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Sample records for left internal carotid

  1. Left internal carotid artery agenesis associated with basilar and left vertebral artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Paşaoğlu, Lale; Vural, Murat; Ziraman, Ipek; Uyanιk, Sadιk Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Agenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare congenital anomaly. Most of the patients are asymptomatic and it is usually discovered incidentally by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is close association of the cranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage with ICA agenesis. We present a case of a 61-year-old male with left ICA agenesis associated with basilar artery and left vertebral artery aneurysms. The patient complained of headaches and numbness on the right-side of the face. Physical examination showed high blood pressure (210/90 mmHg). Neurological examination revealed nystagmus and decreased sensation on the right-side of the face. Agenesis of left ICA, left carotid canal with basilar and left vertebral artery aneurysms were demonstrated incidentally using CT, MRI, and digital subtraction angiography, as a part of an evaluation for suspected cerebrovascular accident.

  2. [A case of DiGeorge syndrome with left internal carotid artery absence probably causing one-and-a-half syndrome].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Shigeru; Suda, Masashi; Kobayashi, Takehiro

    2012-09-01

    We experienced a case of DiGeorge syndrome with left internal carotid artery absence probably causing one-and-a-half syndrome. MR angiogram demonstrated the apparent absence of the left internal carotid artery and consequently abnormal blood supply to the left middle cerebral artery, which was derived from the basilar artery via the left posterior communicating artery. The patient alsoshowed both an extremely narrow carotid canal on the left side and a very fine vessel extending to the terminal of the left internal carotid artery. Therefore, we regarded this abnormality as severe hypoplasia of left internal carotid artery and supposed that this hypoplasia had originated in maldevelopment of the third aortic arch based on the coexisting lower bifurcation of the right common carotid artery. Since the lesion of one-and-a-half syndrome is restricted to the pontine tegmentum, we speculated that it had resulted from ischemia of the basilar artery area during the embryonic period associated with the absence of the internal carotid artery. To our knowledge, DiGeorge syndrome has never been reported as a complication of internal carotid artery absence. The patient did not demonstrate either chromosome 22q11.2 deletion or TBX1 gene mutation, which is considered the gene responsible for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Therefore, the etiology of DiGeorge syndrome in this case remains unclear.

  3. Idiopathic bilateral chronic subdural hematoma with left internal carotid artery infarct in a 3 months infant: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mahesh; Yadav, Krishan; Verma, Saurabh Kumar; Maheshwari, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) in infants is extremely rare. A very limited number of cases are known and reported in literature. The clinical presentation can be myriad varying from asymptomatic cases to gross neurological deficits. We report a case of a 3-month-old child who presented to us with repeated episodes of focal seizures of the left upper and lower limb of 1 month duration. Subsequent imaging revealed bilateral CSH (right > left) with left internal carotid artery infarct and midline shift to left by 8 mm. The child improved following burr hole evacuation of the right-sided CSH. The management of such case and a brief review of literature are discussed. PMID:28217168

  4. [Internal carotid aneurysm of dysphasic origin].

    PubMed

    Ouldsalek, E; El Idrissi, R; Elfatemi, B; Zahdi, O; El Khaloufi, S; Lekehal, B; Sefiani, Y; El Mesnaoui, A; Bensaid, Y

    2014-12-01

    Extracranial carotid aneurysms are rare, but are of significant clinical interest due to the high risk of cerebral embolism. Despite considerable progress in endovascular techniques, surgical treatment of these aneurysms remains the golden standard. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who presented an aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery measuring 46 × 26 mm. Resection of the aneurysm with interposition of a prosthetic graft was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Pathology reported that the aneurysmal sac probably had a dysplastic origin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Bilateral atherosclerotic internal carotid artery occlusion and recurrent ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Amin, Osama S M

    2015-06-08

    Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (BICAO) is a rare disease that carries a gloomy prognosis. We report a case of a 52-year-old man who developed ischaemic infarction at the region of the right middle cerebral artery; he was found to have atherosclerotic occlusion of both internal carotid arteries on Doppler-duplex examination. He received medical treatment only. After 1 year, he developed a new infarction at the region of the left middle cerebral artery. Conventional angiography revealed bilateral occlusion of internal carotid arteries at their origin, approximately 50% stenosis of the common carotid bulbs and mild stenosis of the origin of external carotid arteries. The patient did not undergo any form of surgical revascularisation procedures and died of severe aspiration pneumonia approximately 2 months after the second stroke. BICAO portends a poor outcome and carries a risk of recurrent ischaemic events. The best management strategy for this vascular occlusion remains unclear.

  6. Successful Endovascular Treatment of a Left Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm Following Failed Surgery of a Right Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. Ucar, Ibrahim; Ozsoy, Fatma; Arat, Anil; Yorgancioglu, Cem; Boeke, Erkmen

    2005-04-15

    Aneurysm of the common carotid artery is a rare and serious disease requiring prompt treatment in order to avoid neurologic complications. A 39-year-old man presented with voice impairment and a pulsatile mass at the right side of his neck and was found by color Doppler examination to have bilateral common carotid artery aneurysms of unknown origin. The right-sided large aneurysm was treated with placement of an 8 mm interposition Gore-Tex graft between the right common and internal carotid arteries. The surgical graft thrombosed 7 days after the surgery but the left-sided aneurysm was successfully treated by a Jostent peripheral stent-graft. Color Doppler examination showed a patent stent and no filling of the aneurysm on his first and sixth-month follow-up. Bilateral common carotid artery aneurysm is an exceptionally unusual condition and endovascular treatment of carotid artery aneurysms with covered stents may become an effective treatment alternative for these lesions.

  7. Stroke and pituitary apoplexy revealing an internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tae-Hee; Rheims, Sylvain; Ritzenthaler, Thomas; Berthezene, Yves; Nighoghossian, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    A 40-year-old hypertensive woman experienced a left hemispheric stroke revealing an acute pituitary apoplexy and a dissection limited to the lacerum segment of the left internal carotid artery. The relationship between pituitary apoplexy and arterial dissection is discussed. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contrast M-mode power Doppler ultrasound in the detection of right-to-left shunts: utility of submandibular internal carotid artery recording.

    PubMed

    Topçuoglu, M A; Palacios, I F; Buonanno, F S

    2003-10-01

    Cardiac right-to-left shunts (RLSs) can be detected by echocardiography and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). In patients without adequate transtemporal bone windows, results may be obtained by insonating extracranial arteries; however, the sensitivity and practicality of this approach is unknown. In 34 patients evaluated with echocardiography for RLSs, 73 studies were performed with unilateral, simultaneous contrast TCD (cTCD) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and submandibular power M-mode Doppler (PMD) ultrasound of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ecICA). The number of microbubble (MB) signals and their times of first appearance were determined. RLS volume was graded on 6 levels (I = trace, II = small, III = medium, IVa = large, IVb = shower, IVc = curtain) and compared between MCA and ecICA recordings. In 2 of 24 cTCD studies in 15 patients without evidence of RLSs on single-gated MCA monitoring, low-volume RLSs (grades I and II) were detected via ecICA insonation; in both, MB signatures were tracked in the ecICA, passing into the ipsilateral ACA. In 40 of 49 studies (26 patients) in which RLSs were demonstrated with single-gated MCA monitoring, more MBs were detected in the ecICA than the MCA, with either single-gated or M-mode images, with increases of 76.9% and 66.1%, respectively (P = .027). Compared to single-gated studies, M-mode technology detected nonsignificant increases in MB number in both the MCA and the ecICA (by 20.2% and 14.0%, respectively). Contrast PMD with cervical ICA recording is at least as sensitive and specific as the traditional MCA method in detecting RLSs; furthermore, this method seems to be more sensitive for low-volume RLSs (grades I-III) because of air MB decay (9.2%) and entry into the ipsilateral ACA (34.2%). This is in concordance with the increase of detected RLS grades observed in 32.7% of patients with echocardiography-documented RLSs. The authors therefore suggest the

  9. Association of carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Roman, M J; Pickering, T G; Schwartz, J E; Pini, R; Devereux, R B

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in a large group of asymptomatic hypertensive and normotensive adults and to examine its relation to the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Both electrocardiographic and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, including cerebrovascular disease, but the mechanism of association is unknown. Four hundred eighty-six (277 normotensive and 209 untreated hypertensive) adults, free of clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, were studied prospectively with echocardiography to determine left ventricular mass and carotid ultrasound to detect atherosclerosis and to measure common carotid artery dimensions. Carotid atherosclerosis was present in 16% of normotensive and 23% of hypertensive participants (p < 0.05) and was associated with older age, higher systolic and pulse pressures and larger left ventricular mass index ([mean +/- SD] 91 +/- 19 vs. 82 +/- 18 g/m2, p < 0.0001). The difference in mass persisted after adjustment for baseline differences in age and blood pressure. Subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy were twice as likely to have carotid atheromas (35% vs. 18%, p < 0.01). Logistic regression analyses, including standard risk factors, indicated that only age and left ventricular mass index independently predicted the presence of carotid plaque, both in the entire study group and when normotensive and hypertensive subjects were considered separately. We believe that the present study provides the first evidence that higher left ventricular mass as detected by echocardiography is associated with the presence of carotid plaque. The association between cardiac hypertrophy and systemic atherosclerosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of the high incidence of vascular events that is well documented in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  10. Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion associated with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pria; Mann, Sharan K; Fischbein, Nancy J; Lansberg, Maarten G

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman presented with a right-hemispheric stroke 1 year after she had suffered a left-hemispheric stroke. Her diagnostic workup was notable for bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries at their origins and a positive lupus anticoagulant antibody test. There was no evidence of carotid dissection or another identifiable cause for her carotid occlusions. These findings suggest that the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be implicated in the pathological changes that resulted in occlusions of the extracranial internal carotid arteries. Young stroke patients who present with unexplained internal carotid artery occlusions may benefit from testing for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies.

  11. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Associated with the Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pria; Mann, Sharan K.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Lansberg, Maarten G.

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman presented with a right-hemispheric stroke 1 year after she had suffered a left-hemispheric stroke. Her diagnostic workup was notable for bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries at their origins and a positive lupus anticoagulant antibody test. There was no evidence of carotid dissection or another identifiable cause for her carotid occlusions. These findings suggest that the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be implicated in the pathological changes that resulted in occlusions of the extracranial internal carotid arteries. Young stroke patients who present with unexplained internal carotid artery occlusions may benefit from testing for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:24707268

  12. [Thrombosis of the ending internal carotid artery complicating giant aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Truffert, A; Jouvenot, M; Coulaud, X; Dandelot, J B

    1993-01-01

    A 30-year old man suddenly developed left hemiplegia. CT scan and cerebral angiography showed complete thrombosis of a right internal carotid giant aneurysm. Anterograde propagation of the thrombus in the parent artery led to ipsilateral hemispheric infarction, an exceptional presenting symptom of such vascular malformation. The diagnostic and etiopathogenic aspects are briefly discussed.

  13. Assessment of Influences of Stenoses in Right Carotid Artery on Left Carotid Artery Using Wall Stress Marker

    PubMed Central

    Ghagare, Dushali; Chattopadhyay, Himadri

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Atherosclerosis is a diseased condition of blood vessel. It causes partial blockage in lumen of vessel and affects hemodynamic of localized flowing blood. Complex geometries like region of bifurcation also affects hemodynamic to a larger extent. Complexity further increases in presence of stenoses at region of bifurcation. Such morphological change in vessel largely affects parent as well as corresponding sister and daughter vessels. In this paper, complexity in hemodynamic of blood in pair of carotid arteries (left and right carotid arteries) is evaluated in presence of stenoses at basilar segment of right artery in three-dimensional domain using reconstructed tomographic images of patient. Methods. Transient information of blood flow is obtained using four-dimensional phase-contrast MRI technique. Haematocrit component of blood at diseased condition is considered using Power Law and Quemada model. Numerical techniques are used to solve pressure-coupled governing equations of flowing blood. Results. Dysfunctions of endothelial cells near the wall are characterised by evaluating shear stress markers. Wall shear stress and its gradient based and harmonic based descriptors are calculated over complete geometry during one cardiac cycle. Conclusion. Internal branch of left carotid artery and external branch of right carotid artery are found prone to secondary stenoses in presence of primary stenoses at basilar segment of right carotid artery. PMID:28191460

  14. Internal Carotid Artery Hypoplasia: Role of Color-Coded Carotid Duplex Sonography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Ya; Liu, Hung-Yu; Lim, Kun-Eng; Lin, Shinn-Kuang

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of color-coded carotid duplex sonography for diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia. We retrospectively reviewed 25,000 color-coded carotid duplex sonograms in our neurosonographic database to establish more diagnostic criteria for internal carotid artery hypoplasia. A definitive diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia was made in 9 patients. Diagnostic findings on color-coded carotid duplex imaging include a long segmental small-caliber lumen (52% diameter) with markedly decreased flow (13% flow volume) in the affected internal carotid artery relative to the contralateral side but without intraluminal lesions. Indirect findings included markedly increased total flow volume (an increase of 133%) in both vertebral arteries, antegrade ipsilateral ophthalmic arterial flow, and a reduced vessel diameter with increased flow resistance in the ipsilateral common carotid artery. Ten patients with distal internal carotid artery dissection showed a similar color-coded duplex pattern, but the reductions in the internal and common carotid artery diameters and increase in collateral flow from the vertebral artery were less prominent than those in hypoplasia. The ipsilateral ophthalmic arterial flow was retrograde in 40% of patients with distal internal carotid artery dissection. In addition, thin-section axial and sagittal computed tomograms of the skull base could show the small diameter of the carotid canal in internal carotid artery hypoplasia and help distinguish hypoplasia from distal internal carotid artery dissection. Color-coded carotid duplex sonography provides important clues for establishing a diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia. A hypoplastic carotid canal can be shown by thin-section axial and sagittal skull base computed tomography to confirm the final diagnosis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Carotid Artery Stenting in a Patient with Spontaneous Recanalization of a Proximal Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jun Seok; Choi, Woo Suk

    2006-01-01

    We report here on a rare case of carotid artery angioplasty and stenting in a patient with spontaneous recanalization after complete occlusion of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient initially showed severe stenosis at the left proximal ICA on MR angiography (MRA). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) performed three days after MRA showed complete occlusion of the proximal ICA. The follow-up DSA after four weeks showed recanalization of the ICA, and then carotid artery stenting was successfully performed. There has been no neurologic complication during more than one year follow-up. PMID:17143034

  16. The validity of internal carotid back pressure measurements during carotid endarterectomy for unilateral carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lord, R S; Graham, A R

    1986-06-01

    Peri-operative neurological deficits in 212 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy for unilateral carotid stenosis were examined to determine whether the internal carotid back pressure (ICBP) correctly predicted the need for a protective shunt during temporary carotid occlusion. Three strokes occurred in 149 patients who were not shunted. In one of these the ICBP indicated the need for a shunt, but shunting was not possible for technical reasons and a stroke due to hypoperfusion occurred. In another patient a stroke occurred as a result of embolism. There was only one patient where the ICBP possibly incorrectly predicted that a shunt would not be necessary. Four strokes due to various causes occurred in the 63 shunted patients. Shunting was not withheld from these patients in order to prove that ICBP would correctly predict their vulnerability to hypoperfusion since to have done so would be unethical. The results indicate that in patients with unilateral carotid stenosis the ICBP is an accurate indicator of which patients can undergo carotid endarterectomy without the need for shunting.

  17. Pituitary apoplexy causing internal carotid artery occlusion--case report.

    PubMed

    Chokyu, Isao; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Goto, Takeo; Chokyu, Kimihiko; Chokyu, Masahiro; Ohata, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with pituitary apoplexy resulting in internal carotid artery occlusion manifesting as sudden onset of severe headache, right ptosis, and left hemiparesis, associated with visual impairment. Computed tomography showed a nodular mass, located in the sellar and suprasellar regions with early signs of acute cerebral ischemia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging indicated that the mass compressed the bilateral cavernous sinuses, resulting in obliteration of the cavernous portion of the right internal carotid artery. Right middle cerebral artery territory infarction was also found. Conservative therapy with steroids was given in the acute stage and repeated MR imaging showed recanalization of the internal carotid artery with reduction of the tumor size. The tumor was removed through the transsphenoidal approach to obtain a definitive diagnosis in the chronic stage. The histological diagnosis was consistent with non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Eye movement of this patient showed full recovery after the operation. Pituitary apoplexy resulting in internal carotid artery occlusion is rare. Surgical decompression through the transsphenoidal approach is appropriate, but the optimal timing should consider severe disturbance of visual acuity and visual field in the acute stage.

  18. Carotid artery anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are four carotid arteries, two on each side of the neck: right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the head and brain.

  19. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Somanna, Sampath; Kovoor, Jerry ME

    2011-01-01

    Agenesis and hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare congenital anomalies, occurring in less than 0.01% of the population. We report a rare case of bilateral hypoplasia of the ICA in a patient with post-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe the embryological development of the cerebral vasculature and present a review of literature. PMID:22223934

  20. Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis Presenting with Limb Shaking TIA

    PubMed Central

    Alfishawy, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis may lead to a wide range of clinical symptoms. We describe the case of a 66-year-old female who experienced a transient ischemic attack (TIA) with episodes of limb shaking caused by ICA stenosis. After epilepsy had been suspected and ruled out, studies of her left ICA showed extensive blockage as a result of atherosclerosis. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed total occlusion of the left ICA and the patient was eventually medically managed due to the strong possibility of surgical complications. We reported this patient's clinical course to shed light on a rare manifestation of carotid stenosis that may be confused with other diagnoses if not closely scrutinized. PMID:27840754

  1. Extracranial internal carotid artery stenting in Moya-Moya syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Casana, R; Tolva, V; Guy Bianchi, P; Dalainas, I

    2012-12-01

    A 58-year-old Caucasian lady presented for severe left internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Two months before she was operated for right carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in another Institution, complicated with internal carotid artery thrombosis and development of transient hemiplegia and aphasia. Postoperative selective DSA showed the development of an abnormal basal meshwork of collateral vessels with typical evidence for moyamoya disease. Preoperative workup in our Institution included cerebral MRI witch showed two ischemic right frontal and parietal lesions. The patient underwent successful stenting of the left ICA. This is the first report of extracranial ICA stenting in a patient with moyamoya syndrome.

  2. Immediate surgery for acute internal carotid artery dissection and thrombosis during filter deployment prior to stenting: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tolva, V; Bertoni, G B; Bianchi, P G; Keller, G C; Casana, R

    2013-08-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a validated option in the treatment of selected extracranial carotid artery stenosis. Carotid artery dissection during CAS is a rare but potentially devastating complication. We report a case of acute dissection and thrombosis of the left internal carotid artery during filter tip wire engaging maneuvers, complicated by intraoperative complete blindness of the left eye. Immediate conversion to carotid endarterectomy was performed under general anesthesia with electroencephalographic monitoring. The patient was discharged home symptomless and remains asymptomatic eight months after the operation, with normal left internal carotid patency and fully recovered eyesight. In conclusion, the management of acute carotid occlusion during CAS requires emergent evaluation and definitive endovascular or open surgical repair to minimize neurologic morbidity. We advocate that all endovascular procedures are carried out in a well-established surgical environment.

  3. Left or Right Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients with Atherosclerotic Disease: Ipsilateral Effects on Cognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, N.; Bossema, E. R.; van Ommen, M.; Moll, F. L.; Ackerstaff, R. G. A.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated hemispheric functions ipsilateral to the side of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with a severe stenosis in the left or right carotid artery. Assessments took place 1 day before and 3 months after CEA. Only right-handed males were included. Nineteen patients underwent surgery of the left carotid artery and 17 of the right.…

  4. Left or Right Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients with Atherosclerotic Disease: Ipsilateral Effects on Cognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, N.; Bossema, E. R.; van Ommen, M.; Moll, F. L.; Ackerstaff, R. G. A.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated hemispheric functions ipsilateral to the side of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with a severe stenosis in the left or right carotid artery. Assessments took place 1 day before and 3 months after CEA. Only right-handed males were included. Nineteen patients underwent surgery of the left carotid artery and 17 of the right.…

  5. Internal carotid false aneurysm after thermocoagulation of the gasserian ganglion.

    PubMed

    Schmerber, Sébastien; Vasdev, Ashok; Chahine, Karim; Tournaire, Romain; Bing, Fabrice

    2008-08-01

    To identify petrous internal carotid bleeding aneurysm as a complication of gasserian ganglion thermocoagulation. A single case presenting with epistaxis and otorrhagia 1 month after gasserian ganglion thermocoagulation in the treatment of refractory trigeminal neuralgia. Gasserian ganglion thermocoagulation, computed tomographic scan, and angiocomputed tomographic scan revealing petrous internal carotid ruptured aneurysm and internal carotid embolization. Radiologic diagnosis of the vascular injury after gasserian ganglion thermocoagulation. Radiologic identification of ruptured internal carotid artery as the cause of simultaneous epistaxis and otorrhagia. Gasserian ganglion thermocoagulation may cause aneurysm and rupture of the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery.

  6. External Carotid-Internal Jugular Fistula as a Late Complication After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Rare Case

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Bulent; Cekirge, Saruhan; Tekkok, Ismail Hakki

    2011-02-15

    A 66-year-old man presented with mild amnesia, progressive fatigue, ataxia, visual hallucinations, and debility. His past medical history included right-sided carotid endarterectomy performed elsewhere 6 years previously. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation-like tortous vessels, venous congestion, and ischemic areas. Cerebral angiography showed right-sided compound external carotid artery-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula, and distal occlusion of the right IJV. Transvenous embolization via contralateral IJV was performed, and the fistula, together with fistulous portion of the distal IJV, was sealed using coils. Two years later, patient is well with normal neurologic examination findings. The presence of an arteriovenous communication after vascular surgery is a serious complication with potential long-term effects and therefore should be diagnosed and treated as promptly as possible.

  7. [Intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor closed head injury].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, S; Tomokiyo, M; Koga, H; Furukawa, Y; Nomura, S; Shimokawa, S; Nakagawa, S; Anegawa, S; Hayashi, T

    2001-10-01

    Thrombosis of the extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery as a result of nonpenetrating head and neck injury is not uncommon. However, intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor head and neck injury without skull fracture is rare. We report a case of 14-year-old male who suffered a minor head injury during an athletic meeting of his school and developed a right hemiparesis and a lethargy state resulting from thrombosis of the supraclinoid portion of the left internal carotid artery. On admission, skull films and a CT scan revealed no abnormality. One hour later, he fully recovered. One day later, no definite lesions were detected on T1-weighted and T2-weighted image of MRI, but an abnormal high signal lesion in the left frontal lobe was detected on diffusion-weighted image of MRI. On additional MR angiography, intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery due to dissection was demonstrated.

  8. Artificial embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula with post-operative patency of internal carotid artery

    PubMed Central

    Isamat, Fabian; Salleras, V.; Miranda, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    This report deals with a patient of 86 who developed a carotid-cavernous fistula. Artificial embolization alone was considered the safest treatment for this patient and proved to be adequate. Post-operative preservation of the patency of the internal carotid artery was demonstrated by angiography. We believe this method is particularly appropriate for carotid-cavernous fistulas if it is demonstrated by angiography that the major blood flow of the carotid artery pours into the fistula. A soft-iron clip attached to the muscle can be used for external and forceful guidance of the embolus into the fistula with the help of an electromagnet, hence the patency of the internal carotid artery can be preserved. The embolus should be introduced through the external carotid artery. This is the only case known to us in which patency of the internal carotid artery was post-operatively maintained. We have reviewed 545 reported cases of surgically treated carotid-cavernous fistulas and analysed the results from simple cervical carotid ligation to the more sophisticated methods of artificial embolizations. The results obtained by artificial embolization have been consistently good, while the other techniques have failed in large percentages. Artificial embolization should be used as the primary treatment for carotid-cavernous fistula, since ligation of the internal carotid artery precludes its embolization at a later date. Images PMID:5478949

  9. Atypical Arteritis in Internal Carotid Arteries: A Novel Concept of Isolated Internal Carotid Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Fukuma, Kazuki; Kowa, Hisanori; Nakayasu, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We presented a 38-year-old woman suffering from acute cerebral infarction due to arteritis limited to bilateral internal carotid arteries without a condition of giant cell arteritis or granulomatosis with polyangitis. Our case is unprecedented and characterized by a young woman with wall enhancement in the internal carotid arteries on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), therapeutic effects of steroids, and positive status for human leucocyte antigen-B39, -B51 and -DR4. These disease characteristics were not in accordance with existing diagnostic criteria of vasculitis, such as Takayasu’s arteritis, giant cell arteritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and Behcet’s disease. We suggested consideration of a novel “isolated internal carotid arteritis” disease concept. PMID:27708542

  10. Cannulation of the extrathoracic left common carotid artery for thoracic aorta operations through left posterolateral thoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Veron, Sebastien; Neri, Eugenio; Buklas, Dimitrios; Pula, Giorgio; Benvenuti, Antonio; Massetti, Massimo; Bizzarri, Federico; Sassi, Carlo

    2004-11-01

    The femoral artery is the usual site of arterial cannulation in thoracic aorta operations through left posterolateral thoracotomy that require cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). The advantage of this perfusion route is in limiting the duration of circulatory arrest. It is associated, however, with the risk of retrograde embolization or, in cases involving aortic dissection, malperfusion of vital organs. To prevent these risks, we have used the extrathoracic left common carotid artery as the perfusion route. From December 1999 to January 2003, we used cannulation of the left extrathoracic common carotid artery in 42 thoracic aorta operations through posterolateral thoracotomy with an open proximal anastomosis technique during DHCA. The indication for thoracic aortic repair was atherosclerotic ulcer in 7 cases, chronic aortic aneurysm in 18, acute type B dissection in 5, and chronic type B dissection in 12. Cannulation of the extrathoracic left common carotid artery was successful in all patients. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, with no cerebrovascular events in all cases. No cannulation-related complications were observed. One patient died from cardiac insufficiency on postoperative day 5. No peripheral neurological deficits (paraplegia or paraparesis) were observed. Postoperative complications included atrial fibrillation in five patients, reoperation to control hemorrhage in six, respiratory insufficiency in nine, and renal insufficiency in six. These results indicate that cannulation of the left extrathoracic common carotid artery is a useful, reliable method for proximal perfusion during CPB in patients undergoing repair of the descending thoracic aorta through left posterolateral thoracotomy. By providing effective perfusion of the brain, this technique can prolong safe DHCA time. Another advantage is the prevention of cerebral emboli, ensuring retrograde flow to the aortic arch.

  11. An Important Clue in the Sonographic Diagnosis of Internal Carotid Artery Agenesis: Ipsilateral Common Carotid Artery Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Omer; Yilmaz, Cengiz; Gulek, Bozkurt; Soker, Gokhan; Cikman, Gokalp; Inan, Ibrahim; Demirduzen, Selahaddin

    2014-01-01

    A 42-year-old female patient, who had been diagnosed with an occlusion of her left internal carotid artery (ICA) following Doppler ultrasonographic (US) and digitally-subtracted angiographic (DSA) examinations performed in an outer healthcare center in order to eliminate the underlying cause of her complaint of amorosis fugax, later applied to our hospital with the same complaint. At Doppler US performed in our hospital's radiology department, her right common carotid artery (CCA) was normal, but her left CCA was hypoplastic. The right internal artery (ICA) was validated as normal. At the left side, however, the ICA was apparent only as a stump and it did not demonstrate a continuity. The diagnosis of ICA agenesis was confirmed by the utilization of Doppler US, CT, and DSA imaging, and it was concluded also that ipsilateral CCA hypoplasia could be evaluated as an important clue to the diagnosis of ICA agenesis. PMID:25097789

  12. The contralateral carotid disease in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lovrencić-Huzjan, Arijana; Strineka, Maja; Aiman, Drazen; Strbe, Sanja; Sodec-Simicević, Darja; Demarin, Vida

    2009-09-01

    The one-year incidence of carotid occlusion is 6/100 000 inhabitants in general population. Stroke incidence and mortality rate in these patients vary. Patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy (CES) are at a higher risk of progression of contralateral carotid stenosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the management and natural history of the contralateral internal carotid artery disease in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). During one year, 297 patients with ICAO were investigated. Follow up examinations were retrospectively analyzed and patients were divided into groups according to contralateral carotid disease. Out of 297 patients, only one investigation was performed in 90 patients with carotid occlusion. Thirty three patients were followed up due to postoperative ICAO. In 14 patients, ICAO developed during ultrasonographic follow up. In this group of patients, 9 had unchanged contralateral findings, whereas in 5 patients disease progression was observed. Out of 44 patients with ICAO and contralateral subtotal stenosis at initial investigation, 42 underwent carotid surgery. Postoperatively, 32 patients had normal findings, 6 developed mild carotid stenosis, 2 developed moderate carotid stenosis, and 2 had postoperative carotid occlusion. Two patients were followed-up without intervention. Nine patients with bilateral ICAO were followed-up for years. Follow up was continued in 106 patients with ICAO and contralateral mild to moderate changes. The finding was unchanged in 68 patients. In 21 (30%) patients the disease progressed to subtotal stenosis and 18 patients underwent carotid surgery. Accordingly, contralateral carotid disease progression was observed in one third of patients with carotid occlusion. Additional studies on the issue are needed.

  13. Traumatic thrombosis of internal carotid artery sustained by transfer of kinetic energy.

    PubMed

    Kalcioglu, Mahmut Tayyar; Celbis, Osman; Mizrak, Bulent; Firat, Yezdan; Selimoglu, Erol

    2012-06-01

    A 31-year-old male patient with a fatal thrombosis of the internal carotid artery caused by gun shot injury was presented in this case report. The patient was referred to the hospital with a diffuse edema on his left cheek. On otolaryngologic examination, there was a bullet entrance hole at the left mandibular corpus. No exit hole could be found. The finding from his axial computed tomography of neck and paranasal sinuses was normal. On neurological examination, a dense right hemiparesis was observed. In his cerebral angiogram, left common carotid artery was totally obliterated. Diffuse ischemia was observed in the left cerebral hemisphere. Despite intensive interventions, the patient died 4 days after the accident. In the autopsy, a large thrombosis was obtained in the left common carotid artery. This case emphasizes a fatal kinetic energy effect in vascular structures. It is stressed that a gun shot injury could be fatal with its indirect kinetic energy effects at subacute phase.

  14. Congenital Absence of the Internal Carotid Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Florio, Francesco; Balzano, Silverio; Nardella, Michele; Strizzi, Vincenzo; Cammisa, Mario; Bozzini, Vincenzo; Catapano, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Vincenzo

    1999-01-15

    We report three cases of congenital absence of an internal carotid artery (ICA), diagnosed incidentally by digital subtraction angiography. The analysis of the cases is based on the classification of segmental ICA agenesis proposed by Lasjaunias and Berenstein. Usually the patients with this rare vascular anomaly are asymptomatic; some may have symptoms related to cerebrovascular insufficiency, compression by enlarged intracranial collateral vessels, or complications associated with cerebral aneurysms. Diagnosis of congenital absence of ICA is made by skull base computed tomography (CT) scan, CT and magnetic resonance angiography, and conventional or digital subtraction angiography.

  15. [Interesting radiological and pathological findings of the internal carotid artery observed in a case of cavernous sinusitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Moriyama, T; Fujita, Y; Ono, H; Mori, K

    1977-06-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to the neurosurgical department of Nagasaki University Hospital with complaints of high fever, deteriorated conciousness and nonpulsating exophthalmus on the left side. The first carotid angiography which had been done 2 days prior to admission, showed only an irregular narrowing in the cavernous portion of the left carotid artery. The right carotid angiogram did not show any recognizable abnormality. The second angiography which was performed 4 days after the admission, revealed an cylindrical aneurysmal opacification about 0.8 cm in diameter in the left intracavernous portion. The right angiography could not be done at that time. On the 47th hospital day, the third angiogram was performed. There noted again, the aneurysmal opacification in the left carotid artery and furthermore, the right carotid artery was occluded completely at its entrance into the cavernous sinus. On post-mortem examination, the cavernous sinus was filled with coagulated blood which drived from the ruptured left internal carotid artery. Microscopic examination revealed marked invasion of leucocytes to the wall of the internal carotid artery at the cavernous portion in both sides. These findings suggested that a mycotic aneurysm which resulted from the cavernous sinusitis ruptured into the left cavernous sinus and spelled blood compressed the opposite (right) carotid artery within the carvernous sinus which resulted in occlusion of the artery.

  16. Endovascular Treatment of Extracranial Internal Carotid Aneurysms Using Endografts

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, Sebastian Rostagno, Roman D.; Zander, Tobias; Llorens, Rafael; Schonholz, Claudio; Maynar, Manuel

    2008-03-15

    Aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) are infrequent. They are difficult to treat with conventional surgery because of their distal extension into the skull base. We report three cases of EICA aneurysms in two symptomatic patients successfully treated with polytetrafluoroethylene self-expanding endografts using an endovascular approach. The aneurysms were located distal to the carotid bifurcation and extended to the subpetrous portion of the internal carotid artery.

  17. An internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting with dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Davey, P T; Rychlik, I; O'Donnell, M; Baker, R; Rennie, I

    2013-10-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented to her general practitioner with a 4-week history of right neck swelling. Clinical examination elicited a pulsatile mass consistent with a carotid artery aneurysm. Five days later the patient noticed her tongue movements had become awkward with associated dysarthria. Computed tomography confirmed a 4cm internal carotid artery aneurysm arising just distally to the carotid bifurcation. She proceeded to transfemoral diagnostic carotid angiography. Balloon occlusion of the right internal carotid artery origin was performed for a ten-minute period without any neurological deficit. The decision was taken to proceed to surgical ligation of the origin of the internal carotid artery. Her symptoms of dysarthria have resolved.

  18. Computational solution of the velocity and wall shear stress distribution inside a left carotid artery under pulsatile flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Nurullah; Turmuş, Hakan

    2014-08-01

    Stroke is still one of the leading causes for death after heart diseases and cancer in all over the world. Strokes happen because an artery that carries blood uphill from the heart to the head is clogged. Most of the time, as with heart attacks, the problem is atherosclerosis, hardening of the arteries, calcified buildup of fatty deposits on the vessel wall. In this study, the fluid dynamic simulations were done in a left carotid bifurcation under the pulsatile flow conditions computationally. Pulsatile flow waveform is given in the paper. In vivo geometry and boundary conditions were obtained from a patient who has stenosis located at external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) of his common carotid artery (CCA). The location of critical flow fields such as low wall shear stress (WSS), stagnation regions and separation regions were detected near the highly stenosed region and at branching region.

  19. Aortic dissection decades following internal carotid artery dissection--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Schievink, W I; Mokri, B

    1997-11-01

    Recurrent dissections involving carotid, vertebral, or renal arteries have been described in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissections, with a maximal interval between dissections of fourteen years. The authors describe 2 patients in whom aortic dissections developed twenty-five and forty years, respectively, following carotid artery dissections. These 2 patients constituted 8% of the total number of patients from Rochester, Minnesota, who were diagnosed with aortic dissection between 1987 and 1992. The first patient, a forty-five-year-old woman, presented in 1948 with right neck pain and headache, associated with several episodes of transient numbness of the right face and numbness and clumsiness of the left upper and lower extremities. Examination showed right miosis. Angiography showed a stenosis of the extracranial right internal carotid artery beginning several centimeters from the bifurcation. She died at age eighty-five from an aortic dissection. The second patient, a thirty-eight-year-old man, noted left orbital and frontotemporal headaches and drooping of the left eyelid in 1962. Examination showed left oculosympathetic palsy. Angiography showed stenosis and an aneurysm in the midportion of the extracranial left internal carotid artery. He died at age sixty-three from an aortic dissection. These cases suggest that following a carotid artery dissection the risk of a recurrent arterial dissection may remain elevated for a prolonged period of time and the recurrent dissection may involve the aorta.

  20. [Branches of the perforating portions of the internal carotid arteries and their commissural anastomoses].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, V E

    1984-01-01

    By means of injection methods allowing microscopic preparation of vessels 0.015 mm and less in diameter the author examined 25 block-specimens of the base of the skull which contained the left and right cavernous parts of the internal carotid arteries and structures adjacent to them. The specimens were obtained in cases in which death was caused by the disease not associated with pathological conditions of the central nervous system. Arteries arising from the cavernous part of the internal carotid artery are described. The author determined the existence of a system of permanent commissural anastomoses between the cavernous parts of the left and right internal carotid arteries which is formed by the branches of the dorsal meningeal, inferior hypophyseal, and capsular arteries (McConnell arteries). The importance of the system in the diagnosis and treatment of pathological processes of parasinus and parasellar localization, particularly arteriosinus malformations of this region, is pointed out.

  1. Non-visualization of the internal carotid artery with a normal ipsilateral common carotid artery Doppler waveform: a finding suggesting congenital absence of the ICA on colour Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, C; Utebay, B; Kalaycioglu, S; Onat, G; Solak, A

    2006-09-01

    We report a case of congenital absence of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) that presented with left-sided facial numbness. On MRI of the brain, occlusion of the left cavernous ICA was suggested. On colour Doppler ultrasound (CDS), the left ICA was not visualized and the ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA) showed normal flow in systole and diastole. Combined with the correct identification of the left external carotid artery (ECA), these findings were suggestive of congenital absence of the ICA rather than occlusion. The final diagnosis of congenital absence of the ICA was confirmed with CT of the skull base.

  2. Unilateral Agenesis of Internal Carotid Artery with Intercavernous Anastomosis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresh, Athiyappan; Vasanthraj, Praveen Kumar; Chandrasekharan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral agenesis of internal carotid artery (ICA) with intercavernous anastomosis is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of a 25-year-old female with 2-month history of holocranial headache. Neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed absence of left ICA with an abnormal intercavernous vessel in the sella. Computed tomography (CT) showed absence of the left carotid canal. Doppler ultrasonography (USG) showed high resistance flow in the left common carotid artery (CCA). Since no hemorrhage or aneurysm was seen, patient was managed conservatively and is on regular follow-up. Based on our knowledge, this is the first case to demonstrate the features of unilateral agenesis of ICA with intercavernous anastomosis in X-ray, Doppler USG, CT, and MRI scans of the brain. PMID:25806142

  3. Unilateral agenesis of internal carotid artery with intercavernous anastomosis: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kumaresh, Athiyappan; Vasanthraj, Praveen Kumar; Chandrasekharan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral agenesis of internal carotid artery (ICA) with intercavernous anastomosis is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of a 25-year-old female with 2-month history of holocranial headache. Neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed absence of left ICA with an abnormal intercavernous vessel in the sella. Computed tomography (CT) showed absence of the left carotid canal. Doppler ultrasonography (USG) showed high resistance flow in the left common carotid artery (CCA). Since no hemorrhage or aneurysm was seen, patient was managed conservatively and is on regular follow-up. Based on our knowledge, this is the first case to demonstrate the features of unilateral agenesis of ICA with intercavernous anastomosis in X-ray, Doppler USG, CT, and MRI scans of the brain.

  4. Huge Free-Floating Thrombus in the Internal Carotid Artery.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Uygur; Kizilkilic, Osman; Ince, Birsen

    2017-08-25

    Free-floating thrombus in the carotid artery is extremely rare. A 70-year-old male patient with pre-existing Crohn's disease admitted to our clinic with recurrent transient ischemic attacks. Angiography showed a huge thrombus in internal carotid artery. He responded to anticoagulation treatment and delayed endovascular intervention. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Post-radiotherapy and atherosclerotic stenosis of the internal carotid artery treated by angioplasty and stenting].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ch; Legrand, V; Sprynger, M; Garweg, Ch; Petermans, J; Pierard, L

    2006-03-01

    We report the case of a 70-year old man treated by surgery and radiotherapy for a neoplasic lesion of the tongue in whom severe symptomatic stenosis of the left internal carotid artery occurred a few years later. This lesion was successfully treated by percutaneous carotid angioplasty and stenting with distal embolic protection (PCAS). After a period of experimenting with angioplasty and stenting, PCAS is becoming a serious alternative for carotid thrombo-endarterectomy (TEA). Indications for PCAS are currently patients who, due to several reasons, are no good candidates for surgery. Several of large PCAS versus TEA randomized trials are underway and final results will help us determine the best indication for TEA or PCAS for both low and high risk patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

  6. [Aberrant internal carotid artery as a cause of pulsatile tinnitus: a difficult diagnosis in MRI?].

    PubMed

    Soyka, M B; Schuknecht, B; Huber, A M

    2010-02-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old patient with sensorineural hearing loss and the finding of an aberrant internal carotid artery in the left tympanic cavity that was causing pulsatile tinnitus. The aberrant vessel was initially invisible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography and MR angiography (MRA). Recognition of an aberrant course of an internal carotid artery often requires a combination of MRI and MRA to establish the diagnosis and rule out other differential diagnoses.

  7. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  8. Correlation of flow probe determinations of common carotid artery blood flow and internal carotid artery blood flow with microsphere determinations of cerebral blood flow in piglets.

    PubMed

    Meadow, W; Rudinsky, B; Raju, T; John, E; Fornell, L; Shankararao, R

    1999-03-01

    We investigated whether blood flow determined by a flow probe situated on one common carotid artery provided an accurate estimation of unilateral cerebral blood flow (CBF) in piglets. In eight anesthetized, mechanically ventilated piglets, blood flow determined by an ultrasonic flow probe placed on the right common carotid artery was correlated with CBF determined by microspheres under two experimental conditions: 1) before ligation of the right external carotid artery with both the right external and internal carotid circulations intact [common carotid artery blood flow (CCABF) condition], and 2) after ligation of the right external carotid artery (ipsilateral to the flow probe) with all residual right-sided carotid artery blood flow directed through the right internal carotid artery [internal carotid artery blood flow (ICABF) condition]. The left carotid artery was not manipulated in any way in either protocol. Independent correlations of unilateral CCABF and ICABF with microsphere-determined unilateral CBF were highly significant over a 5-fold range of CBF induced by hypercarbia or hypoxia (r = 0.94 and 0.92, respectively; both p < 0.001). The slope of the correlation of unilateral CCABF versus unilateral CBF was 1.68 +/- 0.19 (SEM), suggesting that CCABF overestimated CBF by 68%. The slope of the correlation of unilateral ICABF versus unilateral CBF did not differ significantly from unity (1.06 +/- 0.15), and the y intercept did not differ significantly from zero [-1.3 +/- 5.2 (SEM) mL]. Consequently, unilateral ICABF determined by flow probe accurately reflected unilateral CBF determined by microspheres under these conditions. Flow probe assessments of CCABF and ICABF in piglets may provide information about dynamic aspects of vascular control in the cerebral circulation that has heretofore been unavailable.

  9. Successful Coil Embolization of Pediatric Carotid Cavernous Fistula Due to Ruptured Posttraumatic Giant Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Park, Hun Soo; Yokoyama, Shohei; Wada, Takeshi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is to occlude the arteriovenous shunt and to preserve the patency of the concerned internal carotid artery. However, for the ipsilateral posttraumatic fragile cerebrum, coil embolization plus parent artery occlusion for the high-flow direct CCF is better for the prevention of hyperperfusion syndrome and intracranial hemorrhage. We experienced such a case and managed it successfully. A 6-year-old boy had severe head trauma caused by being hit by a car. He was transferred to our department and diagnosed as having left acute subdural hematoma and acute brain swelling. Emergent evacuation of hematoma and external decompression were performed. He was treated for severe brain swelling in the intensive care unit for 2 months. Cranioplasty was performed 3 months after the injury. His right hemiparesis and aphasia persisted, so he was transferred to a rehabilitation hospital. However, 2 years after the head injury, he was referred to our department because of abducens nerve palsy. He was diagnosed as having a symptomatic posttraumatic direct CCF, which was caused by a ruptured left cavernous giant internal carotid artery aneurysm. The direct CCF was treated with coil embolization of the giant aneurysm and parent artery occlusion. Coil embolization of the aneurysm and parent artery occlusion for the posttraumatic direct CCF was a good option to manage the abducens nerve palsy and to prevent postoperative hyperperfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe with B-flow imaging for extracranial internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Sakima, Hirokuni; Isa, Katsunori; Anegawa, Takahiro; Kokuba, Kazuhito; Nakachi, Koh; Goya, Yoshino; Tokashiki, Takashi; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Ohya, Yusuke

    2012-11-01

    We report on transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe with B-flow imaging for determining spontaneous extracranial internal carotid artery dissection just below the petrous portion. A 49-year-old man suffered cortical and subcortical infarction in the region of the right middle cerebral artery. Magnetic resonance angiography on the third day of admission revealed spontaneous recanalization of the right internal carotid artery associated with an intimal flap-like structure at the petrous portion. Transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe revealed right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection, showing an increased diameter of the right extracranial internal carotid artery with double lumen formation, stenosis of the true lumen, and a mobile intimal flap in B-flow imaging. Transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe was helpful to attempt a self-expanding stent for recanalizing right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. The patient recovered and was discharged ambulatory. The size of the micro convex probe was optimum for transoral carotid ultrasonography in our patient. Micro convex probe is more commonly used than the standard transoral carotid ultrasonography probe, which lacks versatility. We consider that transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe could be routinely used for ultrasonographic evaluation of extracranial internal carotid artery dissection.

  11. Isolated supraclinoid occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Lagrèze, H L; Hartmann, A; Ries, F; Wappenschmidt, J; Hanisch, E

    1987-01-01

    Isolated supraclinoid occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery is a rare cause of cerebral ischemia. The authors of the only review of this subject concluded that it is caused predominantly by factors other than atherosclerosis. We examined 6 patients with isolated supraclinoid occlusive lesions. Five of them had one or more risk factors for atherosclerosis. Thus, the isolated stenosis of that part of the internal carotid artery does not seem to represent a particular pathologic entity.

  12. Galactorrhoea amenorrhoea syndrome due to internal carotid artery aneurysm.

    PubMed Central

    Garg, S. K.; Dash, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A 32 year old female with hyperprolactinaemia-galactorrhoea-amenorrhoea due to a right internal carotid artery aneurysm just before its bifurcation is described. She had two episodes of subarachnoid haemorrhage necessitating an emergency internal carotid artery ligation. She responded to bromocriptine treatment with restoration of her menses, normalization of circulating prolactin and disappearance of galactorrhoea. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:4040632

  13. Internal carotid artery pseudo occlusion with embolic cerebral ischemia and low flow in the central retinal artery: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Röhrer, Christoph; Ertl, Michael; Altmann, Mathias; Kasprzak, Piotr; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schuierer, Gerhard; Schlachetzki, Felix

    2011-07-01

    We present a rare case of internal carotid artery pseudoocclusion (ICAPO) in a 60-year-old male Caucasian patient who experienced a reversible sudden loss of vision of the right eye for 10 min followed by recurrent blurring of vision as well as dysarthria and numbness in the left face. The referring ophthalmologist admitted the patient for suspicious occlusion of the internal carotid artery causing anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION).

  14. [Microsurgical treatment of internal carotid bifurcation aneurysms].

    PubMed

    González-Darder, J M; González-López, P; Botella-Maciá, L

    2010-06-01

    Clinical and imaging findings of a series of 14 internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms microsurgically treated are presented. A total of 10 lesions were diagnosed before rupture and 4 patients presented with subarachnoidal hemorrhage and frontobasal intracerebral bleeding. Diagnosis was done using neuroimaging (CT scan, angio-CT-3D, angio-MRI, angiography) but patients with ruptured aneurysms were treated with the sole information provided by the angio-CT-3D. The average fundus size was 8.4mm (3-13.3) and the average neck size was 6.8mm (3-9.6), being the fundus-to-neck ratio 1.32 (0.46-2.05). All lesions were microsurgically treated through a pterional approach with the help of temporary clipping of the afferent vessels in all cases. We used peroperative neuroprotective, neuromonitorization and micro-doppler cerebral flow measurement. Clinical results were excellent with 13 patients GOS grade 5 and one grade 4 three month afterwards of hospital discharge and complete exclusion of the lesion in angiographic controls done solely in patients with ruptured lesions.

  15. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion

    PubMed Central

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G.; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. Presentation of case A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Discussion Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Conclusion Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. PMID:26255001

  17. Head rotation during internal jugular vein cannulation and the risk of carotid artery puncture.

    PubMed

    Sulek, C A; Gravenstein, N; Blackshear, R H; Weiss, L

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a prospective laboratory study to examine the effect of head position on the relative positions of the carotid artery and the internal jugular vein (IJV). Volunteers (n = 12) from departmental staff, 18-60 yr of age, who had never undergone cannulation of the IJV underwent imaging of their IJV and carotid artery. With the subject in a 15 degrees Trendelenburg position, two-dimensional ultrasound images of the IJV and the carotid artery were obtained on the left and right sides of the neck at 2 and 4 cm from the clavicle along the lateral border of the sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle at 0 degrees, 40 degrees, and 80 degrees of head rotation from the midline. The percent overlap of the carotid artery and IJV increased significantly at 40 degrees and 80 degrees head rotation to both the right and left (P < 0.05). Data from 2 and 4 cm above the clavicle did not differ and were pooled. The percent overlap was larger on the left than the right only with 80 degrees of head rotation (P < 0.05). The increased overlap of carotid artery and IJV with head rotation > 40 degrees increases the risk of inadvertent puncture of the carotid artery associated with the common occurrence of transfixion of the IJV before it is identified during needle withdrawal. The IJV frequently collapses with needle insertion. This may result in puncture of the posterior wall of the vessel, and thus of the carotid artery when the two vessels overlap. To decrease this risk, the head should be kept in as neutral a position as possible, that is < 40 degrees rotation, during IJV cannulation.

  18. Association of subclinical atherosclerosis using carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and coronary calcium score with left ventricular dyssynchrony: the multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ravi K; Donekal, Sirisha; Rosen, Boaz D; Tattersall, Matthew C; Volpe, Gustavo J; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Nasir, Khurram; Wu, Colin O; Polak, Joseph F; Korcarz, Claudia E; Stein, James H; Carr, James; Watson, Karol E; Bluemke, David A; Lima, João A C

    2015-04-01

    The role of atherosclerosis in the progression of global left ventricular dysfunction and cardiovascular events has been well recognized. Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony is a measure of regional myocardial dysfunction. Our objective was to investigate the relationship of subclinical atherosclerosis with mechanical LV dyssynchrony in a population-based asymptomatic multi-ethnic cohort. Participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) at exam 5 were evaluated using 1.5T cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, carotid ultrasound (n = 2062) for common carotid artery (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) intima-media thickness (IMT), and cardiac computed tomography (n = 2039) for coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessment (Agatston method). Dyssynchrony indices were defined as the standard deviation of time to peak systolic circumferential strain (SD-TPS) and the difference between maximum and minimum (max-min) time to peak strain using harmonic phase imaging in 12 segments (3-slices × 4 segments). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess associations after adjusting for participant demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, LV mass, and ejection fraction. In multivariable analyses, SD-TPS was significantly related to measures of atherosclerosis, including CCA-IMT (8.7 ms/mm change in IMT, p = 0.020), ICA-IMT (19.2 ms/mm change in IMT, p < 0.001), carotid plaque score (1.2 ms/unit change in score, p < 0.001), and log transformed CAC+1 (0.66 ms/unit log-CAC+1, p = 0.018). These findings were consistent with other parameter of LV dyssynchrony i.e. max-min. In the MESA cohort, measures of atherosclerosis are associated with parameters of subclinical LV dyssynchrony in the absence of clinical coronary event and left-bundle-branch block. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconstructive surgery for segmental arterial mediolysis involving both the internal carotid artery and visceral arteries.

    PubMed

    Obara, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Narimatsu, Yoshiaki; Sugiura, Hitoshi; Kitajima, Masaki; Kakefuda, Toshihiro

    2006-03-01

    Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a rare, nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory arteriopathy. A 52-year-old man with sudden hemiparesis of the right side was found to have an aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery and concomitant multiple aneurysms of the extrahepatic, celiac, and superior mesenteric arteries. Reconstructive operations using autologous vein graft were performed to treat the aneurysms. The histopathology analyses of resected arterial and aneurysmal specimens showed characteristics consistent with SAM. To our knowledge, a successfully treated case of SAM affecting both the carotid artery and visceral arteries has not previously been described.

  20. [Surgical treatment of the internal carotid artery atherosclerotic occlusion].

    PubMed

    Galkin, P V; Gushcha, A O; Antonov, G I

    2014-01-01

    Internal carotid artery occlusion is the cause of carotid territory transient ischemic attacks or infarction approximately in 15% of patients. Extracranial-lntracranial (EC-IC) Bypass Study and Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) failed to show a benefit of EC-IC bypass over medical therapy in patients with symptomatic carotid artery occlusion. Weak sides of COSS were investigators reliance on post hoc analysis, use of specific thresholds in the definition of impaired cerebral hemodynamics and high perioperative morbidity. In selected subset of patients with medically refractory ischemic symptoms, EC-IC bypass, can provide benefit from surgery performed with sufficiently low perioperative morbidity. The potential of functional and cognitive improvement after cerebral revascularization needs further investigation.

  1. Different pattern of carotid and myocardial changes according to left ventricular geometry in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Park, H E; Youn, T-J; Kim, H-K; Kim, Y-J; Sohn, D-W; Oh, B-H; Park, Y-B; Cho, G-Y

    2013-01-01

    The relation between left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and LV function is well known. However, less is known about the vascular changes influenced by LV geometry. We sought to investigate the relationship of LV geometry to carotid arterial and LV function. A total of 476 hypertensive patients were prospectively recruited. All subjects underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasound. LV geometry is categorized into four groups according to relative wall thickness (RWT) and LV mass index (LVMI). Concentric LV geometry was associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), β-stiffness, and lower strain. All of the carotid parameters showed a stepwise change according to RWT of LV, whereas LV function was worse in hypertrophic geometry, as reflected by significantly lower systolic mitral annular velocity, higher left atrial volume index and E/E' ratio (P<0.001). By multivariate analysis after adjustment for clinical and laboratory parameters, IMT was independently associated with RWT, whereas myocardial function was independently associated with LVMI. Carotid arterial function and IMT showed worse values in concentric geometry, whereas LV systolic and diastolic function were worse in hypertrophic geometry, suggesting a discrepancy between carotid arterial and LV function in hypertensive patients.

  2. Synchronous Carotid Bifurcation Endarterectomy and Retrograde Kissing Stenting of the Innominate and Left Common Carotid Artery in a Patient with a Bovine Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Carignano, Guido; Balderi, Alberto; Novali, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Management of the symptomatic multiple stenosis of supra-aortic vessels (MSSVs) in a “bovine” aortic arch (BAA) configuration is infrequently reported. The optimal treatment choice remains debatable. A successful hybrid treatment for a proximal critical stenosis of the innominate and left common carotid artery was performed in a high-risk patient with a tandem symptomatic lesion in the right carotid bifurcation and a concentric vulnerable plaque in the bovine trunk. This case supports the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a combined carotid bifurcation endarterectomy and retrograde kissing stenting of common carotid arteries with cerebral protection after evaluation of radiological, anatomical, and clinical parameters. PMID:28487806

  3. [Internal carotid artery dissection after laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Martín-Mateos, Esperanza; Gómez-Ríos, Manuel Ángel; Freire-Vila, Enrique

    2017-05-22

    Headache is a common symptom in the postoperative period and may be attributable to, dehydration, sleep deprivation, intentional or inadvertent dural puncture during a neuraxial anesthesia technique, from an inhaled anesthetic agent, or from specific surgical procedures, among other etiologies. However, more serious, uncommon and life-threatening conditions as carotid artery dissection can be associated with severe neurologic sequelae in otherwise young, healthy patients. For these reasons, clinicians involved with postoperative patients should be familiar with the presentation and management strategies for this complication. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. Early control of distal internal carotid artery during carotid endarterectomy: does it reduce cerebral microemboli?

    PubMed

    Mommertz, G; Das, M; Langer, S; Koeppel, T A; Krings, T; Mess, W H; Schiefer, J; Jacobs, M J

    2010-06-01

    According to the results of the large trials on carotid endarterectomy (CEA), this type of surgery is only warranted if perioperative mortality and morbidity are kept considerably low. Less attention has been paid to methods of cerebral protection during CEA, although intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) can visualise intracerebral microemboli (MES) during routine carotid dissection, although MES occur throughout the CEA, only those during dissection are related to neurological outcome. Prevention of MES by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery dislodging from the carotid artery plaque during dissection is very likely the mechanism behind an eventual benefit from this approach. Hence, the amount of MES might serve as a surrogate parameter for the risk of periprocedural neurological events. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether early control of the distal carotid artery during CEA is capable of reducing the number of MES by means of a prospective randomised trial. Twenty-eight patients (29 procedures) could be prospectively included in our study. Before surgery we randomly assigned the patients to two groups: group A (N.=12): CEA by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery; group B (N.=17): CEA with dissection of the total carotid bifurcation before clamping the arteries. Periprocedurally, we continuously monitored the cerebral blood flow in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery by means of TCD. Pre- and postoperative morbidity were independently verified by a neurologist <2 days before and not later than five days after the procedure. Values of microembolic signs during dissection were summarised with arithmetic means and standard deviations. For further analysis non parametric Wilcoxon test was performed between both methods. P-values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Wilcoxon test was performed to compare both methods concerning clamp- and procedure times. We performed EEA 26

  5. Unusual presentation of traumatic extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, P G; Lambert, C D

    1978-07-01

    A young man presented with apparent transient ischemic attacks following a motorcycle accident in which he sustained minor injuries only. Computerized axial tomography demonstrated a small right frontal infarct, and angiography revealed an aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery in its extracranial course. This was thought to be traumatic in origin.

  6. [Study of the hypoplasic internal carotid artery by use of multislice spiral computed tomography. Two case reports].

    PubMed

    Ibarra de Grassa, B; Romero-Vidal, F J; Alarcón-Alcaraz, M M; Arenillas-Lara, J F; Fernández-Lara, L J; Coscojuela-Santaliestra, P

    Hypoplastic internal carotid artery (HICA) is a rare benign congenital malformation. Its angiographic image string sign is shared by entities that may be either medically or surgically treated. We report two cases diagnosed by helical computerized tomography (HCT). Case 1: woman diagnosed clinically and by magnetic resonance (MR) of Chiari I malformation with associated syringomyelia. An HCT of the craniocervical junction was done to rule out osseous malformations. An hypoplastic posterior fossa (PF) with small right carotid foramen was diagnosed. An arteriography with HCT was done that showed the carotid string sign. Case 2: a 82 years old hypertensive woman with left hemiparesia and homonymous hemianopsia was diagnosed of right temporooccipital infarct. An HCT arteriography disclosed occlusion of the right posterior cerebral artery, calcification of the left carotid siphon and stenosis of the right siphon. Bi and tridimensional reconstructions of the circle of Willis, cranial base and distal cervical carotid arteries showed an hypoplastic right carotid artery and foramen. Multislice HCT is a recently incorporated diagnostic tool that allows a volumetric study in a short period of time, seconds. An angiographic study can be done intravenously in cases of vascular anomaly suspiction, hypoplastic carotid artery in the reported cases. HCT is the only current imaging tool that can diagnose this anomaly without the aid of other imaging studies.

  7. The anatomy of the carotico-clinoid foramen and its relation with the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Ozdoğmuş, O; Saka, E; Tulay, C; Gürdal, E; Uzün, I; Cavdar, S

    2003-01-01

    The carotico-clinoid foramen is the result of ossification either of the carotico-clinoid ligament or of a dural fold extending between the anterior and middle clinoid processes of the sphenoid bone. It is anatomically important due to its relations with the cavernous sinus and its content, sphenoid sinus and pituitary gland. In this study the ossification state of the carotico-clinoid ligament, the diameter of the internal carotid artery and the carotico-clinoid foramen has been studied on 50 autopsy cases. Of the 100 carotico-clinoid foramina examined, in 27 sides (15 right, 12 left) the carotico-clinoid ligament was completely ossified, in 18 sides (9 right, 9 left) the carotico-clinoid ligament was incompletely ossified and in 55 sides (26 right, 29 left) it was a ligamentous structure. The correlation of the dimensions of the carotico-clinoid foramen and the internal carotid artery showed no statistical significance, except between the carotico-clinoid foramen with a fibrous carotico-clinoid ligament and the internal carotid artery on the right side (p=0.007, r=0.51). The existence of a bony carotico-clinoid foramen may cause compression, tightening or stretching of the internal carotid artery. Further, removing the anterior clinoid process is an important step in regional surgery; the presence of a bony carotico-clinoid foramen may have high risk. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the type of ossification between the anterior and middle clinoid processes can be necessary to increase the success of regional surgery.

  8. [Post-radiotherapy stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery. Moyamoya network].

    PubMed

    Benoit, P; Destée, A; Verier, A; Giraldon, J M; Warot, P

    1985-01-01

    A 36 year-old caucasian woman was operated and then irradiated for a pituitary adenoma. Two years later, a left anterior temporal lobectomy for a grade I astrocytoma was performed. Four years later, she experienced right hemiparesis and aphasia. CT scan showed a left temporo-occipital low density area. A left carotid angiogram showed a narrowing of the left carotid artery beginning in the lower part of the siphon and progressing to a complete supraclinoid occlusion. There was a collateral circulation of the Moyamoya type. Radiation-induced narrowing or occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery is an infrequent finding. Most cases appear in young subjects, several years after a high dose of radiation therapy (30 to 60 grays). Some cases may show a network of the Moyamoya type. Usually, the absence of vascular abnormalities prior to radiation cannot be demonstrated. In our case, as in 3 other cases of the literature, the intracranial vessels were of normal appearance before irradiation. The vascular lesions can thus be considered as acquired and secondary to radiation therapy.

  9. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with Absence of Left Common Carotid Artery: Imaging with MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Onbas, Omer Olgun, Hasim; Ceviz, Naci; Ors, Rahmi; Okur, Adnan

    2006-06-15

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between ascending and descending aorta. Although its association with various congenital heart defects has been reported, absence of left common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with IAA has not been reported previously. We report a case of IAA associated with the absence of left CCA which was clearly shown on multidetector-row spiral CT.

  10. Simultaneous Endovascular Treatment of Tandem Internal Carotid Lesions: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Cvetic, Vladimir; Dragas, Marko; Colic, Momcilo; Vukasinovic, Ivan; Radmili, Oliver; Ilic, Nikola; Koncar, Igor; Bascarevic, Vladimir; Ristanovic, Natasa; Davidovic, Lazar

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of concomitant extracranial carotid artery stenosis and ipsilateral intracranial carotid aneurysm has been reported to vary between 2.8% and 5%. These complex lesions may present a challenge for treatment decision-making. This case report describes an asymptomatic male patient with severe carotid bifurcation stenosis, coupled with an unruptured supraclinoid internal carotid aneurysm. Both lesions were treated simultaneously. Patient underwent carotid stenting followed by aneurysm coiling in the same setting without any complication.

  11. Surgical Exposure to Control the Distal Internal Carotid Artery at the Base of the Skull during Carotid Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Davis, Laura; Zeitouni, Anthony; Makhoul, Nicholas; Steinmetz, Oren K

    2016-07-01

    Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms are rare. Treatment options for these lesions include endovascular interventions, such as coiling and stenting, or surgical reconstruction, such as resection and primary reanastomosis, or interposition bypass grafting. In this report, we describe the surgical technique used to perform surgical repair of an internal carotid artery aneurysm extending up to the base of the skull. Anterior exposure of the infratemporal fossa and distal control of the carotid artery at the level of the carotid canal was achieved through a transcervical approach, performing double mandibular osteotomies with superior reflection of the middle mandibular section. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Technical strategy in a patient with symptomatic thoracic aneurysm near the origin of the left subclavian artery and left internal thoracic artery coronary graft.

    PubMed

    Babic, Srdjan D; Radak, Djordje J; Sotirovic, Vuk A; Unic-Stojanovic, Dragana R; Babic, Dusan S; Popov, Petar Z; Sagic, Dragan Z

    2012-11-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a safe and reliable technique utilized in the treatment for aortic aneurysms. However, in up to 40% of patients, devices are typically placed over the left subclavian artery (LSA) origin. In this report, we present a case of a successful TEVAR procedure following the transposition of the LSA with protective carotico-axillary/carotid bypass in a patient with a patent left internal thoracic artery (LITA)-left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery bypass graft and right internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Endovascular Management of Long-Segmental Petrocavernous Internal Carotid Artery (Carotid S) Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soonchan; Park, Eun Suk; Kwak, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Dong-Geun; Suh, Dae Chul; Kwon, Sun U.; Lee, Deok Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-segmental thrombotic occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) sparing the cervical segment proximally and the supraclinoid segment distally, which could be termed ’Carotid S occlusion’, has an unusual clinical presentation. However, endovascular management of this lesion is challenging. The purpose of our study is to report our endovascular treatment clinical experience of the disease. Methods From March 2008 to June 2013, we could identify 14 patients (average age: 62.1, median age: 62, range: 50-79) with ‘Carotid S occlusion’, who underwent endovascular recanalization procedures. Patient’s clinical presentations were collected and the imaging findings also analyzed. The technical success rate, 24-hour and follow-up imaging outcome, and the clinical outcome using the 90-day mRS (modified Rankin scale) score were evaluated. Results Patients presented with gradually progressing (n = 8), fluctuating (n = 3), transient ischemic attack (n = 2) and stationary (n = 1) symptoms. DWI showed internal and external border-zone lesions in six patients, only internal ICA border-zone lesions in three patients, and only external border-zone lesions in two patients. Underlying distal ICA stenosis was noted in 12 patients. The technical success rate was 92.8% (13/14). Luminal patency was noted in all patients (100%) after 24 hours and in nine of 10 (90%) on long-term follow-up (median: 6.5, average: 15.1, range: 1-39 months). A 90-day, good functional outcome (mRS ≤ 2) was noted in 13 of 14 patients (92.8%). Conclusions ‘Carotid S occlusion’ usually presented with border-zone infarction and endovascular management of the lesions was feasible. A relatively successful clinical outcome could be achieved after successful revascularization. PMID:26437999

  14. Endovascular repair for an extracranial internal carotid aneurysm with cervical access: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Chavarría, Ignacio J.; Alvarado-Marín, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Carotid aneurysms are a rare pathology. This vascular disorder can be asymptomatic or it can cause local compression. The disorder poses a high risk of embolization and rupture. Presentation of case A 79 years old female, presents with a right internal carotid fusiform aneurysm, approximately 3.8 cm in diameter, localized 3.30 cm from the common carotid artery bifurcation with an extremely tortuous common carotid artery. Discussion Surgical management of the extracranial internal carotid artery remains varying and challenging, particularly with a distal internal carotid aneurysm and with anatomical difficulties. Conclusion Endovascular management of an internal carotid aneurysm with cervical access using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent with Heparin Bioactive Surface in the carotid area, is safe and effective. PMID:26706595

  15. Anomalous Origin of the Left Common Carotid Artery from the Main Pulmonary Artery: A Rare Association in an Infant with CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Blaise; Hirsch, Russel

    2016-01-01

    Case Report. Isolated carotid artery originating from the pulmonary trunk is an exceedingly rare anomalous origin of head and neck vessels. We present this finding, along with a persistent embryonic trigeminal artery, in a male infant with multiple cardiac defects and other congenital anomalies associated with CHARGE syndrome. After extensive investigations, cardiac catheterization revealed the anomalous left common carotid artery arising from the cranial aspect of the main pulmonary artery. There was retrograde flow in this vessel, resulting from the lower pulmonary pressure, essentially stealing arterial supply from the left anterior cerebral circulation. The persistent left-sided trigeminal artery provided collateral flow from the posterior circulation to the left internal carotid artery territory, allowing for safe ligation of the anomalous origin of the left common carotid artery, thereby reversing the steal of arterial blood flow into the pulmonary circulation and resulting in a net improvement of cerebral perfusion. Conclusion. The possibility of this vascular anomaly should be considered in all infants with CHARGE syndrome. Surgical repair or ligation should be tailored to the specific patient circumstances, following a careful delineation of all sources of cerebral perfusion. PMID:27974985

  16. Evaluation of Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness in Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Akçay, Betül İlkay Sezgin; Kardeş, Esra; Maçin, Sultan; Ünlü, Cihan; Özgürhan, Engin Bilge; Maçin, Aydın; Bozkurt, Tahir Kansu; Ergin, Ahmet; Surmeli, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in the elderly population. Methods. A total of 42 eyes of 21 patients with more than 70% ICA stenosis (Group 1) on one side and less than 70% stenosis (Group 2) on the other side were recruited for this study. ICA stenosis was diagnosed using both the B-mode and Doppler ultrasound. The two groups were compared in terms of the percentage of stenosis, SFCT measurements, intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion pressure, refractive error, and peak systolic velocity. Eyes were examined with the RTVue-100 OCT device by the EDI-OCT technique. Results. The mean age of the patients was 71.9 ± 10.8 years. The mean percentage of ICA stenosis was 74 ± 4.9% in Group 1 and 47.5 ± 7.7% in Group 2. The mean SFCT was 231.9 ± 44.6 μm in Group 1 and 216.2 ± 46.8 μm in Group 2, which was significantly lower (P = 0.028). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the percentage of internal carotid artery stenosis and SFCT (r = 0896, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Compensatory SFCT increase can be seen in ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis greater than 70%. PMID:26989500

  17. Angiographic anatomy of the extracranial and intracranial portions of the internal carotid arteries in donkeys.

    PubMed

    Khairuddin, Nurul Hayah; Sullivan, Martin; Pollock, Patrick J

    2017-01-01

    In horses, the extracranial and intracranial pathway of the internal carotid artery has been described. The extracranial pathway of the internal carotid artery begins at the carotid termination and runs on the dorsal surface of the medial compartment of the guttural pouch. Thereafter the internal carotid artery passes through the foramen lacerum to continue intracranially, forming part of the rostrolateral quadrants of the cerebral arterial circle (Circle of Willis). The objectives of this study were to define and record the anatomy of the carotid arterial tree and the internal carotid artery in donkeys using angiographic techniques. This is a prospective descriptive study on 26 cadaveric donkeys. Twenty six donkey cadavers of mixed, age, sex and use presented for reasons unrelated to disease of the guttural pouch were subjected to carotid and cerebral angiography using rotational angiography. Rotational angiographic and 3 dimensional multiplanar reconstructive (3D-MPR) findings were verified with an arterial latex casting technique followed by dissection and photography. The following variations of the carotid arterial tree were identified: [1] the internal carotid and occipital arteries shared a common trunk, [2] the linguofacial trunk originated from the common carotid artery causing the common carotid artery to terminate as four branches, [3] the external carotid artery was reduced in length before giving rise to the linguofacial trunk, mimicking the appearance of the common carotid artery terminating in four branches, [4] the internal carotid artery originated at a more caudal position from the common carotid artery termination. Veterinarians should be aware that considerable variation exists in the carotid arterial tree of donkeys and that this variation may differ markedly from that described in the horse.

  18. Internal carotid artery agenesis: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Hooda, Kusum; Gupta, Nishant; Kumar, Yogesh

    2017-04-01

    Congenital agenesis of the internal carotid artery is a very rare anomaly. Intracranial circulation in the involved internal carotid artery territory is maintained by collateral circulation from the contralateral internal carotid artery through the anterior communicating artery and from the vertebrobasilar system through the posterior communicating artery. Usually, patients with internal carotid artery agenesis are asymptomatic due to collateral circulation, but they may present with headache, seizures, or transient ischemic attack. Aneurysms have also been reported to be associated with this entity. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography are commonly used modalities to make the diagnosis. Unenhanced skull base computed tomography will show the absence of carotid canal, thus differentiating from carotid hypoplasia. We report on a case of right internal carotid artery agenesis with discussion of embryogenesis, clinical presentation, and imaging findings.

  19. Dissection of Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Due to Balloon Guiding Catheter Resulting in Asymptomatic Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Suha; Yilmaz, Guliz

    2016-01-01

    Dissection of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare condition that accounts for a significant proportion of ischemic strokes in young adults. Iatrogenic dissection as a complication of neurointerventional procedures is a traumatic dissection which has been reported relatively rare in the literature. In this report, a case of dissection of the ICA is reported that was caused by repetitive movement of the balloon guiding catheter during stent-assisted thrombectomy (SAT), resulting in occlusion of the ICA. PMID:27853491

  20. Internal carotid artery dissection after anterior cervical disc replacement: first case report and literature review of vascular complications of the approach.

    PubMed

    Loret, Jean-Edouard; Francois, Patrick; Papagiannaki, Chrysanthi; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Terrier, Louis-Marie; Zemmoura, Ilyess

    2013-07-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman who underwent cervical total disc replacement at C4C5 and C5C6 levels and fusion at C6C7 level through an anterior right-side approach. After anesthesia recovery, the patient presented left hemiparesia and facial palsy due to large right hemispheric stroke. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed as soon as the patient developed neurologic symptoms of stroke and revealed a right internal carotid artery dissection. Digital substraction angiography, endovascular stenting, angioplasty and thrombectomy were performed. Six months after treatment, clinical examination showed mild left-arm spasticity. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of internal carotid artery stroke without dissection or thrombosis are reported. In conclusion, although vascular complications are rare after anterior cervical spine procedure, internal carotid artery dissection can occur. Suspected risk factors are prolonged retraction of the carotid artery and neck extension.

  1. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients.

  2. Blunt traumatic internal carotid artery dissection with delayed stroke in a young skydiver

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Michael; Hussain, Kosar; Ali, Mohammad Baqer Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of a 33-year-old skydiver who presented to the emergency department after a traumatic landing following a parachuting episode. He initially presented with right knee pain secondary to a tibial plateau fracture. There were no neurological symptoms or signs at the initial assessment. While he was still in the emergency department, he suddenly developed headache and left-sided hemiplegia. An urgent work-up showed right middle cerebral artery thrombosis with right internal carotid thrombosis and dissection. We have discussed some possible mechanism of injury in skydiving that may have predisposed to the occurrence of cervical dissection in our patient. PMID:23559649

  3. Blunt traumatic internal carotid artery dissection with delayed stroke in a young skydiver.

    PubMed

    Abbo, Michael; Hussain, Kosar; Ali, Mohammad Baqer Mohammad

    2013-04-03

    We describe a case of a 33-year-old skydiver who presented to the emergency department after a traumatic landing following a parachuting episode. He initially presented with right knee pain secondary to a tibial plateau fracture. There were no neurological symptoms or signs at the initial assessment. While he was still in the emergency department, he suddenly developed headache and left-sided hemiplegia. An urgent work-up showed right middle cerebral artery thrombosis with right internal carotid thrombosis and dissection. We have discussed some possible mechanism of injury in skydiving that may have predisposed to the occurrence of cervical dissection in our patient.

  4. Respiratory modulation of carotid and aortic body reflex left ventricular inotropic responses in the cat.

    PubMed

    Daly, M D; Jones, J F

    1998-06-15

    1. The reflex changes in the inotropic state of the left ventricle, measured as the dP/dt max (maximum rate of change of pressure), occurring in response to selective stimulation of the carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors by sodium cyanide, were studied in the cat anaesthetized with a mixture of chloralose and urethane. 2. The animals were artificially ventilated with an open pneumothorax. The heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were maintained constant. 3. With on-going central respiratory activity, stimulation of the carotid bodies caused an increase in respiratory movements. Variable changes in left ventricular dP/dt max occurred, the predominant response being an increase. The mean change was 8.3 +/- 2.9 % from a control value of 6850 +/- 450 mmHg s-1. Stimulation of the aortic bodies resulted in a smaller increase in respiration or no effect, but a significant increase occurred in left ventricular dP/dt max of 19.6 +/- 2.9 % from a control value of 6136 +/- 228 mmHg s-1. No significant changes in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure occurred in response to stimulation of either group of chemoreceptors. 4. Tests of chemoreceptor stimulations were repeated during temporary suppression of the secondary respiratory mechanisms: the central respiratory drive was suppressed reflexly by electrical stimulation of the central cut ends of both superior laryngeal nerves and lung stretch afferent activity was minimized by stopping artificial respiration. Carotid body stimulation again evoked variable responses, the predominant now being a reduction in left ventricular dP/dt max of 3.1 % from a control value of 5720 +/- 320 mmHg s-1, which was significantly different to that occurring during on-going spontaneous respiration. Aortic body stimulation caused an increase in left ventricular dP/dt max similar to the response during on-going spontaneous respiration. 5. The positive inotropic responses were mediated via the sympathetic nervous system, as indicated by

  5. Isolated Internal Carotid Artery Thrombus and Cerebral Infarction in a Patient with Necrotizing Pancreatitis: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Daniel R; Austin, Matthew J; Wallace, Adam N; Kamran, Mudassar; Kansagra, Akash P; Osbun, Joshua W; Cross, DeWitte T; Moran, Christopher J

    2017-09-08

    Isolated internal carotid artery (ICA) thrombus in the absence of underlying atherosclerotic disease is a rare entity. We report a case of a patient presenting with right arm weakness, slurred speech, and altered mental status in the setting of acute on chronic pancreatitis. The patient was found to have scattered left cerebral hemisphere cortical infarctions, and catheter angiography confirmed the presence of intraluminal left ICA thrombus, with no evidence of atherosclerotic disease in the cervical or intracranial vasculature. Further workup also demonstrated the presence of anemia of chronic disease. The patient was initiated on anticoagulation, and follow-up imaging demonstrated a complete resolution of the left ICA thrombus. In the reported case, coagulopathy in the setting of acute on chronic pancreatitis was presumably the primary etiology. Anemia of chronic disease, related to a proinflammatory state, may also play a contributory role. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hybrid endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm in a patient with Behçet's disease following right to left carotid-carotid bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soonchang; Park, Han Ki; Shim, Won-Heum; Youn, Young-Nam

    2011-03-01

    Endovascular repair of inflammatory aortic aneurysms has been reported as an alternative to open surgical treatment. In selective cases, adjunctive bypass surgery may be required to provide an adequate landing zone. We report a case of endovascular repair of an inflammatory aortic aneurysm in a patient with Behçet's disease using a carotid-carotid bypass graft to provide an adequate landing zone. A 45-yr-old man with a voice change was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of saccular aneurysm of the distal aortic arch resulting from vasculitis. Computed tomography showed a thoracic aortic aneurysm with thrombosis. Right to left carotid-carotid bypass grafting was performed. After 8 days, the patient underwent an endovascular stent graft placement distal to the origin of the innominate artery. The patient was discharged with medication and without postoperative complications after 5 days. Hybrid endovascular treatment may be suitable a complementary modality for repairing inflammatory aortic aneurysms.

  7. Successful Corticosteroid Treatment of Refractory Spontaneous Vasoconstriction of Extracranial Internal Carotid and Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kozue; Kajimoto, Katsufumi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Spontaneous vasoconstriction of the extracranial internal carotid artery (SVEICA) is a rare cause of cerebral infarction. Most patients with SVEICA suffer recurrent attacks of vasoconstriction. The standard treatment for this condition has not been established and its long-term prognosis is unclear. Case Report: A 25-year-old man with a history of refractory vasospasm angina presented with transient alternating hemiplegia in both the right and left side. Serial carotid ultrasonography examinations showed severe transient stenosis or occlusion of cervical internal carotid arteries on 1 or both sides, with and without neurological symptoms. This condition resolved completely within 1 day to 1 week. The patient did not present any other risk factors for atherosclerosis and was diagnosed with SVEICA. The treatment with calcium antagonists and nitrates did not prevent the attacks. Administration of a corticosteroid substantially reduced the vasospasm attacks. Conclusions: SVEICA is intractable and difficult to diagnose. It has been reported that SVEICA sometimes complicates coronary artery disease, as observed in this case. The present case demonstrated the effectiveness of corticosteroid treatment against this disease. Serial ultrasonography examinations helped us to diagnose and follow-up the vasospasm attacks. PMID:27348139

  8. Successful Corticosteroid Treatment of Refractory Spontaneous Vasoconstriction of Extracranial Internal Carotid and Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mariko; Saito, Kozue; Kajimoto, Katsufumi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous vasoconstriction of the extracranial internal carotid artery (SVEICA) is a rare cause of cerebral infarction. Most patients with SVEICA suffer recurrent attacks of vasoconstriction. The standard treatment for this condition has not been established and its long-term prognosis is unclear. A 25-year-old man with a history of refractory vasospasm angina presented with transient alternating hemiplegia in both the right and left side. Serial carotid ultrasonography examinations showed severe transient stenosis or occlusion of cervical internal carotid arteries on 1 or both sides, with and without neurological symptoms. This condition resolved completely within 1 day to 1 week. The patient did not present any other risk factors for atherosclerosis and was diagnosed with SVEICA. The treatment with calcium antagonists and nitrates did not prevent the attacks. Administration of a corticosteroid substantially reduced the vasospasm attacks. SVEICA is intractable and difficult to diagnose. It has been reported that SVEICA sometimes complicates coronary artery disease, as observed in this case. The present case demonstrated the effectiveness of corticosteroid treatment against this disease. Serial ultrasonography examinations helped us to diagnose and follow-up the vasospasm attacks.

  9. [Surgical treatment of tumors of the carotid body with reconstruction of the internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Reparaz, L; Magallón, P; Riera, L; Capilla, M T; Merino, M J; Martínez, I; Hernández, A; Sáez, L; Alamo, O; Jiménez Cossío, J A

    1990-01-01

    The experience about treatment in infiltrating tumors of Carotid Corpus, III Degree (Shamblin), is presented. Different methods of carotid reconstruction, and biologic and evolutive characteristics are emphasized, discussing preoperatory study and surgical technics.

  10. Technical Failure of Giant Supraclinoid Aneurysm after Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Lv, Ming; Li, Youxiang; Yang, Xinjian; Wu, Zhongxue

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe three cases of technical failure in patients with giant supraclinoid aneurysm treated with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Case 1 was a 65-year-old woman who presented with a two-month history of headache accompanied by blurred vision of the left eye. Case 2 was a 43-year-old woman who presented with a six-month history of headache accompanied by blurred vision of the right eye. Case 3 was a 21-year-old man admitted due to headache and blurred vision of the left eye, accompanied by left oculomotor nerve palsy for three months. Cerebral angiography revealed giant supraclinoid aneurysms in these patients. All of them were treated with ICA occlusion. One case had recurrent headache symptoms after the first procedure and was retreated. Two cases suffered from post-procedural intracranial hemorrhagic complications. Before ICA occlusion for giant supraclinoid aneurysm, balloon occlusion test was used to evaluate the collateral anastomosis between the external carotid artery (ECA) and the ICA, and still plays an important role in preventing treatment failure. PMID:25496684

  11. Evaluation of internal carotid artery segmentation by InsightSNAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Emily L.; Brown, Christopher; Roberts, John A.; Chapman, Brian E.

    2007-03-01

    Quantification of cervical carotid geometry may facilitate improved clinical decision making and scientific discovery. We set out to evaluate the ability of InsightSNAP (ITK-SNAP), an open-source segmentation program for 3D medical images (http://www.itksnap.org, version 1.4), to semi-automatically segment internal carotid arteries. A sample of five individuals (three normal volunteers, and two diseased patients) were imaged with an MR exam consisting of a MOTSA TOF MRA image volume and multiple black blood images acquired with different contrast weightings. Comparisons were made to a manual segmentation created during simultaneous evaluation of the MOTSA image and the various black blood images (typically PD-weighted, T1-weighted, and T2-weighted). These individuals were selected as a training set to determine acceptable parameters for ITK-SNAP's semi-automatic level sets segmentation method. The conclusion from this training set was that the initial thresholding (assigning probabilities to the intensities of image pixels) in the image pre-processing step was most important to obtaining an acceptable segmentation. Unfortunately no consistent trends emerged in how this threshold should be chosen. Figures of percent over- and under-segmentation were computed as a means of comparing the hand segmented and semi-automatically segmented internal carotids. Overall the under-segmentation by ITK-SNAP (voxels included in the manual segmentation but not in the semiautomated segmentation) was 10.94% +/- 6.35% while the over-segmentation (voxels excluded in the manual segmentation but included in the semi-automated segmentation) was 8.16% +/- 4.40% defined by reference to the total number of voxels included in the manual segmentation.

  12. Calcium at the carotid siphon as an indicator of internal carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gotovac, Nikola; Išgum, Ivana; Viergever, Max A; Biessels, Geert J; Fajdić, Josip; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Prokop, Mathias

    2013-06-01

    Carotid siphon calcification is often visible on unenhanced head CT (UCT), but the relation to proximal carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is unclear. We investigated the association of carotid siphon calcification with the presence of CAS. This IRB-waived retrospective study included 160 consecutive patients suspected of stroke (age 64 ± 14 years, 63 female) who underwent head UCT and CTA of the head and neck. CAS was rated on CTA as not present or present with non-significant (<50 %), moderate (50-69 %) or significant (≥70 %) stenosis. Presence, shape (on UCT) and volume (on CTA) of carotid siphon calcifications were related to CAS. Carotid siphon calcification was absent in 41 % of patients and bilateral in 94 % of those with calcifications. Presence, shape and volume of calcification resulted in odds ratios for having significant CAS of 10.1, 3.9 and 8.4, with 95 % CIs of 1.3-79.6, 1.1-14.1 and 2.6-26.8, respectively. Corresponding NPVs were 0.98, 0.98 and 0.96, while PPVs were 0.14, 0.07 and 0.29, respectively. Absence of calcification in the carotid artery siphon on UCT has high negative predictive value for carotid artery stenosis in patients with suspected stroke. However, siphon calcification is not a reliable indicator of significant carotid artery stenosis. • Many stroke patients do not have calcification in the carotid artery siphon. • Carotid stenosis ≥50 % is unlikely in stroke patients without siphon calcification. • Carotid siphon calcium is a poor indicator of significant carotid artery stenosis.

  13. Detecting variability of internal carotid arterial Doppler signals by Lyapunov exponents.

    PubMed

    Güler, Inan; Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2004-11-01

    The new method presented in this study was directly based on the consideration that internal carotid arterial Doppler signals are chaotic signals. This consideration was tested successfully using the nonlinear dynamics tools, like the computation of Lyapunov exponents. Multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) architecture was formulated and used as a basis for detecting variabilities such as stenosis and occlusion in the physical state of internal carotid arterial Doppler signals. The computed Lyapunov exponents of the internal carotid arterial Doppler signals were used as inputs of the MLPNN. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of the detection process. The internal carotid arterial Doppler signals were classified with the accuracy varying from 94.87% to 97.44%. The results confirmed that the proposed MLPNN trained with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm has potential in detecting stenosis and occlusion in internal carotid arteries.

  14. Recurrent Strokes due to Transient Vasospasms of the Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Wöpking, Sigrid; Kastrup, Andreas; Lentschig, Markus; Brunner, Freimuth

    2013-01-01

    Vasospasms of the intracranial arteries are a well-known complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage and are also frequently encountered in other disorders such as migraine, cerebral vasculitis or reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. In contrast, recurrent spontaneous vasospasms of the extracranial circulation appear to be extremely rare and have most often been associated with migraine. We present a patient with recurrent strokes due to spontaneous transient vasospastic occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) without migraine over a time period of at least 13 years. Initially, the patient had presented with a bilateral ICA occlusion and a cerebral infarct on the right side. While the right ICA remained occluded, a reopening of the left ICA could be detected 3 days after this initial event. In subsequent years, both duplex sonography and magnetic resonance angiography revealed recurrent occlusions of the left ICA, which resolved spontaneously within days. This case and other rare previous reports indicate that recurrent non-migrainous vasospasms of the extracranial carotid artery likely reflect a distinct entity which can cause ischemic strokes. PMID:24052791

  15. [Compression of the internal carotid artery due to elongated styloid process].

    PubMed

    Infante-Cossío, P; García-Perla, A; González-García, A; Gil-Peralta, A; Gutiérrez-Pérez, J L

    Elongation of the styloid process has been reported as a source of pain in the head and neck region. However, transient ischemic attack (TIA) due to mechanical compression of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by an elongated styloid process has never been mentioned in the literature. Male aged 36 years, with a ten-year history of dull intermittent pain in the left side of the neck that worsened on turning the head, suffered a TIA in the silvian territory, ten days after a minor neck trauma. The eco-Doppler exploration demonstrated a compression of the ICA after rotation of the head. The arteriography revealed an stenosis of the cervical ICA by an external compression. The length of the elongated process in the orthopantomogram and the computed tomography was 35 mm. Angiotomography showed a closed relationship between the tip of the left elongated process and the stenosis of the ICA. Surgical styloidectomy was performed via an extraoral approach under general anaesthesia. The excised specimen measured 30 mm long. All symptoms were relieved with no recurrence during a three-year follow up period. TIA should be taken into account in the clinical feature associated to an elongated styloid process. Angiotomography is very reliable to define the anatomic relationship between the styloid process and the ICA. The treatment of choice is surgical shortening trough an external approach which provides an adequate control of the carotid artery.

  16. Missed Total Occlusion Due to the Occipital Artery Arising from the Internal Carotid Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Ustunsoz, Bahri Gumus, Burcak; Koksal, Ali; Koroglu, Mert; Akhan, Okan

    2007-02-15

    A 56-year-old man was referred for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with an ultrasound diagnosis of right proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis for possible carotid artery stenting. DSA revealed total occlusion of the ICA and an occipital artery arising from the stump and simulating continuation of the ICA. An ascending pharyngeal artery also arose from the same occipital artery. This case is of interest because this is a rare variation besides being a cause of misdiagnosis at carotid ultrasound.

  17. Evidence for Shear Stress-Mediated Dilation of the Internal Carotid Artery in Humans.

    PubMed

    Carter, Howard H; Atkinson, Ceri L; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Haynes, Andrew; Robey, Elisa; Smith, Kurt J; Ainslie, Philip N; Hoiland, Ryan L; Green, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    Increases in arterial carbon dioxide tension (hypercapnia) elicit potent vasodilation of cerebral arterioles. Recent studies have also reported vasodilation of the internal carotid artery during hypercapnia, but the mechanism(s) mediating this extracranial vasoreactivity are unknown. Hypercapnia increases carotid shear stress, a known stimulus to vasodilation in other conduit arteries. To explore the hypothesis that shear stress contributes to hypercapnic internal carotid dilation in humans, temporal changes in internal and common carotid shear rate and diameter, along with changes in middle cerebral artery velocity, were simultaneously assessed in 18 subjects at rest and during hypercapnia (6% carbon dioxide). Middle cerebral artery velocity increased significantly (69±10-103±17 cm/s; P<0.01) along with shear in both the internal (316±52-518±105 1/s; P<0.01) and common (188±40-275±61 1/s; P<0.01) carotids. Diameter also increased (P<0.01) in both carotid arteries (internal: +6.3±2.9%; common: +5.8±3.0%). Following hypercapnia onset, there was a significant delay between the onset of internal carotid shear (22±12 seconds) and diameter change (85±51 seconds). This time course is associated with shear-mediated dilation of larger conduit arteries in humans. There was a strong association between change in shear and diameter of the internal carotid (r=0.68; P<0.01). These data indicate, for the first time in humans, that shear stress is an important stimulus for hypercapnic vasodilation of the internal carotid artery. The combination of a hypercapnic stimulus and continuous noninvasive, high-resolution assessment of internal carotid shear and dilation may provide novel insights into the function and health of the clinically important extracranial arteries in humans. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection: an uncommon cause of recurrent postpartum headache.

    PubMed

    Stamboulis, Elefterios; Raptis, Georgios; Andrikopoulou, Athina; Arvaniti, Chrisa; Brountzos, Elias; Oikonomopoulos, Nikos; Stefanis, Leonidas; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum spontaneous cervicocephalic artery dissection is an uncommon, poorly understood condition following pregnancy. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman with no history of trauma, chiropractic manipulation, connective tissue disorder, or previous headache who developed a mild, unilateral headache 7 days after the uneventful delivery of her third child (no general or neuraxial anesthesia was delivered). Seven days latter she presented to our emergency department complaining of recurrent episodes of right-sided headache coupled with a transient episode of sensory deficits in her left lower limb. Brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed small infarctions in the internal watershed distribution of right internal carotid artery (ICA). Carotid artery dissection was diagnosed using DSA and T1 FAT-SAT sequences for the depiction of intramural hematoma. The patient was placed under oral anticoagulation and remained asymptomatic during a follow-up period of 6 months. The present case report highlights that cervicocephalic artery dissection is a condition that should be looked for in women with persisting or remitting unilateral headache following childbirth.

  19. Anomalous ascending pharyngeal artery arising from the internal carotid artery: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Franco, Severiano; Muñoz, Asís Lorente; Franco, Trinidad Cortes; Ruiz, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    Anomalous branches from the internal carotid artery (ICA) have been reported rarely in the literature. We report three cases of ascending pharyngeal arising from the ICA. It is essential to be aware of these variations in carotid artery surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous thrombosis of giant cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm in a neonate. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kasliwal, Manish Kumar; Suri, Ashish; Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Sharma, Bhawani Shanker

    2008-01-01

    Neonatal intracranial aneurysms are rare, with only 20 cases being reported in the literature. No case of spontaneous resolution of a giant intracranial cavernous segment aneurysm in a neonate is reported till date. The authors describe a 3-week-old male child who presented with a left-sided tonic seizure episode and was diagnosed as having a right-sided giant cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm. The aneurysm was found to be totally thrombosed on angiography done before planning definitive treatment. The child is doing well at 2 years of follow-up. Spontaneous thrombosis, an exceptionally rare but fortunate outcome in a rare case of giant neonatal internal carotid artery aneurysm, has led the authors to report this case. The need of repeat imaging or angiography should be considered to rule out this rare outcome, more so if there is any delay between the ictus and treatment. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. [A rare cause of oropharyngeal mass: bilateral aberrant internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Yılmazer, Rasim; Yılmazer, Ayça Başkadem; Orhan, Kadir Serkan; Damar, Murat; Değer, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral pharyngeal internal carotid artery aberration is a rarely seen variation which poses a risk during the surgical interventions of this area. A 74-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of a sensation of fullness in his throat and dysphagia. Oropharyngeal examination revealed bilateral smooth-surfaced masses in the posterior pharyngeal wall. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an aberrant internal carotid artery. The patient was followed up with necessary warnings. The pulsation on the pharyngeal masses should be definitely evaluated and aberrant internal carotid artery should be kept in mind, if present.

  2. Vascular tone and reactivity to serotonin in the internal and external carotid vascular beds of the dog.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, H; Hong, E

    1976-04-01

    The effects of intra-arterial infusions of serotonin on internal and external carotid blood flow were determined in anesthetized dogs by electromagnetic flow measurements. Serotonin decreased flow in the internal carotid and increased it in the external carotid. Both responses were blocked by the serotonin antagonist methysergide. The alpha adrenergic antagonist zolertine, the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine and the vasodilator diazoxide blocked external carotid dilator responses but did not modify constriction in the internal carotid. Blockade of external carotid responses by the three drugs was also demonstrated in experiments in which this bed was perfused at a constant rate. These results indicate that the internal and external carotid vascular beds of the dog react in opposite ways to serotonin, that both responses are mediated through the same type of serotonin receptors and that the dilator responses of the external carotid are dependent on vascular tone.

  3. In-stent stenosis in the patient with internal carotid aneurysm after treated by the Willis covered stent

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lun-Xin; Song, Meng-Yuan; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In-stent stenosis after treated by Willis covered stent—case reports. Background: Advancements in minimally invasive technology have allowed endovascular reconstruction of internal carotid aneurysm. However, in-stent stenosis is an important and well-characterized complication of stenting after the treatment of internal carotid aneurysm. Case description: We would present 2 patients who were diagnosed with in-stent stenosis after the treatment of Willis covered stent. Case 1: A 57-year-old female with 2-week history of headache and vomiting before admission, whose digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated left internal carotid C6 aneurysm and showed about 20% stenosis 3 months later since operation in the position where Willis covered stent was deployed. Case 2: A 23-year-old male with skull base fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, right femoral fracture for 14 days and epistaxis for 9 hours caused by a car accident, whose DSA demonstrated left internal carotid paracliniod pseudoaneurysm. One year later, the patient went to our center again because he had headache and dizziness for 6 months after the interventional operation. His DSA demonstrated about 80% stenosis in the position where Willis covered stent was deployed. The clinical and radiologic characteristics and the experience in dealing with the stenosis are presented. Conclusions: In-stent stenosis after treated with Willis covered is uncommon, but not rare. Operators should pay more attention to the in-stent stenosis during the period of follow-up observation and monitor P2Y12 Reaction Unit (PRU) in the antiplatelet period, especially for the Willis covered stent. What is more, the treatment for stenosis ought to be carefully considered. PMID:28207524

  4. A SPECT study in internal carotid artery occlusion: Discrepancies between flow image and neurologic deficits

    SciTech Connect

    Moriwaki, H.; Hougaku, H.; Matsuda, I.; Kusunoki, M.; Shirai, J. )

    1989-08-01

    A SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) study in internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion was performed in 6 patients. The validity of iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT study in the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) or neurologic function is still controversial. In this study, the authors showed several cases in whom SPECT images of brain were not compatible with their neurologic deficits. In 2 typical cases, a large low-density area was observed in the non-dominant hemisphere in computed tomography (CT) scan, but no apparent motor-sensory deficits in left limbs were present. In these patients, SPECT study also revealed flow reduction in the affected side of the brain. So there was a possibility that an IMP brain image could not always reflect CBF, which maintains neurologic function of the brain.

  5. Pressure Drop in Tortuosity/Kinking of the Internal Carotid Artery: Simulation and Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Daming; Hu, Shen; Liu, Jiachun; Zhou, Zhilun; Lu, Jun; Qi, Peng; Song, Shiying

    2016-01-01

    Background. Whether carotid tortuosity/kinking of the internal carotid artery leads to cerebral ischemia remains unclear. There is very little research about the hemodynamic variation induced by carotid tortuosity/kinking in the literature. The objective of this study was to research the blood pressure changes induced by carotid tortuosity/kinking. Methods. We first created a geometric model of carotid tortuosity/kinking. Based on hemodynamic boundary conditions, the hemodynamics of carotid tortuosity and kinking were studied via a finite element simulation. Then, an in vitro system was built to validate the numerical simulation results. The mean arterial pressure changes before and after carotid kinking were measured using pressure sensors in 12 patients with carotid kinking. Results. Numerical simulation revealed that the pressure drops increased with increases in the kinking angles. Clinical tests and in vitro experiments confirmed the numerical simulation results. Conclusions. Carotid kinking leads to blood pressure reduction. In certain conditions, kinking may affect the cerebral blood supply and be associated with cerebral ischemia. PMID:27195283

  6. Ultrasound guided transarterial coil placement in the internal and external carotid artery in horses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan; Iglesias, Manuel; Chao, Eduardo Lloret; Bussy, Christian

    2015-04-01

    To assess ultrasound guided transarterial coil placement (UGTACP) for occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) in horses. Cadaveric and in vivo study. Cadaveric horses (n = 10), healthy horses (3), and 1 clinical case. Cadaveric and in vivo (healthy horses): UGTACP was performed in the caudal part of the ICA and ECA. Coil placement in the rostral part of the ICA was performed blindly and controlled by conventional radiography. No coils were placed in the rostral part of the ECA. UGTACP of the ICA was in a horse with guttural pouch mycosis of the left guttural pouch. Accurate ultrasound-guided catheterization of the ICA and ECA was performed in all specimens. Ultrasound-guided coil placement was successfully performed in all cases except 1. No complications occurred in the in vivo study. The clinical case fully recovered and returned to its intended use. Based on our study, UGTACP of the ICA and ECA caudal part is a feasible alternative to fluoroscopy. An advantage of this technique is the accuracy with which you can catheterize both ICA and ECA and the ability to identify unusual branching at the origin of the ICA. Regarding the rostral part of the ICA, angiographic catheter guidance in this region is probably more precise using fluoroscopy as it is performed blindly. In a clinical situation, combination of US and fluoroscopy guidance can result in reduction of radiation exposure time. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Brainstem ischemic stroke without permanent sequelae during the course of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection – case report

    PubMed Central

    Nesteruk, Tomasz; Nesteruk, Marta; Bulik-Pasińska, Marta; Boroszko, Dariusz; Ostrowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a frequent cause of a stroke in young patients. Risk factors which can lead to dissection include neck injury and diseases of the inner wall of the artery. Common symptoms in ICAD are cervical pain and headache, Horner’s syndrome, paralysis of the cranial nerves and subsequently cerebral and retinal ischemia. MR angiography in TOF technique and brain MRI in T1- and T2-weighted images, FLAIR and DWI sequences are the method of choice in patients with ICAD but contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography remains the fastest and the most available diagnostic method. Case Report: A 39-year old woman, previously healthy, presented to the Hospital Emergency Department because of increasing neck pain on the right side and difficulty in swallowing. The neurological examination revealed: drooping of the right eyelid with narrow palpebral fissure, dysarthria, anisocoria (narrower pupil on the right side), unilateral hypoesthesia on the left side, weak palatal and pharyngeal reflexes on both sides, paresthesia within the left half of the body. Seven days before, the patient felt a sudden, severe neck pain radiating to the temporal apophysis. CT angiography revealed a defect in contrast filling within the left internal carotid artery and right vertebral artery. MRI of the head with MR angiography showed internal carotid artery dissection on the left side and dissection of the right vertebral artery and no ischemic changes within the brain. Conclusions: CT and MR angiography are methods characterized by high sensitivity in detecting dissection of the cervical arteries. PMID:22802868

  8. 74-year-old man with left main and carotid artery disease - how life can change plans.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Piotr; Ilnicki, Dawid; Telichowski, Artur; Reczuch, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    An unexpected incident or rapid deterioration of a patient's condition may require optimal adaptation of the treatment to the current state of the patient. We present a case of a 74-year-old man with significant left main coronary artery stenosis and tight stenoses of both carotid arteries. The case was initially qualified for bypass grafting with accompanying carotid artery endarterectomy, but an unexpected accident changed our way of treatment. Three days after angiography the patient suffered an ischemic stroke. We held a multidisciplinary meeting of the "Neuro-Vascular-Heart Team" and decided to treat the patient percutaneously.

  9. 74-year-old man with left main and carotid artery disease – how life can change plans

    PubMed Central

    Ilnicki, Dawid; Telichowski, Artur; Reczuch, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    An unexpected incident or rapid deterioration of a patient's condition may require optimal adaptation of the treatment to the current state of the patient. We present a case of a 74-year-old man with significant left main coronary artery stenosis and tight stenoses of both carotid arteries. The case was initially qualified for bypass grafting with accompanying carotid artery endarterectomy, but an unexpected accident changed our way of treatment. Three days after angiography the patient suffered an ischemic stroke. We held a multidisciplinary meeting of the “Neuro-Vascular-Heart Team” and decided to treat the patient percutaneously. PMID:24570726

  10. The significance of the extracranial-intracranial anastomoses of carotid system in occlusion of internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Kulenović, Amela; Dilberović, Faruk

    2004-05-01

    The existence of collateral circulation in patients with impaired intracranial circulation was studied. We analysed angiograms of 35 patients of the Neurology Clinic of Clinical Centre in Sarajevo with occlusion of internal carotid artery. In majority cases collateral circulation was not established. In patients with occlusion of internal carotid artery, extracranial-intracranial anastomoses were established in some cases, with results of surviving and patients recovery. Collateral circulation based on blood vessels which are formed in the early stages of fetal life. Some embryonal arteries undergo an involution process, while the other part of blood vessels stay unfunctional during life, until cerebrovascular disease appearence, when it comes to their activation. Establishing of the collateral circulation in post-occlusiv status depend on great number of factors: number of anastomoses, their calibre,velocity of occlusion and complete vascular status of patients.

  11. Treatment of acute cervical internal carotid artery dissection using the Solitaire FR revascularization device.

    PubMed

    To, Chiu Yuen; Badr, Yaser; Richards, Boyd

    2013-11-01

    During treatment of a right internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm, an acute iatrogenic flow limiting dissection was caused in the cervical internal carotid. The true lumen was catheterized using a Mirage 0.008 microwire over an Excelsior SL-10 microcatheter, which was exchanged for a Marksman microcatheter. A 6 mm × 30 mm Solitaire FR revascularization device was then deployed across the dissection as a salvage technique.

  12. Treatment of acute cervical internal carotid artery dissection using the Solitaire FR revascularization device.

    PubMed

    To, Chiu Yuen; Badr, Yaser; Richards, Boyd

    2012-12-19

    During treatment of a right internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm, an acute iatrogenic flow limiting dissection was caused in the cervical internal carotid. The true lumen was catheterized using a Mirage 0.008 microwire over an Excelsior SL-10 microcatheter, which was exchanged for a Marksman microcatheter. A 6 mm×30 mm Solitaire FR revascularization device was then deployed across the dissection as a salvage technique.

  13. Endoscopic Endonasal Transplanum Approach to the Paraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Leon T.; Morgan, Michael K.; Snidvongs, Kornkiat; Chin, David C. W.; Sacks, Ray; Harvey, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the relevance of an endoscopic transnasal approach to the surgical treatment of paraophthalmic aneurysms. Setting Binasal endoscopic transplanum surgery was performed. Participants Seven cadaver heads were studied. Main Outcome Measures (1) Dimensions of the endonasal corridor, including the operative field depth, lateral limits, and the transplanum craniotomy. (2) The degree of vascular exposure. (3) Surgical maneuverability and access for clip placements. Results The mean operative depth was 90 ± 4 mm. The lateral corridors were limited proximally by the alar rim openings (29 ± 4 mm) and distally by the distance between the opticocarotid recesses (19 ± 2 mm). The mean posteroanterior distance and width of the transplanum craniotomy were 19 ± 2 mm and 17 ± 3 mm, respectively. Vascular exposure was achieved in 100% of cases for the clinoidal internal carotid artery (ICA), ophthalmic artery, superior hypophyseal artery, and the proximal ophthalmic ICA. Surgical access and clip placement was achieved in 97.6% of cases for vessels located anterior to the pituitary stalk (odds ratio [OR] 73.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.66 to 710.8; p = 0.00). Conclusion The endoscopic transnasal approach provides excellent visualization of the paraclinoid region vasculature and offers potential surgical alternative for paraclinoid aneurysms. PMID:24436941

  14. On the atrophy of the internal carotid artery in capybara.

    PubMed

    Steele, Caroline; Fioretto, Emerson T; Sasahara, Tais H C; Guidi, Wanderley L; de Lima, Ana R; Ribeiro, Antonio A C M; Loesch, Andrzej

    2006-12-01

    Capybara might be a useful model for studying changes in cerebral circulation as the natural atrophy of the internal carotid artery (ICA) occurs in this animal at maturation. In this study, confocal and electron microscopy combined with immunohistochemical techniques were applied in order to reveal the changes in morphology and innervation to the proximal part of ICA in young (6-month-old) and mature (12-month-old) capybaras. Some features of the basilar artery (BA) were also revealed. The ICA of young animals degenerated to a ligamentous cord in mature animals. Immunolabelling positive for pan-neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 but negative for tyrosine hydroxylase was observed in the proximal part of ICA at both ages examined. Axon varicosities positive for synaptophysin were present in the adventitia of ICA of young animals but were absent in the ligamentous cord of mature animals. In the ICA of young animals, adventitial connective tissue invaded the media suggesting that the process of regression of this artery began within the first 6 months of life. An increase in size of the BA was found in mature animals indicating increased blood flow in the vertebro-basilar system, possibly making capybara susceptible to cerebrovascular pathology (e.g. stroke). Capybara may therefore provide a natural model for studying adaptive responses to ICA regression/occlusion.

  15. Microneurosurgical management of internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lehecka, Martin; Dashti, Reza; Romani, Rossana; Celik, Ozgür; Navratil, Ondrej; Kivipelto, Leena; Kivisaari, Riku; Shen, Hu; Ishii, Keisuke; Karatas, Ayse; Lehto, Hanna; Kokuzawa, Jouji; Niemelä, Mika; Rinne, Jaakko; Ronkainen, Antti; Koivisto, Timo; Jääskelainen, Juha E; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2009-06-01

    Internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms form 2% to 9% of all IAs. They are more frequent in younger patients than other IAs. In this article, we review the practical microsurgical anatomy, the preoperative imaging, surgical planning, and the microneurosurgical steps in the dissection and the clipping of ICAbifAs. This review and the whole series on IAs are mainly based on the personal microneurosurgical experience of the senior author (JH) in 2 Finnish centers (Helsinki and Kuopio), which serve, without patient selection, the catchment area in Southern and Eastern Finland. These 2 centers have treated more than 11 000 patients with IAs since 1951. In the Kuopio Cerebral Aneurysm Database of 3005 patients with 4253 IAs, 831 (28%) patients had altogether 980 ICA aneurysms, of whom 137 patients had 149 (4%) ICAbifAs. Ruptured ICAbifAs, found in 78 (52%) patients, with median size of 8 mm (range, 2-60 mm), were associated with ICH in 15 (19%) patients. Ten (7%) ICAbifAs were giant (> or = 25 mm). Multiple aneurysms were seen in 59 (43%) patients. The ICAbifAs represented 18% of all IAs ruptured before the age of 30 years. The main difficulty in microneurosurgical management of ICAbifAs is to preserve flow in all the perforators surrounding or adherent to the aneurysm dome. This necessitates perfect surgical strategy based on preoperative knowledge of 3D angioarchitecture and proper orientation during the microsurgical dissection.

  16. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4·0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3·2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·28, 95% CI 0·77–2·11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8·5% in the stenting group compared with 5·2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events

  17. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ederle, Jörg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L; Bonati, Leo H; van der Worp, H Bart; de Borst, Gert J; Lo, T Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A; Hendriks, Johanna M; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J; Brown, Martin M

    2010-03-20

    Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4.0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3.2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.28, 95% CI 0.77-2.11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8.5% in the stenting group compared with 5.2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events; HR 1.69, 1.16-2.45, p=0.006). Risks of any

  18. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Griffin, Maura; Sabetai, Michael; Thomas, Dafydd J; Tegos, Thomas; Geroulakos, George; Labropoulos, Nicos; Doré, Caroline J; Morris, Tim P; Naylor, Ross; Abbott, Anne L

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. This was a prospective, multicenter, cohort study of patients undergoing medical intervention for vascular disease. Hazard ratios for ICA stenosis, clinical features, and plaque texture features associated with ipsilateral cerebrovascular or retinal ischemic (CORI) events were calculated using proportional hazards models. A total of 1121 patients with 50% to 99% asymptomatic ICA stenosis in relation to the bulb (European Carotid Surgery Trial [ECST] method) were followed-up for 6 to 96 months (mean, 48). A total of 130 ipsilateral CORI events occurred. Severity of stenosis, age, systolic blood pressure, increased serum creatinine, smoking history of more than 10 pack-years, history of contralateral transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or stroke, low grayscale median (GSM), increased plaque area, plaque types 1, 2, and 3, and the presence of discrete white areas (DWAs) without acoustic shadowing were associated with increased risk. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for predicted risk versus observed CORI events as a measure of model validity. The areas under the ROC curves for a model of stenosis alone, a model of stenosis combined with clinical features and a model of stenosis combined with clinical, and plaque features were 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.64), 0.66 (0.62-0.72), and 0.82 (0.78-0.86), respectively. In the last model, stenosis, history of contralateral TIAs or stroke, GSM, plaque area, and DWAs were independent predictors of ipsilateral CORI events. Combinations of these could stratify patients into different levels of risk for ipsilateral CORI and stroke, with predicted risk close to observed risk. Of the 923 patients with ≥ 70% stenosis, the predicted cumulative

  19. Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm Caused by Aspergillus – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Masaki; Sakurai, Keita; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Okita, Kenji; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Blister-like aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a well-documented cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Generally, this type of aneurysm is associated with various conditions such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and ICA dissection. Although Aspergillus is the most common organism causing intracranial fungal aneurysmal formation, there is no report of a blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus infection. Case Report An 83-year-old man received corticosteroid pulse therapy followed by oral steroid therapy for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the clivus. Two months later, the patient was transported to an emergency department due to the diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, classified as Fisher group 4. Subsequent 3D computed tomography angiogram revealed a blister-like aneurysm at the superior wall of the left ICA. Six days later, the patient died of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the left ICA aneurysm rerupture. Autopsy revealed proliferation of Aspergillus hyphae in the wall of the aneurysm. Notably, that change was present more densely in the inner membrane than in the outer one. Thus, it was considered that Aspergillus hyphae caused infectious aneurysm formation in the left ICA via hematogenous seeding rather than direct invasion. Conclusions The blister-like aneurysm is a rare but important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case report documents another cause of blister-like aneurysms, that is an infectious aneurysm associated with Aspergillus infection. PMID:25848441

  20. Internal carotid artery blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus - case report.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masaki; Sakurai, Keita; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Okita, Kenji; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Blister-like aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a well-documented cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Generally, this type of aneurysm is associated with various conditions such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and ICA dissection. Although Aspergillus is the most common organism causing intracranial fungal aneurysmal formation, there is no report of a blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus infection. An 83-year-old man received corticosteroid pulse therapy followed by oral steroid therapy for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the clivus. Two months later, the patient was transported to an emergency department due to the diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, classified as Fisher group 4. Subsequent 3D computed tomography angiogram revealed a blister-like aneurysm at the superior wall of the left ICA. Six days later, the patient died of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the left ICA aneurysm rerupture. Autopsy revealed proliferation of Aspergillus hyphae in the wall of the aneurysm. Notably, that change was present more densely in the inner membrane than in the outer one. Thus, it was considered that Aspergillus hyphae caused infectious aneurysm formation in the left ICA via hematogenous seeding rather than direct invasion. The blister-like aneurysm is a rare but important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case report documents another cause of blister-like aneurysms, that is an infectious aneurysm associated with Aspergillus infection.

  1. Internal Carotid Artery Fibromuscular Dysplasia in a Child: Incidental Postmortem Finding after Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Arulselvi; Aggarwal, Garima; Agarwal, Deepak; Lalwani, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare, segmental, nonatheromatous, and noninflammatory arterial disease of unknown etiology. It predominantly involves renal artery (60–75%) followed by extracranial part of the internal carotid artery and vertebral arteries (25–30%). The disease typically affects middle-aged women and involves intermediate-sized arteries throughout the body. There are rare case reports of extracranial FMD compounding a trauma case. A patient was brought to trauma center emergency with a history of fall from height. There were one previous episode of seizure and two episodes of vomiting. His Glasgow Coma Scale on admission was E1V1M4. Noncontrast computed tomography of the head showed fracture on the right zygomatic, temporal, and parietal bone, with underlying thin subdural hemorrhage. The patient underwent left frontotemporoparietal decompressive craniectomy and lax duraplasty with bone flap in bone bank. On the 1st postoperative day, he succumbed to his injuries despite timely surgery and necessary interventions. It was only postmortem when FMD was diagnosed in carotid artery by histopathological examination. On microscopy, intimal changes were seen in the form of expansion of subendothelial loose matrix with mesenchymal cells, thickening and hyalinization of the internal elastic lamina, areas of duplication and disruption of internal elastic lamina. Medial wall changes included thickening of the wall, focal loss of the smooth muscle, and replacement with fibrosis (dysplastic change). This case emphasizes the importance of considering this disease in the differential diagnosis of children and young adults with stroke (which subsequently lead to his fall). PMID:28042220

  2. Risk Factors For Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, or Death Following Carotid Endarterectomy: Results From the International Carotid Stenting Study

    PubMed Central

    Doig, D.; Turner, E.L.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R.L.; de Borst, G.J.; Stansby, G.; Beard, J.D.; Engelter, S.T.; Richards, T.; Brown, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is standard treatment for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis but carries a risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. This study investigated risk factors for these procedural complications occurring within 30 days of endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS). Methods Patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis >50% were randomly allocated to endarterectomy or stenting. Analysis is reported of patients in ICSS assigned to endarterectomy and limited to those in whom CEA was initiated. The occurrence of stroke, MI, or death within 30 days of the procedure was reported by investigators and adjudicated. Demographic and technical risk factors for these complications were analysed sequentially in a binomial regression analysis and subsequently in a multivariable model. Results Eight-hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the analysis. The risk of stroke, MI, or death within 30 days of CEA was 4.0%. The risk was higher in female patients (risk ratio [RR] 1.98, 95% CI 1.02–3.87, p = .05) and with increasing baseline diastolic blood pressure (dBP) (RR 1.30 per +10 mmHg, 95% CI 1.02–1.66, p = .04). Mean baseline dBP, obtained at the time of randomization in the trial, was 78 mmHg (SD 13 mmHg). In a multivariable model, only dBP remained a significant predictor. The risk was not related to the type of surgical reconstruction, anaesthetic technique, or perioperative medication regimen. Patients undergoing CEA stayed a median of 4 days before discharge, and 21.2% of events occurred on or after the day of discharge. Conclusions Increasing diastolic blood pressure was the only independent risk factor for stroke, MI, or death following CEA. Cautious attention to blood pressure control following symptoms attributable to carotid stenosis could reduce the risks associated with subsequent CEA. PMID:26460291

  3. Effect of internal carotid artery stenting on superior thyroid artery Doppler flow.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Yasemin; Akdemir, Ramazan; Varim, Perihan; Ayhan, Lacin Tatli; Cakar, Mehmet Akif; Vatan, Mehmet Bulent; Kilic, Harun

    2014-10-01

    Patients with carotid disease are frequently referred for carotid artery stenting based on the results of carotid duplex studies. During carotid artery stenting, the stent is usually extended into the common carotid artery, thereby crossing the external carotid artery. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding internal carotid stenting and external carotid artery flow velocities, but the effect of stenting on ipsilateral superior thyroid artery velocities has not been defined. This study examined the effect of internal carotid angioplasty and stenting on the ipsilateral superior thyroid artery Doppler-derived flow parameters. We prospectively studied preinterventional and postinterventional duplex scans obtained from 41 patients (mean age ± SD, 64 ± 10 years) who underwent carotid artery stenting. The Doppler-defined preprocedural peak systolic velocity (PSV) end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) in the ipsilateral external carotid and superior thyroid arteries were compared with postprocedural values. Among patients with stenting, the preprocedural PSV, EDV, RI, and PI in the ipsilateral superior thyroid artery were 30 ± 11 cm/s, 13 ± 6 cm/s, 0.62 ± 0.11, and 1.04 ± 0.28,respectively; after stenting, they were 36 ± 8 cm/s, 14 ± 9 cm/s, 0.71 ± 0.07, and 1.11 ± 0.19. The preprocedural PSV, EDV, RI, and PI in the ipsilateral external carotid artery were 79 ± 24 cm/s, 17 ± 7 cm/s, 0.77 ± 0.26, and 1.27 ± 0.22; after stenting, they were 94 ± 31 cm/s, 20 ± 6 cm/s, 0.80 ± 0.4, and 1.25 ± 0.31. Despite a slight increase in superior thyroid and external carotid artery flow, there was no statistically significant change from before to after stenting. This study showed no differences in blood velocity profiles in the ipsilateral superior thyroid and external carotid arteries after stenting. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. A Lumped Parameter Method to Calculate the Effect of Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion on Anterior Cerebral Artery Pressure Waveform.

    PubMed

    Abdi, M; Navidbakhsh, M; Razmkon, A

    2016-03-01

    Numerical modeling of biological structures would be very helpful tool to analyze hundreds of human body phenomena and also diseases diagnosis. One physiologic phenomenon is blood circulatory system and heart hemodynamic performance that can be simulated by utilizing lumped method. In this study, we can predict hemodynamic behavior of one artery of circulatory system (anterior cerebral artery) when disease such as internal carotid artery occlusion is occurred. Pressure-flow simulation is one the leading common approaches for modeling of circulatory system behavior and forecasts of hemodynamic in numerous physiological conditions. In this paper, by using lumped model (electrical analogy), CV system is simulated in MATLAB software (SIMULINK environment). The performance of healthy blood circulation and heart is modeled and the obtained results used for further analyses. The stenosis of internal carotid artery at different rates was, then, induced in the circuit and the effects are studied. In stenosis cases, the effects of internal carotid artery occlusion on  left anterior cerebral artery pressure waveform are investigated. The findings of this study may have implications not only for understanding the behavior of human biological system at healthy condition but also for diagnosis of diseases in circulatory and cardiovascular system of human body.

  5. Massive Hemorrhage from Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm Successfully Treated by Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with Assessment of Regional Cerebral Oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Kakizawa, Hideaki Toyota, Naoyuki; Hieda, Masashi; Hirai, Nobuhiko; Tachikake, Toshihiro; Horiguchi, Jun; Ito, Katsuhide

    2005-05-15

    A 54-year-old male presented with intermittent massive hemorrhage from recurrent oropharyngeal cancer. The angiogram showed the encasements at the main trunk of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of the ECA with gelatin sponge particles and microcoils was performed. However, hemorrhage recurred several hours after the initial TAE. The second angiogram showed a large pseudoaneurysm of the ICA developing at the encasement on the initial angiogram. As a simple neurologic test, regional cerebral oxygenation (rSO{sub 2}) was assessed with and without manual compression of the common carotid artery (CCA). With compression of the left CCA, the rSO{sub 2} did not change. We therefore performed isolation of the pseudoaneurysm. We embolized proximally and distally to the ICA pseudoaneurysm with microcoils and the pseudoaneurysm disappeared. No major complications occurred and no massive hemorrhage recurred until death from the cancer. TAE was an effective treatment for massive hemorrhage caused by tumor invasion to ICA. Assessment of rSO{sub 2} was a simple and useful neurologic test predicting the cerebral blood flow to prevent complications of TAE.

  6. Retrograde Suction Decompression with an Inahara Carotid Shunt for Clipping a Large Distal Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Sook

    2017-01-01

    We describe a technique to clip a large internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm via a retrograde suction decompression (RSD). A large aneurysm in the right distal ICA involving the bifurcation region measuring 1.2×1.1×0.7 cm with posterior projection was managed with assisted RSD technique. The anterior choroidal artery emerged from the side wall of the aneurysm. An Inahara shunt was inserted into the ICA with neck dissection, and RSD was applied after completely clipping the aneurysm. RSD with an Inahara carotid shunt is useful for complete visualization of the aneurysm, including its surrounding structures, and for proximal control of the parent vessels, subsequently achieving satisfactory clip placement. PMID:28120578

  7. Surgical dissection of the internal carotid artery under flow control by proximal vessel clamping reduces embolic infarcts during carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ishii, Akira; Takahashi, Jun C; Takagi, Yasushi; Yamagata, Sen; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of flow control of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by the clamping of the common carotid artery, external carotid artery, and superior thyroid artery during surgical ICA dissection to reduce ischemic complications after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Sixty-seven patients (59 men; age, 70.5 ± 6.2 years) who underwent CEA by the same surgeon were retrospectively studied. Both conventional CEA (n = 29) and flow-control CEA (n = 38) were performed with the patient under general anesthesia and with the use of somatosensory-evoked potential and near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring as a guide for selective shunting. The number of new postoperative infarcts was assessed with preoperative and postoperative diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained within 3 days of surgery. In addition to surgical technique, the effects of the following factors on new infarcts also were examined: age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and application of shunting. New postoperative DWI lesions were observed in 7 of 67 patients (10.4%), and none of them was symptomatic. With respect to operative technique, the incidence rate of DWI spots was significantly lower in the flow-control group (2.6%) than in the conventional group (20.7%), odds ratio: 0.069; 95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.779; P = 0.031). On multiple logistic regression analysis, age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and the use of internal shunting did not have significant effects on new postoperative DWI lesions, whereas technique did have an effect. The proximal flow-control technique for CEA helps avoid embolic complications during surgical ICA dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pipeline embolization device as primary treatment for cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Arthur; Santarelli, Justin; Stiefel, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited data exists on the durability and occlusion rate of treating extracranial cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms using the pipeline embolization device (PED) flow-diverting stent. Methods: Three patients presenting with dissecting cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms were treated with the PED as the sole treatment modality. Results: In all three patients, successful aneurysmal occlusion and parent vessel reconstruction occurred on immediate angiography and continued on 6-month follow-up. No immediate or delayed complications were seen, and all patients remained neurologically intact. Conclusion: Complete aneurysmal occlusion and long-term angiographic occlusion can occur after PED treatment of cervical carotid pseudoaneurysms. In select patients, the PED can be a suitable primary treatment modality with good neurological outcome for cervical carotid pseudoaneurysms. PMID:28217382

  9. Shear-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery occurs independent of hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Hoiland, Ryan L; Smith, Kurt J; Carter, Howard H; Lewis, Nia C S; Tymko, Michael M; Wildfong, Kevin W; Bain, Anthony R; Green, Daniel J; Ainslie, Philip N

    2017-07-01

    Evidence for shear stress as a regulator of carotid artery dilation in response to increased arterial CO2 was recently demonstrated in humans during sustained elevations in CO2 (hypercapnia); however, the relative contributions of CO2 and shear stress to this response remains unclear. We examined the hypothesis that, after a 30-s transient increase in arterial CO2 tension and consequent increase in internal carotid artery shear stress, internal carotid artery diameter would increase, indicating shear-mediated dilation, in the absence of concurrent hypercapnia. In 27 healthy participants, partial pressures of end-tidal O2 and CO2, ventilation (pneumotachography), blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography), heart rate (electrocardiogram), internal carotid artery flow, diameter, and shear stress (high-resolution duplex ultrasound), and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial Doppler) were measured during 4-min steady-state and transient 30-s hypercapnic tests (both +9 mmHg CO2). Internal carotid artery dilation was lower in the transient compared with steady-state hypercapnia (3.3 ± 1.9 vs. 5.3 ± 2.9%, respectively, P < 0.03). Increases in internal carotid artery shear stress preceded increases in diameter in both transient (time: 16.8 ± 13.2 vs. 59.4 ± 60.3 s, P < 0.01) and steady-state (time: 18.2 ± 14.2 vs. 110.3 ± 79.6 s, P < 0.01) tests. Internal carotid artery dilation was positively correlated with shear rate area under the curve in the transient (r(2) = 0.44, P < 0.01) but not steady-state (r(2) = 0.02, P = 0.53) trial. Collectively, these results suggest that hypercapnia induces shear-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery in humans. This study further promotes the application and development of hypercapnia as a clinical strategy for the assessment of cerebrovascular vasodilatory function and health in humans.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Shear stress dilates the internal carotid artery in humans. This vasodilatory response occurs independent

  10. Catheterization of the Hepatic Artery Via the Left Common Carotid Artery in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiao; Wang Yixiang, J.; Zhou Xiangping Guan Yongsong; Tang Chengwei

    2006-12-15

    The commonly used approach for rat hepatic artery catheterization is via the gastroduodenal artery, which is ligated after the procedure. A new method of rat hepatic artery catheterization via the left common carotid artery (LCCA) is described. The LCCA is repaired after catheterization. The catheterization procedures included the following: (1) opening the rat's abdominal cavity and exposing the portion of abdominal aorta at the level of the celiac trunk; (2) separating and exposing the LCCA; inserting a microguidewire and microcatheter set into the LCCA via an incision; after placement into the descending aorta, the microguidewire and microcatheter are maneuvered into the hepatic artery under direct vision; (3) after transcatheter therapy, the catheter is withdrawn and the incision at the LCCA is repaired. This technique was employed on 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats with diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer, using a 3F microguidewire and microcatheter set. Selective hepatic artery catheterization was successfully performed in 57 rats. One rat died during the operation and five rats died within 7 days after the procedure. It is envisaged that as experience increases, the catheterization success rate will increase and the death rate will decrease. A new approach for selective hepatic artery catheterization via the LCCA in rats is introduced, which makes repeat catheterization of this artery possible and allows large embolization particles to be delivered by using a 3F catheter.

  11. Internal carotid artery dissection following chiropractic treatment in a pregnant woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Morton, Adam

    2012-12-19

    A case of internal carotid artery dissection in a pregnant woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) immediately following chiropractic treatment is presented. The literature regarding complications of neck manipulation during pregnancy, spontaneous dissection of craniocervical arteries in pregnancy and the postpartum period, and dissection of craniocervical arteries in SLE are reviewed. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first case of carotid artery dissection following chiropractic treatment in a pregnant woman published in the literature.

  12. Internal carotid artery dissection following chiropractic treatment in a pregnant woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A case of internal carotid artery dissection in a pregnant woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) immediately following chiropractic treatment is presented. The literature regarding complications of neck manipulation during pregnancy, spontaneous dissection of craniocervical arteries in pregnancy and the postpartum period, and dissection of craniocervical arteries in SLE are reviewed. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first case of carotid artery dissection following chiropractic treatment in a pregnant woman published in the literature. PMID:23254252

  13. Congenital absence of internal carotid artery with intercavernous anastomosis: Case report and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Oz, Ibrahim Ilker; Serifoglu, Ismail; Yazgan, Omer; Erdem, Zuhal

    2016-08-01

    The absence of an internal carotid artery is a rare congenital anomaly. In the absence of the internal carotid artery, collateral circulations develop through the circle of Willis, persistent embryonic arteries or transcranial collaterals of the external carotid artery. Six pathways of collateral circulation have been described. Intercavernous anastomosis is between cavernous segments of the bilateral internal carotid arteries and is rarely seen. Patients with an absence of the internal carotid artery can be completely asymptomatic. However, these patients can present with subarachnoid hemorrhage or stroke accompanying cerebral aneurysm or abnormal collateral. We combined our case with 33 previous publications to form a retrospective series including 35 cases of unilateral internal carotid artery agenesis with intercavernous anastomosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Treatment of Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Spontaneous Dissection with Pseudoaneurysm and Unilateral Lower Cranial Nerves Palsy by Two Silk Flow Diverters

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, Kamil; Zelenakova, Jana; DeRiggo, Julius; Kurca, Egon; Kantorova, Ema; Polacek, Hubert

    2013-08-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions in the parapharyngeal space (a dissection and a pseudoaneurysm) may present as isolated lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII) palsy (Collet-Sicard syndrome). Some arteriopathies such as fibromuscular dysplasia and tortuosity make a vessel predisposed to dissection. Extreme vessel tortuosity makes the treatment by a stent graft impossible. Two Silk stents were used in a 46 year-old man with left lower cranial nerves (IX-XII) palsy for the treatment of left ICA spontaneous dissection with pseudoaneurysm. A follow-up angiogram 5 months later confirmed pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and patency of the left ICA. The patient recovered completely from the deficits.

  15. Risk Factors For Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, or Death Following Carotid Endarterectomy: Results From the International Carotid Stenting Study.

    PubMed

    Doig, D; Turner, E L; Dobson, J; Featherstone, R L; de Borst, G J; Stansby, G; Beard, J D; Engelter, S T; Richards, T; Brown, M M

    2015-12-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is standard treatment for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis but carries a risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. This study investigated risk factors for these procedural complications occurring within 30 days of endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS). Patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis >50% were randomly allocated to endarterectomy or stenting. Analysis is reported of patients in ICSS assigned to endarterectomy and limited to those in whom CEA was initiated. The occurrence of stroke, MI, or death within 30 days of the procedure was reported by investigators and adjudicated. Demographic and technical risk factors for these complications were analysed sequentially in a binomial regression analysis and subsequently in a multivariable model. Eight-hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the analysis. The risk of stroke, MI, or death within 30 days of CEA was 4.0%. The risk was higher in female patients (risk ratio [RR] 1.98, 95% CI 1.02-3.87, p = .05) and with increasing baseline diastolic blood pressure (dBP) (RR 1.30 per +10 mmHg, 95% CI 1.02-1.66, p = .04). Mean baseline dBP, obtained at the time of randomization in the trial, was 78 mmHg (SD 13 mmHg). In a multivariable model, only dBP remained a significant predictor. The risk was not related to the type of surgical reconstruction, anaesthetic technique, or perioperative medication regimen. Patients undergoing CEA stayed a median of 4 days before discharge, and 21.2% of events occurred on or after the day of discharge. Increasing diastolic blood pressure was the only independent risk factor for stroke, MI, or death following CEA. Cautious attention to blood pressure control following symptoms attributable to carotid stenosis could reduce the risks associated with subsequent CEA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Endovascular plug for internal carotid artery occlusion in the management of a cavernous pseudoaneurysm with bifrontal subdural empyema: technical note.

    PubMed

    Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Ndubuizu, Obinna; Jones, Zoe; Hsu, Daniel P; Cohen, Alan R

    2017-09-01

    The authors demonstrate the use of an endovascular plug in securing a carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in an emergent setting requiring craniotomy for a concurrent subdural empyema. They describe the case of a 14-year-old boy with sinusitis and bifrontal subdural empyema who underwent transsphenoidal exploration at an outside hospital. An injury to the right cavernous segment of the ICA caused torrential epistaxis. Bleeding was successfully controlled by inflating a Foley balloon catheter within the sphenoid sinus, and the patient was transferred to the authors' institution. Emergent angiography showed a dissection of the right cavernous carotid artery, with a large pseudoaneurysm projecting into the sphenoid sinus at the site of arterial injury. The right internal carotid artery was obliterated using pushable coils distally and an endovascular plug proximally. The endovascular plug enabled the authors to successfully exclude the pseudoaneurysm from the circulation. The patient subsequently underwent an emergent bifrontal craniotomy for evacuation of a left frontotemporal subdural empyema and exenteration of both frontal sinuses. He made a complete neurological recovery. Endovascular large-vessel sacrifice, obviating the need for numerous coils and antiplatelet therapy, has a role in the setting of selected acute neurosurgical emergencies necessitating craniotomy. The endovascular plug is a useful adjunct in such circumstances as the device can be deployed rapidly, safely, and effectively.

  17. Isolated internal carotid artery dissection in a long-distance runner

    PubMed Central

    Koczewski, Paweł; Gabriel, Marcin; Kociemba, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) in the precranial segment, which caused binocular visual impairment in a 49-year-old man during a marathon race. The incident lasted 3 h, after which the symptoms resolved. Imaging tests showed internal carotid artery dissection. No ophthalmologic changes were identified. After 6 weeks of ineffective non-invasive treatment the patient underwent vascular surgery – stent implantation into the damaged artery. Detailed diagnostic tests and adequate treatment allowed us to achieve a good clinical result. Upon the suspicion of ICAD it is recommended to extend standard Doppler ultrasound performed with a linear transducer and evaluate the proximal segment of the internal carotid artery with a curved transducer as well. PMID:28194253

  18. Agenesis of internal carotid artery in a child with ipsilateral Horner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fons, Carmen; Vasconcelos, Monica; Vidal, Mariona; Puy, Ramón; Capdevila, Antonio; Sanchez, Laia; Campistol, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Horner's syndrome is characterized by a classic triad of ipsilateral pupillary miosis, partial eyelid ptosis, and facial anhydrosis. This case study reports a 7-year-old boy with right miosis, mild blepharoptosis, and iris hypopigmentation detected in a routine pediatric follow-up without ipsilateral facial anhydrosis, flushing, or pain. There was no history of birth trauma and test with cocaine provoked no response of the right pupil, suggesting right Horner's syndrome. Mediastinal tumor was ruled out and brain magnetic resonance imaging incidentally showed absence of flow in the right internal carotid artery. Subsequent magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated agenesis of the right internal carotid artery without other vascular-associated malformations. The final diagnosis was right, congenital Horner's syndrome due to ipsilateral internal carotid agenesis. We describe in detail the radiological findings and pathophysiological mechanisms of this unusual association.

  19. [A case of fibromuscular dysplasia presenting with Wallenberg syndrome, and developing a giant aneurysm of the internal carotid artery in the cavernous sinus].

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, K; Fuse, S; Shimizu, J; Takeda, K; Sakuta, M

    1992-10-01

    A 25-year-old man developed Wallenberg syndrome (WS). At that time his carotid angiography was normal. When he was 28 years old, he suffered from retinal artery embolism in the left eye. At the age of 30 years, he had an acute onset of abducens nerve palsy in his right eye. The carotid angiography showed a giant aneurysm at the cavernous sinus portion in the right internal carotid artery. At his age of 38, the right oculomotor, trochlear and trigeminal nerves were involved. A vertebral angiography revealed a bead-like formation, and a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) was made. An intensive angiographic examination revealed many stenotic or dilated lesions in the carotid, vertebral, coronary, renal, and hepatic arteries. A sural nerve biopsy specimen revealed that the sural vein was involved. In Japan only one case of FMD presenting with WS is known. FMD should be under consideration as an underlying disease, when WS occurred in younger patients with few risk factors. In this patient an angiography revealed no abnormality in the cavernous sinus portion of the internal carotid artery, when he suffered from WS. However, eight years later he was proved to have a giant aneurysm in the cavernous sinus portion. In conclusion, we support the hypothesis that aneurysm may originate from angiographically normal arterial wall in FMD.

  20. Comparative effects of frovatriptan and sumatriptan on coronary and internal carotid vascular haemodynamics in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Carel, I; Ghaleh, B; Edouard, A; Dubois-Rande, J L; Parsons, A A; Giudicelli, J F; Berdeaux, A

    2001-03-01

    The effects of frovatriptan and sumatriptan on internal carotid and coronary vascular haemodynamics were investigated and compared in conscious dogs. Frovatriptan and sumatriptan (0.1 - 100 microg kg(-1)) induced a transient increase in external coronary artery diameter (eCOD) of up to 2.9+/-1.2 and 1.8+/-0.6%, respectively (both P:<0.05). This was followed by a prolonged and dose-dependent decrease in eCOD of up to -5.2+/-1.2 and -5.3+/-0.9% (both P:<0.05), with ED(50) values of 86+/-21 and 489+/-113 micromol kg(-1), respectively. In contrast, only a decrease in the external diameter of the internal carotid artery was observed (-6.0+/-0.6 and -6.2+/-1.4%, both P:<0.05, and ED(50) values of 86+/-41 and 493+/-162 micromol kg(-1), respectively). Frovatriptan was thus 5.7 fold more potent than sumatriptan at the level of both large coronary and internal carotid arteries. After endothelium removal by balloon angioplasty in coronary arteries, the initial dilatation induced by the triptans was abolished and delayed constriction enhanced. The selective antagonist for the 5-HT(1B) receptors SB224289 dose-dependently blocked the effects of sumatriptan on large coronary and internal carotid arteries whereas the selective antagonist for the 5-HT(1D) receptors BRL15572 did not affect any of these effects. In conclusion, frovatriptan and sumatriptan initially dilate and subsequently constrict large coronary arteries in the conscious dog, whereas they directly constrict the internal carotid artery. The vascular endothelium modulates the effects of these triptans on large coronary arteries. Finally, 5-HT(1B) but not 5-HT(1D) receptors are primarily involved in canine coronary and internal carotid vasomotor responses to sumatriptan.

  1. Revascularization of the internal carotid artery for isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calió, Francesco G; Papaspyropoulos, Vassilios; Montesano, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Antonio

    2003-02-01

    The operation for isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in preventing stroke and relieving the symptoms of cerebral ischemia. A consecutive sample clinical study with a mean follow-up of 44 months. The surgical department of an academic tertiary care center and an affiliated secondary care center. Fifty-four patients with a mean age of 67 years underwent 55 revascularizations of the internal carotid artery. The surgical procedures consisted of the following: shortening and reimplantation in the common carotid artery in 36 cases, bypass grafting in 15 cases, and transposition into the external carotid artery in 4 cases. Cumulative survival, primary patency, and stroke-free and neurologic symptom-free rates expressed by standard life-table analysis. No patients died in the postoperative period. The postoperative stroke rate was 1.8%. The cumulative rates (SEs) at 5 years were as follows: survival, 70% (10.2%); primary patency, 89% (7.8%); overall stroke free, 92% (6.8%); ipsilateral stroke free, 96% (5.3%); neurologic symptom free, 90% (7.5%); and ipsilateral symptom free, 93% (6.5%). Revascularization of the internal carotid artery for the treatment of isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking is safe and effective in preventing stroke and relieving symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency.

  2. Unruptured Giant Intracranial Aneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery: Late Ocular Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zorić Geber, Mia; Krolo, Iva; Zrinscak, Ognjen; Tedeschi Reiner, Eugenia; Zivkovic, Dario Josip

    2016-01-01

    An unruptured giant intracranial aneurysm of the internal carotid artery may tend to present with late ocular symptoms. This is the case of a 58-year-old female patient with a giant unruptured aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery. The patient presented with exclusively progressive reduction of visual acuity and visual field defects due to the mass effect of the growing aneurysm. The rupture of the aneurysm occurred before planned treatment. Clinical suspicion and timely recognition as well as prompt treatment play an important role in the final outcome of the management of giant unruptured intracerebral aneurysms.

  3. A case of multiple abnormalities with eustachian tube obstruction by a protruded internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Shinnabe, Akihiro; Hara, Mariko; Matsuzawa, Shingo; Hasegawa, Masayo; Kodama, Kozue; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of multiple abnormalities with eustachian tube obstruction by a protruded internal carotid artery. A 10-year-old male presented with multiple abnormalities including anomalous pinna, poor eyesight, facial palsy, moderate conductive deafness, and otitis media with effusion. Temporal bone computed tomography demonstrated obstruction of the right eustachian tube by a protruded internal carotid artery. Insertion of a tympanostomy tube did not improve his hearing, indicating a possible ossicular chain anomaly. Although tympanoplasty is necessary to improve the patients' hearing, the poor drainage function makes this difficult. Knowledge of this vascular anomaly is important when performing myringotomy or tympanoplasty.

  4. Giant Extracranial Aneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Moratti, C.; Andersson, T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cutaneous pigmentations, neurofibromas, Lisch nodules and neuroectodermal tumors. Supra-aortic vessel aneurysms may affect patients with NF-1 and can be associated with rupture, ischemic complications and compression symptoms. We describe a 48-year-old woman with NF-1 and an extracranial 3×5 cm right internal carotid artery aneurysm. After balloon test occlusion the patient was treated with parent artery sacrifice which led to significant shrinkage on follow-up MR and reduction of compression symptoms. The literature concerning internal carotid artery aneurysms associated with NF-1 is reviewed evaluating the possible therapeutic options. PMID:22958775

  5. Unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Shingo; Taki, Takuyu; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2014-08-01

    Objective To report a rare case of unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve treated by clipping and to review the previously published cases. Case Presentation A 42-year-old man suddenly presented with left oculomotor paresis. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA) demonstrated a left IC-PC aneurysm with a bulging part. During surgery, it was confirmed that the bulging part split the oculomotor nerve. After the fenestrated oculomotor nerve was dissected from the bulging part with a careful microsurgical technique, neck clipping was performed. After the operation, the symptoms of oculomotor nerve paresis disappeared within 2 weeks. Conclusions We must keep in mind the possibility of an anomaly of the oculomotor nerve, including fenestration, and careful observation and manipulation should be performed to preserve the nerve function during surgery, even though it is very rare.

  6. Endovascular therapy using flow diversion for giant internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm arising in the setting of an invasive pituitary macroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Almas; Marashi, Keyan B.; O'Rourke, Brian D.; Hise, Joseph H.; Opatowsky, Michael J.; Layton, Kennith F.

    2017-01-01

    This report illustrates the unusual occurrence of a pseudoaneurysm arising in the setting of a skull base mass and describes the first reported use of endovascular flow diversion therapy in such a setting. A 63-year-old man with occasional headaches during the preceding month presented with the acute onset of severe left retroorbital headache and oculomotor nerve palsy. Computed tomography (CT) and CT angiogram revealed a destructive skull base mass with an associated giant probable pseudoaneurysm of the cavernous segment of the left internal carotid artery. The patient underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal biopsy with a subsequent diagnosis of prolactinoma. Endovascular therapy utilizing two Pipeline™ flow diversion embolization devices was performed with subsequent resolution of the patient's headache and improvement in his cranial nerve deficits/cavernous sinus syndrome. PMID:28127130

  7. Unruptured Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Splitting the Oculomotor Nerve: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Toyota, Shingo; Taki, Takuyu; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a rare case of unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve treated by clipping and to review the previously published cases. Case Presentation A 42-year-old man suddenly presented with left oculomotor paresis. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA) demonstrated a left IC-PC aneurysm with a bulging part. During surgery, it was confirmed that the bulging part split the oculomotor nerve. After the fenestrated oculomotor nerve was dissected from the bulging part with a careful microsurgical technique, neck clipping was performed. After the operation, the symptoms of oculomotor nerve paresis disappeared within 2 weeks. Conclusions We must keep in mind the possibility of an anomaly of the oculomotor nerve, including fenestration, and careful observation and manipulation should be performed to preserve the nerve function during surgery, even though it is very rare. PMID:25083381

  8. Primary internal carotid artery aneurysm in a 15-year-old male: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Daniel; Sarac, Timur; Lorenz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms are a rare entity in the adult population. Very little information is known in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 15-year-old male with an isolated internal carotid artery aneurysm and a review of the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. External carotid artery angioplasty and stenting to augment cerebral perfusion in the setting of subacute symptomatic ipsilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. Case report.

    PubMed

    Adel, Joseph G; Bendok, Bernard R; Hage, Ziad A; Naidech, Andrew M; Miller, Jeffery W; Batjer, H Hunt

    2007-12-01

    The authors performed external carotid artery (ECA) angioplasty and stenting in a 45-year-old man who had presented with right hemispheric crescendo ischemic symptoms stemming from acute right internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). This unique application of ECA angioplasty and stenting augmented cerebral perfusion and improved clinical symptoms. In certain situations, ECA stenting can increase cerebral perfusion in the setting of ICAO and ECA stenosis. The authors are the first to describe this approach in this context.

  10. Pseudoaneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery: Treatment with a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Scavee, Vincent; Wispelaere, Jean-Francois de; Mormont, Eric; Coulier, Bruno; Trigaux, Jean-Paul; Schoevaerdts, Jean-Claude

    2001-07-15

    Dissection of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery may occur spontaneously or after trauma. We report the management of a 53-year-old right-handed man with progressive dizziness and neck pain 6 weeks after a motor vehicle collision. The clinical and neurologic examinations were normal. The CT scan led to the diagnosis of a pseudoaneurysm of the right internal carotid artery near the skull base. We successfully treated this post-traumatic lesion with a covered stent. The patient underwent the endovascular procedure under general anesthesia and transcranial Doppler monitoring. No neurologic event was observed. Obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm with preservation of the carotid artery was achieved. The patient was discharged from the hospital 72 hr later with no complications. Clinical and imaging follow-up at 6 months was unremarkable.

  11. [A case of accessory middle cerebral artery associated with internal carotid artery aneurysm (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Munekata, K; Omori, H; Kanazawa, Y; Miyazaki, S; Fukushima, H; Kamata, K

    1979-12-01

    A case of accessory middle cerebral artery associated with internal carotid artery aneurysm was reported. A 50-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with complaints of headache, nausea, vomiting and conciousness disturbance. Lumbar puncture showed bloody CSF. Right carotid angiogram revealed saccular aneurysm of the internal carotid-posterior communicating artery and accessory middle cerebral artery originating from the horizontal portion of the right anterior cerebral artery. No other vascular lesion was observed on other angiograms. Operation was performed 2 days after admission. The neck of the aneurysm was clipped. Postoperative aseptic meningitis was cured by frequent lumbar punctures, and her course was uneventful. The etiological hypothesis of these cerebral vascular anomalies was briefly discussed.

  12. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Segmental Agenesis: Embryology, Common Collateral Pathways, Clinical Presentation, and Clinical Importance of a Rare Condition.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Andrea M; Visconti, Emiliano; Schiarelli, Chiara; Frassanito, Paolo; Pedicelli, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    Bilateral segmental agenesis of the internal carotid artery is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of bilateral internal carotid artery segmental agenesis in an asymptomatic 18-year-old man. Embryology, common collateral pathways, clinical presentation, and clinical importance of this condition are discussed. According to our review of the literature, this report is the first to describe bilateral internal carotid artery segmental agenesis in a patient studied with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, Doppler ultrasonography, and digital subtraction angiography. An 18-year-old man presented to our hospital complaining of occasional mild headaches. Neurologic examination was unremarkable. Imaging findings consisted of bilateral segmental agenesis of the internal carotid arteries. Bilateral segmental agenesis of internal carotid artery may be completely asymptomatic and harmless, but associated conditions, such as cerebral aneurysms or abnormal collateral circulation, should alert clinicians to the possibilities of subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predominance of Nonatherosclerotic Internal Elastic Lamina Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery.

    PubMed

    Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Spliet, Wim G M; Goldschmeding, Roel; Isgum, Ivana; Kockelkoren, Remko; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Mali, Willem P T M; de Jong, Pim A; Vink, Aryan

    2016-01-01

    Calcification of the intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) is an independent risk factor for stroke. These calcifications are generally seen as manifestation of atherosclerosis, but histological investigations are limited. The aim of this study is to determine whether calcifications in the iICA are present in atherosclerotic plaques, or in other parts of the arterial wall. Thirty-nine iICAs were histologically assessed, using digital microscopy to quantify the amount of calcification in the different layers of the arterial wall. Calcifications were found in the intima, around the internal elastic lamina and in the medial layer of the arterial wall. In 71% of the arteries, internal elastic lamina calcification contributed most to the total calcified cross-sectional surface area. Internal elastic lamina calcification was unrelated to the occurrence of atherosclerotic intimal lesions. Intimal calcifications were most often associated with atherosclerotic lesions, but also many noncalcified atherosclerotic lesions were found. In the iICA, calcifications are predominantly present around the internal elastic lamina, suggesting that this nonatherosclerotic type of calcification contributes to the previously observed increased risk of stroke in patients with iICA calcifications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Why a standard contrast-enhanced MRI might be useful in intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Oeinck, Maximilian; Rozeik, Christoph; Wattchow, Jens; Meckel, Stephan; Schlageter, Manuel; Beeskow, Christel

    2016-01-01

    In patients with ischemic stroke of unknown cause cerebral vasculitis is a rare but relevant differential diagnosis, especially when signs of intracranial artery stenosis are found and laboratory findings show systemic inflammation. In such cases, high-resolution T1w vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; ‘black blood’ technique) at 3 T is preferentially performed, but may not be available in every hospital. We report a case of an 84-year-old man with right hemispheric transient ischemic attack and signs of distal occlusion in the right internal carotid artery (ICA) in duplex sonography. Standard MRI with contrast agent pointed the way to the correct diagnosis since it showed an intramural contrast uptake in the right ICA and both vertebral arteries. Temporal artery biopsy confirmed the suspected diagnosis of a giant cell arteritis and dedicated vessel wall MRI performed later supported the suspected intracranial large artery inflammation. Our case also shows that early diagnosis and immunosuppressive therapy may not always prevent disease progression, as our patient suffered several infarcts in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory with consecutive high-grade hemiparesis of the right side within the following four months. PMID:26988083

  15. Kinking of internal carotid artery: is it a risk factor for cerebro-vascular damage in patients undergoing cardiac surgery?

    PubMed

    Borioni, R; Garofalo, M; Actis Dato, G M; Pierri, M D; Caprara, E; Albano, P; Chiariello, L

    1994-08-01

    The incidence of carotid artery kinking is reported from 4% to 25% in different studies. During cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) in cardiac surgery the hemodynamic effects related to the kinking could produce hypoperfusion especially if associated with atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries. We report our experience of 653 patients (538 males, 115 females, mean age 58.3 years) studied by coronaroangiography and internal carotid artery duplex scanning during the period January 1991-December 1992. Thirty-seven patients (22 males, 15 females, mean age 64.9 years), revealed anomalies of the internal carotid artery classificated as tortuosity (9 patients; 24.4%), and kinking (28 patients; 75.6%). All but 4 patients underwent cardiac surgery isolated or associated with carotid thrombo-endarterectomy (TEA) with Dacron patch arterioplasty. Three patients died (8.1%), one of them from cerebrovascular accident. He was a patient who had thromboembolism from the ascending aorta but without associated atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries. Asymptomatic isolated internal carotid artery kinking does not seem to be a risk factor for neurological complications during CPB. If carotid kinking is symptomatic and associated with atherosclerotic plaque producing internal carotid artery stenosis greater than 75%, we strongly suggest surgical treatment before cardiac operation.

  16. [Ischemic stroke secondary to spontaneous arterial dissection of the internal carotid artery: a rare postpartum complication].

    PubMed

    Chtaou, N; Messouak, O; Belahsen, M F

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of ischemic stroke caused by internal carotid artery dissection in a 35-year-old woman in postpartum following spontaneous labor and vaginal delivery. Ischemic stroke due to arterial dissection requires rapid diagnosis and anticoagulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Traumatic dissection of the internal carotid artery: simultaneous infarct of optic nerve and brain

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Edgar; Martinez, Braulio

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Traumatic intracranial internal carotid artery dissection is a rare but significant cause of stroke in patients in their forties, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Simultaneous ischemic stroke and optic nerve infarction can occur. Clinical suspicion of dissection is determining in the acute management. PMID:25356244

  18. [Microsurgical treatment of ophthalmic segment aneurysms of internal carotid artery: 28 cases report].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-li; Shi, Xiang-en; Sun, Yu-ming; Liu, Fang-jun

    2010-06-15

    To investigate the operative modalities and outcomes of 28 cases of ophthalmic segment aneurysms of internal carotid artery. Twenty-eight cases of ophthalmic segment aneurysms of internal carotid artery were operated on from May 2004 to August 2009. Of all 28 cases, 20 were large or giant. Nineteen aneurysms were directly clipped or resected with internal carotid artery revascularization. Since 2006, high-flow extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass were available and performed in 9 patients of large or giant aneurysms and then the aneurysms were resected or trapped. Seventeen patients underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) postoperatively. The images demonstrated that 5 grafts of bypass were in patency, and 2 were occluded. Only 1 aneurysm was partially clipped and the others disappeared on imaging. The 78% of these cases had good results (GOS 4-5). One patient died after EC-IC bypass due to neck hematoma. The treatment of ophthalmic segment aneurysms of internal carotid artery, especially the large and giant ones, remains a challenge for neurovascular neurosurgeon. The accessory high-flow EC-IC bypass procedures and selection of suitable aneurysm clips are very important to improve the effectiveness of the operation.

  19. [Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis in a patient of temporal arteritis with internal carotid artery occlusion: a case report].

    PubMed

    Abiko, Masaru; Nakano, Shigeki; Nishizaki, Takafumi; Ikeda, Norio; Sakakura, Takanori; Okamura, Tomohiro; Abiko, Seisho

    2012-01-01

    Temporal arteritis is a rare systemic autoimmune disease and the arteritic process in this case of temporal arteritis involved large and medium-size arteries. Temporal arteritis with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion is very rare. We report a case of temporal arteritis with ICA occlusion following superficial temporal artery (STA) -middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis, together with steroid therapy. A 73-year-old female presented with a headache, visual disturbance of left side, and suppression of activity. Left STA was inflammatory and overswelling. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and angiography revealed occlusion of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) at the cervical portion and lowering of vascular reserve on PAO SPECT. Diagnosis as temporal arteritis was conclusive due to the clinical presentation, laboratory studies, and left temporal artery biopsy, so steroid pulse therapy was initiated. Inflammation of left STA disappeared after steroid therapy, but left ICA occlusion on angiography and lowering of vascular reserve on SPECT remained for 3 months afterwards. Because of this, STA-MCA anastomosis was performed. There were no complications after the operation and the donor artery has been patent for two years. Temporal arteritis with ICA occlusion that requires extracranial-intracranial bypass (EC-IC bypass) is very rare. STA-MCA anastomosis with steroid therapy is effective for the prevention of cerebral infarction.

  20. Circle of Willis Collateral During Temporary Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion II: Observations From Computed Tomography Angiography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bill Hao; Leung, Andrew; Lownie, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    The Circle of Willis (CoW) is the most effective collateral circulation to the brain during internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Carotid stump pressure (CSP) is an established surrogate measure of the cerebral collateral circulation. This study aims to use hemodynamic and computed tomography angiography measurements to determine the strongest influences upon the dependent variable, CSP. These findings could help clinicians noninvasively assess the adequacy of the collateral circulation and facilitate surgical risk assessment in an outpatient setting. CSP and mean arterial pressure were measured during carotid endarterectomy or during carotid balloon test occlusion in 92 patients. Intracranial arterial diameters were measured on computed tomography angiography at 16 different locations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the key factors associated with CSP. In a subgroup of individuals (n=27) with severe (>70% North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) contralateral stenosis or occlusion, the same analysis was performed. The contralateral anterior cerebral artery proximal to anterior communicating artery (A1) of the CoW had the strongest influence upon CSP, followed by the mean arterial pressure, the contralateral ICA diameter, and the anterior communicating artery diameter (R 2=0.364). In the subgroup with high-grade contralateral ICA stenosis, the ipsilateral posterior communicating artery exerted the strongest influence (R 2=0.620). During ICA occlusion, the anterior CoW dominates in preserving collateral flow, especially the contralateral A1 segment. In individuals with high-grade contralateral carotid stenosis, the posterior communicating artery calibre becomes a dominant influence. The most favourable anatomy consists of large contralateral A1 and anterior communicating arteries, and no contralateral carotid stenosis.

  1. Congenital Horner Syndrome with Heterochromia Iridis Associated with Ipsilateral Internal Carotid Artery Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Coulier, Julie; Rommel, Denis; Boschi, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background Horner syndrome (HS), also known as Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy, comprises ipsilateral ptosis, miosis, and facial anhidrosis. Case Report We report herein the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with congenital HS associated with ipsilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA), as revealed by heterochromia iridis and confirmed by computed tomography (CT). Conclusions CT evaluation of the skull base is essential to establish this diagnosis and distinguish aplasia from agenesis/hypoplasia (by the absence or hypoplasia of the carotid canal) or from acquired ICA obstruction as demonstrated by angiographic CT. PMID:25749818

  2. Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: Report of a Ruptured Case and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Siablis, Dimitrios Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Mastronikolis, Nikos; Zabakis, Peter; Kraniotis, Pantelis

    2004-08-15

    Aneurysms of the extracranial carotid arteries (ECAA) are extremely rare. Schechter et al. documented 835 cases in the literature up to 1977. One hundred and sixteen cases of ECAA have been documented in the Chinese literature since 1981, suggesting a higher prevalence of carotid aneurysmal disease in China than in the West. Four percent of all peripheral artery aneurysms are reported to be ECAA. Those arising from the internal carotid artery (EICAA) are even more rare. Two recent reviews reported 24 and 25 cases of EICAA during 21 and 17 years, respectively, the majority of them is treated surgically. Our literature review revealed only a few true EICAA managed endovascularly, but none of them with a covered stent. We describe a rare such case of ruptured atherosclerotic EICAA which was treated percutaneously.

  3. Anatomic Relationship of the Internal Jugular Vein and the Common Carotid Artery Applied to Percutaneous Transjugular Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Turba, Ulku C.; Uflacker, Renan Hannegan, Christopher; Selby, J. Bayne

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To demonstrate the anatomic relationship of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with the common carotid artery (CCA) in order to avoid inadvertent puncture of the CCA during percutaneous central venous access or transjugular interventional procedures. Methods. One hundred and eighty-eight consecutive patients requiring either central venous access or interventional procedures via the IJV were included in the analysis. The position of the IJV in relation to the CCA was demonstrated by portable ultrasonography. The IJV location was recorded in a clock-dial system using the carotid as the center of the dial and the angles were measured. Outcomes of the procedure were also recorded. Results. The IJV was lateral to the CCA in 187 of 188 patients and medial to the CCA in one patient. The left IJV was at the 12 o'clock position in 12 patients (6%), the 11 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%), the 10 o'clock position in 142 patients (75%) and at the 9 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%). The right IJV was at the 12 o'clock position in 8 patients (4%), the 1 o'clock position in 31 patients (16%), the 2 o'clock position in 134 patients (71%) and the 3 o'clock position in 17 patients (9%). In one patient the left IJV was located approximately 60 deg. medial to the left CCA; this was recorded as 2 o'clock on the left since it is opposite to the 10 o'clock position. Conclusion. Knowledge of the IJV anatomy and relationship to the CCA is important information for the operator performing an IJV puncture, to potentially reduce the chance of laceration of the CCA and avoid placement of a large catheter within a critical artery, even when ultrasound guidance is used.

  4. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of left internal mammary artery graft.

    PubMed

    Agathos, E A; Hussein, A; Trehan, H; Trenholme, S E; Floten, H S

    1993-10-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the left internal mammary artery was recognized as a possible causal factor in the early recurrence of angina in a 51-year-old man. This patient underwent reoperation for revascularization with the left internal mammary artery graft in situ.

  5. Results in a consecutive series of 83 surgical corrections of symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of evidence to document the safety and efficacy of operative treatment of carotid stenosis, surgical indications for elongation and kinking of the internal carotid artery remain controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgical correction of internal carotid artery kinking in patients with persistent hemispheric symptoms despite antiplatelet therapy. A consecutive series of 81 patients (mean age, 64 years) underwent 83 surgical procedures to correct kinking of the internal carotid artery either by shortening and reimplanting the vessel on the common carotid artery, inserting a bypass graft, or transposing the vessel onto the external carotid artery. Mean follow-up was 56 months (range, 15-135 months). Study endpoints were 30-day mortality and any stroke occurring during follow-up. No postoperative death was observed. The postoperative stroke rate was 1%. Primary patency, freedom from neurologic symptoms, and late survival at 5 years (x +/- standard deviation) were 89 +/- 4.1%, 92 +/- 4%, and 71 +/- 6%, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that surgical correction for symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in relieving symptoms and preventing stroke. Operative correction should be considered as the standard treatment for patients with symptomatic carotid kinking that does not respond to antiplatelet therapy.

  6. Lemierre's Syndrome Associated Mycotic Aneurysm of the External Carotid Artery with Primary Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion in a Previously Healthy 18-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Chamseddin, Khalil H; Kirkwood, Melissa L

    2016-10-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by internal jugular vein thrombosis and is typically associated with a gram-negative infection with septic metastasis secondary to a retropharyngeal abscess that involves the vasculature of the head and neck. We report a case of Lemierre's syndrome in an 18-year-old female adolescent who developed an internal carotid artery occlusion and ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA) mycotic aneurysm complicated by fulminant pseudomonal sepsis. The patient was managed with open ligation of the ECA with essentially complete recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood flow of the right and left submandibular gland during unilateral carotid artery occlusion in rat: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Vág, J; Hably, C; Fazekas, A; Bartha, J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of unilateral carotid artery occlusion on the blood flow of submandibular gland in anesthetized rats and identify the role of nitric oxide (NO) in blood flow changes after the artery occlusion. L-NAME (N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester; 10 mg/kg/day, per os) dissolved in tap water was used to block nitric oxide synthase. Glandular blood flow was measured using Sapirstein's indicator (86Rb) distribution technique. In the control animals the blood flow of left (ligated side) submandibular gland was lower than in the right (unligated side) one (right: 76.4+/-15.4 ml/min/100 g, 64.1+/-13.4 ml/min/100 g, p<0.01). The blood flow of submandibular glands decreased in NOS blocked group versus control. The vascular resistance after L-NAME treatment was elevated (control: 11+/-2.3 R/kg, L-NAME: 17.5+/-4.1 R/kg, p<0.001). In L-NAME group the difference between blood flow value of the left and right submandibular gland was significantly lower than in the control group (control: -16%, NAME: -8%, p<0.01). The maintenance of the blood flow in the left submandibular gland during ligation of the left common carotid artery could be due to the good vascular anastomotic system at these regions and adaptation of the submandibular vessels to the decreased perfusion pressure. Nitric oxide may have a role in the regulation of blood flow tinder this condition.

  8. Left Lobe Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Lipiodol-TAE via the Left Internal Mammary Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kanetsuki, Ichiro; Hori, Akira; Ohshiro, Kiyoshi; Nishi, Hirokazu; Yasutani, Tadashi; Sueyoshi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    1997-09-15

    A multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was treated with seven transarterial interventions via the hepatic artery over a 2-year, 5-month period before the eighth angiography showed a recurrent HCC in the anterior portion of the left hepatic lobe. The left internal mammary artery (IMA) was feeding the tumor. This was successfully treated with Lipiodol-transcatheter arterial embolization using a coaxial system via a branch of the left IMA. No complications resulted from the procedure. The left IMA should be considered as a possible feeding artery to an HCC occurring in the anterior portion of the left hepatic lobe.

  9. Internal carotid artery dissection after a roller coaster ride in a 4-year-old: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nouh, Amre; Vela-Duarte, Daniel; Grobelny, Thomas; Hoganson, George; Pasquale, David; Biller, José

    2015-03-01

    Strokes associated with roller-coaster rides are unusual. A previously healthy 4-year-old boy developed acute onset of left-sided weakness when flying home from a trip to an amusement park. He had frequented two roller coaster rides the day prior. Upon evaluation, he was found to have an acute right middle cerebral artery territory infarction. Cerebral angiography showed dissection of the right cervical internal carotid artery and right middle cerebral artery occlusion involving the M1 segment. He was treated with aspirin. Evaluation for underlying connective tissue diseases was unremarkable. We speculate that repetitive forces of acceleration and deceleration may have led to a cervical internal carotid artery intimal tear, followed by thromboembolism. It remains uncertain what the threshold of susceptibility to repetitive rotational changes and tolerability to G forces in an otherwise healthy child truly is. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Comparative effects of frovatriptan and sumatriptan on coronary and internal carotid vascular haemodynamics in conscious dogs

    PubMed Central

    Carel, Ivan; Ghaleh, Bijan; Edouard, Alain; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc; Parsons, Andrew A; Giudicelli, Jean-François; Berdeaux, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The effects of frovatriptan and sumatriptan on internal carotid and coronary vascular haemodynamics were investigated and compared in conscious dogs. Frovatriptan and sumatriptan (0.1–100 μg kg−1) induced a transient increase in external coronary artery diameter (eCOD) of up to 2.9±1.2 and 1.8±0.6%, respectively (both P<0.05). This was followed by a prolonged and dose-dependent decrease in eCOD of up to −5.2±1.2 and −5.3±0.9% (both P<0.05), with ED50 values of 86±21 and 489±113 μmol kg−1, respectively. In contrast, only a decrease in the external diameter of the internal carotid artery was observed (−6.0±0.6 and −6.2±1.4%, both P<0.05, and ED50 values of 86±41 and 493±162 μmol kg−1, respectively). Frovatriptan was thus 5.7 fold more potent than sumatriptan at the level of both large coronary and internal carotid arteries. After endothelium removal by balloon angioplasty in coronary arteries, the initial dilatation induced by the triptans was abolished and delayed constriction enhanced. The selective antagonist for the 5-HT1B receptors SB224289 dose-dependently blocked the effects of sumatriptan on large coronary and internal carotid arteries whereas the selective antagonist for the 5-HT1D receptors BRL15572 did not affect any of these effects. In conclusion, frovatriptan and sumatriptan initially dilate and subsequently constrict large coronary arteries in the conscious dog, whereas they directly constrict the internal carotid artery. The vascular endothelium modulates the effects of these triptans on large coronary arteries. Finally, 5-HT1B but not 5-HT1D receptors are primarily involved in canine coronary and internal carotid vasomotor responses to sumatriptan. PMID:11226138

  11. In-stent stenosis in the patient with internal carotid aneurysm after treated by the Willis covered stent: Two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lun-Xin; Song, Meng-Yuan; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    In-stent stenosis after treated by Willis covered stent-case reports. Advancements in minimally invasive technology have allowed endovascular reconstruction of internal carotid aneurysm. However, in-stent stenosis is an important and well-characterized complication of stenting after the treatment of internal carotid aneurysm. We would present 2 patients who were diagnosed with in-stent stenosis after the treatment of Willis covered stent. Case 1: A 57-year-old female with 2-week history of headache and vomiting before admission, whose digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated left internal carotid C6 aneurysm and showed about 20% stenosis 3 months later since operation in the position where Willis covered stent was deployed. Case 2: A 23-year-old male with skull base fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, right femoral fracture for 14 days and epistaxis for 9 hours caused by a car accident, whose DSA demonstrated left internal carotid paracliniod pseudoaneurysm. One year later, the patient went to our center again because he had headache and dizziness for 6 months after the interventional operation. His DSA demonstrated about 80% stenosis in the position where Willis covered stent was deployed. The clinical and radiologic characteristics and the experience in dealing with the stenosis are presented. In-stent stenosis after treated with Willis covered is uncommon, but not rare. Operators should pay more attention to the in-stent stenosis during the period of follow-up observation and monitor P2Y12 Reaction Unit (PRU) in the antiplatelet period, especially for the Willis covered stent. What is more, the treatment for stenosis ought to be carefully considered.

  12. Does the new International Diabetes Federation definition of metabolic syndrome improve prediction of coronary artery disease and carotid intima-media thickening?

    PubMed

    Timóteo, Ana; Santos, Rui; Lima, Sandra; Mamede, Andreia; Fernandes, Rita; Ferreira, Rui

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and atherosclerotic complications. The new definition of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) increases the population with this entity, compared to the NCEP ATP III definition. To study the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with and without MS, according to the NCEP ATP III and IDF definitions, and the predictive ability of carotid IMT for CAD. We studied 270 consecutive patients admitted for elective coronary angiography due to suspicion of CAD. All patients underwent ultrasound study of the carotid arteries to measure IMT (the highest value between the right and left common carotid arteries was used in the analysis). Coronary stenosis of > or =70% (or 50% for the left main coronary artery) was considered significant. By the ATP III definition, 14% of the patients had MS, and these patients had a higher prevalence of CAD (87% vs. 63%, p = 0.004), but no significant difference was found for carotid IMT (1.03 +/- 0.36 mm vs. 0.95 +/- 0.35 mm, p=NS). With the IDF definition, 61% of the patients had MS; this group was slightly older and included more women. There were no differences in terms of CAD (68% vs. 63%) or carotid IMT (0.97 +/- 0.34 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.39 mm). On multivariate analysis, the ATP III definition of MS predicts CAD (OR 4.76, 95% CI 1.71-13.25, p = 0.003), but the IDF definition does not (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.74-2.27, p = 0.37). On ROC curve analysis, an IMT of > or = 0.95 mm predicts CAD (AUC 0.66, p < 0.001), with a sensitivity of 52% and specificity of 75%. The new IDF definition increases the population with MS, decreasing the capacity to predict the presence of CAD. In our population, neither the ATP III nor the IDF definition showed differences in terms of carotid IMT. Carotid IMT can predict CAD, but with only modest sensitivity.

  13. Cost-utility analysis of stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Stephen; Patel, Nishma V; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L; Richards, Toby; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Rothwell, Peter M; Brown, Martin M

    2016-06-01

    The International Carotid Stenting Study was a multicenter randomized trial in which patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly allocated to treatment by carotid stenting or endarterectomy. Economic evidence comparing these treatments is limited and inconsistent. We compared the cost-effectiveness of stenting versus endarterectomy using International Carotid Stenting Study data. We performed a cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years per patient for both treatments over a five-year time horizon based on resource use data and utility values collected in the trial. Costs of managing stroke events were estimated using individual patient data from a UK population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Mean costs per patient (95% CI) were US$10,477 ($9669 to $11,285) in the stenting group (N = 853) and $9669 ($8835 to $10,504) in the endarterectomy group (N = 857). There were no differences in mean quality-adjusted life years per patient (3.247 (3.160 to 3.333) and 3.228 (3.150 to 3.306), respectively). There were no differences in adjusted costs between groups (mean incremental costs for stenting versus endarterectomy $736 (95% CI -$353 to $1826)) or adjusted outcomes (mean quality-adjusted life years gained -0.010 (95% CI -0.117 to 0.097)). The incremental net monetary benefit for stenting versus endarterectomy was not significantly different from zero at the maximum willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year commonly used in the UK. Sensitivity analyses showed little uncertainty in these findings. Economic considerations should not affect whether patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis undergo stenting or endarterectomy. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  14. Deglutition syncope: a manifestation of vagal hyperactivity following carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Endean, Eric D; Cavatassi, William; Hansler, Joseph; Sorial, Ehab

    2010-09-01

    A 61-year-old man with left amaurosis fugax and bilateral >80% internal carotid artery stenoses underwent a left carotid endarterectomy. On the first postoperative day, he developed hypotension, bradycardia, and chest pain with food ingestion. He was diagnosed as having deglutition syncope and was treated with oral anticholinergics. Similar symptoms occurred when he underwent a right carotid endarterectomy. Deglutition syncope is a neurally mediated situational syncope resulting from vagus nerve over-activity. This is the first report of deglutition syncope associated with carotid endarterectomy. It is important to recognize and differentiate these symptoms from other causes of postendarterectomy hemodynamic instability.

  15. The missing button sign as a tool for detecting proximal internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Ho Sung; Joo, In Soo; Huh, Kyoon; Lee, Phil Hyu; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable sign for detecting proximal internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) using conventional CT scanning. The missing button sign (MBS) is defined as the absence of the ICA at the level of the foramen magnum on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) scans. Two raters independently reviewed random CECT samples from consecutive patients with acute ischaemic stroke. A total of 399 patients with 798 carotid arteries were analysed. Rater A identified the MBS in 41 (5%) of the carotid arteries, and did not identify the MBS in 735 (92%) carotid arteries. Rater B identified the MBS in 45 (6%) of the arteries, and lack of the MBS in 731 (91%) arteries. The kappa value for agreement was 0.90 (95% CI 0.84-0.95). Compared with CT angiography, Rater A's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for detecting proximal ICAO were 85%, 100%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, while Rater B's values were 87%, 99%, 93%, and 99%, respectively. This study indicated that the MBS on CECT scanning is both a consistent and specific tool for the early identification of proximal ICAO.

  16. No evidence that severity of stroke in internal carotid occlusion is related to collateral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Mead, G E; Wardlaw, J M; Lewis, S C; Dennis, M S

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim The neurological effects of internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion vary between patients. The authors investigated whether the severity of symptoms in a large group of patients with ipsilateral or/and contralateral ICA occlusion at presentation with ocular or cerebral ischaemic symptoms could be explained by patency of other extra or intracranial arteries to act as collateral pathways. Methods The authors prospectively identified all patients (n = 2881) with stroke, cerebral transient ischaemic attack (TIA), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), and amaurosis fugax (AFx) presenting to our hospital over five years, obtained detailed history and examination, and examined the intra and extracranial arteries with carotid and colour‐power transcranial Doppler ultrasound. For this analysis, all those with intracranial haemorrhage on brain imaging and cerebral events without brain imaging were excluded. Results Among 2228/2397 patients with brain imaging (1713 ischaemic strokes, 401 cerebral TIAs, 193 AFx, and 90 RAO) who underwent carotid Doppler, 195 (9%) had ICA occlusion. Among those patients with cortical events, disease in potential collateral arteries (contralateral ICA, external carotid, ipsilateral or contralateral vertebral or intracranial arteries) was equally distributed among patients with severe and mild ischaemic presenting symptoms. Conclusion The authors found no evidence that the clinical presentation associated with an ICA occlusion was related to patency of other extra or intracranial arteries to act as collateral pathways. Further work is required to investigate what determines the clinical effects of ICA occlusion. PMID:16488923

  17. Simultaneous approach of internal carotid artery revascularization at the base of the skull and coronary arteries bypass without extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Keshelava, Grigol; Beselia, Kakha; Nachkepia, Merab; Janashia, Giorgi; Nuralidze, Kakha

    2011-07-01

    The best surgical approach for the treatment of patients with severe cerebral artery disease and simultaneous serious coronary artery disease remains controversial. In this report, we present a case of a 65-year-old man admitted to the hospital with unstable angina. Triple coronary artery obstructive disease and severe right internal carotid artery stenosis in the retroparotid region were diagnosed. A combined, simultaneous surgical procedure was performed. A lesion located in the retroparotid space required an approach by a presternocleidomastoid cervicotomy extended distally. Venous grafting of the internal carotid artery was performed. After carotid reconstruction, the three coronary arteries were revascularized without extracorporeal circulation. The patient showed a satisfactory postoperative outcome.

  18. Stent-Graft Repair of a Large Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm Causing Dysphagia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vivek Niranjan, Khandelwal; Rawat, Lokesh; Gupta, A. K.

    2009-05-15

    Pseudoaneurysms of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare and most frequently result from trauma, infection, or sometimes spontaneously. They have the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage; thus, their immediate management is necessary. Endovascular treatment by stent graft placement in the affected artery appears to be a safe and effective treatment option. We present a case of a child who presented with neck swelling and dysphagia caused by a ruptured cervical ICA pseudoaneurysm which was managed by stent graft placement.

  19. Cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm complicating malignant otitis externa: first case report.

    PubMed

    Baker, Andrew; Rizk, Habib; Carroll, William; Lambert, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare complication of head and neck infections. To date, three cases of petrous ICA pseudoaneurysm have been described as a complication of otogenic infection, including only one secondary to malignant otitis externa. We present here the first case of cervical ICA pseudoaneurysm as a complication of malignant otitis externa, and stress the importance of timely diagnosis to avoid fatal outcomes. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Visual Hallucinations in a Patient with Horner's Syndrome Secondary to Internal Carotid Dissection.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amardeep; Mortzos, Panteleimon; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2014-09-01

    A 67-year-old female presented with post-ganglionic Horner's syndrome. In addition to the classical symptoms of Horner's syndrome, the patient reported experiencing frightening complex visual and auditory hallucinations on two different occasions. Magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum, neck and upper thorax revealed internal carotid dissection. The symptoms and hallucinatory experiences resolved soon after antiplatelet therapy was commenced. We propose peduncular hallucinosis as the underlying mechanism.

  1. Visual Hallucinations in a Patient with Horner's Syndrome Secondary to Internal Carotid Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amardeep; Mortzos, Panteleimon; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old female presented with post-ganglionic Horner's syndrome. In addition to the classical symptoms of Horner's syndrome, the patient reported experiencing frightening complex visual and auditory hallucinations on two different occasions. Magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum, neck and upper thorax revealed internal carotid dissection. The symptoms and hallucinatory experiences resolved soon after antiplatelet therapy was commenced. We propose peduncular hallucinosis as the underlying mechanism. PMID:25473403

  2. Rare Post-Tonsillectomy Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Management by Parent Artery Occlusion Using Detachable Balloons.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arun; Kumar, Sanjeev; Devarajan, S Leve Joseph; Agarwal, Himanshu

    2017-10-01

    Iatrogenic cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare and potentially lethal complication following tonsillectomy. It can be complicated by thromboembolism, mass effect and eventually may rupture leading to death. Various endovascular treatment options are available for the management of these pseudoaneurysms, including coil embolization, detachable balloon occlusion, or stent graft placement. Parent artery occlusion using detachable balloons can be a therapeutic option in a subset of patients. However, evaluation of cross circulation with preprocedure balloon test occlusion is imperative in such cases.

  3. Successful management of a symptomatic fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery following surgery of childhood craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Sure, Ulrich; Benes, Ludwig; Aboul-Enein, Hisham; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Riegel, Thomas; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2002-12-01

    The development of fusiform dilatation of internal carotid artery is one of the vascular complications that can follow surgery for craniopharyngioma and other suprasellar tumours in children, but its pathogenesis and the line of management are still controversial. We report a child who presented with a giant fusiform aneurysm involving the supraclinoid portion of the internal carotid artery after total removal of a craniopharyngioma and review the literature on related cases. The treatment of this phenomenon and its possible pathogenesis are discussed.

  4. [Dissecting aneurysms at the bases of the brachiocephalic artery and the left common carotid artery due to localized dissection of the aortic arch; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Higashi, Shigeki; Yoshida, Y; Mitsuoka, H

    2007-07-01

    A 43-year-old male lost consciousness immediately after archery practice, and was brought to our hospital by ambulance. Angiography showed dissecting aneurysms at the bases of the brachiocephalic artery and the left common carotid artery, causing compression of these arteries. Under cardiopulmonary bypass with selective cerebral perfusion, the blood supply to these arteries was restored with a bifurcated graft. Surgical specimen showed localized dissection of the aortic arch at the bifurcation to the brachiocephalic artery and the left common carotid artery, with the formation of dissecting aneurysms at the bases of both arteries. The aneurysms were filled with thrombi. In addition to these dissecting aneurysms, there were arterial dissections involving the brachiocephalic artery and the bilateral common carotid arteries. Histopathological examination of the vessel wall showed no evidence of atherosclerosis or vasculitis, and no abnormalities in the arrangement of elastic fibers.

  5. Retriever wire supported carotid artery revascularization (ReWiSed CARe) in acute ischemic stroke with underlying tandem occlusion caused by an internal carotid artery dissection: Technical note.

    PubMed

    Behme, Daniel; Knauth, Michael; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos

    2017-01-01

    We hereby report a novel technical approach for the treatment of acute stroke with underlying tandem occlusion. The so-called retriever wire supported carotid artery revascularization (ReWiSed CARe) technique, utilizing the wire of a stent-retriever as a guiding wire for carotid artery stenting, is technically feasible in tandem occlusions caused by an internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection or high grade ICA stenosis. This technique eliminates the need to use a long microwire in order to maintain the position inside the true lumen of a dissection. Additionally, it leads to anterograde perfusion through the released stent-retriever during the time of ICA stenting, which is favorable in all tandem occlusion cases.

  6. Urgent treatment of severe symptomatic direct carotid cavernous fistula caused by ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm using high-flow bypass, proximal ligation, and direct distal clipping: Technical case report

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hirotaka; Inoue, Tomohiro; Tamura, Akira; Saito, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) secondary to ruptured carotid cavernous aneurysms (CCAs) is rare, but patients with this condition who develop acutely worsening and severe neuro-ophthalmic symptoms require urgent treatment. Endovascular methods are the first-line option, but this modality may not be available on an urgent basis. Case Description: In this article, we report a 45-year-old female with severe direct CCF due to rupture of the CCA. She presented with intractable headache and acute worsening of double vision and visual acuity. Emergent radiographic study revealed high-flow fistula tracked from the CCA toward the contralateral cavernous sinus and drained into the engorged left superior orbital vein. To prevent permanent devastating neuro-ophthalmic damages, urgent high-flow bypass with placement of a radial artery graft was performed followed by right cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) ligation and the clipping of the ICA at the C3 portion, proximal to the ophthalmic artery. In the immediate postoperative period, her symptoms resolved and angiography confirmed patency of the high-flow bypass and complete occlusion of the CCF. Conclusion: With due consideration of strategy and techniques to secure safety, open surgical intervention with trapping and bypass is a good treatment option for direct severe CCF when the endovascular method is not available, not possible, or is unsuccessful. PMID:24818056

  7. Coil migration after endovascular coil occlusion of internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms within the sphenoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Struffert, T; Buhk, J H; Buchfelder, M; Rohde, V; Doerfler, A; Knauth, M

    2009-04-01

    We report two cases of coil migration after endovascular treatment of pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery within the sphenoid sinus with coils and noncovered stents. Two patients underwent sphenoid sinus exposure for pituitary adenoma and chronic infection, respectively. As a complication pseudoaneurysms of the internal carotid artery within the sphenoid sinus developed. One patient was treated with stent and coils, the second with coils alone. Both patients experienced coil migration after 9 and 26 months, respectively, with the necessity for further treatment. Imaging was performed using flat detector computed tomography (FD-CT). Literature review revealed two additional cases of coil migration and four patients with the same treatment in stable condition. Pseudoaneurysms of the internal carotid artery are a special entity and the environment of the aneurysm within the sphenoid sinus may change over a long time. Coil embolization may lead to the late onset complication of coil migration with the possible risk of acute epistaxis. As a consequence, these patients need a careful and prolonged follow up. FD-CT is an appropriate technique to visualize the implanted coils and if present the migration of coil material.

  8. Internal carotid artery occlusion: association with atherosclerotic disease in other arterial beds and vascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Liapis, Christos D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association between internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) and the presence of atherosclerotic disease and vascular risk factors. The clinical characteristics and risk factors of 120 patients presenting with ICAO were retrospectively reviewed. All patients (n = 120) had at least 1 of the 4 vascular risk factor (diabetes, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension); 2, 3, or all 4 risk factors were present in 14 to 82 of the patients (11.7% to 68.3%), 10 to 39 of the patients (8.3% to 32.5%), and 9 of the patients (7.5%), respectively. A total of 84 patients (70%) with ICAO had disease in at least 1 additional vascular bed (aorta, coronary or lower limb arteries). In addition to ICAO, vascular disease was present in 2 and all 3 of these arterial beds in 42 (35%) and 9 (7.5%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, stenosis or occlusion of the ipsilateral or contralateral vertebral arteries was recorded in 19 of 120 patients (15.8%). Regarding the contralateral carotid artery, 1 patient had bilateral ICAO. One patient had contralateral common carotid artery occlusion, and 1 patient was excluded from the analysis because of surgery to the contralateral carotid artery. Of the remaining 117 patients, 34 (29.0%) had less than 50% contralateral carotid artery stenosis. Thirty-two patients (27.4%) had 50% to 69%, and 51 (43.6%) had 70% to 99% stenosis. Ultrasonographic imaging of the carotid plaque of the contralateral carotid artery revealed that 52 of the 120 arteries (43.3%) were uniformly or predominantly echolucent (types I and II, respectively). Fifty-nine (49.2%) were predominantly or uniformly echogenic (types III and IV), and 9 (7.5%) could not be classified. A similar distribution of echomorphology was observed on the occluded side. ICAO is associated with widespread atherosclerotic disease and a high prevalence of vascular risk factors. Detection of ICAO should prompt the investigation of other arterial beds and

  9. Cerebral hemodynamics in patients with carotid artery occlusion and contralateral moderate or severe internal carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Vernieri, F; Pasqualetti, P; Diomedi, M; Giacomini, P; Rossini, P M; Caltagirone, C; Silvestrini, M

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics in patients suffering from occlusion of the carotid artery (CA) and contralateral CA stenosis. Using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, the cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia in the middle cerebral arteries was evaluated by calculating the breath-holding index (BHI) of 69 symptomatic patients suffering from internal CA (ICA) occlusion and moderate or severe contralateral ICA stenosis. To evaluate which variables influenced BHIs ipsilateral to the site of ICA occlusion, a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed that included the following factors: patient age, percentage of contralateral ICA stenosis, contralateral BHI, number of collateral pathways, and presence of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia. An analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate the impact of the type of collateral vessels on the BHI. A regression analysis showed that the BHI ipsilateral to the site of ICA occlusion could be accounted for by the contralateral BHI (which was entered at the first step of the analysis, p < 0.001) and by the number of collateral pathways (which was entered at the second step, p = 0.033). Neither the degree of contralateral ICA stenosis nor the other variables could be added to improve the model. The analysis demonstrated that the absence of collateral pathways and the presence of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) alone were associated with lower BHI values than those found in the presence of two or three collateral vessels, regardless of the presence of an anterior collateral pathway. On the basis of these data one can infer that the cerebral hemodynamic status of patients with occlusive disease of the CA is influenced by individual anatomical and functional characteristics. Because improvement in contralateral hemodynamics after surgical correction of an ICA stenosis can only be expected in the presence of an ACoA, the planning of strategies for

  10. Safety of early endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis: an international multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tsivgoulis, G; Krogias, C; Georgiadis, G S; Mikulik, R; Safouris, A; Meves, S H; Voumvourakis, K; Haršány, M; Staffa, R; Papageorgiou, S G; Katsanos, A H; Lazaris, A; Mumme, A; Lazarides, M; Vasdekis, S N

    2014-10-01

    Although the latest recommendations suggest that carotid endarterectomy (CEA) should be performed in symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (sCAS) patients within 2 weeks of the index event, only a minority of patients undergo surgery within the recommended time-frame. The aim of this international multicenter study was to prospectively evaluate the safety of early CEA in patients with sCAS in everyday clinical practice settings. Consecutive patients with non-disabling acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) due to sCAS (≥ 70%) underwent early (≤ 14 days) CEA at five tertiary-care stroke centers during a 2-year period. Primary outcome events included stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) or death occurring during the 30-day follow-up period and were defined according to the International Carotid Stenting Study criteria. A total of 165 patients with sCAS [mean age 69 ± 10 years; 69% men; 70% AIS; 6% crescendo TIA; 8% with contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion] underwent early CEA (median elapsed time from symptom onset 8 days). Urgent CEA (≤ 2 days) was performed in 20 cases (12%). The primary outcomes of stroke and MI were 4.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5%-8.1%] and 0.6% (95% CI 0%-1.8%). The combined outcome event of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal MI or death was 5.5% (95% CI 2.0%-9.0%). Crescendo TIA, contralateral ICA occlusion and urgent CEA were not associated (P > 0.2) with a higher 30-day stroke rate. Our findings indicate that the risk of early CEA in consecutive unselected patients with non-disabling AIS or TIA due to sCAS is acceptable when the procedure is performed within 2 weeks (or even within 2 days) from symptom onset. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  11. The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptide LAP on the left common carotid artery remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, F; Junling, H; Yi, S; Chi, L; Huan, Z; Yu Qing, D; Lingxia, L; Yang, G; Ming, L

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the protective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide LAP on the left common carotid artery remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). A cohort of male SHRs were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10 for each group): pseudo-experimental group, enalapril-treated group as a positive control group, ACE-inhibitory peptide LAP-treated group. After the experiment, the left common carotid artery from each rat was removed for morphological evaluation. It was observed that the vascular medial thickness, media thickness/lumen diameter, medial cross-sectional area and mean nuclear area of smooth muscle cells of the left common carotid artery in the LAP group or enalapril group were significantly lower than those in the pseudo-experimental group, while there was no significant difference in these parameters observed between the LAP group and enalapril group. Additionally, the vascular area percentage of collagen fibers of the left common carotid artery in the LAP group and enalapril group was significantly lower than that of the pseudo-experimental group. The protective vessel remodeling effect in SHRs was observed with ACE-inhibitory peptide LAP in SHRs by decreasing blood pressure, inhibiting smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and reducing the proliferation of collagen fibers.

  12. Congenital horner syndrome and hemiplegia secondary to carotid dissection.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mohit; Dinakaran, Subramanian; Chan, Tan K

    2005-01-01

    A 5-month-old infant had right Horner syndrome and left hemiplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed smaller cerebral hemisphere and magnetic resonance angiography showed reduced blood flow in the internal carotid artery on the right. A diagnosis of congenital hemiplegia and carotid occlusion secondary to maternal trauma during pregnancy was made.

  13. Carotid artery stiffness evaluated early by wave intensity in normal left ventricular function in post-radiotherapy patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Runlan; Tan, Bijun; Qian, Jing; Duan, Yanfang; Wang, Nan; Li, Guangsen

    2017-09-05

    This study aims to assess carotid elasticity early in normal left ventricular function in post-radiotherapy patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by wave intensity. Sixty-seven post-radiotherapy patients all with normal left ventricular function were classified into group NPC1 and group NPC2 based on their carotid intima-media thickness. Thirty age- and sex-matched NPC patients without any history of irradiation and chemotherapy were included as a control group. Carotid parameters, including stiffness constant (β), pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep), arterial compliance (AC), stiffness constant pulse wave velocity (PWVβ), and wave intensity pulse wave velocity (PWVWI) were measured. There were no significant differences in conventional echocardiographic variables among the three groups. In comparison with the control group, β, Ep, PWVβ, and PWVWI were significantly increased, while AC was significantly decreased in the NPC1 and NPC2 groups, and there were differences between the NPC1 group and NPC2 group (all P < 0.05). This study suggested that carotid artery stiffness increased with reduced carotid compliance in post-RT with NPC.

  14. Congenital agenesis of internal carotid artery with ipsilateral Horner presenting as focal neurological symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Wassim; Ahdab, Rechdi; Hosseini, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) agenesis is a rare developmental anomaly and is most frequently asymptomatic, but it may also present as cerebrovascular accidents. The association with Horner’s syndrome is exceptional. We present three cases of agenesis of ICA associated with Horner’s syndrome and hypochromia iridum presenting as focal neurological symptoms. A system of collaterals develops as a consequence of agenesis of the ICA, making the majority of cases asymptomatic. Three types of collateral circulations have been described. These collaterals increase the risk of aneurysm formation and the occurrence of life-threatening subarachnoid hemorrhages. The association of congenital Horner’s syndrome and hypochromia iridum without anhidrosis is highly suggestive of sympathetic pathway injury early in life. Such signs should prompt further diagnostic evaluation to demonstrate the presence of the agenesis of the carotid canal. Early diagnosis is essential to rule out potentially life-threatening associated vascular anomalies. PMID:21339912

  15. Congenital agenesis of internal carotid artery with ipsilateral Horner presenting as focal neurological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Wassim; Ahdab, Rechdi; Hosseini, Hassan

    2011-01-26

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) agenesis is a rare developmental anomaly and is most frequently asymptomatic, but it may also present as cerebrovascular accidents. The association with Horner's syndrome is exceptional. We present three cases of agenesis of ICA associated with Horner's syndrome and hypochromia iridum presenting as focal neurological symptoms. A system of collaterals develops as a consequence of agenesis of the ICA, making the majority of cases asymptomatic. Three types of collateral circulations have been described. These collaterals increase the risk of aneurysm formation and the occurrence of life-threatening subarachnoid hemorrhages. The association of congenital Horner's syndrome and hypochromia iridum without anhidrosis is highly suggestive of sympathetic pathway injury early in life. Such signs should prompt further diagnostic evaluation to demonstrate the presence of the agenesis of the carotid canal. Early diagnosis is essential to rule out potentially life-threatening associated vascular anomalies.

  16. Horner's Syndrome due to a Spontaneous Internal Carotid Artery Dissection after Deep Sea Scuba Diving.

    PubMed

    Alonso Formento, Jose Enrique; Fernández Reyes, Jose Luis; Envid Lázaro, Blanca Mar; Fernández Letamendi, Teresa; Yeste Martín, Ryth; Jódar Morente, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a rare entity that either results from traumatic injury or can be spontaneously preceded or not by a minor trauma such as sporting activities. It represents a major cause of stroke in young patients. The diagnosis should be suspected with the combination of Horner's syndrome, headache or neck pain, and retinal or cerebral ischaemia. The confirmation is frequently made with a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Although anticoagulation with heparin followed by vitamin-K-antagonists is the most common treatment, there is no difference in efficacy of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs at preventing stroke and death in patients with symptomatic carotid dissection. We describe a patient with ICAD following deep sea scuba diving, who presented with Horner's syndrome and neck pain and was successfully treated with anticoagulants.

  17. Horner's Syndrome due to a Spontaneous Internal Carotid Artery Dissection after Deep Sea Scuba Diving

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Reyes, Jose Luis; Envid Lázaro, Blanca Mar; Fernández Letamendi, Teresa; Yeste Martín, Ryth; Jódar Morente, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a rare entity that either results from traumatic injury or can be spontaneously preceded or not by a minor trauma such as sporting activities. It represents a major cause of stroke in young patients. The diagnosis should be suspected with the combination of Horner's syndrome, headache or neck pain, and retinal or cerebral ischaemia. The confirmation is frequently made with a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Although anticoagulation with heparin followed by vitamin-K-antagonists is the most common treatment, there is no difference in efficacy of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs at preventing stroke and death in patients with symptomatic carotid dissection. We describe a patient with ICAD following deep sea scuba diving, who presented with Horner's syndrome and neck pain and was successfully treated with anticoagulants. PMID:27525139

  18. A Comparison of Ultrasound Intima-Media Thickness Measurements of the Left and Right Common Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaides, Andrew; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Georghiou, Niki; Griffin, Maura; Pattichis, Constantinos S.

    2015-01-01

    The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) is an established indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD). There have been reports about the difference between the left and the right sides of the CCA IMT and their relation with CVD. In this paper, we propose an automated system based on image normalization, speckle reduction filtering, and snakes segmentation, for segmenting the CCA, perform IMT measurements, and provide the differences between the left and the right sides. The study was performed on 1104 longitudinal-section ultrasound images acquired from 568 men and 536 women out of which 125 had cardiovascular symptoms (CVD). A cardiovascular expert manually delineated the IMT for the normal and the CVD groups. The corresponding (normal versus CVD) IMT mean ± standard deviation values for the left and the right sides were 0.74 ± 0.24 versus 0.87 ± 0.24 mm and 0.70 ± 0.17 versus 0.80 ± 0.18 mm, respectively. The main findings of this paper can be summarized as follows: 1) there was no significant difference between the CCA left side IMT and the right side IMT. These findings suggest that the measurement of the CCA IMT on one side only is needed for the normal group (and this is in agreement with other studies); 2) there were statistical significant differences for the IMT measurements between the normal group and the CVD group for both the left and the right sides; 3) there was an increasing linear relationship of the left and the right IMT measurements with age for the normal group; and to a lesser extend for the CVD group; 4) no statistical significant differences were found between the manual and the automated IMT measurements for both sides; and 5) the best result for classification disease modeling, using support vector machines, to discriminate between the normal and the CVD groups was a 64%±3.5% correct classifications score when using both the left and the right IMT automated measurements. Further research is required for

  19. Stroke risk after abrupt internal carotid artery sacrifice: Accuracy of preoperative assessment with balloon test occlusion and stable xenon-enhanced CT

    SciTech Connect

    Linskey, M.E.; Jungreis, C.A.; Yonas, H.; Hirsch, W.L. Jr.; Sekhar, L.N.; Horton, J.A.; Janosky, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate stable xenon-enhanced CT cerebral blood flow with balloon test occlusion as a predictor of stroke risk in internal carotid artery sacrifice. Abrupt internal carotid artery occlusion was performed by surgical or endovascular means below the origin of the ophthalmic artery in 31 normotensive patients who were assessed preoperatively by a 15-minute clinical balloon test occlusion followed by an internal carotid artery-occluded xenon CT cerebral blood flow study. One patient, who passed the clinical test occlusion but exhibited regions of cerebral blood flow less than 30 mL/100 g per minute on the occlusion xenon CT cerebral blood flow study went on to have a fatal stroke corresponding exactly to the region of assessment. Neuroimaging demonstrated possible flow-related infarctions, which subsequently developed in three patients. Two patients were asymptomatic, and one patient was left with a mild residual hemiparesis. Our protocol provided a statistically significant reduction in subsequent infarction rate and infarction-related death rate when compared with a control group of normotensive abrupt internal carotid artery occlusion patients who did not undergo any preoperative stroke-risk assessment (reported in the literature). The estimated false-negative rate for our preoperative assessment protocol ranged from 3.3% to 10% depending on the assessment of the cause of the three potentially flow-related infarctions. Although life-threatening major vascular territory infarctions have been avoided, our protocol is less sensitive to changes predicting smaller, often minimally symptomatic, vascular border zone infarctions and does not predict postoperative thromboembolic strokes. 94 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Advice on lifestyle changes (diet, red wine and physical activity) does not affect internal carotid and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Droste, Dirk W; Iliescu, Catalina; Vaillant, Michel; Gantenbein, Manon; De Bremaeker, Nancy; Lieunard, Charlotte; Velez, Telma; Meyer, Michèle; Guth, Tessy; Kuemmerle, Andrea; Chioti, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A Mediterranean diet, with and without small daily amounts of red wine, and physical activity reduce the risk of cerebrovascular disease and improve cognition. An increase in cerebral blood flow may be the underlying mechanism. Under normal conditions, cerebral blood flow velocity changes in the internal carotid arteries and in large basal cerebral arteries correlate closely with cerebral blood flow changes, as the diameter of these vessels hardly changes and only the smaller vessels downstream change their diameter. A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed in 108 patients with carotid atherosclerosis (mean age 64 years, 67% men, 66% on statin therapy). Half of them were advised to follow a polyphenol-rich modified Mediterranean diet including 1-2 tomatoes, 3-5 walnuts and a bar of dark chocolate (25 g) a day and to perform moderate physical exercise for 30 min/day (lifestyle changes). Within these two groups, half of the patients were randomized either to avoid any alcohol or to drink 100 ml of red wine (women) or 200 ml of red wine (men) daily. Bilateral middle cerebral and internal carotid blood flow velocity (peak systolic, peak end-diastolic and mean) was measured at baseline and after 4 and 20 weeks using colour-coded duplex ultrasound. Insonation depth and insonation angle were used to identically place the sample volume during follow-up investigations. A general linear model with Tukey-Kramer adjustment for multiple comparisons was used to assess the primary end points. For the analysis we used the mean values of the right and left artery. Neither lifestyle changes nor red wine had an effect on peak systolic, peak end-diastolic or mean cerebral blood flow velocity. Advice on lifestyle changes, including a modified polyphenol-rich Mediterranean diet, a glass of red wine daily and physical exercise, did not affect middle cerebral and internal carotid blood flow velocity in our patient group with carotid atherosclerosis. An increase in cerebral

  1. Complete ophthalmoplegia, complete ptosis and dilated pupil due to internal carotid artery dissection: as the first manifestation of Takayasu arteritis.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M M T B; Pahalagamage, S P; Withana, D; Senanayake, Sunethra

    2017-07-25

    Takayasu arteritis is a rare, chronic large vessel vasculitis involving the aorta and its primary branches. As the disease progresses, the active inflammation of large vessels leads to dilation, narrowing and occlusion of the arteries. Arterial dissection is due to separation of the layers of the arterial wall resulting in a false lumen, where blood seeps into the vessel wall. Neurological sequelae of intracranial arterial dissection results from cerebral ischemia due to thromboembolism and hypo perfusion. Internal carotid artery dissection in Takayasu arteritis is very rare and complete ophthalmoplegia due to internal carotid artery dissection is also rare. This is the first case report of Takayasu arteritis presenting as complete ophthalmoplegia due to internal carotid artery dissection. A 38-year-old Sri Lankan female presented with sudden onset severe headache, fixed dilated pupil, complete ptosis and ophthalmoplegia on the right side. On imaging, dissection and dilatation was evident in the right internal carotid artery from the origin up to the cavernous segment. She also had stenosis and aneurysmal dilatation of right subclavian artery. Takayasu arteritis was diagnosed subsequently. She was started on aspirin and high dose steroids. Internal carotid artery dissection within the cavernous sinus can lead to third, fourth and sixth nerve palsy due to compression, stretching and ischemia from occlusion of the nutritional arteries. This case report illustrates that internal carotid artery dissection should be a differential diagnosis in palsies of the third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves, especially when associated with headache. In cases of internal carotid artery dissection, vasculitis such as Takayasu arteritis should also be considered.

  2. Predictive Value of Balloon Test Occlusion of the Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Segal, David H.; Sen, Chandranath; Bederson, Joshua B.; Catalano, Peter; Sacher, Michael; Stollman, Aryeh L.; Lorberboym, Mordechai

    1995-01-01

    Balloon test occlusion (BTO) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is used in conjunction with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging to assess the cerebrovascular collateral reserve prior to surgical manipulation of the artery. The present report reviews 56 consecutive patients with tumors or vascular lesions at the base of the skull who underwent BTO and subsequent treatment on that basis within a 3-year period. Four patients underwent carotid sacrifice, since they tolerated the BTO and had normal SPECT imaging. Postoperatively, one patient had patchy infarcts in the frontal lobe, another a middle cerebral artery territory infarction, a third had a lacunar infarct, and the fourth had an impending stroke and was treated with an emergent revascularization procedure. There were 15 patients who underwent saphenous vein bypass grafting, of these there were three graft occlusions, one of which resulted in an infarction. There were two other infarctions due to technical difficulties, one being related to the revascularization procedure. Based on these results, we suggest that passing BTO with a normal SPECT study does not necessarily indicate that the patient is immune to stroke following carotid sacrifice. Revascularization should be considered, when ICA sacrifice is deemed necessary to treat the pathologic condition adequately, to minimize the likelihood of a stroke. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:17171183

  3. Regional redistribution of blood flow in the external and internal carotid arteries during acute hypotension.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Lericollais, Romain; Hirasawa, Ai; Sakai, Sadayoshi; Normand, Hervé; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-05-15

    The present study examined to what extent an acute bout of hypotension influences blood flow in the external carotid artery (ECA) and the corresponding implications for blood flow regulation in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Nine healthy male participants were subjected to an abrupt decrease in arterial pressure via the thigh-cuff inflation-deflation technique. Duplex ultrasound was employed to measure beat-to-beat ECA and ICA blood flow. Compared with the baseline normotensive control, acute hypotension resulted in a heterogeneous blood flow response. ICA blood flow initially decreased following cuff release and then returned quickly to baseline levels. In contrast, the reduction in ECA blood flow persisted for 30 s following cuff release. Thus, the contribution of common carotid artery blood flow to the ECA circulation decreased during acute hypotension (-10 ± 4%, P < 0.001). This finding suggests that a preserved reduction in ECA blood flow, as well as dynamic cerebral autoregulation likely prevent a further decrease in intracranial blood flow during acute hypotension. The peripheral vasculature of the ECA may, thus, be considered an important vascular bed for intracranial cerebral blood flow regulation.

  4. Cost-utility analysis of stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Stephen; Patel, Nishma V; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L; Richards, Toby; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Rothwell, Peter M; Brown, Martin M

    2017-01-01

    Background The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) was a multicentre randomised trial in which patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly allocated to treatment by carotid stenting or endarterectomy. Economic evidence comparing these treatments is limited and inconsistent. Aims We compared the cost-effectiveness of stenting versus endarterectomy using ICSS data. Methods We performed a cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient for both treatments over a five-year time horizon based on resource use data and utility values collected in the trial. Costs of managing stroke events were estimated using individual patient data from a UK population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Results Mean costs per patient (95% CI) were US$10 477 ($9669 to $11 285) in the stenting group (N=853) and $9669 ($8835 to $10 504) in the endarterectomy group (N=857).There were no differences in mean QALYs per patient (3.247 (3.160 to 3.333) and 3.228 (3.150 to 3.306), respectively). There were no differences in adjusted costs between groups (mean incremental costs for stenting versus endarterectomy $736 (95% CI -$353 to $1826)) or adjusted outcomes (mean QALYs gained -0.010 (95% CI -0.117 to 0.097)). The incremental net monetary benefit for stenting versus endarterectomy was not significantly different from zero at the maximum willingness to pay for a QALY commonly used in the UK. Sensitivity analyses showed little uncertainty in these findings. Conclusions Economic considerations should not affect whether patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis undergo stenting or endarterectomy. PMID:26880056

  5. Imaging and Clinical Findings in Patients with Aberrant Course of the Cervical Internal Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Alberto; De Vergas, Joaquín; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Aberrrant course of the cervical internal carotid arteries (ICAs) may result in submucosal masses in the posterior pharyngeal wall, may cause confusion at physical examination, may be symptomatic, and can be at risk of surgical injury. The aim of this report is to present the clinical and imaging characteristics associated with aberrant course of the cervical portion of the ICAs. Methods: Imaging studies of 5.500 patients were prospectively selected from CT studies of the head and neck performed in a five years period, in which the course of the one or both ICAs at the level of the hypopharynx and oropharynx was assessed as aberrant by means of a proposed classification. We then reviewed the medical records to establish which symptoms were present and if these symptoms could be caused by these variations in the course of the ICAs. In selected cases, further studies including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR angiography (MRA), or selective catheter angiography were obtained. Results: In our restricted classification, we found 14 (0.2%) patients who met the cervical ICA aberrancy criteria. In all patients contrast enhanced CT or CT angiography was performed, 4 also have had MRI and MRA, and in two additional catheter angiograms were performed. Mean age was 62 years. Eight patients were male and seven were female. Four patients (28%) were considered to have clinical symptoms related to aberrant course of the ICAs. In most of the symptomatic patients both ICAs had aberrant courses. Overall, the course of the right ICA was aberrant in 43%, the left ICA in 14%, and both in 43%. In 50% of the cases the aberrancy of the artery was focal (localized to the oropharynx or laryngopharynx) and in the other 50% it involved the entire cervical course of the ICA. Conclusions: In most of our patients variations in the course of the cervical portion of the ICA involved the right side and were asymptomatic, except with regard to potential surgical risks

  6. Cerebral blood flow response pattern during balloon test occlusion of the internal carotid artery

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, J.P.; Yonas, H.; Jungreis, C.

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the risk of temporary or permanent internal carotid artery occlusion. In 156 patients intraarterial balloon test occlusion in combination with a stable xenon-enhanced CT cerebral blood flow study was performed before radiologic or surgical treatment. All 156 patients passed the clinical balloon test occlusion and underwent a xenon study in combination with a second balloon test. Quantitative flow data were analyzed for absolute changes as well as changes in symmetry. Fourteen patients exhibited reduced flow values between 20 and 30 mL/100 g per minute, an absolute decrease in flow, and significant asymmetry in the middle cerebral artery territory during balloon test occlusion. These patients would be considered at high risk for cerebral infarction if internal carotid artery occlusion were to be performed. With one exception they belonged to a group (class I) of 61 patients who showed bilateral or ipsilateral flow decrease and significant asymmetry with lower flow on the side of occlusion. The other 95 patients, who showed a variety of cerebral blood flow response patterns including ipsilateral or bilateral flow increase, were at moderate (class II) or low (class III) stroke risk. In contrast to these findings, exclusively qualitative flow analysis failed to identify the patients at high risk: a threshold with an asymmetry index of 10% revealed only 16% specificity whereas an asymmetry index of 45% showed only 61% sensitivity for detection of low flow areas (<30 mL/100 g per minute). For achieving a minimal hemodynamic related-stroke rate associated with permanent clinical internal carotid artery occlusion we suggest integration of a thorough analysis of quantitative cerebral blood flow data before and during balloon test occlusion. 68 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Stent-Assisted Clip Placement for Complex Internal Carotid Artery Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Chughtai, Morad; Khan, Asif A.; Suri, M. Fareed K.; Sherr, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We report two procedures using a stent-assisted microsurgical clip placement to treat complex intracranial aneurysms originating from supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery. CASE DESCRIPTIONS In both procedures, primary clip placement was considered technically difficult due to either complex morphology or inferior protrusion of aneurysm fundus within the interclinoid space. A nitinol self-expanding stent was placed across the neck of the aneurysm either preoperatively or intraoperatively. Obliteration of aneurysm and patency of the artery was confirmed by angiography after clip placement. CONCLUSION Description of an integrated open microsurgical and endovascular approach and review of literature pertaining to considerations for treatment approach are discussed. PMID:26958150

  8. Internal carotid artery surgical revascularization in a pediatric patient with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Westbroek, Erick M; Mukerji, Nitin; Kalanithi, Paul; Steinberg, Gary K

    2015-02-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, episodic lymphopenia, renal failure, and cerebrovascular disease secondary to arteriosclerosis and myointimal hyperplasia. In this paper the authors report the first known application of internal carotid artery (ICA) surgical revascularization to relieve a high-grade focal stenosis of the ICA in a pediatric patient, a 6-year-old boy with SIOD. The clinical presentation, imaging features, operative technique, and postoperative course are described and the molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and treatment considerations in SIOD are discussed.

  9. [Cerebral vasospasm after coil embolization for unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm: case report].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Atsushi; Suzuyama, Kenji; Koga, Hisao; Takase, Yukinori; Matsushima, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 3-day history of severe headache associated with some nausea and vomiting. MRI did not show any evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, but MRA and CTA showed an aneurysm on the paraclinoid region of the right internal carotid artery. She was successfully treated by coil embolization. MRA taken 7 days after the treatment showed marked vasospam. Fortunately, her therapeutic course was uneventful and she was discharged without any neurological deficits. Vasospasm without subarachnoid hemorrhage is a rare event. Here, we review the literature and discuss potential mechanisms for vasospasm in the absence of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  10. New exposure technique for management of giant internal carotid artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ktenidis, Kiriakos; Lioupis, Athanasios; Megalopoulos, Aggelos; Antoniadis, Konstantinos; Kiskinis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-01

    We are presenting a case of giant internal carotid artery aneurysm (ICAA) managed by a new exposure technique. Following double mandibular osteotomy, the exposure of the entire aneurysm was achieved by mandible mobilization. The aneurysm repair was performed by resection and graft interposition. Mandible bone reconstruction was succeeded via mini plate osteosynthesis. No adverse events were noticed during the 24-month follow-up period. The surgical ICAA management is necessary to prevent severe complications. In cases of aneurysm extension to the skull base, double mandibular osteotomy is a safe technique that facilitates aneurysm exposure and control. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of end-range cervical rotation on vertebral and internal carotid arterial blood flow and cerebral inflow: A sub analysis of an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lucy C; McLeod, Lucy R; Osmotherly, Peter G; Rivett, Darren A

    2015-06-01

    Cervical spine manual therapy has been associated with a small risk of serious adverse neurovascular events, particularly to the vertebral arteries. Sustained end-range rotation is recommended clinically as a pre-manipulative screening tool; however ultrasound studies have yielded conflicting results about the effect of rotation on blood flow in the vertebral arteries. There has been little research on internal carotid arterial flow or utilising the reference standard of angiography. To evaluate the mean effect of cervical rotation on blood flow in the craniocervical arteries and blood supply to the brain, as well as individual variation. This was an observational study. Magnetic resonance angiography was used to measure average blood flow volume in the vertebral arteries, internal carotid arteries, and total cerebral inflow, in three neck positions: neutral, end-range left rotation and end-range right rotation in healthy adults. Twenty participants were evaluated. There was a decrease in average blood flow volume in the vertebral and internal carotid arteries on contralateral rotation, compared to neutral. This was statistically significant on left rotation only. Ipsilateral rotation had no effect on average blood flow volume in any artery. Total cerebral inflow was not significantly affected by rotation in either direction. It appears that in healthy adults the cerebral vasculature can compensate for decreased flow in one or more arteries by increasing flow in other arteries, to maintain cerebral perfusion. Sustained end-range rotation may therefore reflect the compensatory capacity of the system as a whole rather than isolated vertebrobasilar function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Curving and looping of the internal carotid artery in relation to the pharynx: frequency, embryology and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    PAULSEN, FRIEDRICH; TILLMANN, BERNHARD; CHRISTOFIDES, CHRISTOS; RICHTER, WALBURGA; KOEBKE, JÜRGEN

    2000-01-01

    Variations of the course of the internal carotid artery in the parapharyngeal space and their frequency were studied in order to determine possible risks for acute haemorrhage during pharyngeal surgery and traumatic events, as well as their possible relevance to cerebrovascular disease. The course of the internal carotid artery showed no curvature in 191 cases, but in 74 cases it had a medial, lateral or ventrocaudal curve, and 17 preparations showed kinking (12) or coiling (5) out of a total of 265 dissected carotid sheaths and 17 corrosion vascular casts. In 6 cases of kinking and 2 of coiling, the internal carotid artery was located in direct contact with the tonsillar fossa. No significant sex differences were found. Variations of the internal carotid artery leading to direct contact with the pharyngeal wall are likely to be of great clinical relevance in view of the large number of routine procedures performed. Whereas coiling is ascribed to embryological causes, curving is related to ageing and kinking is thought to be exacerbated by arteriosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia with advancing age and may therefore be of significance in relation to the occurrence of cerebrovascular symptoms. PMID:11117624

  13. Clinical Comparison of Outcomes of Early versus Delayed Carotid Artery Stenting for Symptomatic Cerebral Watershed Infarction due to Stenosis of the Proximal Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huakun; Chu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chaolai; Yan, Zhongrui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of early versus delayed carotid artery stenting (CAS) for symptomatic cerebral watershed infarction (sCWI) patients due to stenosis of the proximal internal carotid artery. We retrospectively collected clinical data of those who underwent early or delayed CAS from March 2011 to April 2014. The time of early CAS and delayed CAS was within a week of symptom onset and after four weeks from symptom onset. Clinical data such as second stroke, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NHISS) score, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and periprocedural complications were collected. The rate of second stroke in early CAS group is lower when compared to that of delayed CAS group. There was no significant difference regarding periprocedural complications in both groups. There was a significant difference regarding mean NHISS score 90 days after CAS in two groups. Early CAS group had a significant better good outcome (mRS score ≤ 2) than delayed CAS group. We suggest early CAS for sCWI due to severe proximal internal carotid artery stenosis as it provides lower rate of second stroke, comparable periprocedural complications, and better functional outcomes compared to that of delayed CAS. PMID:28004005

  14. Current status of revascularization surgery for Moyamoya disease: special consideration for its 'internal carotid-external carotid (IC-EC) conversion' as the physiological reorganization system.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a chronic cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology, which is characterized by bilateral steno-occlusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network formation at the base of the brain. Moyamoya disease is known to have unique and dynamic nature to convert the vascular supply for the brain from internal carotid (IC) system to the external carotid (EC) system, as indicated by Suzuki's angiographic staging established in 1969. Insufficiency of this 'IC-EC conversion system' may result in cerebral ischemia, as well as in intracranial hemorrhage from inadequate collateral vascular network, both of which represent the clinical presentation of moyamoya disease. Therefore, surgical revascularization by extracranial-intracranial bypass is the preferred procedure for moyamoya disease to complement 'IC-EC conversion' and thus to avoid cerebral infarction and/or intracranial hemorrhage. Long-term outcome of revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease is favorable, but rapid increase in cerebral blood flow on the affected hemisphere could temporarily cause unfavorable phenomenon such as cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. We would review the current status of revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease based on its basic pathology, and sought to discuss the significance of measuring cerebral blood flow in the acute stage and intensive perioperative management.

  15. A rare presentation of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection with Horner's syndrome, VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Azer; Ribeiro, Nuno Pedro Lobato; Ali, Asem; Hijazi, Mohsen; Farook, Hina

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection (sICAD) is an uncommon cause of isolated cranial nerve palsies. Commonly patients present with stroke, headache, facial pain and Horner's syndrome, with upto 16% having cranial nerve palsies. We present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with hoarseness, dysphagia and tongue swelling, mimicking a tongue base tumor. He was found to have unilateral VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies with Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal changes and loss of signal void in right internal carotid artery, later confirmed by Angiography as a dissection with pseudo-aneurysm. He was started on anticoagulation and made a good recovery on discharge. This case presents a unique combination of cranial nerve palsies due to internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and to our knowledge is the first reported case in the literature. Early recognition and institution of appropriate therapy is critical to prevention of ischemic stroke.

  16. A rare presentation of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection with Horner's syndrome, VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Azer; Ribeiro, Nuno Pedro Lobato; Ali, Asem; Hijazi, Mohsen; Farook, Hina

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection (sICAD) is an uncommon cause of isolated cranial nerve palsies. Commonly patients present with stroke, headache, facial pain and Horner's syndrome, with upto 16% having cranial nerve palsies. We present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with hoarseness, dysphagia and tongue swelling, mimicking a tongue base tumor. He was found to have unilateral VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies with Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal changes and loss of signal void in right internal carotid artery, later confirmed by Angiography as a dissection with pseudo-aneurysm. He was started on anticoagulation and made a good recovery on discharge. This case presents a unique combination of cranial nerve palsies due to internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and to our knowledge is the first reported case in the literature. Early recognition and institution of appropriate therapy is critical to prevention of ischemic stroke. PMID:27699055

  17. Internal carotid artery stenosis associated with giant cell arteritis: case report and discussion

    PubMed Central

    Zarar, Amna; Zafar, Taqi T; Khan, Asif A; Suri, M Fareed K; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebrovascular ischemic events associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA) are uncommon and have been reported in 3%–4% of patients. We describe a case report of GCA associated with intracranial stenosis and review various angiographic findings. Case presentation A 66-year-old man presented with worsening headache and vision loss. A recent magnetic resonance angiogram of the head and neck showed multiple intracranial stenosis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis demonstrated increased protein of 135.6 mg/dL, with two white blood cells/µL. No bacteria were observed in the CSF on gram staining, and cultures were negative for bacterial growth. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was noted to be 14 mm/h, and C-reactive protein was 1.514 mg/L at admission. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis panels were negative. On digital subtraction angiography, patient had predominantly narrowing and irregularities in petrous and cavernous segments of the internal carotid arteries bilaterally. The diagnosis of GCA was confirmed by temporal artery biopsy. He was treated with steroids, and a followup angiogram 6 weeks later showed minimal resolution of the angiographic findings. Patient reported complete resolution of headaches and visual loss. Conclusion Bilateral internal carotid arteries stenosis may be seen in patients presenting with typical symptoms of GCA and may persist after steroid treatment despite resolution of clinical symptoms. PMID:25566338

  18. Natural history of patients with chronic occlusion of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Nader, J; Bogousslavsky, J

    1993-01-01

    Although 3% of the elderly population may have asymptomatic unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO), between 10% and 20% of patients with initial stroke in the carotid territory have appropriate ipsilateral extracranial ICAO. In the latter instance, it is often difficult to establish whether ICAO is (a) an acute thrombotic process on an underlying atheromatous stenosis; (b) an acute embolic ICAO (from heart or aorta); or (c) an old ICAO that was previously asymptomatic. Intracranial studies show that the first stroke ipsilateral to ICAO is usually associated with occlusions distal to ICAO, which suggest artery-to-artery embolism. On the other hand, the follow-up of stroke patients with ICAO shows that delayed cerebral infarction distal to the established ICAO often involves watershed areas and may correspond to hemodynamic disturbances. Because the international extracranial/intracranial arterial bypass study did not show any surgical benefit, current management is mainly directed to stabilization of associated causes of hemodynamic failure (hypotension, bradycardia, etc.). Attempts to find subgroups that may benefit from bypass surgery are still ongoing. However, the prognosis of these patients is negatively influenced by a particularly high risk of cardiac death.

  19. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage following traumatic rupture of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, Marcus; Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Pollanen, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (TSAH) is a life-threatening intracranial bleed often associated with violent assault or motor vehicle accidents. The vast majority of TSAH is associated with rupture of the vertebral artery, although rare cases of traumatic aneurysm of the internal carotid artery (ICA) have been reported. A 27-year-old man was found bleeding and unresponsive following a violent altercation in which he received repeated blows to the head and neck. CT scan showed acute SAH, and death ensued within 24 h. Autopsy revealed generalized bruising of the face, a complete midline mandibular fracture, and massive basal SAH resulting from traumatic rupture of the right terminal internal carotid artery at the origin of the middle cerebral artery. Anterior and posterior neck dissection revealed focal hemorrhage associated with the right neural arch of the first cervical vertebra (C1). Autopsy findings were consistent with TSAH resulting from rupture of the ICA following blunt force trauma to the head. The rupture site in TSAH can be difficult to locate, and injury to the ICA may be overlooked if not routinely examined. Dissection of the neck and skull base is required to ensure accurate identification of the site of vascular injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal Stability of Dysmorphic, Fusiform Aneurysms of the Intra-cranial Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Boussel, Loic; Rayz, Vitaliy; Martin, Alastair; Lawton, Michael; Higashida, Randall; Smith, Wade S.; Young, William L.; Saloner, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Estimation of the stability of dysmorphic fusiform aneurysms of the intra-cranial internal carotid artery requires precise monitoring of their volumes. In this report we apply a method using MRI and 3D post-processing to study the evolution of these aneurysms on a prospective cohort of patients not immediately suitable for surgery or endovascular treatment. Materials and Methods Ten patients with fusiform aneurysms of the intra-cranial internal carotid artery underwent serial MRI studies. Five patients were studied at two time points and the remainder at multiple time points (mean delay between studies: 12.6 +/− 3.8 months). For each patient, studies from all time points were co-registered. Volumes of each vessel component were calculated. Results Mean aneurysm volume was 833 +/− 878 mm3. Mean annual rate of volume progression was 1.37 +/− 2.09 % per year. All the aneurysms were thrombus-free. Conclusion This study indicates that, given the relatively low rate of progression of these dysplastic fusiform aneurysms and the complexity of their shape, 3D quantitative volumetric methods can be helpful in monitoring whether any growth has occurred. PMID:21419648

  1. [Internal carotid artery vasculitis originated by cervicofacial actinomycosis as a predisponing factor to stroke].

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Sánchez, J J; Portilla-Cuenca, J C; Velicia Mata, M R; Querol-Pascual, R; Palacios Bote, R; Campos de Orellana, A

    2005-06-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic, suppurative, fibrotic infection produced by a gram-positive anaerobic bacteria of the normal mouth flora, the infection having tendency to fistulate and to extend without respecting tissue layers. Initial diagnosis is usually delayed due to its painless evolution. Three clinical forms are known: cervicofacial, abdominal and thoracic. Occasionally, there is vascular involvement which is mainly associated with venous thrombotic phenomena with low clinical expresion and hematogenous dissemination that can result in a formation of abscess or meningitis in the central nervous system. We report the case of a 28 year old female patient with type I diabetes and microangiopathyc complication with a internal carotid artery stenosis adjacent to mandibular angle actinomicosis. A few months later and after a miscarriage she suffered from ischemic stroke. The anticardiolipin antibody were positive at the time of stroke with post-operative period and over the next two years. To our knowledge (Medline, 1984-2004), it is the first report of internal carotid vasculitis originated by cervicofacial actinomicosis. We discuss the neuroradiological aspects of our case.

  2. Inadvertent transarterial lead placement in the left ventricle and aortic cusp: percutaneous lead removal with carotid embolic protection and stent graft placement.

    PubMed

    Kosmidou, Ioanna; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Kandzari, David E; Dan, Dan

    2012-11-01

    Transarterial lead implantation in the left ventricle or aorta is a rare complication. Percutaneous lead removal is associated with significant thromboembolic and bleeding risk. We present two cases of lead removal from the left ventricle via the left subclavian artery with concurrent carotid embolic protection followed by stent graft placement in the subclavian artery. Patient 1 underwent prior pacemaker implant with atrial and ventricular active fixation leads positioned in the right coronary cusp and the left ventricle, respectively. Patient 2 had prior ICD implant with a single active fixation lead positioned in the left ventricular apex. Lead removal was performed in a hybrid operating room. Distal embolic filter wires were deployed in the carotid arteries following anticoagulation. Intravascular ultrasound of the left subclavian artery was performed and as the leads were withdrawn, a covered stent was deployed at the removal site. Final angiography demonstrated no evidence of embolic phenomena. Both patients underwent transvenous lead implantation followed by an uneventful postoperative clinical course. Transarterial percutaneous lead removal may be safely performed using embolic filter protection of the cerebral circulation and stent graft placement of the arterial entry site.

  3. A broad diagnostic battery for bedside transcranial Doppler to detect flow changes with internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion.

    PubMed

    Christou, I; Felberg, R A; Demchuk, A M; Grotta, J C; Burgin, W S; Malkoff, M; Alexandrov, A V

    2001-07-01

    The authors establish accuracy parameters of a broad diagnostic battery for bedside transcranial Doppler (TCD) to detect flow changes due to internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis or occlusion. The authors prospectively studied consecutive patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack referred for TCD. TCD was performed and interpreted at bedside using a standard insonation protocol. A broad diagnostic battery included major criteria: collateral flow signals, abnormal siphon or terminal carotid signals, and delayed systolic flow acceleration in the middle cerebral artery. Minor criteria included a unilateral decrease in pulsatility index (< or = 0.6 or < or = 70% of contralateral side), flow diversion signs, and compensatory velocity increase. Angiography or carotid duplex ultrasound (CDU) was used to grade the degree of carotid stenosis using North American criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of TCD findings were determined. Seven hundred and twenty patients underwent TCD, of whom 517 (256 men and 261 women) had angiography and/or CDU within 8.8 +/- 0.9 days. Age was 63.1 +/- 15.7 years. For a 70% to 99% carotid stenosis or occlusion, TCD had sensitivity of 79.4%, specificity of 86.2%, PPV of 57.0%, NPV of 94.8%, and accuracy of 84.7%. For a 50% to 99% carotid stenosis or occlusion, TCD had sensitivity of 67.5%, specificity of 83.9%, PPV of 54.5%, NPV of 90.0%, and accuracy of 81.6%. TCD detected intracranial carotid lesions with 84.9% accuracy and extracranial carotid lesions with 84.4% accuracy (sensitivity of 88% and 79%, specificity of 85% and 86%, PPV of 24% and 54%, and NPV of 99% and 95%, respectively). The prevalence of the ophthalmic artery flow reversal was 36.4% in patients with > or = 70% stenosis or occlusion. If present, this finding indicated a proximal ICA lesion location in 97% of these patients. In symptomatic patients, bedside TCD can accurately detect flow changes

  4. Silent ischemic lesion laterality in asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis relates to reduced cerebral vasoreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Isozaki, Makoto; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yamada, Naoaki; Iida, Hidehiro; Iihara, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Background: We investigated the relationship between silent ischemic lesions, defined as hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans of brain white matter and cerebral hemodynamics (baseline cerebral blood flow and cerebral vasoreactivity). Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2012, 61 patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis were evaluated for asymptomatic silent ischemic lesions, acute infarction, and cerebral hemodynamics. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on silent ischemic lesion distribution; the Symmetry group (n = 34) included patients who showed symmetrical distribution of lesions (or had no lesions), and the Asymmetry group (n = 27) included patients with a greater number of lesions in the ipsilateral than that in the contralateral hemisphere. The Asymmetry group was further divided into Internal (n = 15) and External (n = 12) types. Results: Two External-type patients (17%) showed spotty asymptomatic acute infarction in the ipsilateral hemisphere. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics, histopathological findings, vascular risk factors, or cerebral blood flow values between the groups. The mean cerebral vasoreactivity value in the ipsilateral hemisphere for the Internal type was 13.0 ± 15.2% (range: −11.4% to 41.6%), which was significantly lower than values of the contralateral hemisphere (36.7 ± 20.8%; range: 3.9% to 75.7%; P <.01) and ipsilateral hemispheres of the other groups (P <.01). Conclusions: The finding that increased ipsilateral asymmetrical silent ischemic lesions correlated with cerebral vasoreactivity reduction may help predict the risk of cerebral infarction in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. PMID:28217385

  5. Distinctive patterns on CT angiography characterize acute internal carotid artery occlusion subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Man; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Seong-Joon; Lee, Jin Soo; Demchuk, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Noninvasive computed tomography angiography (CTA) is widely used in acute ischemic stroke, even for diagnosing various internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion sites, which often need cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmation. We evaluated whether clinical outcomes vary depending on the DSA-based occlusion sites and explored correlating features on baseline CTA that predict DSA-based occlusion site. We analyzed consecutive patients with acute ICA occlusion who underwent DSA and CTA. Occlusion site was classified into cervical, cavernous, petrous, and carotid terminus segments by DSA confirmation. Clinical and radiological features associated with poor outcome at 3 months (3–6 of modified Rankin scale) were analyzed. Baseline CTA findings were categorized according to carotid occlusive shape (stump, spearhead, and streak), presence of cervical calcification, Willisian occlusive patterns (T-type, L-type, and I-type), and status of leptomeningeal collaterals (LMC). We identified 49 patients with occlusions in the cervical (n = 17), cavernous (n = 22), and carotid terminus (n = 10) portions: initial NIH Stroke Scale (11.4 ± 4.2 vs 16.1 ± 3.7 vs 18.2 ± 5.1; P < 0.001), stroke volume (27.9 ± 29.6 vs 127.4 ± 112.6 vs 260.3 ± 151.8 mL; P < 0.001), and poor outcome (23.5 vs 77.3 vs 90.0%; P < 0.001). Cervical portion occlusion was characterized as rounded stump (82.4%) with calcification (52.9%) and fair LMC (94.1%); cavernous as spearhead occlusion (68.2%) with fair LMC (86.3%) and no calcification (95.5%); and terminus as streak-like occlusive pattern (60.0%) with poor LMC (60.0%), and no calcification (100%) on CTA. Our study indicates that acute ICA occlusion can be subtyped into cervical, cavernous, and terminus. Distinctive findings on initial CTA can help differentiate ICA-occlusion subtypes with specific characteristics. PMID:28151850

  6. Quantitative analysis of anatomical relationship between cavernous segment internal carotid artery and pituitary macroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bon-Jour; Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Lin, Meng-Chi; Lin, Chin; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Hsia, Chung-Ching; Ju, Da-Tong; Ma, Hsin-I; Liu, Ming-Ying; Tang, Chi-Tun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cavernous segment internal carotid artery (CSICA) injury during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumor is rare but fatal. The aim of this study is to investigate anatomical relationship between pituitary macroadenoma and corresponding CSICA using quantitative means with a sense to improve safety of surgery. In this retrospective study, a total of 98 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries were enrolled from 2005 to 2014. Intercarotid distances between bilateral CSICAs were measured in the 4 coronal levels, namely optic strut, convexity of carotid prominence, median sella turcica, and dorsum sellae. Parasellar extension was graded and recorded by Knosp–Steiner classification. Our findings indicated a linear relationship between size of pituitary macroadenoma and intercarotid distance over CSICA. The correlation was absent in pituitary macroadenoma with Knosp–Steiner grade 4 parasellar extension. Bigger pituitary macroadenoma makes more lateral deviation of CSICA. While facing larger tumor, sufficient bony graft is indicated for increasing surgical field, working area and operative safety. PMID:27741111

  7. Hemodynamic role of ophthalmic artery collateral in internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Tatemichi, T K; Chamorro, A; Petty, G W; Khandji, A; Oropeza, L A; Duterte, D I; Mohr, J P

    1990-03-01

    We performed duplex and transcranial Doppler studies in 36 patients with angiographically documented internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) to determine the effect of ophthalmic artery collateral (OAC) on measures of vascular resistivity both proximal and distal to the occlusion. Resistance in the common carotid artery, measured by the resistivity index, was significantly lower in the group with OAC than in those without OAC, indicating a shunt to the low resistance intracranial circuit. The pulsatility index (PI) of the Doppler signal in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery, a measure of both inflow pressure and distal vascular resistance, did not differ between those with and without OAC. However, the presence of circle of Willis collateral pathways (anterior communicating and/or posterior communicating artery) did appear to have a significant effect on pulsatility. When both were present angiographically, PI was higher than in the group with only 1 Willisian collateral. These findings suggest that OAC has a marginal effect on vascular resistance in arterial bed distal to an ICAO, while Willisian collaterals appear to have a more important role in cerebral perfusion, as measured indirectly by Doppler methods.

  8. Quantitative analysis of anatomical relationship between cavernous segment internal carotid artery and pituitary macroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bon-Jour; Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Lin, Meng-Chi; Lin, Chin; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Hsia, Chung-Ching; Ju, Da-Tong; Ma, Hsin-I; Liu, Ming-Ying; Tang, Chi-Tun

    2016-10-01

    Cavernous segment internal carotid artery (CSICA) injury during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumor is rare but fatal. The aim of this study is to investigate anatomical relationship between pituitary macroadenoma and corresponding CSICA using quantitative means with a sense to improve safety of surgery.In this retrospective study, a total of 98 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries were enrolled from 2005 to 2014. Intercarotid distances between bilateral CSICAs were measured in the 4 coronal levels, namely optic strut, convexity of carotid prominence, median sella turcica, and dorsum sellae. Parasellar extension was graded and recorded by Knosp-Steiner classification.Our findings indicated a linear relationship between size of pituitary macroadenoma and intercarotid distance over CSICA. The correlation was absent in pituitary macroadenoma with Knosp-Steiner grade 4 parasellar extension.Bigger pituitary macroadenoma makes more lateral deviation of CSICA. While facing larger tumor, sufficient bony graft is indicated for increasing surgical field, working area and operative safety.

  9. Internal Carotid Artery Reconstruction Using Multiple Fenestrated Clips for Complete Occlusion of Large Paraclinoid Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Kook

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although surgical techniques for clipping paraclinoid aneurysms have evolved significantly in recent times, direct microsurgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms remains a formidable surgical challenge. We review here our surgical experiences in direct surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms, especially in dealing with anterior clinoidectomy, distal dural ring resection, optic canal unroofing, clipping techniques, and surgical complications. Methods Between September 2001 and February 2012, we directly obliterated ten large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms. In all cases, tailored orbito-zygomatic craniotomies with extradural and/or intradural clinoidectomy were performed. The efficacy of surgical clipping was evaluated with postoperative digital subtraction angiography and computed tomographic angiography. Results Of the ten cases reported, five each were of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Five aneurysms occurred in the carotid cave, two in the superior hypophyseal artery, two in the intracavernous, and one in the posterior wall. The mean diameter of the aneurysms sac was 18.8 mm in the greatest dimension. All large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were obliterated with direct neck clipping without bypass. With the exception of the one intracavenous aneurysm, all large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were occluded completely. Conclusion The key features of successful surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms include enhancing exposure of proximal neck of aneurysms, establishing proximal control, and completely obliterating aneurysms with minimal manipulation of the optic nerve. Our results suggest that internal carotid artery reconstruction using multiple fenestrated clips without bypass may potentially achieve complete occlusion of large paraclinoid aneurysms. PMID:24527189

  10. Aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery due to fibromuscular dysplasia: results of surgical management.

    PubMed

    Bour, P; Taghavi, I; Bracard, S; Frisch, N; Fiévé, G

    1992-05-01

    Between January 1977 and December 1990, eight patients underwent surgical correction of aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery due to fibromuscular dysplasia. Mean age of patients was 50 years (range 31 to 70 years). Five patients presented with neurologic hemispheric symptoms. Most aneurysms were saccular and occurred preferentially at the level of C2 or C3. All of these patients underwent operation through conventional cervicotomy. Resection-anastomosis was performed in three cases whereas resection-graft was performed in five. Histopathological examination of the eight specimens was consistent with fibromuscular dysplasia of the media. There was no central nervous system-related mortality and morbidity. Seven patients were alive and free of new neurological manifestations at mean follow-up of 156 months (18 to 180 months). One patient died of myocardial infarction at 96 months. All patients had postoperative duplex scanning or arteriograms. These revealed that carotid restorations were patent in seven whereas one patient had asymptomatic occlusion at 18 months.

  11. Congenital aural atresia associated with agenesis of internal carotid artery in a girl with a FOXI3 deletion.

    PubMed

    Tassano, Elisa; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord; Leoni, Massimiliano; Hytönen, Marjo K; Severino, Mariasavina; Gimelli, Stefania; Cuoco, Cristina; Di Rocco, Maja; Sanio, Kirsi; Groves, Andrew K; Leeb, Tosso; Gimelli, Giorgio

    2015-03-01

    We report on the molecular characterization of a microdeletion of approximately 2.5 Mb at 2p11.2 in a female baby with left congenital aural atresia, microtia, and ipsilateral internal carotid artery agenesis. The deletion was characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization, array comparative genomic hybridization, and whole genome re-sequencing. Among the genes present in the deleted region, we focused our attention on the FOXI3 gene. Foxi3 is a member of the Foxi class of Forkhead transcription factors. In mouse, chicken and zebrafish Foxi3 homologues are expressed in the ectoderm and endoderm giving rise to elements of the jaw as well as external, middle and inner ear. Homozygous Foxi3-/- mice have recently been generated and show a complete absence of the inner, middle, and external ears as well as severe defects in the jaw and palate. Recently, a 7-bp duplication within exon 1 of FOXI3 that produces a frameshift and a premature stop codon was found in hairless dogs. Mild malformations of the outer auditory canal (closed ear canal) and ear lobe have also been noted in a fraction of FOXI3 heterozygote Peruvian hairless dogs. Based on the phenotypes of Foxi3 mutant animals, we propose that FOXI3 may be responsible for the phenotypic features of our patient. Further characterization of the genomic region and the analysis of similar patients may help to demonstrate this point. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Percutaneous Cervical Sympathetic Block for Pain Control after Internal Carotid Artery Dissection. A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Omar; Khan, Asif A.; Herial, Nabeel A.; Aytac, Emrah; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2017-01-01

    Background Medical treatment of cranio-cervical pain can be suboptimal in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection. We report the use of cervical sympathetic block for treatment of pain in two patients with ICA dissection. Case Reports A 58-year-old man and a 43-year-old woman presented with severe cranio-cervical pain associated with left and right ICA dissection confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography. Due to suboptimal control of pain with medical treatment, cervical sympathetic block was performed under fluoroscopic guidance using 20 ml of bupivacaine injected lateral to the posterior aspect of sixth vertebral body in both patients. On self-reported pain scale, the 58-year-old man reported improvement in pain intensity from 8/10 pain to 0/10 within 1 h of blockade. The patient remained relatively pain free for the 24-h post blockade. Mild recurrence of pain was noted on Day 2. The 43-year-old woman reported improvement in pain intensity from 6/10 pain to 0/10 within 1 h of blockade. The patient remained pain free for five days with recurrence to previous intensity. Conclusion Cervical sympathetic blockade in patients with ICA dissection may be an effective option in the event of suboptimal pain control with medical treatment; however, the technique may be limited due to relatively short duration of action. PMID:28243349

  13. Congenital Aural Atresia Associated With Agenesis of Internal Carotid Artery in a Girl With a FOXI3 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Tassano, Elisa; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord; Leoni, Massimiliano; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Severino, Mariasavina; Gimelli, Stefania; Cuoco, Cristina; Di Rocco, Maja; Sanio, Kirsi; Groves, Andrew K.; Leeb, Tosso; Gimelli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    We report on the molecular characterization of a microdeletion of approximately 2.5Mb at 2p11.2 in a female baby with left congenital aural atresia, microtia, and ipsilateral internal carotid artery agenesis. The deletion was characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization, array comparative genomic hybridization, and whole genome re-sequencing. Among the genes present in the deleted region, we focused our attention on the FOXI3 gene. Foxi3 is a member of the Foxi class of Forkhead transcription factors. In mouse, chicken and zebrafish Foxi3 homologues are expressed in the ectoderm and endoderm giving rise to elements of the jaw as well as external, middle and inner ear. Homozygous Foxi3−/− mice have recently been generated and show a complete absence of the inner, middle, and external ears as well as severe defects in the jaw and palate. Recently, a 7-bp duplication within exon 1 of FOXI3 that produces a frameshift and a premature stop codon was found in hairless dogs. Mild malformations of the outer auditory canal (closed ear canal) and ear lobe have also been noted in a fraction of FOXI3 heterozygote Peruvian hairless dogs. Based on the phenotypes of Foxi3 mutant animals, we propose that FOXI3 may be responsible for the phenotypic features of our patient. Further characterization of the genomic region and the analysis of similar patients may help to demonstrate this point. PMID:25655429

  14. Oxidative Stress and Total Antioxidant Status During Internal Carotid Artery Clamping with or without Shunting: An Experimental Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Papapetrou, Anastasios; Moris, Demetrios; Patelis, Nikolaos; Kouvelos, George N.; Bakogiannis, Chris; Klonaris, Chris; Georgopoulos, Sotiris

    2015-01-01

    Background The exact role of shunting during carotid endarterectomy remains controversial and unclear. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate to what degree carotid clamping may induce changes in the cerebral oxidative status and to focus on the relation of these changes with shunt insertion. Material/Methods Forty New-Zealand rabbits were randomized into 4 groups: group 1 classifying animals with carotid shunt and patent contralateral carotid artery; group 2 shunt and occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery; group 3 no-shunt and patent contralateral carotid artery; and group 4 no-shunt and occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery. Blood samples were collected from the ipsilateral internal jugular vein, immediately after carotid clamping (time 0), and then at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes afterwards. Evaluation of oxidative stress was accomplished by measuring the lag-time, representing the initial phase of oxidation, rate of accumulation (RA), showing concentration of free oxygen radical and total antioxidant status (TAS) representing antioxidant composition of serum. Results Lag-time was significantly different in time points 0, 30 and 60 minutes within each different group. TAS was significantly different in time points 0, 15 and 60 min and RA in time points 0, 5, 10 and 60 min within each different group. 60 minutes after carotid clamping, the rate of accumulation as well as lag-time and TAS were increased in all groups, independently of using or not shunting or the presence of contralateral occlusion. After comparing groups 1, 2 and 3 regarding lag-time, TAS and RA, we did not find statistical difference among the groups at any time point. On the contrary, groups 1, 2 and 3 did show significantly different values comparing to group 4 after 60 min of occlusion. Conclusions Our experimental work based on cerebral metabolism found a significantly higher oxidative stress in models with contralateral carotid occlusion. The use of shunt in

  15. Severe hyperprolactinemia associated with internal carotid artery aneurysm: differential diagnosis between prolactinoma and hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Felipe Henning Gaia; Machado, Marcio Carlos; Lima, Joilma Rodrigues de; Salgado, Luiz Roberto

    2008-10-01

    Sellar and parasellar masses blocking inhibitory hypothalamic dopaminergic tonus can produce hyperprolactinemia. One of these conditions, seldom reported, is internal carotid artery aneurysm causing pituitary stalk compression and hyperprolactinemia, the majority of which is related to small increases in serum prolactin levels. The aim of this study is to report the case of a patient with an internal carotid aneurysm and severe hiperprolactinemia. A 72 years old female patient, on oncology follow-up for clinically controlled cervical carcinoma, was evaluated due to worsening chronic headaches. During the investigation, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a sellar mass associated with high prolactin level (1.403 microg/L) that initially was considered a macroprolactinoma, and treated with bromocriptine. However, subsequent pituitary MRI suggested an internal carotid aneurysm, which was confirmed by an angioresonance imaging of cerebral vessels. On low bromocriptine dose (1.25 mg/day), there was a prompt normalization of prolactin levels with a great increase (> 600 microg/L) after withdrawal, which was confirmed several times, suggesting HPD. We report a patient with internal carotid artery aneurysm with severe hyperprolactinemia never reported before in patients with HPD, and the need for a differential diagnosis with macroprolactinomas even considering high prolactin levels.

  16. Carotid endarterectomy (CE) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) with and without patch angioplasty: comparison of hemodynamical and morphological parameters.

    PubMed

    Hirschl, M; Bernt, R A; Hirschl, M M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show, if patch angioplasty or direct closure of the blood vessel following carotid endarterectomy of the ICA resulted in any hemodynamical or morphological differences. Studies were carried out in eighteen and twenty patients, respectively within an average postoperative period of twenty-six month. All patients were examined with continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound, multi-channel pulse Doppler ultrasound and Duplex ultrasonography scanning. Comparing the two groups, differences are predominantly found at or near the site of the endarterectomized segment. Patients who received PTFE (Gore-Tex) patch angioplasty to close the arteriotomy, show in about 50% of all cases a dilatation--pantaloon effect (10)--at the carotid bifurcation (lumina greater than 1.1 cm) when investigating the vessel lumen with duplex sonography. This results in a statistical significant increase in turbulent flow disturbances at the bulb and the origin of the ICA. Furthermore, ICA flow velocity patterns after the endarterectomy point are still within the normal range when compared with patients not receiving a patch plasty, but still significantly elevated. Changes of the vessel wall, as such as intima elevation and intraluminal deposits are more frequently found distal to the endarterectomized segment and do obviously reduce the lumen. However, changes of flow volumina were not quantifiable. Atherosclerotic patients who underwent surgical treatment show as a characteristic finding due to atherosclerosis, a less laminar flow-pattern within the whole extracranial area, when compared with a normal healthy population.

  17. Successful Coil Embolization for a "Three-Hump" Internal Carotid Artery Anterior Wall Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Y.; Miyasaka, Y.; Takagi, H.; Kurata, A.; Suzuki, S.; Fujii, K.

    2006-01-01

    Summary We describe an unusually shaped aneurysm arising from the anterior wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA) that was treated successfully with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). A 38-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of headache and was transferred to our hospital. Computed tomography revealed thin subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns. Three-dimensional rotational angiography clearly showed a "three-hump" anterior wall aneurysm of the ICA. The two distal humps of the aneurysm were successfully obliterated with GDCs, but the proximal hump was too small to treat by coil embolization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficit. Anterior wall (blisterlike) aneurysms of the ICA have a high risk of rupture due to fragility of the wall. These aneurysms are considered difficult to manage by traditional surgical approaches. Our experience suggests that endovascular GDC embolization is a good alternative treatment modality for patients with such an aneurysm. PMID:20569593

  18. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm after medical prolactinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Hollon, Todd C; Shastri, Ravi; Trobe, Jonathan D; Gemmete, Joseph J; Pandey, Aditya S

    2016-06-08

    Aneurysms of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are believed to have a low risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), given the confines of the dural rings and the anterior clinoid process. The risk may be greater when the bony and dural protection has been eroded. We report a case of spontaneous SAH from rupture of a cavernous ICA aneurysm in a patient whose large prolactinoma had markedly decreased in size as the result of cabergoline treatment. After passing a balloon test occlusion, the patient underwent successful endovascular vessel deconstruction. This case suggests that an eroding skull base lesion may distort normal anterior cranial base anatomy and allow communication between the cavernous ICA and subarachnoid space. The potential for SAH due to cavernous ICA aneurysm rupture should be recognised in patients with previous pituitary or other skull base lesions adjacent to the cavernous sinus.

  19. Mandibular subluxation for distal internal carotid artery exposure in edentulous patients.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Gijs W; Witjes, Max J; van den Dungen, Jan J; Reintsema, Harry; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2009-12-01

    Four patients with high internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease were indicated for surgical endarterectomy and needed additional exposure besides regular head rotation and extension. When indicated, in our clinic this is usually achieved by mandibular subluxation with interdental wiring. Due to dental wear and periodontal disease, all 4 patients were edentulous. As a consequence, the technique of interdental wiring could not be used. In this technical note we will explain a method for interarch fixation with the use of two ipsilateral monocortical miniscrews and wiring, and the use of patients' pre-existing mandibular implants and provisional overdenture. This method gives rise to an additional exposure of 15 to 20 mm of the ICA.

  20. Rescue microsurgery with bypass and stent removal following Pipeline treatment of a giant internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Christian A; Taussky, Philip; Park, Min S; Neil, Jayson A; Couldwell, William T

    2015-12-01

    We report the microsurgical rescue and removal of a Pipeline stent embolization of a giant internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm. After the initial placement of a Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), it migrated proximally to the cavernous carotid with the distal end free in the middle of the aneurysm, resulting in only partial aneurysm neck coverage. The patient underwent microsurgical rescue with trapping, bypass, and opening of the aneurysm with PED removal. The vessel remained patent in the proximal segment previously covered by the Pipeline stent. Microsurgical rescue for definitive aneurysm treatment with PED removal can be safe and effective for aneurysms unsuccessfully treated with PED.

  1. New Technique for the Preservation of the Left Common Carotid Artery in Zone 2a Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkat, Robert Kulesza, Jerzy; Zarzecka, Anna; Jemielity, Marek; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Majewski, Waclaw

    2011-02-15

    To describe a technique for the preservation of the left common carotid artery (CCA) in zone 2 endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. This technique involves the placement of a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment to enable precise visualization and protection of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Of the 107 patients with thoracic endovascular aortic repair in our study, 32 (30%) had the left subclavian artery intentionally covered (landing zone 2). Eight (25%) of those 32 had landing zone 2a-the segment distally the origin of the left CCA, halfway between the origin of the left CCA and the left subclavian artery. In all patients, a guide wire was positioned into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment. It is a retrospective study in design. In seven patients, stent grafts were positioned precisely. In the remaining patient, the positioning was imprecise; the origin of the left CCA was partially covered by the graft. A stent was implanted into the left CCA to restore the flow into the vessel. All procedures were performed successfully. The technique of placing a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment is a safe and effective method that enables the precise visualization of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Moreover, in case of inadvertent complete or partial coverage of the origin of the left CCA, it supplies safe and quick access to the artery for stent implantation.

  2. New technique for the preservation of the left common carotid artery in zone 2a endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Juszkat, Robert; Kulesza, Jerzy; Zarzecka, Anna; Jemielity, Marek; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Majewski, Wacław

    2011-02-01

    To describe a technique for the preservation of the left common carotid artery (CCA) in zone 2 endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. This technique involves the placement of a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment to enable precise visualization and protection of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Of the 107 patients with thoracic endovascular aortic repair in our study, 32 (30%) had the left subclavian artery intentionally covered (landing zone 2). Eight (25%) of those 32 had landing zone 2a-the segment distally the origin of the left CCA, halfway between the origin of the left CCA and the left subclavian artery. In all patients, a guide wire was positioned into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment. It is a retrospective study in design. In seven patients, stent grafts were positioned precisely. In the remaining patient, the positioning was imprecise; the origin of the left CCA was partially covered by the graft. A stent was implanted into the left CCA to restore the flow into the vessel. All procedures were performed successfully. The technique of placing a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment is a safe and effective method that enables the precise visualization of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Moreover, in case of inadvertent complete or partial coverage of the origin of the left CCA, it supplies safe and quick access to the artery for stent implantation.

  3. Retreatment of Recurrent Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm after Coil Embolization.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Shingo; Taki, Takuyu; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysms account for more than 20% of all intracranial aneurysms. As a result of the increase in coiling, there has also been an increase in recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling. We present our experience of 10 recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling that were retreated using surgical or endovascular techniques in order to discuss the choice of treatment and the points of clipping without removal of coils. From 2007 to 2014, 10 recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling were retreated. When the previous frames covered the aneurysms all around or almost around except a part of the neck, coiling was chosen. In other cases, clipping was chosen. Clipping was attempted without removal of coils when it was technically feasible. Among the 10 IC-PC aneurysms retreated, 3 were retreated with coiling and 7 were retreated with clipping. In all three cases retreated with coiling, almost complete occlusion was accomplished. In the seven cases retreated with clipping, coil extrusion was observed during surgery in six cases. In most of them, it was necessary to dissect strong adhesions around the coiled aneurysms and to utilize temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In all seven cases, neck clipping was accomplished without the removal of coils. There were no neurological complications in any cases. The management of recurrent lesions of embolized IC-PC aneurysms requires appropriate choice of treatment using both coiling and clipping. Clipping, especially without the removal of coils, plays an important role in safe treatment.

  4. Retreatment of Recurrent Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm after Coil Embolization

    PubMed Central

    TOYOTA, Shingo; TAKI, Takuyu; WAKAYAMA, Akatsuki; YOSHIMINE, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysms account for more than 20% of all intracranial aneurysms. As a result of the increase in coiling, there has also been an increase in recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling. We present our experience of 10 recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling that were retreated using surgical or endovascular techniques in order to discuss the choice of treatment and the points of clipping without removal of coils. From 2007 to 2014, 10 recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling were retreated. When the previous frames covered the aneurysms all around or almost around except a part of the neck, coiling was chosen. In other cases, clipping was chosen. Clipping was attempted without removal of coils when it was technically feasible. Among the 10 IC-PC aneurysms retreated, 3 were retreated with coiling and 7 were retreated with clipping. In all three cases retreated with coiling, almost complete occlusion was accomplished. In the seven cases retreated with clipping, coil extrusion was observed during surgery in six cases. In most of them, it was necessary to dissect strong adhesions around the coiled aneurysms and to utilize temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In all seven cases, neck clipping was accomplished without the removal of coils. There were no neurological complications in any cases. The management of recurrent lesions of embolized IC-PC aneurysms requires appropriate choice of treatment using both coiling and clipping. Clipping, especially without the removal of coils, plays an important role in safe treatment. PMID:26437796

  5. Common Carotid Artery Stump Syndrome Due to Mobile Thrombus Detected by Carotid Duplex Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Shusaku; Hasegawa, Yuki; Sakai, Kenichiro; Matsuno, Hiromasa; Arai, Ayumi; Terasawa, Yuka; Mitsumura, Hidetaka; Iguchi, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Carotid stump syndrome is a cause of recurrent embolic stroke following occlusion of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The present report describes a case of recurrent cerebral embolism ipsilateral to a chronically occluded left common carotid artery (CCA), i.e., "CCA stump syndrome." Doppler color flow imaging showed anterograde flow in the left internal and external carotid arteries, which were supplied by collateral flow from the superior thyroid artery inflowing just proximal to the left carotid bifurcation. According to carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU), a low-echoic mobile thrombus was noted at the distal stump of the occluded CCA, which presumably caused distal embolism. The low-echoic mobile thrombus dramatically changed to a homogenously high-echoic thrombus, and there was no recurrence of stroke after antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy. This is the first report to demonstrate a CDU-verified temporal change in the thrombus at the stump in CCA stump syndrome. CDU is a noninvasive and useful technique to characterize hemodynamics, thrombus morphology, and the response to therapy.

  6. Percutaneous Recanalization of Acute Internal Carotid Artery Occlusions in Patients with Severe Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Dabitz, Rainer; Triebe, Stefan; Leppmeier, Ullrich; Ochs, Guenther; Vorwerk, Dierk

    2007-02-15

    Background. Sudden symptomatic occlusions of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) resulting in severe middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemia and stroke are usually not accessible by rt-PA thrombolysis and the prognosis is usually very poor. Mechanical recanalization of the proximal ICA combined with intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis was therefore used as a rescue procedure. Methods. Ten patients (9 men, 1 woman; mean age 56.1 years) were treated with emergency recanalization of the proximal carotid artery by using stents and/or balloon angioplasty as a rescue procedure. Three patients showed dissection, and 7 had atherothrombotic occlusions. Nine of 10 presented with an initial modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 5, the remaining patient with mRS 4 (average NIHSS 21.4). After sonographic confirmation of ICA with associated MCA/distal ICA occlusion and bridging with rt-PA (without abciximab) an emergency angiography was performed with subsequent mechanical recanalization by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (n = 1) or primary stenting (n = 9) using self-expanding stents. Distal protection was used in 1 of 10 patients. Results. Recanalization of the proximal ICA was achieved in all. At least partial recanalization of the intracerebral arteries was achieved in all, and complete recanalization in 5. In 4 of 10 patients limited hemorrhage was detected during CT controls. Major complications included 2 patients who had to undergo hemicraniectomy. One patient died from malignant infarction. At the time of discharge from the stroke unit 9 of 10 patients had improved markedly, 5 patients having an mRS of {<=}2, and 3 patients a mRS of 3. At control after a mean of 20 weeks, 7 of 8 (88%) patients had a mRS {<=}2, and 1 a mRS of 3. Conclusions. Primary mechanical recanalization of ICA occlusions by stent and PTA combined with fibrinolysis and/or GPIIb/IIIa-receptor antagonists seems to be feasible to improve patient outcome significantly.

  7. Single-center experience on endovascular reconstruction of traumatic internal carotid artery dissections.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Itshayek, Eyal; Spektor, Sergey; Shoshan, Yigal; Rosenthal, Guy; Moscovici, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic internal carotid artery dissection (CAD) has a potentially grave outcome. Anticoagulant therapy may be ineffective or contraindicated; surgery impractical. We present our experience with endovascular stenting in CAD patients. From 2004 to 2011, 23 patients with angiographically proven traumatic CAD underwent endovascular stent-assisted arterial reconstruction based on clinical and radiographic criteria: contraindication or failure of anticoagulation, evidence of impending ischemic stroke, or need for urgent intracranial revascularization. Dissections were graded based on degree of stenosis and extent of injury. Seventeen patients (73.9%) presented with stroke or transient ischemic attack. Carotid revascularization was achieved with one (11 patients, 48%) or multiple stents (12 patients, 52%); distal protection was used rarely (three patients, 13%). No complications were directly attributed to stenting. Mean dissection-related stenosis improved from 72% ± 28.87% to 4% ± 8.29%. At a mean clinical follow-up of 28.7 months ± 31.9 months, 16 patients (69.6%) improved, six (26.1%) remained stable, and one (4.3%) had died secondary to multiple traumatic injuries. At long-term follow-up, no patient had a transient ischemic attack or stroke or presented evidence of de novo in-stent stenosis or stent thrombosis. There were no neurologic sequelae after partial or total discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy in seven patients undergoing trauma-related surgeries. Selected cases of traumatic CAD can be safely managed by endovascular stent-assisted angioplasty. Procedural complications are infrequent; the need for postprocedure antiplatelet therapy is a concern. Early detection is essential to avoid stroke. Stenting restores the integrity of the vessel lumen immediately, efficiently prevents the occurrence or recurrence of ischemic events, and avoids the need of long-term anticoagulation.

  8. Relationship between intracranial hypertension and ultrasonic patterns of the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Liboni, W; Bertolotto, A; Urciuoli, R

    1983-01-01

    The Doppler technique has only been used in neurological practice to evidence local vessel pathology such as occlusion or stenosis. Both common carotid artery and internal jugular vein flows can change not only because of pathological processes of the vessels but also because of impedance of their distribution territory. In this report we analyze the relationship between flow velocity, one of the parameters of blood flow, and intracranial impedance variations which occur in cerebral concussion, tumors and acute vascular cerebral pathology. During our observations we noticed that the diastolic wave of the velocity curve of the common carotid artery is a very important signal of the flow variations in the internal carotid artery and, in turn, of variations in cerebral flow. We studied the behaviour of the common carotid artery velocity curve in our patients both during clinical disease development and during the action of mannitol in the acute phases of the disease. We found that the ultrasonic patterns during antiedema action were similar to the ones obtained during the recovery period. We were able to note some differences and some similarities of the curve morphology in relation to generalized or focal causes of cerebral edema. This may be very important considering that at present no non-invasive and therefore repeatable technique is available for monitoring cerebral blood flow in intracranial hypertension.

  9. [Effect of deltaran on the mediatory balance in the brain of young and old rats with left-side laterality profile in case of carotid arteries occlusion].

    PubMed

    Kim, T K; Karantysh, G V; Mendzheritskiĭ, A M; Ryzhak, G A

    2007-01-01

    The medico-social significance of ischemic brain lesions, which are the most frequent cause of disablement and death in older people, stipulates the need for efficient means of prevention and correction of central nervous system disorders in case of ischemic brain lesions. The efficacy of Deltaran in the correction of disordered neuromediator balance in the brain of rats of different age groups was studied on the model of carotid arteries occlusion. Studies showed, that Deltaran exerts an anti-stress effect on old rats with left-side profile by altering the neuromediators' distribution in animals' brain under conditions of hypoxia. This enables to recommend Deltaran for further study as a neuroprotector.

  10. Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Bonati, Leo H; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L; Ederle, Jörg; van der Worp, H Bart; de Borst, Gert J; Mali, Willem P Th M; Beard, Jonathan D; Cleveland, Trevor; Engelter, Stefan T; Lyrer, Philippe A; Ford, Gary A; Dorman, Paul J; Brown, Martin M

    2015-02-07

    Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis, but long-term efficacy is uncertain. We report long-term data from the randomised International Carotid Stenting Study comparison of these treatments. Patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis were randomly assigned 1:1 to open treatment with stenting or endarterectomy at 50 centres worldwide. Randomisation was computer generated centrally and allocated by telephone call or fax. Major outcomes were assessed by an independent endpoint committee unaware of treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was fatal or disabling stroke in any territory after randomisation to the end of follow-up. Analysis was by intention to treat ([ITT] all patients) and per protocol from 31 days after treatment (all patients in whom assigned treatment was completed). Functional ability was rated with the modified Rankin scale. This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. 1713 patients were assigned to stenting (n=855) or endarterectomy (n=858) and followed up for a median of 4·2 years (IQR 3·0-5·2, maximum 10·0). Three patients withdrew immediately and, therefore, the ITT population comprised 1710 patients. The number of fatal or disabling strokes (52 vs 49) and cumulative 5-year risk did not differ significantly between the stenting and endarterectomy groups (6·4% vs 6·5%; hazard ratio [HR] 1·06, 95% CI 0·72-1·57, p=0·77). Any stroke was more frequent in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group (119 vs 72 events; ITT population, 5-year cumulative risk 15·2% vs 9·4%, HR 1·71, 95% CI 1·28-2·30, p<0·001; per-protocol population, 5-year cumulative risk 8·9% vs 5·8%, 1·53, 1·02-2·31, p=0·04), but were mainly non-disabling strokes. The distribution of modified Rankin scale scores at 1 year, 5 years, or final follow-up did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Long-term functional outcome and risk of fatal or disabling stroke are similar for stenting and

  11. Cerebral perfusion imaging with albumin microspheres tagged with /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In in cases with internal carotid occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Etani, H.; Kimura, K.; Yoneda, S.; Tsuda, Y.; Isaka, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Asai, T.

    1982-09-01

    Cerebral perfusion imaging with dual-tracer (/sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In) human albumin microspheres (HAM scintigraphy) was performed in 15 cases with unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery, for the diagnosis and evaluation of collateral circulation patterns. After injection of /sup 99m/Tc microspheres into one common carotid artery and /sup 111/In HAMs into the other, two perfusion images, one for each carotid artery, were clearly differentiated by appropriate pulse-height discrimination. With this method, diagnosis of internal carotid artery occlusion was definitely made in eight patients, suspected in six, and missed in one. The collateral perfusion areas from the contralateral ICA and ipsilateal external carotid artery were well demonstrated by this method, and the scintigraphic results agreed well with the angiographic findings in all cases. Dual-tracer HAM scintigraphy is capable of adding information about collaterals at the capillary level to the anatomic information obtained by angiography.

  12. Traumatic aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and an associated carotid-cavernous fistula: vascular reconstruction performed using intravascular implantation of stents and coils. Case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Young; Yim, Man-Bin; Kim, Il-Man; Son, Eun-Ik; Kim, Dong-Won

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the treatment of a traumatic aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) that was associated with a carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF), which appeared following closed head trauma. This life-threatening lesion, which is very rare, required aggressive management achieved using intravascular stents and coils. A 19-year-old man presented with severe traumatic intracerebral and subarachnoid hematoma after he had suffered a severe closed head injury in a motor vehicle accident. Cerebral angiography performed 11 days after the injury demonstrated a traumatic aneurysm and severe narrowing of the right supraclinoid ICA, which was consistent with a dissection-induced stenosis associated with a direct CCF. Both lesions were successfully obliterated with preservation of the parent artery by using stents in conjunction with coils. Follow-up angiography obtained 7 months postoperatively revealed persistent obliteration of the aneurysm and CCF as well as patency of the parent artery. The patient remained asymptomatic during the clinical follow-up period of 14 months. Endovascular treatment involving the use of a stent combined with coils appears to be a feasible, minimally invasive option for treatment of this hard-to-treat lesion.

  13. Bilateral acute subdural hematomas with intracerebral hemorrhage without subarachnoid hemorrhage, caused by rupture of an internal carotid artery dorsal wall aneurysm. Case report.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Ueba, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Motohiro; Yamashita, Kohsuke

    2009-04-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with bilateral acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). He was found comatose in a parked car. Computed tomography showed left frontal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and bilateral ASDHs but no signs of SAH. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated an internal carotid artery dorsal wall aneurysm. Emergent surgical intervention was performed. However, he died of cerebral herniation 6 days later. We inferred that massive intracranial bleeding might have ruptured through the cortex and lacerated the arachnoid membrane. Aneurysm rupture generally results in unilateral SDH, whereas trauma is the usual cause of bilateral ASDHs with ICH. Our case suggests that ruptured aneurysm should be considered in patients with non-traumatic bilateral ASDHs without SAH.

  14. Bovine Aortic Arch and Bilateral Retroesophageal Course of Common Carotid Arteries in a Symptomatic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Bissacco, Daniele; Domanin, Maurizio; Schinco, Giuseppina; Gabrielli, Livio

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical variations of carotid arteries may be related to their development (agenesis, aplasia, hypoplasia) or course (coiling, kinking, tortuosity). Partial or total aberrancies in carotid vessel anatomy rarely occur. We describe the case of a 95-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of confusion and disorientation together with upper limb clonus. Computed tomography (CT)-scan revealed a left frontal brain injury with a not conclusive carotid doppler ultrasound. CT angiography reported a bovine aortic arch with bilateral retroesophageal course of both common carotid arteries and left severe (>70%) internal carotid artery stenosis. The knowledge of anatomical variations of the course of carotid arteries is relevant for possible surgical or endovascular repair or in case of otolaryngology or intubation procedures. PMID:27699162

  15. Reconstruction of the Internal Carotid Artery After Treatment of Complex Traumatic Direct Carotid-Cavernous Fistulas With the Willis Covered Stent: A Retrospective Study With Long-Term Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wu; Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Yong-Dong; Gu, Bin-Xian; Lu, Hai-Tao

    2016-12-01

    Endovascular treatment of complex traumatic direct carotid-cavernous fistulas (TDCCFs) is a challenge. To evaluate the long-term efficacy of the Willis covered stent in endovascular treatment of complex TDCCFs, focusing on reconstruction and preservation of the internal carotid artery. During the past 8 years, 25 patients with 27 TDCCFs who previously had unsuccessful treatment of fistulas with detachable balloons received endovascular treatment with Willis covered stents. The efficacy, complications, in-stent stenosis, angiographic, and clinical follow-up results were evaluated retrospectively between 6 and 88 months (mean, 43.8 months) after the stent placement. The technical success rate of stenting placement was 100%. Forty-four Willis covered stents were implanted into the target artery of 27 TDCCFs. Complete exclusion was achieved in 16 patients with 17 TDCCFs immediately after the stent placement, with transient endoleaks in 10 TDCCFs. Redilation was performed in 6 TDCCFs, and additional stents were implanted in the other 4 TDCCFs for endoleak exclusion. The initial angiographic results showed complete exclusion of fistulas with preservation of the internal carotid artery in 24 patients with 26 TDCCFs. One patient in whom complete occlusion initially was achieved subsequently experienced a delayed endoleak, which required placement of an additional stent. The angiographic follow-up results (mean, 30.3 months) demonstrated complete exclusion in all 27 TDCCFs, with patency of internal carotid artery in 23 patients. The clinical follow-up demonstrated a full recovery in 23 patients and improvement in 2 patients. The use of Willis covered stents was confirmed to be effective, safe, and a curative approach for endovascular treatment of complex TDCCFs and internal carotid artery reconstruction. DB, detachable balloonEVT, endovascular treatmentICA, internal carotid arteryn-BCA, N-butyl cyanoacrylateTDCCF, traumatic direct carotid-cavernous fistula.

  16. Bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections with retinal artery occlusion after a roller coaster ride - case report and a review.

    PubMed

    Ozkan Arat, Yonca; Volpi, John; Arat, Anıl; Klucznik, Richard; Diaz, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    We present the first case of a woman with no significant medical history who developed dissections of bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries, as well as a retinal artery occlusion, after a roller coaster ride. A 35-year-old woman developed right-sided neck pain followed by a frontal headache immediately after a roller coaster ride. Five days after the incident, she developed complete loss of vision in her right eye for two hours. Subsequently, the vision improved but remained significantly decreased. On presentation, her visual acuity was 20/200 in the right and 20/20 in the left eye. Her fundus exam revealed retinal edema in the superotemporal retinal artery distribution without any visible emboli. Her neurological exam was otherwise normal. The cerebral angiogram showed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. The patient remained stable with conservative therapy without further worsening of vision or any new neurological deficits. Outcomes for cervicocephalic arterial dissection are usually favorable, but early diagnosis is critical for initiation of appropriate treatment of possible complications. Physicians must have a high index of suspicion for arterial dissection when patients note any headache, neck pain or vertigo triggered by violent motion after leisure activities such as roller coaster rides.

  17. Bilateral dissection of the internal carotid artery at the base of the skull due to blunt trauma: incidence and severity.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Y; Di Mauro, P; Tomachot, L; Albanese, J; Martin, C; Alliez, B; Juhan, C

    1998-11-01

    Between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 1996, a total of 1095 head trauma vicims were admitted in our intensive care unit. If CT scans demonstrated ischemic brain lesions, arteriography to visualize supraaortic vessels was performed. Carotid artery dissection was observed in ten patients (0.91%) and was bilateral in eight patients (0.73%). In the bilateral carotid artery dissection (BCAD) group, there were five women and three men, with a mean age of 35.2 years (range: 17 to 54 years). Injuries resulted from traffic accidents in seven patients and a fall in one patient. Upon admission, six patients presented with alteration of consciousness and three with hemiplegia or hemiparesia, associated with aphasia in two cases. In two other cases, hemiplegia occurred 24 hr and 13 days after the accident. All patients had brain infarction, which was unilateral in five cases and bilateral in three cases. The severity of lesions was graded on the basis of arteriographic findings as follows: Type I, wall involvement without significant stenosis or dilation; Type II, arterial dissection with stenosis >70% (Type IIA) or dilatation >50% (Type IIB) and the normal diameter of the proximal or distal internal carotid artery; and Type III, thrombosis of the internal carotid artery. Lesions were asymmetrical in six patients, including two with Type II and III lesions and four with Type I and II lesions, and symmetrical in two patients, including one with bilateral Type III lesions and one with bilateral Type II lesions. Surgery was performed in two patients with Type II lesions, including one case associated with contralateral carotid thrombosis. The intrapetrous carotid artery was exposed by an ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgeon and repaired by interposition grafting. Follow-up in these two surgical cases was 28 and 31 months. In the remaining six cases, medical treatment was performed. Outcome in nonsurgical cases was variable: death in two cases at 31 and 43 days after the accident

  18. Semi-automatic segmentation and quantification of the internal carotid artery from 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bemmel, Cornelis M.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2004-05-01

    A technique is presented for segmentation and quantification of stenosed internal carotid arteries in three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. Segmentation with sub-voxel accuracy of the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) has been achieved via level-set techniques in which the central axis serves as initialization. The central axis is determined with minmal user-interaction, viz. two user-defined points. Quantification is performed by measuring the cross-sectional area in the stenosis and at a reference segment in planes perpendicular to the central axis. The technique was applied to 52 ICAs. It is demonstrated that the method's reproducibility is better than the intra-observer agreement. Furthermore, the agreement between the presented method and the observers is better than the inter-observer agreement.

  19. Direct Surgery of Previously Coiled Large Internal Carotid Ophthalmic Aneurysm for the Purpose of Optic Nerve Decompression.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shuhei; Toyota, Shingo; Kumagai, Tetsuya; Goto, Tetsu; Mori, Kanji; Taki, Takuyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Progressive visual loss after coil embolization of a large internal carotid ophthalmic aneurysm has been widely reported. It is generally accepted that the primary strategy for this complication should be conservative, including steroid therapy; however, it is not well known as to what approach to take when the conservative therapy is not effective. Case Presentation We report a case of a 55-year-old female presenting with progressive visual loss after the coiling of a ruptured large internal carotid ophthalmic aneurysm. As the conservative therapy had not been effective, we performed neck clipping of the aneurysm with optic canal unroofing, anterior clinoidectomy, and partial removal of the embolized coils for the purpose of optic nerve decompression. After the surgery, the visual symptom was improved markedly. Conclusions It is suggested that direct surgery for the purpose of optic nerve decompression may be one of the options when conservative therapy is not effective for progressive visual disturbance after coil embolization.

  20. A unique case of penetrating neck and cervical spine trauma resulting in vertebral artery transection and internal carotid artery laceration.

    PubMed

    Marston, Alexander P; Montenegro, Monique M; Oldenburg, Michael S; Thom, Joshua T; Driscoll, Colin L W

    2016-01-01

    Describe the presentation and treatment of a patient who suffered a penetrating cervical trauma resulting in occlusion of the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. The electronic medical record was used to collect information pertaining to the patient's clinical history. A 20-year-old male suffered a unique penetrating neck injury resulting in simultaneous injuries to the internal carotid and vertebral arteries as demonstrated by pre-operative angiography. Combined endovascular and open surgical approaches were utilized to successfully manage the vascular injuries prior to foreign body extraction. Complex penetrating cervical trauma is best managed with a multidisciplinary and multimodality approach. In appropriately selected patients, pre-operative angiography is a critical diagnostic modality that can prevent life-threatening hemorrhage following foreign body extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid procedure combining clip on wrapping and stent placement for ruptured supraclinoid blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Hirokazu; Narikiyo, Michihisa; Nagayama, Gota; Nagao, Seiya; Tsuboi, Yoshifumi; Kambayashi, Chisaku

    2017-03-01

    Blood blister-like aneurysms of the supraclinoid portion of the internal carotid artery are rare, fragile, and thin-walled lesions with a higher rate of rebleeding. Our case underwent a hybrid procedure combining direct surgical and endovascular approach.

  2. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion after gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Spatola, Giorgio; Frosio, Laura; Losa, Marco; Del Vecchio, Antonella; Piloni, Martina; Mortini, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery is an effective and safe treatment modality in the management of pituitary adenomas. Internal carotid occlusion is a rare but possible complication of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for lesions within the cavernous sinus. To stress the importance of considering the Internal carotid artery as an organ at risk in cavernous sinus invading adenomas and reduce the dose delivered to this structure whenever possible. We report two cases of asymptomatic occlusion of the intracavernous segment of the internal carotid artery seven years after treatment in acromegalic patients. After trans-sphenoidal surgery, residual tumour was treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. The maximal doses to the affected artery were higher than 40 Gy and the 90% isodose was close to the arterial wall. Every effort should be done to minimize the radiation dose to the internal carotid artery. If not possible, "hot spots" exceeding the 90% isodose close to this vessel should be avoided.

  3. Multidisciplinary approach to the management of an extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm approaching the base of the skull in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Christopher; Westfall, Scott

    2011-07-01

    Internal carotid artery aneurysms are rare in young patients, especially those without connective tissue disorders or vessel trauma. We present the case of a 29-year-old man who was referred for an asymptomatic pulsatile mass. Computed tomographic angiography identified a true aneurysm between the carotid bifurcation and the base of the skull. This location combined with extensive perineural fibrosis made dissection difficult. Collaboration with an otolaryngologist provided enough distal internal carotid artery exposure for a saphenous vein interposition graft to be placed. Despite initial cranial nerve dysfunction, which later resolved completely, the patient tolerated the procedure well and remains asymptomatic 2 years postoperatively.

  4. Rapidly progressive dementia due to bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion with infarction of the total length of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Romano, Jose G; Forteza, Alejandro M; Koch, Sebastian

    2004-04-01

    The authors report a patient with rapidly progressive cognitive decline due to bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) resulting in multiple pathologically proven cerebral infarctions including the entire length of the corpus callosum. The gradual evolution of the deficits was suggestive of hemodynamic ischemia. Bilateral ICAO should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with rapidly cognitive decline. Although ICAO commonly spares the splenium, complete callosal infarction is possible in the presence of bilateral ICAO.

  5. Penetration of the Optic Nerve and Falciform Ligament by an Internal Carotid Artery-Ophthalmic Artery Aneurysm: Case Reoport

    PubMed Central

    TAKAGI, Yasushi; MIYAMOTO, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of an internal carotid artery (ICA)-ophthalmic artery aneurysm with penetration of the optic nerve. In addition, this case penetrated the falciform ligament, which severely disturbed optic canal unroofing during surgery. This is the first reported case in which penetration of the optic nerve and falciform ligament has been shown. To remove the anterior clinoid process in this case, the ultrasonic bone curette was a useful tool. PMID:24140766

  6. Tandem symptomatic internal carotid artery and persistent hypoglossal artery stenosis treated by endovascular stenting and flow reversal

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Jorge L; Jahshan, Shady; Dumont, Travis M; Kan, Peter; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2013-01-01

    Persistence of the hypoglossal artery into adulthood is a rare vascular anomaly and, when present, provides the predominant vascular supply to the posterior circulation. We describe a case of vertebrobasilar insufficiency associated with severe high-grade stenosis of the persistent hypoglossal artery and tandem stenosis of the proximal ipsilateral internal carotid artery, treated by an endovascular approach. The unique anatomical and technical challenges associated with this case are reviewed in detail. PMID:23709141

  7. Covered stents for exclusion of iatrogenic common carotid artery–internal jugular vein fistula and brachiocephalic artery pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kooraki, Soheil; Grohmann, Jochen; Elshikh, Samer; Urbach, Horst; Meckel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Covered stents have rarely been used in neuroendovascular procedures. We report the case of a 74-year-old woman with a complex iatrogenic vascular injury from attempted insertion of a hemodialysis catheter: concurrent brachiocephalic artery pseudoaneurysm and common carotid artery to internal jugular vein fistula. Both lesions were excluded successfully by using two balloon-expandable covered stents with a satisfactory short-term clinical and angiographic outcome. PMID:26106173

  8. BILATERAL ANEURYSMS OF THE INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY—Successful Surgical Approach in One Stage

    PubMed Central

    Weyand, Robert D.; Schmerl, E. F.; Rhee, James L.

    1959-01-01

    When intracranial aneurysm is suspected, carotid arteriogram should be done not only on the suspected side but always on both sides. Without surgical intervention the prognosis of bilateral aneurysms is notoriously poor. With the aid of hypothermic anesthesia it is now possible to operate on both sides in a single procedure. This was demonstrated in a case in which both carotid arteries were simultaneously occluded twice during the surgical repair of bilateral carotid aneurysms. Occlusion was done once for eight minutes and once for ten minutes, without clinical evidence of brain damage. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:13671362

  9. Endovascular treatment of the carotid stump syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nano, Giovanni; Dalainas, Ilias; Casana, Renato; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G

    2006-01-01

    In patients with an occluded internal carotid artery, the carotid stump syndrome is a potential source of microemboli that pass through the ipsilateral external carotid artery and the ophthalmic artery to the territory of the middle cerebral artery. Thus, the syndrome is associated with carotid territory symptoms although the internal carotid artery is occluded. Surgical exclusion of the internal carotid artery associated with endarterectomy of the external carotid artery has been described as the gold standard of treatment by many authors. This report is the second case, to our knowledge, of endovascular treatment of the carotid stump syndrome with the use of a stent-graft.

  10. Covered Stent-Graft Treatment of Traumatic Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysms: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Maras, Dimitrios; Lioupis, Christos Magoufis, George; Tsamopoulos, Nikolaos; Moulakakis, Konstantinos; Andrikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-12-15

    Objective. To review the literature concerning the management with placement of covered stent-grafts of traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) resulting from penetrating craniocervical injuries or skull base fractures. Method. We have reviewed, from the Medline database, all the published cases in the English literature since 1990 and we have added a new case. Results. We identified 20 patients with traumatic extracranial ICA pseudoaneurysms due to penetrating craniocervical injuries or skull base fractures who had been treated with covered stent-graft implantation. Many discrepancies have been ascertained regarding the anticoagulation therapy. In 3 patients the ICA was totally occluded in the follow-up period, giving an overall occlusion rate 15%. No serious complication was reported as a result of the endovascular procedure. Conclusion. Preliminary results suggest that placement of stent-grafts is a safe and effective method of treating ICA traumatic pseudoaneurysms resulting from penetrating craniocervical injuries or skull base fractures. The immediate results are satisfactory when the procedure takes place with appropriate anticoagulation therapy. The periprocedural morbidity and mortality and the early patency are also acceptable. A surveillance program with appropriate interventions to manage restenosis may improve the long-term patency.

  11. Association between extra- and intracranial calcifications of the internal carotid artery: a CBCT imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Aartman, I H A; Tsiklakis, K; van der Stelt, P; Berkhout, W E R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the association between the extracranial and intracranial calcification depiction of the internal carotid artery (ICA), incidentally found in CBCT examinations in adults, and to discuss the conspicuous clinical implications. Methods: Out of a series of 1085 CBCT examinations, 705 CBCT scans were selected according to pre-defined criteria. The extra- and intracranial calcifications depicted along the course of the ICA were documented according to a comprehensive set of descriptive criteria. Results: In total, 799 findings were detected, 60.1% (n = 480) were intracranially and 39.9% (n = 319) were extracranially allocated. The χ2 test showed associations between all variables (p < 0.001). Also, most of the combinations of variables showed statistically significant results in the McNemar's test (p < 0.001). Conclusions: We found that a significant correlation exists between extra- and intracranial calcifications of the ICA. It is clear that in cases of the presence of a calcification in the ICA extracranially, the artery's intracranial portion has an increased risk of showing the same findings. CBCT imaging is widely used as a diagnostic tool, thus, our results contribute to the identification of a subgroup of patients who should undergo further medical evaluation of the atherosclerosis of the ICAs. PMID:25690425

  12. Anatomical nuances of the internal carotid artery in relation to the quadrangular space.

    PubMed

    Dolci, Ricardo L L; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Goulart, Carlos R; Upadhyay, Smita; Buohliqah, Lamia; Lazarini, Paulo R; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo L

    2017-02-24

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in relation to the quadrangular space (QS) and to propose a classification system based on the results. METHODS A total of 44 human cadaveric specimens were dissected endonasally under direct endoscopic visualization. During the dissection, the anatomical variations of the ICA and their relationship with the QS were noted. RESULTS The space between the paraclival ICAs (i.e., intercarotid space) can be classified as 1 of 3 different shapes (i.e., trapezoid, square, or hourglass) based on the trajectory of the ICAs. The ICA trajectories also directly influence the volumetric area of the QS. Based on its geometry, the QS was classified as one of the following: 1) Type A has the smallest QS area and is associated with a trapezoid intercarotid space, 2) Type B corresponds to the expected QS area (not minimized or enlarged) and is associated with a square intercarotid space, and 3) Type C has the largest QS area and is associated with an hourglass intercarotid space. CONCLUSIONS The different trajectories of the ICAs can modify the area of the QS and may be an essential parameter to consider for preoperative planning and defining the most appropriate corridor to reach Meckel's cave. In addition, ICA trajectories should be considered prior to surgery to avoid injuring the vessels.

  13. Right Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation: Carotid Artery-directed versus Sternocleidomastoid-directed Methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-Yan; Yuan, Ping; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Zhong-Min

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore a simple and safe method for central venous catheterization (CVC) from the right internal jugular vein (RIJV) by comparing carotid artery (CA) positioning with sternocleidomastoid (SCM) positioning. The medical records of patients who underwent CVC between January 2011 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Central venous catheters were inserted into the RIJV either above the level of the cricoid cartilage using the CA-directed method (419 patients, Group 1) or below the level of the cricoid cartilage using the SCM-directed method (436 patients, Group 2). Success rate and related complications of catheterization were evaluated in the two groups. The total success rate of RIJV cannulation in Group 1 (97.2%) was higher than that in Group 2 (94.5%). Moreover, the success rate at first attempt was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (92.4% vs 86.9%). The incidence of hematoma was 1.6 per cent in Group 1 and 3.8 per cent in Group 2. The rate of other complications such as pneumothorax, catheter-related infections, and catheter occlusion did not significantly differ between the groups. In conclusions, CA-directed RIJV cannulation is more effective and simple to perform than the SCM-directed method, and should become the preferred CVC technique in the absence of ultrasound guidance.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Aneurysms Using a Novel Pericardium Covered Stent

    PubMed Central

    Vulev, I.; Klepanec, A.; Bazik, R.; Balazs, T.; Illes, R.; Steno, J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms. PMID:22681731

  15. Hemodynamics model of fluid-solid interaction in internal carotid artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Bai-Nan, Xu; Fu-Yu, Wang; Lei, Liu; Xiao-Jun, Zhang; Hai-Yue, Ju

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present a relatively simple method to reconstruct cerebral aneurysms as 3D numerical grids. The method accurately duplicates the geometry to provide computer simulations of the blood flow. Initial images were obtained by using CT angiography and 3D digital subtraction angiography in DICOM format. The image was processed by using MIMICS software, and the 3D fluid model (blood flow) and 3D solid model (wall) were generated. The subsequent output was exported to the ANSYS workbench software to generate the volumetric mesh for further hemodynamic study. The fluid model was defined and simulated in CFX software while the solid model was calculated in ANSYS software. The force data calculated firstly in the CFX software were transferred to the ANSYS software, and after receiving the force data, total mesh displacement data were calculated in the ANSYS software. Then, the mesh displacement data were transferred back to the CFX software. The data exchange was processed in workbench software. The results of simulation could be visualized in CFX-post. Two examples of grid reconstruction and blood flow simulation for patients with internal carotid artery aneurysms were presented. The wall shear stress, wall total pressure, and von Mises stress could be visualized. This method seems to be relatively simple and suitable for direct use by neurosurgeons or neuroradiologists, and maybe a practical tool for planning treatment and follow-up of patients after neurosurgical or endovascular interventions with 3D angiography.

  16. Trans-arterial coil embolization of the internal carotid artery in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Benredouane, Kossay; Lepage, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    To develop transarterial coil embolization (TACE) for occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA), in normal standing horses, and to evaluate it use for prevention of hemorrhage in horses with guttural pouch mycosis (GPM). Prospective study. Normal horses (n = 8) and 5 with GPM. Horses had TACE of the ICA in standing position under fluoroscopic guidance. Four normal horses were euthanatized 2 weeks after TACE for morphologic assessment and 4 were followed for 6 months. The 5 clinically affected horses were evaluated for long-term (10-12 months) success rate and complications. No complications related to the TACE were noted. Up to 30 mL warmed meglumine ioxithalamate was injected and well tolerated. Standing angiography confirmed complete occlusion of all vessels, and coils were positioned as intended; the procedure did not alter local hemodynamics. At 2 weeks, maturing to mature continuous thrombi was seen at the site of the coils. Two clinically affected horses died at day 3 and 12 after surgery from other problems. In the 3 surviving horses, mycotic lesions completely resolved without additional treatment. TACE under fluoroscopic guidance in standing horses provided a safe, minimally invasive, and effective method for ICA occlusion and should be recommended for individuals at risk of general anesthesia. Residual neurologic deficits are a common sequela, but they do not reflect a treatment failure. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Carotid Stenting in a Case of Combined Kinking and Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadi, Ramazan-Ali; Schillinger, Martin; Haumer, Markus; Willfort, Andrea; Minar, Erich

    2001-05-15

    Endarterectomy is currently the preferred treatment for severe carotid stenosis. The technique of eversion endarterectomy allows correction of severe vessel elongation and kinking. The latter is generally believed to be a relative contraindication for endovascular stent placement. We report successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of a left internal carotid artery with high-grade stenosis and severe kinking which was not amenable to endarterectomy because of the distal location of the stenosis. Advanced stent technology with flexible materials makes endovascular treatment of carotid stenosis feasible even in cases of kinking.

  18. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L. A. W.; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L.; de Jong, Pim A.; De Vis, Jill B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification). Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore, our aim was to develop CT scoring method to distinguish intimal and medial iICA calcification in vivo. Methods First, in both iICAs of 16 cerebral autopsy patients the intimal and/or medial calcification area was histologically assessed (142 slides). Brain CT images of these patients were matched to the corresponding histological slides to develop a CT score that determines intimal or medial calcification dominance. Second, performance of the CT score was assessed in these 16 patients. Third, reproducibility was tested in a separate cohort. Results First, CT features of the score were circularity (absent, dot(s), <90°, 90–270° or 270–360°), thickness (absent, ≥1.5mm, or <1.5mm), and morphology (indistinguishable, irregular/patchy or continuous). A high sum of features represented medial and a lower sum intimal calcifications. Second, in the 16 patients the concordance between the CT score and the dominant calcification type was reasonable. Third, the score showed good reproducibility (kappa: 0.72 proportion of agreement: 0.82) between the categories intimal, medial or absent/indistinguishable. Conclusions The developed CT score shows good reproducibility and can differentiate reasonably well between intimal and medial calcification dominance in the iICA, allowing for further (epidemiological) studies on iICA calcification. PMID:28060941

  19. The right vertebral artery arising as a branch of the right internal carotid artery: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Marc A; Holroyd, Helen R; Patel, Jai V; Lansbury, Alistair J; Scott, D Julian A

    2009-12-01

    Atypical origins of the vertebral artery (VA) are rare anatomical findings. We present an extremely rare arrangement of the cerebral circulation in a 61-year-old male patient detected on magnetic resonance angiography, where the right VA arose as a direct branch of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA). This likely reflects the failure of the pro-atlantal artery to regress during the third to fourth week of embryological life. Although the effect of the variant on symptomology is debateable, knowledge of the potential for the VA to arise as a branch of the ICA is pertinent to radiologists and surgeons operating on the great vessels and their branches, particularly vascular surgeons undertaking carotid endarterectomy.

  20. Combined use of stent angioplasty and mechanical thrombectomy for acute tandem internal carotid and middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Joyce Lo, WaiTing; Sun, Xuan; Xu, XiaoTong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tandem internal carotid and middle cerebral artery occlusion carries a grave prognosis, with intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolytics having low efficacy. Currently, endovascular therapy is a promising means for treatment in which the proximal carotid lesion can be treated with angioplasty and stenting, whilst mechanical thrombectomy can be used for the treatment of the distal occlusion. Two approaches can be used – the antegrade (proximal-to-distal) approach or the retrograde (distal-to-proximal) approach, although there has not yet been any consensus on which is the better approach. Case report We present two patients with tandem occlusions, one treated using the antegrade and one using the retrograde approach, with different revascularization outcomes, despite having similar functional outcome on follow-up. Conclusion The combined use of stent angioplasty and mechanical thrombectomy can be used to treat tandem occlusions, and with procedural modifications, the antegrade approach may more easily achieve technical success. PMID:26246102

  1. Double stent technique for the treatment of an internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm caused by zone III stab injury.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yuzo; Kiyosue, Hiro; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Asano, Tomoshige; Shuto, Rieko; Matsumoto, Yushi; Nagatomi, Hirofumi; Mori, Hiromu

    2007-10-01

    A 77-year-old man was transferred to the hospital with swelling of his neck and oropharynx after a stab injury to his oral cavity with pruning shears. Findings at complete neurologic examination were normal. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm at the pharyngeal portion of the right internal carotid artery. Endovascular treatment was undertaken by using the double bare stent technique. The pseudoaneurysm was completely occluded immediately after the procedure. There were no complications. There were no further symptoms or evidence of recurrence of the aneurysm during the 18-month follow-up period. The double bare stent technique is safe and effective for the treatment of zone III carotid artery stab injuries.

  2. Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zesheng; Tian, Daofeng; Wang, Hongliu; Kong, Derek Kai; Zhang, Shenqi; Liu, Baohui; Deng, Gang; Xu, Zhou; Wu, Liquan; Ji, Baowei; Wang, Long; Cai, Qiang; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis due to ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm embedded within a pituitary adenoma (PA) has seldom been reported in the literature. Here we want to elaborate the incidence, mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategy for this condition. The first survived case of a patient with epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured aneurysm embedded within PA was reported and the literature was reviewed. A 53-year-old male patient presented to our institution with sudden onset epistaxis and progressive vision loss. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis and dilated unresponsive pupils. A CT scan showed a large mass in the pituitary fossa with bony erosion. MRI revealed a large pituitary tumor and abnormal signal intensity in the tumor. No aneurysm was noted during the pre-operative MR angiography. Abundant arterial bleeding suddenly occurred during urgent transsphenoidal surgery. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the presence of a 14 mm unexpected saccular aneurysm of right ICA in the cavernous sinus with the dome protruding into the sella turcica. Balloon test occlusion of the right ICA was undertaken and permanent occlusion was performed. The patient recovered well and received bromocriptine and thyroid hormone replacement therapy during the follow-up period. At 14-month followup, the patient had no neurological deficits, no features of ischaemia relating to the right ICA therapeutic occlusion. Our case indicated that epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy could be due to the rupture of an ICA aneurysm embedded in a PA. Clinical suspicion should remain high when evaluating any case of epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy. Optimal treatment should take into consideration individual features of the tumor, aneurysm, and patient. Making the correct diagnosis as well as identifying an appropriate management strategy is critical in the care of such patients. PMID:26823732

  3. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ji; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chao; Mondal, Shubhro; Ping, Kaike; Chen, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM), on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model) and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM), uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM) of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM. PMID:28303160

  4. Clinical import of Horner syndrome in internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Lyrer, Philippe A; Brandt, Tobias; Metso, Tiina M; Metso, Antti J; Kloss, Manja; Debette, Stephanie; Leys, Didier; Caso, Valeria; Pezzini, Alessandro; Bonati, Leo H; Thijs, Vincent; Bersano, Anna; Touzé, Emmanuel; Gensicke, Henrik; Martin, Juan J; Lichy, Christoph; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Engelter, Stefan T; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar

    2014-05-06

    To study the prognostic importance of Horner syndrome (HS) in patients with internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) or vertebral artery dissection (VAD). In this observational study, characteristics and outcome of patients with ICAD or VAD from the CADISP (Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients) database were analyzed. The presence of HS was systematically assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Patients with HS (HS+) were compared with HS- patients. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals and ORs adjusted for age, sex, center, arterial occlusion, bilateral dissection, stroke severity, and type of antithrombotic treatment were calculated. We analyzed 765 patients (n = 496 with ICAD, n = 269 with VAD, n = 303 prospective, n = 462 retrospective). HS was present in 191 (38.5%) of the patients with ICAD and 36 (13.4%) of the patients with VAD (p < 0.001). HS+ ICAD patients presented less often with stroke or TIA (p < 0.001), less often had bilateral (p = 0.019) or occlusive (p = 0.001) dissections, and had fewer severe strokes (p = 0.041) than HS- ICAD patients. HS+ ICAD patients had a better functional 3-month outcome than those without HS (ORcrude = 4.0 [2.4-6.7]), and also after adjustment for outcome-relevant covariates (ORadjusted = 2.0 [1.1-4.0]). HS+ ICAD patients were less likely to have new strokes than HS- ICAD patients (p = 0.039). HS+ VAD patients more often had vessel occlusion (p = 0.014) than HS- patients but did not differ in any of the other aforementioned variables. In patients with ICAD, HS is an easily assessable marker that might indicate a more benign clinical course. HS had no prognostic meaning in patients with VAD.

  5. Ophthalmic artery blood flow in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Mori, K; Yasuhara, T; Tei, M; Yokoi, N; Kinoshita, S; Kamei, M

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the risk factors for rubeosis iridis by colour Doppler imaging (CDI) in patients with complete internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). Methods: 34 eyes of 32 consecutive patients with complete ICAO were enrolled. Using CDI, blood flow direction (forward, reverse, undetectable) in the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), and short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA) were determined. Arterial mean blood velocity (Vmean) and resistive index (RI) were calculated and correlations between the rubeosis iridis incidence and CDI parameters analysed. Results: The eyes were classified into four types according to blood flow direction: forward flow in OA, CRA, and SPCA (type 1; n = 11); reverse OA and forward CRA and SPCA flow (type 2a; n = 12); reverse OA and undetectable CRA and SPCA flow (type 2b; n = 8); undetectable flow in all three arteries (type 3; n = 3). Rubeosis iridis was seen only in type 2b and 3 eyes. Type 2b showed significantly (p<0.01) higher Vmean and lower RI values in the OA, indicating more rapid reverse flow than in type 2a eyes. Although in type 1 and 2a eyes OA flow was in opposite directions, they manifested no rubeosis iridis and no difference in the Vmean and RI values of the CRA and SPCA. Conclusions: The classification of eyes from patients with ICAO into four types by CDI may facilitate the identification of the eyes at high risk for rubeosis iridis. Markedly diminished flow in both the CRA and SPCA may result in rubeosis iridis, regardless of OA flow direction. PMID:15031166

  6. Association between Internal Carotid Artery Morphometry and Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Won

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to directly measure the association between the internal carotid artery (ICA) morphometry and the presence of ICA-posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysm. Materials and Methods The authors intraoperatively measured the length of the supraclinoid ICA because it is impossible to radiologically determine the exact location of the anterior clinoid process. We used an image analyzer with a CT angiogram to measure the angle between the skull midline and the terminal segment of the ICA (ICA angle), as well as the diameter of the ICA. The lengths and diameters of the supraclinoid ICA and the ICA angle were compared among PCOM aneurysms, anterior communicating artery (ACOM) aneurysms, and middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms (n = 27 each). Additionally, the lengths and the diameters of M1 and A1 were compared for each aneurysm. Results The lengths of the supraclinoid ICA were 11.9 ± 2.3mm. The lengths of the supraclinoid ICA in patients with ICA-PCOM aneurysms (9.7 ± 2.8mm) were shorter than those of patients with ACOM aneurysms (13.8 ± 2.2mm, Student's t-test, p < 0.001) and with MCA bifurcation aneurysms (12.2 ± 1.9 mm, Student's t-test, p < 0.001). The diameters of the supraclinoid ICA and A1 in patients with ACOM aneurysms were larger than those in patients with MCA bifurcation aneurysms (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the lengths of M1 and A1, ICA angle, or diameter of M1 for each aneurysm. Conclusion These results suggest that the relatively shorter length of the supraclinoid ICA may be a novel risk factor for the development of ICA-PCOM aneurysm with higher hemodynamic stress. PMID:17722235

  7. Anterior Optic Pathway Compression Due to Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: Neurosurgical Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wonhyoung; Park, Jung Cheol; Han, Kyunghwa; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kwun, Byung Duk

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Compression of the anterior optic pathway results in visual deficits that can lead to the detection of unruptured aneurysms in the internal carotid artery (ICA). The general types of treatment modalities for aneurysms and visual deficits include surgery and endosaccular coiling. This study retrospectively analyzed and compared the resolution of visual deficits following surgery or endosaccular coiling. Methods We reviewed data on 33 patients with unruptured ICA aneurysms who presented with visual field deficits caused by mass effects over the anterior optic pathway. Statistical analyses were performed to identify the variables associated with the recovery of visual symptoms. Results Eighteen patients underwent aneurysm clipping, 2 underwent bypass surgery with endovascular trapping, and 2 underwent endovascular trapping without bypass surgery (group A). Ten patients received endosaccular coiling (group B). The visual outcomes included the following: in group A, 17 patients (73.9%) demonstrated improvement and 6 patients (26.1%) demonstrated no changes or worse outcomes; in group B, 2 patients (20.0%) demonstrated improvement and 8 patients (80.0%) demonstrated no changes or worse outcomes. Group A was associated with a higher rate of favorable outcome than group B (P = 0.007). According to the multivariate analysis, treatment without endosaccular coiling (group A) was the only variable significantly associated with improvement of visual outcome (P = 0.005; OR = 28.523; 95% CI = 2.683-303.171). Conclusions Treatment modality was the only predictor of improvement in visual deficits. Treatment without endosaccular coiling resulted in visual improvement significantly more often in comparison with endosaccular coiling. PMID:26438000

  8. Hemodynamic Significance of Internal Carotid or Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Detected on Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Pagsisihan, Jefferson R.; Choi, Seung Hong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated hemodynamic significance of stenosis on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using acetazolamide perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Materials and Methods Of 171 patients, stenosis in internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) (ICA-MCA) on MRA and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) of MCA territory on SPECT was measured using quantification and a 3-grade system. Stenosis and CVR grades were compared with each other, and their prognostic value for subsequent stroke was evaluated. Results Of 342 ICA-MCA, 151 (44%) presented stenosis on MRA; grade 1 in 69 (20%) and grade 2 in 82 (24%) cases. Decreased CVR was observed in 9% of grade 0 stenosis, 25% of grade 1, and 35% of grade 2. The average CVR of grade 0 was significantly different from grade 1 (p<0.001) and grade 2 stenosis (p=0.007). In quantitative analysis, average CVR index was -0.56±7.91 in grade 0, -1.81±6.66 in grade 1 and -1.18±5.88 in grade 2 stenosis. Agreement between stenosis and CVR grades was fair in patients with lateralizing and non-lateralizing symptoms (κ=0.230 and 0.346). Of the factors tested, both MRA and CVR were not significant prognostic factors (p=0.104 and 0.988, respectively), whereas hypertension and renal disease were significant factors (p<0.05, respectively). Conclusion A considerable proportion of ICA-MCA stenosis detected on MRA does not cause CVR impairment despite a fair correlation between them. Thus, hemodynamic state needs to be assessed for evaluating significance of stenosis, particularly in asymptomatic patients. PMID:26446655

  9. Current Understanding of Dolichoarteriopathies of the Internal Carotid Artery: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinlu; Qu, Lai; Xu, Baofeng; Wang, Shouchun; Li, Chao; Xu, Xan; Yang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Dolichoarteriopathies of the internal carotid artery (DICAs) are not uncommon, and although several studies have investigated DICAs, several questions regarding the etiology and best management course for DICAs remain unanswered. It is also difficult to correlate the occurrence of DICAs with the onset of clinical symptoms. Therefore, we surveyed the literature in PubMed and performed a review of DICAs to offer a comprehensive picture of our understanding of DICAs. We found that DICAs can be classified into three types, specifically tortuous, coiling and kinking, and are not associated with atherosclerotic risk factors. Cerebral hemodynamic changes are mainly associated with the degree of bending of DICAs. DICAs can result in symptoms of the brain and eyes due to insufficient blood supply and can co-occur with a pulsatile cervical mass, a pharyngeal bulge and pulsation. The diagnostic tools for the assessment of DICAs include Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and although DSA remains the gold standard, Doppler ultrasonography is a convenient method that provides useful data for the morphological evaluation of DICAs. CTA and MRA are efficient methods for detecting the morphology of the cervical segment of DICAs. Some DICAs should be treated surgically based on certain indications, and several methods, including correcting the bending or shortening of DICAs, have been developed for the treatment of DICAs. The appropriate treatment of DICAs results in good outcomes and is associated with low morbidity and mortality rates. However, despite the success of surgical reconstruction, an appropriate therapeutic treatment remains a subject of numerous debates due to the lack of multicentric, randomized, prospective studies. PMID:28824313

  10. Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke due to Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Leonard L L; Kong, Wan Yee; Paliwal, Prakash; Teoh, Hock L; Seet, Raymond C; Soon, Derek; Rathakrishnan, Rahul; Ong, Venetia; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Wong, Ho-Fai; Chan, Bernard P L; Leow, Wee Kheng; Yuan, Cheng; Ting, Eric; Gopinathan, Anil; Tan, Benjamin Y Q; Sharma, Vijay K

    2016-10-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions are poorly responsive to intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Most study populations have combined intracranial and extracranial ICA occlusions for analysis; few have studied purely cervical ICA occlusions. We evaluated AIS patients with acute cervical ICA occlusion treated with IV-tPA to identify predictors of outcomes. We studied 550 consecutive patients with AIS who received IV-tPA and identified 100 with pure acute cervical ICA occlusion. We evaluated the associations of vascular risk factors, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and leptomeningeal collateral vessel status via 3 different grading systems, with functional recovery at 90 days, mortality, recanalization of the primary occlusion, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). Modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 was defined as an excellent outcome. The 100 patients had mean age of 67.8 (range 32-96) and median NIHSS score of 19 (range 4-33). Excellent outcomes were observed in 27% of the patients, SICH in 8%, and mortality in 21%. Up to 54% of the patients achieved recanalization at 24 hours. On ordinal regression, good collaterals showed a significant shift in favorable outcomes by Maas, Tan, or ASPECTS collateral grading systems. On multivariate analysis, good collaterals also showed reduced mortality (OR .721, 95% CI .588-.888, P = .002) and a trend to less SICH (OR .81, 95% CI .65-1.007, P = .058). Interestingly, faster treatment was also associated with favorable functional recovery (OR 1.028 per minute, 95% CI 1.010-1.047, P = .001). Improved outcomes are seen in patients with early acute cervical ICA occlusion and better collateral circulation. This could be a valuable biomarker for decision making. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Systemic thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke and Internal Carotid ARtery Occlusion: the ICARO study.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Balucani, Clotilde; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Grotta, James C; Demchuk, Andrew M; Sohn, Sung-Il; Orlandi, Giovanni; Leys, Didier; Pezzini, Alessandro; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Silvestrini, Mauro; Fofi, Luisa; Barlinn, Kristian; Inzitari, Domenico; Ferrarese, Carlo; Tassi, Rossana; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Consoli, Domenico; Baldi, Antonio; Bovi, Paolo; Luda, Emilio; Galletti, Giampiero; Invernizzi, Paolo; DeLodovici, Maria Luisa; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Monaco, Serena; Marcheselli, Simona; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Macellari, Federica; Lanari, Alessia; Previdi, Paolo; Gonzales, Nicole R; Pandurengan, Renganayaki K; Vahidy, Farhaan S; Sline, Melvin; Bal, Simerpreet S; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Dumont, Frederic; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Debette, Stéphanie; Padovani, Alessandro; Cerqua, Raffaella; Bodechtel, Ulf; Kepplinger, Jessica; Nesi, Mascia; Nencini, Patrizia; Beretta, Simone; Trentini, Claudia; Martini, Giuseppe; Piperidou, Charitomeni; Heliopoulos, Ioannis; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Cappellari, Manuel; Donati, Edoardo; Bono, Giorgio; Traverso, Elisabetta; Toni, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effect of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke attributable to internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in these patients. ICARO was a case-control multicenter study on prospectively collected data. Patients with acute ischemic stroke and ICA occlusion treated with intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator within 4.5 hours from symptom onset (cases) were compared to matched patients with acute stroke and ICA occlusion not treated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (controls). Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and stroke severity. The efficacy outcome was disability at 90 days assessed by the modified Rankin Scale, dichotomized as favorable (score of 0-2) or unfavorable (score of 3-6). Safety outcomes were death and any intracranial bleeding. Included in the analysis were 253 cases and 253 controls. Seventy-three cases (28.9%) had a favorable outcome as compared with 52 controls (20.6%; adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.15; P=0.037). A total of 104 patients died, 65 cases (25.7%) and 39 controls (15.4%; adjusted OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.36-3.22; P=0.001). There were more fatal bleedings (2.8% versus 0.4%; OR, 7.17; 95% CI, 0.87-58.71; P=0.068) in the cases than in the controls. In patients with stroke attributable to ICA occlusion, thrombolytic therapy results in a significant reduction in the proportion of patients dependent in activities of daily living. Increases in death and any intracranial bleeding were the trade-offs for this clinical benefit.

  12. Pipeline embolization device and subsequent vessel sacrifice for treatment of a bleeding carotid pseudoaneurysm at the skull base: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodayan, Yasha; Shetty, Vilaas S; Blackburn, Spiros L; Reynolds, Matthew R; Cross, DeWitte T; Moran, Christopher J

    2013-09-01

    An attempt at parent vessel reconstruction with Pipeline embolization devices to treat a mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery at the skull base is presented. A 50-year-old woman with malignant otitis externa and bilateral temporal bone osteomyelitis presented with brisk bleeding from her left ear. She had bony dehiscence of the left carotid canal at CT and extravasation from a pseudoaneurysm of the carotid petrous segment at angiography. Carotid tortuosity proximally precluded placing a covered stent. After the lesion stopped bleeding spontaneously and given the presence of bilateral osteomyelitis putting the contralateral carotid at risk, the decision was made to attempt preservation of the parent vessel with flow diversion. However, bleeding recurred after 12 days, necessitating carotid sacrifice. This first reported experience in treating a carotid pseudoaneurysm at the skull base with the Pipeline device shows that transient cessation of bleeding is insufficient for flow diversion to be effective.

  13. Retrograde approach to an ostial left anterior descending chronic total occlusion through a left internal mammary artery graft.

    PubMed

    Hari, Pawan; Kirtane, Ajay J; Bangalore, Sripal

    2016-05-01

    Retrograde approach to chronic total occlusions (CTO) has been described via saphenous vein grafts, septal and epicardial collaterals. We report for the first time a successful retrograde approach to an ostial left anterior descending (LAD) artery CTO through a failed left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to LAD anastamosis. This case demonstrates the technical aspects of using a LIMA conduit as a retrograde approach to CTO. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Relationship Between Increased Epicardial Fat Thickness and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Nonfunctional Adrenal Incidentaloma

    PubMed Central

    Imga, Nasiroglu Narin; Ucar Elalmis, Ozgul; Muslum Tuna, Mazhar; Aycıcek Dogan, Bercem; Sahin, Deniz; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging evidences indicate that patients diagnosed with Adrenal Incidentaloma (AI) may present cardiovascular complications. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has recently been described as a new risk factor and an active player in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relationship between EFT and left ventricular hypertrophy and carotid intima-media thickness, which are both strong predictors of cardiovascular morbity and mortality, in patients with nonfunctioning AI. Patients and Methods We evaluated 51 patients (36 females and 15 males) diagnosed with AI and 35 (29 females, 6 males) age, gender and body mass index (BMI) matched healthy controls in terms of cardiovascular risk parameters. Epicardial fat was identified as the echo-free space between the outer wall of the myocardium and the visceral layer of the pericardium. Results Epicardial fat thickness was significantly higher in patients with AI when compared to the control group (0.89 ± 0.32 cm vs. 0.74 ± 0.26 cm; P = 0.023). left ventricular (LV) mass index and median carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were also higher in subjects with AI than in controls (99.8 g/m2 vs. 86.9 g/m2; P = 0.024 and 7.5 mm (5.5 - 11.5) vs. 6.5 mm (4.5 - 9.5); P = 0.017). There was a positive correlation between EFT, LV mass index, EFT and CIMT (r = 0.315, P = 0.004; r = 0.363, P < 0.001; respectively). Conclusions In this study we showed that EFT, measured by echocardiography is higher in subjects with AI when compared to healthy controls. epicardial fat thickness had the best independent correlation with AI in multiple logistic regression analysis. Incidentaloma is also associated with increased left ventricular mass index and CIMT. Adrenal incidentaloma patients may show early cardiac changes, such as increased left ventricular mass and increased CIMT. PMID:27942264

  15. Wildervanck's syndrome with severe inner ear dysplasia and agenesis of the right internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Mónica; Urbasos, María; Amarillo, Viviana Elizabeth; Herrera, María Teresa; García-Peces, Victoria; Plaza, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    We describe a case with Wildervanck syndrome (cervico-oculo-acoustic syndrome) comprising Klippel-Feil anomaly, retractio bulbi (Duane syndrome), and congenital sensorineural deafness. An 18-month male baby had a severe inner ear dysplasia, and MRI also showed a complex vascular carotid malformation associated.

  16. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in a patient with internal carotid artery stenosis following gamma knife radiosurgery for recurrent pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hidemichi; Onodera, Hidetaka; Sase, Taigen; Uchida, Masashi; Morishima, Hiroyuki; Oshio, Kotaro; Shuto, Takashi; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intracranial vascular complications following radiosurgery are extremely rare. Case Description: We report a case of stenosis in the internal carotid artery 5 years after gamma knife radiosurgery for a recurrent pituitary adenoma. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed successfully with anatomical and functional improvement. Conclusion: These results suggested the importance of monitoring for arterial stenosis in the long-term follow-up. Moreover, this is the first case of endovascular treatment as an effective therapy for intracranial arterial stenosis due to radiotherapy. PMID:26069850

  17. Therapeutic Occlusion of an Internal Carotid Artery with a High-Grade Stenosis Using Guglielmi Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, Elke A. M. Drescher, Robert; Forsting, Michael; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D.

    2006-08-15

    We present a patient with a symptomatic, high-grade stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and contraindication for open surgery. Endovascular treatment was attempted, but stent placement was not possible. In view of good collateral flow to the related hemisphere, embolization of the stenosis of the ICA with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) was performed to occlude the vessel. No complications occurred during the procedure or in the 1-year follow-up period. In cases where open surgery or endovascular treatment of a stenosis of the ICA are contraindicated or not possible, therapeutic occlusion of the stenotic ICA could be an alternative treatment option in patients with good collateral flow.

  18. Carotid labyrinth of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, Tatsumi

    2002-11-01

    The amphibian carotid labyrinth is a characteristic maze-like vascular expansion at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries. The carotid labyrinths of anurans are spherical and those of urodeles are oblong. In the intervascular stroma of both anuran and urodelan carotid labyrinths, the glomus cells (type I cells, chief cells) are distributed singly or in clusters between connective tissue cells and smooth muscle cells. In fluorescence histochemistry, the glomus cells emit intense fluorescence for biogenic monoamines. In fine structure, the glomus cells are characterized by a number of dense-cored vesicles in their cytoplasm. The glomus cells have long, thin cytoplasmic processes, some of which are closely associated with smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and pericytes. Afferent, efferent, and reciprocal synapses are found on the glomus cells. The morphogenesis of the carotid labyrinth starts in the larvae at the point where the carotid arch descends to the internal gills. Through the early stages of larval development, the slightly expanded region of the external carotid artery becomes closely connected with the carotid arch. By the end of the foot stage, the expanded region becomes globular, and at the final stage of metamorphosis the carotid labyrinth is close to its adult form. In fine structure, the glomus cells appear as early as the initial stage of larval development. At the middle stages of development, the number of dense-cored vesicles increases remarkably. Distinct afferent synapses are found in juveniles, although efferent synapses can be seen during metamorphosis. The carotid labyrinth is innervated by nerve fibers containing several kinds of regulatory neuropeptides. Double-immunolabeling in combination with a multiple dye filter system demonstrates the coexistence of two different neuropeptides. The amphibian carotid labyrinth has been electrophysiologically confirmed to have arterial chemo

  19. Emergent stent-assisted angioplasty of extracranial internal carotid artery and intracranial stent-based thrombectomy in acute tandem occlusive disease: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, Moshe; Rajz, Gustavo; Moscovici, Samuel; Leker, Ronen R; Rosenberg, Shai; Itshayek, Eyal

    2013-09-01

    Tandem occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and a major intracranial artery respond poorly to intravenous thrombolytic therapy, and are usually managed by endovascular means. This study describes experience with stent-assisted endovascular ICA revascularization and stent-based thrombectomy. In patients with tandem ICA-middle cerebral artery (MCA)/distal ICA occlusion, the carotid occlusion was recanalized by primary angioplasty and stent implantation, and the distal occlusion by stent-based thrombectomy. Two variant techniques are described. Seven consecutive patients, mean age 64.1 years (range 49-75) and mean admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 23, were included. Occlusion sites were tandem proximal ICA and MCA trunk (six patients) and tandem proximal left ICA and ICA terminus (one patient). Complete recanalization with complete perfusion (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] 3, Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction [TICI] 3) was achieved in six patients and partial recanalization with partial perfusion (TIMI 2, TICI 2A) in one. Mean time to therapy was 4.9 h (range 3-6.5); mean time to recanalization was 55 min (range 38-65 min). CT performed 1 day after recanalization showed cortical sparing (>90% of the cortex at risk) in seven patients. Five patients (72%) presented with good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2) at 1 month; one patient (patient No 7) reached an mRS score of 3 and one patient died. In selected cases of acute ICA occlusion and concomitant major vessel embolic stroke, angioplasty and stenting of the proximal occlusion and stent-based thrombectomy of the intracranial occlusion may be feasible, effective and safe, and provide early neurological improvement. Further experience and prospective studies are warranted.

  20. Carotid bypass for carotid occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hage, Ziad A; Behbahani, Mandana; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Charbel, Fady T

    2015-07-01

    The 2-year risk of ipsilateral ischemic stroke following internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) in a patient undergoing maximal medical therapy is 5-8% per year. While medical therapy may reduce the risk of stroke, it does not completely eliminate it. Since the 1985 extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass study, additional trials have been conducted to further investigate the usefulness of EC-IC bypass surgery in more selected patients with cerebral ischemia and impaired hemodynamic reserve. These important studies will be briefly reviewed in this article, as well as a discussion regarding the utility of bypass surgery for ICAO in current clinical practice. In addition, a short discussion regarding the pathophysiology of carotid occlusion will be presented. We will also highlight our own institutional patient selection criteria based on the latest methods for hemodynamic assessment, as well as our intraoperative flow assisted surgical techniques (FAST), and post-operative patient follow-up.

  1. Anaortic off-pump bilateral internal mammary grafting in severe left ventricular dysfunction - Case report.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kamales Kumar; Goel, Saurab; Kumar, Ajay; Saha, Kakalee K

    2016-09-01

    A 64 years old male diabetic patient with ejection fraction of 16% and renal dysfunction underwent off-pump CABG using both in situ internal mammary artery grafts. Left internal mammary artery was used to bypass left anterior descending artery and right internal mammary artery was used as composite graft. Patient had uneventful recovery and left ventricular ejection fraction improved to 34% within 8 months after surgery. In presence of left ventricular dysfunction, both internal thoracic artery grafting should be preferred for better patency rate and flow reserve. This is the first ever case report of anaortic off-pump bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in a patient with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 20%. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Raeder's syndrome after embolization of a giant intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm: pathophysiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Tatsui, Claudio Esteves; Prevedello, Daniel Monte-Serrat; Koerbel, Andrei; Cordeiro, Joacir Graciolli; Ditzel, Leo Fernando da Silva; Araujo, Joao Candido

    2005-09-01

    We present the case of a 47 years old woman submitted to an endovascular trapping of a left cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm, in which the distal balloon was inflated, as usually done, within the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery, different from the proximal one which was inflated inside the carotid canal due to technical problems. Consequently, a clinical picture of Raeder's paratrigeminal neuralgia took place. This is the first case report in the literature with theses characteristics. A review of the anatomic pathways and further considerations about the possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved are presented.

  3. Recurrent syncope caused by compression of internal carotid artery by an anomalous hyoid bone.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Dariusz; Skora, Jan; Rucinski, Artur; Szuba, Andrzej

    2012-05-01

    In rare cases a syncope can be caused by compression or irritation of the carotid artery and the carotid sinus due to congenital anatomical anomalies of cervical structures like the hyoid bone. We present the case a of 36 year old man with recurrent syncopes when turning his head. Clinical investigations revealed a hyoid bone anomaly with elongated lesser cornua, especially on the right symptomatic side. Surgical resection of the right lesser cornu led to complete resolution of symptoms over a two year follow-up. Syncope especially in younger subjects may be caused by congenital anomalies of the musculoskeletal system in the cervical region and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of syncope, transient cerebral ischemia and stroke.

  4. The accuracy of transcranial Doppler in the diagnosis of stenosis or occlusion of the terminal internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jose C; Mikulik, Robert; Garami, Zsolt; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2004-10-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) can detect intracranial stenoses and occlusions that can help in the diagnosis and management of ischemic stroke. The accuracy parameters for lesions located in the terminal internal carotid artery (TICA) are less known, unlike other basal cerebral vessels. The authors studied consecutive patients referred for TCD who underwent contrast angiography or magnetic resonance angiography. They calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and likelihood ratios. Forty-three patients had TCD and angiography: mean age was 57 +/- 20 years, and 65% were men. Twenty-two patients were diagnosed with TICA stenosis or occlusion on TCD underwent angiography. Four patients had abnormal TCD findings that were not confirmed by angiography. Two of 21 patients with normal TCD showed moderate (< 50%) stenosis of the TICA and cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery at angiography. Accuracy parameters for TCD were as follows: sensitivity = 90% (confidence interval [CI], 63%-96%), specificity = 83% (CI, 61%-94%), PPV = 82%, NPV = 86%, positive likelihood ratio = 5, and negative likelihood ratio = 0.17. TCD is a sensitive screening tool for the lesions in the TICA. Specificity is likely affected by a wide spectrum of the stenosis severity shown at angiography and time lags between the studies.

  5. Direct Surgery of Previously Coiled Large Internal Carotid Ophthalmic Aneurysm for the Purpose of Optic Nerve Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Shuhei; Toyota, Shingo; Kumagai, Tetsuya; Goto, Tetsu; Mori, Kanji; Taki, Takuyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Progressive visual loss after coil embolization of a large internal carotid ophthalmic aneurysm has been widely reported. It is generally accepted that the primary strategy for this complication should be conservative, including steroid therapy; however, it is not well known as to what approach to take when the conservative therapy is not effective. Case Presentation We report a case of a 55-year-old female presenting with progressive visual loss after the coiling of a ruptured large internal carotid ophthalmic aneurysm. As the conservative therapy had not been effective, we performed neck clipping of the aneurysm with optic canal unroofing, anterior clinoidectomy, and partial removal of the embolized coils for the purpose of optic nerve decompression. After the surgery, the visual symptom was improved markedly. Conclusions It is suggested that direct surgery for the purpose of optic nerve decompression may be one of the options when conservative therapy is not effective for progressive visual disturbance after coil embolization. PMID:28229036

  6. Carotid Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Carotid Ultrasound Also known as carotid duplex. Carotid ultrasound is a painless imaging test that uses high- ... of your carotid arteries. This test uses an ultrasound machine, which includes a computer, a screen, and ...

  7. [Carotid dislocation. The pictures with computed tomography and magnetic resonance].

    PubMed

    Liessi, G

    1997-11-01

    Prevertebral retropharyngeal soft tissue widening can be recognized in acute trauma patients in the presence of acute bleeding from cervical vertebral fracture. Abscesses, tumors and neoplastic effusions from nearby cervical spaces can also widen precervical soft tissues and a new cause has been recently suggested, that is the so-called carotid transposition. We examined eight patients (six women and two men) aged 65 to 75 years. Carotid transposition was found in four patients during examination for acute cervical trauma, while four cases were detected at CT studies performed for other indications, mostly lymphoma staging. CT was always performed with the i.v. injection of a contrast agent and volume scans were used in four cases. MR angiography (MRA) was also used in two patients to study an internal carotid artery stenosis previously detected at color Doppler. Lateral radiographs of the cervical spine of our acute trauma patients showed widened soft tissues in three cases, but no calcific arterial plaques were found. The common carotid arteries were displaced in five patients and the internal carotid arteries in three. Carotid transposition was bilateral in six patients while only the right common and the left internal carotids were involved in two patients. No traumatic hemorrhagic effusion was found on CT images. Carotid transposition is a mostly asymptomatic abnormality, but it must be considered in acute cervical trauma patients where the precervical soft tissues are widened because hemorrhagic effusion could be misdiagnosed. Thus, this unusual location of the carotid arteries is important because these vessels may be injured during emergency or surgical procedures.

  8. Influence of blood pressure variability on early carotid atherosclerosis in hypertension with and without diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Li, Chunyue; Chen, Yujie; Xiong, Huahua; Tian, Xiaohong; Wu, Wanqing; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Zhang, Heye

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has been one widely used index of early carotid atherosclerosis. We speculated that the influence of blood pressure variability (BPV) on early carotid atherosclerosis may be varied by the location of the carotid artery and diabetes history. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of BPV on early arteriosclerosis progression in different segments of the carotid artery for hypertension with and without diabetes. A total of 148 hypertension patients who underwent 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and carotid ultrasonography were enrolled in this study. Of them, 84 subjects were without diabetes, and 64 subjects were with diabetes. Short-term BPV during daytime, nighttime, and over 24 hours were evaluated through standard deviation (SD) and average real variability (ARV). We measured carotid IMT at left and right common carotid artery (CCA), carotid bulb, and the origin of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The associations between segment-specific measurements of carotid IMT and 24 hours ambulatory BPV were analyzed. We found that IMT at the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) and IMT at the internal carotid artery (ICA-IMT) were more closely associated with BPV than was carotid bulb IMT. In addition, for all subjects, BPV was clearly associated with left CCA-IMT but not with right CCA-IMT. Furthermore, in diabetes patients, nighttime systolic BPV was independently related to mean CCA-IMT (P < 0.01) and mean bulb IMT (P < 0.01). In contrast, in nondiabetes patients, daytime and 24 hours systolic BPV was positively associated with mean CCA-IMT (P < 0.05), but not independent after adjusting for baseline characteristics such as age and sex. The findings of our study indicate a segment-specific association between carotid IMT and 24 hours ambulatory BPV, and the associations also vary according to the diabetes history. We conclude that BPV plays a distinct role in early

  9. Influence of blood pressure variability on early carotid atherosclerosis in hypertension with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Li, Chunyue; Chen, Yujie; Xiong, Huahua; Tian, Xiaohong; Wu, Wanqing; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Zhang, Heye

    2016-06-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has been one widely used index of early carotid atherosclerosis. We speculated that the influence of blood pressure variability (BPV) on early carotid atherosclerosis may be varied by the location of the carotid artery and diabetes history. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of BPV on early arteriosclerosis progression in different segments of the carotid artery for hypertension with and without diabetes.A total of 148 hypertension patients who underwent 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and carotid ultrasonography were enrolled in this study. Of them, 84 subjects were without diabetes, and 64 subjects were with diabetes. Short-term BPV during daytime, nighttime, and over 24 hours were evaluated through standard deviation (SD) and average real variability (ARV). We measured carotid IMT at left and right common carotid artery (CCA), carotid bulb, and the origin of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The associations between segment-specific measurements of carotid IMT and 24 hours ambulatory BPV were analyzed.We found that IMT at the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) and IMT at the internal carotid artery (ICA-IMT) were more closely associated with BPV than was carotid bulb IMT. In addition, for all subjects, BPV was clearly associated with left CCA-IMT but not with right CCA-IMT. Furthermore, in diabetes patients, nighttime systolic BPV was independently related to mean CCA-IMT (P < 0.01) and mean bulb IMT (P < 0.01). In contrast, in nondiabetes patients, daytime and 24 hours systolic BPV was positively associated with mean CCA-IMT (P < 0.05), but not independent after adjusting for baseline characteristics such as age and sex.The findings of our study indicate a segment-specific association between carotid IMT and 24 hours ambulatory BPV, and the associations also vary according to the diabetes history. We conclude that BPV plays a distinct role in early carotid

  10. An aspergillotic aneurysm of the internal carotid artery following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: successful management with catheter coil embolization and long-term antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Okada, T; Okada, C; Onishi, T; Watanabe, H; Okamoto, Y; Kitamura, Y; Manabe, S; Matsubara, S; Kageji, T; Iwai, A

    2009-02-01

    We report a case of a mycotic aneurysm of the internal carotid artery and cerebral hemorrhagic infarction resulting from Aspergillus middle ear infection in a patient with severe aplastic anemia who received unrelated bone marrow transplantation. Although a mycotic aneurysm is a rare complication, and most often fatal, the patient was successfully treated with catheter coil embolization of the internal carotid artery and long-term systemic antifungal therapy. This case emphasizes the need for the rapid diagnosis of potential fungal involvement of the vascular system and suggests the necessity for aggressive treatment, such as with the modality illustrated in this case.

  11. Thrombin Injection Failure with Subsequent Successful Stent-Graft Placement for the Treatment of an Extracranial Internal Carotid Pseudoaneurysm in a 5-Year-Old Child

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Monaco, R. D.; Kohan, A. A.; Martinez-Corvalan, M. P.; Cacchiarelli, N.; Peralta, O.; Wahren, C. G.

    2012-06-15

    Internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare life-threatening condition that may develop in different clinical situations. We report the case of an extracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to a throat infection in a pediatric patient that was initially treated with percutaneous thrombin injection under ultrasound guidance. However, recanalization occurred at 48 h, and definitive treatment was then performed by endovascular stent-graft placement. We briefly review the clinical characteristics of this uncommon clinical condition as well as the treatment options.

  12. Analysis of flow and LDL concentration polarization in siphon of internal carotid artery: Non-Newtonian effects.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Alireza; Niazmand, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Carotid siphon is known as one of the risky sites among the human intracranial arteries, which is prone to formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Indeed, scientists believe that accumulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) inside the lumen is the major cause of atherosclerosis. To this aim, three types of internal carotid artery (ICA) siphon have been constructed to examine variations of hemodynamic parameters in different regions of the arteries. Providing real physiological conditions, blood considered as non-Newtonian fluid and real velocity and pressure waveforms have been employed as flow boundary conditions. Moreover, to have a better estimation of risky sites, the accumulation of LDL particles has been considered, which has been usually ignored in previous relevant studies. Governing equations have been discretized and solved via open source OpenFOAM software. A new solver has been built to meet essential parameters related to the flow and mass transfer phenomena. In contrast to the common belief regarding negligible effect of blood non-Newtonian behavior inside large arteries, current study suggests that the non-Newtonian blood behavior is notable, especially on the velocity field of the U-type model. In addition, it is concluded that neglecting non-Newtonian effects underestimates the LDL accumulation up to 3% in the U-type model at the inner side of both its bends. However, in the V and C type models, non-Newtonian effects become relatively small. Results also emphasize that the outer part of the second bend at the downstream is also at risk similar to the inner part of the carotid bends. Furthermore, from findings it can be implied that the risky sites strongly depend on the ICA shape since the extension of the risky sites are relatively larger for the V-type model, while the LDL concentrations are higher for the C-type model.

  13. Association Between Macrominerals Intake and Changes in Internal Carotid Artery-Intima Media Thickness in POST Ischemic Stroke Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Tugasworo, Dodik; Silaen, Rumintang

    2017-02-01

    Carotid Intima Media Thickness (C-IMT) has been widely used as marker for atherosclerosis. Previous studies on minerals intake and its association with C-IMT revealed various. Most of the studies showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to determine wether macro minerals intake is related to internal carotid-intima media thickness (IC-IMT). This is a longitudinal study, pre test post test design conducted in Neurology clinic, Kariadi hospital, Semarang from June to December 2014. Subjects were 22 post ischemic stroke patients. Minerals intake and IC-IMT was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire and Duplex Carotid Ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square, Fisher Exact and Logistic Regression test. Subjects included in this study were 17 male subjects (77.3%) and 5 female subjects (22.7%). Mean of IC-IMT in female subjects was found to be higher than in male. Mean of total IC-IMT was increased after a period of six months (0.96±0.80 to 0.97±0.21 mm). There were significant association between calcium as well as sodium intakes and IC-IMT. In contrast, there were no association between magnesium as well as potassium intake and IC-IMT. Multivariate analysis suggest that sodium intake (OR=26.828) was the most influencing factor for IC-IMT, followed by calcium intake (OR=0.042). Calcium as well as potassium intake were independently associated with IC-IMT. Magnecium as well as sodium intake were not independently associated with IC-IMT changes. Sodium intake was the most influencing variable to IC-IMT changes, followed by calcium intake.

  14. Carotid Stump Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Endovascular Treatment Options

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshminarayan, Raghuram; Scott, Paul M.; Robinson, Graham J.; Ettles, Duncan F.

    2011-02-15

    Carotid stump syndrome is one of the recognised causes of recurrent ipsilateral cerebrovascular events after occlusion of the internal carotid artery. It is believed that microemboli arising from the stump of the occluded internal carotid artery or the ipsilateral external carotid artery can pass into the middle cerebral artery circulation as a result of patent external carotid-internal carotid anastomotic channels. Different pathophysiologic causes of this syndrome and endovascular options for treatment are discussed.

  15. [Horner syndrome as a manifestation of carotid artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Rohrweck, S; España-Gregori, E; Gené-Sampedro, A; Pascual-Lozano, A M; Aparici-Robles, F; Díaz-Llopis, M

    2011-11-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with ptosis and miosis in his left eye and a history of headache over the last 20 days. An angioresonance showed dissection of internal carotid artery. "Painful Horner's Syndrome" is considered to be a medical emergency due possible onset of an internal carotid artery dissection. We consider that awareness of neuro-ophthalmologic emergencies is very important in the clinical praxis of an ophthalmologist. Multidisciplinary treatment and follow-up of these patients is required. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Arterial microanastomoses on the reverse flow of the internal carotid artery reverse flow: an extreme solution in free-flap revascularisation. How we do it.

    PubMed

    Baj, A; Bolzoni, A; Torretta, S; Pignataro, L

    2014-10-01

    Microvascular free tissue transfer in head and neck reconstruction requires suitable recipient vessels, which are frequently compromised by prior surgery, radiotherapy, or size of the tumour. A surgical description of an arterial free flap pedicle anastomosis on the reverse internal carotid arterial flow in a vessel-depleted neck is presented. A 66-year-old male with a relapse of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma previously treated with both surgical and radiation therapy for carcinoma of the tongue and the larynx was successfully reconstructed using a free forearm flap with reverse internal carotid arterial flow. The involvement of the carotid glomus and prior surgery excluded the other vessels as recipients. The forearm free flap survived without any complications. This procedure can be considered an alternative rescue technique for salvage reconstruction in a vessel-depleted neck.

  17. Safety of Onyx Transarterial Embolization of Skull Base Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas from Meningeal Branches of the External Carotids also Fed by Meningeal Branches of Internal Carotid or Vertebral Arteries.

    PubMed

    Abud, Thiago G; Houdart, Emmanuel; Saint-Maurice, Jean-Pierre; Abud, Daniel G; Baccin, Carlos E; Nguyen, Andrew D; Abdala, Nitamar

    2017-08-11

    To analyze the angiographic and clinical results of transarterial embolization with Onyx (Medtronic-Covidien, Irvine, CA) in dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) partially fed by arteries arising from the carotid siphon or the vertebral arteries. We isolated 40 DAVFs supplied by either the tentorial artery of the internal carotid artery (ICA) or the posterior meningeal artery of the vertebral artery. These DAVFs were embolized with Onyx through the middle meningeal artery or the occipital artery. We reviewed the occurrence of reflux into the arteries of carotid or vertebral origin. In all the cases, reflux occurred into the first millimeters of the DAVF arterial feeders arising from carotid or vertebral arteries but slowly enough to be controlled by interruption of Onyx injection. Reflux was always minimal and Onyx never reached the ostium of the arteries. No cerebral ischemic complications occurred in our series. The behavior of Onyx is clearly different from that of cyanoacrylate glue, resulting in superior control during injection. Reflux into arteries arising from the ICA or vertebral artery during DAVF treatment always carries a risk of unintentional non-target embolization of normal cerebral vasculature but Onyx appears to be safe in this situation.

  18. Comparison of blood flow velocity through the internal carotid artery based on Doppler ultrasound and numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Hassani-Ardekani, Hajar; Ghalichi, Farzan; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Tarzmani, Mohammad Kazem

    2012-12-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a usual non-invasive method to estimate the stenosis percentage in large arteries such as carotid by measuring maximum velocity of blood flow. Based on clinical investigations, because of vessel wall motions, Doppler positioning and angle correction, some errors can arise in Doppler results which lead to incorrect diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the results of Doppler test and the numerical simulation of blood flow in the same case. For this evaluation, two patients including an 87-year-old man and a 72-year-old woman suffering from stenosis in the internal carotid artery were selected. First, clinical information of each patient such as CT-Angio scan images and Doppler ultrasound results on different locations of the stenosed artery were obtained. Then, the geometries were reconstructed and numerical simulations were carried out using ANSYS software. Results showed that the velocity profile of Doppler test and numerical simulation were in good agreement at the regions of pre-and post-stenosis. However, the value of maximum velocity at the stenotic region had significant differences.

  19. Fungal Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm Treated by Trapping and High-Flow Bypass: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    YAMAGUCHI, Junya; KAWABATA, Teppei; MOTOMURA, Ayako; HATANO, Norikazu; SEKI, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of unruptured fungal internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm and review the pertinent literature. A 79-year-old man presented with decreased visual acuity on the right side, and he was diagnosed with retrobulbar optic neuritis. Medical treatment with steroids resulted in Aspergillus meningoencephalitis spreading to the bottom of bilateral frontal lobes, caused by an intracranial extension of sphenoid sinusitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 26 days after the start of antifungal therapy showed a denovo right ICA aneurysm projecting anteriorly into the sphenoid sinus. As the aneurysm grew rapidly, it was trapped surgically after establishing a high-flow bypass from the external carotid artery to the middle cerebral artery. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful. Anti-fungal medication was continued until plasma concentrations of beta-D-glucan decreased to within normal limits. Although fungal ICA aneurysm carries a high mortality rate, early detection and prompt treatment by trapping and high-flow bypass can lead to good clinical outcome. PMID:26804189

  20. Usefulness of Suction Decompression Method Combined with Extradural Temporopolar Approach During Clipping of Complicated Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Toyooka, Terushige; Fujii, Kazuya; Ueno, Hideaki; Tomura, Satoshi; Tomiyama, Arata; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Mori, Kentaro

    2016-06-01

    Surgical clipping of complicated internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms can be very difficult because strong adhesion may hinder dissection of the perforators and surrounding anatomical structures from the aneurysm dome. We describe our experience in the clipping of these aneurysms using retrograde suction decompression (RSD) combined with extradural temporopolar approach (ETA) and discuss its advantages and pitfalls. This retrospective study included 30 consecutive patients with complicated ICA aneurysms treated by direct clipping with RSD assistance between March 2004 and March 2015. The aneurysms were located on the paraclinoid ICA in 20 cases, the posterior communicating artery bifurcation in 8, ICA bifurcation in 1, and the anterior wall of the ICA in 1. No patient suffered any complication related to the puncture of the common carotid artery. Surgical outcome was good recovery in 20 patients, moderate disability in 4, severe disability in 4, and vegetative state in 1. One patient died of re-rupture of the aneurysm caused by incomplete dome clipping. Two patients suffered cerebral infarction, caused by anterior choroidal artery infarction in 1 patient. Retrograde suction decompression combined with ETA is a useful technique for clipping of complicated ICA aneurysms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [A Case of Ruptured Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Associated with Acute Subdural Hematoma, Extending from the Interhemispheric Space to the Posterior Fossa].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Yuhtaka; Yoshimura, Shouta; Somagawa, Chika; Hiu, Takeshi; Ono, Tomonori; Ushijima, Ryujirou; Toda, Keisuke; Tsutsumi, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a sudden severe headache without a history of head trauma. CT and MRI revealed an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) extending from the right interhemispheric space to the posterior fossa bilaterally, with a small amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage that was predominantly localized to the left side of the basal cistern. CT angiogram demonstrated a long protruding ruptured aneurysm at the junction of the right internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries (IC/PC AN) with a posteroinferior projection, associated with a small bleb located near the tentorial edge close to the ipsilateral posterior clinoid process, for which she received clipping surgery. Though rare, IC/PC AN could cause pure or nearly pure ASDH in the above-mentioned distribution. Therefore, in patients with such ASDH, especially without a history of head injury or precise information regarding the situation at the time of onset, urgent imaging evaluation and early intervention are essential to prevent devastating re-rupture events.

  2. Blister-like supraclinoid internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a 15-year-old male: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Haji, Faizal Aminmohamed; Boulton, Melfort R; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    With an incidence of less than 1-3 per million, pediatric aneurysms are rare clinical entities. A traumatic etiology is implicated in a large proportion of these cases, leading to the formation of both 'false' and 'true' aneurysms. These occur most often in the distal circulation, but have also been described in the supraclinoid distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Blood blister aneurysms are also found in this location; however, they have not been described in the pediatric population. We report the case of a 15-year-old male who presented following cranial trauma with diffuse basal subarachnoid hemorrhage and limited additional intracranial pathology. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a small, 2-mm blister-like aneurysm arising from the dorsal surface of the left supraclinoid ICA at a non-branching site. Despite early endovascular treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils, the lesion continued to grow over subsequent studies, necessitating open surgical clipping. At the time of surgery, gross pathology of the native ICA was observed, raising the possibility of a preexisting blood-blister aneurysm. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations of these lesions. The endovascular and surgical management of these complex non-branching supraclinoid ICA aneurysms is also discussed.

  3. Numerical simulation of blood flow and plaque progression in carotid-carotid bypass patient specific case.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Nenad; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Milosevic, Zarko; Kovacevic, Pavle; Velicki, Lazar

    2015-01-01

    This study describes computer simulation of blood flow and plaque progression pattern in a patient who underwent surgical treatment for infected carotid prosthetic tube graft using carotid-carotid cross-over bypass. The 3D blood flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the continuity equation. Mass transfer within the blood lumen and through the arterial wall is coupled with the blood flow and is modelled by the convection-diffusion equation. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport in lumen of the vessel is described by Kedem-Katchalsky equations. The inflammatory process is solved using three additional reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Calculation based on a computer simulation showed that flow distribution in the left carotid artery (CA) was around 40-50% of the total flow in the right common CA. Also, the left CA had higher pressure gradient after surgical intervention. Plaque progression simulation predicted development of the atherosclerotic plaque in the position of the right common CA and the left internal CA. A novel way of atherosclerotic plaque progression modelling using computer simulation shows a potential clinical benefit with significant impact on the treatment strategy optimization.

  4. [Structure of nocturnal sleep if there is a violation of the blood supply in the territory of internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Berezina, I Iu; Sumskiĭ, L I; Kudriashova, N E

    2013-01-01

    The work examines the influence of degree ofstenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) of noc- turnal sleep and discusses possible neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep disorders when blood flow in ca- rotid system. 24 patients (19 male and 5 female) were examined. The mean age of men was 49.75 ± 6.55; women--46.67 ± 5.86. Six patients with a single unilateral internal carotid stenosis (ICA) 50%; seven patients--stenosis of ICA 50-70%; eleven patients--occlusion of ICA completed the study. Polysomnography was recorded with "Neuro-Spectr-5/EP" ("NeuroSoft", Russia) and "Delta Flash" ("Deltamed", France) according to international recommendation. Stages of sleep were identified according to Re- chtschaffen A., Kales A. (1968) criteria. Patients were asked to fill in the questionnaire prior to clinical and polysomnographic evaluation. Regional cerebral blood flow (mL/100g/min) with 99mTechnetium (Gamma-camera, DST-Xli "General electric", USA) was study by single photon emission CT imaging. The result of this study showed that with stenosis of the ICA to 50% structure of nocturnal sleep is not changed: records all phases and stages of sleep, quantitative parameters that match the normative data; or decline in the representation of only the stage II sleep; at stenosis ICA of 50-70% is violation of mostly stage II sleep and slow-wave sleep, and with occlusion ICA violation slow-wave sleep and in 45% of cases--REM-sleep.

  5. Simultaneous carotid endarterectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting and abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Abul Hasan Muhammad; Kazui, Teruhisa; Washiyama, Naoki; Yamashita, Katsushi; Terada, Hitoshi

    2002-06-01

    A case with a disease triad of an ulcerative lesion in the left internal carotid artery (LICA), severe coronary insufficiency, and an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is presented in whom we performed simultaneous carotid endarterectomy (CEA), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and Y-graft replacement of the AAA. The operative technique is detailed and justification of the simultaneous approach in such patients is discussed.

  6. Carotid Disease Management: Surgery, Stenting, or Medication.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Priyank; Chaturvedi, Seemant

    2015-09-01

    Internal carotid artery stenosis accounts for about 7-10 % of ischemic strokes. Conventional risk factors such as aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking increase the risk for carotid atherosclerosis. All patients with carotid stenosis should receive aggressive medical therapy. Carotid revascularization with either endarterectomy or stenting can benefit select patients with severe stenosis. New clinical trials will examine the contemporary role of carotid revascularization relative to optimal medical therapy.

  7. Trans-sphenoidal Approach to the Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery for Endovascular Access in a Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Hunter Kegan; Serici, Anthony Joseph; Moftakhar, Roham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sometimes, intracranial pathology in the distal vasculature cannot be accessed by standard endovascular techniques because of occlusion or insurmountable tortuosity of theinternal carotid artery (ICA). A trans-sphenoidal surgical approach can follow a similar trajectory to the course of the supraclinoid ICA. This study evaluates the feasibility of a trans-sphenoidal approach to the supraclinoid ICA for endovascular access. Materials and Methods In a fresh cadaver head, the sphenoid sinus was dissected through a trans-sphenoidal route. Bone over the carotid prominence was removed to expose the ICA. The artery was catheterized using the Seldinger technique, and three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography was performed to evaluate the procedure. Results The catheter was successfully inserted into the supraclinoid ICA via the trans-sphenoidal route. Three-dimensional radiographic reconstruction confirmed placement of the catheter and the trajectory of the sheath into the supraclinoid ICA. Conclusion While the trans-sphenoidal route has innumerable disadvantages over the standard endovascular access techniques, this route could be considered when other treatment options are too risky or impractical. PMID:23515414

  8. Delayed pan-hypopituitarism as a complication following endovascular treatment of bilateral internal carotid artery aneurysms. A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jonathan; Caputo, Carmela; Chung, Carlos; Holt, Michael; Wang, Yi Yuen

    2015-04-01

    Pan-hypopituitarism has been reported in patients who are subsequently found to have a cerebral aneurysm and there have been reports of pituitary dysfunction immediately following both surgical and endovascular treatment. The authors report a rare case of delayed pan-hypopituitarism following endovascular treatment of bilateral internal carotid artery aneurysms with coil embolisation and flow-diverting stents.

  9. [Carotid body paraganglioma in a teenager. Case report].

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, María Elisa; Llamas-Macías, Francisco Javier; Nuño-Escobar, César; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2014-01-01

    Paragangliomas of the head and neck are neuroendocrine tumors. They have a low incidence (0.6%), are generally benign, have a poorly defined etiology, and multiple factors have been associated with their origin. Humans and other species living at high altitudes (>2000 m above sea level) are subjected to a relatively chronic hypoxia and there is a high prevalence of the development of carotid body hyperplasia and eventually paragangliomas. This disease is usually seen in patients in their 50s and in their 30s if there is a family history. We present the case of a 16 year-old female with acute pharyngitis and growing tumor located on the left side of the neck, without symptoms. A duplex Doppler ultrasound showed a solid nodular lesion on the left carotid bifurcation. A left lateral cervicotomy was performed, finding a highly vascularized tumor of 4 × 3 × 3 cm involving the common carotid from its middle third, the internal carotid up to the cranial base, and the external carotid to its upper third, and intimately related to the trachea, esophagus and cervical spine. The tumor was completely resected and the histopathological analysis corroborated the presence of paragangliomas. The publication of this case is relevant and of clinical interest due to the uncommon age of presentation and the fact that it should be considered as a diagnostic possibility.

  10. Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Right Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery: A Rare Entity and Recent Advancement of Treatment with Minimally Invasive Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Joo Lian Julian; Jalaludin, Salmah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to describe a case of traumatic right extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) pseudoaneurysm, which is a rare entity and the evolution of treatment from surgery to minimally invasive intervention by endovascular stenting and coiling. We reported a case of traumatic right EICA pseudoaneurysm who presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple radiological examinations [including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with angiogram, computed tomography angiogram (CTA), and digital subtraction angiogram (DSA)] demonstrated right EICA pseudoaneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular stenting and coiling. EICA pseudoaneurysm is a rare entity, and open surgery was the gold standard of treatment. Current technology allows endovascular stenting and coiling of pseudoaneurysm as an alternative treatment. It is minimally invasive, associated with lesser complications, better recovery and a shorter hospital stay. PMID:27547119

  11. Use of the Sundt Clip Graft in a Previously Coiled Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Ik

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the focal wall defect covered with thin fibrous tissues, an aneurysm arising from the dorsal wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is difficult to manage either surgically or endovascularly and is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the definitive treatment modality of such highly risky aneurysm has not yet been demonstrated. Upon encountering the complex intracranial pathophysiology of such a highly precarious aneurysm, a neurosurgeon would be faced with a challenge to decide on an optimal approach. This is a case of multiple paraclinoid aneurysms including the ICA dorsal wall aneurysm, presented with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. With respect to treatment, direct clipping with a Sundt graft clip was performed after multiple endovascular interventions had failed. This surgical approach can be a treatment modality for a blood blister-like aneurysm after failed endovascular intervention(s). PMID:25628810

  12. Blister-like aneurysms of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery: challenging endovascular treatment with stent-assisted coiling.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jung Yong; Cho, Jun Hyung; Jung, Jin Young; Lee, Byung Hee; Yoon, Pyeong Ho

    2008-09-01

    ''Blister-like'' aneurysms of the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery are usually small and have fragile walls, necessitating special care to prevent rebleeding. These lesions are considered high-risk aneurysms because of the technical difficulties associated with their surgical and endovascular treatment. In this report, we describe the use of stent-assisted, repeated coil embolization in the treatment of a ruptured blister-like aneurysm that experienced rapid growth. Stent-assisted coil embolization is an alternative, but sometimes hazardous, treatment for select blister-like aneurysms. Careful serial follow-up angiography will provide documentation as to the long-term stability of the endovascularly treated blister-like aneurysm described here, but early results are encouraging. Alternatively, placement of telescoped stents or graft-stent devices offers promise for future endovascular therapy.

  13. Microscopic anterior clinoidectomy with micro-rongeurs for a superior projecting paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Ota, Takahiro; Mizutani, Tohru

    2013-08-01

    Anterior clinoidectomy is an essential manoeuvre for clipping paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. However, the use of a drill or an ultrasonic bone curette in an anterior clinoidectomy involves a high risk for heat or mechanical injury of the superior projecting paraclinoid aneurysm. We report our technique for microscopic anterior clinoidectomy performed only using a micro-rongeur. The case of a superior projecting paraclinoid ICA aneurysm is presented. The anterior clinoid process was removed with our specially crafted micro-rongeurs, while we observed the extradural and intradural routes under a microscope. The aneurysm was completely clipped without any resulting neurological deficits. This technique can be safely used for paraclinoid ICA aneurysms, especially for superiorly projecting aneurysms.

  14. Bony protuberances on the anterior and posterior clinoid processes lead to traumatic internal carotid artery aneurysm following craniofacial injury.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Choong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysms are rare, comprising 1% or less of all cerebral aneurysms. The majority of these aneurysms arise at the skull base or in the distal anterior and middle cerebral arteries or their branches following direct mural injury or acceleration-induced shearing force. We present a 50-year-old patient in whom subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was developed as a result of traumatic aneurysm rupture after a closed craniofacial injury. Through careful evaluation of the three-dimensional computed tomography and conventional angiographies, the possible mechanism of the traumatic internal carotid artery trunk aneurysm is correlated with a hit injury by the bony protuberances on the anterior and posterior clinoid processes. This traumatic aneurysm was successfully obliterated with clipping and wrapping technique. The possibility of a traumatic intracranial aneurysm should be considered when patient with SAH demonstrates bony protuberances on the clinoid process as a traumatic aneurysm may result from mechanical injury by the sharp bony edges.

  15. Combined percutaneous and transarterial devascularisation of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with protection of internal carotid artery: A modification of the technique

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ehab; Nyberg, Christoffer; Ekberg, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile nasal angiofibroma (JNA) is a hypervascularised, benign, but locally aggressive tumour that grows in the posterior, upper part of the nasal cavity and invades surrounding anatomical structures. The treatment of choice is surgical removal, but complete resection of the tumour can be hampered because of profuse perioperative bleeding. Preoperative embolisation of the tumour has been proposed as an effective method for prevention of perioperative bleeding, thereby shortening of the time of the operation. In this report of five cases, we describe successful preoperative devascularisation of the tumour by applying a modified method of direct intratumoural injection of the liquid embolic agent Onyx combined with protection of the internal carotid artery. The control of bleeding during the embolisation and occlusion of the maxillary or sphenopalatine artery was achieved by using a bi-luminal balloon catheter. Such use of the dual-lumen catheter in treatment of JNA has not been reported so far in the medical literature. PMID:25991005

  16. Hypoxia-induced 15-HETE enhances the constriction of internal carotid arteries by down-regulating potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanmei; Chen, Li; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Weizhi; Zhu, Daling; Zhu, Yulan

    2010-08-15

    Severe hypoxia induces the constriction of internal carotid arteries (ICA), which worsens ischemic stroke in the brain. A few metabolites are presumably involved in hypoxic vasoconstriction, however, less is known about how such molecules provoke this vasoconstriction. We have investigated the influence of 15-hydroxyeicosatetrienoic acid (15-HETE) produced by 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) on vasoconstriction during hypoxia. As showed in our results, 15-LOX level increases in ICA endothelia and smooth muscles. 15-HETE enhances the tension of ICA ring in a dose-dependent manner, as well as attenuates the activities and expression of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv 1.5 and Kv 2.1). Therefore, the down-regulation of Kv channels by 15-HETE during hypoxia may weaken the repolarization of action potentials and causes a dominant influx of calcium ions to enhance smooth muscle tension and ICA constriction.

  17. Carotid duplex ultrasound and transcranial Doppler findings in commercial divers and pilots.

    PubMed

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Vosoughi, Kia; Akhoundi, Fahimeh H; Mehrpour, Masoud; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Esmaeili, Setareh; Sabet, Azin Shafiee

    2016-12-01

    The risky working environments of divers and pilots, and the possible role of extreme ambient pressure in carotid stenosis, make ischemic stroke an important occupational concern among these professionals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of being exposed to hyperbaric or hypobaric conditions with carotid artery stenosis by comparing common carotid intima-media thickness (CCIMT) and blood flow velocities of cerebral arteries in divers and pilots using carotid duplex ultrasound (CDUS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD). CDUS and transtemporal TCD were performed in 29 divers, 36 pilots and 30 control participants. Medical history, blood pressure, lipid profile and blood sugar were recorded to control the previously well-known risk factors of atherosclerosis. Findings of the CDUS and TCD [including: CCIMT and blood flow velocities of internal carotid artery (ICA), common carotid artery (CCA), and middle cerebral artery (MCA)] of divers and pilots were compared with those of the control group using regression analysis models. Both right and left side CCIMT were significantly higher in divers (P < 0.05) and pilots (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control group. Carotid index [peak systolic velocity (PSV) of ICA/PSV of CCA) of divers and pilots were also higher than the control group. TCD findings were not significantly different between divers, pilots, and the control group. Increased CCIMT and carotid index in diver and pilot groups appear to be suggestive of accelerated atherosclerosis of carotid artery in these occupational groups.

  18. Endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms of cavernous and ophthalmic segment of internal carotid artery with flow diverter device Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Mounayer, Charbel; Seruga, Tomaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Intra-arterial treatment of aneurysms by redirecting blood flow is a newer method. The redirection is based on a significantly more densely braided wire stent. The stent wall keeps the blood in the lumen of the stent and slows down the turbulent flow in the aneurysms. Stagnation of blood in the aneurysm sac leads to the formation of thrombus and subsequent exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate flow diverter device Pipeline for broad neck and giant aneurysm treatment. Methods Fifteen patients with discovered aneurysm of the internal carotid artery were treated between November 2010 and February 2014. The majority of aneurysms of the internal carotid artery were located intradural at the ophthalmic part of the artery. The patients were treated using a flow diverter device Pipeline, which was placed over the aneurysm neck. Treatment success was assessed clinically and angiographically using O’Kelly Marotta scale. Results Control angiography immediately after the release of the stent showed stagnation of the blood flow in the aneurysm sac. In none of the patients procedural and periprocedural complications were observed. 6 months after the procedure, control CT or MR angiography showed in almost all cases exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation and normal blood flow in the treated artery. Neurological status six months after the procedure was normal in all patients. Conclusions Treatment of aneurysms with flow diverter Pipeline device is a safe and significantly less time consuming method in comparison with standard techniques. This new method is a promising approach in treatment of broad neck aneurysms. PMID:27904445

  19. Diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the unilateral carotid space in an elderly man: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Zou, Chunying; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    An 84-year-old man presented with a history of repeated syncope and decreased heart rate and blood pressure over the last month. On physical examination, a mass sized ~3×3 cm was palpable in the left submandibular area; the mass was hard, poorly mobile, without tenderness or local skin irritation. The computed tomography angiography examination revealed a soft tissue mass in the neck, at the level of the left carotid bifurcation and above. The left common carotid artery bifurcation and internal and external carotid artery segment were embedded in the mass, and there were multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the left neck. The diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was confirmed by a percutaneous biopsy of the left submandibular mass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involvign the carotid space. PMID:28123742

  20. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  1. Coronary steal from a left internal mammary artery coronary bypass graft by a left upper extremity arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Steven D; Butterly, David W; Peter, Robert H; Schwab, Steve J

    2002-10-01

    In patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis, the upper extremity arteriovenous (AV) fistula is the dialysis access recommended by the DOQI guidelines for patients with appropriate vasculature. Upper extremity AV fistulae have long periods of usefulness, high flow rates, and low associated complication rates. Placement of AV access may result in increased cardiac output and increased cardiac oxygen demand in these patients. In general, cardiovascular complications from AV access have been limited. We report a novel cardiovascular complication of AV access in an end-stage renal disease patient with a coronary artery bypass graft employing the left internal mammary artery who experienced angina while undergoing hemodialysis. The angina was mediated at least in part by cardiac catheterization laboratory-documented steal of blood flow from the internal mammary artery graft. This phenomenon suggests the need to consider the impact of upper extremity access placement on blood flow to the left internal mammary artery in patients who previously have undergone placement of a coronary artery bypass graft. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  2. Carotid Body Tumor.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Satvinder S; Kumar T, Lokesh

    2017-08-14

    A 17 year old girl presented with a progressively increasing swelling in her neck since 9 months. On examination a2*3 cm, firm, pulsatile swelling was felt in the left anterior triangle. The CT scan of the mass was suggestive of a carotid body tumor and urinary cathecholamines were negative. The mass was excised completely.

  3. [Evaluation of cerebro-vascular diseases with persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Uozumi, T; Kurisu, K; Sumida, M; Nakahara, A; Migita, K

    1994-12-01

    Five cases of cerebro-vascular diseases with carotid-basilar anastomosis were evaluated. Case 1: a 73-year-old female was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery bifurcation and demonstrated that a left proatlantal intersegmental artery. Case 2: a 38-year-old female showed intraventricle hemorrhage due to arteriovenous malformation and showed left primitive hypoglossal artery. Case 3: 73-year-old female was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured basilar top aneurysm and demonstrated that a right primitive hypoglossal artery. Case 4: a 29-year-old male with unruptured aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery bifurcation, and right trigeminal artery was detected incidentally by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Furthermore, right proatlantal intersegmental artery was detected by conventional angiography. Case 5: a 76-year-old male was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. MRA showed the aneurysm and a primitive trigeminal artery. No clinical symptom related with carotid-basilar anastomosis was detected. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was useful for diagnosis of asymptomatic carotid-basilar anastomosis. Especially, axial view of MRA by time of flight method detected two cases of a primitive trigeminal artery. And coronal view of MRA by phase contrast method is useful for diagnosis of primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery. More asymptomatic persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis may be detected by MRA.

  4. [Brain 3 D-CT angiography was a useful tool for diagnosis of internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm: a case of false negative 3 D-MRA].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, K; Iwasaki, Y; Murakami, S; Ichikawa, Y

    1999-09-01

    A 75-year-old woman with hypertension suddenly developed ptosis in the left eyelid. Neurological examination revealed left oculomotor nerve palsy. Brain T 2-weighted imaging showed abnormal flow void sign in the proximal portion of left middle cerebral artery. Other MRIs, including gadolinium enhancement, were normal. However, brain 3 D-MRA, using time-of-flight sequence, did not disclose any intracranial aneurysms. 3 D-CT angiography revealed left internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm. Maximum intensity projection display of CT angiography demonstrated the neck and head portions of IC-PC aneurysm (size = 8 mm). Furthermore, 3 D-CT angiography was beneficial for anatomical evaluation of the aneurysm and the surrounding bony structures. The false negative 3 D-MRA of our patient was thought to result from flow-related artifacts, slow blood flow in the aneurysm, the surrounding noise and the localization of aneurysm. False negative findings of cerebral aneurysms occasionally occur on 3 D-MRA or 3 D-CT angiography, in comparison with digital subtraction angiography. Thus, we should pay more attention to assessment of 3 D-MRA and 3 D-CT angiography in patients who have high risks of cerebral aneurysms.

  5. High-flow bypass and wrap-clipping for ruptured blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery using intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yoshitaka; Koji, Takahiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Saito, Hideo; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms at non-branching sites in the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) can be classified as “blood blister-like aneurysms” (BBAs), which have blood blister-like configurations and fragile walls. While surgical treatment for the BBA in the acute stage is recommended, the optimal surgical procedure remains controversial. In the study reported here, we describe the case of a 37-year-old woman with a ruptured BBA in the ophthalmic segment of the right ICA who underwent wrap-clipping with external carotid artery–internal carotid artery bypass by intraoperative estimation of the measurement of cortical cerebral blood flow (CoBF) using a thermal diffusion flow probe. Trapping of the ICA in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage may result in ischemic complications secondary to hemodynamic hypoperfusion or occlusion of the perforating artery, and/or delayed vasospasm, even with concomitant bypass surgery. We believe that it is important to perform scheduled external carotid artery–internal carotid artery bypass before trapping of the ICA in patients with a ruptured BBA in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage and to perform wrap-clipping rather than trapping. This would provide much more CoBF if a reduction of CoBF occurs after trapping occlusion of the ICA including a ruptured BBA according to intraoperative CoBF monitoring. As far as we are aware, the case reported here is the first report on high-flow bypass and wrap-clipping for a ruptured BBA of the ICA using intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics. PMID:26082641

  6. Carotid surgery following previous carotid endarterectomy is safe and effective.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M; Moneta, Gregory L; Landry, Gregory J; Yeager, Richard A; Edwards, James M; McConnell, Donald B; Taylor, Lloyd M; Porter, John M

    2002-01-01

    With the perceived high risk of repeat carotid surgery, carotid angioplasty and stenting have been advocated recently as the preferred treatment of recurrent carotid disease following carotid endarterectomy. An experience with the operative treatment of recurrent carotid disease to document the risks and benefits of this procedure is presented. A review of a prospectively acquired vascular registry over a 10-year period (Jan. 1990-Jan. 2000) was undertaken to identify patients undergoing repeat carotid surgery following previous carotid endarterectomy. All patients were treated with repeat carotid endarterectomy, carotid interposition graft, or subclavian-carotid bypass. The perioperative stroke and death rate, operative complications, life-table freedom from stroke, and rates of recurrent stenosis were documented. During the study period 56 patients underwent repeat carotid surgery, comprising 6% of all carotid operations during this period. The indication for operation was symptomatic disease recurrence in 41 cases (73%) and asymptomatic recurrent stenosis >/=80% in 15 cases (27%). The average interval from the prior carotid endarterectomy to the repeat operation was 78 months (range 3 weeks-297 months). The operations performed included repeat carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty in 31 cases (55%), interposition grafts in 19 cases (34%), and subclavian-carotid bypass in 6 cases (11%). There were three perioperative strokes with one resulting in death for a perioperative stroke and death rate of 5.4%. One minor transient cranial nerve (CN IX) injury occurred. Mean follow-up was 29 months (range, 1-116 months). Life-table freedom from stroke was 95% at 1 year and 90% at 5 years. Recurrent stenosis (>/=80%) developed in three patients (5.4%) during follow-up, including one internal carotid artery occlusion. Two patients (3.6%) underwent repeat surgery. Repeat surgery for recurrent cerebrovascular disease following carotid endarterectomy is safe and

  7. Bypass surgery to treat symptomatic fusiform dilation of the internal carotid artery following craniopharyngioma resection: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Shi, Xiang'en; Liu, Fangjun; Qian, Hai

    2016-12-01

    Fusiform dilation of the internal carotid artery (FDICA) is an infrequent vascular complication following resection of suprasellar lesions in the pediatric population, and its course appears to be benign without apparent clinical symptoms. However, data correlating symptomatic FDICA with bypass surgery are scarce. The authors here report 2 symptomatic cases that were treated using internal maxillary artery bypass more than 5 years after total removal of a craniopharyngioma at an outside institution. Both cases of FDICA were resected to relieve the mass effect and to expose the craniopharyngioma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and radiological imaging revealed graft conduit patency. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported use of extracranial to intracranial bypass to treat FDICA following removal of a suprasellar lesion. Their findings suggest that bypass surgery is a useful therapeutic approach for symptomatic cases of FDICA and total removal of recurrent craniopharyngioma. Moreover, the indications for surgical intervention and treatment modalities are discussed in the context of previous relevant cases.

  8. Carotid endarterectomy in patients with contralateral carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dalainas, Ilias; Nano, Giovanni; Bianchi, Paolo; Casana, Renato; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-day outcome of carotid endarterectomy in patients with contralateral carotid artery occlusion and compare it to that in patients with patent contralateral carotid artery. We compared 2,959 carotid endarterectomies performed in patients with patent contralateral internal carotid artery to 373 carotid endarterectomies performed in patients with occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery in the same institute between 1988 and 2004. Patient demographics, surgical and anesthesiological strategy, perioperative neurological and cardiac events, and deaths were compared. The patients were grouped and analyzed according to the presence or absence of symptoms and to their gender. No significant difference was shown in perioperative cardiological and neurological events and deaths in patients with contralateral carotid occlusion versus patients without contralateral carotid occlusion. Females had significant more neurological events than males, in both the asymptomatic (P < 0.001) and symptomatic (P = 0.02) groups. Concomitant occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery was not associated with increased risk of perioperative cardiological or neurological adverse events. However, female gender was associated with higher risk for adverse neurological events.

  9. Urgent treatment of severe subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by ruptured traumatic aneurysm of the cavernous internal carotid artery using coil embolization followed by superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomohiro; Tsutsumi, Kazuo; Iijima, Akira; Shinozaki, Munehisa; Ishida, Junro; Yako, Kyoko

    2005-11-01

    Traumatic aneurysm of the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) with extension into the subarachnoid space is associated with increased risk of fatality especially when it is accompanied by severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Only cases of patients who survived the acute stage and who were treated in a delayed setting have been reported. There has been no successfully treated case immediately after an injury. We encountered a 48-year-old man who presented with dense SAH immediately after being involved in a motor vehicle accident. Emergent angiography revealed traumatic aneurysm of the left cavernous ICA with extension beyond the superior wall of the cavernous sinus into the subarachnoid space and concomitant direct high-flow carotid cavernous fistula. Detachable platinum coil occlusion of the cavernous ICA followed by superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis on day 0 and aggressive therapy to SAH, including ventriculocisternal irrigation and drainage, was performed. The patient eventually made a good recovery. Considering the extremely poor prognosis and unstable nature of a ruptured traumatic aneurysm with extensive SAH in the acute stage, definitive and immediate prevention of rebleeding in conjunction with proper revascularization would be warranted, such as in the present case.

  10. Monitoring of balloon test occlusion of the internal carotid artery by parametric color coding and perfusion imaging within the angio suite: first results.

    PubMed

    Struffert, T; Deuerling-Zheng, Y; Engelhorn, T; Kloska, S; Gölitz, P; Bozzato, A; Kapsreiter, M; Strother, C M; Doerfler, A

    2013-12-01

    Temporary balloon test occlusion (BTO) might be performed prior to procedures in which occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) might be necessary. We tested the hypothesis that parametric color coding (PCC) of angiographic series (digital subtraction angiography (DSA)) along with the assessment of cerebral blood volume (CBV) in the angiography suite would simplify and enhance the identification of candidates who are most likely to tolerate occlusion. Fifteen patients underwent angiographic series (DSA) and perfusion imaging before and during BTO. Pre- and postocclusion DSA acquisitions were evaluated for venous delay by conventional methods ("eye balling") and by PCC measurements. Comparison of CBV values between the left and right hemisphere in 6 defined regions was performed. Values of venous delay by eye balling and PCC showed a high correlation (r = 0.87, p < 0.01). Bland-Altman plot indicated slightly lower values (-0.05 s) by the PCC method. One of the 15 patients developed an asymmetrical CBV map with an increase in CBV of more than one standard deviation in 3 of the 6 regions of interest (ROIs). Acquisition of angiographic series and perfusion imaging did not prolong the test occlusion time. PCC and CBV mapping are feasible during BTO. The use of PCC seems to simplify the ability to measure changes in venous filling delay. Perfusion imaging may show an increase in CBV in patients reaching the limits of cerebral autoregulation. These patients may be at risk for delayed infarction, even though they seem to tolerate temporary occlusion, and could be unsuitable candidates for permanent ICA occlusion.

  11. Percutaneous angioplasty of a chronic total occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery. Case report.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Masaki; Yoshimura, Masaki; Honnda, Yuji; Matsusaka, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Toshihiro

    2006-11-01

    A CTO of the intracranial ICA is usually managed medically and rarely by EC-IC bypass in selected patients. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has not been used. A 73-year-old man presented with frequent temporary blindness of the left eye and dizziness due to thrombotic occlusion of the left intracranial ICA, causing hemodynamic compromise. This patient was successfully treated by percutaneous angioplasty (balloon angioplasty and stent placement) under proximal balloon protection at 7 weeks from the ictus. Ischemic symptoms had not recurred during the 6-month follow-up period. Percutaneous angioplasty for a CTO of the intracranial ICA is technically feasible and can be an alternative to EC-IC bypass in a selected group of patients with symptomatic hemodynamic compromise, which is refractory to the best medical treatment.

  12. Double inter-internal carotid artery communication through intercavernous anastomosis and posterior communicating artery associated with multiple intracranial artery segmental agenesis/aplasia.

    PubMed

    Park, Yae Won; Yoo, Joonsang; Kim, Dong Joon

    2017-07-19

    Segmental internal carotid artery (ICA) and basilar artery (BA) agenesis/aplasia are rare vascular anomalies. We report an extremely rare case of combined ICA, BA, and A1 segmental absence presenting with double inter-ICA collateral communication through the intercavernous anastomosis and posterior communicating arteries. The patient presented with diplopia and transient ischemic attack. The pathogenesis of the anatomic anomalies and clinical symptoms are discussed.

  13. Treatment of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula at the Udon Thani Center Hospital.

    PubMed

    Thanapura, Chatchawan

    2004-06-01

    There are many options available in management of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae (CCF). The carotid occlusion or the carotid preservation techniques are two basic approaches available. This study evaluated the carotid occlusion technique performed at The Udon Thani Center Hospital. We retrospectively studied 12 consecutive cases of traumatic CCF. The patients varied in terms of their ages, gender, side of lesion and symptoms. The occlusion was performed with muscle occlusion and trapping of the carotid artery. The diagnosis was made clinically and on CT brain. The Matas test was performed clinically with external compression of the contralateral carotid artery. No patient underwent cerebral angiography. From August 1997 to June 2002 the 12 patients were treated by muscle embolization only; muscle embolization with internal carotid ligation (Brooks technique); muscle embolization with trapping (Jaeger-Hamby procedure); or muscle embolization with trapping and external carotid ligation. The patients ranged from 15 to 62 years. Eleven were male. All had unilateral fistulae though only 3 involved the left eye. Eleven patients were cured and there was only one major complication of a patient who developed a second and third nerve palsy. The carotid occlusion technique is less popular in view of the great advances with detachable balloons and success with carotid preservation techniques. Despite this, under extenuating circumstances such as the lack of angiography, poor socio-economic status, or patients wanting to be treated close to home, this procedure is still an appropriate therapeutic option, as reflected by the success at our hospital. The more affluent patients had wider options and thus were sent to other centers for carotid preservation techniques like detachable balloon embolization.

  14. Long term follow up results of sequential left internal thoracic artery grafts on severe left anterior descending artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Several alternative procedures have been proposed to achieve complete revascularization in the presence of diffuse left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) disease. With the extensive use of internal thoracic artery grafts in coronary artery bypass procedures, sequential anastomosis of the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) to LAD has gained popularity in these challenging cases. The long term results of sequential LITA to LAD anstomosis were examined in this study. Patients and Methods In order to determine the long term results of the sequential revascularization of LAD by LITA graft, 41 out of 49 patients operated between January 2001 and December 2005 were selected for control coronary arteriography. The median period for control coronary arteriography was 64 months. Results Seventy five anastomoses were found to be fully patent (91,46%) among the 82 sequential LITA anastomoses (41 LITA grafts) on the LAD at a median follow-up period of 64 months (53 to 123 months). Among the 41 LITA grafts used for this purpose, 36 were found intact (complete patency of the proximal and distal anastomoses) (87,8%). Two LITA grafts (4 anastomoses) were found to be totally occluded (4,87%). The proximal anastomosis of the LITA graft was observed to be 90% stenotic in one patient (1,21%). In one patient tight stenosis of the distal anastomosis line was observed (1,21%), while in another patient 70% narrowing of LITA lumen after the proximal anastomosis was detected (1,21%). Conclusion We strongly beleive that sequential LITA grafting of LAD is a safe alternative in the presence of severe LAD disease to achieve complete revascularization of the anterior myocardium with patency rates not much differing from conventional single LITA to LAD anastomosis. PMID:20958964

  15. A fluid-structure interaction model of the internal carotid and ophthalmic arteries for the noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement method.

    PubMed

    Misiulis, Edgaras; Džiugys, Algis; Navakas, Robertas; Striūgas, Nerijus

    2017-03-22

    Accurate and clinically safe measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP) are crucial for secondary brain damage prevention. There are two methods of ICP measurement: invasive and noninvasive. Invasive methods are clinically unsafe; therefore, safer noninvasive methods are being developed. One of the noninvasive ICP measurement methods implements the balance principle, which assumes that if the velocity of blood flow in both ophthalmic artery segments - the intracranial (IOA) and extracranial (EOA) - is equal, then the acting ICP on the IOA and the external pressure (Pe) on the EOA are also equal. To investigate the assumption of the balance principle, a generalized computational model incorporating a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) module was created and used to simulate noninvasive ICP measurement by accounting for the time-dependent behavior of the elastic internal carotid (ICA) and ophthalmic (OA) arteries and their interaction with pulsatile blood flow. It was found that the extra balance pressure term, which incorporates the hydrodynamic pressure drop between measurement points, must be added into the balance equation, and the corrections on a difference between the velocity of blood flow in the IOA and EOA must be made, due to a difference in the blood flow rate.

  16. Intracranial haemodynamics during vasomotor stress test in unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion estimated by 3-D transcranial Doppler scanner.

    PubMed

    Zbornikova, V; Lassvik, C; Hillman, J

    1995-04-01

    Seventeen patients, 14 males and 3 females, mean age 64 years (range 45-77 years) with longstanding unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery and minimal neurological deficit, were evaluated in order to find criteria for potential benefit of extracranial-intracranial by-pass surgery. 3-D transcranial Doppler was used for estimation of mean velocities and pulsatility index in the middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery before and after iv injection of 1 g acetazolamide. The anterior cerebral artery was the supplying vessel to the occluded side in 16 patients and mean velocities were significantly (p < 0.001) faster on the occluded (59.3 +/- 14.5 cm sec-1) and nonoccluded (91.6 +/- 29.6 cm sec-1, p < 0.05)) side than those found in the middle cerebral artery (39.2 +/- 13.7 and 50.9 +/- 8.5 cm sec-1). In two patients a decrease of mean velocity after acetazolamide was noted in middle cerebral artery indicating 'steal' effect. In another 4 patients, poor vasomotor response was seen with less than 11% of mean velocity increase in the middle cerebral artery. Differences between posterior cerebral artery on the occluded and nonoccluded side were insignificant as well as those between middle and posterior on the occluded side. Resting values of pulsatility index differed significantly (p < 0.01) only between anterior and posterior cerebral artery on the nonoccluded side.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Evaluation of Fundus Blood Flow in Normal Individuals and Patients with Internal Carotid Artery Obstruction Using Laser Speckle Flowgraphy

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Hideo; Shimoda, Yukitoshi; Li, Danjie; Kishi, Shoji

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) results are comparable in both eyes and whether it is useful in the diagnosis of disparity in ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) patients. Methods We compared the mean blur rate (MBR) value for various fundus regions in both eyes of 41 healthy subjects and 15 internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) cases. We calculated the standard value of the Laterality Index (LI), which was the MBR comparison of both eyes in each of the regions, in the control subjects. We then investigated the correlation between both eyes for the LIs in the entire fundus, the degree of ICAO and visual function. Results The disparity of the LIs in both eyes was least in the entire area of the fundus in control subjects and there was a significant correlation between both eyes of the 41 healthy individuals (P = 0.019). Significant correlations were found for the LI, visual acuity and degree of ICAO. The specificity and sensitivity of LI in the entire area was 93.8% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions LSFG revealed normal individuals have symmetrical fundus blood flow. LSFG could detect OIS and might be a useful tool for detecting disparities in fundus blood flow. PMID:28056061

  18. [Cerebral sequelae of stenosing and occlusive diseases of the internal carotid artery. Importance of Doppler transcranial examination. Part 2].

    PubMed

    Rohr-Le Floch, J

    1991-01-01

    The author reports 57 stenosis or occlusions of the internal carotid artery, 13 dissections and 44 atheromatous lesions. She studies the correlation between intracranial collateralisation detected by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) and clinical symptoms as well as lesions seen on cerebral CT-scan. Two types of ischaemic lesions are described: border-zone infarcts, probably haemodynamic in origin and territorial infarcts, probably thromboembolic. TCD lets suppose that strokes in this series have a thromboembolic origin. On the other hand it is possible that collateralisation depending on both anterior and posterior communicating arteries is not sufficient, because such a collateralisation is found above all in the 2 most severe symptomatic groups and in many territorial infarcts. In the atheromatous group, occlusions are often asymptomatic and territorial infarcts less extended, whereas in the dissections group all occlusions determined a territorial infarct, often very important. TCD alone doesn't allow to definitely conclude about pathogeny of ischaemic lesions nor on collateralisation value. The adjunction of CO2 reactivity tests in middle cerebral artery will perhaps give the clues of these problems.

  19. Clinical Outcome of Paraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms After Microsurgical Neck Clipping in Comparison with Endovascular Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Dong-Hyun; Won, Yu-Deok; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Cheong, Jin-Hwan; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Kim, Choong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Because of the complex anatomical association among vascular, dural, and bony structures, paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms remain a major challenge for vascular neurosurgeons. We studied the clinical outcomes of 61 paraclinoid ICA aneurysms after microsurgical clipping in comparison with endovascular coiling. Materials and Methods Between January 2008 and December 2012, we treated 61 paraclinoid ICA aneurysms created by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. Preoperative neurologic status and postoperative outcome were evaluated using the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Postoperative hydrocephalus and vasospasm were reviewed using the patients' medical charts. Results Most patients were in good clinical condition before the operations and had good treatment outcomes. Clinical vasospasm was observed after the operation in five patients, and hydrocephalus occurred in six patients. No statistically significant difference regarding aneurysm size, sex, GCS score, H-H grade, and mRS was observed between the surgical clipping group and the endovascular coiling group. In addition, the treatment results and complications did not show statistically significant difference in either group. Conclusion Surgical occlusion of paraclinoid ICA aneurysms is difficult; however, no significant differences were observed in the treatment results or complications when compared with coil embolization. In particular, use of an adequate surgical technique may lead to better outcomes than those for coil embolization in the treatment of large and/or wide-neck paraclinoid ICA aneurysms. PMID:25340024

  20. "Two-coil technique" for embolization of small internal carotid artery aneurysms incorporating the origin of the anterior choroidal artery.

    PubMed

    Heo, Young Jin; Yang, Ku Hyun; Jung, Sung Chul; Park, Jung Cheol; Lee, Deok Hee

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and stability of the "two-coil technique." We evaluated a single-center experience by using a two-coil technique, which is a variation of the multiple-microcatheter technique in the treatment of a small internal carotid artery aneurysm with its sac incorporated with the origin of the anterior choroidal artery. Six consecutive patients with small ICA aneurysms with its sac incorporated with origin of the anterior choroidal artery and treated with the two-coil technique were included in this study. We finished the embolization with only two coils introduced via two different microcatheters without any other device assistance in all cases. Embolization status was determined at immediate postoperative and follow-up angiography after six months. The two-coil technique was technically successful in five of six cases; one case was converted to surgical clipping because of persistent occlusion of the anterior choroidal artery after several attempts. On follow-up study, all five cases showed stable occlusion status without recanalization or residual aneurysm. The two-coil technique has potential to be used for coiling small aneurysms, particularly where there is an important branch incorporated into the sac or neck of the aneurysm. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Pipeline Embolization Device as primary treatment for blister aneurysms and iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Nerva, John D; Morton, Ryan P; Levitt, Michael R; Osbun, Joshua W; Ferreira, Manuel J; Ghodke, Basavaraj V; Kim, Louis J

    2015-03-01

    Blood blister type aneurysms (BBAs) and pseudoaneurysms create a unique treatment challenge. Despite many advances in open surgical and endovascular techniques, this subset of patients retains relatively high rates of morbidity and mortality. Recently, BBAs have been treated with flow-diverting stents such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) with overall positive results. Four patients presented with dissecting internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms treated with the PED (two BBAs presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), two pseudoaneurysms after injury during endoscopic trans-sphenoidal tumor surgery). Three patients had a successful angiographic and neurological outcome. One patient with a BBA re-ruptured during initial PED placement, again in the postoperative period, and later died. Primary PED treatment involved telescoping stents in two patients and coil embolization supplementation in one patient. The PED should be used selectively in the setting of acute SAH. Dual antiplatelet therapy can complicate hydrocephalus management, and the lack of immediate aneurysm occlusion creates the risk of short-term re-rupture. PED treatment for iatrogenic ICA pseudoaneurysms can provide a good angiographic and neurological outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Endovascular internal carotid artery trapping for ruptured blood blister-like aneurysms: long-term results from a single centre.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byong-Cheol; Kwon, O-Ki; Oh, Chang Wan; Bang, Jae Seung; Hwang, Gyojun; Jin, Sung-Chul; Park, Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Endovascular internal carotid artery (ICA) trapping was performed to treat ruptured blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the procedural risks and long-term follow-up results. The records of 11 consecutive patients with BBAs who underwent endovascular ICA trapping between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Clinical outcomes were assessed with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Endovascular ICA trapping was performed in 11 patients as either the primary treatment (7 patients) or the secondary treatment (4 patients) after the patient underwent other treatments. Three patients underwent superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass when balloon test occlusion (BTO) revealed inadequate collateral circulation. In the primary ICA trapping group (seven patients), six patients had good outcomes (mRS 0 in five, mRS 1 in one), and one patient had a poor outcome (mRS 6: dead). In the secondary ICA trapping group (four patients), two patients had good outcomes (mRS 0), and two patients had poor outcomes (mRS 4, 5). All ten of the surviving patients were clinically stable during the follow-up period (mean 39 months). A radiological follow-up of nine patients (mean 22 months) demonstrated stable occlusion, with the exception of one reopening of the ICA because of coil migration. Perfusion studies of nine patients (mean: 23 months) demonstrated no perfusion decrease. Endovascular ICA trapping is an effective and durable treatment for BBAs.

  3. Embolization of a giant pediatric, posttraumatic, skull base internal carotid artery aneurysm with a liquid embolic agent.

    PubMed

    Reig, Adam S; Simon, Scott; Mericle, Robert A

    2009-11-01

    Many treatments for posttraumatic, skull base aneurysms have been described. Eight months after an all-terrain-vehicle accident, this 12-year-old girl presented with right-side Horner syndrome caused by a 33 x 19-mm internal carotid artery aneurysm at the C-1 level. We chose to treat the aneurysm with a new liquid embolic agent for wide-necked, side-wall aneurysms (Onyx HD 500). We felt this treatment would result in less morbidity than surgery and was less likely to occlude the parent artery than placement of a covered stent, especially in a smaller artery in a pediatric patient. Liquid embolic agents also appear to be associated with a lower chance of recanalization and lower cost compared with stent-assisted coil embolization. After the patient was treated with loading doses of aspirin, clopidogrel bisulfate, and heparin, 99% of the aneurysm was embolized with 9 cc of the liquid embolic agent. There were no complications, and the patient remained neurologically stable. Follow-up angiography revealed durable aneurysm occlusion after 1 year. The cost of Onyx was less than the cost of coils required for coil embolization of similarly sized intracranial aneurysms at our institution. Liquid embolic agents can provide a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective approach to treatment of select giant, posttraumatic, skull base aneurysms in pediatric patients.

  4. A case of central diabetes insipidus after ketamine infusion during an external to internal carotid artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, Sharib; Eskander, Jonathan P; Beakley, Burton D; McClure, Brian P; Amenta, Peter; Pierre, Nakeisha

    2017-02-01

    We report the first teenage case of ketamine-induced transient central diabetes insipidus. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with moyamoya disease undergoing an external carotid to internal carotid bypass and given a low-dose ketamine infusion. After approximately 2 hours in the supine position, with 0.5 Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane, a propofol infusion at 50 μg/kg/min, a remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min, and a ketamine infusion at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min, this patient had an excessive urine output. Initially, the Foley catheter contained 50 mL of urine. She was given 1500 mL of crystalloid during the case but produced 2700 mL of urine output. Increasing urine output was noted 1 hour into the procedure around the time that the patient experienced a 2-minute Cushing-like response characterized by bradycardia and hypertension. Several I-Stat samples revealed a worsening hypernatremia. The decision was made to check the urine osmolality and treat the patient with 4 μg of desmopressin (DDAVP). Urine output began to slow down to a normal rate of 2 mg/kg/h, as the patient was transferred from the operating room to the computed tomographic (CT) scanning room for a CT and CT angiogram; both were unremarkable. The neurosurgery team waited until the next day to complete the procedure. The procedure was completed successfully and uneventfully the next day without a ketamine infusion as part of the general anesthetic plan. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction score of 4 suggested a possible relationship between the patient's ketamine infusion and subsequent central diabetes insipidus. The 2 previous cases on this topic have suggested that ketamine, as an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, inhibits vasopressin release in the neurohypophysis. Urine output, urine osmolarity, and serum osmolarity should be monitored in patients given ketamine anesthetic; desmopressin should be present to prevent dangerous long-term sequela. Copyright © 2016

  5. Maximizing the petroclival region exposure via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach: where is the intrapetrous internal carotid artery?

    PubMed

    Colasanti, Roberto; Tailor, Al-Rahim A; Lamki, Tariq; Zhang, Jun; Ammirati, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Recent reports have validated the use of retrosigmoid approach extensions to deal with petroclival lesions. To describe the topographic retrosigmoid anatomy of the intrapetrous internal carotid artery (IICA), providing guidelines for maximizing the petroclival region exposure via this route. The IICA was exposed bilaterally in 6 specimens via a retrosigmoid approach in the semisitting position. Its topographic relationship with pertinent posterolateral cranial base landmarks was quantified with neuronavigation. Safe exposure of the IICA and the surrounding inframeatal/petroclival regions was accomplished in all specimens. On average, the IICA genu was 15.08 mm anterolateral to the XI nerve in the jugular foramen, 16.18 mm anteroinferolateral to the endolymphatic sac, and 10.63 mm anteroinferolateral to the internal acoustic meatus. On average, the IICA horizontal segment was 9.92 mm inferolateral to the Meckel cave, and its midpoint was 19.96 mm anterolateral to the XI nerve in the jugular foramen. The mean distance from the IICA genu to the cochlea was 1.96 mm. The genu and the midpoint of the horizontal segment of the IICA were exposed at a depth of approximately 14.50 mm from the posterior pyramidal wall with the use of different drilling angles (49.74° vs 39.54°, respectively). Knowledge of the IICA general relationship with these landmarks (combined with a careful assessment of the preoperative imaging and with the use of intraoperative navigation and micro-Doppler) may help to enhance the inframeatal/petroclival region exposure via a retrosigmoid route, maximizing safe inframeatal and suprameatal petrous bone removal while minimizing neurovascular complications.

  6. Left anterior descending artery percutaneous coronary intervention via the left internal mammary artery in a 54-year-old type 1 diabetic woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzak, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Data on the treatment of left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis involving or localized distally to left internal mammary artery anastomosis are scarce and not homogeneous. Both surgery (CABG) and percutaneous interventions (PCI) have been attempted, but the most effective treatment has not yet been established. We report a case of a 54-year-old woman suffering from chronic, stable angina and diabetes type 1 successfully treated with percutaneous angioplasty of LAD via the left internal mammary artery with drug-eluting stent implantation with excellent short-term results. PMID:24570698

  7. Endovascular management of iatrogenic cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a 9-year-old child: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Pinzón, Martín; Lobelo, Nelson Oswaldo; Rodríguez, María Claudia; Villamor, Perla; Otoya, Ana María

    2017-04-01

    Extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms are uncommon in the pediatric population and are usually secondary to direct trauma to the vessel. Treatment options include surgery (ligation), anticoagulation therapy and endovascular treatment. Endovascular covered stents have shown good results in adult populations, resulting in occlusion of the aneurysm and preservation of the artery without significant complications. However, there have been only limited reports in the literature reporting endovascular carotid stent placement in the pediatric population. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy patient, who developed a cervical ICA pseudoaneurysm after a parapharyngeal tumor resection. He was successfully treated by primary endovascular covered stent placement. During a follow-up of 6 months the patient has been asymptomatic, without any adverse event. Additionally, a literature review is done. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Thalamic dementia due to infarct of the left thalamus and genum of the right internal capsule].

    PubMed

    Porta-Etessam, J; Martínez-Salio, A; Berbel, A; Benito-León, J; García-Muñoz, A; Kesler, P; Mateo, S

    Thalamic dementia is the clinical consequence of a disorder of both thalami. It is generally secondary to bilateral paramedial thalamic infarcts due to disorders of small blood vessels or cardioembolism. We report a case of dementia of acute onset involving the left thalamus and the genum of the right internal capsule. A 33 year old man, HIV positive, category B2, admitted to hospital for tuberculous meningitis presented with the acute onset of somnolence, followed by marked bradypsychism, personality changes, marked disorder of executive explicit memory without associated praxic, gnosic or language disorders. Ocular motility remained normal. There was left central facial paralysis with inverse emotive voluntary dissociation. The other cranial nerves were normal. There was left hemiparesia with extensor plantar reflex. No other alterations. Cerebral MR imaging was compatible with paramedial infarcts of the left thalamus and genum of the right internal capsule. Thalamic dementia generally occurs in bilateral paramedian thalamic disorders. There are cases of disorders of executive memory secondary to infarcts of the genum of the internal capsule due to interruption of the thalamotemporal pathways and a contralateral paramedial thalamic lesion.

  9. [Microsurgical results of paraclinoid aneurysms of the internal carotid artery: microsurgery versus intravascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, S; Kawabata, S; Deguchi, J; Kuroiwa, T; Ohta, T; Tsuda, E

    1999-09-01

    Since paraclinoid aneurysms exhibit considerable variations in the surrounding skull base structures, some skill and experience are considered essential for their microsurgical treatment. On the other hand, intravascular coil embolization would be free from these extravascular factors. Fifty-two aneurysms in 48 patients were treated microsurgically. They were divided into an early series treated before 1995 and a late series treated after 1996. Three aneurysms in 3 patients were treated by intravascular surgery. Preoperative neuroimages, topographic anatomy and surgical results were compared retrospectively. The results in the microsurgical late series were better than those in the early series. While 89% of the patients exhibited excellent results with two patients left with partial visual field defect (7%) and one death (3%) in the early series, the rates in the late series were 95%, 5% and 0%, respectively. Complications and failure in neck clipping were considered to be due to such topography as, 1) C3 aneurysms extending into the anterior clinoid process, 2) multiple aneurysms, 3) ophthalmic artery originating near the dome, 4) atheroma or calcification at the neck, 5) marked medical shift of C2 segment, and 6) tight adhesion of the dural ring to the dome. Coil embolization was successful in two aneurysms, while it was given up in one. We currently propose that intravascular surgery is indicated for cases 1), 4), 5) and 6), and microsurgery would be more advantageous for cases where the neck is broad and where the topography concerning aneurysmal multiplicity or the branching site of the ophthalmic artery is not fully understood by preoperative imaging.

  10. Resection of a large carotid paraganglioma in Carney-Stratakis syndrome: a multidisciplinary feat

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Rebecca Spenser; Quddus, Ayyaz; Topham, Charlotte; Baker, Daryll

    2015-01-01

    A 39-year-old man was referred to the vascular surgeons with a right-sided cervical mass, palpitations, headaches and sweating. He had presented with abdominal discomfort 12 months earlier. Investigations had revealed a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and left adrenalectomy. CT of the neck with contrast demonstrated a large right carotid paraganglioma, extending superiorly from below the carotid bifurcation to encase the internal carotid artery. Genetic screening confirmed the diagnosis of Carney-Stratakis syndrome, an SDH-D germline mutation leading to GIST and multifocal paragangliomas. Successful surgical excision required considerable multidisciplinary teamwork between neuroendocrinologists, anaesthetists and surgeons. The tumour was highly vascular and involved the right carotid body, hypoglossal and vagus nerves. Access was challenging and maxillofacial surgical expertise were required for division of the mandible. The patient made a good recovery following speech and swallowing rehabilitation. PMID:25883251

  11. Multimodality management of carotid artery stenosis: reviewing the class-I evidence.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Shearwood

    2007-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality in the United States; approximately every three minutes a person will die from a stroke. Extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis (EICAS) accounts for approximately 25% of ischemic strokes, with an incidence as high as 10% in people aged > 80 years. Clinically, EICAS can manifest as a transient ischemic attack, although the vast majority of EICAS patients are asymptomatic. Symptomatic EICAS patients are at high risk for ischemic stroke if left untreated, and previous literature has shown that even patients with asymptomatic EICAS require treatment because the natural history of the disease precipitates an overall mortality rate of 4-7%. The three major treatment modalities for EICAS presently are medical management, carotid endarterectomy and carotid angioplasty with stenting. This review examines the class-I evidence (prospective randomized controlled trials) regarding optimal treatment modalities for management of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. PMID:18020098

  12. Severe symptomatic intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis treated with intracranial stenting: a single center study with 58 patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Liang; Gao, Bu-Lang; Li, Tian-Xiao; Cai, Dong-Yang; Zhu, Liang-Fu; Xue, Jiang-Yu; Bai, Wei-Xing; Li, Zhao-Shuo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of intracranial stenting in a population with severe (≥70%) symptomatic intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) atherosclerotic stenosis. METHODS Fifty-eight patients with severe intracranial ICA atherosclerotic stenosis were prospectively enrolled. The baseline data, cerebral angiography, success rate, perioperative complications, clinical and imaging follow-up were prospectively analyzed. RESULTS All patients had successful intracranial stenting (100%), and the mean degree of stenosis was improved from 84.3%±7.5% to 23.5%±5.1% after the stent procedure. During the 30-day perioperative period, only one patient (1.7%) had ischemic stroke. Seven patients (12.1%) had headache and dysphoria. Thirty-six patients (62.1%) had clinical follow-up for 6–68 months after stenting. Five female patients (13.9%) had ipsilateral stroke including one death, but no disabling stroke, while three other patients (8.3%) had ipsilateral temporary ischemic attack (TIA). The recurrent stroke rate was higher in patients presenting with stroke (4/17, 23.5%) than in patients presenting with TIA (1/19, 5.3%), with no statistical significance (P = 0.33). Thirteen patients (22.4%) had imaging follow-up of 5–12 months following stenting, five of whom (38.5%) had in-stent restenosis. CONCLUSION Intracranial stenting for patients with intracranial ICA atherosclerotic stenosis has a low perioperative stroke rate and decent outcome on long-term follow-up, despite a relatively high in-stent restenosis rate. PMID:26809831

  13. Impact of Endovascular Technique on Fluoroscopy Usage: Stent-Assisted Coiling versus Flow Diversion for Paraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Timothy R; Jindal, Gaurav; Krejza, Jaroslaw; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2014-01-01

    Summary Flow diversion is increasingly being utilized for the treatment of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of endovascular technique--flow diversion versus stent-assisted coiling (SAC) on fluoroscopy time in patients treated for wide-neck paraclinoid ICA aneurysms. A retrospective review identified the 20 most recent consecutive patients treated for wide-neck paraclinoid ICA aneurysms by flow diversion and SAC respectively. Fluoroscopy time, cumulative dose area-product (DAP), contrast usage, intra-procedural complications, and total procedure time were collected and compared between the two treatment techniques. Treatment groups were comparable in terms of demographics, contrast usage, and clinical and angiographic outcomes. Flow diversion was associated with a significant reduction in fluoroscopy time (52.0 minutes versus 77.4 minutes), and demonstrated a strong trend towards shorter total procedure time (172 minutes versus 202 minutes). Average patient radiation exposure as measured by DAP was lower in the flow diversion group, 13225 mGyxcm2 versus 15124 mGyxcm2, although this finding was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in contrast usage between the two groups, 152 ml and 159 (flow diversion and SAC respectively). The rate of complete aneurysm occlusion was higher in the flow diversion group (80% versus 60%). Endovascular treatment of paraclinoid ICA aneurysms with flow diversion is associated with shorter fluoroscopy times compared to stent-assisted coiling. There is also a likely reduction in overall procedure time. These results should be considered when recommending a treatment course for patients with such lesions. PMID:25489897

  14. Impact of Endovascular Technique on Fluoroscopy Usage: Stent-Assisted Coiling versus Flow Diversion for Paraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy R; Jindal, Gaurav; Krejza, Jaroslaw; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2014-12-01

    Flow diversion is increasingly being utilized for the treatment of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of endovascular technique--flow diversion versus stent-assisted coiling (SAC) on fluoroscopy time in patients treated for wide-neck paraclinoid ICA aneurysms. A retrospective review identified the 20 most recent consecutive patients treated for wide-neck paraclinoid ICA aneurysms by flow diversion and SAC respectively. Fluoroscopy time, cumulative dose area-product (DAP), contrast usage, intra-procedural complications, and total procedure time were collected and compared between the two treatment techniques. Treatment groups were comparable in terms of demographics, contrast usage, and clinical and angiographic outcomes. Flow diversion was associated with a significant reduction in fluoroscopy time (52.0 minutes versus 77.4 minutes), and demonstrated a strong trend towards shorter total procedure time (172 minutes versus 202 minutes). Average patient radiation exposure as measured by DAP was lower in the flow diversion group, 13225 mGy(x)cm(2) versus 15124 mGy(x)cm(2), although this finding was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in contrast usage between the two groups, 152 ml and 159 (flow diversion and SAC respectively). The rate of complete aneurysm occlusion was higher in the flow diversion group (80% versus 60%). Endovascular treatment of paraclinoid ICA aneurysms with flow diversion is associated with shorter fluoroscopy times compared to stent-assisted coiling. There is also a likely reduction in overall procedure time. These results should be considered when recommending a treatment course for patients with such lesions.

  15. Chronic and acute anemia and extracranial internal carotid stenosis are risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Bernaudin, Françoise; Verlhac, Suzanne; Arnaud, Cécile; Kamdem, Annie; Vasile, Manuela; Kasbi, Florence; Hau, Isabelle; Madhi, Fouad; Fourmaux, Christine; Biscardi, Sandra; Epaud, Ralph; Pondarré, Corinne

    2015-03-05

    Early transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening of the Créteil sickle cell anemia (SCA)-newborn cohort, and rapid initiation of transfusion programs, resulted in successful prevention of overt strokes, but a high cumulative risk of silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) remained, suggesting that TCD screening does not identify all patients with SCA at risk for SCI. We hypothesized that episodes of hypoperfusion/hypoxia, as observed during acute chest syndromes or acute anemic events (AAE), and extracranial internal carotid artery (eICA) stenoses, detectable via submandibular Doppler sonography and cervical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), could also be risk factors for SCI. This study includes 189 stroke-free patients with SCA from the Créteil newborn cohort (1992-2010) followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging/MRA, including cervical MRA at the last assessment. All patients with abnormal TCD and/or intracranial stenoses were placed on a transfusion program. Mean follow-up was 9.9 years (range, 2.2-19.9 years; 1844 patient-years). Annual rates of clinical events were calculated. The cumulative risk for SCI was 39.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.5%-54.7%) by age 18 years, with no plateau. We confirm that baseline hemoglobin level lower than 7 g/dL before age 3 years is a highly significant predictive risk factor for SCI (hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.43-6.17; P = .004). Furthermore, we show that AAE rate (odds ratio, 2.64 per unit increase; 95% CI, 1.09-6.38; P = .031) and isolated eICA stenosis (odds ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.18-8.70; P = .023) are significant and independent risk factors for SCI.

  16. Enhancement patterns in the fibro cellular tissue in different kinds of plaques of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Rantner, Barbara; Sojer, Martin; Kremser, Christian; Cartes-Zumelzu, Fabiola; Fraedrich, Gustav; Jaschke, Werner; Chemelli-Steingruber, Iris

    2013-11-01

    The differentiation between stable and vulnerable plaques in the internal carotid artery (ICA) remains a matter of interest. With the implementation of contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a more detailed plaque characterization is possible. The study at hand focuses on enhancement patterns of fibro cellular tissue in different kinds of plaques in the ICA. Between May 2011 and December 2012, 49 patients (39 male) with >50% stenosis of the ICA were consecutively enrolled. In 10 patients with bilateral ICA stenosis, both plaques were included for analysis. We performed a classification of plaques according to Cai and observed 11 type 4-5 plaques, 15 type 6 plaques and 33 type 8 plaques. MRI was performed on a 3T whole body MR system. The standard 12 channel head coil was combined with the neck extension coil and two bilateral 7 cm loop coils. Post-contrast T1w images were subtracted from pre contrast images to identify late enhancement in fibro cellular tissue. Enhancement patterns were allocated as intraluminal, intraplaque and vasa vasorum enhancement in different types of plaques. Fibro cellular tissue always exhibited a higher contrast enhancement compared to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. This reflects a higher grade of vascularization of the fibrocellular tissue. Contrast enhancement was present irrespective of the plaque type. In detail, intraluminal, intraplaque and vasa vasorum enhancement were observed in all types of plaques. Even type 8 plaques, according to the classification of Cai, had a significant contrast enhancement, though supposed to be with low inflammatory activity. Type 8 plaques might not be as stable as postulated. Whether the relevant uptake of contrast agent is due to the fibrous tissue or reflects the inflammatory activity of the plaque should be matter of further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of C1 bursting fracture on comparative anatomical relationship between the internal carotid artery and the atlas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Seok; Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Il Sup; Cho, Kyoung Seok; Kim, Sang Don; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Hong, Jae Taek

    2016-01-01

    To describe the effect of the C1 bursting fracture on the location of the internal carotid artery (ICA) around the atlas. The authors analyzed the morphology of the atlas and the ICA in 15 patients with C1 bursting fracture and compared with control group (77 patients) without any pathology. All patients were evaluated with CT angiography for the anatomical assessment. The laterality of the ICA, the distances of the ICA from the midline, anterior tubercle, and ventral surface of the C1 lateral mass were compared between two groups. The distance between the lateral margin of the longus capitis muscle and the inner edge of the transverse foramen was also measured. Medially located ICA was more common in the C1 bursting fracture group than control group (76.7 vs 42.8 %). There were no significant differences between 2 groups for the distance from the midline, anterior tubercle, and ventral surface of the C1 lateral mass, respectively. The distance of the longus capitis muscle to transverse foramen was 2.52 ± 2.09 and 4.15 ± 3.09 mm in each group, and there was statistically significant difference (p < 0.01). Lateral displacement of the bony structure of C1 bursting fracture changes the relative location of the ICA medially, which increase the injury risk during the bicortical C1 screw insertion. These data suggest that CT angiography or enhanced CT scans can give critical information to choose the ideal fixation technique and the proper trajectory of the screws for C1 bursting fracture.

  18. Current status of the treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery: A review.

    PubMed

    Ji, Tiefeng; Guo, Yunbao; Huang, Xiuying; Xu, Baofeng; Xu, Kan; Yu, Jinlu

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is challenging and utilizes many therapeutic methods, including direct clipping and suturing, clipping after wrapping, clipping after suturing, coil embolization, stent-assisted coil embolization, multiple overlapping stents, flow-diverting stents, covered stents, and trapping with or without bypass. In these therapeutic approaches, the optimal treatment method for BBAs has not yet been defined based on the current understanding of BBAs of the supraclinoid ICA. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to review the literature from PubMed to discuss and analyze the pros and cons of the above approaches while adding our own viewpoints to the discussion. Among the surgical methods, direct clipping was the easiest method if the compensation of the collateral circulation of the intracranial distal ICA was sufficient or direct clipping did not induce stenosis in the parent artery. In addition, the clipping after wrapping technique should be chosen as the optimal surgical modality to prevent rebleeding from these lesions. Among the endovascular methods, multiple overlapping stents (≥3) with coils may be a feasible alternative for the treatment of ruptured BBAs. In addition, flow-diverting stents appear to have a higher rate of complete occlusion and a lower rate of retreatment and are a promising treatment method. Finally, when all treatments failed or the compensation of the collateral circulation of the intracranial distal ICA was insufficient, the extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) arterial bypass associated with surgical or endovascular trapping, a complex and highly dangerous method, was used as the treatment of last resort.

  19. Rupture of symptomatic blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery: clinical experience and management outcome.

    PubMed

    Yu-Tse, Liu; Ho-Fai, Wong; Cheng-Chi, Lee; Chu-Mei, Ku; Yi-Chou, Wang; Tao-Chieh, Yang

    2012-06-01

    Aneurysms at nonbranching sites in the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA), known as blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs), are rare entities and differ from saccular aneurysms. In this study, we attempt to describe our clinical experience and the outcome of treatments for BBAs. Thirteen of 745 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who visited our institution between March 2005 and July 2010, and were confirmed to have BBAs at nonbranching sites of the supraclinoid ICA by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or computed tomography angiography, were followed-up. In these patients, several therapeutic managements were provided depending on their clinical condition. Data analyzed included patient age, sex, World Federation of Neurologic Surgeons (WFNS) scale, time interval from first DSA to second DSA, treatment of aneurysms, and the modified Rankin scale score at follow-up, 6 months after SAH. Of these 13 patients, 5 underwent rapid configuration change from blood blister-like aneurysm to saccular-shaped. Different therapeutic managements were provided, including clipping on wrapping material in 2 patients, ICA trapping without extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass in 3 patients, EC-IC bypass and ICA trapping in 3 patients, transarterial endovascular therapy in 3 patients, direct clipping in 1 patient, and external ventricular drainage in 1 patient. Good clinical outcome was achieved in 4 patients, whereas the other 9 patients had moderate to severe disability due to rebleeding of aneurysms, large cerebral infarction, or severe cerebral vasospasm. BBAs of the supraclinoid ICA have special neuroradiological and clinicopathological characteristics. Direct clipping or endovascular coil embolization along may not be sufficient and sometimes have undesirable results. ICA trapping or ligation including the lesion segment can be considered an alternative choice if the balloon occlusion test (BOT) is successful. However, if the patient does not

  20. Current status of the treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Tiefeng; Guo, Yunbao; Huang, Xiuying; Xu, Baofeng; Xu, Kan; Yu, Jinlu

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is challenging and utilizes many therapeutic methods, including direct clipping and suturing, clipping after wrapping, clipping after suturing, coil embolization, stent-assisted coil embolization, multiple overlapping stents, flow-diverting stents, covered stents, and trapping with or without bypass. In these therapeutic approaches, the optimal treatment method for BBAs has not yet been defined based on the current understanding of BBAs of the supraclinoid ICA. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to review the literature from PubMed to discuss and analyze the pros and cons of the above approaches while adding our own viewpoints to the discussion. Among the surgical methods, direct clipping was the easiest method if the compensation of the collateral circulation of the intracranial distal ICA was sufficient or direct clipping did not induce stenosis in the parent artery. In addition, the clipping after wrapping technique should be chosen as the optimal surgical modality to prevent rebleeding from these lesions. Among the endovascular methods, multiple overlapping stents (≥3) with coils may be a feasible alternative for the treatment of ruptured BBAs. In addition, flow-diverting stents appear to have a higher rate of complete occlusion and a lower rate of retreatment and are a promising treatment method. Finally, when all treatments failed or the compensation of the collateral circulation of the intracranial distal ICA was insufficient, the extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) arterial bypass associated with surgical or endovascular trapping, a complex and highly dangerous method, was used as the treatment of last resort. PMID:28553172

  1. Hemodynamics in the Circle of Willis with Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis under Cervical Rotatory Manipulation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Weishen; Ma, Xiaokang; Deng, Datai; Li, Yikai

    2015-01-01

    Background The circle of Willis (CoW) plays an important role in cerebral collateral circulation. The hemodynamics changes in the CoW have usually been associated with the internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, but whether rotatory manipulation will affect it remains unknown. Material/Methods In this study we attempted to analyze the influence of rotatory manipulation on the hemodynamics in the CoW in models with or without ICA stenosis by means of finite element analysis. For this purpose, the CoW was reasonably simplified and a fluid-solid coupling 3D finite element model was created by using MIMICS10.0 and ANSYS14.5. The healthy (without stenosis) and the diseased (ratios of stenosis include 15%, 30%, 45%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%) situations were simulated. A remote displacement of 60° was applied at a distal ICA (the right ICA was chosen here) to imitate the rotatory manipulation. Blood flow was then monitored at the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PCoA). Results Before the conduction of rotatory manipulation, blood flow changed significantly only when the stenosis ratio was increased to more than 70%, and the situation did not have significant difference after the application of remote displacement except the model with stenosis ration of 90%. Conclusions The result suggests that the rotatory manipulation does not have an obvious influence on the blood flow in the CoW when the stenosis of ICA is less than 90%, and this kind of manipulation is suggested to be a safe technique in most of the clinical applications. PMID:26103051

  2. Fusion 3-Dimensional Angiography of Both Internal Carotid Arteries in the Evaluation of Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuhyun; Koo, Hae-Won; Park, Wonhyoung; Kim, Jin Su; Choi, Choong Gon; Park, Jung Cheol; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kwon, Do Hoon; Kwun, Byung Duk; Lee, Deok Hee

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether fusion 3-dimensional (3D) angiography of both internal carotid arteries can better disclose vascular details in patients diagnosed with anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms by computed tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with ACoA aneurysms by CTA or MRA were evaluated by the new postprocessing feature, fusion 3D angiography, with results individually interpreted by 4 experts. Those experts compared fusion 3D angiography with dominant A1 side single 3D angiography to define advantages and disadvantages for ACoA aneurysms. Patients with unilateral A1 aplasia or rudimentary A1 were excluded. Patients who showed any disadvantages with this additional feature were classified as group 1, those with no advantages were classified as group 2, those with 1 or 2 advantages were classified as group 3, and those with 3 or more advantages were classified as group 4. Radiologic and clinical results were also evaluated. Of the 38 patients, 33 (87%) benefited from fusion 3D angiography, including 17 in group 3 and 16 in group 4; of the remaining patients, 1 was classified as group 1 and 4 were classified as group 2. Representative 5 categories of advantage to fusion angiography were found and summarized by the 4 experts. All 33 patients showed defining the exact anatomy of the ACoA, and 22 (67%) showed full angiographic features of A2 or A3, including branches. Fusion 3D angiography can significantly contribute to a better understanding of the complex anatomy of the anterior cerebral artery-ACoA complex, which is essential for successful treatment planning for ACoA aneurysms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke with internal carotid artery occlusion: a systematic review of clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mokin, Maxim; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Kass-Hout, Omar; Dumont, Travis M; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V; Hopkins, L Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I

    2012-09-01

    Strokes secondary to acute internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion are associated with extremely poor prognosis. The best treatment approach to acute stroke in this setting is unknown. We sought to determine clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke attributable to ICA occlusion treated with intravenous (IV) systemic thrombolysis or intra-arterial endovascular therapy. Using the PubMed database, we searched for studies that included patients with acute ischemic stroke attributable to ICA occlusion who received treatment with IV thrombolysis or intra-arterial endovascular interventions. Studies providing data on functional outcomes beyond 30 days and mortality and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) rates were included in our analysis. We compared the proportions of patients with favorable functional outcomes, sICH, and mortality rates in the 2 treatment groups by calculating χ(2) and confidence intervals for odds ratios. We identified 28 studies with 385 patients in the IV thrombolysis group and 584 in the endovascular group. Rates of favorable outcomes and sICH were significantly higher in the endovascular group than the IV thrombolysis-only group (33.6% vs 24.9%, P=0.004 and 11.1% vs 4.9%, P=0.001, respectively). No significant difference in mortality rate was found between the groups (27.3% in the IV thrombolysis group vs 32.0% in the endovascular group; P=0.12). According to our systematic review, endovascular treatment of acute ICA occlusion results in improved clinical outcomes. A higher rate of sICH after endovascular treatment does not result in increased overall mortality rate.

  4. Internal migration, international migration, and physical growth of left-behind children: A study of two settings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao

    2015-11-01

    Parental out-migration has become a common experience of childhood worldwide and tends to have important ramifications for child development. There has been much debate on whether overall children benefit or suffer from parental out-migration. The present study examines how the relationship between parental out-migration and children's growth differs by the type of migration (internal vs. international). This comparison is conducted in two diverse settings, Mexico and Indonesia. Data are from two national longitudinal surveys: the Mexican Family Life Survey and the Indonesian Family Life Survey. Results from fixed-effect regressions show that international migration tends to have a less beneficial, sometimes even more detrimental, impact on the growth of children left behind than internal migration. Results also reveal contextual differences in the role of parental out-migration. Possible explanations are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Anatomical and functional characteristics of carotid sinus stimulation in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, R. G.; Smith, S. A.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Secher, N. H.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    Transmission characteristics of pneumatic pressure to the carotid sinus were evaluated in 19 subjects at rest and during exercise. Either a percutaneous fluid-filled (n = 12) or balloon-tipped catheter (n = 7) was placed at the carotid bifurcation to record internal transmission of external neck pressure/neck suction (NP/NS). Sustained, 5-s pulses, and rapid ramping pulse protocols (+40 to -80 Torr) were recorded. Transmission of pressure stimuli was less with the fluid-filled catheter compared with that of the balloon-tipped catheter (65% vs. 82% negative pressure, 83% vs. 89% positive pressure; P < 0.05). Anatomical location of the carotid sinus averaged 3.2 cm (left) and 3.6 cm (right) from the gonion of the mandible with a range of 0-7.5 cm. Transmission was not altered by exercise or Valsalva maneuver, but did vary depending on the position of the carotid sinus locus beneath the sealed chamber. These data indicate that transmission of external NP/NS was higher than previously recorded in humans, and anatomical variation of carotid sinus location and equipment design can affect transmission results.

  6. Anatomical and functional characteristics of carotid sinus stimulation in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, R. G.; Smith, S. A.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Secher, N. H.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    Transmission characteristics of pneumatic pressure to the carotid sinus were evaluated in 19 subjects at rest and during exercise. Either a percutaneous fluid-filled (n = 12) or balloon-tipped catheter (n = 7) was placed at the carotid bifurcation to record internal transmission of external neck pressure/neck suction (NP/NS). Sustained, 5-s pulses, and rapid ramping pulse protocols (+40 to -80 Torr) were recorded. Transmission of pressure stimuli was less with the fluid-filled catheter compared with that of the balloon-tipped catheter (65% vs. 82% negative pressure, 83% vs. 89% positive pressure; P < 0.05). Anatomical location of the carotid sinus averaged 3.2 cm (left) and 3.6 cm (right) from the gonion of the mandible with a range of 0-7.5 cm. Transmission was not altered by exercise or Valsalva maneuver, but did vary depending on the position of the carotid sinus locus beneath the sealed chamber. These data indicate that transmission of external NP/NS was higher than previously recorded in humans, and anatomical variation of carotid sinus location and equipment design can affect transmission results.

  7. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with concurrent bilateral carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Karpinska, Anna; Patzig, Maximilian; Adamczyk, Christopher; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Wollenweber, Frank A; Dichgans, Martin; Jahn, Klaus; Opherk, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The pathophysiological basis of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is poorly understood but carotid artery dissection has been discussed as a rare possible cause. So far, only single cases of unilateral carotid artery dissection and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome have been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 54-year old patient presenting to the emergency department with right hemiparesis, hypaesthesia and dysarthria. Furthermore, he reported two episodes of thunderclap headache after autosexual activity. Cerebral imaging showed ischaemic infarcts, slight cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage, bilateral carotid artery dissection and fluctuating intracranial vessel irregularities, compatible with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. An extensive diagnostic work-up was normal. No typical trigger factors of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome could be found. The patient received intravenous heparin and the calcium channel blocker nimodipine. Follow-up imaging revealed no vessel irregularities, the left internal carotid artery was still occluded. This case supports the assumption that carotid artery dissection should be considered as a potential trigger of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, possibly by altering sympathetic vascular tone.

  8. Risk factors for neurological worsening and symptomatic watershed infarction in internal carotid artery aneurysm treated by extracranial-intracranial bypass using radial artery graft.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Hidetoshi; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Tsuboi, Toshiyuki; Noda, Kosumo; Ota, Nakao; Miyata, Shiro; Oda, Jumpei; Takeda, Rihee; Tokuda, Sadahisa; Kamada, Kyousuke

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT The revascularization technique, including bypass created using the external carotid artery (ECA), radial artery (RA), and M2 portion of middle cerebral artery (MCA), has remained indispensable for treatment of complex aneurysms. To date, it remains unknown whether diameters of the RA, superficial temporal artery (STA), and C2 portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and intraoperative MCA blood pressure have influences on the outcome and the symptomatic watershed infarction (WI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the factors for the symptomatic WI and neurological worsening in patients treated by ECA-RA-M2 bypass for complex ICA aneurysm with therapeutic ICA occlusion. METHODS The authors measured the sizes of vessels (RA, C2, M2, and STA) and intraoperative MCA blood pressure (initial, after ICA occlusion, and after releasing the RA graft bypass) in 37 patients. Symptomatic WI was defined as presence of the following: postoperative new neurological deficits, WI on postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging, and ipsilateral cerebral blood flow reduction on SPECT. Neurological worsening was defined as the increase in 1 or more modified Rankin Scale scores. First, the authors performed receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for continuous variables and the binary end point of the symptomatic WI. The clinical, radiological, and physiological characteristics of patients with and without the symptomatic WI were compared using the log-rank test. Then, the authors compared the variables between patients with and without neurological worsening at discharge and at the 12-month follow-up examination or last hospital visit. RESULTS Symptomatic WI was observed in 2 (5.4%) patients. The mean MCA pressure after releasing the RA graft (< 55 mm Hg; p = 0.017), mean (MCA pressure after releasing the RA graft)/(initial MCA pressure) (< 0.70 mm Hg; p = 0.032), and mean cross-sectional area ratio ([RA/C2 diameter](2) < 0.40 mm [p < 0.0001] and [STA/C2

  9. Carotid duplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... moved around your neck. The pressure should not cause any pain. You may also hear a "whooshing" sound. This is normal. ... clotting (thrombosis) Narrowing in the arteries (stenosis) Other ... an abnormal sound called a bruit over the carotid neck arteries. ...

  10. Carotid Endarterectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is not a cure. Your arteries can become blocked again if your underlying condition, such as high ... or cut, on your neck to expose the blocked section of the carotid artery. Your surgeon will ...

  11. [Grafting of carotid arteries].

    PubMed

    Belov, Iu V; Stepanenko, A B; Gens, A P; Bazylev, V V; Seleznev, M N; Savichev, D D

    2005-01-01

    Over 5-years, 167 reconstructive surgeries for stenosis of internal carotid arteries (ICA) were performed in 124 patients. Mean age of the patients was 63.5 years. One hundred and twenty-nine carotid endarterectomies (CEAE) in 86 patients and 38 reconstructive operations of ICA in 38 patients were performed. There were no lethal outcomes in short- and long-term postoperative period. In short-term period after prosthesis of ICA restenosis was revealed in 3% patients, after eversion CEAE in 3% patients the embolism was seen, after standard CEAE restenosis were diagnosed in 8% patients and thrombosis -- in 3%. In long-term period after grafting of ICA the strokes were seen in 3%, stenosis -- in 6% patients, after eversion endarterectomy -- in 0 and 3% patients, and after standard CEAE -- in 3 and 24% patients, respectively. It is concluded that grafting of ICA is adequate surgical method of reconstruction and stroke prevention in specific variants of carotid atherosclerosis.

  12. Unilateral congenital elongation of the cervical part of the internal carotid artery with kinking and looping: two case reports and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikov, Nikolai A; Rao, Ramesh T; Rao, Suresh R

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral and bilateral variation in the course and elongation of the cervical (extracranial) part of the internal carotid artery (ICA) leading to its tortuosity, kinking and coiling or looping is not a rare condition, which could be caused by both embryological and acquired factors. Patients with such variations may be asymptomatic in some cases; in others, they can develop cerebrovascular symptoms due to carotid stenosis affecting cerebral circulation. The risk of transient ischemic attacks in patients with carotid stenosis is high and its surgical correction is indicated for the prevention of ischemic stroke. Detection of developmental variations of the ICA and evaluation of its stenotic areas is very important for surgical interventions and involves specific diagnostic imaging techniques for vascular lesions including contrast arteriography, duplex ultrasonography and magnetic resonance angiography. Examination of obtained images in cases of unusual and complicated variations of vascular pattern of the ICA may lead to confusion in interpretation of data. Awareness about details and topographic anatomy of variations of the ICA may serve as a useful guide for both radiologists and vascular surgeons. It may help to prevent diagnostic errors, influence surgical tactics and interventional procedures and avoid complications during the head and neck surgery. Our present study was conducted with a purpose of updating data about developmental variations of the ICA. Dissections of the main neurovascular bundle of the head and neck were performed on a total 14 human adult cadavers (10 – Africans: 7 males & 3 females and 4 – East Indians: all males). Two cases of unilateral congenital elongation of the cervical part of the ICA with kinking and looping and carotid stenoses were found only in African males. Here we present their detailed case reports with review of the literature. PMID:17650347

  13. Anatomical and technical factors associated with stroke or death during carotid angioplasty and stenting: results from the endarterectomy versus angioplasty in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis (EVA-3S) trial and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Naggara, Olivier; Touzé, Emmanuel; Beyssen, Bernard; Trinquart, Ludovic; Chatellier, Gilles; Meder, Jean-François; Mas, Jean-Louis

    2011-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the relationships between anatomic and technical factors and the 30-day risk of stroke or death after carotid angioplasty and stenting in the Endarterectomy versus Stenting in Patients with Symptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis (EVA-3S) trial and to perform a systematic review of the literature. We included patients from EVA-3S in whom carotid stenting was attempted irrespective of allocated treatment. Two radiologists blinded to clinical data independently assessed the aortic arch and carotid arteries on procedural angiograms. In addition, we performed a systematic review of studies that reported 30-day risk of stroke or death in relation with arterial anatomy and technique. Outcomes were stroke or death and stroke occurring within 30 days of the carotid angioplasty and stenting procedure. Two hundred sixty-two patients from EVA-3S fulfilled the inclusion criteria (including 1 initially allocated to surgery and 13 in whom stent insertion failed).Within 30 days after the procedure, 25 (9.5%) patients had a stroke or had died. The risk of stroke or death was higher in patients with internal carotid artery-common carotid artery angulation ≥60° (relative risk, 4.96; 2.29 to 10.74) and lower in those treated with cerebral protection devices (relative risk [RR], 0.38; 0.17 to 0.85). In the systematic review (56 studies; 34 398 patients), the risk of stroke or death was higher in patients with left-sided carotid angioplasty and stenting (RR, 1.29; 1.05 to 1.58), increased internal carotid artery-common carotid artery angulation (RR, 3.41; 1.52 to 7.63), and when the target internal carotid artery stenosis was >10 mm (RR, 2.36; 1.28 to 3.38). There was no significant increase in risk of stroke or death in patients with Type III aortic arch, aortic arch calcification, or with ostial involvement, calcification, ulceration or degree of stenosis of the target internal carotid artery stenosis. The use of a cerebral protection device

  14. Silent embolic infarcts on computed tomography brain scans and risk of ipsilateral hemispheric events in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kakkos, Stavros K; Sabetai, Michael; Tegos, Thomas; Stevens, John; Thomas, Dafydd; Griffin, Maura; Geroulakos, George; Nicolaides, Andrew N

    2009-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that silent embolic infarcts on computed tomography (CT) brain scans can predict ipsilateral neurologic hemispheric events and stroke in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. In a prospective multicenter natural history study, 821 patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis graded with duplex scanning who had CT brain scans were monitored every 6 months for a maximum of 8 years. Duplex scans were reported centrally, and stenosis was expressed as a percentage in relation to the normal distal internal carotid criteria used by the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trialists. CT brain scans were reported centrally by a neuroradiologist. In 146 patients (17.8%), 8 large cortical, 15 small cortical, 72 discrete subcortical, and 51 basal ganglia ipsilateral infarcts were present; these were considered likely to be embolic and were classified as such. Other infarct types, lacunes (n = 15), watershed (n = 9), and the presence of diffuse white matter changes (n = 95) were not considered to be embolic. During a mean follow-up of 44.6 months (range, 6 months-8 years), 102 ipsilateral hemispheric neurologic events (amaurosis fugax in 16, 38 transient ischemic attacks [TIAs], and 47 strokes) occurred, 138 patients died, and 24 were lost to follow-up. In 462 patients with 60% to 99% stenosis, the cumulative event-free rate at 8 years was 0.81 (2.4% annual event rate) when embolic infarcts were absent and 0.63 (4.6% annual event rate) when present (log-rank P = .032). In 359 patients with <60% stenosis, embolic infarcts were not associated with increased risk (log-rank P = .65). In patients with 60% to 99% stenosis, the cumulative stroke-free rate was 0.92 (1.0% annual stroke rate) when embolic infarcts were absent and 0.71 (3.6% annual stroke rate) when present (log-rank P = .002). In the subgroup of 216 with moderate 60% to 79% stenosis, the cumulative TIA or stroke-free rate in the absence and presence of

  15. Carotid Artery Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should ... information about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find ...

  16. Urgent endarterectomy using pretreatment with free radical scavenger, edaravone, and early clamping of the parent arteries for cervical carotid artery stenosis with crescendo transient ischemic attacks caused by mobile thrombus and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Case report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Inoue, Takashi; Saito, Hideo; Komoribayashi, Nobukazu; Suga, Yasunori; Ogawa, Akira

    2007-03-01

    A 68-year-old man with left cervical internal carotid artery stenosis suffered crescendo transient ischemic attacks caused by mobile thrombus detected by carotid echography and secondary impairment of cerebral hemodynamic reserve demonstrated by positron emission tomography. Urgent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) was performed following pretreatment with edaravone and early clamping of the carotid arteries without intraluminal shunting. The postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography revealed no new cerebral ischemic lesions and no findings of cerebral hyperperfusion, respectively. The risks associated with CEA are higher for patients with evolving stroke or crescendo transient ischemic attacks than that for patients with stable disease. This case demonstrates that urgent endarterectomy for cervical carotid artery stenosis with crescendo transient ischemic attacks caused by mobile thrombi and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia can be successfully performed following pretreatment with edaravone and early clamping of the carotid arteries.

  17. Acute subdural haematoma without subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by rupture of an internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Koerbel, A; Ernemann, U; Freudenstein, D

    2005-07-01

    Spontaneous pure acute subdural haematoma (ASDH) without intraparenchymal or subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is extremely rare. To our knowledge, the present case is the first report of an internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm presenting as pure ASDH. Suitable diagnostic investigations and therapeutic strategies are discussed. Arterial origin of bleeding should be considered in all cases of non-traumatic ASDH and a vascular anomaly has to be excluded. The neurological status on admission dictates the appropriate timing and methodology of the neuroradiological investigations.

  18. Plaie iatrogène de l'artère carotide commune secondaire a un cathétérisme veineux jugulaire interne

    PubMed Central

    Lame, Cheikh Ahmédou; Loum, Birame; Keita, Ibrahima; Diallo, Thierno Boubacar; Sow, Alamasso

    2017-01-01

    La plaie carotidienne lors du cathétérisme jugulaire veineux est un accident rare mais pouvant être dramatique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hématome cervical compressif avec hémothorax survenu à la suite d'une plaie de l'artère carotide commune au décours d'un cathétérisme veineux jugulaire interne. Le diagnostic et la prise en charge de ce type de complication sont discutés. PMID:28450997

  19. Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery Fenestration Harboring an Unruptured Aneurysm and Another Remote Ruptured Aneurysm: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A fenestration of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare congenital condition. We report an aneurysm arising from the proximal end of an ICA fenestration that was treated by endovascular coiling. Three-dimensional rotational angiography of preoperative cerebral angiography provided an understanding of the complex anatomy of the aneurysms associated with the fenestration and may facilitate the clinical decision regarding the treatment option. Endovascular coiling appears to be safe and effective for treating an aneurysm originating from a fenestration on the supraclinoid ICA, which is a difficult lesion to treat using a conventional surgical approach. PMID:23346545

  20. Risk of mental health and nutritional problems for left-behind children of international labor migrants.

    PubMed

    Wickramage, Kolitha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Vidanapathirana, Puwalani; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Jayasekara, Buddhini; Pannala, Gayani; Adikari, Anushka; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Peiris, Sharika; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-03-06

    One-in-ten Sri Lankans are employed abroad as International Labor Migrants (ILM), mainly as domestic maids or low-skilled laborers. Little is known about the impact their migration has on the health status of the children they 'leave behind'. This national study explored associations between the health status of 'left-behind' children of ILM's with those from comparative non-migrant families. A cross-sectional study design with multi-stage random sampling was used to survey a total of 820 children matched for both age and sex. Socio-demographic and health status data were derived using standardized pre-validated instruments. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the differences in mental health outcomes between children of migrant vs. non-migrant families. Two in every five left-behind children were shown to have mental disorders [95%CI: 37.4-49.2, p < 0.05], suggesting that socio-emotional maladjustment and behavioural problems may occur in absence of a parent in left-behind children. Male left-behind children were more vulnerable to psychopathology. In the adjusted analyses, significant associations between child psychopathological outcomes, child gender and parent's mental health status were observed. Over a quarter (30%) of the left-behind children aged 6-59 months were 'underweight or severely underweight' compared to 17.7% of non-migrant children. Findings provide evidence on health consequences for children of migrant worker families in a country experiencing heavy out-migration of labour, where remittances from ILM's remain as the single highest contributor to the economy. These findings may be relevant for other labour 'sending countries' in Asia relying on contractual labor migration for economic gain. Further studies are needed to assess longitudinal health impacts on the children left-behind.

  1. Comparison Between Balloon-Assisted and Stent-Assisted Technique for Treatment of Unruptured Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Park, Keun Young; Kim, Dong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare clinical and angiographic outcomes between balloon-assisted (BAC) and stent-assisted coiling for internal carotid artery unruptured aneurysms (ICA-UA). Materials and Methods A total of 227 ICA-UA in 190 patients were treated with BAC (120 patients, 141 ICA-UA) or SAC (70 patients, 86 ICA-UA. We compared characteristics of patients and ICA-UA, and clinical and angiographic outcomes between groups. Results Aneurysm size and neck diameter were greater for SAC than in BAC, but aneurysm volume and coil packing density were not different between groups. Immediate angiographic occlusion grade was better for BAC than for SAC. Periprocedural thromboembolic events were more frequent during SAC (11.6%) than BAC (2.4%) per aneurysm, but hemorrhagic events were the opposite (2.4% for BAC and none for SAC per aneurysm) (p < 0.05). At discharge, treatment-related morbi-mortality rates were 1.6% for BAC and 1.4% per patient for SAC. At clinical follow-up (BAC, 118 patients [98.3%] for a mean of 48.4 months; SAC, 69 patients [98.6%], for a mean of 37.4 months), 1 additional treatment-related infarction occurred during SAC, resulting in a modified Rankin scale score of 4. Thus, overall treatment-related morbi-mortality rates were 1.7% in BAC and 2.9% in SAC. At imaging follow-up (BAC, 135 aneurysms [95.7%] for 28.3 months; SAC, 81 aneurysms [94.1%] for 23.9 months), BAC and SAC showed stable or improved occlusion in 94.1% and 95.0%, minor recurrence in 4.4% and 2.5%, and major recurrence in 1.5% and 2.5%, respectively. Conclusion Both BAC and SAC were safe and effective techniques for ICA-UA. There were no differences in morbi-mortality and recurrence rates between groups. PMID:27621946

  2. Vascular Balloon Injury and Intraluminal Administration in Rat Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Trebak, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The carotid artery balloon injury model in rats has been well established for over two decades. It remains an important method to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in vascular smooth muscle dedifferentiation, neointima formation and vascular remodeling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are the most frequently employed animals for this model. Female rats are not preferred as female hormones are protective against vascular diseases and thus introduce a variation into this procedure. The left carotid is typically injured with the right carotid serving as a negative control. Left carotid injury is caused by the inflated balloon that denudes the endothelium and distends the vessel wall. Following injury, potential therapeutic strategies such as the use of pharmacological compounds and either gene or shRNA transfer can be evaluated. Typically for gene or shRNA transfer, the injured section of the vessel lumen is locally transduced for 30 min with viral particles encoding either a protein or shRNA for delivery and expression in the injured vessel wall. Neointimal thickening representing proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells usually peaks at 2 weeks after injury. Vessels are mostly harvested at this time point for cellular and molecular analysis of cell signaling pathways as well as gene and protein expression. Vessels can also be harvested at earlier time points to determine the onset of expression and/or activation of a specific protein or pathway, depending on the experimental aims intended. Vessels can be characterized and evaluated using histological staining, immunohistochemistry, protein/mRNA assays, and activity assays. The intact right carotid artery from the same animal is an ideal internal control. Injury-induced changes in molecular and cellular parameters can be evaluated by comparing the injured artery to the internal right control artery. Likewise, therapeutic modalities can be evaluated by comparing the injured and treated artery to the

  3. Bilateral vs single internal thoracic artery grafting for left main coronary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Otaki, M; Lust, R M; Sun, Y S; Norton, T O; Spence, P A; Zeri, R S; Hopson, S B; Chitwood, R

    1994-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare the coronary flow distributed by single and bilateral internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts in the setting of the left main coronary occlusion. Ten dogs underwent coronary artery bypass grafting through a left thoracotomy, off pump, using a brief local occlusion to perform the anastomosis. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a single left ITA (LITA) graft to the circumflex coronary artery (CFX), or bilateral ITA grafts, with additional placement of the right ITA (RITA) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD). After the grafts were placed, the left main coronary artery was ligated. Electromagnetic flows were obtained in the LAD and the CFX proximally and distally to ITA grafts in both groups before grafting and after grafting. ITA flow in situ was also measured before rotation from the chest wall. Total left ventricular flow requirements were satisfied equally well by either a single LITA graft (116.7 +/- 11.6 mL/min) or bilateral ITA grafts (total, 116.8 +/- 9.6 mL/min divided as LITA, 55.9 +/- 7.4 mL/min; RITA, 60.9 +/- 12.0 mL/min). When two grafts were replaced, competitive flow in the proximal regions of both native vessels was noted, although basal flow requirements were maintained. When an individual graft was occluded in the bilaterally grafted system, the remaining graft immediately recruited the additional flow, demonstrating that either right or left ITA can support flow demands five to six times higher than in situ chest wall flow (RITA, 21.9 +/- 3.1 mL/min; LITA, 22.3 +/- 4.9 mL/min). These data suggest that in this canine model, a single ITA graft can support the entire flow requirements of the left ventricle. Assuming no intervening stenosis is present in native coronary systems, bilateral ITA grafting may provide a margin of safety, but under resting conditions, provides no perfusion advantages over a single ITA graft.

  4. Internal medicine point-of-care ultrasound assessment of left ventricular function correlates with formal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benjamin K; Tierney, David M; Rosborough, Terry K; Harris, Kevin M; Newell, Marc C

    2016-02-01

    Although focused cardiac ultrasonographic (FoCUS) examination has been evaluated in emergency departments and intensive care units with good correlation to formal echocardiography, accuracy for the assessment of left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) when performed by internal medicine physicians still needs independent evaluation. This prospective observational study in a 640-bed, academic, quaternary care center, included 178 inpatients examined by 10 internal medicine physicians who had completed our internal medicine bedside ultrasound training program. The ability to estimate LVSF with FoCUS as "normal," "mild to moderately decreased," or "severely decreased" was compared with left ventricular ejection fraction (>50%, 31-49%, and <31%, respectively) from formal echocardiography interpreted by a cardiologist. Sensitivity and specificity of FoCUS for any degree of LVSF impairment were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80, 0.97) and 0.88 (95% CI 0.81, 0.93), respectively. The interrater agreement between internal medicine physician-performed FoCUS and formal echocardiography for any LVSF impairment was "good/substantial" with κ = 0.77 (p < 0.001), 95% CI (0.67, 0.87). Formal echocardiography was classified as "technically limited due to patient factors" in 20% of patients; however, echogenicity was sufficient in 100% of FoCUS exams to classify LVSF. Internal medicine physicians using FoCUS identify normal versus decreased LVSF with high sensitivity, specificity, and "good/substantial" interrater agreement when compared with formal echocardiography. These results support the role of cardiac FoCUS by properly trained internal medicine physicians for discriminating normal from reduced LVSF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Carotid endarterectomy under local anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, A L; Belov, Iu V

    2001-01-01

    Results of carotid endarterectomy (CEAE) in 193 patients with different degree of cerebrovascular insufficiency were analyzed. All the patients were men with carotid atherosclerosis (age from 39 to 68 years, mean age 53.6 +/- 0.4). A total of 253 CEAEs were performed under local anesthesia (60 patients underwent consecutive bilateral operations). In early postoperative period 3 patients died, one of them--of ischemic stroke due to thrombosis of internal carotid artery on the side of the operation. Non-fatal stroke was in 1 patient. There were no intraoperative cerebral complications. This testifies to reliability of cerebral circulation control through direct contact with patient.

  6. Delayed aneurysm rupture due to residual blood flow at the inflow zone of the intracranial paraclinoid internal carotid aneurysm treated with the Pipeline embolization device: Histopathological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ando, Mitsushige; Chihara, Hideo; Arai, Daisuke; Hattori, Etsuko; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysm rupture is a serious complication that can occur after flow diverter (FD) placement, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We encountered a case in which direct stress on the aneurysm wall caused by residual blood flow at the inflow zone near the neck during the process of thrombosis after FD placement appeared associated with aneurysm rupture. The patient was a 67-year-old woman with progressive optic nerve compression symptoms caused by a large intracranial paraclinoid internal carotid aneurysm. The patient had undergone treatment with a Pipeline embolization device (PED) with satisfactory adherence between the PED and vessel wall. Surgery was completed without complications, and optic nerve compression symptoms improved immediately after treatment. Postoperative clinical course was satisfactory, but the patient suddenly died 34 days postoperatively. Autopsy confirmed the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of the internal carotid aneurysm that had been treated with PED. Although the majority of the aneurysm lumen including the outflow zone was thrombosed, a non-thrombosed area was observed at the inflow zone. Perforation was evident in the aneurysm wall at the inflow zone near the neck, and this particular area of aneurysm wall was not covered in thrombus. Macrophage infiltration was not seen on immunohistochemical studies of the aneurysm wall near the perforation. A hemodynamically unstable period during the process of complete thrombosis of the aneurysm lumen after FD placement may be suggested, and blood pressure management and appropriate management with antiplatelet therapy may be important. PMID:26500232

  7. Biomedical system based on the Discrete Hidden Markov Model using the Rocchio-Genetic approach for the classification of internal carotid artery Doppler signals.

    PubMed

    Uğuz, Harun; Güraksın, Gür Emre; Ergün, Uçman; Saraçoğlu, Rıdvan

    2011-07-01

    When the maximum likelihood approach (ML) is used during the calculation of the Discrete Hidden Markov Model (DHMM) parameters, DHMM parameters of the each class are only calculated using the training samples (positive training samples) of the same class. The training samples (negative training samples) not belonging to that class are not used in the calculation of DHMM model parameters. With the aim of supplying that deficiency, by involving the training samples of all classes in calculating processes, a Rocchio algorithm based approach is suggested. During the calculation period, in order to determine the most appropriate values of parameters for adjusting the relative effect of the positive and negative training samples, a Genetic algorithm is used as an optimization technique. The purposed method is used to classify the internal carotid artery Doppler signals recorded from 136 patients as well as of 55 healthy people. Our proposed method reached 97.38% classification accuracy with fivefold cross-validation (CV) technique. The classification results showed that the proposed method was effective for the classification of internal carotid artery Doppler signals.

  8. Intrathoracic fire during preparation of the left internal thoracic artery for coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A surgical fire is a serious complication not previously described in the literature with regard to the thoracic cavity. We report a case in which an intrathoracic fire developed following an air leak combined with high pressure oxygen ventilation in a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The patient presented to our institution with diffuse coronary artery disease and angina pectoris. He was treated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery, including left internal thoracic artery harvesting. Additionally to this rare presentation of an intrathoracic fire, a brief review of surgical fires is included to this paper. PMID:20219127

  9. Hyperhomocysteinemia and left internal jugular vein thrombosis with Ménière's symptom complex.

    PubMed

    Scaramella, John G

    2003-11-01

    The author describes the case of a 68-year-old woman who experienced severe symptoms of Ménière's syndrome. Ultrasonography of the neck detected a clot in the left internal jugular vein. The patient was hospitalized and anticoagulated, and her symptoms soon resolved. The author speculates that the clot-induced hemodynamic changes led to venous insufficiency in the vein of the paravestibular canaliculus and ultimately caused the patient's symptoms. The blood work-up revealed that the patient had an elevated fasting homocysteine level, which is a known risk factor for thrombus formation.

  10. Flow patterns and distributions of fluid velocity and wall shear stress in the human internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shigekazu; Karino, Takeshi

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between the flow patterns and the preferred sites of the development of atherosclerotic lesions and cerebral aneurysms in the human ICA and MCA. Five isolated transparent arterial trees containing the ICA and MCA with a sufficient length of the carotid siphon were prepared from humans postmortem, and flow patterns and distributions of fluid velocity and wall shear stress in these vessels were studied in detail using flow visualization and high-speed cinemicrographic techniques. In the carotid siphon that contained several acute bends, due to the impingement and deflection of the flow at the bends, a strong and complex helicoidal flow formed. As a result, the approaching velocity profile was flattened at the terminal bifurcation of the ICA, but it was sharpened at the first bifurcation of the MCA. Thus, at this latter bifurcation, fluid elements impinged on the vessel wall around the flow divider with much larger velocity than that at the preceding terminal bifurcation of the ICA. Throughout the entire arterial tree, atherosclerotic lesions were found almost exclusively in regions of low wall shear stress. The carotid siphon provided a flattened approaching velocity profile at the terminal bifurcation of the ICA, making the hemodynamic stresses (pressure, tension, and shear stress) exerted on the vessel wall much lower than that at the bifurcation of the MCA where the approaching velocity profile was sharpened. This may account for the relatively low incidence of aneurysm formation at this site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Carotid stenosis, x-ray of the right artery (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the right carotid artery showing a severe narrowing (stenosis) of the internal carotid artery just past the ... artery or ulceration in the area after the stenosis in this close-up film. Note the narrowed ...

  12. Acute carotid occlusion and stroke due to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Marques, M A; Murad, F F; Ristow, A V; Silveira, P R M; Pinto, J E Ss; Gress, M H T; Massière, B; Cury, J M; Vescovi, A

    2010-08-01

    Neurologic events associated to antiphospholipoid syndrome (APLS) are not uncommon, but ischemic stroke due to acute carotid thrombosis, is a rare presentation of this syndrome. We report a case of a 48 years old female patient, without evidence of atherothrombosis or other vascular pathology, who presented an ischemic stroke due to acute thrombosis of the left internal carotid artery. The occlusion was diagnosed by Duplex scan and magnetic resonance angiography (Ds+MRA). The patient was anticoagulated and experienced total regression of her neurologic symptoms after a week. Ds+MRA were performed again and confirmed re-establishment of normal flow of internal carotid artery. A thorough clinical investigation confirmed the diagnosis of APLS (the association of a major thombotic event and high anticardiolipoid IgG antibody titers in three blood samples). The patient has been submitted to oral anticoagulation for three years and has not experienced new neurologic or thrombotic events.

  13. Treatment of an Iatrogenic Left Internal Mammary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula with a Bovine Pericardium Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Heper, Gulumser Barcin, Cem; Iyisoy, Atila; Tore, Hasan F.

    2006-10-15

    We report a case with an acquired fistula between the left internal mammary artery and the pulmonary artery following coronary bypass surgery treated with a bovine pericardium covered stent. We also reviewed similar cases reported previously.

  14. Anatomical variations in human carotid bodies.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Q; Heath, D; Smith, P

    1988-01-01

    The variations in anatomical structure and position of both carotid bodies were noted in 100 consecutive subjects who came to necropsy. Considerable variations in form were found. Although most carotid bodies (83% on the right and 86% on the left) were of the classic ovoid type, an appreciable minority was bilobed (9% on the right and 7% on the left) or double (7% on the right and 6% on the left); 1% were leaf shaped. All these anatomical variants have to be distinguished from the pathologically enlarged carotid body that may have a smooth or finely nodular surface. Anatomical variants (such as the bilobed) may themselves enlarge as a consequence of carotid body hyperplasia. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:3209707

  15. Combined endovascular and surgical treatment of infected carotid-carotid bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Younis, George; Reul, George J; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2006-10-01

    To present a complex case involving an infected carotid-carotid bypass graft that was successfully treated with a stent-graft and subsequent surgical removal of the infected graft. A 75-year-old woman presented with persistent purulent drainage of an infected and exposed carotid-carotid prosthetic bypass graft. Wound cultures revealed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. She was treated with appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy without improvement in wound drainage. Because of her comorbid conditions, a decision was made to pursue endovascular revascularization of her left and right common carotid arteries (CCA), with subsequent surgical removal of the infected prosthetic graft. The patient underwent balloon angioplasty; a 7x18-mm Omnilink stent was deployed in the innominate artery and a 7x18-mm Herculink stent in the ostial left CCA. During the same procedure, the carotid-carotid bypass graft was excluded with deployment of an 8x50-mm Viabahn stent-graft in the right CCA. Several days later, the infected and now thrombosed carotid-carotid bypass graft was surgically removed, and an area of adjacent muscle was used to patch the previously excluded connection of the bypass from the right CCA. A saphenous vein patch was used to repair the defect in the left CCA. Her postoperative course was uneventful. At 1 year, the clinical and duplex examinations revealed satisfactory wound healing and patent left and right CCAs. This case indicates that a combined endovascular and surgical approach may be a safe and effective option in the treatment of carotid-carotid bypass graft infection.

  16. Acute Carotid Artery Stent Thrombosis Due to Dual Antiplatelet Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Köklü, Erkan Arslan, Şakir; Yüksel, İsa Öner; Bayar, Nermin; Koç, Pınar

    2015-08-15

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a revascularization modality that is an alternative to carotid endarterectomy. The efficacy of CAS in primary and secondary prevention from ischemic stroke has been demonstrated in various trials. Acute thrombosis of CAS is a rare complication that can lead to dramatic and catastrophic consequences. We discuss a case of acute CAS thrombosis in a patient who had previously undergone successful CAS. CAS was performed in a 73-year-old man who had had dysarthria lasting 2 weeks with 95 % stenosis in his left internal carotid artery. An acute cerebrovascular event resulting in right-sided hemiplegia developed 24 h after the procedure. Computed tomographic carotid angiography revealed complete occlusion of the stent with thrombus. The cause of stent thrombosis was thought to be antiaggregant resistance to both acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. The most important cause of acute CAS thrombosis is inadequate or ineffective antiaggregant therapy. Evaluating patients who are candidates for CAS for acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel resistance may preclude this complication.

  17. Evidence for 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A receptors mediating constriction of the canine internal carotid circulation

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Ortiz, Mario I; Sánchez-López, Araceli; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2001-01-01

    The present study has investigated the preliminary pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating vasoconstriction to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the internal carotid bed of vagosympathectomised dogs. One minute intracarotid infusions of the agonists 5-HT (0.1–10 μg min−1), sumatriptan (0.3–10 μg min−1; 5-HT1B/1D), 5-methoxytryptamine (1–100 μg min−1; 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-ht6 and 5-HT7) or DOI (0.31–10 μg min−1; 5-HT2), but not 5-carboxamidotryptamine (0.01–0.3 μg min−1; 5-HT1, 5-ht5A and 5-HT7), 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (mCPBG; 1–1000 μg min−1; 5-HT3) or cisapride (1–1000 μg min−1; 5-HT4), resulted in dose-dependent decreases in internal carotid blood flow, without changing blood pressure or heart rate. The vasoconstrictor responses to 5-HT, which remained unaffected after saline, were resistant to blockade by i.v. administration of the antagonists ritanserin (100 μg kg−1; 5-HT2A/2B/2C) in combination with tropisetron (3000 μg kg−1; 5-HT3/4) or the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (5000 μg kg−1), but were abolished by the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935 (30 μg kg−1). Interestingly, after administration of GR127935, the subsequent administration of ritanserin unmasked a dose-dependent vasodilator component. GR127935 or saline did not practically modify the vasoconstrictor effects of 5-MeO-T. In animals receiving GR127935, the subsequent administration of ritanserin abolished the vasoconstrictor responses to 5-MeO-T unmasking a dose-dependent vasodilator component. The vasoconstriction induced by sumatriptan was antagonized by GR127935, but not by ritanserin. Furthermore, ritanserin (100 μg kg−1) or ketanserin (100 μg kg−1; 5-HT2A), but not GR127935, abolished DOI-induced vasoconstrictor responses. The above results suggest that 5-HT-induced internal carotid vasoconstriction is predominantly mediated by 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A receptors

  18. Endarterectomy for a symptomatic carotid web.

    PubMed

    Phair, John; Trestman, Eric B; Yean, Chetra; Lipsitz, Evan C

    2017-10-01

    Background We report a symptomatic carotid web successfully treated with carotid endarterectomy. A healthy 43-year-old woman presented with acute-onset left-sided weakness. Carotid web was evident on computed tomography angiography as a focal filling defect in the right common carotid artery. This right common carotid artery web extended into the ICA created an eddy resulting in turbulent flow. Subsequent acute embolus formation led to embolization and acute stroke. Method Review of the literature was performed using Medline Plus and PubMed databases. Result The patient underwent carotid endarterectomy with primary closure. Procedure was well tolerated and there was an uneventful recovery. Conclusion Arterial webs are a rare arteriopathy and a usual arrangement of fibromuscular intralumenal in-growth with unclear etiology. It is however, an important potential etiology of stroke in patients without traditional atherosclerotic risk factors. Carotid web and atypical carotid fibromuscular dysplasia should be considered in young, otherwise healthy patients presenting with stroke and without the typical risk factors for atherosclerotic carotid disease and stroke.

  19. Carotid Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound - Carotid Carotid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the carotid arteries ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  20. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ankur; Bradley, Marcus; Kelly, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was treated with heparin prior to starting warfarin. He made a partial recovery and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. This case is a reminder of carotid dissection as an uncommon but serious complication of high speed motor vehicle accident, which may be silent initially. Literature Review suggests risk stratification before relevant radiological screening at risk patients. Significant advances in CTA have made it the diagnostic tool of choice, but ultrasound is an important screening tool. PMID:22470607

  1. Endovascular stenting of symptomatic innominate artery stenosis under distal balloon protection of the internal carotid and vertebral artery for cerebral protection: a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Kajihara, Yosuke; Mukada, Kazutoshi; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2013-02-01

    The use of cerebral protection devices in endovascular treatment for innominate artery (IA) stenosis is not well established. We describe a novel technique for cerebral protection during endovascular stenting of symptomatic IA stenosis. An 82-year-old man presented with acutely scattered brain infarction by artery-to-artery embolism due to IA stenosis. Endovascular treatment for symptomatic IA stenosis was planned to prevent recurrent attacks. Endovascular stenting for IA stenosis via the right femoral artery approach was performed under simultaneous distal balloon protection of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) and vertebral artery (VA) via the right brachial artery approach. Successful treatment of symptomatic IA stenosis was achieved with no complications. The technique with simultaneous distal balloon protection of the ICA and VA provided excellent cerebral protection in stenting of IA stenosis.

  2. Stenosis level, plaque morphology and intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery in chronic stable angina and acute coronary syndrome; a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Gholam Abbas; Zareie, Saeede; Manafi, Alireza; Nikfarjam, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the most common cause of cardiovascular diseases and divided into two main categories as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and chronic stable angina (CSA). These two groups have stenosis and atherosclerosis in the coronary artery, but are more severe in patients with ACS. We aimed to find the association between coroner and internal carotid artery, also comparing prospectively stenosis level, plaque morphology and intima-media thickness of internal carotid between patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and chronic stable angina. In this study, 60 patients were enrolled as ACS group chosen from those admitted in CCU or referred to clinic. Forty-five patients of CSA group were chosen from those referred to clinic. All 105 patients underwent color Doppler sonography, and stenosis, plaque morphology and intima media thickness (IMT) were measured. In 60 patients with ACS, 49 (81.7%) had no stenosis in ultrasonography and 11 (18.3%) had some degrees of stenosis; also 28 (46.7%) and 16 (26.7%) of patients had plaque and IMT, respectively. In the rest 45 patients of CSA group, just 4 (8.9%), 17 (37.8%) and 8 (17.8%) patients had stenosis, plaque and IMT, respectively. Therefore, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding stenosis (P = 0.171), plaque morphology (P = 0.362) and IMT (P = 0.283) (Power = 90%). According to the results, there were no significant and meaningful differences comparing ACS and CSA groups of patients by ECDS using three indicators of stenosis, plaque morphology and IMT as indicators of atherosclerosis. Results also display that patients with ACS had more stenosis, more plaque and thicker intima-media, but these differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.05).

  3. Stenosis Level, Plaque Morphology and Intima-Media Thickness of Internal Carotid Artery in Chronic Stable Angina and Acute Coronary Syndrome; A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Gholam Abbas; Zareie, Saeede; Manafi, Alireza; Nikfarjam, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the most common cause of cardiovascular diseases and divided into two main categories as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and chronic stable angina (CSA). These two groups have stenosis and atherosclerosis in the coronary artery, but are more severe in patients with ACS. Objectives: We aimed to find the association between coroner and internal carotid artery, also comparing prospectively stenosis level, plaque morphology and intima-media thickness of internal carotid between patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and chronic stable angina. Patients and Methods: In this study, 60 patients were enrolled as ACS group chosen from those admitted in CCU or referred to clinic. Forty-five patients of CSA group were chosen from those referred to clinic. All 105 patients underwent color Doppler sonography, and stenosis, plaque morphology and intima media thickness (IMT) were measured. Results: In 60 patients with ACS, 49 (81.7%) had no stenosis in ultrasonography and 11 (18.3%) had some degrees of stenosis; also 28 (46.7%) and 16 (26.7%) of patients had plaque and IMT, respectively. In the rest 45 patients of CSA group, just 4 (8.9%), 17 (37.8%) and 8 (17.8%) patients had stenosis, plaque and IMT, respectively. Therefore, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding stenosis (P = 0.171), plaque morphology (P = 0.362) and IMT (P = 0.283) (Power = 90%). Conclusions: According to the results, there were no significant and meaningful differences comparing ACS and CSA groups of patients by ECDS using three indicators of stenosis, plaque morphology and IMT as indicators of atherosclerosis. Results also display that patients with ACS had more stenosis, more plaque and thicker intima–media, but these differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). PMID:25763270

  4. Carotid rete mirabile associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm: A case report and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Júnior, Fernando Mendes Paschoal; Piske, Ronie Leo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Carotid rete mirabile (CRM) is a rare physiological vascular network in humans that is most often found in Eastern populations. This paper describes a CRM associated with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and discusses the details of the patient’s treatment. A 28-year-old woman was admitted to our service with clinical signs and symptoms of a spontaneous aSAH. Computed tomography revealed a diffuse and extensive SAH (Fisher group IV), while an angiogram showed an abnormal collateral network in the right carotid system and a hypoplastic aspect to the internal carotid artery (ICA) on the same side. In addition, a saccular aneurysm with a diameter of 9.5 mm was present in the ophthalmic segment of the left ICA. This case is extremely uncommon. To avoid rebleeding in the patient, we successfully treated the patient by clipping the aneurysmal lesion. No procedure was performed for the CRM. PMID:25934776

  5. Telescoping Dual Covered Stent Graft Construct for Endovascular Treatment of a Giant Extracranial Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M.; Moriarty, Maurice; Brew, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large pseudoaneurysms which compress the parent vessel are challenging lesions to successfully treat with endovascular therapy. We describe the endovascular treatment of a giant extracranial carotid artery (ECCA) pseudoaneurysm resulting in substantial mass effect on the common carotid artery (CCA) bifurcation using a telescoping dual covered stent graft construct. A 56-year-old male was diagnosed with an 8.5 cm × 13 cm pseudoaneurysm arising from the left CCA bifurcation, which was causing luminal narrowing of the CCA and proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient underwent endovascular intervention, during which a balloon-expandable covered stent was deployed within a heparin-bonded covered stent, such that the overall construct spanned from the CCA to the lower cervical ICA. The employment of a telescoping dual covered stent technique can successfully treat appropriately selected patients with large or giant ECCA pseudoaneurysms, with the concomitant goals of excluding the pseudoaneurysm and restoring the luminal caliber of the parent artery. PMID:28163519

  6. Telescoping Dual Covered Stent Graft Construct for Endovascular Treatment of a Giant Extracranial Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M; Moriarty, Maurice; Brew, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Large pseudoaneurysms which compress the parent vessel are challenging lesions to successfully treat with endovascular therapy. We describe the endovascular treatment of a giant extracranial carotid artery (ECCA) pseudoaneurysm resulting in substantial mass effect on the common carotid artery (CCA) bifurcation using a telescoping dual covered stent graft construct. A 56-year-old male was diagnosed with an 8.5 cm × 13 cm pseudoaneurysm arising from the left CCA bifurcation, which was causing luminal narrowing of the CCA and proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient underwent endovascular intervention, during which a balloon-expandable covered stent was deployed within a heparin-bonded covered stent, such that the overall construct spanned from the CCA to the lower cervical ICA. The employment of a telescoping dual covered stent technique can successfully treat appropriately selected patients with large or giant ECCA pseudoaneurysms, with the concomitant goals of excluding the pseudoaneurysm and restoring the luminal caliber of the parent artery.

  7. Myocardial hypertrophy induces carotid body hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Sivridis, Efthimios; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Fiska, Aliki; Pitsiava, Dimitra; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The carotid bodies tend to enlarge after long-standing cardiopulmonary disease. Our objective was to investigate whether cardiac hypertrophy is associated with carotid body hyperplasia. Fifteen autopsy cases with combined left and right ventricular hypertrophy were examined and compared with two control groups (16 cases). The study involved a meticulous dissection of carotid bifurcations, thin serial sections, and morphometric analysis of carotid body volume and cell types (progenitor, dark, light, and sustentacular). There was a significant increase in sustentacular cells in all individuals with cardiac hypertrophy, which was not drug-induced, and accompanied by a similar increase in carotid body volume. Dark or light cell accumulation was detected focally and only in three instances. It appears that the generalized sustentacular cell hyperplasia is the result of long-standing hypoxia, while a superimposed focal prominence of dark or light cells may be proliferative or metaplastic in nature and attributed to short-term hypoxia.

  8. Asymptomatic aneurysm of the cavernous and supraclinoid internal carotid artery in a patient with Balamuthia mandrillaris encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Ludwig D; Khan, Majid A; Fratkin, Jonathan D; Hanigan, William C

    2011-08-01

    This is the first report to our knowledge of the successful treatment of an asymptomatic mycotic aneurysm associated with Balamuthia mandrillaris encephalitis. A 27-year-old male with end-stage renal disease presented with generalized seizures following renal transplantation. MRI demonstrated multiple brain masses and an aneurysm of the cavernous and supraclinoid carotid artery. Autopsy of the donor's brain revealed Balamuthia encephalitis. The patient was placed on an anti-amebic regimen, his condition improved, and 126 days after the kidney transplant, MRI brain showed resolution of the aneurysm and improvement of the enhancing lesions. Balamuthia mandrillaris has been shown to cause a granulomatous encephalitis, with prominent vasculitis. This is the first report to demonstrate the risk of aneurysm formation associated with this infection. Prolonged anti-amebic treatment resulted in resolution of the aneurysm without clinical evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  9. Associations between Carotid Artery Plaque Score, Carotid Hemodynamics and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiping; Liu, Mengxue; Ren, Tiantian; Wang, Xiangqian; Liu, Dandan; Xu, Mingliang; Han, LingFei; Wu, Zewei; Li, Haibo; Zhu, Yu; Wen, Yufeng; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The carotid artery plaque score (PS) is an independent predictor of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). This study aims to evaluate the combination of PS and carotid hemodynamics to predict CHD. Methods: A total of 476 patients who underwent carotid ultrasonography and coronary angiography were divided into two groups depending on the presence of CHD. PS, carotid intima-media thickness, and carotid blood flow were measured. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to establish the best prediction model for CHD presence. Results: Age, sex, carotid intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery and carotid bifurcation, PS, peak systolic velocity (PSA) of right internal carotid artery (RICA), and most resistance index data were significantly related with the presence of CHD. The area under the curve for a collective model, which included factors of the PS, carotid hemodynamics and age, was significantly higher than the other model. Age, PS, and PSA of RICA were significant contributors for predicting CHD presence. Conclusions: The model of PS and PSA of RICA has greater predictive value for CHD than PS alone. Adding age to PS and PSA of RICA further improves predictive value over PS alone. PMID:26569275

  10. Carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Nanna, Michael G; Gomes, Paulina; Njoh, Roland F; Ward, Charisse; Attaran, Robert R; Mena, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Stroke remains a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Carotid artery stenosis is a major cause of stroke. Advances in medical therapy, surgical technique and endovascular maturation has resulted in options for the treatment of carotid stenosis. Here, we present a review of carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy as it applies to trials comparing and contrasting the two treatment options. We also explore the intricacies surrounding reimbursement of these treatment strategies in the USA.

  11. MR angiography at 3 Tesla to assess proximal internal carotid artery stenoses: contrast-enhanced or 3D time-of-flight MR angiography?

    PubMed

    Weber, J; Veith, P; Jung, B; Ihorst, G; Moske-Eick, O; Meckel, S; Urbach, H; Taschner, C A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3D time-of-flight (TOF-MRA) and contrast-enhanced (CE-MRA) magnetic resonance angiography at 3 T for detection and quantification of proximal high-grade stenosis using multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) as reference standard. The institutional ethics committee approved this prospective study. A total of 41 patients suspected of having internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis underwent both MDCTA and MRA. CE-MRA and TOF-MRA were performed using a 3.0-T imager with a dedicated eight-element cervical coil. ICA stenoses were measured according to the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial criteria and categorized as 0-25 % (minimal), 25-50 % (mild), 50-69 % (moderate), 70-99 % (high grade), and 100 % (occlusion). Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of high-grade ICA stenoses (70-99 %) and ICA occlusions were determined. In addition, intermodality agreement was assessed with κ-statistics for detection of high-grade ICA stenoses (70-99 %) and ICA occlusions. A total of 80 carotid arteries of 41 patients were reviewed. Two previously stented ICAs were excluded from analysis. On MDCTA, 7 ICAs were occluded, 12 ICAs presented with and 63 without a high-grade ICA stenosis (70-99 %). For detecting 70-99 % stenosis, both 3D TOF-MRA and CE-MRA were 91.7 % sensitive and 98.5 % specific, respectively. Both MRA techniques were highly sensitive (100 %), and specific (CE-MRA, 100 %; TOF-MRA, 98.7 %) for the detection of ICA occlusion. However, TOF-MRA misclassified one high-grade stenosis as occlusion. Intermodality agreement for detection of 70-99 % ICA stenoses was excellent between TOF-MRA and CE-MRA [κ = 0.902, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.769-1.000], TOF-MRA and MDCTA (κ = 0.902, 95 % CI = 0.769-1.000), and CE-MRA and MDCTA (κ = 0.902, 95 % CI = 0.769-1.000). Both 3D TOF-MRA and CE-MRA at 3 T are

  12. Flow diversion in the treatment of carotid injury and carotid-cavernous fistula after transsphenoidal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Cheemum; Ahmed, Muhammad E; Glikstein, Rafael; dos Santos, Marlise P; Lesiuk, Howard; Labib, Mohamed; Kassam, Amin B

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of iatrogenic carotid injury with secondary carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) treated with a silk flow diverter stent placed within the injured internal carotid artery and coils placed within the cavernous sinus. Flow diverters may offer a simple and potentially safe vessel-sparing option in this rare complication of transsphenoidal surgery. The management options are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:26015526

  13. Novel quantitative trait locus is mapped to chromosome 12p11 for left ventricular mass in Dominican families: the Family Study of Stroke Risk and Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyong; Beecham, Ashley; Di Tullio, Marco R; Slifer, Susan; Blanton, Susan H; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L

    2009-01-01

    Background Left ventricular mass (LVM) is an important risk factor for stroke and vascular disease. The genetic basis of LVM is unclear although a high heritability has been suggested. We sought to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for LVM using large Dominican families. Methods Probands were selected from Dominican subjects of the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). LVM was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. A set of 405 microsatellite markers was used to screen the whole genome among 1360 subjects from 100 Dominican families who had complete phenotype data and DNA available. A polygenic covariate screening was run to identify the significant covariates. Variance components analysis was used to estimate heritability and to detect evidence for linkage, after adjusting for significant risk factors. Ordered-subset Analysis (OSA) was conducted to identify a more homogeneous subset for stratification analysis. Results LVM had a heritability of 0.58 in the studied population (p < 0.0001). The most significant evidence for linkage was found at chromosome 12p11 (MLOD = 3.11, empirical p = 0.0003) with peak marker at D12S1042. This linkage was significantly increased in a subset of families with the high average waist circumference (MLOD = 4.45, p = 0.0045 for increase in evidence for linkage). Conclusion We mapped a novel QTL near D12S1042 for LVM in Dominicans. Enhanced linkage evidence in families with larger waist circumference suggests that gene(s) residing within the QTL interact(s) with abdominal obesity to contribute to phenotypic variation of LVM. Suggestive evidence for linkage (LOD = 1.99) has been reported at the same peak marker for left ventricular geometry in a White population from the HyperGEN study, underscoring the importance of this QTL for left ventricular phenotype. Further fine mapping and validation studies are warranted to identify the underpinning genes. PMID:19627612

  14. The Interference Phenomenon of Microcatheters in the Jailing Treatment for Internal Carotid Artery Side Wall Aneurysms with an Open Cell Stent System

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Minwook; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Sam; Kim, Hae Yu; Lee, SungJun; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeong, Hae Woong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Excelsior XT-27 (Stryker Neurovascular, Fremont, CA, USA) or Rebar 27 (eV3 Covidien, Irvine, CA, USA) microcatheters have recently been used to overcome the limitations of the Renegade Hi-Flo microcatheter such as interference between two microcatheters (one for stent delivery and the other for cerebral aneurysm coiling) during the jailing technique. We evaluated differences and influential factors related to the interference phenomenon according to these two microcatheters group. Materials and Methods Between June 2011 and September 2013, the jailing technique was applied to 94 internal cerebral artery (ICA) aneurysms. The jailing technique with the Neuroform EZ stent system was performed using Renegade (n = 22), Rebar (n = 35), and XT-27 microcatheters (n = 37). In the Renegade Hi-Flo microcatheter group, the jailing technique was successful in 19/22 patients (86.4%) and interference between the two microcatheters occurred in 6/21 patients (28.6%). In the Rebar and XT-27 microcatheter group, the jailing technique was successful in 71/72 patients (98.6%) and interference between the two microcatheters occurred in 1/72 patients (1.4%). Results There was a significant difference in the interference between the two delivered microcatheters group (p-value < 0.000) and the carotid siphon angle (p-value: 0.004) in the univariate analysis. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the Rebar and XT-27 microcatheter group (odds ratio [OD] [95% confidence interval (CI)]; 31.277 [3.138-311.729], p-value: 0.003) and the carotid siphon angle (OD [95%CI]; 0.959 [0.922-0.997], p-value: 0.035) were found to be influential factors in the interference phenomenon. Conclusion The Rebar 27 and XT-27 microcatheters were more successful and exhibited less interference between the two microcatheters than the Renegade Hi-Flo microcatheter. PMID:28184346

  15. Carotid artery stenting: current and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    Morr, Simon; Lin, Ning; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting technologies are rapidly evolving. Options for endovascular surgeons and interventionists who treat occlusive carotid disease continue to expand. We here present an update and overview of carotid stenting devices. Evidence supporting carotid stenting includes randomized controlled trials that compare endovascular stenting to open surgical endarterectomy. Carotid technologies addressed include the carotid stents themselves as well as adjunct neuroprotective devices. Aspects of stent technology include bare-metal versus covered stents, stent tapering, and free-cell area. Drug-eluting and cutting balloon indications are described. Embolization protection options and new direct carotid access strategies are reviewed. Adjunct technologies, such as intravascular ultrasound imaging and risk stratification algorithms, are discussed. Bare-metal and covered stents provide unique advantages and disadvantages. Stent tapering may allow for a more fitted contour to the caliber decrement between the common carotid and internal carotid arteries but also introduces new technical challenges. Studies regarding free-cell area are conflicting with respect to benefits and associated risk; clinical relevance of associated adverse effects associated with either type is unclear. Embolization protection strategies include distal filter protection and flow reversal. Though flow reversal was initially met with some skepticism, it has gained wider acceptance and may provide the advantage of not crossing the carotid lesion before protection is established. New direct carotid access techniques address difficult anatomy and incorporate sophisticated flow-reversal embolization protection techniques. Carotid stenting is a new and exciting field with rapidly advancing technologies. Embolization protection, low-risk deployment, and lesion assessment and stratification are active areas of research. Ample room remains for further innovations and developments. PMID:25349483

  16. Power M-Mode Doppler and single-gate spectral analysis using a 2-MHz pulsed-wave Doppler transducer to directly detect cervical internal carotid artery stenosis: use of the continuity principle: report of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Popa, Vasile N; Spencer, Merrill P; Lion, Charlene L; Felberg, Robert A

    2007-06-01

    We hypothesized that direct cervical investigation with Power M-Mode Doppler (PMD) combined with single-gate Doppler spectral analysis (SGDSA) using a 2-MHz pulsed-wave Doppler transducer would show reasonable accuracy parameters when compared with standard color-coded carotid duplex ultrasound (CDU). We prospectively screened for cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis by direct observation using a 2 MHz PMD/SGDSA device. PMD identified the artery (location, depth, flow direction) and SGDSA assessed waveform; peak systolic, end diastolic, and mean flow velocities (MFV) of the common carotid artery; cervical ICA proximally and distally; and external carotid artery. Diagnostic accuracy was compared with concurrent carotid duplex ultrasound. The continuity principle was applied using the proximal/distal cervical ICA MFV ratio. We examined 456 vessels (228 patients). Using ICA proximally/ICA distally MFV ratio of 1.5 or greater or absence of ICA signature, for 40% to 59% or greater stenosis (including occlusions), sensitivity was 75.4%, specificity 99.8%, positive predictive value 97.7%, negative predictive value 96.6%, and accuracy 96.7%. For MFV ratio 1.6 or greater or absence of ICA signature and 60% to 79% or greater stenosis (including occlusions), sensitivity was 92.3%, specificity 98.1%, positive predictive value 81.8%, negative predictive value 99.3%, and accuracy 97.6%. Use of combined PMD and SGDSA to directly observe the extracranial ICA is reasonably accurate compared with carotid duplex ultrasound. Using the MFV ratio of proximal/distal extracranial ICA improves accuracy parameters and provides a quick and effective bedside screen for ICA stenosis. This novel technique should be considered part of the standard PMD/transcranial Doppler examination.

  17. Retrograde suction decompression of a large internal carotid aneurysm using a balloon guide catheter combined with a blood-returning circuit and STA-MCA bypass: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Matano, Fumihiro; Mizunari, Takayuki; Kominami, Shushi; Suzuki, Masanori; Fujiki, Yu; Kubota, Asami; Kobayashi, Shiro; Murai, Yasuo; Morita, Akio

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to treat large internal carotid aneurysms with simple surgical clipping. Here, we present a retrograde suction decompression (RSD) procedure for large internal carotid aneurysms using a balloon guide catheter combined with a blood-returning circuit and a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass.All patients underwent an STA-MCA bypass before the temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). A 6-French sheath was inserted into the common carotid artery (CCA), and a 6-French Patrive balloon catheter was placed into the ICA 5 cm past the bifurcation. Aneurysm exposure was obtained; temporary clips were placed on the proximal M1, A1, and posterior communicating (Pcom) segments; and an extension tube was then connected to the balloon catheter. A three-way stopcock was placed, and aspiration was performed through the device to collapse the aneurysm. The aspirated blood was returned to a venous line with an added heparin to prevent anemia after aspiration. During the decompression, the blood flow to the cortical area was supplied through the STA-MCA bypass. After the aneurysm collapse, the surgeon carefully dissected the perforating artery from the aneurysm dome or neck, and permanent clips were then placed on the aneurysm neck. Our procedure has several advantages, such as STA-MCA bypass without external carotid artery occlusion for preventing ischemic complications of the cortical area, anemia may be avoided because of the return of the aspirated blood, and a hybrid operation room is not required to perform this method.

  18. Physiologic Functional Evaluation of Left Internal Mammary Artery Graft to Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Steal due to Unligated First Thoracic Branch in a Case of Refractory Angina

    PubMed Central

    Sawaya, Fadi J.; Liberman, Henry; Devireddy, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Unligated side branches of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) have been described in the literature as a cause of coronary steal resulting in angina. Despite a number of studies reporting successful side branch embolization to relieve symptoms, this phenomenon remains controversial. Hemodynamic evidence of coronary steal using angiographic and intravascular Doppler techniques has been supported by some and rejected by others. In this case study using an intracoronary Doppler wire with adenosine, we demonstrate that a trial occlusion of the LIMA thoracic side branch with selective balloon inflation can confirm physiologic significant steal and whether coil embolization of the side branch is indicated. PMID:26981289

  19. Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in Aortic and Left Internal Mammary Artery Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Iriz, Erkan; Cirak, Meltem Yalinay; Engin, Evren Doruk; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Erer, Dilek; Ozdogan, Mehmet Emin; Turet, Sevgi; Yener, Ali

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between acute coronary ischemia and the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in aortic regions that were absent macroscopic atheromatous plaques. The study group (Group 1) consisted of 42 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Biopsy samples were obtained from 2 different locations: from regions of the aorta that were free (macroscopically) of atheromatous plaque (Group 1A), and from the internal mammary artery (Group 1B). The control group (Group 2) of 10 patients who had no atherosclerotic vascular disease provided aortic tissue samples for comparison. The real-time polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect H. pylori DNA in all biopsy samples. Eleven of 42 aortic tissue samples (26%) in Group 1A were positive for H. pylori DNA. Neither biopsies from the left internal mammary arteries of those patients nor biopsies from the aortas of the control group (Group 2) were positive for H. pylori DNA. There was a statistically significant difference between 1A and 1B in terms of H. pylori positivity (P=0.001). In Group 1 as a whole, acute coronary ischemia was more prevalent in the H. pylori-positive patients than in the H. pylori-negative patients (P=0.001). To our knowledge, this is the 1st study to investigate the detection of H. pylori DNA in aortic biopsy samples that are macroscopically free of atheromatous plaque. Such detection in patients who have atherosclerotic coronary artery disease could be an important indication of the role of microorganisms in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:18612444

  20. A big floating thrombus in the common carotid artery.

    PubMed

    La Spada, Michele; Stilo, Francesco; Barillà, David; Spinelli, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The management of the free-floating thrombus (FFT) is difficult, and it is unclear whether surgical or medical treatment is superior. The common carotid artery is rarely involved. An 80-year-old woman presented with right hand weakness and syncope. Ultrasound showed the presence of FFT in the left common carotid artery. A carotid endarterectomy with Dacron patch angioplasty was immediately performed without complications. In the presence of symptoms, the interventional management of FFT is advised.

  1. Early and late outcome of skeletonised bilateral internal mammary arteries anastomosed to the left coronary system

    PubMed Central

    Bonacchi, M; Battaglia, F; Prifti, E; Leacche, M; Nathan, N S; Sani, G; Popoff, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate in a retrospective study the technical aspects of using the in situ bilateral internal mammary arteries (IMAs), with the right IMA (RIMA) used for revascularisation of the circumflex system, and to evaluate early and late outcome. Materials and methods: Between January 1997 and July 2003, 552 consecutive patients underwent grafting of the circumflex artery system with an in situ skeletonised RIMA routed through the transverse sinus (eventually retrocaval). Mean (SD) age was 63.8 (11) years. 331 (60%) patients underwent total arterial myocardial revascularisation. Mean follow up was 26 (9) months. Results: The success rate of skeletonised RIMA grafting to the circumflex branch was 100%. There were 19 (3.4%) in-hospital deaths. Perioperative myocardial infarction occurred in 12 (2.2%) patients. In 155 patients undergoing postoperative angiography, two had an occluded RIMA and a string-like phenomenon was seen in three RIMA and one left IMA (LIMA). Three RIMA and three LIMA had stenotic lesions. The patency rates of RIMA and LIMA were 94% and 97.4%, respectively. Strong predictors of non-functional IMA grafts were a recipient coronary artery diameter of < 1.5 mm (p  =  0.022), < 60% stenosis of the recipient coronary artery (p  =  0.015), diffuse stenotic lesions of the recipient coronary artery (p  =  0.018), and a small IMA calibre (p  =  0.0001). Cumulative actuarial survival at three years was 96.4% and event-free cumulative survival was 93.8%. Conclusions: Use of the bilateral IMAs offers the possibility of constructing various configurations, making total arterial myocardial revascularisation possible with a minimum number of arterial conduits. Use of the skeletonised RIMA through the transverse sinus and eventually retrocavally can reach most branches of the circumflex system and is associated with an excellent patency rate. Patients who received bilateral IMA grafts for left coronary system revascularisation had

  2. SONOlysis in prevention of Brain InfaRctions During Internal carotid Endarterectomy (SONOBIRDIE) trial - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hrbáč, Tomáš; Netuka, David; Beneš, Vladimír; Nosáľ, Vladimír; Kešnerová, Petra; Tomek, Aleš; Fadrná, Táňa; Beneš, Vladimír; Fiedler, Jiří; Přibáň, Vladimír; Brozman, Miroslav; Langová, Kateřina; Herzig, Roman; Školoudík, David

    2017-01-17

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a beneficial procedure for selected patients with an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Surgical risk of CEA varies from between 2 and 15%. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of sonolysis (continual transcranial Doppler monitoring, TCD) using a 2-MHz diagnostic probe with maximal diagnostic energy on the reduction of the incidence of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and brain infarction detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by the activation of the endogenous fibrinolytic system during CEA. Design: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. international, multicenter trial for patients with at least 70% symptomatic or asymptomatic ICA stenosis undergoing CEA. patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic ICA stenosis of at least 70% are candidates for CEA; a sufficient temporal bone window for TCD; aged 40-85 years, functionally independent; provision of signed informed consent. Randomization: consecutive patients will be assigned to the sonolysis or control (sham procedure) group by computer-generated 1:1 randomization. Prestudy calculations showed that a minimum of 704 patients in each group is needed to reach a significant difference with an alpha value of 0.05 (two-tailed) and a beta value of 0.8 assuming that 10% would be lost to follow-up or refuse to participate in the study (estimated 39 endpoints). the primary endpoint is the incidence of stroke or TIA during 30 days after CEA and the incidence of new ischemic lesions on brain MRI performed 24 h after CEA in the sonolysis and control groups. Secondary endpoints are occurrence of death, any stroke, or myocardial infarction within 30 days, changes in cognitive functions 1 year post procedure related to pretreatment scores, and number of new lesions and occurrence of new lesions ≥0.5 mL on post-procedural brain MRI. descriptive statistics and linear/logistic multiple regression models will be

  3. The Impact of Carotid Artery Stenting on Cerebral Perfusion, Functional Connectivity, and Cognition in Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Dong; Liu, Yumin; Mei, Bin; Li, Huagang; Zhang, Shengming; Zhang, Junjian

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis can lead to not only stroke but also cognition impairment. Although it has been proven that carotid artery stenting (CAS) can reduce the risk of future strokes, the effect of CAS on cognition is conflicting. In recent years, pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) MRI and resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) have been employed in cognitive impairment studies. For the present study, cognition is evaluated in severe asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients undergoing CAS, and the mechanisms underlying the cognitive change are explored by pASL MRI and R-fMRI. We prospectively enrolled 24 asymptomatic, severe (≥70%), unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis patients, who were expecting the intervention of CAS. Cognition assessment (including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Beijing Version, the Minimum Mental State Examination, the Digit Symbol Test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Verbal Memory Test) and an integrated MRI program (pASL MRI, and R-fMRI) were administered 7 days before and 3 months after CAS. 16 subjects completed the follow-up study. After stenting, significant improvement in the scores of the MMSE, the Verbal Memory test, and the delayed recall was found. No significant difference was found in the scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Beijing Version, the Digit Symbol Test, and the immediate recall. After CAS treatment, asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients showed increased perfusion in the left frontal gyrus, increased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the right precentral gyrus, and increased connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the right supra frontal gyrus. However, no significant correlations were found between these imaging changes and cognition assessments. Successful CAS can partly improve cognition in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients. The cognition improvement may be partly attributed to the increased perfusion in the

  4. Laparoscopic management of a strangulated internal hernia underneath the left external iliac artery☆

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Karl-Andreas; Wexels, Jan Cyril

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Internal herniation of a small bowel behind pelvic vessels is a rare complication seen after pelvic lymphadenectomy. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 56-year-old woman was operated due to a gynecological cancer. 4 years thereafter she presented with a 2 days history of abdominal pain and vomiting. Clinical and radiological findings indicated a small bowel obstruction. A loop of small bowel had herniated behind the left external iliac artery. Using laparoscopic technique the herniated bowel was reduced. Due to limited peritoneum around the area and skeletonized vessel, we decided not to do any repair of the hernia orifice. The postoperative recovery was uneventful, bowel activity returned to normal and she was discharged the next day. Follow-up was done at 1 month and the latest at 10 months. She didn’t experience pain or discomfort after the operation. DISCUSSION Due to limited peritoneum around the skeletonized vessel, we decided to leave the hernia orifice unrepaired. We found it hazardous to do any direct suture of the orifice or use a free peritoneal graft to repair the defect as the fibrosis and inflammatory process might have compromised the artery or the vein. A longer follow-up of the patient is needed to clearly conclude if this simple procedure has been sufficient. We agreed that if the patient would experience any sign of recurrence and need another operation we would close the defect at that time. CONCLUSION 4 years after pelvic lymphadenectomy a small bowel herniation behind an external iliac artery occurred. The patient was successfully treated with reduction of the small bowel using laparoscopic technique. A quick recovery with minimal discomfort and no sign of recurrence after 10 months made our approach an acceptable surgical option. PMID:24121051

  5. Unilateral Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula Causing Bilateral Ocular Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Demartini Jr., Zeferino; Liebert, Fernando; Gatto, Luana Antunes Maranha; Jung, Thiago Simiano; Rocha Jr., Carlos; Santos, Alex Marques Borges; Koppe, Gelson Luis

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral carotid cavernous fistula presents with ipsilateral ocular findings. Bilateral presentation is only seen in bilateral fistulas, usually associated with indirect (dural) carotid cavernous fistulas. Direct carotid cavernous fistulas are an abnormal communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. They typically begin with a traumatic disruption in the artery wall into the cavernous sinus, presenting with a classic triad of unilateral pulsatile exophthalmos, cranial bruit and episcleral venous engorgement. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with traumatic right carotid cavernous sinus fistula and bilateral ocular presentation successfully treated by interventional neuroradiology. PMID:26955353

  6. STRAIN ELASTOGRAPHY USING DOBUTAMINE-INDUCED CAROTID ARTERY PULSATION IN CANINE THYROID GLAND.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gahyun; Jeon, Sunghoon; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kim, Hyunwoo; Yu, Dohyeon; Choi, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disease is common in dogs and conventional ultrasonography is a standard diagnostic test for diagnosis and treatment planning. Strain elastography can provide additional information about tissue stiffness noninvasively after applying external or internal compression. However, natural carotid artery pulsations in the canine thyroid gland are too weak to maintain sufficient internal compression force. The objective of the present study was to describe the feasibility of strain elastography for evaluating the canine thyroid gland and the repeatability of dobutamine-induced carotid artery pulsation as an internal compression method. In seven healthy Beagle dogs, strain on each thyroid lobe was induced by external compression using the ultrasound probe and internal compression using carotid artery pulsation after dobutamine infusion. The thyroid appeared homogeneously green and the subcutaneous fat superficial to the thyroid lobe appeared blue. Strain values and strain ratios did not differ among dogs or between the left and right lobes. Interobserver repeatability was excellent for both compression methods. Intraobserver repeatability of the strain ratio measured using the carotid artery pulsation method (intraclass coefficient correlation = 0.933) was higher than that measured using the external compression method (0.760). Mean strain values of thyroid lobes for the external compression method (142.93 ± 6.67) differed from the internal method (147.31 ± 8.24; P < 0.05). Strain ratios between the two methods did not differ. Strain elastography was feasible for estimating thyroid stiffness in dogs. Carotid artery pulsation induced by dobutamine infusion can be used for canine thyroid strain elastography with excellent repeatability. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  7. Free Floating Thrombus in Carotid Artery in a Patient with Recurrent Strokes

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashish Kumar; DeSanto, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of 72-year-old male with reported past medical history of recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) presenting with myriad of neurological symptoms. Patient was transferred from outlying hospital with complaints of right sided facial droop and dysarthria. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed high grade proximal left internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis along with interesting finding of a free floating thrombus (FFT) in the left ICA. After discussion with the neurosurgical team, our case was treated conservatively with combination of antiplatelet therapy with Aspirin and anticoagulation with Warfarin without recurrence of TIAs or strokes on six-month follow-up. PMID:28163720

  8. Free Floating Thrombus in Carotid Artery in a Patient with Recurrent Strokes.

    PubMed

    Roy, Moni; Roy, Ashish Kumar; DeSanto, Jeffrey R; Abdelsalam, Murad

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of 72-year-old male with reported past medical history of recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) presenting with myriad of neurological symptoms. Patient was transferred from outlying hospital with complaints of right sided facial droop and dysarthria. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed high grade proximal left internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis along with interesting finding of a free floating thrombus (FFT) in the left ICA. After discussion with the neurosurgical team, our case was treated conservatively with combination of antiplatelet therapy with Aspirin and anticoagulation with Warfarin without recurrence of TIAs or strokes on six-month follow-up.

  9. Carotid intima-media thickness is not associated with vitamin D and PTH levels in patients admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Vincenzo; Minonne, Rita; De Matthaeis, Angela; Annese, Maria Antonietta; Tabacco, Patrizia; D'Arcangelo, Palmina; D'Amico, Graziella; Scillitani, Alfredo

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin D (25OHD) and/or parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels have been associated with common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We investigated such associations in inpatients consecutively admitted to an Internal Medicine Department. In 168 consecutive patients admitted to our department, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured by means of RIA and PTH by means of ICMA, whereas IMT by means of ultrasonography. The main cardiovascular risk factors were also explored. In patients with either diabetes, or hypertension, or both, 25OHD values were not significantly lower than in other patients. No difference was found among the IMT values across tertiles of 25OHD level, as like as in the 25OHD, PTH, PTH/25OHD ratio values of patients either grouped by tertiles of IMT, or categorized according to IMT of <0.9, 0.9-1.5, and >1.5 mm. IMT did not significantly associate with 25OHD, PTH, and PTH/25OHD ratio, whereas it positively associated with age (r = 0.281; p < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.138; p = 0.074), and negatively with eGFR (r = -154; p = 0.046). Multiple regression models showed that IMT was significantly associated to age and BMI, while 25OHD, PTH, or PTH/25OHD ratio did not increase the significance of the models. IMT assessment does not seem to be associated with 25OHD and PTH levels in unselected inpatients.

  10. Comparison of Endovascular Treatments of Ruptured Dissecting Aneurysms of the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery and Vertebral Artery with a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Byoun, Hyoung Soo; Choi, Kyu Sun; Chun, Hyoung Joon; Ko, Yong; Bak, Koang Hum

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by rupture of an internal carotid artery (ICA) or vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneuryesm is rare. Various treatment strategies have been used for ruptured intracranial dissections. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical and angiographic characteristics and outcomes of endovascular treatment for ruptured dissecting aneurysms of the intracranial ICA and VA. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed a series of patients with SAH caused by ruptured intracranial ICA and VA dissecting aneurysms from March 2009 to April 2014. The relevant demographic and angiographic data were collected, categorized and analyzed with respect to the outcome. Results Fifteen patients were identified (6 ICAs and 9 VAs). The percentage of patients showing unfavorable initial clinical condition and a history of hypertension was higher in the VA group. The initial aneurysm detection rate and the percentage of fusiform aneurysms were higher in the VA group. In the ICA group, all patients were treated with double stent-assisted coiling, and showed favorable outcomes. In the VA group, 2 patients were treated with double stent-assisted coiling and 7 with endovascular trapping. Two patients died and 1 patient developed severe disability. Conclusion Clinically, grave initial clinical condition and hypertension were more frequent in the VA group. Angiographically, bleb-like aneurysms were more frequent in the ICA group and fusiform aneurysms were more frequent in the VA group. Endovascular treatment of these aneurysms is feasible and the result is acceptable in most instances. PMID:27651862

  11. Microsurgical Relations between Internal Carotid Artery–Posterior Communicating Artery (ICA-PComA) Segment Aneurysms and Skull Base: An Anatomoclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    González-Darder, José M.; Quilis-Quesada, Vicent; Talamantes-Escribá, Fernando; Botella-Maciá, Laura; Verdú-López, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The study of the clinical, anatomic, imaging, and microsurgical characteristics of the aneurysms of the internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (ICA-PComA) segment and their relationships with the skull base structures. Methods The anatomic relationships of PComA with neurovascular elements and skull base structures were studied in cadavers. The clinical, imaging, and microsurgical findings of 84 microsurgically treated ICA-PComA aneurysms compiled in a prospective database were reviewed. Results The most important anatomic relations of the PComA and ICA-PComA aneurysms are with the oculomotor nerve around the oculomotor triangle that forms the roof of the cavernous sinus. Aneurysms of the ICA-PComA are classified according to the orientation of the aneurysmal sac in infratentorial, supratentorial, and tentorial. Infratentorial aneurysms frequently present with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and oculomotor nerve paralysis. They have relations with skull base structures that often make it necessary to totally or partially resect the anterior clinoid process (6.7%) or anterior petroclinoid dural fold (15%). Supratentorial aneurysms course with SAH and without oculomotor nerve involvement, but they often are associated with intracranial hematoma. Conclusion ICA-PComA aneurysms have complex anatomic relations. The orientation of the aneurysmal fundus induces relevant differences in the anatomic relations, clinical presentation, and microsurgical approach to ICA-PComA aneurysms. PMID:24083126

  12. Effects of Variations of Flow and Heart Rate on Intra-Aneurysmal Hemodynamics in a Ruptured Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm During Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sarrami-Foroushani, Ali; Nasr Esfahany, Mohsen; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza; Firouznia, Kavous; Shakiba, Madjid; Ghanaati, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemodynamics is thought to play an important role in the mechanisms responsible for initiation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is used to assess intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of variations in heart rate and internal carotid artery (ICA) flow rate on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics, in an ICA aneurysm, by using computational fluid dynamics. Patients and Methods: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed in a 55 years old female case, with a saccular ICA aneurysm, to create a patient-specific geometrical anatomic model of the aneurysm. The intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic environments for three states with different flow and heart rates were analyzed using patient-specific image-based CFD modeling. Results: Results showed significant changes for the three simulated states. For a proportion of the states examined, results were counterintuitive. Systolic and time-averaged wall shear stress and pressure on the aneurysm wall showed a proportional evolution with the mainstream flow rate. Conclusion: Results reinforced the pivotal role of vascular geometry, with respect to hemodynamics, together with the importance of performing patient-specific CFD analyses, through which the effect of different blood flow conditions on the aneurysm hemodynamics could be evaluated. PMID:27110332

  13. Oculomotor Paralysis, Postorbital Pain, and Hypopituitarism as First Presentations of Metastatic Gastric Cancer in the Pituitary Flourished by Internal Carotid Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Hongqiang; Zhang, Shiqiang; Liu, Ling; Ma, Binbin; Lou, Jiacheng; Sun, Xiaorui; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Metastatic gastric cancer in the pituitary (MGCP) is rare. Few are known on the clinical and radiological characteristics of MGCP. To date, the coexistence of metastatic pituitary tumors and intracranial aneurysms has not been reported in literatures. We present a case of MGCP with internal carotid aneurysm in a 57-year-old woman, who presented with oculomotor paralysis, postorbital pain, and hypopituitarism as onset symptoms. The patient had a history of the surgical removal of gastric cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography revealed a recurrent sellar mass with intracranial and multiple bone metastases. The patient underwent subtotal removal of the tumor, followed by conformal radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Ten months after surgery, the patient died due to deterioration of her overall condition. We also reviewed and analyzed the clinical data, imaging features, and treatment methods of additional 4 cases with MGCP, which were reported in literatures. This study provides important clinical information for the diagnosis and treatment of MGCP. PMID:26683972

  14. Potential for iatrogenic coil embolization of the caudal cerebellar artery during treatment of internal carotid artery bifurcation in two horses with guttural pouch mycosis.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Alvaro G; Scansen, Brian A; Hurcombe, Samuel D; Mudge, Margaret C

    2015-12-15

    2 horses were examined for chronic nasal discharge secondary to unilateral guttural pouch mycosis. Initial endoscopic examination of both horses confirmed the presence of a fungal plaque on the dorsomedial aspect of the medial compartment of the guttural pouch (auditory tube diverticulum) involving the internal carotid artery (ICA). No signs of hemorrhage or neurologic deficits were present at admission. Transarterial stainless steel coil embolization of the affected ICA was performed under general anesthesia, with fluoroscopic guidance. During treatment, an aberrant branch of the ICA, or a proposed bifid ICA, that anastomosed with the caudal cerebellar artery was identified. Occlusion of the distal (noncardiac) side of the aberrant branch was performed in both horses because of potential mycotic involvement at that level. Following treatment, resolution of the mycotic infection was observed in both horses; however, 1 horse developed neurologic signs compatible with unilateral caudal cerebellar artery ischemia on recovery from anesthesia; these signs resolved over the following 2 months. Findings highlighted variability of the anatomy of the ICA in 2 horses that was identified during treatment for guttural pouch mycosis and identified caudal cerebellar artery infarction as a potential complication of treatment. Because of the size and pathway of both arterial branches, we suggest that the term bifurcation of the ICA is more appropriate than aberrant branching, as has been previously described in the literature. The information in this report may be of value to clinicians performing procedures involving the vasculature of the head and neck in horses.

  15. A rare malposition of the thoracic venous catheter introduced via the left internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Supradip; Dewan, Himanshu; Bhattacharyya, Sandip

    2008-01-01

    A rare malposition of central venous catheter in the left superior intercostal vein is described. The diagnostic features and the possible ways to prevent this complication are discussed. PMID:19742265

  16. Management of Bilateral Carotid Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Ashutosh P.; Ducruet, Andrew F.; Jankowitz, Brian T.; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Symptomatic bilateral internal carotid occlusive disease is a rare but potentially devastating entity. Medical therapy alone is associated with high rates of mortality and recurrent stroke. The optimal management of this disease remains poorly understood. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted for patients who presented with an acute stroke in the setting of bilateral carotid occlusive disease between May and October 2013. Results We identified 3 patients. The admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ranged from 4 to 7. All patients had small- to moderate-sized infarcts in the anterior circulation on presentation. Angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid occlusions with collateral filling via the posterior communicating artery and retrograde filling via external carotid artery supply to the ophthalmic artery. All patients were initially managed with permissive hypertension and anticoagulation followed by carotid angioplasty and stenting. At 1-year follow-up, all patients demonstrated a modified Rankin scale score of 0-1. Conclusions Carotid stenting may be a safe and effective therapy for patients presenting with symptomatic bilateral carotid occlusions. PMID:27051405

  17. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  18. Carotid artery surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100124.htm Carotid artery surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... out of 4 Overview There are four carotid arteries, with a pair located on each side of ...

  19. Attitude towards one's illness vs. attitude towards a surgical operation, displayed by patients diagnosed with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm and asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Stanisić, M; Rzepa, T

    2012-08-01

    Two most frequent asymptomatic diseases qualifying for vascular surgery are abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). Emotions experienced by the patient activate processes of dealing with the cognitive dissonance of asymptomatic disease. The aim of this paper was to compare the reasons involved in decision making on surgery in two asymptomatic vascular pathologies. Fifty patients were divided into two groups: the ICAS group-27 (CAS or CEA) and the AAA group-23 (EVAR or open surgical operation (OSR). Specific questionnaire regarding: 1) self-image; 2) attitude to one's illness; 3) reasons for decision on surgery was applied for the study. The χ² test was used to for the analysis. The AAA patients reacted emotionally (88.2%) comparing to ICAS patients reacting "rationally" (59.3%) (α=0.05). In AAA patients attitude towards themselves had worsened (α=0.001) AAA patients were less likely to seek support in decision on surgery (α=0.01). ICAS patients are internally motivated (78.7%), whereas AAA patients are externally motivated (63.9%) (α=0.001). Reasons underlying the decision on surgery, were predominantly rational (55.8%). In the process of decision-making on surgery by asymptomatic patients, evolutionary transformation takes place - the emotional attitude to one's illness leads to rationally evaluated decision. Regardless of the causes the process of making a decision on surgical operation tended to run more smoothly in ICAS patients. The ICAS patients tended to display a rational attitude to their illness. AAA patients displayed a distinctly emotional attitude towards their illness.

  20. Anchor technique: Use of stent retrievers as an anchor to advance thrombectomy catheters in internal carotid artery occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Stacey Q; Janjua, Rashid M; Hedayat, Hirad; Burnette, Christofer

    2015-01-01

    In three recent cases of acute complete internal artery occlusions, we used stent retriever deployed through the mechanical aspiration/distal access catheters to achieve recanalization. In all cases the stent retriever was used as an anchor and supplemented mechanical thrombectomy. This report describes the technical details of the procedure and presents an alternative plan of action in difficult cases when standard thrombectomy techniques do not work. PMID:26494404

  1. Delayed carotid pseudoaneurysm: a life-threatening complication after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Golinelli, Gloria; Toso, Andrea; Taranto, Fausto; Aluffi, Paolo; Pia, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare but potentially lethal complication of sinus surgery. We present 2 cases of delayed carotid pseudoaneurysm development after internal carotid laceration during functional sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis to emphasize the need to follow up the patients with profuse bleeding perioperatively and to identify when to suspect iatrogenic vascular malformations.

  2. Carotid sheath haematoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jayanthi; Badkur, D S; Arora, Arneet

    2009-10-01

    Carotid sheath haematoma is a rare finding, sometimes the only injury found in cases of manual strangulation without any associated external or internal injury to the neck. One such rare case is reported in an 8 year old female victim where presence of carotid sheath haematoma not only helped to ascertain the cause of death but also helped in the reconstruction of mechanism of infliction of force on the neck. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

  3. Symptomatic carotid ischaemic events: safest and most cost effective way of selecting patients for angiography, before carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, G J; Warlow, C P

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the safest, least costly, and most effective way to select patients with symptomatic carotid ischaemic events for carotid angiography before carotid endarterectomy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University departments of clinical neurosciences and clinical neurology. PATIENTS: 485 Patients with carotid territory transient ischaemic attacks of the brain (n = 224) or eye (n = 162) or retinal infarction (n = 99) were referred to a single neurologist between 1976 and 1986. INTERVENTIONS: Clinical examination by auscultation over the precordium, supraclavicular fossae, and neck vessels (all patients). Cerebral angiography of patients suitable for carotid endarterectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Financial cost and number of disabling strokes after angiography. RESULTS: 296 Patients were investigated by cerebral angiography. Ischaemic symptoms had occurred in the distribution of 298 internal carotid arteries (symptomatic) that were imaged, two patients having bilateral symptoms. The presence or absence of a carotid bruit and the maximum percentage diameter stenosis of the origin of the symptomatic internal carotid artery were correlated. The prevalence of mild disease (diameter stenosis greater than or equal to 25%) of the symptomatic internal carotid artery was 57%, and if an ipsilateral carotid bruit was heard the probability of mild stenosis rose to 92%. The prevalence of moderate disease of the symptomatic internal carotid artery (stenosis greater than or equal to 50%) was 39%, and if a bruit was heard the probability doubled to 78%. The prevalence of severe internal carotid disease (stenosis greater than or equal to 75%) was 22%, and if a bruit was heard the probability was more than double, at 49%. The direct cost to both the NHS and the private health sector of investigating patients with symptomatic carotid ischaemia was estimated for several strategies of carotid artery imaging and expressed in terms of financial cost and number

  4. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting for severe stenosis of the intracranial extradural internal carotid artery causing transient ischemic attack or minor stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jun Kyeung; Choi, Chang Hwa; Cha, Seung Heon; Choi, Byung Kwan; Cho, Won Ho; Kang, Tae Ho; Sung, Sang Min; Cho, Han Jin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) for symptomatic stenosis of the intracranial extradural (petrous and cavernous) internal carotid artery (ICA). Review of medical records identified 26 consecutive patients who underwent PTAS using a balloon-expandable coronary stent (n = 15, 57.7%) or a Wingspan self-expandable stent (n = 11, 42.3%) for treatment of severe stenosis (>70%) involving the intracranial extradural ICA. The inclusion criteria were transient ischemic attack with an ABCD2 score of ≥3 (n = 12, 46.2%) or minor stroke with an NIHSS score of ≤4 (n = 14, 53.8%). Technical success rates, complications, and angiographic and clinical outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. PTAS was technically successful in all patients. The mean stenosis ratio decreased from 77.1% to 10.0% immediately after PTAS. The overall incidence of procedural complications was 23.1%, and the postoperative permanent morbidity/mortality rate was 7.7%. A total of 22 patients were tracked over an average period of 29.9 months. During the observation period, 20 patients (90.9%) had no further cerebrovascular events and stroke recurrence occurred in two patients (9.1%), resulting in an annual stroke risk of 3.7%. Two cases (11.1%) of significant in-stent restenosis (>50%) were found on follow-up angiography (n = 18). PTAS for severe stenosis (>70%) involving the intracranial extradural ICA showed a good technical feasibility and favorable clinical outcome in patients with transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. PMID:26063697

  5. Radiation dose analysis of large and giant internal carotid artery aneurysm treatment with the pipeline embolization device versus traditional coiling techniques.

    PubMed

    Colby, Geoffrey P; Lin, Li-Mei; Nundkumar, Neelesh; Jiang, Bowen; Huang, Judy; Tamargo, Rafael J; Coon, Alexander L

    2015-05-01

    Flow diversion is an effective and increasingly accepted method for endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Additionally, the public has heightened concerns regarding radiation exposure from medical procedures. This study analyzes radiation dose and fluoroscopy time during treatment of large and giant proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms with the pipeline embolization device (PED) versus traditional coiling techniques. Radiation dose, fluoroscopy time, and contrast dye administration were retrospectively analyzed in 55 patients undergoing endovascular treatment of aneurysms ≥ 10 mm from petrous to superior hypophyseal ICA segments. Patients were treated by either PED (37 patients) or traditional coiling techniques (18 patients). Aortic arch type and proximal ICA tortuosity were also assessed as markers of access difficulty. Average radiation dose with PED treatment was 2840 ± 213 mGy and 4010 ± 708 mGy with traditional coiling techniques (p=0.048; 29% decrease with PED). Mean fluoroscopy time for PED was 56.1 ± 5.0 min and 85.9 ± 11.9 min for coiling cases (p=0.0087; 35% decrease with PED). These benefits existed despite more difficult arch anatomy and a trend towards greater proximal vessel tortuosity in PED cases. Contrast dye amounts were also reduced by 37.5% in PED cases (75 ± 6 mL) versus coiling cases (120 ± 13 mL, p=0.0008). Treatment of large and giant proximal ICA aneurysms using PED requires less radiation, less fluoroscopy time, and less contrast administration than standard coiling techniques. This further demonstrates the benefits of flow diversion for treatment of these aneurysms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lactic acid in stroke patients with internal carotid artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Dan; Hu, Di; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Yufang; Li, Jimei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) causes high annual rates of mortality and morbidity. It has been established that atherosclerosis is the normal cause of ICAO. As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis may involve blood lipids, inflammatory factors and other biomarkers, the aim of this study was to assess the changes in these biomarkers and investigate the relationship between these biomarkers and the development of ICAO in stroke patients. Material and methods A total of 89 ischaemic stroke inpatients with ICAO (ICAO group) and 89 without ICAO (control group) were studied, retrospectively. The serum was collected from each patient on the 3rd day of admission, to measure the lipid parameters and biomarkers, e.g. high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and lactic acid (LA). Histories were taken including age, gender, smoking history, and disease history. Additional analysis was carried out to compare between the genders and evaluate the association between certain biomarkers and ICAO. Results Among the 89 ICAO cases in this study, the serum levels of hs-CRP, ESR and LA were significantly higher than those in the control group (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences were found in the mean levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, HDL cholesterol or glucose, or the known risk factors. Gender also had no influence on these biomarkers. Logistic regression analysis indicated that hs-CRP, ESR and LA were significantly associated with ICAO (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that hs-CRP, ESR and LA are associated with ICAO in ischaemic stroke patients, but gender has no effect. Therefore, Hs-CRP, ESR and LA may be useful in the early detection of patients with ICAO. PMID:27279846

  7. Internal carotid arterial canal size and scaling in Euarchonta: Re-assessing implications for arterial patency and phylogenetic relationships in early fossil primates.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Kirk, E Christopher; Silcox, Mary T; Gunnell, Gregg F; Gilbert, Christopher C; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Allen, Kari L; Welch, Emma; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gonzales, Lauren A; Kay, Richard F; Seiffert, Erik R

    2016-08-01

    Primate species typically differ from other mammals in having bony canals that enclose the branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA) as they pass through the middle ear. The presence and relative size of these canals varies among major primate clades. As a result, differences in the anatomy of the canals for the promontorial and stapedial branches of the ICA have been cited as evidence of either haplorhine or strepsirrhine affinities among otherwise enigmatic early fossil euprimates. Here we use micro X-ray computed tomography to compile the largest quantitative dataset on ICA canal sizes. The data suggest greater variation of the ICA canals within some groups than has been previously appreciated. For example, Lepilemur and Avahi differ from most other lemuriforms in having a larger promontorial canal than stapedial canal. Furthermore, various lemurids are intraspecifically variable in relative canal size, with the promontorial canal being larger than the stapedial canal in some individuals but not others. In species where the promontorial artery supplies the brain with blood, the size of the promontorial canal is significantly correlated with endocranial volume (ECV). Among species with alternate routes of encephalic blood supply, the promontorial canal is highly reduced relative to ECV, and correlated with both ECV and cranium size. Ancestral state reconstructions incorporating data from fossils suggest that the last common ancestor of living primates had promontorial and stapedial canals that were similar to each other in size and large relative to ECV. We conclude that the plesiomorphic condition for crown primates is to have a patent promontorial artery supplying the brain and a patent stapedial artery for various non-encephalic structures. This inferred ancestral condition is exhibited by treeshrews and most early fossil euprimates, while extant primates exhibit reduction in one canal or another. The only early fossils deviating from this plesiomorphic

  8. Endovascular parent-artery occlusion of large or giant unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysms. A long-term single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kampei; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Mineharu, Yohei; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Sakai, Chiaki; Tani, Shoichi; Arimura, Koichi; Beppu, Mikiya; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    The development of stent-like devices has increased treatment options for complex internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms, but the optimal treatment remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular parent-artery occlusion (PAO) for ICA aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients with unruptured ICA aneurysms ⩾10mm treated with PAO between April 2002 and March 2015 at our institution. Patients who developed neurologic symptoms or with venous-phase delay >2s during balloon test occlusion were not treated by PAO. Patients with venous-phase delays of 1-2s underwent superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass prior to PAO. The median patient age was 65 (range, 26-84)years. Nineteen aneurysms (68%) were located in the cavernous segment. The median aneurysm size was 25 (range 11-40)mm. Venous-phase delay of 1-2s was observed in five patients. Perioperative ischemic complications (N=9, 32%), which occurred within 30days after treatment, were significantly associated with venous-phase delays of 1-2s (p<0.01) and history of hypertension (p<0.01). Six-month morbidity was observed in one (3.6%) patient. Complete occlusion at final follow-up and delayed (i.e. ⩾31days after treatment) ischemic events were observed in 100% and 0% of patients, respectively, over a median period of 63 (range, 6-147) months. Despite the high frequency of perioperative ischemic episodes, endovascular PAO with selective use of STA-MCA bypass showed excellent long-term outcomes in patients with unruptured ICA aneurysms ⩾10mm.

  9. [Stenting of subtotal conclusion of internal carotid artery and comparing the cerebral embolic load of proximal balloon protection device with distal filter protection device].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-wei; Ji, Xun-ming; Li, Shen-mao; Zhu, Feng-shui; Chen, Yan-fei; Ye, Ming; Jiao, Li-qun

    2013-07-16

    To study the safety, efficacy and perioperative complications of endovascular therapy in the treatment of subtotal conclusion of internal carotid artery(ICA) in patients. To compare the cerebral embolic load of proximal balloon protection device versus distal filter protection device during the operation. Review all the operations of stenting for subtotal conclusion of ICA in Xuanwu hospital. New cerebral infarction after stenting was assessed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Count the number of new ischemic lesions of every patient. 35 patients with subtotal conclusion of ICA received endovascular stenting. Proximal protective device was used for 21 patients. Distal protective device was used for 14 patients. All procedures succeeded. 32 patients received the cerebral MRI 1 week before and within 48 hours after the operation. Compared with filter protection(n = 14), proximal balloon device(n = 18) resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of new cerebral infarction (6/18 vs 10/14, P = 0.03). The number of new cerebral ischemic lesions were significant reduced by proximal balloon device (1/18 vs 4/14, P = 0.0006) . There were no serious cardiovascular events in 35 patients during the operation and the following up 3 months. 3 patients had restenosis which was demonstrated by ultrasound of ICA at 3 months after stenting. Endovascular stenting may be a safe and valid method for the treatment of subtotal occlusion of ICA. For the stenting of subtotal occlusion of ICA, proximal balloon protection device as compared with filter protection may reduce the embolic load to the brain more effectively. The stenting of subtotal occlusion of ICA still needs the randomized trails to confirm the safety and validity.

  10. Multiple overlapping stents as monotherapy in the treatment of 'blister' pseudoaneurysms arising from the supraclinoid internal carotid artery: a single institution series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kevin M; Moskowitz, Shaye I; Hui, Ferdinand K; Spiotta, Alejandro M

    2014-04-01

    The 'blister-type' aneurysm is one of the most devastating cerebrovascular lesions. Flow diversion with stent reconstruction is an emerging treatment and has shown promising initial results. To evaluate the experience of one institution using stent reconstruction for pseudoaneurysms of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and to compare with a review of the literature. A retrospective review from one institution identified eight patients with 'blister' aneurysms over a 47-month period. The Raymond scale was used to classify the aneurysms. Clinical data were obtained using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. A literature review was performed and compared with our results. Clinical and angiographic data were obtained. After treatment, two aneurysms were Raymond class 1 (25%) and six were class 3 (75%). Of the class 3 aneurysms, two required retreatment, three (50%) progressed to complete occlusion and three (50%) had persistent aneurysm filling. Clinical data revealed two patients with mRS score of 0 (25%), five with mRS score of 1 (62.5%) and one with mRS score of 2 (12.5%). From the literature review, residual filling was evident in nine patients (64.3%) and complete occlusion in four (28.6%). On follow-up angiography, nine (64.3%) were occluded, two (14.3%) had residual neck filling and one (7.1%) had persistent aneurysm filling. Thirteen patients (92.9%) had an mRS score of 2 or better. Combining the available experience, patients demonstrated either improvement (n=9, 41%) or stability (n=11, 50%). Only two (9%) had progression requiring retreatment. Endovascular stent remodeling of 'blister-type' aneurysms is a safe and effective strategy.

  11. Erectile dysfunction, metabolic syndrome and arterial disease. Clinical-pathological relation by carotid ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Polo, M A; Vera-Arroyo, B; Lahoz-García, C; Valderrama-Illana, P; Cámara-Ortega, M; Arrabal-Martín, M; Zuluaga-Gomez, A; Lopez-Carmona Pintado, F

    2014-04-01

    Different studies have shown the relationship between erectile dysfunction, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of arteriopathy performing carotid ultrasound in patients with and without erectile dysfunction. We conducted a case-control study with 44 patients consulting for erectile dysfunction and 20 controls. All subjects completed the IIEF-5 test and we studied the criteria for metabolic syndrome, and a carotid ultrasound to study the intima-media thickness and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques was performed. Mean intima-media thickness was .71mm±.21 for the right and of .71±.17 for the left carotid in patients with erectile dysfunction. In the control group, the means were .54±0.11 and 0.59±0.15mm respectively, statistically significant differences (P=.02 and P=.05 respectively). No plaque was found in any control, but in 25% of both carotid arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction (P=.01). As metabolic syndrome, according to the American Heart Association, were diagnosed 52.8% of patients with erectile dysfunction, and 16.7% of controls, and according to the International Diabetes Federation, 52.3% of patients with erectile dysfunction and 25% of controls met diagnostic criteria. In both cases there were significant differences (P<.01 and P=.02 respectively). We found a positive linear correlation between waist circumference and the intima-media thickness in both carotid (P<.05). Patients with erectile dysfunction may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, as determined by the presence of arterial disease in the carotid arteries, which indicates that we should made a more thorough and comprehensive study of patients with erectile dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative analysis of the patency of the internal thoracic artery in the CABG of left anterior descending artery: 6-month postoperative coronary CT angiography evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Deininger, Maurilio Onofre; Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pinho; Dallan, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; de Oliveira, Orlando Gomes; Magalhães, Daniel Marcelo Silva; Coelho, José Reinaldo de Moura; Deininger, Eugênia di Giuseppe; Lopes, Norland de Souza; Queiroga, Ricardo Wanderley; Belmont, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the patency of the pedicled right internal thoracic artery with an anteroaortic course and compare it to the patency of the left internal thoracic artery , in anastomosis to the left anterior descending artery in coronary artery bypass grafting by using coronary CT angiography at 6 months postoperatively. Methods Between December 2008 and December 2011, 100 patients were selected to undergo a prospective coronary artery bypass grafting procedure without cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided by a computer-generated list into Group-1 (G-1) and Group-2 (G-2), comprising 50 patients each, the technique used was known at the beginning of the surgery. In G-1, coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using the left internal thoracic artery for the left anterior descending and the free right internal thoracic artery for the circumflex, and in G-2, coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using the right internal thoracic artery pedicled to the left anterior descending and the left internal thoracic artery pedicled to the circumflex territory. Results The groups were similar with regard to the preoperative clinical data. A male predominance of 75.6% and 88% was observed in G-1 and G-2, respectively. Five patients migrated from G-1 to G-2 because of atheromatous disease in the ascending aorta. The average number of distal anastomoses was 3.48 (SD=0.72) in G-1 and 3.20 (SD=0.76) in G-2. Coronary CT angiography in 96 re-evaluated patients showed that all ITAs, right or left, used in situ for the left anterior descending were patent. There were no deaths in either group. Conclusion Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery involving anastomosis of the anteroaortic right internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery has an outcome similar to that obtained using the left internal thoracic artery for the same coronary site. PMID:25140469

  13. Surgical flow modification of the anterior cerebral artery-anterior communicating artery complex in the management of giant aneurysms of internal carotid artery bifurcation: An alternative for a difficult clip reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Felix Hendrik; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Beer-Furlan, André Luiz; Rotta, José Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internal carotid artery bifurcation (ICAb) aneurysms account for about 2–15% of all intracranial aneurysms. In giant and complex cases, treatment may be difficult and dangerous, once some aneurysms have wide neck and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) may arise from the aneurysm itself. Clip reconstruction may be difficult in such cases. Whenever possible, the occlusion of ACA transform the bifurcation in a single artery reconstruction (ICA to MCA), much easier than a bifurcation reconstruction. Methods: In patients with giant and complex ICAb aneurysms, we propose routine preoperative angiography with anatomical evaluation of anterior communicating artery (ACoA) patency during cervical common carotid compression with concomitant contralateral carotid artery injection. This allowed visualization of the expected reversal of flow in the A1 segment–ACoA complex. When test is positive, we can perform ipsilateral ACA (A1 segment) clip occlusion and flow modification of the ACA-ACoA complex transforming a three vessel (ICA, ACA, and MCA) reconstruction into a two vessel (ICA and MCA) reconstruction. Results: Two patients were treated, with 100% of occlusion and good outcome. Conclusions: Surgical treatment of giant and complex ICAb may be achieved with acceptable morbidity. PMID:27313968

  14. Captured Macro-embolus of Fractured Atheromatous Plaque by the Embolic Protection Device during Carotid Stent Assisted Angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mun Chul; Bennett, Shelby; Farb, Richard; Croul, Sydney; Lee, Seon-Kyu

    2013-02-01

    The authors present a case in which macro-embolus from the ruptured atheromatous plaque developed during carotid artery stenting (CAS). A 63-year-old man who had suffered a left middle cerebral artery territory infarction had significant proximal left internal carotid artery stenosis required CAS procedure. Immediate after stent deployment, the patient showed abrupt neurological deterioration with 12 × 3 mm sized macro-embolus which was caught by the embolus protection device (EPD). Retrieval of the macro-embolus was performed safely and the patient recovered to pre-procedure status. Macro-embolus can be resulted during the CAS. The EPD can capture the macro-embolus and safe removal is technically feasible.

  15. Hybrid Coronary Artery Revascularization for Takayasu Arteritis with Major Visceral Collateral Circulation from the Left Internal Thoracic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Jeong-Won; Yoo, Jae Suk; Cho, Kwang Ree

    2017-01-01

    Coronary arterial involvement in Takayasu arteritis (TA) is not uncommon. Herein, we describe a case of TA with celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery occlusion combined with coronary artery disease. Bilateral huge internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) and the inferior mesenteric artery provided the major visceral collateral circulation. After percutaneous intervention to the right coronary artery, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for the left coronary territory was done using a right ITA graft and its large side branch because of its relatively minor contribution to the visceral collateral circulation. PMID:28382269

  16. A Retrospective Study of Preferable Alternative Route to Right Internal Jugular Vein for Placing Tunneled Dialysis Catheters: Right External Jugular Vein versus Left Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Wang, Yufei; Qiao, Yingjin; Zhou, Sijie; Liang, Xianhui; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Right internal jugular vein (IJV) is a preferred access route for tunneled (cuffed) dialysis catheters (TDCs), and both right external jugular vein (EJV) and left IJV are alternative routes for patients in case the right IJV isn’t available for TDC placement. This retrospective study aimed to determine if a disparity exists between the two alternative routes in hemodialysis patients in terms of outcomes of TDCs. Methods 49 hemodialysis patients who required TDCs through right EJV (n = 21) or left IJV (n = 28) as long-term vascular access were included in this study. The primary end point was cumulative catheter patency. Secondary end points include primary catheter patency, proportion of patients that never required urokinase and incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). Results A total of 20,870 catheter-days were evaluated and the median was 384 (interquartile range, 262–605) catheter-days. Fewer catheters were removed in the right EJV group than in the left IJV group (P = 0.007). Mean cumulative catheter patency was higher in the right EJV group compared with the left IJV group (P = 0.031). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of CRBSI, primary catheter patency or proportion of patients that never required urokinase use. Total indwell time of antecedent catheters was identified as an independent risk factor for cumulative catheter patency by Cox regression hazards test with an HR of 2.212 (95% CI, 1.363–3.588; p = 0.001). Conclusions Right EJV might be superior to left IJV as an alternative insertion route for TDC placement in hemodialysis patients whose right IJVs are unavailable. PMID:26751380

  17. A cohort study of duplex Doppler examinations of the carotid artery in primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmion, Vincent J; Aldoori, Munther I; Woodcock, John P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the possibility of pathological change in the common carotid artery at the bifurcation and in the internal carotid artery beyond the bifurcation which could contribute to a reduced diastolic pressure as observed in primary open angle glaucoma. Design Duplex ultrasonic examinations of carotid bifurcations were conducted on 80 patients. Carotid artery defects were allocated into three types: no demonstrable flow defects, internal carotid artery abnormalities and disease in the carotid bulb. Setting Bristol Royal Infirmary Vascular Laboratory. Participants Eighty patients (mean age 69.6 years) providing a total of 160 sides to the analysis. Main outcome measures An estimated central retinal artery pressure, intraocular pressure and field loss were recorded for each side measured. Results Doppler investigations revealed significant levels of pathological change in the internal carotid distinct from changes at the carotid bulb. The disease revealed in the internal carotid artery was significantly associated with intraocular pressure (p = 0.032), with an effect small to medium in magnitude. The Q2 measure, derived from mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure, was also substantively associated with disease in the internal carotid artery. Both intraocular pressure and the Q2 measure effectively discriminated between groups, with field loss providing rather less discriminating capability. There was a strong trend towards a higher intraocular pressures and a greater visual field loss with internal carotid artery disease. Conclusions Pathological changes in the extra cranial carotid artery in primary open angle glaucoma exceed those in the arteries classified as normal. The presence of disease specifically in the internal carotid artery emphasised the need for a mechanism for the evaluation of the internal carotid apart from the carotid bulb. A basis for clarifying the presence of an ischaemic zone is proposed. PMID:25289141

  18. [A case of left internal capsular infarction with auditory hallucination and peculiar amnesia and dysgraphia].

    PubMed

    Lai, C; Okada, Y; Sadoshima, S; Saku, Y; Kuwabara, Y; Fujishima, M

    1990-09-01

    A 46-year-old businessman suddenly became to behave curiously on the morning, September 1, 1988. He forgot how to go through an automatic ticket gate, which he used every day. In his company, he also forgot how to open the cash box, and he wrote a meaningless report for his business. From the night on that day, he had experienced auditory hallucination in which whispering words of some criticism to his performance for a few days. On the next day, he was admitted to a psychiatric hospital because he was suggested to have schizophrenia. By day 6 after the onset, his curious symptoms completely disappeared. However, slight verbal memory disturbance and cognitive dysfunction still remained. Because the brain CT on day 6 showed a small localized subcortical infarction in the left hemisphere he was transferred to our clinic on day 20 to elucidate the relation between the abnormal behavior and the infarction. His blood pressure was 116/64 mmHg and pulse was regular 63/min. He was clear and did not have any neurological deficit. He kept his episodic memory regarding the events at the onset and could almost recall them precisely. Results of standard blood tests, electrocardiogram, ultrasound cardiogram, electroencephalogram as well as cerebral angiography were normal. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an infarcted lesion in the genu of the left caudate nucleus, adjacent to the anterior part of the thalamus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  20. What Is Carotid Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...