to inhabit leeches. These bacteria are harbored in the epithelial cells of the mycetomal structures of their freshwater leech hosts, Placobdella spp., and these structures have no other obvious function than housing bacterial symbionts. However, the function of the bacterial symbionts has remained unclear. Here, we focused both on exploring the genomic makeup of R. parasitica and on performing a robust phylogenetic analysis, based on more data than previous hypotheses, to test its position among related bacteria. We sequenced a combined pool of host and symbiont DNA from 36 pairs of mycetomes and performed an in silico separation of the different DNA pools through subtractive scaffolding. The bacterial contigs were compared to 50 annotated bacterial genomes and the genome of the freshwater leech Helobdella robusta using a BLASTn protocol. Further, amino acid sequences inferred from the contigs were used as queries against the 50 bacterial genomes to establish orthology. A total of 358 orthologous genes were used for the phylogenetic analyses. In part, results suggest that R. parasitica possesses genes coding for proteins related to nitrogen fixation, iron/vitamin B translocation and plasmid survival. Our results also indicate that R. parasitica interacts with its host in part by transmembrane signaling and that several of its genes show orthology across Rhizobiaceae. The phylogenetic analyses support the nesting of R. parasitica within the Rhizobiaceae, as sister to a group containing Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species. PMID:22132238

  18. iDNA from terrestrial haematophagous leeches as a wildlife surveying and monitoring tool - prospects, pitfalls and avenues to be developed.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Sollmann, Rahel; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Siddall, Mark E; Yu, Douglas W; Wilting, Andreas; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) from terrestrial haematophagous leeches has recently been proposed as a powerful non-invasive tool with which to detect vertebrate species and thus to survey their populations. However, to date little attention has been given to whether and how this, or indeed any other iDNA-derived data, can be combined with state-of-the-art analytical tools to estimate wildlife abundances, population dynamics and distributions. In this review, we discuss the challenges that face the application of existing analytical methods such as site-occupancy and spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models to terrestrial leech iDNA, in particular, possible violations of key assumptions arising from factors intrinsic to invertebrate parasite biology. Specifically, we review the advantages and disadvantages of terrestrial leeches as a source of iDNA and summarize the utility of leeches for presence, occupancy, and spatial capture-recapture models. The main source of uncertainty that attends species detections derived from leech gut contents is attributable to uncertainty about the spatio-temporal sampling frame, since leeches retain host-blood for months and can move after feeding. Subsequently, we briefly address how the analytical challenges associated with leeches may apply to other sources of iDNA. Our review highlights that despite the considerable potential of leech (and indeed any) iDNA as a new survey tool, further pilot studies are needed to assess how analytical methods can overcome or not the potential biases and assumption violations of the new field of iDNA. Specifically we argue that studies to compare iDNA sampling with standard survey methods such as camera trapping, and those to improve our knowledge on leech (and other invertebrate parasite) physiology, taxonomy, and ecology will be of immense future value. PMID:26430464

  19. Forgotten digital tourniquet: salvage of an ischaemic finger by application of medicinal leeches.

    PubMed

    Durrant, C; Townley, W A; Ramkumar, S; Khoo, C T K

    2006-09-01

    Individual finger tourniquets are appropriate to the management of a wide range of conditions presenting to an accident and emergency department. They are simpler and more comfortable to use than upper arm pneumatic tourniquets and commercially available digital tourniquets are not readily available in the accident and emergency unit. However, if a finger tourniquet is overlooked, ischaemia of the digit results, and gangrene may follow if the problem is not defused early enough, leading to potential disaster. We present one case where a digit was salvaged after 4 days of tourniquet application, using medicinal leeches.

  20. Identification and characterization of a novel neuropeptide (neuropeptide Y-HS) from leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hui; Chen, Yan; Bai, Xue-Wei; Yao, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xu-Guang; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify immunomodulatory components from the leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris. The Sephadex G-50, Resource(TM) S column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the salivary gland extracts (SGE). Structural analysis of isolated compounds was based on Edman degradation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). The cDNA encoding the precursor of the compound was cloned from the cDNA library of the salivary gland of H. sylvestris. The levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects on cell proliferation and cell viability were observed using MTT assay. A novel neuropeptide Y (Neuropeptide Y-HS) from the leech salivary gland of H. sylvestris was purified and characterized. It was composed of 36 amino acid residues and the amino acid sequence was determined to be FLEPPERPAVFTSVEQMKSYIKALNDYYLLLGRPRF-NH2, containing an amidated C-terminus. It showed significant inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1. Neuropeptide Y was identified from leeches for the first time. The presence of neuropeptide Y-HS in leech salivary gland may help get blood meal from hosts and inhibit inflammation.

  1. Culture-independent characterization of the digestive-tract microbiota of the medicinal leech reveals a tripartite symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Worthen, Paul L; Gode, Cindy J; Graf, Joerg

    2006-07-01

    Culture-based studies of the microbial community within the gut of the medicinal leech have typically been focused on various Aeromonas species, which were believed to be the sole symbiont of the leech digestive tract. In this study, analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries confirmed the presence of Aeromonas veronii and revealed a second symbiont, clone PW3, a novel member of the Rikenellaceae, within the crop, a large compartment where ingested blood is stored prior to digestion. The diversity of the bacterial community in the leech intestinum was determined, and additional symbionts were detected, including members of the alpha-, gamma-, and delta-Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The relative abundances of the clones suggested that A. veronii and the novel clone, PW3, also dominate the intestinum community, while other clones, representing transient organisms, were typically present in low numbers. The identities of these transients varied greatly between individual leeches. Neither time after feeding nor feeding on defibrinated blood caused a change in identity of the dominant members of the microbial communities. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to verify that the results from the clone libraries were representative of a larger data set. The presence of a two-member bacterial community in the crop provides a unique opportunity to investigate both symbiont-symbiont and symbiont-host interactions in a natural model of digestive-tract associations.

  2. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Kazal-Type Trypsin Inhibitor from the Leech of Hirudinaria manillensis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yanmei; Li, Bowen; Liu, Weihui; Wang, Gan; Du, Canwei; Ombati, Rose; Lai, Ren; Long, Chengbo; Li, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors are found in a large number of living organisms and play crucial roles in various biological and physiological processes. Although some Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors have been identified in leeches, none has been reported from Hirudinaria manillensis, which is a medically important leech. In this study, a novel Kazal-type trypsin inhibitor was isolated from leech H. manillensis, purified and named as bdellin-HM based on the sequence similarity with bdellin-KL and bdellin B-3. Structural analysis revealed that bdellin-HM was a 17,432.8 Da protein and comprised of 149 amino acid residues with six cysteines forming three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Bdellin-HM showed similarity with the Kazal-type domain and may belong to the group of “non-classical” Kazal inhibitors according to its CysI-CysII disulfide bridge position. Bdellin-HM had no inhibitory effect on elastase, chymotrypsin, kallikrein, Factor (F) XIIa, FXIa, FXa, thrombin and plasmin, but it showed a potent ability to inhibit trypsin with an inhibition constant (Ki) of (8.12 ± 0.18) × 10−9 M. These results suggest that bdellin-HM from the leech of H. manillensis plays a potent and specific inhibitory role towards trypsin. PMID:27455325

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel neuropeptide (neuropeptide Y-HS) from leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hui; Chen, Yan; Bai, Xue-Wei; Yao, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xu-Guang; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify immunomodulatory components from the leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris. The Sephadex G-50, Resource(TM) S column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the salivary gland extracts (SGE). Structural analysis of isolated compounds was based on Edman degradation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). The cDNA encoding the precursor of the compound was cloned from the cDNA library of the salivary gland of H. sylvestris. The levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects on cell proliferation and cell viability were observed using MTT assay. A novel neuropeptide Y (Neuropeptide Y-HS) from the leech salivary gland of H. sylvestris was purified and characterized. It was composed of 36 amino acid residues and the amino acid sequence was determined to be FLEPPERPAVFTSVEQMKSYIKALNDYYLLLGRPRF-NH2, containing an amidated C-terminus. It showed significant inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1. Neuropeptide Y was identified from leeches for the first time. The presence of neuropeptide Y-HS in leech salivary gland may help get blood meal from hosts and inhibit inflammation. PMID:27667513

  4. Biochemical properties of the angiotensin-converting-like enzyme from the leech Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Laurent, V; Salzet, M

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the evidence and the biochemical properties of an angiotensin-converting (ACE)-like enzyme from head parts of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. After solubilization from membranes with Triton X-114, the ACE-like enzyme was purified from the detergent-poor fraction. Four steps of purification including gel permeation and anion exchange chromatographies followed by a reversed-phase HPLC were needed. This poor glycosylated peptidyl dipeptidase (of ca. 120 kDa) hydrolyzes, at pH 8.4 and at 37 degrees C, the Phe8-His9 bond of angiotensin I with a high catalytic activity (i.e., K(m): 830 microM and Kcat/K(m): 153 s-1 mM-1). The hydrolysis of angiotensin I is inhibitable at 80% by captopril (IC50 = 175 nM) and lisinopril (IC50 = 35 nM). This activity is strictly dependent on the presence of NaCl and is increased by Zn2+. This zinc metallopeptidase also attacks peptides that have in their sequence either Gly-His, Gly-Phe, or Phe-His bond [e.g., enkephalins (Kcat/K(m): 12 s-1 mM-1) or bradykinin (Kcat/K(m): 2200 s-1 mM-1]. Taken together, these arguments are consistent with an ACE-like activity implicated in metabolism of angiotensins and bradykinin in leeches.

  5. Biochemical identification and ganglionic localization of leech angiotensin-converting enzymes.

    PubMed

    Vandenbulcke, F; Laurent, V; Verger-Bocquet, M; Stefano, G B; Salzet, M

    1997-10-01

    We demonstrate the presence of a membrane and soluble form of leech Theromyzon tessulatum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Four steps in the purification of this enzyme include gel-permeation, captopril-sepharose affinity and anion-exchange chromatography followed by a reverse-phase HPLC. The peptidyl dipeptidases (of approximately 120 and approximately 100 kDa) are glycosylated enzymes hydrolysing the Phe8-His9 bond of angiotensin I, exhibiting the same specific activity and Km whereas the soluble ACE exhibits a higher catalytic efficiency. This hydrolysis is inhibited by the ACE-specific antagonist captopril. Western blot analysis of a polyclonal antiserum raised against the first 11 amino-acid residues of the membrane ACE and the N-terminal sequence of the soluble molecule also demonstrates the presence of two ACE enzymes. Anti-ACE immunocytochemistry also supports the presence of two forms of ACE. This material is found in neurons and glia. We demonstrate for the first time the cellular localization and biochemical characterization of ACEs in the central nervous system of an invertebrate. Thus, the leech brain may represent a simple model for the study of these enzymes.

  6. The complex dynamic network of microtubule and microfilament cytasters of the leech zygote.

    PubMed

    Cantillana, V; Urrutia, M; Ubilla, A; Fernández, J

    2000-12-01

    The organization of the cytoskeleton in the early first interphase zygote and its involvement in organelle redistribution were studied in the glossiphoniid leech Theromyzon trizonare by confocal and electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and time-lapse video imaging after microinjection of labeled tubulin and/or actin and loading with a mitotracker. The cytoskeleton consists of an inner or endoplasmic and an outer or ectoplasmic domain. The inner domain consists of a monaster whose fibers retract from the zygote periphery by the end of the early first interphase. The outer domain is built upon a network of microtubules and microfilaments cytasters. Short pulses of microinjected labeled actin or tubulin and Taxol treatment demonstrate that cytasters are centers of microtubule and microfilament nucleation. Immunostaining with anti-centrophilin, anti-BX-63, and anti-AH-6 indicates that the network of cytasters includes centrosomal antigens. Cytasters move in an orderly fashion at speeds of 0.5-2 micrometer/min, in an energy-dependent process retarded and finally blocked by the ATP analogue AMP-PNP and high concentrations of Taxol. Colliding cytasters fuse and form larger cytoskeletal nucleation centers. The leech zygote is a highly compartmentalized cell whose cytasters function as articulated components of a very dynamic cytoskeletal system engaged in bulk transportation of organelles during ooplasmic segregation. PMID:11087633

  7. New host and geographical records for the leech Acanthobdella peledina Grube 1851 (Hirudinea, Acanthobdellidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauck, A. K.; Fallon, Michael J.; Burger, Carl V.

    1979-01-01

    A total of four leeches (Acanthobdella peledina), parasitizing four specimens of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella), were found during July and August 1977. The hosts and parasites were collected during a fishery survey by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the North Slope waters of Naval Petroleum Reserve, Alaska. Two host fishes were collected from the Chipp River (70035' latitude, 155012' longitude) and two from an unnamed, landlocked lake (69054' latitude, 153o23' longitude). The Chipp River collection site is about 130 km southeast of Barrow, and the unnamed lake about 200 km southeast of Barrow. The leeches, which were fixed in situ with neutral formalin, appeared to have penetrated the integument and were embedded in subcutaneous tissues and white muscle at the base of the pelvic fins. The specimens were cylindrical and about 23 mm long and 2-3 mm wide. Color before fixation was olive-green. The five anterior segments each had four pairs of hooked setae at the ventral surface. Our identification was based on a description in Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya et al., 1962, Key to parasites of freshwater fish of the USSR (Transl. from Russian), NTIS TT-64-11040.

  8. The European land leech: biology and DNA-based taxonomy of a rare species that is threatened by climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, U.; Pfeiffer, I.; Ebermann, E.

    2007-12-01

    The European land leech Xerobdella lecomtei was discovered in 1868 and is one of the rarest animals on Earth. During the 1960s, several individuals of these approx. 40 mm long, cold-adapted terrestrial annelids that inhabit the moist soils of birch forests around Graz, Austria, were investigated. Only one original research paper has been published on the biology of this species. Between 2001 and 2005, we re-investigated the morphology of preserved specimens and searched for living individuals in their natural habitat that appeared to be intact. We found only one juvenile individual (length approx. 10 mm), indicating that this local leech population became largely extinct over the past four decades. The feeding behaviour of our ‘lonesome George of the annelids’ was studied and is described here in detail. After its death, the Xerobdella individual was used for chemical extraction and molecular studies (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] barcoding, based on one gene, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I). In addition, novel DNA barcodes for a land leech from Madagascar and a recently discovered species from Europe were obtained. Our phylogenetic tree shows that X. lecomtei is not a member of the tropical land leeches (family Haemadipsidae), as previously thought, but represents a separate line of descent (family Xerobdellidae). The decline of the local leech population around Graz correlates with a rise in average summer temperatures of +3°C between 1961 and 2004. This warming led to a drastic reduction in the moisture content of the soil where X. lecomtei lives. We suggest that human-induced climate change without apparent habitat destruction can lead to the extinction of populations of cold-adapted species that have a low colonization ability.

  9. Involvement of nitric oxide through endocannabinoids release in microglia activation during the course of CNS regeneration in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Arafah, Karim; Croix, Dominique; Vizioli, Jacopo; Desmons, Annie; Fournier, Isabelle; Salzet, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The medicinal leech is notable for its capacity to regenerate its central nervous system (CNS) following mechanical trauma. Using an electrochemical nitric oxide (NO)-selective electrode to measure NO levels, we found that the time course of NO release in the injured leech CNS is partially under the control of endocannabinoids, namely, N-arachidonyl ethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG). Relative quantification of these endocannabinoids was performed by stable isotope dilution (2AGd8 and AAEd8) coupled to mass spectrometry in course of regeneration process or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) treatment. Data show that 2-AG levels rose to a maximum about 30 min after injury or ATP treatment, and returned to baseline levels 4 h after injury. In same conditions, AEA levels also rapidly (within 5 min) dropped after injury or ATP treatment to the nerve cord, but did not fully return to baseline levels within 4 h of injury. In correlation with these data, chemoattraction activities of endocannabinoids on isolated leech microglial cells have been shown in vitro and in vivo reflecting that control over NO production is accompanied by the controlled chemoattraction of microglia directed from the periphery to the lesion site for neuronal repair purposes. Taken together, our results show that in the leech, after injury concurrent with ATP production, purinergic receptor activation, NO production, microglia recruitment, and accumulation to lesion site, a fine imbalance occurs in the endocannabinoid system. These events can bring explanations about the ability of the leech CNS to regenerate after a trauma and the key role of endocannabinoids in this phenomenon. PMID:23355252

  10. Novel genotypes of Trypanosoma binneyi from wild platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and identification of a leech as a potential vector.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Macgregor, James; Irwin, Peter J; Warren, Kristin; Ryan, Una M

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and pathogenesis of trypanosomes in Australian monotremes, and few genetic characterisation studies have been conducted with these haemoparasites. During the present investigation, molecular and microscopic methods were used to screen peripheral blood (n=28) and ectoparasites (n=10 adult ticks; n=5 tick nymphs; n=1 leech; and n>500 tick eggs) collected from wild Tasmanian platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), for the presence of trypanosomatid-specific DNA and/or trypomastigotes. The genes for the small ribosomal subunit RNA (18S rDNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) were amplified and sequenced, prior to conducting phylogenetic analyses. The detection rate of the parasite-specific 18S rDNA in platypus blood was 85.7% (n=24/28), and the leech was also positive at both loci. Microscopically, high parasitaemia and the presence of abundant trypomastigotes, morphologically consistent with Trypanosoma binneyi Mackerras (1959), were observed in the blood films. Phylogenetic analyses at the 18S locus revealed the existence of four trypanosomatid-like genotypes, with variable similarity to two previously-described genotypes of T. binneyi (range of genetic p-distance: 0.0-0.5%). For the gGAPDH locus, for which only one T. binneyi sequence is available in GenBank, three genotypes closely related T. binneyi were identified (range of genetic p-distance: 0.1-0.4%). The leech-derived trypanosome isolate was virtually identical (at the two loci studied) to the other parasites sequenced from infected platypuses; however, the molecular or morphological identification of the leech species was not possible. Although further studies are required, the molecular detection of trypanosomes in an aquatic leech removed from a platypus, suggests the possibility that these haematophagous hirudineans may be a vector for T. binneyi (and closely related genotypes). PMID:25045852

  11. OA01.40. A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of leech therapy and panchatikta ghrita in the management of psoriasis)

    PubMed Central

    Gond, Pushpa; Rani, Rekha; Shringi, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Modern medical science treats psoriasis with PUVA, corticosteroid, anti-mitotic drugs which gives serious side effects like liver and kindney failure etc. There is a need to discover safe and effective medicine without any side effects for Psoriasis and the role of Leech Therapy (Shodhan) and Panchatikta Ghrita (Shaman Karma) is evaluated in this study. Method: 30 patients were included who matched the clinical signs and symptoms of psoriasis. These patients were randomised into three groups. Group A Only on leech therapy, Group B-Only on panchatikta ghrita and Group C On both leech therapy and panchatikta ghrita Result: Group A showed 45% improvement and group B showed 47% improvement, while group C reported 65% improvement. Conclusion: It can be concluded that shodan(leech application) along with shaman (panchatikta ghrita) is effective in the management of psoriasis as it is safe, cost effective and free from any side effects.

  12. Isolation and structural characterization of enkephalins in the brain of the rhynchobdellid leech Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Bulet, P; Verger-Bocquet, M; Malecha, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the purification of four peptides related to enkephalins from the brain of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. After reverse-phase HPLC purification, the sequence of the enkephalins (YGGFM, YGGFL, FM, FL) was established by a combination of automated Edman degradation, electrospray mass spectrometry measurement, and co-elution experiments in reverse-phase HPLC with synthetic peptides. ELISA titrations performed on each purified peptide indicated that the major amount was borne by the leucine-enkephalin. The ratio of leucine-enkephalin and methionine-enkephalin of 2:1 is in line with previous immunocytochemical data obtained on T. tessulatum brains. The presence of enkephalins in T. tessulatum, an animal belonging to the oldest group of coelomate metazoans (the Annelida) establishes the very ancient phylogenetic origin of opioids and their conservation in the course of evolution.

  13. Isolation of a renin-like enzyme from the leech Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Laurent, V; Salzet, M

    1995-01-01

    This article reports the purification of a renin-like enzyme (an aspartyl protease) from head parts of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. After four steps of purification including gel permeation and anion exchange chromatographies followed by reversed-phase HPLC, this enzyme was purified to homogeneity. The renin-like enzyme (of 32 kDa) hydrolyses at neutral pH and at 37 degrees C, the Leu10-Leu11 bond of synthetic porcine angiotensinogen tetradecapeptide yielding the angiotensin I and the Leu11-Val12-Tyr13-Ser14 peptide as products, with a specific activity of 1.35 pmol AI/min/mg (Km 22 microM; Kcat 2.7). The hydrolysis of angiotensinogen is inhibitable at 90% by pepstatin A (IC50 = 4.6 microM), consistent with a renin activity. This is the first biochemical evidence of renin-like enzyme in invertebrates.

  14. Isolation of a neuropeptide-degrading endopeptidase from the leech Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Laurent, V; Salzet, M

    1995-10-01

    Extracts of head parts prepared from the leech Theromyzon tessulatum hydrolyse the Gly3-Phe4 bond of synthetic [D-Ala2, Leu5]enkephalin and the Gly-His bond of benzoyl-Gly-His-Leu. The metabolism of benzoyl-Gly-His-Leu was completely inhibited by captopril, consistent with an angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. Such an enzyme has recently been isolated from T. tessulatum. However, the enkephalin hydrolysis by captopril (100 microM) was inhibited to a maximum of 70%. The residual activity hydrolyzing enkephalin was inhibited by phosphoramidon, consistent with the presence of endopeptidase-24.11, a mammalian enzyme implicated in the metabolism of neuropeptides. This enzyme was isolated using four steps of purification including gel-permeation and anion-exchange chromatographies followed by reverse-phase HPLC. This neuropeptide endopeptidase (of approximate molecular mass 45 kDa) hydrolyses, at pH 7 and 37 degrees C, both the Gly3-Phe4 bond of synthetic [D-Ala2, Leu5]enkephalin and the Phe8-His9 bond of angiotensin I. Cleavage of [D-Ala2, Leu5]enkephalin yields, respectively, the Tyr-D-Ala-Gly and Phe-Leu peptides with a specific activity of 29 nmol Tyr-D-Ala-Gly.min-1.mg protein-1 (Km 95 microM). The hydrolysis of angiotensin I yields angiotensin II and the dipeptide His-Leu with a specific activity of 1.2 nmol angiotensin min-1.mg protein-1 (Km 330 microM). The metabolism of these peptides was totally inhibited by phosphoramidon. This study therefore provides biochemical evidence for neuropeptide-degrading endopeptidases in leeches.

  15. Leech segmental repeats develop normally in the absence of signals from either anterior or posterior segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaver, E. C.; Shankland, M.

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated whether the development of segmental repeats is autonomous in the embryo of the leech Helobdella robusta. The segmental tissues of the germinal band arise from progeny of five stem cells called teloblasts. Asymmetric divisions of the teloblasts form chains of segment founder cells (called primary blast cells) that divide in a stereotypical manner to produce differentiated descendants. Using two distinct techniques, we have looked for potential interactions between neighboring blast cell clones along the anterior-posterior axis. In one technique, we prevented the birth of primary blast cells by injection of DNase I into the teloblast, thereby depriving the last blast cell produced before the ablation of its normal posterior neighbors. We also ablated single blast cells with a laser microbeam, which allowed us to assess potential signals acting on either more anterior or more posterior primary blast cell clones. Our results suggest that interactions along the anterior-posterior axis between neighboring primary blast cell clones are not required for development of normal segmental organization within the blast cell clone. We also examined the possibility that blast cells receive redundant signals from both anterior and posterior neighboring clones and that either is sufficient for normal development. Using double blast cell laser ablations to isolate a primary blast cell clone by removal of both its anterior and its posterior neighbor, we found that the isolated clone still develops normally. These results reveal that the fundamental segmental repeat in the leech embryo, the primary blast cell clone, can develop normally in the apparent absence of signals from adjacent repeats along the anterior-posterior axis.

  16. Initial formation and secondary condensation of nerve pathways in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Jellies, J; Kopp, D M; Johansen, K M; Johansen, J

    1996-09-01

    Invertebrates have proved to be important experimental systems for examining questions related to growth cone navigation and nerve formation, in large part because of their simpler nervous systems. However, such apparent simplicity can be deceiving because the final stereotyped patterns may be the result of multiple developmental mechanisms and not necessarily the sole consequence of the pathway choices of individual growth cones. We have examined the normal sequence of events that are involved in the formation of the major peripheral nerves in leech embryos by employing (1) an antibody directed against acetylated tubulin to label neurons growing out from the central nervous system, (2) the Lan3-2 antibody to label a specific population of peripheral neurons growing into the central nervous system, and (3) intracellular dye filling of single cells. We found that the mature pattern of nerves was characterized by a pair of large nerve roots, each of which branched into two major tracts. The earliest axonal projections did not, however, establish this pattern definitively. Rather, each of the four nerves initially formed as discrete, roughly parallel tracts without bifurcation, with the final branching pattern of the nerve roots being generated by a secondary condensation. In addition, we found that some of the nerves were pioneered in different ways and by different groups of neurons. One of the nerves was established by central neurons growing peripherally, another by peripheral neurons growing centrally. These results suggest that the formation of common nerves and neuronal pathfinding in the leech involves multiple sets of growth cone guidance strategies and morphogenetic mechanisms that belie its apparent simplicity. PMID:8876458

  17. The use of medicinal leeches in fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis - case report of a 4-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Streit, L; Dvořák, Z; Novák, O; Stiborová, S; Veselý, J

    2014-01-01

    Replantation of amputated fingertip is a technical challenge to the microsurgeons. The success rate depends directly on the availability and the size of preserved vessels and on the degree of their damage. In distal digital amputations, veins are usually not easily recovered or even absent, and thus high number of replantation procedures fails because of the venous congestion. The use of medicinal leeches is a treatment option for venous congestion of replanted fingers. A case report of a 4-year-old patient after fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis when temporary venous drainage was provided by an application of medicinal leeches is reported together with literature review. We observed an unusually short duration of venous congestion (48 hours) and there was no need of blood transfusion.

  18. THE GENUS VEILLONELLA I.

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, M.

    1964-01-01

    Rogosa, M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.). The genus Veillonella. I. General cultural, ecological, and biochemical considerations. J. Bacteriol. 87:162–170. 1964.—Arguments are presented for excluding Veillonella discoides, V. reniformis, V. orbiculus, and V. vulvovaginitidis from the genus, and for restricting it to aerogenic organisms such as V. parvula and V. alcalescens. The genus Veillonella thus would comprise species which are anaerobic and nonmotile; are small, spherical, gram-negative cocci appearing as pairs, masses, and short chains; and are cytochrome-oxidase- and benzidine-negative. Veillonella would be further characterized in that glucose or any other carbohydrate is not fermented; indole is not produced; gelatin is not liquefied; nitrate is reduced; H2S is produced; propionic and acetic acids, CO2, and H2 are produced from lactate during growth; and pyruvic, oxaloacetic, malic, fumaric, and succinic acids are metabolized by resting cells, but citric, isocitric, and malonic acids are not. In addition to the above, a number of cultural, ecological, and biochemical characteristics are described. At present, V. parvula (the type species) and V. alcalescens would be retained as valid species. Errors in the descriptions of V. parvula and V. alcalescens are corrected by amended statements. These species are differentiated serologically. Also, V. alcalescens differs from V. parvula in having an absolute requirement for putrescine or cadaverine and in decomposing H2O2. PMID:14102850

  19. A new species of marine leech (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) from giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus Girard, in southern California.

    PubMed

    Burreson, Eugene M; Passarelli, Julianne Kalman; Kim, Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Collections of giant kelpfish at inner Cabrillo Beach, San Pedro, California revealed the presence of an undescribed species of Heptacyclus, described here as Heptacyclus cabrilloi n. sp. The leech is small, only up to 14 mm total length including suckers; it has 2 pair of slightly crescentiform eyes on the oral sucker, 1 pair of punctiform ocelli on the second annulus of the trachelosome, 13 pairs of punctiform ocelli dorsally and ventrally on the urosome, and 14 marginal punctiform ocelli on the caudal sucker. Pigmentation is yellowish-tan with an unpigmented mid-dorsal stripe on both trachelosome and urosome, and with unpigmented halos around eyespots and urosome ocelli. Male reproductive system with 5 pairs of large, spherical testisacs. Mycetomes present, accessory gland cells on atrial cornu absent. Prevalence was 24.1% in June, 2011 with a range of 1-2 leeches per fish and 25.8% in October, 2011 with a range of 1-6 leeches per fish. PMID:22401824

  20. Physiological and behavioral evidence of a capsaicin-sensitive TRPV-like channel in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Summers, Torrie; Holec, Sara; Burrell, Brian D

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are found throughout the animal kingdom, where they play an important role in sensory transduction. In this study, we combined physiological studies with in vivo behavioral experiments to examine the presence of a putative TRPV-like receptor in the medicinal leech, building upon earlier studies in this lophotrochozoan invertebrate. The leech polymodal nociceptive neuron was activated by both peripheral and central application of the TRPV1-activator capsaicin in a concentration-dependent manner, with 100 μmol l(-1) being the lowest effective concentration. Responses to capsaicin were inhibited by the selective TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. The polymodal nociceptive neuron also responded to noxious thermal stimuli (>40°C), and this response was also blocked by SB366791. Capsaicin sensitivity was selective to the polymodal nociceptor with no direct response being elicited in the mechanical nociceptive neuron or in the non-nociceptive touch- or pressure-sensitive neurons. Capsaicin also elicited nocifensive behavioral responses (withdrawals and locomotion) in a concentration-dependent manner, and these behavioral responses were significantly attenuated with SB366791. These results suggest the presence of a capsaicin-sensitive TRPV-like channel in the medicinal leech central nervous system and are relevant to the evolution of nociceptive signaling.

  1. The influence of agricultural and urban contamination on leech infestation of freshwater turtles, Phrynops geoffroanus, taken from two areas of the Uberabinha River.

    PubMed

    De Campos Brites, Vera Lucia; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu

    2004-01-01

    Infestation by leeches on adult freshwater turtles Phrynops geoffroanus in two areas of the Uberabinha River, in Uberlândia, was investigated during the summer (January 2000). Fifty eight turtles were trapped: 26 (12 males, 14 females) in an agricultural area and 32 (16 males, 16 females) in an area with a more urban environment. The females present larger length and body mass (291.77+/-29.18 mm; 2233.30+/-511.40 g) than males (259.71+/-33.15 mm; 1488.68+/-529.35 g). Blood samples were drawn from the retrorbital sinus using heparinized micro-hematocrit capillary tubes, for microscopic and direct examination for intracellular parasites. Ectoparasitism by leeches, Placobdella bistriata, on young and adult animals was observed in the limb cavities of 28.1% of the urban area turtles. No leeches were found on the turtles in the agricultural area. Hemogregarine erythrocytic gametocytes were found in 15.4% of the agricultural area turtles, and in 37.5% of the urban area turtles. Concurrent parasitism by leeches and hemogregarines on the same individuals was seen on six turtles. Infections with microorganisms (bacteria and fungus) facilitated by the bites of leeches were not observed in another study on the same sample of infested turtles. However, 19% of the turtles collected in the agricultural area and 15% of the turtles from the urban area presented normocytic acute anemia. The occupation of the soil apparently interfered in the aquatic ecosystem favoring parasitism in the urban area. PMID:15327164

  2. The Ozobranchus leech as a mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpes virus found latently infecting skin tumors on Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenblatt, R.J.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.; Sutton, C.A.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. A fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. DNA from an array of parasites of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for FPTHV. Marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral DNA loads; some samples approached 10 million copies per leech. Isopycnic sucrose density gradient/qPCR analysis confirmed that some of these copies were associated with particles of the density of enveloped viruses. The data implicate the marine leech Ozobranchus as a mechanical vector for FPTHV. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FPTHV gene expression indicated that most of the FPTHV copies in a fibropapilloma have restricted DNA polymerase expression, suggestive of latent infection.

  3. Biochemical evidence of specific trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors in the rhynchobdellid leech, Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Chopin, V; Stefano, G; Salzet, M

    2000-01-01

    The presence of two specific trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors from head parts of the rhynchobdellid leech Theromyzon tessulatum is reported. Two proteins, anti-trypsin chymotrypsin A (ATCA; 14636.6 +/- 131 Da) and anti-trypsin-chymotrypsin B (ATCB; 14368 +/- 95 Da) were purified by size exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography followed by reversed-phase HPLC. Based on amino-acid composition, N-terminal sequence determination (MELCELGQSCSRD-NPQPSNM), matrix assisted laser desorption-time of flight measurement (MALDI-TOF), trypsin mapping comparison, inhibition constant determination (Ki), and influence on amidolytic activity of different serine proteases, it is demonstrated that ATCA and ATCB are novel and highly potent serine-protease inhibitors of trypsin and chymotrypsin (ATCA: 350fM towards trypsin and chymotrypsin; ATCB: 400 and 75 fM towards trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively). It is further surmised that ATCA and ATCB are linked, in that ATCB would lead to the formation of ATCA after loss of few amino acid residues.

  4. Nitridergic platelet pathway activation by hementerin, a metalloprotease from the leech Haementeria depressa.

    PubMed

    Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M; Bermej, Emilse; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Faria, Fernanda; Sarmiento, María I Keller; Alberto, Fabiana; Sampaio, Misako U; Lazzari, María A

    2003-09-01

    Hementerin (HT) is an 80 kDa fibrino(geno)lytic metalloprotease, purified from saliva of the leech Haementeria depressa. In the present report, the effect of HT on several functional parameters of human platelets was assessed. HT inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release induced by different agonists such as ADP, adrenaline, collagen, thrombin, and arachidonic acid. HT did neither modify the expression of platelet glycoproteins (Ib, IIb-IIIa, Ia-IIa, IV) nor intraplatelet fibrinogen levels, whereas it markedly decreased CD62P and CD63 levels after the stimulation with thrombin. HT significantly increased thrombin-induced platelet Ca2+ intracellular levels, cGMP content and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. The effect of HT on platelet aggregation was reversed by two NOS inhibitors, N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and 2 N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine. In summary, these results indicate that HT is an effective inhibitor of human platelet aggregation, presumably through activation of the platelet's nitridergic pathway.

  5. Seasonal variation of long-term potentiation at a central synapse in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Grey, Kathryn B; Burrell, Brian D

    2011-08-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent increase in synaptic transmission that is thought to contribute to a variety of adaptive processes including learning and memory. Although learning is known to undergo circannual variations, it is not known whether LTP undergoes similar changes despite the importance of LTP in learning and memory. Here we report that synapses in the CNS of the medicinal leech demonstrate seasonal variation in the capacity to undergo LTP following paired presynaptic and postsynaptic stimulation. LTP was observed during the April-October period, but no LTP was observed during the November-March period. Application of forskolin, a technique often used to produce chemical LTP, failed to elicit potentiation during the November-March period. Implementing stimulation patterns that normally result in long term depression (LTD) also failed to elicit any change in synaptic strength during the November-March period. These experiments indicate that LTP and LTD can be influenced by circannual rhythms and also suggest a seasonal influence on learning and memory.

  6. Riluzole suppresses postinhibitory rebound in an excitatory motor neuron of the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Angstadt, James D; Simone, Amanda M

    2014-08-01

    Postinhibitory rebound (PIR) is an intrinsic property often exhibited by neurons involved in generating rhythmic motor behaviors. Cell DE-3, a dorsal excitatory motor neuron in the medicinal leech exhibits PIR responses that persist for several seconds following the offset of hyperpolarizing stimuli and are suppressed in reduced Na(+) solutions or by Ca(2+) channel blockers. The long duration and Na(+) dependence of PIR suggest a possible role for persistent Na(+) current (I NaP). In vertebrate neurons, the neuroprotective agent riluzole can produce a selective block of I NaP. This study demonstrates that riluzole inhibits cell DE-3 PIR in a concentration- and Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In 1.8 mM Ca(2+) solution, 50-100 µM riluzole selectively blocked the late phase of PIR, an effect similar to that of the neuromodulator serotonin. However, 200 µM riluzole blocked both the early and late phases of PIR. Increasing extracellular Ca(2+) to 10 mM strengthened PIR, but high riluzole concentrations continued to suppress both phases of PIR. These results indicate that riluzole may suppress PIR via a nonspecific inhibition of Ca(2+) conductances and suggest that a Ca(2+)-activated nonspecific current (I(CAN)), rather than I NaP, may underlie the Na(+)-dependent component of PIR.

  7. A Tale of Transmission: Aeromonas veronii Activity within Leech-Exuded Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brittany M.; Dacks, Andrew M.; Ryan, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Transmission, critical to the establishment and persistence of host-associated microbiotas, also exposes symbionts to new environmental conditions. With horizontal transmission, these different conditions represent major lifestyle shifts. Yet genome-wide analyses of how microbes adjust their transcriptomes toward these dramatic shifts remain understudied. Here, we provide a comprehensive and comparative analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of a symbiont as it shifts between lifestyles during transmission. The gammaproteobacterium Aeromonas veronii is transmitted from the gut of the medicinal leech to other hosts via host mucosal castings, yet A. veronii can also transition from mucosal habitancy to a free-living lifestyle. These three lifestyles are characterized by distinct physiological constraints and consequently lifestyle-specific changes in the expression of stress-response genes. Mucus-bound A. veronii had the greatest expression in terms of both the number of loci and levels of transcription of stress-response mechanisms. However, these bacteria are still capable of proliferating within the mucus, suggesting the availability of nutrients within this environment. We found that A. veronii alters transcription of loci in a synthetic pathway that obtains and incorporates N-acetylglucosamine (NAG; a major component of mucus) into the bacterial cell wall, enabling proliferation. Our results demonstrate that symbionts undergo dramatic local adaptation, demonstrated by widespread transcriptional changes, throughout the process of transmission that allows them to thrive while they encounter new environments which further shape their ecology and evolution. PMID:26896136

  8. Generation of recombinant destabilase-lysozyme from medicinal leeches in three different expression systems.

    PubMed

    Manuvera, Valentin A; Kurdyumov, Alexey S; Filonova, Kseniya A; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-12-01

    Destabilase-lysozyme (mlDL) is an enzyme secreted by the salivary gland cells of medicinal leeches. Destabilase-lysozyme possesses lysozyme and isopeptidase activities. We generated recombinant destabilase-lysozyme isoform 2 in three expression systems, i.e., in the bacteria Escherichia coli, in the yeast Pichia pastoris, and in the human cell line Expi293F. In E. coli, we generated both polypeptide in inclusion bodies that was later undergone to the refolding and soluble protein that had been fused with the chaperone SlyD. The chaperone was later cleaved by a specific TEV-protease. In cultures of the yeast P. pastoris and the human cell line Expi293F, the soluble form of destabilase-lysozyme was accumulated in the culture media. For the generated enzymes, we determined the lysozyme, isopeptidase and fibrinolytic activities and tested their general antimicrobial effects. The comparisons of the enzymes generated in the different expression systems revealed that all of the destabilase-lysozymes obtained in the soluble forms possessed equal levels of lysozyme, isopeptidase and fibrinolytic activities that exceeded several to ten times the levels of the same activities of the destabilase-lysozyme renaturated from the inclusion bodies. A similar pattern of the differences in the levels of the general antimicrobial effects was observed for the destabilase-lysozymes generated in the soluble form and as inclusion bodies.

  9. Seasonal variation of long-term potentiation at a central synapse in the medicinal leech

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Kathryn B.; Burrell, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent increase in synaptic transmission that is thought to contribute to a variety of adaptive processes including learning and memory. Although learning is known to undergo circannual variations, it is not known whether LTP undergoes similar changes despite the importance of LTP in learning and memory. Here we report that synapses in the CNS of the medicinal leech demonstrate seasonal variation in the capacity to undergo LTP following paired presynaptic and postsynaptic stimulation. LTP was observed during the April–October period, but no LTP was observed during the November–March period. Application of forskolin, a technique often used to produce chemical LTP, failed to elicit potentiation during the November–March period. Implementing stimulation patterns that normally result in long term depression (LTD) also failed to elicit any change in synaptic strength during the November–March period. These experiments indicate that LTP and LTD can be influenced by circannual rhythms and also suggest a seasonal influence on learning and memory. PMID:21753047

  10. Asymmetric cell divisions in the early embryo of the leech Helobdella robusta.

    PubMed

    Weisblat, David A

    2007-01-01

    The small glossiphoniid leech Helobdella robusta is among the best-studied representatives of the super-phylum Lophotrochozoa in terms of early development. The Helobdella embryo undergoes a modified version of spiral cleavage, characterized by stereotyped cell lineages comprising multiple examples of equal and unequal divisions, many of which are well-conserved with respect to those of other clitellate annelids, such as the oligochaete Tubifex. Here, we review the early development of Helobdella, focusing on the variety of unequal cell divisions. We then summarize an experimental analysis of the mechanisms underlying the unequal first cleavage in Helobdella, concluding that the unequal first cleavages in Helobdella and Tubifex proceed by different mechanisms. This result demonstrates the evolvability of the basic cell biological mechanisms underlying well-conserved developmental processes. Finally, we propose a model in which the unequal second cleavage in Helobdella may be regulated by the polarized distribution of PAR protein homologs, convergent with the unequal first cleavage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (super-phylum Ecdysozoa).

  11. Multivariable harmonic balance analysis of the neuronal oscillator for leech swimming.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyong; Zheng, Min; Friesen, W Otto; Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    2008-12-01

    Biological systems, and particularly neuronal circuits, embody a very high level of complexity. Mathematical modeling is therefore essential for understanding how large sets of neurons with complex multiple interconnections work as a functional system. With the increase in computing power, it is now possible to numerically integrate a model with many variables to simulate behavior. However, such analysis can be time-consuming and may not reveal the mechanisms underlying the observed phenomena. An alternative, complementary approach is mathematical analysis, which can demonstrate direct and explicit relationships between a property of interest and system parameters. This paper introduces a mathematical tool for analyzing neuronal oscillator circuits based on multivariable harmonic balance (MHB). The tool is applied to a model of the central pattern generator (CPG) for leech swimming, which comprises a chain of weakly coupled segmental oscillators. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the MHB method and provide analytical explanations for some CPG properties. In particular, the intersegmental phase lag is estimated to be the sum of a nominal value and a perturbation, where the former depends on the structure and span of the neuronal connections and the latter is roughly proportional to the period gradient, communication delay, and the reciprocal of the intersegmental coupling strength. PMID:18663565

  12. Metabolism of enkephalins in head membranes of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum by peptidases: isolation of an enkephalin-degrading aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Laurent, V; Salzet, M

    1996-09-01

    Metabolism of leucine and methionine enkephalins by enzyme preparations from head parts of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum was investigated. Leech homogenate degraded enkephalins by cleavage of the Tyr1-Gly2 and Gly3-Phe4 bonds. The Tyr1-Gly2-Gly3 was detected as a major metabolite when amastatin (aminopeptidase inhibitor) was present to prevent Tyr1-Gly2 breakdown. Around 50% of enkephalin-degrading activity was isolated in a 20000 x g membrane fraction and was shown to be almost entirely due to an aminopeptidase activity. This enzyme, a homodimer of approx. 70 kDa, has been purified to homogeneity by a combined approach including gel permeation and anion exchange chromatographies followed by reversed-phase HPLC. This enkephalin-degrading aminopeptidase is a typical integral membrane 'zincin' metalloprotein with an apparent k(m) of 30 microM, a specific activity of 12 nmol GGFM min-1 mg protein-1 and a catalytic efficiency (kcat/k(m)) of 46 x 10(6) mol-1 min-1. This enzyme is specifically inhibited by amastatin (IC50 = 0.5 microM), but not by bestatin and actinonin. In leech membranes, the other degrading activities performed at the same time were due to a neuropeptide-endopeptidase (NEP)-like enzyme attack, inhibited by phosphoramidon (IC50 = 0.1 microM) and in the case of the Met-enkephalin by a combined action of an angiotensin-converting-like enzyme, inhibited by captopril (IC50 = 0.2 microM) and the NEP-like enzyme. These two enzymes were previously isolated from head membranes of T. tessulatum and possess towards Met-enkephalin a catalytic efficiency (kcat/k(m)) of, respectively, 12 x 10(6) mol-1 min-1 and 78 x 10(6) mol-1 min-1. These findings constitute the first report in leeches on the nature and the sites of attack of the membrane peptidases involved in the metabolism of enkephalins and also the first biochemical evidence for a novel member of the aminopeptidase family.

  13. Hm-MyD88 and Hm-SARM: two key regulators of the neuroimmune system and neural repair in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Rodet, F; Tasiemski, A; Boidin-Wichlacz, C; Van Camp, C; Vuillaume, C; Slomianny, C; Salzet, M

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the CNS of the medicinal leech can regenerate damaged neurites, thus restoring neural functions after lesion. We previously demonstrated that the injured leech nerve cord is able to mount an immune response promoting the regenerative processes. Indeed neurons and microglia express sensing receptors like Hm-TLR1, a leech TLR ortholog, associated with chemokine release in response to a septic challenge or lesion. To gain insights into the TLR signaling pathways involved during these neuroimmune responses, members of the MyD88 family were investigated. In the present study, we report the characterization of Hm-MyD88 and Hm-SARM. The expression of their encoding gene was strongly regulated in leech CNS not only upon immune challenge but also during CNS repair, suggesting their involvement in both processes. This work also showed for the first time that differentiated neurons of the CNS could respond to LPS through a MyD88-dependent signalling pathway, while in mammals, studies describing the direct effect of LPS on neurons and the outcomes of such treatment are scarce and controversial. In the present study, we established that this PAMP induced the relocalization of Hm-MyD88 in isolated neurons. PMID:25880897

  14. Microbial challenge promotes the regenerative process of the injured central nervous system of the medicinal leech by inducing the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in neurons and microglia.

    PubMed

    Schikorski, David; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Leippe, Matthias; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Slomianny, Christian; Macagno, Eduardo; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2008-07-15

    Following trauma, the CNS of the medicinal leech, unlike the mammalian CNS, has a strong capacity to regenerate neurites and synaptic connections that restore normal function. In this study, we show that this regenerative process is enhanced by a controlled bacterial infection, suggesting that induction of regeneration of normal CNS function may depend critically upon the coinitiation of an immune response. We explore the interaction between the activation of a neuroimmune response and the process of regeneration by assaying the potential roles of two newly characterized antimicrobial peptides. Our data provide evidence that microbial components differentially induce the transcription, by microglial cells, of both antimicrobial peptide genes, the products of which accumulate rapidly at sites in the CNS undergoing regeneration following axotomy. Using a preparation of leech CNS depleted of microglial cells, we also demonstrate the production of antimicrobial peptides by neurons. Interestingly, in addition to exerting antibacterial properties, both peptides act as promoters of the regenerative process of axotomized leech CNS. These data are the first to report the neuronal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and their participation in the immune response and the regeneration of the CNS. Thus, the leech CNS appears as an excellent model for studying the implication of immune molecules in neural repair. PMID:18606660

  15. Hm-MyD88 and Hm-SARM: Two key regulators of the neuroimmune system and neural repair in the medicinal leech

    PubMed Central

    Rodet, F.; Tasiemski, A.; Boidin-Wichlacz, C.; Van Camp, C.; Vuillaume, C.; Slomianny, C.; Salzet, M.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the CNS of the medicinal leech can regenerate damaged neurites, thus restoring neural functions after lesion. We previously demonstrated that the injured leech nerve cord is able to mount an immune response promoting the regenerative processes. Indeed neurons and microglia express sensing receptors like Hm-TLR1, a leech TLR ortholog, associated with chemokine release in response to a septic challenge or lesion. To gain insights into the TLR signaling pathways involved during these neuroimmune responses, members of the MyD88 family were investigated. In the present study, we report the characterization of Hm-MyD88 and Hm-SARM. The expression of their encoding gene was strongly regulated in leech CNS not only upon immune challenge but also during CNS repair, suggesting their involvement in both processes. This work also showed for the first time that differentiated neurons of the CNS could respond to LPS through a MyD88-dependent signalling pathway, while in mammals, studies describing the direct effect of LPS on neurons and the outcomes of such treatment are scarce and controversial. In the present study, we established that this PAMP induced the relocalization of Hm-MyD88 in isolated neurons. PMID:25880897

  16. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  17. Abelian duality at higher genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Chris

    2014-07-01

    In three dimensions, a free, periodic scalar field is related by duality to an abelian gauge field. Here I explore aspects of this duality when both theories are quantized on a Riemann surface of genus g. At higher genus, duality involves an identification of winding with momentum on the Jacobian variety of the Riemann surface. I also consider duality for monopole and loop operators on the surface and exhibit the operator algebra, a refinement of the Wilson-'t Hooft algebra.

  18. Deciphering the Structural Basis That Guides the Oxidative Folding of Leech-derived Tryptase Inhibitor*

    PubMed Central

    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Arolas, Joan L.; Aviles, Francesc X.; Santoro, Jorge; Ventura, Salvador; Sommerhoff, Christian P.

    2009-01-01

    Protein folding mechanisms have remained elusive mainly because of the transient nature of intermediates. Leech-derived tryptase inhibitor (LDTI) is a Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor that is emerging as an attractive model for folding studies. It comprises 46 amino acid residues with three disulfide bonds, with one located inside a small triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and with two involved in a cystine-stabilized α-helix, a motif that is widely distributed in bioactive peptides. Here, we analyzed the oxidative folding and reductive unfolding of LDTI by chromatographic and disulfide analyses of acid-trapped intermediates. It folds and unfolds, respectively, via sequential oxidation and reduction of the cysteine residues that give rise to a few 1- and 2-disulfide intermediates. Species containing two native disulfide bonds predominate during LDTI folding (IIa and IIc) and unfolding (IIa and IIb). Stop/go folding experiments demonstrate that only intermediate IIa is productive and oxidizes directly into the native form. The NMR structures of acid-trapped and further isolated IIa, IIb, and IIc reveal global folds similar to that of the native protein, including a native-like canonical inhibitory loop. Enzyme kinetics shows that both IIa and IIc are inhibitory-active, which may substantially reduce proteolysis of LDTI during its folding process. The results reported show that the kinetics of the folding reaction is modulated by the specific structural properties of the intermediates and together provide insights into the interdependence of conformational folding and the assembly of native disulfides during oxidative folding. PMID:19820233

  19. Structural characterization of a diuretic peptide from the central nervous system of the leech Erpobdella octoculata. Angiotensin II Amide.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Bulet, P; Wattez, C; Verger-Bocquet, M; Malecha, J

    1995-01-27

    Purification of a material immunoreactive to an antiserum against angiotensin II and present in the central nervous system of the pharyngobdellid leech Erpobdella octoculata was performed by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography combined with both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dot immunobinding assays for angiotensin II. Establishment of the amino acid sequence by Edman degradation, electrospray, and fast atom bombardement mass spectrometry measurements and enzymatic treatment by carboxypeptidase A indicated that this "central" angiotensin II-like material, the first one fully characterized in the animal kingdom, is an angiotensin II amide. This finding constitutes also the first biochemical characterization of a peptide of the angiotensin family in an invertebrate. Synthetic angiotensin II amide exerts, when injected in leeches, a diuretic effect and is, 1 and 2 h postinjection, 100-fold more potent than vertebrate angiotensin II. An identification of the proteins immunoreactive to an antiserum against angiotensin II performed at the level of both central nervous system extracts and in vitro central nervous system-translated RNA products indicated that in the two cases, two proteins were detected. Their molecular masses, which were, respectively, approximately 14 and approximately 18 kDa for the central nervous system extracts and approximately 15 and approximately 19 kDa for in vitro central nervous system-translated RNA products, differ from that of angiotensinogen (approximately 60 kDa), the precursor of vertebrate angiotensin II.

  20. Biochemical evidence of angiotensin II-like peptides and proteins in the brain of the rhynchobdellid leech Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Wattez, C; Baert, J L; Malecha, J

    1993-12-24

    The peptides contained in neurons localized in the brain of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum (Hirudinae, Rhynchobdellida) and showing an immunopositive reaction with an antibody directed against angiotensin II (AII), were purified by reversed-phase HPLC. Three AII-like peptides (P1, P2 and P3) which exhibited the same retention times and chromatographic behaviors as synthetic AVII (fragment 6-8 of AII), AIV (fragment 3-8 of AII) and AII, respectively, were resolved in brain extracts. An identification of the proteins immunoreactive to an anti-AII was performed at the level of both brain extracts and in vitro brain-translated RNA products. The protein detected at the level of the brain extracts (of a molecular mass of approximately 18 kDa) is multipeptidic as it is also recognized by two other antisera, a polyclonal one directed against gamma-MSH and a monoclonal one (Tt159) raised against a leech brain epitope. It could be the pro-AII-like precursor. The protein detected at the level of in vitro brain-translated RNA products (of a molecular mass of approximately 19 kDa) could be the prepro-AII-like precursor.

  1. Heartbeat control in the medicinal leech: a model system for understanding the origin, coordination, and modulation of rhythmic motor patterns.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, R L; Nadim, F; Olsen, O H

    1995-07-01

    We have analyzed in detail the neuronal network that generates heartbeat in the leech. Reciprocally inhibitory pairs of heart interneurons form oscillators that pace the heartbeat rhythm. Other heart interneurons coordinate these oscillators. These coordinating interneurons, along with the oscillators interneurons, form an eight-cell timing oscillator network for heartbeat. Still other interneurons, along with the oscillator interneurons, inhibit heart motor neurons, sculpting their activity into rhythmic bursts. Critical switch interneurons interface between the oscillator interneurons and the other premotor interneurons to produce two alternating coordination states of the motor neurons. The periods of the oscillator interneurons are modulated by endogenous RFamide neuropeptides. We have explored the ionic currents and graded and spike-mediated synaptic transmission that promote oscillation in the oscillator interneurons and have incorporated these data into a conductance-based computer model. This model has been of considerable predictive value and has led to new insights into how reciprocally inhibitory neurons produce oscillation. We are now in a strong position to expand this model upward, to encompass the entire heartbeat network, horizontally, to elucidate the mechanisms of FMRFamide modulation, and downward, to incorporate cellular morphology. By studying the mechanisms of motor pattern formation in the leech, using modeling studies in conjunction with parallel physiological experiments, we can contribute to a deeper understanding of how rhythmic motor acts are generated, coordinated, modulated, and reconfigured at the level of networks, cells, ionic currents, and synapses.

  2. The present state of the leech fauna (Annelida, Hirudinea) in the Upper Irtysh cascade of water reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Lyudmila I.; Kaygorodova, Irina A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hirudinea is a small and ecologically important group of aquatic organisms. However, up to date, the leech fauna of Kazakhstan is poorly studied. The presence of large under-collected areas, such as the Upper Irtysh basin, makes biodiversity studies concerning these invertebrates from Kazakhstan relevant. In this paper, the latest information on species diversity of the freshwater hirudofauna of the Upper Irtysh cascade of water reservoirs, the Kazakhstan part of Irtysh River, is presented. It includes 10 free-living and parasitic species, of which 7 and 9 inhabit the Shulbinsk and the Bukhtarma reservoirs, respectively. These species belong to 2 orders, 3 families and 6 genera. The faunal list highlights four potentially new morphological species (Alboglossiphonia sp., Erpobdella sp., Piscicola sp. 1 and Piscicola sp. 2). Besides them, another three species Erpobdella vilnensis, Helobdella stagnalis and Theromyzon tessulatum recorded for the first time in the area. The exact systematic position is stated for all leech taxa. Each species from the list accompanied with information on taxonomic synonymy, data on its geographic distribution, and brief summary of morphological and ecological characteristics. PMID:27408572

  3. The present state of the leech fauna (Annelida, Hirudinea) in the Upper Irtysh cascade of water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Lyudmila I; Kaygorodova, Irina A

    2016-01-01

    Hirudinea is a small and ecologically important group of aquatic organisms. However, up to date, the leech fauna of Kazakhstan is poorly studied. The presence of large under-collected areas, such as the Upper Irtysh basin, makes biodiversity studies concerning these invertebrates from Kazakhstan relevant. In this paper, the latest information on species diversity of the freshwater hirudofauna of the Upper Irtysh cascade of water reservoirs, the Kazakhstan part of Irtysh River, is presented. It includes 10 free-living and parasitic species, of which 7 and 9 inhabit the Shulbinsk and the Bukhtarma reservoirs, respectively. These species belong to 2 orders, 3 families and 6 genera. The faunal list highlights four potentially new morphological species (Alboglossiphonia sp., Erpobdella sp., Piscicola sp. 1 and Piscicola sp. 2). Besides them, another three species Erpobdella vilnensis, Helobdella stagnalis and Theromyzon tessulatum recorded for the first time in the area. The exact systematic position is stated for all leech taxa. Each species from the list accompanied with information on taxonomic synonymy, data on its geographic distribution, and brief summary of morphological and ecological characteristics. PMID:27408572

  4. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey. Further constraints on the planet architecture of the HR 8799 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, A.-L.; Skemer, A. J.; Hinz, P. M.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, S.; Gratton, R.; Marzari, F.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Biller, B. A.; Defrère, D.; Bailey, V. P.; Leisenring, J. M.; Apai, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Brandner, W.; Buenzli, E.; Claudi, R. U.; Close, L. M.; Crepp, J. R.; De Rosa, R. J.; Eisner, J. A.; Fortney, J. J.; Henning, T.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kopytova, T. G.; Males, J. R.; Mesa, D.; Morzinski, K. M.; Oza, A.; Patience, J.; Pinna, E.; Rajan, A.; Schertl, D.; Schlieder, J. E.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vaz, A.; Ward-Duong, K.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Astrometric monitoring of directly imaged exoplanets allows the study of their orbital parameters and system architectures. Because most directly imaged planets have long orbital periods (>20 AU), accurate astrometry is challenging when based on data acquired on timescales of a few years and usually with different instruments. The LMIRCam camera on the Large Binocular Telescope is being used for the LBT Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) survey to search for and characterize young and adolescent exoplanets in L' band (3.8 μm), including their system architectures. Aims: We first aim to provide a good astrometric calibration of LMIRCam. Then, we derive new astrometry, test the predictions of the orbital model of 8:4:2:1 mean motion resonance proposed for the system, and perform new orbital fitting of the HR 8799 bcde planets. We also present deep limits on a putative fifth planet inside the known planets. Methods: We use observations of HR 8799 and the Θ1 Ori C field obtained during the same run in October 2013. Results: We first characterize the distortion of LMIRCam. We determine a platescale and a true north orientation for the images of 10.707 ± 0.012 mas/pix and -0.430 ± 0.076°, respectively. The errors on the platescale and true north orientation translate into astrometric accuracies at a separation of 1'' of 1.1 mas and 1.3 mas, respectively. The measurements for all planets agree within 3σ with a predicted ephemeris. The orbital fitting based on the new astrometric measurements favors an architecture for the planetary system based on 8:4:2:1 mean motion resonance. The detection limits allow us to exclude a fifth planet slightly brighter or more massive than HR 8799 b at the location of the 2:1 resonance with HR 8799 e (~9.5 AU) and about twice as bright as HR 8799 cde at the location of the 3:1 resonance with HR 8799 e (~7.5 AU). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT

  5. Activation of two forms of locomotion by a previously identified trigger interneuron for swimming in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Brodfuehrer, Peter D; McCormick, Kathryn; Tapyrik, Lauren; Albano, Alfonso M; Graybeal, Carolyn

    2008-03-01

    Higher-order projection interneurons that function in more than one behavior have been identified in a number of preparations. In this study, we document that stimulation of cell Tr1, a previously identified trigger interneuron for swimming in the medicinal leech, can also elicit the motor program for crawling in isolated nerve cords. We also show that motor choice is independent of the firing frequency of Tr1 and amount of spiking activity recorded extracellularly at three locations along the ventral nerve cord prior to Tr1 stimulation. On the other hand, during Tr1 stimulation there is a significant difference in the amount of activity elicited in the ventral nerve cord that correlates with the motor program activated. On average, Tr1 stimulation trials that lead to crawling elicit greater amounts of activity than in trials that lead to swimming.

  6. Expression and characterization of the N-terminal half of antistasin, an anticoagulant protein derived from the leech Haementeria officinalis.

    PubMed

    Palladino, L O; Tung, J S; Dunwiddie, C; Alves, K; Lenny, A B; Przysiecki, C; Lehman, D; Nutt, E; Cuca, G C; Law, S W

    1991-02-01

    Antistasin, a 15-kDa anticoagulant protein isolated from the salivary glands of the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis, has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of factor Xa in the blood coagulation cascade. Antistasin possesses a twofold internal homology between the N- and C-terminal halves of the molecule, suggesting a gene duplication event in the evolution of the antistasin gene. This structural feature also suggests that either or both halves of the protein may possess biological activity if expressed as separate domains. Because the N-terminal domain contains a factor Xa P1-reactive site, we chose to express this domain in an insect cell baculovirus expression system. Characterization of this recombinant half antistasin molecule reveals that the N-terminal domain inhibits factor Xa in vitro, with a K(i) of 1.7 nM. PMID:1821771

  7. Population variation and individual maximum size in two leech populations: energy extraction from cannibalism or niche widening?

    PubMed

    Persson, Lennart; Elliott, J Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    The theory of cannibal dynamics predicts a link between population dynamics and individual life history. In particular, increased individual growth has, in both modeling and empirical studies, been shown to result from a destabilization of population dynamics. We used data from a long-term study of the dynamics of two leech (Erpobdella octoculata) populations to test the hypothesis that maximum size should be higher in a cycling population; one of the study populations exhibited a delayed feedback cycle while the other population showed no sign of cyclicity. A hump-shaped relationship between individual mass of 1-year-old leeches and offspring density the previous year was present in both populations. As predicted from the theory, the maximum mass of individuals was much larger in the fluctuating population. In contrast to predictions, the higher growth rate was not related to energy extraction from cannibalism. Instead, the higher individual mass is suggested to be due to increased availability of resources due to a niche widening with increased individual body mass. The larger individual mass in the fluctuating population was related to a stronger correlation between the densities of 1-year-old individuals and 2-year-old individuals the following year in this population. Although cannibalism was the major mechanism regulating population dynamics, its importance was negligible in terms of providing cannibalizing individuals with energy subsequently increasing their fecundity. Instead, the study identifies a need for theoretical and empirical studies on the largely unstudied interplay between ontogenetic niche shifts and cannibalistic population dynamics. PMID:23053229

  8. The neurotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and copper in Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Zorica D.; Stanojevic, Marija B.; Nedeljkov, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in cellular damage. Electrophysiological analyses have shown that membrane transport proteins are susceptible to ROS. In the present study, oxidative stress was induced in Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga by bath application of 1 mM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 0.02 mM of copper (Cu) for 20 min. The H2O2/Cu(II) produced considerable changes in the electrical properties of the Retzius nerve cells. Intracellular recording of the resting membrane potential revealed that the neuronal membrane was depolarized in the presence of H2O2/Cu(II). We found that the amplitude of action potentials decreased, while the duration augmented in a progressive way along the drug exposure time. The combined application of H2O2 and Cu(II) caused an initial excitation followed by depression of the spontaneous electrical activity. Voltage-clamp recordings revealed a second effect of the oxidant, a powerful inhibition of the outward potassium channels responsible for the repolarization of action potentials. The neurotoxic effect of H2O2/Cu(II) on the spontaneous spike electrogenesis and outward K+ current of Retzius nerve cells was reduced in the presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers, dimethylthiourea and dimethyl sulfoxide, but not mannitol. This study provides evidence for the oxidative modification of outward potassium channels in Retzius nerve cells. The oxidative mechanism of the H2O2/Cu(II) system action on the electrical properties of Retzius neurons proposed in this study might have a wider significance, referring not only to leeches but also to mammalian neurons. PMID:26935393

  9. Natural products from the genus tephrosia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinning; Yan, Tao; Gao, Chenghai; Cao, Wenhao; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-01

    The genus Tephrosia, belonging to the Leguminosae family, is a large pantropical genus of more than 350 species, many of which have important traditional uses in agriculture. This review not only outlines the source, chemistry and biological evaluations of natural products from the genus Tephrosia worldwide that have appeared in literature from 1910 to December 2013, but also covers work related to proposed biosynthetic pathways and synthesis of some natural products from the genus Tephrosia, with 105 citations and 168 new compounds.

  10. Isolation and structural characterization of a novel peptide related to gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone from the brain of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Wattez, C; Bulet, P; Malecha, J

    1994-07-01

    This paper reports the purification of a novel pro-opiomelanocortin derivative peptide (a gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone-like (gamma-MSH-like) molecule) from the brain of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. After reverse-phase HPLC purification, the sequence of the gamma-MSH-like peptide (YVMGHFRWDKFamide) was established by a combination of automated Edman degradation, electrospray mass spectrometry measurement, enzymatic treatment and co-elution experiments in reverse-phase HPLC with synthetic peptides.

  11. Mechanism of ammonia excretion in the freshwater leech Nephelopsis obscura: characterization of a primitive Rh protein and effects of high environmental ammonia.

    PubMed

    Quijada-Rodriguez, Alex R; Treberg, Jason R; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2015-09-15

    Remarkably little is known about nitrogenous excretion in freshwater invertebrates. In the current study, the nitrogen excretion mechanism in the carnivorous ribbon leech, Nephelopsis obscura, was investigated. Excretion experiments showed that the ribbon leech is ammonotelic, excreting 166.0 ± 8.6 nmol·grams fresh weight (gFW)(-1)·h(-1) ammonia and 14.7 ± 1.9 nmol·gFW(-1)·h(-1) urea. Exposure to high and low pH hampered and enhanced, respectively, ammonia excretion rates, indicating an acid-linked ammonia trapping mechanism across the skin epithelia. Accordingly, compared with body tissues, the skin exhibited elevated mRNA expression levels of a newly identified Rhesus protein and at least in tendency the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Pharmacological experiments and enzyme assays suggested an ammonia excretion mechanism that involves the V-ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase, but not necessarily a functional microtubule system. Most importantly, functional expression studies of the identified Rh protein cloned from leech skin tissue revealed an ammonia transport capability of this protein when expressed in yeast. The leech Rh-ammonia transporter (NoRhp) is a member of the primitive Rh protein family, which is a sister group to the common ancestor of vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh proteins. Exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) caused a new adjustment of body ammonia, accompanied with a decrease in NoRhp and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase mRNA levels, but unaltered ammonia excretion rates. To our knowledge, this is only the second comprehensive study regarding the ammonia excretion mechanisms in a freshwater invertebrate, but our results show that basic processes of ammonia excretion appear to also be comparable to those found in freshwater fish, suggesting an early evolution of ionoregulatory mechanisms in freshwater organisms.

  12. New insights into the North American Cordillera forearc: Cretaceous to Eocene tectonic evolution of the Leech River Schist, Southern Vancouver Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Johannes; Johnston, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The Leech River Complex on southern Vancouver Island is a part of the Pacific Rim Terrane of the North American Cordillera and comprises a series of fault-bounded slices of mainly meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks of Triassic to Cretaceous age. The tectono-metamorphic history of this unit provides important constraints on the history of terrane accretion and the paleogeographic and tectonic evolution of the western North American forearc region. Our focus is on the structures and tectonic fabrics that developed within the western most part of the Leech River Schist from ~88 Ma through ~37 Ma. Similar syn- and post-instrusive structures that developed during emplacement of the ~88 Ma Jordan River meta-granodiorite and the ~51 Ma Walker Creek Intrusions respectively, indicate a consistent stress field during >35 m.y. of northward translation of the outboard Cordilleran terranes. A regional high temperature, Staurolite-Andalusite-grade metamorphic event is recorded in the meta-sedimentary rocks. Subcretion of the Crescent terrane beneath the Leech River Schist at ~51 Ma caused folding of the metamorphic rocks, the development of a system of dextral and sinistral brittle shears, and normal faulting. Related extension to the northwest resulted in the opening of Barkley Sound and the more westerly marine Tofino basin. These multi-faceted deformational structures are most likely a direct consequence of the subcretion of the Crescent terrane and the linked development of the Southern Vancouver Island Orocline. The deposition of sandstones and conglomerates of the Sooke Formation began at ca. 37 Ma. This siliciclastic sequence unconformably overlies the Leech River Schist, records rapid subsidence of the forearc following a preceding uplift and exhumation event, and may be a record of a younger subcretion event.

  13. Mechanism of ammonia excretion in the freshwater leech Nephelopsis obscura: characterization of a primitive Rh protein and effects of high environmental ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Quijada-Rodriguez, Alex R.; Treberg, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Remarkably little is known about nitrogenous excretion in freshwater invertebrates. In the current study, the nitrogen excretion mechanism in the carnivorous ribbon leech, Nephelopsis obscura, was investigated. Excretion experiments showed that the ribbon leech is ammonotelic, excreting 166.0 ± 8.6 nmol·grams fresh weight (gFW)−1·h−1 ammonia and 14.7 ± 1.9 nmol·gFW−1·h−1 urea. Exposure to high and low pH hampered and enhanced, respectively, ammonia excretion rates, indicating an acid-linked ammonia trapping mechanism across the skin epithelia. Accordingly, compared with body tissues, the skin exhibited elevated mRNA expression levels of a newly identified Rhesus protein and at least in tendency the Na+/K+-ATPase. Pharmacological experiments and enzyme assays suggested an ammonia excretion mechanism that involves the V-ATPase, Na+/K+-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase, but not necessarily a functional microtubule system. Most importantly, functional expression studies of the identified Rh protein cloned from leech skin tissue revealed an ammonia transport capability of this protein when expressed in yeast. The leech Rh-ammonia transporter (NoRhp) is a member of the primitive Rh protein family, which is a sister group to the common ancestor of vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh proteins. Exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) caused a new adjustment of body ammonia, accompanied with a decrease in NoRhp and Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA levels, but unaltered ammonia excretion rates. To our knowledge, this is only the second comprehensive study regarding the ammonia excretion mechanisms in a freshwater invertebrate, but our results show that basic processes of ammonia excretion appear to also be comparable to those found in freshwater fish, suggesting an early evolution of ionoregulatory mechanisms in freshwater organisms. PMID:26180186

  14. Mechanism of ammonia excretion in the freshwater leech Nephelopsis obscura: characterization of a primitive Rh protein and effects of high environmental ammonia.

    PubMed

    Quijada-Rodriguez, Alex R; Treberg, Jason R; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2015-09-15

    Remarkably little is known about nitrogenous excretion in freshwater invertebrates. In the current study, the nitrogen excretion mechanism in the carnivorous ribbon leech, Nephelopsis obscura, was investigated. Excretion experiments showed that the ribbon leech is ammonotelic, excreting 166.0 ± 8.6 nmol·grams fresh weight (gFW)(-1)·h(-1) ammonia and 14.7 ± 1.9 nmol·gFW(-1)·h(-1) urea. Exposure to high and low pH hampered and enhanced, respectively, ammonia excretion rates, indicating an acid-linked ammonia trapping mechanism across the skin epithelia. Accordingly, compared with body tissues, the skin exhibited elevated mRNA expression levels of a newly identified Rhesus protein and at least in tendency the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Pharmacological experiments and enzyme assays suggested an ammonia excretion mechanism that involves the V-ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase, but not necessarily a functional microtubule system. Most importantly, functional expression studies of the identified Rh protein cloned from leech skin tissue revealed an ammonia transport capability of this protein when expressed in yeast. The leech Rh-ammonia transporter (NoRhp) is a member of the primitive Rh protein family, which is a sister group to the common ancestor of vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh proteins. Exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) caused a new adjustment of body ammonia, accompanied with a decrease in NoRhp and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase mRNA levels, but unaltered ammonia excretion rates. To our knowledge, this is only the second comprehensive study regarding the ammonia excretion mechanisms in a freshwater invertebrate, but our results show that basic processes of ammonia excretion appear to also be comparable to those found in freshwater fish, suggesting an early evolution of ionoregulatory mechanisms in freshwater organisms. PMID:26180186

  15. Isolation, structural characterization and biological function of a lysine-conopressin in the central nervous system of the pharyngobdellid leech Erpobdella octoculata.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Bulet, P; Van Dorsselaer, A; Malecha, J

    1993-11-01

    Several neuropeptides are suspected to act on the control of hydric balance in leeches. One of these peptides, a peptide immunoreactive to an antibody against oxytocin, was previously characterized from the central nervous system of the leech Erpobdella octoculata [Salzet, M., Wattez, C., Verger-Bocquet, M., Beauvillain, J.-C. & Malecha, J. (1993) Brain Res. 601, 173-184]. This paper reports the isolation from the central nervous system of E. octoculata of another peptide of the oxytocin/vasopressin family; a lysine-vasopressin-like molecule. Its purification was performed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography combined with both dot immunobinding assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for lysine-vasopressin. The amino acid sequence was established by Edman degradation and confirmed by electrospray-mass-spectrometry measurement. The nonapeptide obtained corresponded to the lysine-conopressin previously isolated from the venom of the mollusc Conus geographus [Cruz, L. L., de Santos, V., Zafaralla, G. C., Ramilo, C. A., Zeikus, R., Gray, W. R. & Olivera, B. M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 15821-15824]. In leeches, synthetic lysine-conopressin exerts a diuretic effect which can be compared to that of the arginine-vasopressin-like peptide isolated in the Insect Locusta migratoria [Proux, J., Miller, C. A., Li, J. P., Carney, R. L., Girardie, A., Delaage, M. & Schooley, D. A. (1987) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 149, 180-186].

  16. Phoretic interaction between the kangaroo leech Marsupiobdella africana (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) and the cape river crab Potamonautes perlatus (Decapoda: Potamonautidae)☆

    PubMed Central

    Badets, Mathieu; Preez, Louis Du

    2013-01-01

    The South African leech Marsupiobdella africana is a temporary ectoparasite of the amphibian Xenopus laevis, has a phoretic association with a freshwater crab Potamonautes perlatus, and exhibits advanced parental care by incubating its offspring in a brood pouch. Because phoretic associations are usually regarded to favor the phoront’s dispersion, its occurrence within the biology of a parasitic species reflects an intimate context of interactions. In addition to phoresy, attachment to the crab may confer other advantages pertaining to offspring development and predator avoidance, dispersion and the parasitic life cycle. Two ponds where amphibian and crab hosts co-occur were sampled twice a month for a period of 1 year. The population dynamics of the leeches and their use of specific microhabitats as attachment sites on the crabs were also investigated. Results indicate a direct relationship between intra-specific variation in the sex ratio among captured crab hosts and the number of leeches recruited over time. The attachments to specific microhabitats on the hard surfaces of the host suggest a proximal proximate anti-predatory strategy. Finally, the importance of oxygen accessibility for the offspring development has been investigated experimentally. Results revealed a remarkable network of interactions linking all partners of this system raising the question as to whether the crabs merely act as a vehicle or play a role within the parasitic life cycle. PMID:24918071

  17. Genus dependence of superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Simon

    2006-11-15

    The problem of the consistency of the finiteness of the supermoduli space integral in the limit of vanishing super-fixed point distance and the genus-dependence of the integral over the super-Schottky coordinates in the fundamental region containing a neighborhood of |K{sub n}|=0 is resolved. Given a choice of the categories of isometric circles representing the integration region, the exponential form of bounds for superstring amplitudes is derived.

  18. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    PubMed Central

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  19. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora.

    PubMed

    Badali, H; Gueidan, C; Najafzadeh, M J; Bonifaz, A; van den Ende, A H G Gerrits; de Hoog, G S

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha and beta-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans.

  20. Genus expansion of HOMFLY polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A. D.; Morozov, A. Yu.; Sleptsov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    In the planar limit of the' t Hooft expansion, the Wilson-loop vacuum average in the three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory (in other words, the HOMFLY polynomial) depends very simply on the representation (Young diagram), HR(A|q)|q=1 = (σ1(A)|R|. As a result, the (knot-dependent) Ooguri-Vafa partition function becomes a trivial τ -function of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy. We study higher-genus corrections to this formula for HR in the form of an expansion in powers of z = q - q-1. The expansion coefficients are expressed in terms of the eigenvalues of cut-and-join operators, i.e., symmetric group characters. Moreover, the z-expansion is naturally written in a product form. The representation in terms of cut-and-join operators relates to the Hurwitz theory and its sophisticated integrability. The obtained relations describe the form of the genus expansion for the HOMFLY polynomials, which for the corresponding matrix model is usually given using Virasoro-like constraints and the topological recursion. The genus expansion differs from the better-studied weak-coupling expansion at a finite number N of colors, which is described in terms of Vassiliev invariants and the Kontsevich integral.

  1. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Sleptsov, Alexei; Smirnov, Andrey

    2014-12-01

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser-Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  2. Natural medicine: the genus Angelica.

    PubMed

    Sarker, S D; Nahar, L

    2004-06-01

    More than 60 species of medicinal plants belong to the genus Angelica (Family: Apiaceae). Many of these species have long been used in ancient traditional medicine systems, especially in the far-east. Various herbal preparations containing Angelica species are available over-the-counter, not only in the far-eastern countries, but also in the western countries like USA, UK, Germany, etc. For centuries, many species of this genus, e.g. A. acutiloba, A. archangelica, A. atropupurea, A. dahurica, A. japonica, A. glauca, A. gigas, A. koreana, A. sinensis, A. sylvestris, etc., have been used traditionally as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant and diaphoretic, and remedy for colds, flu, influenza, hepatitis, arthritis, indigestion, coughs, chronic bronchitis, pleurisy, typhoid, headaches, wind, fever, colic, travel sickness, rheumatism, bacterial and fungal infections and diseases of the urinary organs. Active principles isolated from these plants mainly include various types of coumarins, acetylenic compounds, chalcones, sesquiterpenes and polysaccharides. This review evaluates the importance of the genus Angelica in relation to its traditional medicinal uses, alternative medicinal uses in the modern society and potential for drug development, and summarises results of various scientific studies on Angelica species or Angelica-containing preparations for their bioactivities including, antimicrobial, anticancer, antitumour, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. PMID:15180579

  3. Polyploidy in the Arabidopsis genus.

    PubMed

    Bomblies, Kirsten; Madlung, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD), which gives rise to polyploids, is a unique type of mutation that duplicates all the genetic material in a genome. WGD provides an evolutionary opportunity by generating abundant genetic "raw material," and has been implicated in diversification, speciation, adaptive radiation, and invasiveness, and has also played an important role in crop breeding. However, WGD at least initially challenges basic biological functions by increasing cell size, altering relationships between cell volume and DNA content, and doubling the number of homologous chromosome copies that must be sorted during cell division. Newly polyploid lineages often have extensive changes in gene regulation, genome structure, and may suffer meiotic or mitotic chromosome mis-segregation. The abundance of species that persist in nature as polyploids shows that these problems are surmountable and/or that advantages of WGD might outweigh drawbacks. The molecularly especially tractable Arabidopsis genus has several ancient polyploidy events in its history and contains several independent more recent polyploids. This genus can thus provide important insights into molecular aspects of polyploid formation, establishment, and genome evolution. The ability to integrate ecological and evolutionary questions with molecular and genetic understanding makes comparative analyses in this genus particularly attractive and holds promise for advancing our general understanding of polyploid biology. Here, we highlight some of the findings from Arabidopsis that have given us insights into the origin and evolution of polyploids. PMID:24788061

  4. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-10-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus species are able to produce a large number of secondary metabolites. The profiles of biosynthetic families of secondary metabolites are species specific, whereas individual secondary metabolite families can occur in other species, even those phylogenetically and ecologically unrelated to Aspergillus. Furthermore, there is a high degree of chemo-consistency from isolate to isolate in a species even though certain metabolite gene clusters are silenced in some isolates. Genome sequencing projects have shown that the diversity of secondary metabolites is much larger in each species than previously thought. The potential of finding even further new bioactive drug candidates in Aspergillus is evident, despite the fact that many secondary metabolites have already been structure elucidated and chemotaxonomic studies have shown that many new secondary metabolites have yet to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different genera Aspergillus, Dichotomomyces, Phialosimplex, Polypaecilum and Cristaspora. Secondary metabolites common between the subgenera and sections of Aspergillus are surprisingly few, but many metabolites are common to a majority of species within the sections. We call small molecule extrolites in the same biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites appear to have evolved because of ecological challenges rather than being inherited from ancestral species, at least when comparing the species in the different

  5. The genus Thermotoga: Recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Frock, Andrew D.; Notey, Jaspreet S.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Thermotoga comprises extremely thermophilic (Topt ≥ 70°C) and hyperthermophilic (Topt ≥ 80°C) bacteria that have been extensively studied for insights into the basis for life at elevated temperatures and for biotechnological opportunities (e.g., biohydrogen production, biocatalysis). Over the past decade, genome sequences have become available for a number of Thermotoga species, leading to functional genomics efforts to understand growth physiology as well as genomics-based identification and characterization of novel high temperature biocatalysts. Discussed here are recent developments along these lines for this novel group of microorganisms. PMID:20718299

  6. Receptive fields, geometry and conduction block of sensory neurones in the central nervous system of the leech.

    PubMed Central

    Yau, K W

    1976-01-01

    1. In segmental ganglia of the leech, the cutaneous mechanosensory neurones responding to to touch innervated the skin of their own segment and of part of the anterior and posterior adjacent segments. Each touch receptive field could be divided into three non-overlapping areas: a central part innervated by the branches of the cell which ran in the nerve roots of the ganglion containing the cell body, and anterior and posterior parts innervated by its branches which ran in the nerve roots of the anterior and posterior adjacent ganglia. 2. Impulses originating from the anterior and posterior parts of the receptive fields were susceptible to conduction block within the central nervous system when the touch cells fired repetitively at frequencies that could readily be elicited with weak mechanical stimulation. In contrast, impulses originating from the central part of the receptive fields were less susceptible to block. 3. The morphology of touch cells revealed by intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase suggested that conduction block occurred at specific bifurcation points where small cell processes joined the main process. Different physiological experiments supported this conclusion. 4. In some touch cells, bifurcation points with particularly low safety margins of conduction operated as low-pass filters, limiting the frequency of impulses capable of invading certain branches. 5. The results suggest that mechanical stimuli which would likely be encountered by the animal can lead to conduction block within its central nervous system and as a result modify its integrative activities. PMID:1018277

  7. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 7. Genus Nothocyphon, new genus.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2015-07-06

    The new genus Nothocyphon (type species: Helodes (Cyphon ?) lindensis Blackburn, 1892) is proposed for small Contacyphon-like Australian beetles. The included species exhibit a generalized body structure, lacking the derived character expressions of related genera. Male tergite 9 is very weakly developed, membranous and bare. This is derived but as a reduction only weakly supports the monophyly of Nothocyphon.The new genus includes 39 species, with 37 newly described herein: Nothocyphon alces, n. sp., N. amita, n. sp., N. amphora, n. sp., N. armatus, n. sp., N. armstrongi, n. sp., N. auritus, n. sp., N. banksiae, n. sp., N. biserratus, n. sp., N. brevihamatus, n. sp., N. crux, n. sp., N. denticulatus, n. sp., N. donnabuangi, n. sp., N. esau, n. sp., N. frater (Blackburn), n. comb., N. horridus, n. sp., N. ímitator, n. sp., N. isolaeregis, n. sp., N. lanceolatus, n. sp., N. lindensis (Blackburn), n. comb., N. multidentatus, n. sp., N. naso, n. sp., N. nungatta, n. sp., N. pacificus, n. sp., N. patruelis, n. sp., N. platyphallus, n. sp., N. plicatus, n. sp., N. radula, n. sp., N. sarcophilus, n. sp., N. scutiger, n. sp., N. serratipenis, n. sp., N. signatus, n. sp., N. soror, n. sp., N. taeniatus, n. sp., N. taurus, n. sp., N. thylacinus, n. sp., N. triangulum, n. sp., N. vandiemeni, n. sp., N. wattsi, n. sp., N. ypsilon, n. sp.Lectotypes are designated for N. frater (Blackburn) and N. lindensis (Blackburn). All species are redescribed or described, and illustrated. Several informal species groups are recognized, and identification keys to males are provided.

  8. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  9. Eight new species in the genus Alphabaculovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This taxonomic proposal recommends the addition of eight new species to the genus Alphabaculovirus of the family Baculoviridae. Placement of these new species within genus Alphabaculovirus is based on the following criteria: host species of the insect order Lepidoptera; circular double-stranded DNA...

  10. Three New Species of the Genus Ochroconis.

    PubMed

    Samerpitak, K; Gerrits van den Ende, A H G; Menken, S B J; de Hoog, G S

    2015-08-01

    Ochroconis bacilliformis, O. phaeophora and O. robusta, three novel species of the melanized genus Ochroconis (Sympoventuriaceae, Venturiales), are described, illustrated and distinguished phenotypically and molecularly from previously described species in the genus Ochroconis. Their potential significance for infection of cold-blooded vertebrates is discussed. PMID:26093392

  11. A functional asymmetry in the Leech Heartbeat Timing Network is revealed by driving the network across various cycle periods.

    PubMed

    Masino, Mark A; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2002-06-01

    We tested predictions of a computational model (Hill et al., 2002) of the leech heartbeat timing network. The timing network consists of two segmental oscillators located in the third (G3) and fourth (G4) segmental ganglia. Each oscillator consists of two reciprocally inhibitory oscillator interneurons along with the coordinating interneuron fibers that link them. In the model, the network was driven to cycle periods around the normal period of the network by repeatedly stimulating one of the paired oscillator interneurons in G3 or G4. Here we replicate these experiments in the biological system. The model predicts that the G3 and G4 oscillators can entrain the timing network to periods faster but not slower than the inherent period of the nondriven ("follower") oscillator and that they can do so symmetrically. The biological system can be driven to periods both faster (such that the driven oscillator leads in phase) and slower (such that the driven oscillator lags in phase) than the inherent period of the timing network. Although both oscillators can entrain the network, the G4 oscillator does so over a narrower range of periods. Two differences between the assumptions of the model and the properties of the biological network, spike frequency adaptation in coordinating interneurons and asymmetry in the connections from the oscillator interneurons to the coordinating interneurons, may account for these discrepancies. Individual coordinating interneurons were also able to entrain the oscillators but with little effect of the phase relationship between the oscillators, suggesting that phase relations are determined by properties inherent to the oscillator interneurons.

  12. Kinematics and modeling of leech crawling: evidence for an oscillatory behavior produced by propagating waves of excitation.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, T W; Rozenshteyn, R; Kristan, W B

    2000-02-15

    Many well characterized central pattern generators (CPGs) underlie behaviors (e.g., swimming, flight, heartbeat) that require regular rhythmicity and strict phase relationships. Here, we examine the organization of a CPG for leech crawling, a behavior whose success depends more on its flexibility than on its precise coordination. We examined the organization of this CPG by first characterizing the kinematics of crawling steps in normal and surgically manipulated animals, then by exploring its features in a simple neuronal model. The behavioral observations revealed the following. (1) Intersegmental coordination varied considerably with step duration, whereas the rates of elongation and contraction within individual segments were relatively constant. (2) Steps were generated in the absence of both head and tail brains, implying that midbody ganglia contain a CPG for step production. (3) Removal of sensory feedback did not affect step coordination or timing. (4) Imposed stretch greatly lengthened transitions between elongation and contraction, indicating that sensory pathways feed back onto the CPG. A simple model reproduced essential features of the observed kinematics. This model consisted of an oscillator that initiates propagating segmental waves of activity in excitatory neuronal chains, along with a parallel descending projection; together, these pathways could produce the observed intersegmental lags, coordination between phases, and step duration. We suggest that the proposed model is well suited to be modified on a step-by-step basis and that crawling may differ substantially from other described CPGs, such as that for swimming in segmented animals, where individual segments produce oscillations that are strongly phase-locked to one another. PMID:10662854

  13. Effects of millimeter wave irradiation and equivalent thermal heating on the activity of individual neurons in the leech ganglion.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H; Wagenaar, Daniel A; Pikov, Victor

    2014-11-15

    Many of today's radiofrequency-emitting devices in telecommunication, telemedicine, transportation safety, and security/military applications use the millimeter wave (MMW) band (30-300 GHz). To evaluate the biological safety and possible applications of this radiofrequency band for neuroscience and neurology, we have investigated the physiological effects of low-intensity 60-GHz electromagnetic irradiation on individual neurons in the leech midbody ganglia. We applied incident power densities of 1, 2, and 4 mW/cm(2) to the whole ganglion for a period of 1 min while recording the action potential with a standard sharp electrode electrophysiology setup. For comparison, the recognized U.S. safe exposure limit is 1 mW/cm(2) for 6 min. During the exposure to MMWs and gradual bath heating at a rate of 0.04°C/s (2.4°C/min), the ganglionic neurons exhibited similar dose-dependent hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane and decrease in the action potential amplitude. However, narrowing of the action potential half-width during MMW irradiation at 4 mW/cm(2) was 5 times more pronounced compared with that during equivalent bath heating of 0.6°C. Even more dramatic difference in the effects of MMW irradiation and bath heating was noted in the firing rate, which was suppressed at all applied MMW power densities and increased in a dose-dependent manner during gradual bath heating. The mechanism of enhanced narrowing of action potentials and suppressed firing by MMW irradiation, compared with that by gradual bath heating, is hypothesized to involve specific coupling of MMW energy with the neuronal plasma membrane.

  14. Effects of millimeter wave irradiation and equivalent thermal heating on the activity of individual neurons in the leech ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many of today's radiofrequency-emitting devices in telecommunication, telemedicine, transportation safety, and security/military applications use the millimeter wave (MMW) band (30–300 GHz). To evaluate the biological safety and possible applications of this radiofrequency band for neuroscience and neurology, we have investigated the physiological effects of low-intensity 60-GHz electromagnetic irradiation on individual neurons in the leech midbody ganglia. We applied incident power densities of 1, 2, and 4 mW/cm2 to the whole ganglion for a period of 1 min while recording the action potential with a standard sharp electrode electrophysiology setup. For comparison, the recognized U.S. safe exposure limit is 1 mW/cm2 for 6 min. During the exposure to MMWs and gradual bath heating at a rate of 0.04°C/s (2.4°C/min), the ganglionic neurons exhibited similar dose-dependent hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane and decrease in the action potential amplitude. However, narrowing of the action potential half-width during MMW irradiation at 4 mW/cm2 was 5 times more pronounced compared with that during equivalent bath heating of 0.6°C. Even more dramatic difference in the effects of MMW irradiation and bath heating was noted in the firing rate, which was suppressed at all applied MMW power densities and increased in a dose-dependent manner during gradual bath heating. The mechanism of enhanced narrowing of action potentials and suppressed firing by MMW irradiation, compared with that by gradual bath heating, is hypothesized to involve specific coupling of MMW energy with the neuronal plasma membrane. PMID:25122711

  15. A comparison of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum angiotensin I-like molecule with forms of vertebrate angiotensinogens: a hormonal system conserved in the course of evolution.

    PubMed

    Laurent, V; Bulet, P; Salzet, M

    1995-05-12

    After five steps of purification including gel permeation, anti-angiotensin I affinity column chromatography followed by reverse-phase HPLC, a peptide immunoreactive to two different antisera (anti-angiotensin II and anti-angiotensin I) was purified to homogeneity from extracts of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. The first 14 amino acid residues of the purified peptide (DRVYIHPFHLLXWG) established by automated Edman degradation, reveal the existence in leeches of an angiotensin I-like molecule close to human angiotensin I. The sequence of the purified peptide presents 78.5% of homology with the N-terminal part of human angiotensinogen. Moreover, in its sequence, this peptide presents the cleavage sites of vertebrate angiotensin metabolic enzymes, i.e. the renin and the angiotensin-converting enzyme. This finding constitutes the first biochemical characterization of an angiotensin I in Invertebrates. It also reflects the high conservation of angiotensins in the course of evolution, suggesting a fundamental role of this family in fluid homeostasis.

  16. A comparison of the N-terminal sequence of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum angiotensin converting-like enzyme with forms of vertebrate angiotensin converting enzymes.

    PubMed

    Laurent, V; Salzet, M

    1995-09-22

    This paper reports the purification of an angiotensing-converting like enzyme (ACE) of ca. 120 kDa from extracts of head membranes of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. After solubilization with Triton X-114, the ACE-like enzyme contained in the detergent-poor fraction was separated using five steps of purification including gel permeation and anion exchange chromatographies followed by reverse-phase HPLC. The first 23 amino acid residues of the N-terminal part (GLDPELSPGCFSADEAGAQLFAE) of the purified S-pyridylethylated leech ACE established by automated Edman degradation revealed ca. 87% sequence identity with the N-terminal sequence of the guinea pig ACE. This enzyme cleaves the hyppuryl-His-Leu substrate with a specific activity of 5600 nmol hyppurate min-1 mg protein-1. Hydrolysis of this substrate by ACE-like enzyme is inhibited at 80% by 10 microM captopril or 10 microM lisinopril (IC50 of 200 nM and 50 nM, respectively). This enzyme is close in sequence and in activity to single domain vertebrate ACE. This is the first N-terminal sequence of an ACE-like enzyme determined in invertebrates.

  17. Solving a Bloody Mess: B-Vitamin Independent Metabolic Convergence among Gammaproteobacterial Obligate Endosymbionts from Blood-Feeding Arthropods and the Leech Haementeria officinalis.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Marín, Alejandro; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; Latorre, Amparo; Jiménez-García, Luis F; Moya, Andres

    2015-10-01

    Endosymbiosis is a common phenomenon in nature, especially between bacteria and insects, whose typically unbalanced diets are usually complemented by their obligate endosymbionts. While much interest and focus has been directed toward phloem-feeders like aphids and mealybugs, blood-feeders such as the Lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum), Glossina flies, and the human body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis) depend on obligate endosymbionts which complement their B-vitamin-deficient diets, and thus are required for growth and survival. Glossiphoniid leeches have also been found to harbor distinct endosymbionts housed in specialized organs. Here, we present the genome of the bacterial endosymbiont from Haementeria officinalis, first of a glossiphoniid leech. This as-yet-unnamed endosymbiont belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria, has a pleomorphic shape and is restricted to bacteriocytes. For this bacterial endosymbiont, we propose the name Candidatus Providencia siddallii. This symbiont possesses a highly reduced genome with high A+T content and a reduced set of metabolic capabilities, all of which are common characteristics of ancient obligate endosymbionts of arthropods. Its genome has retained many pathways related to the biosynthesis of B-vitamins, pointing toward a role in supplementing the blood-restricted diet of its host. Through comparative genomics against the endosymbionts of A. americanum, Glossina flies, and P. humanus corporis, we were able to detect a high degree of metabolic convergence among these four very distantly related endosymbiotic bacteria. PMID:26454017

  18. Solving a Bloody Mess: B-Vitamin Independent Metabolic Convergence among Gammaproteobacterial Obligate Endosymbionts from Blood-Feeding Arthropods and the Leech Haementeria officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Marín, Alejandro; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; Latorre, Amparo; Jiménez-García, Luis F.; Moya, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Endosymbiosis is a common phenomenon in nature, especially between bacteria and insects, whose typically unbalanced diets are usually complemented by their obligate endosymbionts. While much interest and focus has been directed toward phloem-feeders like aphids and mealybugs, blood-feeders such as the Lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum), Glossina flies, and the human body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis) depend on obligate endosymbionts which complement their B-vitamin-deficient diets, and thus are required for growth and survival. Glossiphoniid leeches have also been found to harbor distinct endosymbionts housed in specialized organs. Here, we present the genome of the bacterial endosymbiont from Haementeria officinalis, first of a glossiphoniid leech. This as-yet-unnamed endosymbiont belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria, has a pleomorphic shape and is restricted to bacteriocytes. For this bacterial endosymbiont, we propose the name Candidatus Providencia siddallii. This symbiont possesses a highly reduced genome with high A+T content and a reduced set of metabolic capabilities, all of which are common characteristics of ancient obligate endosymbionts of arthropods. Its genome has retained many pathways related to the biosynthesis of B-vitamins, pointing toward a role in supplementing the blood-restricted diet of its host. Through comparative genomics against the endosymbionts of A. americanum, Glossina flies, and P. humanus corporis, we were able to detect a high degree of metabolic convergence among these four very distantly related endosymbiotic bacteria. PMID:26454017

  19. Solving a Bloody Mess: B-Vitamin Independent Metabolic Convergence among Gammaproteobacterial Obligate Endosymbionts from Blood-Feeding Arthropods and the Leech Haementeria officinalis.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Marín, Alejandro; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; Latorre, Amparo; Jiménez-García, Luis F; Moya, Andres

    2015-10-09

    Endosymbiosis is a common phenomenon in nature, especially between bacteria and insects, whose typically unbalanced diets are usually complemented by their obligate endosymbionts. While much interest and focus has been directed toward phloem-feeders like aphids and mealybugs, blood-feeders such as the Lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum), Glossina flies, and the human body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis) depend on obligate endosymbionts which complement their B-vitamin-deficient diets, and thus are required for growth and survival. Glossiphoniid leeches have also been found to harbor distinct endosymbionts housed in specialized organs. Here, we present the genome of the bacterial endosymbiont from Haementeria officinalis, first of a glossiphoniid leech. This as-yet-unnamed endosymbiont belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria, has a pleomorphic shape and is restricted to bacteriocytes. For this bacterial endosymbiont, we propose the name Candidatus Providencia siddallii. This symbiont possesses a highly reduced genome with high A+T content and a reduced set of metabolic capabilities, all of which are common characteristics of ancient obligate endosymbionts of arthropods. Its genome has retained many pathways related to the biosynthesis of B-vitamins, pointing toward a role in supplementing the blood-restricted diet of its host. Through comparative genomics against the endosymbionts of A. americanum, Glossina flies, and P. humanus corporis, we were able to detect a high degree of metabolic convergence among these four very distantly related endosymbiotic bacteria.

  20. Phylogeny of the Genus Flavivirus

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, Goro; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Tsuchiya, K. Richard; Karabatsos, Nick; Cropp, C. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a comprehensive phylogenetic study to establish the genetic relationship among the viruses of the genus Flavivirus and to compare the classification based on molecular phylogeny with the existing serologic method. By using a combination of quantitative definitions (bootstrap support level and the pairwise nucleotide sequence identity), the viruses could be classified into clusters, clades, and species. Our phylogenetic study revealed for the first time that from the putative ancestor two branches, non-vector and vector-borne virus clusters, evolved and from the latter cluster emerged tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters. Provided that the theory of arthropod association being an acquired trait was correct, pairwise nucleotide sequence identity among these three clusters provided supporting data for a possibility that the non-vector cluster evolved first, followed by the separation of tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters in that order. Clades established in our study correlated significantly with existing antigenic complexes. We also resolved many of the past taxonomic problems by establishing phylogenetic relationships of the antigenically unclassified viruses with the well-established viruses and by identifying synonymous viruses. PMID:9420202

  1. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor.

  2. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.

  3. THE GENUS TRIGONELLA – PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.C; Agrawal, M.; Sharma, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Trigonella is an annual plant distributed in the Mediterranean region and it comprises several species. The present report deals with the dietary, medicinal, biochemical biological and various pharmacological properties. PMID:22556778

  4. [Identification of crude drugs from genus Leonurus].

    PubMed

    Chao, Z; He, B; Zhou, X; Ma, L

    1998-12-01

    The structure in cross section of stem and lamina of 9 species and 1 variety from genus Leonurus, whose herb used as Yimu Cao, were reported. Diagnostic characteristics were listed out in a key for identification.

  5. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846

  6. Mcphersonarcys, a new genus for Pentatomaaequalis Say (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monotypic genus, Mcphersonarcys, is erected to hold Pentatoma aequalis Say, a species formerly placed in the genus Hymenarcys. Based on the distribution of 19 character-states Hymenarcys forms a clade with its sister genus Coenus. Both genera are related to the large genus Euschistus. Mcphe...

  7. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Characterization of the Coldest Directly Imaged Exoplanet, GJ 504 b, and Evidence for Superstellar Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Leisenring, Jarron; Buenzli, Esther; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip; Defrére, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Apai, Dániel; Biller, Beth; Brandner, Wolfgang; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin R.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Fortney, Jonathan; Freedman, Richard; Henning, Thomas; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kopytova, Taisiya; Lupu, Roxana; Maire, Anne-Lise; Males, Jared R.; Marley, Mark; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Patience, Jenny; Rajan, Abhijith; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Stone, Jordan; Su, Kate; Vaz, Amali; Visscher, Channon; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2016-02-01

    As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and the appearance of strong methane absorption. While there are hundreds of known T-type brown dwarfs, the first generation of directly imaged exoplanets were all L type. Recently, Kuzuhara et al. announced the discovery of GJ 504 b, the first T dwarf exoplanet. GJ 504 b provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a new type of exoplanet with a ˜500 K temperature that bridges the gap between the first directly imaged planets (˜1000 K) and our own solar system's Jupiter (˜130 K). We observed GJ 504 b in three narrow L-band filters (3.71, 3.88, and 4.00 μm), spanning the red end of the broad methane fundamental absorption feature (3.3 μm) as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. By comparing our new photometry and literature photometry with a grid of custom model atmospheres, we were able to fit GJ 504 b's unusual spectral energy distribution for the first time. We find that GJ 504 b is well fit by models with the following parameters: Teff = 544 ± 10 K, g < 600 m s-2, [M/H] = 0.60 ± 0.12, cloud opacity parameter of fsed = 2-5, R = 0.96 ± 0.07 RJup, and log(L) = -6.13 ± 0.03 L⊙, implying a hot start mass of 3-30 Mjup for a conservative age range of 0.1-6.5 Gyr. Of particular interest, our model fits suggest that GJ 504 b has a superstellar metallicity. Since planet formation can create objects with nonstellar metallicities, while binary star formation cannot, this result suggests that GJ 504 b formed like a planet, not like a binary companion. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrophisica, Italy; LBT

  8. Molecular phylogeny of the blowfly genus Chrysomya.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Kurahashi, H; Wells, J D

    2011-06-01

    Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a genus of blowfly commonly observed in tropical and subtropical countries of the Old World. Species in this genus are vectors of bacteria, protozoans and helminths, cause myiasis, are predators of other carrion insects, and are important forensic indicators. Hypotheses concerning the evolution of sex determination, larval anatomy and genome size in Chrysomya have been difficult to evaluate because a robust phylogeny of the genus was lacking. Similarly, the monophyly of subgenera was uncertain. The phylogeny of Chrysomya spp. was reconstructed based on 2386 bp of combined mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS) genes. Maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis (BA) differed only slightly in the resulting tree topology. Chrysomya was monophyletic. Monogenic reproduction is almost certainly derived rather than, as has been suggested, primitive within the genus, and tuberculate larvae probably evolved twice. Genome size is more likely to have decreased over evolutionary time rather than, as has been suggested, increased within the genus, but its correlation with developmental time was not observed. The subgenera Microcalliphora, Eucompsomyia and Achoetandrus were recovered as monophyletic.

  9. Na(+)/K(+) pump interacts with the h-current to control bursting activity in central pattern generator neurons of leeches.

    PubMed

    Kueh, Daniel; Barnett, William H; Cymbalyuk, Gennady S; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of different ionic currents shape the bursting activity of neurons and networks that control motor output. Despite being ubiquitous in all animal cells, the contribution of the Na(+)/K(+) pump current to such bursting activity has not been well studied. We used monensin, a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, to examine the role of the pump on the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons in leeches. When we stimulated the pump with monensin, the period of these neurons decreased significantly, an effect that was prevented or reversed when the h-current was blocked by Cs(+). The decreased period could also occur if the pump was inhibited with strophanthidin or K(+)-free saline. Our monensin results were reproduced in model, which explains the pump's contributions to bursting activity based on Na(+) dynamics. Our results indicate that a dynamically oscillating pump current that interacts with the h-current can regulate the bursting activity of neurons and networks. PMID:27588351

  10. New data about the functional morphology of the chaetiferous leech-like annelids Acanthobdella peledina (Grube, 1851) and Paracanthobdella livanowi (Epshtein, 1966) (Clitellata, Acanthobdellida).

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Aleksander; Cichocka, Joanna Maria; Jeleń, Iwona; Swiątek, Piotr; Płachno, Bartosz Jan; Pikuła, Dorota

    2014-05-01

    Approximately 130 individuals of Acanthobdella peledina and 100 individuals of Paracanthobdella livanowi were studied. Morphometric measurements were taken to explore the body form. The digestive and the reproductive systems of leech-like annelids were analyzed for the first time in such a high number of specimens. Observation of A. peledina and P. livanowi revealed crucial differences in the reproductive system of the analyzed taxa, mostly regarding variation in the shape of the testisacs and the length of the ovisacs. The results of a digestive system analysis suggest that blood-sucking parasites of the order Acanthobdellida may also lead a predatory lifestyle. The presented findings support the taxonomic division of the order Acanthobdellida into the families Acanthobdellidae and Paracanthobdellidae. Multiple similarities between Acanthobdellida and Hirudinida were also discussed.

  11. Na(+)/K(+) pump interacts with the h-current to control bursting activity in central pattern generator neurons of leeches.

    PubMed

    Kueh, Daniel; Barnett, William H; Cymbalyuk, Gennady S; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2016-09-02

    The dynamics of different ionic currents shape the bursting activity of neurons and networks that control motor output. Despite being ubiquitous in all animal cells, the contribution of the Na(+)/K(+) pump current to such bursting activity has not been well studied. We used monensin, a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, to examine the role of the pump on the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons in leeches. When we stimulated the pump with monensin, the period of these neurons decreased significantly, an effect that was prevented or reversed when the h-current was blocked by Cs(+). The decreased period could also occur if the pump was inhibited with strophanthidin or K(+)-free saline. Our monensin results were reproduced in model, which explains the pump's contributions to bursting activity based on Na(+) dynamics. Our results indicate that a dynamically oscillating pump current that interacts with the h-current can regulate the bursting activity of neurons and networks.

  12. Matrix models as CFT: Genus expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Ivan

    2010-10-01

    We show how the formulation of the matrix models as conformal field theories on a Riemann surfaces can be used to compute the genus expansion of the observables. Here we consider the simplest example of the Hermitian matrix model, where the classical solution is described by a hyperelliptic Riemann surface. To each branch point of the Riemann surface we associate an operator which represents a twist field dressed by the modes of the twisted boson. The partition function of the matrix model is computed as a correlation function of such dressed twist fields. The perturbative construction of the dressing operators yields a set of Feynman rules for the genus expansion, which involve vertices, propagators and tadpoles. The vertices are universal, the propagators and the tadpoles depend on the Riemann surface. As a demonstration we evaluate the genus-two free energy using the Feynman rules.

  13. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  14. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  15. The Lichen Genus Parmotrema in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  16. Intracellular pH of giant salivary gland cells of the leech Haementeria ghilianii: regulation and effects on secretion.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, W A; Munsch, T; Berry, M S

    1994-04-01

    1. Intracellular pH (pHi) and membrane potential (Em) of giant salivary gland cells of the leech, Haementeria ghilianii, were measured with double-barrelled, neutral-carrier, pH-sensitive microelectrodes. 2. Em was -51 +/- 11.2 mV and pHi was 6.98 +/- 0.1 (mean +/- S.D., N = 41) in Hepes-buffered saline (nominally HCO3(-)-free; extracellular pH, pHe = 7.4). pHi was independent of Em. 3. Amiloride (2 mmol l-1) had no effect on resting pHi or on pHi recovery from an acid load (induced by the NH4+ pre-pulse technique). Removal of external Na+ produced a progressive acidification which was blocked by amiloride, and the drug also slowed the recovery of pHi on reintroduction of Na+. The results indicate the presence of an electroneutral Na+/H+ exchanger whose access to amiloride is competitively blocked by Na+. 4. In certain smaller cells of the gland, which probably form a separate population, removal of external Na+ did not affect pHi, and recovery from an acid load was blocked by amiloride. There may, therefore, be two types of Na+/H+ exchanger, differing in reversibility and sensitivity to amiloride. 5. Recovery of pHi from NH4(+)-induced acid loading was not affected by bicarbonate-buffered saline (2% CO2; 11 mmol l-1 HCO3-) or by addition of the anion-exchange blocker SITS (10(-4) mol l-1). This suggests that there is no significant contribution of a HCO3(-)-dependent transport mechanism to pHi regulation in the gland cells. 6. Removal of external Cl- slowly reduced pHi and there was a transient increase (overshoot) in pHi when Cl- was reintroduced. These effects of Cl- are probably explained by changes in the Na+ gradient. Intracellular Na+ and Cl- activities were measured with ion-selective microelectrodes. 7. Acidification with NH4+ was difficult, probably because of the cells' poor permeability to this ion. Attempts to introduce NH4+ via the Na+ pump or Na+/Cl- transporter were not successful. The H+/K+ ionophore nigericin (1 microgram ml-1), however, produced

  17. The genus Sipha in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of the aphid genus Sipha are reported in North America and are reviewed herein. Of these species, three are adventive: Sipha elegans del Guercio, Sipha glyceriae (Kaltenbach), and Sipha maydis Passerini. Sipha maydis was discovered in California in 2007 and now has been found in Georgia...

  18. Fayochytriomyces, a new genus within Chytridiales.

    PubMed

    Davis, William J; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E; Powell, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    Chytriomyces is a complex genus in Chytridiales. The morphological concept of the genus expanded as new taxa were added, and studies of zoospore ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies have revealed the genus to be polyphyletic. One problematic taxon is C. spinosus Fay, a distinctive species characterized by whorls of spines on the zoosporangium and a large accumulation of vesicle material beneath the operculum. With light-, scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy, we examined a culture (WJD186) isolated from a muck sample collected from a temporary forest pond. We also analyzed the D1-D2 variable domains of the nuc 28S rDNA (28S) sequences to confirm the phylogenetic placement of the species relative to the type of Chytriomyces, C. hyalinus Karling. The morphology of culture WJD186 is consistent with features Fay described for C. spinosus, and the zoospore ultrastructure is consistent with the Group I-type zoospore characters of Chytriomycetaceae (Chytridiales). In our molecular phylogeny C. spinosus does not group with the type of Chytriomyces. Consequently, we erect a new genus in Chytriomycetaceae and present the new combination Fayochytriomyces spinosus. PMID:25572096

  19. Review of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the most speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are incomplete, and lack important information necessary for accurate species identification. The objective of this study was to re-describe specie...

  20. Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from the Genus Ligularia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Liao, Zhixin; Liu, Chao; Jia, Haiyang; Sun, Jinyue

    2016-06-01

    Ligularia speices are widely used in Asian folk medicines for the treatment of various human diseases. Eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes are abundant and typical secondary metabolites found in this genus. Over 500 eremophilanes reported from members of Ligularia are reviewed in this article together with bioactivity data in an effort to highlight the development in this field. PMID:27161126

  1. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period.

  2. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hong, S.-B.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Varga, J.; Yaguchi, T.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  3. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period. PMID:22038004

  4. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C.H.; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta gen. & sp. n. is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. PMID:27389563

  5. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided. PMID:27389563

  6. Genus III. Actinokineospora Hasegawa 1988a, 449vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinokineospora is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the suborder Pseudonocardineae is discussed. Methods for isolation,...

  7. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided.

  8. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  9. Create the genus Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 we submitted a proposal to create this new genus with six members. The Executive Committee (EC) of the ICTV did not support its creation at that time due to the placement of the pelarspovirus genus branch within a larger monophyletic lineage of many of the members of the carmovirus genus wh...

  10. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V., Jr.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  11. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Chi, Sensen; She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  12. A note on the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of the first nearly complete thoracopygon of the trilobite genus Dixiphopyge Brezinski from the Chouteau Formation of central Missouri aids in evaluating the paleoecology and taxonomic affinities of this genus. Dixiphopyge is an isopygous trilobite, suboval in outline, and possessing nine thoracic segments. At the apex of each axial ring is a hollow tubercle that may represent the base of a short spine. Dixiphopyge inhabited muddy biostrome environments. In an enrolled position Dixiphopyge is interpreted to have looked somewhat like a porcupine with its spines radiating outward, presumably to inhibit its consumption by predators. Previous subfamily assignment of Dixiphopyge in the Otarioninae with Cyphaspis and Namuropyge may have been incorrect, because the latter two genera possess broad preglabellar fields and are micropygous.

  13. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  14. Phytochemistry of the genus Skimmia (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Granica, Sebastian; Vitalini, Sara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The genus Skimmia is a rich source of interesting secondary metabolites, including 20 alkaloids derived from anthranilic acid, 45 coumarins, 21 limonoids, four cholestane derivatives, six pentacyclic triterpenes, six flavonoids, and two unusual fatty acid derivatives. Skimmia is employed in folk medicine e.g. against fever, inflammations, and rheumatism. Skimmia extracts, Skimmia essential oils and pure compounds isolated from Skimmia extracts have been experimentally shown to have various bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal. In this review we discuss the exact structures of compounds isolated from members of the genus Skimmia, bioactivities of Skimmia extracts and pure compounds derived from them, and systematic implications of the patterns of occurrence of these compounds. Moreover, research gaps and interesting avenues for future research are discussed briefly.

  15. Origin and evolution of the genus Homo.

    PubMed

    Wood, B

    1992-02-27

    It is remarkable that the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the earliest known representatives of our own genus, Homo, remain obscure. Advances in techniques for absolute dating and reassessments of the fossils themselves have rendered untenable a simple unilineal model of human evolution, in which Homo habilis succeeded the australopithecines and then evolved via H. erectus into H. sapiens-but no clear alternative consensus has yet emerged. PMID:1538759

  16. On hyperelliptic abelian functions of genus 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayashiki, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    The affine ring A of the affine Jacobian variety J(X)∖Θ of a hyperelliptic curve of genus 3 is studied as a D module. A conjecture on the minimal D-free resolution previously proposed is proved in this case. As a by-product a linear basis of A is explicitly constructed in terms of derivatives of Klein's hyperelliptic ℘-functions.

  17. Genomic characterization of the Yersinia genus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled detailed comparative genomic analyses of entire genera of bacterial pathogens. Prior to this study, three species of the enterobacterial genus Yersinia that cause invasive human diseases (Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia enterocolitica) had been sequenced. However, there were no genomic data on the Yersinia species with more limited virulence potential, frequently found in soil and water environments. Results We used high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis instruments to obtain 25- to 42-fold average redundancy, whole-genome shotgun data from the type strains of eight species: Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, and Y. ruckeri. The deepest branching species in the genus, Y. ruckeri, causative agent of red mouth disease in fish, has the smallest genome (3.7 Mb), although it shares the same core set of approximately 2,500 genes as the other members of the species, whose genomes range in size from 4.3 to 4.8 Mb. Yersinia genomes had a similar global partition of protein functions, as measured by the distribution of Cluster of Orthologous Groups families. Genome to genome variation in islands with genes encoding functions such as ureases, hydrogeneases and B-12 cofactor metabolite reactions may reflect adaptations to colonizing specific host habitats. Conclusions Rapid high-quality draft sequencing was used successfully to compare pathogenic and non-pathogenic members of the Yersinia genus. This work underscores the importance of the acquisition of horizontally transferred genes in the evolution of Y. pestis and points to virulence determinants that have been gained and lost on multiple occasions in the history of the genus. PMID:20047673

  18. Planckian vertices on high genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Alessandro

    1993-04-01

    We suggest a method to compute subleading contributions at planckian energies for superstring scattering amplitudes of any genus. In particular, we test the method at one-loop level by comparison with previous results for the Regge trajectory renormalization. Modular invariance of these asymptotic terms is also discussed. Permanent address: Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università, Firenze and INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Florence, Italy.

  19. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  20. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus. PMID:23920228

  1. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. PMID:26837064

  2. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus.

  3. Evolution of clitellate phaosomes from rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells of polychaetes – a study in the leech Helobdella robusta (Annelida, Sedentaria, Clitellata)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Annelida two types of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) are regarded as generally present, rhabdomeric and ciliary PRCs. In certain taxa, however, an additional type of PRC may occur, the so called phaosomal PRC. Whereas the former two types of PRCs are always organized as an epithelium with their sensory processes projecting into an extracellular cavity formed by the PRCs and (pigmented) supportive cells, phaosomes are seemingly intracellular vacuoles housing the sensory processes. Phaosomal PRCs are the only type of PRC found in one major annelid group, Clitellata. Several hypotheses have been put forward explaining the evolutionary origin of the clitellate phaosomes. To elucidate the evolution of clitellate PRC and eyes the leech Helobdella robusta, for which a sequenced genome is available, was chosen. Results TEM observations showed that extraocular and ocular PRCs are structurally identical. Bioinformatic analyses revealed predictions for four opsin genes, three of which could be amplified. All belong to the rhabdomeric opsin family and phylogenetic analyses showed them in a derived position within annelid opsins. Gene expression studies showed two of them expressed in the eye and in the extraocular PRCs. Polychaete eye-typic key enzymes for ommochromme and pterin shading pigments synthesis are not expressed in leech eyes. Conclusions By comparative gene-expression studies we herein provide strong evidence that the phaosomal PRCs typical of Clitellata are derived from the rhabdomeric PRCs characteristic for polychaete adult eyes. Thus, they represent a highly derived type of PRC that evolved in the stem lineage of Clitellata rather than another, primitive type of PRC in Metazoa. Evolution of these PRCs in Clitellata is related to a loss of the primary eyes and most of their photoreceptive elements except for the rhabdomeric PRCs. Most likely this happened while changing to an endobenthic mode of life. This hypothesis of PRC evolution is in accordance

  4. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion. PMID:25115059

  5. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.

  6. Lineage analysis of micromere 4d, a super-phylotypic cell for Lophotrochozoa, in the leech Helobdella and the sludgeworm Tubifex

    PubMed Central

    Gline, Stephanie E.; Nakamoto, Ayaki; Cho, Sung-Jin; Chi, Candace; Weisblat, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The super-phylum Lophotrochozoa contains the plurality of extant animal phyla and exhibits a corresponding diversity of adult body plans. Moreover, in contrast to Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia, most lophotrochozoans exhibit a conserved pattern of stereotyped early divisions called spiral cleavage. In particular, bilateral mesoderm in most lophotrochozoan species arises from the progeny of micromere 4d, which is assumed to be homologous with a similar cell in the embryo of the ancestral lophotrochozoan, more than 650 million years ago. Thus, distinguishing the conserved and diversified features of cell fates in the 4d lineage among modern spiralians is required to understand how lophotrochozoan diversity has evolved by changes in developmental processes. Here we analyze cell fates for the early progeny of the bilateral daughters (M teloblasts) of micromere 4d in the leech Helobdella sp. Austin, a clitellate annelid. We show that the first six progeny of the M teloblasts (em1–em6) contribute five different sets of progeny to non-segmental mesoderm, mainly in the head and in the lining of the digestive tract. The latter feature, associated with cells em1 and em2 in Helobdella, is seen with the M teloblast lineage in a second clitellate species, the sludgeworm Tubifex tubifex and, on the basis of previously published work, in the initial progeny of the M teloblast homologs in molluscan species, suggesting that it may be an ancestral feature of lophotrochozoan development. PMID:21295566

  7. Na+/K+ pump interacts with the h-current to control bursting activity in central pattern generator neurons of leeches

    PubMed Central

    Kueh, Daniel; Barnett, William H; Cymbalyuk, Gennady S; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of different ionic currents shape the bursting activity of neurons and networks that control motor output. Despite being ubiquitous in all animal cells, the contribution of the Na+/K+ pump current to such bursting activity has not been well studied. We used monensin, a Na+/H+ antiporter, to examine the role of the pump on the bursting activity of oscillator heart interneurons in leeches. When we stimulated the pump with monensin, the period of these neurons decreased significantly, an effect that was prevented or reversed when the h-current was blocked by Cs+. The decreased period could also occur if the pump was inhibited with strophanthidin or K+-free saline. Our monensin results were reproduced in model, which explains the pump’s contributions to bursting activity based on Na+ dynamics. Our results indicate that a dynamically oscillating pump current that interacts with the h-current can regulate the bursting activity of neurons and networks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19322.001 PMID:27588351

  8. Comparison of the effects of millimeter wave irradiation, general bath heating, and localized heating on neuronal activity in the leech ganglion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Pikov, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The use of electrically-induced neuromodulation has grown in importance in the treatment of multiple neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, chronic pain, cluster headaches and others. While electrical current can be applied locally, it requires placing stimulation electrodes in direct contact with the neural tissue. Our goal is to develop a method for localized application of electromagnetic energy to the brain without direct tissue contact. Toward this goal, we are experimenting with the wireless transmission of millimeter wave (MMW) energy in the 10-100 GHz frequency range, where penetration and focusing can be traded off to provide non-contact irradiation of the cerebral cortex. Initial experiments have been conducted on freshly-isolated leech ganglia to evaluate the real-time changes in the activity of individual neurons upon exposure to the MMW radiation. The initial results indicate that low-intensity MMWs can partially suppress the neuronal activity. This is in contrast to general bath heating, which had an excitatory effect on the neuronal activity. Further studies are underway to determine the changes in the state of the membrane channels that might be responsible for the observed neuromodulatory effects.

  9. Genus Paracoccidioides: Species Recognition and Biogeographic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Martins; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3), and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. Methodology/Principal Findings Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3) were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE) analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11–32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. Conclusions/Significance The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:22666382

  10. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    SciTech Connect

    Loup, M.

    1995-09-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  11. A review: Ethnobotanical survey of genus Leucas

    PubMed Central

    Das, Surya Narayan; Patro, Varanasi Jaganath; Dinda, Subas Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Plants of genus Leucas (Lamiaceae) are widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and India. The plant is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases such as cough, cold, diarrhea, and inflammatory skin disorder. A variety of phytoconstituents have been isolated from the Leucas species, which include lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, terpenes, fatty acids, and aliphatic long-chain compounds. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities have been reported in the extracts of these plants and their phytoconstituents. An overview of the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological investigations on the Leucas species is presented in this review. PMID:23055635

  12. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loup, Mackenzie

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  13. Double genus expansion for general Ω background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudenziati, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We will show how the refined holomorphic anomaly equation obeyed by the Nekrasov partition function at generic 𝜖1, 𝜖2 values becomes compatible, in a certain two-parameter expansion, with the assumption that both parameters are associated to genus counting. The underlying worldsheet theory will be analyzed and constrained in various ways, and we will provide both physical interpretation and some alternative evidence for this model. Finally, we will use the Gopakumar-Vafa formulation for the refined topological string in order to give a more quantitative description.

  14. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  15. Rust fungi on Annonaceae: the genus Sphaerophragmium.

    PubMed

    Beenken, Ludwig; Berndt, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of the rust genus Sphaerophragmium occur on members of the tropical plant family Annonaceae. Uropyxis gerstneri is recombined to S. gerstneri. A new species, S. xylopiae, is described from Xylopia acutiflora. The host plant of S. boanense is identified as Mitrella sp. Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is transferred to Dicheirinia. The anatomy of telia with teliospores and parasitizing mycelium is described and illustrated in detail. A new type of M-haustorium, which emanates laterally from intracellular hypha, is detected in S. monodorae. An identification key is given.

  16. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  17. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase HmLAR1 is up-regulated in the CNS of the adult medicinal leech following injury and is required for neuronal sprouting and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jasmine; Zhao, Bailey; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Salzet, Michel; Macagno, Eduardo R; Baker, Michael W

    2010-12-01

    LAR-like receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), which are abundantly expressed in the nervous systems of most if not all bilaterian animals thus far examined, have been implicated in regulating a variety of critical neuronal processes. These include neuronal pathfinding, adhesion and synaptogenesis during development and, in adult mammals, neuronal regeneration. Here we explored a possible role of a LAR-like RPTP (HmLAR1) in response to mechanical trauma in the adult nervous system of the medicinal leech. In situ hybridization and QPCR analyses of HmLAR1 expression in individual segmental ganglia revealed a significant up-regulation in receptor expression following CNS injury, both in situ and following a period in vitro. Furthermore, we observed up-regulation in the expression of the leech homologue of the Abelson tyrosine kinase, a putative signaling partner to LAR receptors, but not among other tyrosine kinases. The effects on neuronal regeneration were assayed by comparing growth across a nerve crush by projections of individual dorsal P neurons (P(D)) following single-cell injection of interfering RNAs against the receptor or control RNAs. Receptor RNAi led to a significant reduction in HmLAR1 expression by the injected cells and resulted in a significant decrease in sprouting and regenerative growth at the crush site relative to controls. These studies extend the role of the HmLARs from leech neuronal development to adult neuronal regeneration and provide a platform to investigate neuronal regeneration and gene regulation at the single cell level. PMID:20708686

  18. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase HmLAR1 is up-regulated in the CNS of the adult medicinal leech following injury and is required for neuronal sprouting and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jasmine; Zhao, Bailey; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Salzet, Michel; Macagno, Eduardo R; Baker, Michael W

    2010-12-01

    LAR-like receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), which are abundantly expressed in the nervous systems of most if not all bilaterian animals thus far examined, have been implicated in regulating a variety of critical neuronal processes. These include neuronal pathfinding, adhesion and synaptogenesis during development and, in adult mammals, neuronal regeneration. Here we explored a possible role of a LAR-like RPTP (HmLAR1) in response to mechanical trauma in the adult nervous system of the medicinal leech. In situ hybridization and QPCR analyses of HmLAR1 expression in individual segmental ganglia revealed a significant up-regulation in receptor expression following CNS injury, both in situ and following a period in vitro. Furthermore, we observed up-regulation in the expression of the leech homologue of the Abelson tyrosine kinase, a putative signaling partner to LAR receptors, but not among other tyrosine kinases. The effects on neuronal regeneration were assayed by comparing growth across a nerve crush by projections of individual dorsal P neurons (P(D)) following single-cell injection of interfering RNAs against the receptor or control RNAs. Receptor RNAi led to a significant reduction in HmLAR1 expression by the injected cells and resulted in a significant decrease in sprouting and regenerative growth at the crush site relative to controls. These studies extend the role of the HmLARs from leech neuronal development to adult neuronal regeneration and provide a platform to investigate neuronal regeneration and gene regulation at the single cell level.

  19. Iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus

    PubMed Central

    Zappa, Sébastien; Bauer, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Metals are utilized for a variety of critical cellular functions and are essential for survival. However cells are faced with the conundrum of needing metals coupled with e fact that some metals, iron in particular are toxic if present in excess. Maintaining metal homeostasis is therefore of critical importance to cells. In this review we have systematically analyzed sequenced genomes of three members of the Rhodobacter genus, R. capsulatus SB1003, R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and R. ferroxidans SW2 to determine how these species undertake iron homeostasis. We focused our analysis on elemental ferrous and ferric iron uptake genes as well as genes involved in the utilization of iron from heme. We also discuss how Rhodobacter species manage iron toxicity through export and sequestration of iron. Finally we discuss the various putative strategies set up by these Rhodobacter species to regulate iron homeostasis and the potential novel means of regulation. Overall, this genomic analysis highlights surprisingly diverse features involved in iron homeostasis in the Rhodobacter genus. PMID:24382933

  20. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches. PMID:27648105

  1. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other Penicillium subgenera. Subsequently, in combination with the recent adoption of the one fungus one name concept, Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was transferred to Talaromyces. At the time, the new combinations were made based only on phylogenetic information. As such, the aim of this study was to provide a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker to the accepted ITS barcode for fungi. PMID:25492983

  2. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Chi, Sensen; She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches. PMID:27648105

  3. The genus Geobacillus and their biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ali H; Lisowska, Beata K; Leak, David J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Geobacillus comprises a group of Gram-positive thermophilic bacteria, including obligate aerobes, denitrifiers, and facultative anaerobes that can grow over a range of 45-75°C. Originally classified as group five Bacillus spp., strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus came to prominence as contaminants of canned food and soon became the organism of choice for comparative studies of metabolism and enzymology between mesophiles and thermophiles. More recently, their catabolic versatility, particularly in the degradation of hemicellulose and starch, and rapid growth rates have raised their profile as organisms with potential for second-generation (lignocellulosic) biorefineries for biofuel or chemical production. The continued development of genetic tools to facilitate both fundamental investigation and metabolic engineering is now helping to realize this potential, for both metabolite production and optimized catabolism. In addition, this catabolic versatility provides a range of useful thermostable enzymes for industrial application. A number of genome-sequencing projects have been completed or are underway allowing comparative studies. These reveal a significant amount of genome rearrangement within the genus, the presence of large genomic islands encompassing all the hemicellulose utilization genes and a genomic island incorporating a set of long chain alkane monooxygenase genes. With G+C contents of 45-55%, thermostability appears to derive in part from the ability to synthesize protamine and spermine, which can condense DNA and raise its Tm.

  4. Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among taxa in the Magnaporthaceae are investigated based on DNA sequences of multiple genes including SSU, ITS, LSU, MCM7, RPB1 and TEF1. The genera Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are shown to be polyphyletic and their members are divided into four major groups based on the phylogenetic analyses. Considering morphological, biological and molecular data, we establish a new genus, Magnaporthiopsis. It is characterized by black and globose perithecia with a cylindrical neck, two-layered perithecial wall, clavate asci with a refractive apical ring, fusiform to fusoid and septate ascospores, simple hyphopodia, and Phialophora-like anamorph. Species in this genus are necrotrophic parasites infecting roots of grasses. Three new combinations, Magnaporthiopsis poae, M. rhizophila and M. incrustans, are proposed accordingly. Pyricularia is suggested as the generic name for the rice blast fungus over Magnaporthe, following Article 59.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. A new combination, Nakataea oryzae, is proposed for the rice stem rot fungus. PMID:23449077

  5. The genus Geobacillus and their biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ali H; Lisowska, Beata K; Leak, David J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Geobacillus comprises a group of Gram-positive thermophilic bacteria, including obligate aerobes, denitrifiers, and facultative anaerobes that can grow over a range of 45-75°C. Originally classified as group five Bacillus spp., strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus came to prominence as contaminants of canned food and soon became the organism of choice for comparative studies of metabolism and enzymology between mesophiles and thermophiles. More recently, their catabolic versatility, particularly in the degradation of hemicellulose and starch, and rapid growth rates have raised their profile as organisms with potential for second-generation (lignocellulosic) biorefineries for biofuel or chemical production. The continued development of genetic tools to facilitate both fundamental investigation and metabolic engineering is now helping to realize this potential, for both metabolite production and optimized catabolism. In addition, this catabolic versatility provides a range of useful thermostable enzymes for industrial application. A number of genome-sequencing projects have been completed or are underway allowing comparative studies. These reveal a significant amount of genome rearrangement within the genus, the presence of large genomic islands encompassing all the hemicellulose utilization genes and a genomic island incorporating a set of long chain alkane monooxygenase genes. With G+C contents of 45-55%, thermostability appears to derive in part from the ability to synthesize protamine and spermine, which can condense DNA and raise its Tm. PMID:26003932

  6. On the genus two free energies for semisimple Frobenius manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovin, Boris; Liu, Si-Qi; Zhang, Youjin

    2012-07-01

    We represent the genus two free energy of an arbitrary semisimple Frobenius manifold as the sum of contributions associated with dual graphs of certain stable algebraic curves of genus two plus the so-called "genus two G-function." Conjecturally, the genus two G-function vanishes for a series of important examples of Frobenius manifolds associated with simple singularities, as well as for ℙ1-orbifolds with positive Euler characteristics. We explain the reasons for the conjecture and prove it in particular cases.

  7. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  8. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha).

    PubMed

    Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Franielczyk, Barbara; Wegierek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: Oviparosiphumjakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and Oviparosiphumbaissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphumbaissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae.

  9. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha).

    PubMed

    Żyła, Dagmara; Homan, Agnieszka; Franielczyk, Barbara; Wegierek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: Oviparosiphumjakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and Oviparosiphumbaissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphumbaissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae. PMID:25755622

  10. Defense in the aeolidoidean genus Phyllodesmium (Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Alexander; Kehraus, Stefan; Bleidissel, Sabrina; Preisfeld, Gela; Schillo, Dorothee; Piel, Jörn; Brachmann, Alexander O; Wägele, Heike; König, Gabriele M

    2014-09-01

    The genus Phyllodesmium (Aeolidoidea, Gastropoda) comprises shell-less marine snails, whose defense strategies are not well investigated yet. Here we report results of the first chemical investigation of P. briareum, as well as a re-investigation of P. longicirrum and P. magnum. Briarane diterpenes were isolated from P. briareum, and their origin could be traced to its prey organism Briareum sp. (Octocorallia). Considerable enrichment of the soft coral secondary metabolites in the slug was shown. Re-investigation of P. magnum led to isolation of cembrane diterpenes, 2-phenylethylamide, and furano sesquiterpenes. Sequestration of chemicals seems to have influenced speciation and evolution of Phyllodesmium species. Structural similarity or dissimilarity of particular slug metabolites suggests a closer, or more distant relationship of the respective Phyllodesmium taxa. PMID:25244950

  11. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    PubMed Central

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females. PMID:26462693

  12. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  13. [Bergenia genus - content matters and biological activity].

    PubMed

    Hendrychová, Helena; Tůmová, Lenka

    2012-10-01

    Bergenia, a genus included in the family Saxifragaceae, is a valuable source of healing matters. About 30 Bergenia species are known all over the world. Scientific research is focused on five species mainly distributed in the mountains of Central and East Asia: Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb., Bergenia stracheyi Engl., Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch, Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl. and Bergenia himalaica Boriss. These taxons belong to the widely used medicinal herbs in the traditional Chinese, Nepalese and Indian medicine, for therapy of cough and pulmonary diseases, to stop bleeding, to increase immunity and to dissolve kidney or bladder stones. Bergenia consists of many different active compounds including bergenin, norbergenin, catechin, gallic acid, arbutin and other polyphenols. In the Czech Republic this species is commonly grown but it is not used for medical therapy. Individual parts of this plant demonstrate an interesting biological activity, and antibacterial, antiviral, cytoprotective and antioxidant effects. PMID:23256653

  14. The genus Aeromonas: taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infection.

    PubMed

    Janda, J Michael; Abbott, Sharon L

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers.

  15. The Lichen Genus Sticta in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Koh, Young Jin; Crişan, Florin

    2014-01-01

    Sticta (Schreber.) Ach. is one of the common lichen genera in tropical and subtropical regions, but not in the Korean Peninsula. For almost two decades, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study has been done on this genus. This study was based on the specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute, and the samples were identified on the basis of recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eight species of Sticta, including a newly recorded one are documented. These species include Sticta fuliginosa (Dicks.) Ach., Sticta gracilis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Sticta limbata (Sm.) Ach., Sticta nylanderiana Zahlbr., Sticta sublimbata (J. Steiner) Swinscow & Krog, Sticta weigelii (Ach.) Vain., Sticta wrightii Tuck., and Sticta yatabeana Müll. Arg. Detailed descriptions of S. nylanderiana, S. sublimbata, S. weigelii, and S. yatabeana with their morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics are provided. A key description of all known Sticta species of the Korean Peninsula is also presented. PMID:24808727

  16. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time.

  17. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:25544089

  18. Review of the genus Susuacanga (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae).

    PubMed

    Botero R, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The genus Susuacanga Martins, 1997 is redescribed. A new combination, S. blancaneaui (Bates, 1880) comb. nov. and a new synonymy, Eburia unicolor Bates, 1870 = S. octoguttata (Germar, 1821) are proposed. The genus is now composed of 12 species. The geographical distribution of S. opaca is expanded to include Belize. Photographs of Susuacanga species are included and a key to differentiate them is provided.

  19. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces.

  20. Revision of the genus Raoiella (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) of the world.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flat mites in the genus Raoiella have attracted recent world-wide interest due to the rapid spread of a major pest of various palm trees and other monocot species, the red palm mite, R. indica. This focus on the species R. indica has created a need to better understand the genus. Despite the econo...

  1. Pelarspovirus, a proposed new genus in the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the family Tombusviridae encompasses thirteen viral genera that contain single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and isometric virions; the exception being the genus Umbravirus, whose members do not encode a coat protein (CP). A new genus, tentatively named Pelarspovirus, is proposed t...

  2. Genus IV. Actinosynnema Hasegawa, Lechevalier and Lechevalier 1978, 304al

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently composes the actinobacterial genus Actinosynnema is presented. The phylogenetic position of the species within this genus relative to the other genera within the family Actinosynnemataceae is discussed. Methods for isolation, pr...

  3. Revision of the genus Miridiba Reitter, 1901 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae).

    PubMed

    Coca-Abia, Maria Milagro

    2008-06-01

    The genus Miridiba is here reviewed on the basis of external morphological and genital characters. This genus now contains 27 species, eight of which are new transfers from Holotrichia Hope, 1837; Holotrichia (Pledina) ; Melolontha Fabricius, 1775; and Neodontocnema . A type series of thirteen species is designed. Hippotrichia and Neodontocnema are described in detail.

  4. Three New Records of Lichen Genus Rhizocarpon from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh; Koh, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes three new records of lichen genus Rhizocarpon (R. alpicola, R. grande and R. lavatum) from South Korea. Brief taxonomic description and comments are provided for the new records. An artificial key is also provided for known species of this genus in South Korea. PMID:23956659

  5. Expression levels of a LAR-like receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase correlate with neuronal branching and arbor density in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael W; Macagno, Eduardo R

    2010-08-01

    LAR-like receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), which are reported to be highly expressed in the nervous systems of most bilaterian animals, have been implicated in the regulation of critical developmental processes, such as neuronal pathfinding, cell adhesion and synaptogenesis. Here we report that two LAR-like RPTPs in the medicinal leech, HmLAR1 and HmLAR2, play roles in regulating the size and density of neuronal arbors within the developing nervous system and in the body wall. Employing single-cell RNAi knockdown and transgene expression techniques, we demonstrate that the expression level of HmLAR1 is directly correlated with the density of an identified neuron's arborization. Knocking down HmLAR1 mRNA levels in the mechanosensory pressure (P) neurons produces a reduced central arbor and a smaller arbor in the peripheral body wall, with fewer terminal branches. By contrast, overexpression of this receptor in a P cell leads to extensive neuronal sprouting, including many supernumerary neurites and terminal branches as well as, in some instances, the normal monopolar morphology of the P cell becoming multipolar. We also report that induced neuronal sprouting requires the expression of the receptor's membrane tethered ectodomain, including the NH(2)-Ig domains, but not of the intracellular phosphatase domains of the receptor. Interestingly, sprouting could be elicited upon ectopic expression of HmLAR1 and the related RPTP, HmLAR2 in the P and other neurons, including those that do not normally express either RPTP, suggesting that the substrates involved in HmLAR-induced sprouting are present in most neurons irrespective of whether they normally express these LAR-like RPTPs. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the receptors' ectodomains promote an adhesive interaction that enhances the maintenance of new processes.

  6. DNA barcoding in the rust genus Chrysomyxa and its implications for the phylogeny of the genus.

    PubMed

    Feau, Nicolas; Vialle, Agathe; Allaire, Mathieu; Maier, Wolfgang; Hamelin, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Chrysomyxa rusts are fungal pathogens widely present in the boreal forest. Taxonomic delimitation and precise species identification are difficult within this genus because several species display similar morphological features. We applied a DNA barcode system based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (NAD6) in 86 strains from 16 different Chrysomyxa species, including members of the Chrysomyxa ledi species complex. The nuclear ITS and 28S loci revealed higher resolving power than the mitochondrial genes. Amplification of the full CO1 barcode region failed due to the presence of introns limiting the dataset obtained with this barcode. In most cases the ITS barcodes were in agreement with taxonomic species based on phenotypic characters. Nevertheless we observed genetically distinct (different DNA barcodes) lineages within Chrysomyxa pyrolae and Chrysomyxa rhododendri, providing some evidence for allopatric speciation within these morphologically defined species. This finding, together with the observed pattern of host specificities of the studied rust fungi, suggest that species diversification within the C. ledi species complex might be governed by a set of factors such as specialisation to certain Ericaceae species as telial hosts and to a lesser extent specialization to different spruce species as aecial hosts. Moreover allopatric speciation by geographic disruption of species also seems to take place. When our data were integrated into a broader phylogenetic framework the Chrysomyxa genus unexpectedly was not resolved as a monophyletic group. Indeed the spruce cone rusts C. pyrolae and C. monesis coalesced with the pine needle rusts belonging to the genus Coleosporium, whereas the microcyclic species Chrysomyxa weirii was embedded within a clade comprising the genus Melampsora. PMID:21659458

  7. On RNA-RNA interaction structures of fixed topological genus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Benjamin M M; Han, Hillary S W; Reidys, Christian M

    2015-04-01

    Interacting RNA complexes are studied via bicellular maps using a filtration via their topological genus. Our main result is a new bijection for RNA-RNA interaction structures and a linear time uniform sampling algorithm for RNA complexes of fixed topological genus. The bijection allows to either reduce the topological genus of a bicellular map directly, or to lose connectivity by decomposing the complex into a pair of single stranded RNA structures. Our main result is proved bijectively. It provides an explicit algorithm of how to rewire the corresponding complexes and an unambiguous decomposition grammar. Using the concept of genus induction, we construct bicellular maps of fixed topological genus g uniformly in linear time. We present various statistics on these topological RNA complexes and compare our findings with biological complexes. Furthermore we show how to construct loop-energy based complexes using our decomposition grammar.

  8. F-theory on genus-one fibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Volker; Morrison, David R.

    2014-08-01

    We argue that M-theory compactified on an arbitrary genus-one fibration, that is, an elliptic fibration which need not have a section, always has an F-theory limit when the area of the genus-one fiber approaches zero. Such genus-one fibrations can be easily constructed as toric hypersurfaces, and various SU(5) × U(1) n and E 6 models are presented as examples. To each genus-one fibration one can associate a τ -function on the base as well as an SL(2 , ) representation which together define the IIB axio-dilaton and 7-brane content of the theory. The set of genus-one fibrations with the same τ -function and SL(2 , ) representation, known as the Tate-Shafarevich group, supplies an important degree of freedom in the corresponding F-theory model which has not been studied carefully until now.

  9. The Genus Veillonella IV. Serological Groupings, and Genus and Species Emendations

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, M.

    1965-01-01

    Rogosa, M. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.). The genus Veillonella. IV. Serological groupings, and genus and species emendations. J. Bacteriol. 90:704–709. 1965.—Seven serological groups of Veillonella were found. The generic and species descriptions are enlarged and corrected. The type species is Veillonella parvula (Veillon and Zuber) Prévot, 1933. The proposed species, subspecies (infraspecific serogroups), and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strains are: Veillonella parvula subsp. parvula subsp. nov. (antigenic group VI), ATCC 10790; Veillonella parvula subsp. rodentium subsp. nov. (antigenic group II), ATCC 17743; Veillonella parvula subsp. atypica subsp. nov. (antigenic group V), ATCC 17744; Veillonella alcalescens subsp. alcalescens subsp. nov. (antigenic group IV), ATCC 17745; Veillonella alcalescens subsp. ratti subsp. nov. (antigenic group III), ATCC 17746; Veillonella alcalescens subsp. criceti subsp. nov. (antigenic group I), ATCC 17747; and Veillonella alcalescens subsp. dispar subsp. nov. (antigenic group VII), ATCC 17748. The following species listed in Bergey's Manual (7th ed.) are rejected as members of the genus: V. discoides, V. reniformis, V. orbiculus, and V. vulvovaginitidis. PMID:16562069

  10. The Old-World genus Ceratothripoides (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with a new genus for related New-World species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key is provided to five Old World species that comprise the genus Ceratothripoides Bagnall, and the species C. revelatus (Priesner) is recalled from synonymy with C. brunneus Bagnall. Five New World species previously placed in this genus are here allocated to Retanathrips Mound & Nickle gen.n., w...

  11. The Foraminiferal Genus Orbitolina in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglass, Raymond Charles

    1960-01-01

    The foraminiferal genus Orbitolina has been useful as an index fossil in the Cretaceous rocks of the circumglobal equatorial belt for nearly a century. In Europe and the Near and Middle East enough work has been done on the species to allow their use for approximate correlations within the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The study of American specimens of Orbitolina, had been almost neglected although they were used in a rather cursory fashion for markers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity strata. Three species had been described and assigned to Orbitolina in the United States, but the validity of each of the species had been questioned. A study of the genus Orbitolina, its type species, its morphology and the stratigraphic and geographic distribution in North America are presented in this report. Stratigraphic sections were measured throughout the area of Lower Cretaceous outcrop in Texas, New Mexico. and Arizona, and samples of Orbitolina were taken from these measured sections. Several thousand thin sections were prepared from which 8 species of Orbitolina, 7 of them new, were recognized. Orbitolina texana (Roemer) was found to be confined to the lower part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Orbitolina, minuta n. sp. is essentially confined to the upper part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Four of the species are known only from the Arizona and New Mexico region. The species of Orbitolina are useful stratigraphically, but all their characters-internal as well as external-must be considered. The use of thin sections for the study of Orbitolina is essential. One of the first things that had to be determined was the correct concept of the genus Orbitolina. The type species had not been determined by earlier authors, although four species had been suggested at various times. With careful study of the early literature, it became apparent that the type species is Orbitulites lenticulata Lamarck, 1816=Madreporites lenticularis Blumenbach, 1805

  12. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2016-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2n vertices (n > 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a < b ≤ n, and singletons [h, h] for some h ≤ n, are realized as genus ranges. For graphs with 2n − 1 vertices (n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a < b ≤ n except [0, n], and [h, h] for some h ≤ n, are realized as genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  13. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  14. Genus vaccinium: medicine, cosmetics, and coatings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brandy J; Lin, Baochuan; Bongard, Jason E

    2010-06-01

    Vaccinium is a genus of shrubs several of which, including cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry, produce edible fruit. Consumption of the fruit of these plants and juices pressed from it has long been known to have healthful effects. A number of functional compounds have been extracted from the fruits and seeds of these plants. Anthocyanidins and related compounds have been reported to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts of the fruits have been applied to the inhibition of non-enzymatic glycosylation in anti-aging preparations. The oil of the cranberry seed is high in antioxidants and is a source of omega-3, -6, and -9 fatty acids making it an attractive cosmetics component. The inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis by extracts of these fruits has been described. Extracts of the plants have also been applied to the development of antimicrobial paints and coatings. Here, we provide an overview of the wide range of applications described for various compounds from and preparations of these plants and survey the recent patents related to those applications.

  15. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains.

  16. Large N duality beyond the genus expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Marcos; Pasquetti, Sara; Putrov, Pavel

    2010-07-01

    We study non-perturbative aspects of the large N duality between Chern-Simons theory and topological strings, and we find a rich structure of large N phase transitions in the complex plane of the 't Hooft parameter. These transitions are due to large N instanton effects, and they can be regarded as a deformation of the Stokes phenomenon. Moreover, we show that, for generic values of the 't Hooft coupling, instanton effects are not exponentially suppressed at large N and they correct the genus expansion. This phenomenon was first discovered in the context of matrix models, and we interpret it as a generalization of the oscillatory asymptotics along anti-Stokes lines. In the string dual, the instanton effects can be interpreted as corrections to the saddle string geometry due to discretized neighbouring geometries. As a mathematical application, we obtain the 1/ N asymptotics of the partition function of Chern-Simons theory on the lens space L(2, 1), and we test it numerically to high precision in order to exhibit the importance of instanton effects.

  17. The Genus Aeromonas: Taxonomy, Pathogenicity, and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Over the past decade, the genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. In parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, A. hydrophila ATCC 7966, has been sequenced. In addition to established disease associations, Aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) and has been linked to emerging or new illnesses, including near-drowning events, prostatitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Despite these achievements, issues still remain regarding the role that Aeromonas plays in bacterial gastroenteritis, the extent to which species identification should be attempted in the clinical laboratory, and laboratory reporting of test results from contaminated body sites containing aeromonads. This article provides an extensive review of these topics, in addition to others, such as taxonomic issues, microbial pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance markers. PMID:20065325

  18. Mycorrhizal status of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae).

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Smith, C. I.; Jastrow, J. D.; Bever, J. D.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-01-01

    The Cyperaccae have generally been considered nonmycorrhizal, although recent evidence suggests that mycotrophy may be considerably more widespread among sedges than was previously realized. This study surveyed 23 species of Carex occurring in upland and wetland habitats in northeastern Illinois. Mycorrhizal infection by arbuscular fungi was found in the roots of 16 species of Carex and appears to occur in response to many factors, both environmental and phylogenetic. While some species appear to be obligately nonmycorrhizal, edaphic influences may be responsible for infection in others. In five of the seven Carex species that were nonmycorrrhizal, a novel root character, the presence of bulbous-based root hairs, was identified. The taxonomically patchy distribution of the distinctive root hair trait suggests that these structures may have evolved several times within the genus. Evidence of multiple independent origins of the root hair trait lends support to the hypothesis that root hairs represent an adaptation to nonmycotrophy. Although taxonomic position does seem to be of importance in determining the mycorrhizal dependence of sedges, the pattern may be a patchwork of both mycorrhizal clades and clades that have adapted to the nonmycorrhizal state.

  19. A revision of the genus Mecistostethus Marseul (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini)

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.; Dégallier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We revise the genus Mecistostethus Marseul, sinking the monotypic genus Tarsilister Bruch as a junior synonym. Mecistostethus contains six valid species: Mecistostethus pilifer Marseul, Mecistostethus loretoensis (Bruch), comb. n., Mecistostethus seagorum sp. n., Mecistostethus carltoni sp. n., Mecistostethus marseuli sp. n., and Mecistostethus flechtmanni sp. n. The few existing records show the genus to be widespread in tropical and subtropical South America, from northern Argentina to western Amazonian Ecuador and French Guiana. Only a single host record associates one species with the ant Pachycondyla striata Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae), but it is possible that related ants host all the species. PMID:22933855

  20. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    PubMed

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids. PMID:21337498

  1. Genus Caulophyllum: An Overview of Chemistry and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Li, Guo-Yu; Liang, Jun; Yang, Bing-You; Lü, Shao-Wa; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Recently, some promising advances have been achieved in understanding the chemistry, pharmacology, and action mechanisms of constituents from genus Caulophyllum. Despite this, there is to date no systematic review of those of genus Caulophyllum. This review covers naturally occurring alkaloids and saponins and those resulting from synthetic novel taspine derivatives. The paper further discussed several aspects of this genus, including pharmacological properties, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, and cell membrane chromatography for activity screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a point of reference for pharmaceutical researchers to develop new drugs from constituents of Caulophyllum plants. PMID:24876877

  2. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  3. Identity of Baker's species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cong; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Baker's (1915) species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar are revised. One species, Pythamus melichari Baker 1915, is placed in a new genus, Pythochandra Wei & Webb, gen. n.. The four varieties of P. melichari described by Baker (1915, 1923) (borneensis, bilobatus, decoratus and singaporensis) are elevated to species level and placed in the new genus stat. n., comb. n.. All species are briefly described and a key is provided for their separation. Two other species, Pythamus productus Baker and P. decoratus Baker, known only from females, are retained in Pythamus pending further studies.

  4. The description of Banacuniculus Buffington, new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new eucoiline genus Banacuniculus is described to accommodate several species previously placed in Ganaspidium: Banacuniculus hunteri (Crawford), new combination; B. merickeli (Miller), new combination; B. nigrimanus (Kieffer), new combination; B. utilis (Beardsley), new combination; these spec...

  5. Is Stringaspidiotus Macgillivray (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) An Accepted Genus?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Stringaspidiotus MacGillivray, 1921 is synonymized with Pseudaonidia Cockerell, 1897 as a junior subjective synonym and the type species of Stringaspidiotus (Aspidiotus (Pseudaonidia) curculiginis) is redescribed and illustrated....

  6. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    PubMed

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  7. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  8. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  9. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Kathariou, Sophia; Tiedje, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, the rhizosphere of plants, and the environment of food processing plants. Strains of this hereto little known bacterium that have been retrieved from such different (and often extreme) environments are worthy of attention as they are likely to be specifically adapted to such environments and to carry variations in the genome which may correspond to psychrophilic and thermophilic adaptations. However, comparative genomic investigations of Exiguobacterium spp. from different sources have been limited. In this study, we employed different molecular approaches for the comparative analysis of 24 isolates from markedly diverse environments including ancient Siberian permafrost and hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with I-CeuI (an intron-encoded endonuclease), AscI and NotI were optimized for the determination of genomic fingerprints of nuclease-producing isolates. The application of a DNA macroarray for 82 putative stress-response genes yielded strain-specific hybridization profiles. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, PFGE I-CeuI restriction patterns and hybridization profiles suggested that Exiguobacterium strains formed two distinct divisions that generally agreed with temperature ranges for growth. With few exceptions (e.g., Greenland ice isolate GIC31), psychrotrophic and thermophilic isolates belonged to different divisions.

  10. The huntsman genus Decaphora Franganillo, 1931 (Araneae: Sparassidae: Sparianthinae).

    PubMed

    Rheims, Cristina Anne; Alayón, Giraldo

    2014-06-12

    The genus Decaphora Franganillo, 1931 is revised. Pseudosparianthis variabilis F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900, Pseudosparianthis cubana Banks, 1909 and Thelcticopis pestai (Reimoser, 1939) are transferred to the genus; and P. cubana is considered a senior synonym of the type species, Decaphora trabiformis Franganillo, 1931. In addition, the female of T. pestai and the male of P. variabilis are described for the first time; and a new species, Decaphora kohunlich spec. nov., is described from Mexico and Guatemala.

  11. Revision of the genus Paracooperia Travassos, 1935 (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Gibbons, L M

    1978-09-01

    Only five of the eight species assigned to the genus Paracooperia are considered valid and are redescribed. P. petrowi Memmedov, 1961 and P. indiana Ali and Deshpande, 1970 are considered synonyms of P. nodulosa (Schwartz, 1928) Travassos, 1937 and the synonymy of P. matoffi Le Roux, 1950 with P. nodulosa is confirmed. A key to the species of the genus is given and their hosts and geographical localities are listed.

  12. Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids.

  13. Shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra and shifted Hurwitz numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Quan

    2016-05-01

    We construct the shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra, which is isomorphic to the central subalgebra A ∞ of infinite symmetric group algebra and to the shifted Schur symmetrical function algebra Λ* defined by Okounkov and Olshanskii. As an application, we get some differential equations for the generating functions of the shifted Hurwitz numbers; thus, we can express the generating functions in terms of the shifted genus expanded cut-and-join operators.

  14. Reclassification of the members of the genus Tetrathiobacter Ghosh et al. 2005 to the genus Advenella Coenye et al. 2005.

    PubMed

    Gibello, A; Vela, A I; Martín, M; Barra-Caracciolo, A; Grenni, P; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2009-08-01

    The taxonomic position of the genera Advenella and Tetrathiobacter was examined. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the two genera are closely related, representing a monophyletic cluster with high sequence similarity (98.1-99.7%) within the family Alcaligenaceae. The phenotypic characteristics of the type strains of Advenella incenata, Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis and Tetrathiobacter mimigardefordensis were re-examined using the API 20NE, API ZYM and API 50CH systems. Phylogenetic data together with similarities in phenotypic characteristics, G+C content and cellular acid composition suggest that they should be classified in the same genus. On the basis of the data presented, the two species of the genus Tetrathiobacter should be transferred to the genus Advenella, since this genus has nomenclatural priority. Therefore, Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis and Tetrathiobacter mimigardefordensis should be transferred to the genus Advenella as Advenella kashmirensis comb. nov. (type strain WT001T=LMG 22695T=MTCC7002T) and Advenella mimigardefordensis comb. nov. (type strain DPN7T=DSM 17166T=LMG 22922T). Emended descriptions of Advenella incenata and the genus Advenella are also presented.

  15. Proposal of nine novel species of the genus Lysinimicrobium and emended description of the genus Lysinimicrobium.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Moriyuki; Shibata, Chiyo; Saitou, Satomi; Tamura, Tomohiko; Komaki, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Oguchi, Akio; Hosoyama, Akira; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Yamamura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen novel Gram-stain-positive bacteria were isolated from various samples collected from mangrove forests in Japan, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the 13 isolates formed a single clade with Lysinimicrobium mangrovi HI08-69T, with a similarity range of 97.6-99.5 %. The peptidoglycan of the isolates was of the A4α type with an interpeptide bridge comprising Ser-Glu and an l-Ser residue at position 1 of the peptide subunit. The predominant menaquinone was demethylmenaquinone DMK-9(H4) and the major fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. These chemotaxonomic characteristics corresponded to those of the genus Lysinimicrobium. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, along with average nucleotide identity values among the isolates, we concluded that the 13 isolates should be assigned to the following nine novel species of the genus Lysinimicrobium: Lysinimicrobium aestuarii sp. nov. (type strain HI12-104T = NBRC 109392T = DSM 28144T), Lysinimicrobium flavum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-45T = NBRC 109391T = DSM 28150T), Lysinimicrobium gelatinilyticum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-44T = NBRC 109390T = DSM 28149T), Lysinimicrobium iriomotense sp. nov. (type strain HI12-143T = NBRC 109399T = DSM 28146T), Lysinimicrobium luteum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-123T = NBRC 109395T = DSM 28147T), Lysinimicrobium pelophilum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-111T = NBRC 109393T = DSM 28148T), Lysinimicrobium rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain HI12-135T = NBRC 109397T = DSM 28152T), Lysinimicrobium soli sp. nov. (type strain HI12-122T = NBRC 109394T = DSM 28151T) and Lysinimicrobium subtropicum sp. nov. (type strain HI12-128T = NBRC 109396T = DSM 28145T). In addition, an emended description of the genus Lysinimicrobium is proposed. PMID:26354549

  16. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O. P.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Alnus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, phenols, steroids, and tannins. Diarylheptanoids are the dominant constituents within the genus Alnus, few of them exhibited antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor kappaB activation, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, farnesyl protein transferase, cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, HIF-1 in AGS cells, and the HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect in MT-4 cells. Some ellagitannines showed hepatoprotective activity even in a dose of 1 mg/kg which is ten-fold smaller compared with the dose of traditional flavonoid-based drugs. The members of genus Alnus are well known for their traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases like cancer, hepatitis, inflammation of uterus, uterine cancer, rheumatism, dysentery, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, etc. The aim of the present review is to summarize the various researches related to the chemistry and pharmacology of genus Alnus. PMID:22279375

  17. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  18. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. PMID:21798357

  19. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization. PMID:26552163

  20. Psathyloma, a new genus in Hymenogastraceae described from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Soop, Karl; Dima, Bálint; Szarkándi, János Gergő; Cooper, Jerry; Papp, Tamás; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Nagy, László G

    2016-01-01

    A new genus Psathyloma is described based on collections of agarics from New Zealand. We describe two new species in the genus, Ps. leucocarpum and Ps. catervatim, both of which have been known and tentatively named for a long time awaiting a formal description. Morphological traits and phylogenetic analyses reveal that Psathyloma forms a strongly supported sister clade to Hebeloma, Naucoria and Hymenogaster Morphologically Psathyloma resembles Hebeloma from which it differs mainly by producing smooth basidiospores with a germ pore. The geographical range of the genus has been demonstrated to include several regions in the southern hemisphere. A survey of published environmental sequences reveals that Psathyloma spp. were isolated from ectomycorrhizal root tips from Tasmania and Argentina, indicating an ectomycorrhizal association with southern beech.

  1. The genus Pseudotorellia Florin (Ginkgoales): Taxonomic and stratigraphic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiritchkova, A. I.; Nosova, N. V.

    2009-12-01

    The history of investigation of the common Jurassic and Cretaceous genus Pseudotorellia Florin (Ginkgoales) represented by needle-shaped, narrow linear or lanceolate leaves bearing several veins and characterized by a single type of epidermis, is considered. An extended diagnosis of the genus and its taxonomic composition with regard to the epidermal characters are reported; the stratigraphic and geographical range of its species and the genus evolution are refined. Three new species Pseudotorellia asiatica N. Nosova et Kiritchkova, sp. nov., P. ketoviana N. Nosova et Kiritchkova, sp. nov., and P. samylinae N. Nosova et Kiritchkova, sp. nov. described from the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) sediments, are proposed as the correlative taxa within the Caspian oil and gas province. The stratotype and reference sections of the Lower Jurassic sediments in the Mangyshlak Mountains are reported for the first time.

  2. The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

  3. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944

  4. An updated review on medicinal herb genus Spilanthes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Kishan Lal; Jadhav, Shailesh Kumar; Joshi, Veenu

    2011-11-01

    Herbal medicine has been used in medical practice for thousands of years and recognized especially as a valuable and readily available resource for healthcare in Asian nations. India is a vast repository of medicinal plants that can be developed as a safe and economical system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Unfortunately, most of the traditionally used medicinal plants are yet unexplored or have not been fully examined by modern medical science. Therefore, exploring traditionally reported medicinal plants to leverage their potential for the betterment of human health is of great importance. The present review examines a promising medicinal plant genus Spilanthes. In recent years, many new compounds and activities of this plant genus have been established. The present review therefore, aims to compile up-to-date and comprehensive information of genus Spilanthes with special emphasis on phytochemical and ethnomedical uses, scientifically documented pharmacological activities and tissue culture methods for conservation. PMID:22088581

  5. Ulopsina, a Remarkable new Ulopine Leafhopper Genus from China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wu; Viraktamath, Chandra A.; Zhang, Yalin

    2012-01-01

    An unusual new cicadellid genus, Ulopsina gen. nov. and two new species, U. sinica sp. nov. and U. szwedoi sp. nov. from China are described, illustrated, and placed in the subfamily Ulopinae. The genus has characters of both the tribes Mesargini and Coloborrhinini, suggesting that the delimitation of these tribes may not be natural. The tribal placement of Ulopsina is uncertain. A checklist of the subfamily Ulopinae from China is also provided, and nine Chinese species designated under the genus Moonia are herein transferred to Mesargus, namely Mesargus albomaculata (Li) comb. nov., M. brevita (Cai et Shen) comb. nov., M. castanea (Kuoh) comb. nov., M. hei (Cai et Shen) comb. nov., M. hirsuta (Li) comb. nov., M. hyboma (Cai et Kuoh) comb. nov., M. maculigena (Kuoh) comb. nov., M. serrata (Li and Zhang) comb. nov., and M. spinapenis (Li and Zhang) comb. nov. PMID:22953732

  6. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bratkov, Viktor M.; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M.; Zdraveva, Petranka K.; Krasteva, Ilina N.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus. PMID:27041870

  7. A Review on the Terpenes from Genus Vitex.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jin-Long; Fang, Shi-Ming; Liu, Rui; Oppong, Mahmood Brobbey; Liu, Er-Wei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vitex, which belongs to the Verbenaceae family, includes approximately 250 species. Some species of the genus Vitex have traditionally been used for the treatment of headaches, ophthalmodynia, coughs, asthma, premenopausal syndrome, etc. Chemical investigations indicate that the characteristic constituents of the genus Vitex are terpenes, and 210 of these compounds, including monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and triterpenoids, have been obtained from 12 species. Pharmacological studies had shown that these terpenes possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and so on. In this paper, the identity of these terpenes and their pharmacological effects are reviewed, which can provide references for further research regarding the chemistry and utilization of the Vitex species. PMID:27608002

  8. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Bratkov, Viktor M; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M; Zdraveva, Petranka K; Krasteva, Ilina N

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus.

  9. Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Prunella.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yubing; Xia, Bohou; Xie, Wenjian; Zhou, Yamin; Xie, Jiachi; Li, Hongquan; Liao, Duanfang; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun

    2016-08-01

    Prunella is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the Labiatae family. There are approximately 15 species worldwide, distributed widely in the temperate regions and tropical mountains of Europe and Asia. In the genus Prunella, P. vulgaris is the most studied, following a several thousand-year history as a traditional antipyretic and antidotal Chinese herb. Furthermore, since ancient times, P. vulgaris has been widely used as a cool tea ingredient and consumed as a vegetable. The genus Prunella contains triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have revealed that Prunella possess antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, antihypertensive and hypoglycemic functions. The active components related to these functions are mainly triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and polysaccharides. This review mainly summarizes recent advances in traditional usage, chemical components and pharmacological functions.

  10. Phylogenetic placement of the ectomycorrhizal genus Cenococcum in Gloniaceae (Dothideomycetes).

    PubMed

    Spatafora, Joseph W; Owensby, C Alisha; Douhan, Greg W; Boehm, Eric W A; Schoch, Conrad L

    2012-01-01

    Cenococcum is a genus of ectomycorrhizal Ascomycota that has a broad host range and geographic distribution. It is not known to produce either meiotic or mitotic spores and is known to exist only in the form of hyphae, sclerotia and host-colonized ectomycorrhizal root tips. Due to its lack of sexual and asexual spores and reproductive structures, it has proven difficult to incorporate into traditional classification within Ascomycota. Molecular phylogenetic studies of ribosomal RNA placed Cenococcum in Dothideomycetes, but the definitive identification of closely related taxa remained elusive. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear loci (SSU, LSU, TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) of Dothideomycetes that placed Cenococcum as a close relative of the genus Glonium of Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae incertae sedis) with strong statistical support. Glonium is a genus of saprobic Dothideomycetes that produces darkly pigmented, carbonaceous, hysteriate apothecia and is not known to be biotrophic. Evolution of ectomycorhizae, Cenococcum and Dothideomycetes is discussed. PMID:22453119

  11. Calabi-Yau Geometry and Higher Genus Mirror Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si

    2011-12-01

    We study closed string mirror symmetry on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds at higher genus. String theory predicts the existence of two sets of geometric invariants, from the A-model and the B-model on Calabi-Yau manifolds, each indexed by a non-negative integer called genus. The A-model has been mathematically established at all genera by the Gromov-Witten theory, but little is known in mathematics for B-model beyond genus zero. We develop a mathematical theory of higher genus B-model from perturbative quantization techniques of gauge theory. The relevant gauge theory is the Kodaira-Spencer gauge theory, which is originally discovered by Bershadsky-Cecotti-Ooguri-Vafa as the closed string field theory of B-twisted topological string on Calabi-Yau three-folds. We generalize this to Calabi-Yau manifolds of arbitrary dimensions including also gravitational descendants, which we call BCOV theory. We give the geometric description of the perturbative quantization of BCOV theory in terms of deformation-obstruction theory. The vanishing of the relevant obstruction classes will enable us to construct the higher genus B-model. We carry out this construction on the elliptic curve and establish the corresponding higher genus B-model. Furthermore, we show that the B-model invariants constructed from BCOV theory on the elliptic curve can be identified with descendant Gromov-Witten invariants on the mirror elliptic curve. This gives the first compact Calabi-Yau example where mirror symmetry can be established at all genera.

  12. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  13. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  14. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus.

    PubMed

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi.

  15. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxfield, Henry; Ross, Simon F.; Way, Benson

    2016-06-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddle points for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  16. Revision of the genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini)

    PubMed Central

    Homziak, Nicholas; Hopkins, Heidi; Miller, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heteranassa Smith (Erebidae, Omopterini), native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, includes two recognized species, namely Heteranassa mima (Harvey) and Heteranassa fraterna Smith. These are separated mainly by subtle differences in wing color and pattern, leading to speculation about the validity of the described species. This study examines variation in external and internal morphology across the geographic range of the genus, aiming to clarify species limits, describe morphology, and provide a comprehensive assessment of variation within the genus. Results indicate that Heteranassa fraterna syn. n., is a junior synonym of Heteranassa mima. PMID:26692786

  17. Notes on the genus Ismarus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-xian; Chen, Hua-yan; Xu, Zai-fu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese species of the genus Ismarus Haliday, 1835, are revised for the first time. Three new species from the Oriental region of China and belonging to Ismarus halidayi-group are described and illustrated: Ismarus longus sp. n., Ismarus nigritrochanter sp. n. and Ismarus parvicellus sp. n. Two species are newly reported for the Chinese fauna: Ismarus dorsiger (Haliday, 1831) and Ismarus halidayi Foerster, 1850. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided. The type specimens are deposited in the Hymenopteran Collection of South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (SCAU). PMID:21852927

  18. Stapecolis, new genus of Ochlerini (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Discocephalinae).

    PubMed

    Garbelotto, Thereza De A; Campos, Luiz A; Grazia, Jocelia

    2016-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of the Herrichela clade (Ochlerini) was conducted to solve problems concerning the systematics of the genus Alitocoris Sailer; this recovered monophyletic groups which are considered to be new genera. Stapecolis gen. nov. is here proposed for two species (S. latus sp. nov. and S. bimaculatus sp. nov.) representing one of those monophyletic groups. The new genus is supported by ten synapomorphies, five of them pertaining to the morphology of the pygophore have not been found together in any other genera of Ochlerini. The female genitalia also has characteristics different from closely related genera. PMID:27470743

  19. Advances in Chemistry and Bioactivity of the Genus Chisocheton Blume.

    PubMed

    Shilpi, Jamil A; Saha, Sanjib; Chong, Soon-Lim; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-05-01

    Chisocheton is one of the genera of the family Meliaceae and consists of ca. 53 species; the distribution of most of those are confined to the Indo-Malay region. Species of broader geographic distribution have undergone extensive phytochemical investigations. Previous phytochemical investigations of this genus resulted in the isolation of mainly limonoids, apotirucallane, tirucallane, and dammarane triterpenes. Reported bioactivities of the isolated compounds include cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifeedant, and lipid droplet inhibitory activities. Aside from chemistry and biological activities, this review also deals briefly with botany, distribution, and uses of various species of this genus. PMID:26970405

  20. Genome Sequence of Type Strains of Genus Stenotrophomonas

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prashant P.; Midha, Samriti; Kumar, Sanjeet; Patil, Prabhu B.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic resource of type strains and historically important strains of genus Stenotrophomonas allowed us to reveal the existence of 18 distinct species by applying modern phylogenomic criterions. Apart from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, S. africana represents another species of clinical importance. Interestingly, Pseudomonas hibsicola, P. beteli, and S. pavani that are of plant origin are closer to S. maltophilia than the majority of the environmental isolates. The genus has an open pan-genome. By providing the case study on genes encoding metallo-β-lactamase and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats (CRISPR) regions, we have tried to show the importance of this genomic dataset in understanding its ecology. PMID:27014232

  1. Shape transitions of high-genus fluid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The morphologies of genus-2 to -8 fluid vesicles are studied by using dynamically triangulated membrane simulations with area-difference elasticity. It is revealed that the alignments of the membrane pores alter the vesicle shapes and the types of shape transitions for the genus g ≥ 3 . At a high reduced volume, a stomatocyte with a circular alignment of g + 1 pores continuously transforms into a discocyte with a line of g pores with increasing intrinsic area difference. In contrast, at a low volume, a stomatocyte transforms into a (g+1) -hedral shape and subsequently exhibits a discrete phase transition to a discocyte.

  2. Frigitilla gen. nov., a new genus of Amazonian Mutillidae (Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Bartholomay, Pedro R; Williams, Kevin A; Luz, David R; Morato, Elder F

    2015-01-01

    Mutilla frigidula Cresson, 1902 was transferred to Tobantilla by Williams et al. (2011), based on morphological similarities with females of that genus. Discovery of the male of this species indicated significant morphological differences from Tobantilla. We therefore erect the genus, Frigitilla gen. nov., for Mutilla frigidula. Herein, we describe the male of F. frigidula (Cresson, 1902), comb. nov., associate it with its host (Trypoxylon spp.), and discuss its relations to other mutillid genera. The impact of collecting method and specimen age on the integumental coloration of specimens is discussed, emphasizing the need to diagnose species on consistent structural features rather than differences in color pattern.

  3. Taxonomic Study of the Genus Apalacris Walker (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z M; Lin, L L; Niu, Y

    2016-02-01

    The research history of the genus Apalacris is reviewed; a key to all known species of the genus is given, and one new species, Apalacris eminifronta n. sp., and one new combination, Apalacris maculifemura (Lin & Zheng), are described. The new species is very closely related to Apalacris antennata Liang, but differs in the following characters: (1) tegmen longer, reaching apex of hind femur; (2) basal part of inner side of hind femur orange red; (3) frontal ridge more protruded, obviously depressed under median ocellus in lateral view; and (4) epiphallus bridge prominent, ancora shorter than anterior projection. PMID:26514365

  4. Taxonomic Study of the Lichen Genus Lobaria in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Mei-Rong; Wang, Xin Yu; Koh, Young Jin

    2012-01-01

    Lobaria (Schreb.) Hoffm is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula, yet until now, no revision study has been done on this genus. After careful examination of specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI), nine distinct species of Lobaria were confirmed. Morphological characteristics such as the presence or absence of isidia, or whether or not the surface was ridged or smooth, and chemical characteristics such as the result of the medulla reaction were of significant importance in the differentiation of species. Here, we provided detailed descriptions together with a key to all the known Korean species. PMID:22783127

  5. Revision of the genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini).

    PubMed

    Homziak, Nicholas; Hopkins, Heidi; Miller, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    Heteranassa Smith (Erebidae, Omopterini), native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, includes two recognized species, namely Heteranassa mima (Harvey) and Heteranassa fraterna Smith. These are separated mainly by subtle differences in wing color and pattern, leading to speculation about the validity of the described species. This study examines variation in external and internal morphology across the geographic range of the genus, aiming to clarify species limits, describe morphology, and provide a comprehensive assessment of variation within the genus. Results indicate that Heteranassa fraterna syn. n., is a junior synonym of Heteranassa mima. PMID:26692786

  6. The genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): description of a new species, and notes on the genus in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Fabio Arturo; Medina U, Claudia Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 in Colombia is reviewed and updated since the revision of the genus by Génier (1996), and the species list for Colombia of Medina et al. (2001). Two new distributional records for Colombia are confirmed; Ontherus politus Génier 1996 and Ontherus gilli Génier 1996. An updated species list of Ontherus for Colombia is presented with comments on the species with doubtful distribution in Colombia. O. felicitae n. sp., a new species from the mexicanus species group, is described from Western Andes of Colombia. PMID:25947792

  7. New teleomorph combinations in the entomopathogenic genus Metacordyceps.

    PubMed

    Kepler, R M; Sung, G-H; Ban, S; Nakagiri, A; Chen, M-J; Huang, B; Li, Z; Spatafora, J W

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metacordyceps contains arthropod pathogens in Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) that formerly were classified in Cordyceps sensu Kobayasi et Mains. Of the current arthropod pathogenic genera of Hypocreales, the genus Metacordyceps remains one of the most poorly understood and contains a number of teleomorphic morphologies convergent with species of Cordyceps s.s. (Cordycipitaceae) and Ophiocordyceps (Ophiocordycipitaceae). Of note, the anamorph genera Metarhizium and Pochonia were found to be associated only with Metacordyceps and demonstrated to be phylogenetically informative for the clade. Several species of Cordyceps considered to have uncertain placements (incertae sedis) in the current taxonomic framework of clavicipitoid fungi were collected during field expeditions mostly in eastern Asia. Species reclassified here in Metacordyceps include Cordyceps atrovirens Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps indigotica Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps khaoyaiensis Hywel-Jones, Cordyceps kusanagiensis Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps martialis Speg., Ophiocordyceps owariensis Kobayasi, Cordyceps pseudoatrovirens Kobayasi & Shimizu and Ophicordyceps owariensis f. viridescens (Uchiy. & Udagawa) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. Incorporation of these species in a multigene phylogenetic framework of the major clades of clavicipitoid fungi more than doubled the number of species in Metacordyceps and allowed for refinement of morphological concepts for the genus consistent with the phylogenetic structure. Based on these findings we then discuss evolution of this genus, subgeneric relationships, anamorph connections, and suggest additional species that should be confirmed for possible inclusion in Metacordyceps. PMID:22067304

  8. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia).

    PubMed

    Young, Mark T; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-10-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian-Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene-Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range. PMID:26064545

  9. Revision of the Neotropical genus Macreupelmus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary A P

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Macreupelmus Ashmead (Eupelmidae: Eupelminae) is revised based on females, males being unknown for the genus. The genus is redescribed, its phylogenetic relationships within Eupelminae discussed, and the species keyed, described and illustrated through macrophotography. Nine species are recognized-Macreupelmus auranticrus n. sp., M. aurantispina n. sp., M. brasiliensis Ashmead 1896, M. crassicornis (Cameron 1884), M. dromedarius (Cameron 1884), M. erwini n. sp., M. granulosus n. sp., M. laticlavius n. sp., and M. nigrispina n. sp. Excluded from the genus are Macreupelmus baccharidis Kieffer 1910 (transferred to Brasema Cameron as B. baccharidis (Kieffer) n. comb.), Macreupelmus bekilyi Risbec 1952 (transferred to Reikosiella (Hirticauda Bouček) as Reikosiella (Hirticauda) bekilyi (Risbec) n. comb.), and Macreupelmus pulchriceps Cameron 1905 (transferred to Eupelmus Dalman as E. (Eupelmus) pulchriceps (Cameron) n. comb.). The latter name is recognized as the senior synonym of Cerambycobius cushmani Crawford 1908 n. syn., Cerambycobius townsendi Crawford 1912 n. syn., and Eupelmus cyaniceps amicus Girault 1916 n. syn. Lectotypes are designated for M. brasiliensis, M. dromedarius and E. pulchriceps. PMID:27615911

  10. The microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, S.R.; Harris, S.C.; Slusark, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and taxonomy of the microcaddisfly genus Ithytrichia Eaton in North America is reviewed. Males and females of I. clavata Morton, I. mazon Ross, and I. mexicana Harris and Contreras-Ramos are illustrated, and a key is provided for their separation. Females of I. mazon and I. mexicana are described for the first time; the female of I. clavata is redescribed.

  11. Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...

  12. Protoplast culture of several members of the genus Physalis.

    PubMed

    Bapat, V A; Schieder, O

    1981-12-01

    High yields of protoplasts were obtained by enzymic treatment of mesophyll from five different species of the genus Physalis. Subsequent divisions and colony formation were achieved in all the species. However, numerous combinations of phytohormones failed to induce regeneration of shoots from callus tissue developed from protoplasts.

  13. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae).

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  14. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins. PMID:26623624

  15. The genus Myrmarachne (Araneae, Salticidae) in Flores, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Takeshi; Edwards, G B

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Myrmarachne are described (Myrmarachne acutidens sp. n., Myrmarachne epigealis sp. n.), and Myrmarachne macrognatha and Myrmarachne melanocephala are redescribed from Flores specimens. The females of Myrmarachne macrognatha are recorded for the first time. PMID:23794886

  16. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

  17. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia).

    PubMed

    Young, Mark T; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-10-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian-Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene-Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range.

  18. First report of the genus Retortamonas (Sarcomastigophora: Retortamonadidae) in birds.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Castro, A T; Herrera, S; Ponce, F

    2001-10-01

    In studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Spain, trophozoites of Retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. The species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. However, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus Retortamonas in birds. PMID:11685262

  19. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16–19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as “endangered” as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general. PMID:25878546

  20. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  1. The genus Neotherina Dognin (Geometridae, Ennominae) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J. Bolling; Chacón, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract So far, two species of Neotherina Dognin have been recorded in Costa Rica. Neotherina imperilla (Dognin) occurs primarily at altitudes between 1100 and 1700 meters and Neotherina callas (Druce) which is widely distributed above 1100 meters. A third, new species, Neotherina xanthosa Sullivan and Chacón is described from altitudes above 2400 meters. Heterogeneity of the genus is discussed. PMID:22207793

  2. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general. PMID:25878546

  3. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general.

  4. On the equivariant algebraic Jacobian for curves of genus two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athorne, Chris

    2012-04-01

    We present a treatment of the algebraic description of the Jacobian of a generic genus two plane curve which exploits an SL2(k) equivariance and clarifies the structure of Flynn's 72 defining quadratic relations. The treatment is also applied to the Kummer variety.

  5. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark T.; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-01-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian–Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian–lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene–Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range. PMID:26064545

  6. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species

    PubMed Central

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  7. Is the New Primate Genus Rungwecebus a Baboon?

    PubMed Central

    Zinner, Dietmar; Arnold, Michael L.; Roos, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2005, a new primate species from Tanzania, the kipunji, was described and recognized as a member of the mangabey genus Lophocebus. However, molecular investigations based upon a number of papionins, including a limited sample of baboons of mainly unknown geographic origin, identified the kipunji as a sister taxon to Papio and not as a member of Lophocebus. Accordingly, the kipunji was separated into its own monotypic genus, Rungwecebus. Methodology/Principal Findings We compare available mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from the voucher specimen of Rungwecebus to other papionin lineages, including a set of geographically proximal (parapatric) baboon samples. Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio. Nuclear data support a Papio+Rungwecebus clade, but it remains questionable whether Rungwecebus represents a sister taxon to Papio, or whether it is nested within the genus as depicted by the mitochondrial phylogeny. Conclusions/Significance Our study clearly supports a close relationship between Rungwecebus and Papio and might indicate that the kipunji is congeneric with baboon species. However, due to its morphological and ecological uniqueness Rungwecebus more likely represents a sister lineage to Papio and experienced later introgressive hybridization. Presumably, male (proto-)kipunjis reproduced with sympatric female baboons. Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome. Since only one kipunji specimen was studied, it remains unclear whether all members of the new genus have been impacted by intergeneric introgression or rather only some populations. Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are

  8. Lactobacillus phylogenomics--towards a reclassification of the genus.

    PubMed

    Claesson, Marcus J; van Sinderen, Douwe; O'Toole, Paul W

    2008-12-01

    The extremely diverse genus Lactobacillus is the largest among the lactic acid bacteria, with over 145 recognized species. In this work, which to our knowledge is the largest comparative phylogenomics study of a single genus to date, 12 genomes of Lactobacillus strains were subjected to an array of whole-genome and single-marker phylogenetic approaches, to investigate the case for extracting subgeneric groups and to determine whether a single congruent phylogeny could be identified. We conclude that GroEL is a more robust single-gene phylogenetic marker for the genus Lactobacillus than the 16S rRNA gene, when no whole-genome information is available. Significant incongruence was found, both within a set of trees based on 141 core proteins and within those phylogenies based on numbers of orthologues, concatenated RNA polymerase subunits and single gene/protein markers. This is possibly due to different evolutionary rates, hidden paralogies or horizontal gene transfer. Such phylogenetic ambiguities are efficiently visualized with cluster-networks. Although the genus contains some highly unstable taxa, four subgeneric groups were distinguished. Qualitative and quantitative gene analysis of these groups resulted in three findings: there is a relatively small number of group-specific proteins, the majority of which are poorly characterized; major groupings are functionally better distinguishable by absent genes rather than gained/retained genes; and, finally, a gene cluster possibly involved in purine metabolism is uniquely present in four lactobacilli associated with meat. In conclusion, because of either significantly different branching patterns or the availability of too few members, three of the four identified groups could not serve as the basis for identifying candidate novel genera within the current genus. We therefore suggest targeted sequencing of key taxonomic species identified here, which are likely to add sufficient depth for a future reclassification

  9. Two new species of genus Hydrosmittia Ferrington & Sæther (Diptera: Chironomidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruilei; Liu, Wenbin; Ferrington, Leonard C Jr; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    The genus Hydrosmittia from China is reviewed. Two new species H. continalinea sp. n. and H. sipinata sp. n. are described and illustrated based on male imagines. Key to known male imagines of genus Hydrosmittia worldwide is provided. PMID:27395216

  10. Insights into the genus Diaporthe: phylogenetic species delimitation in the D. eres species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Diaporthe comprises pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species with both temperate and tropical distributions. Cryptic diversification, phenotypic plasticity and extensive host associations have long complicated accurate identifications of species in this genus. The delimitation of the ge...

  11. Genus X. Lechevalieria Labeda, Hatano, Kroppenstedt and Tamura 2001, 1049vp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology, systematics and ecology of the species that currently compose the actinobacterial genus Lechevalieria is presented. The phylogenetic position of the taxa within this genus, including Lecehvalieria aerocolonigenes, Lechevalieria flava, Lechevalieria fradiae, and Lechevalieria xinjian...

  12. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  13. Vastarena, a new genus for the New Caledonian cicada Abroma pumila Distant (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Delorme, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    In New Caledonia, the species Abroma pumila (Distant, 1892) shows several incompatibilities with the genus type species A. guerinii (Signoret, 1860). A new genus, Vastarena, is proposed. PMID:27615969

  14. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  15. First record of the genus Phradis Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tersilochinae) from the Neotropical Region

    PubMed Central

    Khalaim, Andrey I.; Bordera, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the genus Phradis, Phradis peruvianus sp. n., from the mountainous part of Peruvian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. This is the first record of the genus from South America and the Neotropical region. PMID:22371684

  16. Mitochondrial DNA-based genetic diversity of genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Lygus is widely distributed in North American and Eurasian continents. It is the most-studied genus in the family Miridae. However, very less information on the genetic diversity of this genus is available. Studying genetic variation among Lygus pest species and thereby constructing a ...

  17. Description of Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, a preternatural new genus and species of Trichoplastini (Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, is described. This genus is characterized by having a fuscina along the dorsal margin of the clypeus. This three-pronged protrusion is unique within Hymenoptera. The genus is also characterized by the possession of a corniculum, and the shared poss...

  18. A new species of the genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Philonthina) from the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    López-García, Margarita M; Méndez-Rojas, Diana M

    2014-05-09

    The monotypic genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 was described based on a species from Panama and since the original description nearly nothing has been added to its taxonomical knowledge. The aim of the present paper is to describe a new species of the genus from Colombia and to report the genus for the first time from South America, adding some biological notes of the species.

  19. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves.

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  20. What do we know by now about the genus Naegleria?

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2014-11-01

    In this short overview of the genus Naegleria a brief historical sketch is given since the discovery of this amoeboflagellate in 1899 and the finding in 1970 that one species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in man. Eight different types of this pathogen are known which have an uneven distribution over the world. Until now 47 different Naegleria spp. are described, of which two other species cause disease in experimental animals, and their geographical dispersal is indicated. The presence of group I introns in the SSU and in the LSU rDNA in the genus is discussed, as well as the possibility of sex or mating. It is also mentioned that the genome of N. fowleri should not be compared to that of Naegleria gruberi, to know why the former is pathogenic, but to the genome of its closest relative Naegleria lovaniensis. PMID:25108159

  1. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter.

  2. Revision of the genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij, 1976 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae)

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The monophyletic genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij in Kryzhanovskij & Reichardt, 1976 is revised herein. All three species Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832), H. lutshniki (Reichardt, 1941) and H. cyprius (Dahlgren, 1981) are found to be correctly assigned to the genus and their monophyly is supported by the synapomorphy of the presence of prosternal foveae. The three species are re-described and supplemented with colour photographs as well as SEM micrographs outlining their differences. Male genitalia drawing of H. subvirescens and H. lutshniki are provided and a key to the species is given. Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832) is newly reported from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Jordan, Cyprus and Mongolia. The lectotypes and paralectotypes of the following species are designated herein: Saprinus foveisternus Schmidt, 1884, Saprinus syriacus Marseul, 1855 and Saprinus viridulus Marseul, 1855. PMID:25147473

  3. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves

    PubMed Central

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  4. Chemical constituents of the genus Prunus and their medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Poonam, V; Raunak; Kumar, G; Reddy L, C S; Jain, R; Sharma, S K; Prasad, A K; Parmar, V S

    2011-01-01

    Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, including the plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds. Nearly five hundred seventy chemical compounds have so far been isolated from several Prunus species. This comprehensive review summarizes the isolation of chemical compounds reported during the period 1908 to June 2010. As per scrutiny of literature, we did not find any review on the chemistry or biology of genus Prunus or on the biological activities of its constituents. Extensive work has been done at the Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi by several groups on the isolation, identification, biological activity evaluation and synthesis of a large number of novel compounds from different Prunus species during the the last six decades (1940-2000), primarly by Seshadri, Nagarajan and Parmar et al. on P. domestica, P. cerasus, P. cerasoides, P. puddum and P. communis. This comprehensive review will benefit a large number of researchers in the fields of chemistry, botany, drug industries and pharmacology. PMID:21831039

  5. Identification of Yersinia enterocolitica within the genus Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, H; Hensel, A; Aleksic, S; Meyer, H

    2000-04-01

    In this report we describe a PCR strategy for the unambigous identification of biochemically presumptive typed Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica. A total of 269 isolates belonging to ten species of the genus Yersinia were investigated. In a first PCR only isolates classified as Y. enterocolitica (n = 113) gave rise to a specific amplification resulting in a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. By sequencing the 269 amplicons of a second pan-Yersinia PCR spanning a distinct 16S rRNA gene region, 20 different sequence clusters could be identified within the genus. By this, Y. enterocolitica isolates of American and European origin could be distinguished safely and already described sequence clusters of the species Y. frederiksenii were confirmed. New 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters were detected for the species Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. aldovae, Y. kristensenii, and Y. rohdei.

  6. Nutrient partitioning and seedling development in the genus Leucaena

    SciTech Connect

    Dovel, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Slow establishment of the genus Leucaena from seed has been attributed to law seedling vigor and late nodulation. Observation of early seedling growth indicated that partitioning of a large proportion of resources to the root of young Leucaena seedlings could account, in part, for the slow initial shoot growth observed in this genus. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the partitioning of stored seed reserves, photosynthate, and nitrogen in developing Leucaena seedlings. The effects of nodulation and nitrogen fertilization on partitioning of nutrients in the seedling were also examined. Seed reserves were initially used for radicle growth in dark grown seedlings; however, partitioning soon shifted to the hypocotyl. By four days after imbibition, hypocotyl weight exceeded radicle weight in both species tested (L. leucocephala and L. retusa), at all temperatures above 20/sup 0/C. Two experiments were conducted examining the carbon partitioning of L. leucocephala cultivar K-8 using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse labeling techniques.

  7. Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Vinhal da Costa, R; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Ma R

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are noted for their pharmacological and culinary properties. In this study, it was performed a critical literature review, focusing primarily on aspects of the chemical composition of these mushrooms whose pharmacological properties and nutritional composition characterize them as functional foods. It was also discussed articles conducted in vitro and in vivo proving the high antioxidant potential of the Agaricaceae family, in addition to articles which emphasize the toxicity characteristics and safety for its use in therapy or in human nutrition. These mushrooms exhibit numerous bioactive substances as well as safety regarding toxicity, which characterize them as functional foods. Despite the countless beneficial effects on human health, mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are little known by the population, making it necessary partnership and combined efforts among producers, industries and researchers in order to disseminate, research and consumption of these foods.

  8. [Screening potential DNA barcode regions of genus Papaver].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Yu-jing; Wu, Yan-sheng; Cao, Ying; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    DNA barcoding is an effective technique in species identification. To determine the candidate sequences which can be used as DNA barcode to identify in Papaver genus, five potential sequences (ITS, matK, psbA-trnH, rbcL, trnL-trnF) were screened. 69 sequences were downloaded from Genbank, including 21 ITS sequences, 10 matK sequences, 8 psbA-trnH sequences, 14 rbcL sequences and 16 trnL-trnF sequences. Mega 6.0 was used to analysis the comparison of sequences. By the methods of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences, evaluating DNA barcoding gap and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic trees. The sequence trnL-trnF performed best. In conclusion, trnL-trnF can be considered as a novel DNA barcode in Papaver genus, other four sequences can be as combination barcode for identification.

  9. What do we know by now about the genus Naegleria?

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2014-11-01

    In this short overview of the genus Naegleria a brief historical sketch is given since the discovery of this amoeboflagellate in 1899 and the finding in 1970 that one species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in man. Eight different types of this pathogen are known which have an uneven distribution over the world. Until now 47 different Naegleria spp. are described, of which two other species cause disease in experimental animals, and their geographical dispersal is indicated. The presence of group I introns in the SSU and in the LSU rDNA in the genus is discussed, as well as the possibility of sex or mating. It is also mentioned that the genome of N. fowleri should not be compared to that of Naegleria gruberi, to know why the former is pathogenic, but to the genome of its closest relative Naegleria lovaniensis.

  10. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  11. Genomic encyclopedia of type strains of the genus Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes.

  12. A review of recent research progress on the astragalus genus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxia; Qu, Lu; Dong, Yongzhe; Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Fang, Shiming; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2014-11-17

    Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for "qi deficiency" syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development.

  13. [Screening potential DNA barcode regions of genus Papaver].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Yu-jing; Wu, Yan-sheng; Cao, Ying; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    DNA barcoding is an effective technique in species identification. To determine the candidate sequences which can be used as DNA barcode to identify in Papaver genus, five potential sequences (ITS, matK, psbA-trnH, rbcL, trnL-trnF) were screened. 69 sequences were downloaded from Genbank, including 21 ITS sequences, 10 matK sequences, 8 psbA-trnH sequences, 14 rbcL sequences and 16 trnL-trnF sequences. Mega 6.0 was used to analysis the comparison of sequences. By the methods of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences, evaluating DNA barcoding gap and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic trees. The sequence trnL-trnF performed best. In conclusion, trnL-trnF can be considered as a novel DNA barcode in Papaver genus, other four sequences can be as combination barcode for identification. PMID:26677693

  14. A Taxonomic Study of the Genus Myelochroa in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2012-01-01

    Myelochroa (Asahina) Elix & Hale is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded nearly two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the current study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Myelochroa in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of twelve species of Myelochroa from S. Korea, including one new record, Myelochroa xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Myelochroa species are presented. PMID:23323045

  15. Notes on the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayala, Udenil; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale is a somewhat rare lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded more than two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the present study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Hypotrachyna in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of seven species of Hypotrachyna from South Korea, including one new record, Hypotrachyna nodakensis (Asahina) Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Hypotrachyna species are presented. PMID:23610534

  16. Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains of the Genus Bifidobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes. PMID:25085493

  17. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter. PMID:27134021

  18. Fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma: from barcodes to biodiversity* §

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-01

    Hypocrea/Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised humans and animals, while others can cause damage to cultivated mushroom. With the recent advent of a reliable, BarCode-aided identification system for all known taxa of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, it became now possible to study some of the biological fundamentals of the diversity in this fungal genus in more detail. In this article, we will therefore review recent progress in (1) the understanding of the geographic distribution of individual taxa; (2) mechanisms of speciation leading to development of mushroom diseases and facultative human mycoses; and (3) the possible correlation of specific traits of secondary metabolism and molecular phylogeny. PMID:18837102

  19. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:25674928

  20. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.