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Sample records for left turn phase

  1. Left-turn phase: permissive, protected, or both? A quasi-experimental design in New York City.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Chen, Cynthia; Ewing, Reid

    2015-03-01

    The practice of left-turn phasing selection (permissive, protected-only, or both) varies from one locality to another. The literature evidence on this issue is equally mixed and insufficient. In this study, we evaluate the safety impacts of changing left-turn signal phasing from permissive to protected/permissive or protected-only at 68 intersections in New York City using a rigorous quasi-experimental design accompanied with regression modeling. Changes in police reported crashes including total crashes, multiple-vehicle crashes, left-turn crashes, pedestrian crashes and bicyclist crashes were compared between before period and after period for the treatment group and comparison group by means of negative binomial regression using a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) technique. Confounding factors such as the built environment characteristics that were not controlled in comparison group selection are accounted for by this approach. The results show that the change of permissive left-turn signal phasing to protected/permissive or protected-only signal phasing does not result in a significant reduction in intersection crashes. Though the protected-only signal phasing does reduce the left-turn crashes and pedestrian crashes, this reduction was offset by a possible increase in over-taking crashes. These results suggest that left-turn phasing should not be treated as a universal solution that is always better than the permissive control for left-turn vehicles. The selection and implementation of left-turn signal phasing needs to be done carefully, considering potential trade-offs between safety and delay, and many other factors such as geometry, traffic flows and operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A restricted branch and bound approach for setting the left turn phase sequences in signalized networks

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, R.S.; Rathi, A.K.; Cohen, S.

    1994-07-01

    The main objective of synchronized signal timing is to keep traffic moving along arterial in platoons throughout the signal system by proper setting of left turn phase sequence at signals along the arterials/networks. The synchronization of traffic signals located along the urban/suburban arterials in metropolitan areas is perhaps one of the most cost-effective method for improving traffic flow along these streets. The popular technique for solving this problem formulates it as a mixed integer linear program and used Land and Powell branch and bound search to arrive at the optimal solution. The computation time tends to be excessive for realistic multiarterial network problems due to the exhaustive nature of the branch and bound search technique. Furthermore, the Land and Powell branch and bound code is known to be numerically unstable, which results in suboptimal solutions for network problems with a range on the cycle time variable. This paper presents the development of a fast and numerically stable heuristic, developed using MINOS linear programming solver. The new heuristic can generate optimal/near-optimal solutions in a fraction of the time needed to compute the optimal solution by Land and Powell code. The solution technique is based on restricted search using branch and bound technique. The efficiency of the heuristic approach is demonstrated by numerical results for a set of test problems.

  3. MAXBAND Version 3.1: Heuristic and optimal approach for setting the left turn phase sequences in signalized networks

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, R.S.; Rathi, A.K.

    1995-02-01

    The main objective of synchronized signal timing is to keep traffic moving along arterials in platoons throughout the signal system by proper setting of left turn phase sequence at signals along the arterials/networks. The synchronization of traffic signals located along the urban/suburban arterials in metropolitan areas is perhaps one of the most cost-effective methods for improving traffic flow along these streets. MAXBAND Version 2.1 (formerly known as MAXBAND-86), a progression-based optimization model, is used for generating signal timing plan for urban networks. This model formulates the problem as a mixed integer linear program and uses Land and Powell branch and bound search to arrive at the optimal solution. The computation time of MAXBAND Version 2.1 tends to be excessive for realistic multiarterial network problems due to the exhaustive nature of the branch and bound search technique. Furthermore, the Land and Powell branch and bound code is known to be numerically unstable, which results in suboptimal solutions for network problems with a range on the cycle time variable. This report presents the development of a new version of MAXBAND called MAXBAND Version 3.1. This new version has a fast heuristic algorithm and a fast optimal algorithm for generating signal timing plan for arterials and networks. MAXBAND 3.1 can generate optimal/near-optimal solutions in fraction of the time needed to compute the optimal solution by Version 2.1. The heuristic algorithm in the new model is based on restricted search using branch and bound technique. The algorithm for generating the optimal solution is faster and more efficient than version 2.1 algorithm. Furthermore, the new version is numerically stable. The efficiency of the new model is demonstrated by numerical results for a set of test problems.

  4. Assessing the effect of introducing a permitted phase through the use of flashing yellow arrow signal for left-turning vehicles.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Chittoor Khader, Khamar Salma

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the direct and indirect effects of introducing a permitted phase, through the use of flashing yellow arrow (FYA) signal for left-turning vehicles, in reducing crashes at intersections. Data for 18 study intersections in the city of Charlotte, NC, USA were used to conduct a before-after comparison study through the use of Empirical Bayes (EB) method and examine the effects. The estimated number of left-turn crashes, had the FYA signal not been installed, was compared to the actual number of left-turn crashes to assess the direct effect, while the estimated total number of crashes, had the FYA signal not been installed, was compared to the actual total number of crashes to assess the indirect effect. Only left-turn crashes along a selected FYA leg were used to examine the direct effect as the number of legs (approaches) with the FYA signal varied between the selected study intersections. The results obtained indicate that the FYA signal helps reduce the left-turn crashes (direct effect). It does not lead to any negative consequences. Instead, the FYA signal has the potential to indirectly lower the total number of crashes (indirect effect) and contribute to improved safety at intersections.

  5. Safety of the Las Vegas left-turn display.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Ozlem; Tian, Zong Z; Gibby, A Reed

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a safety evaluation of a special protected/permitted left turn signal control (Las Vegas LT Display) that has been implemented in the urbanized area of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Las Vegas LT Display eliminates the yellow trap condition for leading approach in lead/lag operation. It provides protected only left turns during certain times of day by suppressing the permitted green ball and yellow ball displays. Before and after studies were conducted using the crash data from 10 intersections. Results from the analyses indicated that no obvious safety concerns due to use of the special display. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tune Evaluation From Phased BPM Turn-By-Turn Data

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Marsh, W.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-18

    In fast ramping synchrotrons like the Fermilab Booster the conventional methods of betatron tune evaluation from the turn-by-turn data may not work due to rapid changes of the tunes (sometimes in a course of a few dozens of turns) and a high level of noise. We propose a technique based on phasing of signals from a large number of BPMs which significantly increases the signal to noise ratio. Implementation of the method in the Fermilab Booster control system is described and some measurement results are presented.

  7. Modeling left-turn crash occurrence at signalized intersections by conflicting patterns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuesong; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In order to better understand the underlying crash mechanisms, left-turn crashes occurring at 197 four-legged signalized intersections over 6 years were classified into nine patterns based on vehicle maneuvers and then were assigned to intersection approaches. Crash frequency of each pattern was modeled at the approach level by mainly using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) with the Negative Binomial as the link function to account for the correlation among the crash data. GEE with a binomial logit link function was also applied for patterns with fewer crashes. The Cumulative Residuals test shows that, for correlated left-turn crashes, GEE models usually outperformed basic Negative Binomial models. The estimation results show that there are obvious differences in the factors that cause the occurrence of different left-turn collision patterns. For example, for each pattern, the traffic flows to which the colliding vehicles belong are identified to be significant. The width of the crossing distance (represented by the number of through lanes on the opposing approach of the left-turning traffic) is associated with more left-turn traffic colliding with opposing through traffic (Pattern 5), but with less left-turning traffic colliding with near-side crossing through traffic (Pattern 8). The safety effectiveness of the left-turning signal is not consistent for different crash patterns; "protected" phasing is correlated with fewer Pattern 5 crashes, but with more Pattern 8 crashes. The study indicates that in order to develop efficient countermeasures for left-turn crashes and improve safety at signalized intersections, left-turn crashes should be considered in different patterns.

  8. Safety evaluation of signalized intersections with left-turn waiting area in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinguo; Zhang, Guopeng; Bai, Wei; Fan, Wenbo

    2016-10-01

    In recent years the metropolitans in China have seen the surging installations of the left-turn waiting area (LWA) at the signalized intersections. The design allows the left-turning vehicles to enter the intersection at the onset of the through green phase (of the same approach) and wait for the exclusive left-turn signal at the LWA. The LWA layout can effectively reduce the probability of stranded and queue overflow of the left-turn vehicles, but no study is conducted yet to assess the safety performance of the signalized intersections with LWA. The paper adopts the traffic conflict technique (represented by post-encroachment time), compares the discrepancy of conflict types between intersections with LWA and without, and develops the severity models to identify the contributing factors for the left-turn conflicts. Results demonstrate that the left-turn volume, driving outside the LWA, running red light, the presence of secondary conflicts, and the rear-end conflicts significantly increase the severities of traffic conflicts at the LWA. The findings serve to provide recommendations to revise the current design standard of the LWA (GB5768-2009) and consequently improve the safety operations of signalized intersections with LWA in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyanosis when head turned to left in an infant with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Bas; Haarman, Eric; Rammeloo, Lukas; Hruda, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    A 19-month-old boy with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), mirror-image dextrocardia, situs inversus (SI) totalis suffered from persistent hypoxia. Cyanosis became clinically evident when the child turned the head to the left and resolved after turning the head to the right. Echocardiography demonstrated two superior caval veins; the left sided superior vena cava (SVC) entering the left sided right atrium (RA) and the right sided into the right sided left atrium (LA). Surgical redirection of the right sided caval vein into RA was performed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Influence of bus stop with left-turn lines between two adjacent signalized intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Ming-Bao; Ye, Lan-Hang; Pei, Ya-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Based on the symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a three-lane cellular automaton model between two intersections containing a bus stop with left-turning buses is established in which model the occurrences of vehicle accidents are taken into account. The characteristics of traffic flows with different ratios of left-turn lines are discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that the left-turn lines have more negative effects on capacity, accident rate as well as delay if the stop is located close to the intersections, where the negative effect in a near-side stop is more severe than that in a far-side one. The range of appropriate position for a bus stop without the bottleneck effect becomes more and more narrow with the increase of the ratio of left-turn bus lines. When the inflow is small, a short signal cycle and a reasonable offset are beneficial. When the inflow reaches or exceeds the capacity, a longer signal cycle is helpful. But if the stop position is inappropriate, the increase of cycle fails in reducing the negative effect of left-turning buses and the effectiveness of offset is weakened. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50478088) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2015202266).

  11. Childrens' left-turning preference is not modulated by magical ideation.

    PubMed

    Streuli, Jürg C; Obrist, Gina; Brugger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The literature on human turning preferences is inconsistent. While the few studies with children below 14 years of age uniformly describe an overall left-turning (counterclockwise) tendency, a recent Internet study with more than 1500 adults found a right-sided (clockwise) bias. We set out to investigate spontaneous turning behaviour in children age 5-3 years and, based on neuropsychiatric work in adults, also explored a potential association with magical thinking. Findings indicated a clear left-turning preference, independent of a participant's sex and handedness. Whether a child responded a question about the existence of extrasensory communication in the affirmative or not was unrelated to direction and size of turning bias and lateral preference. Our results are consistent with a left-sided turning preference reported for children, but in opposition to the clockwise bias recently described in a large-scale study with adults. Whether they point to a maturational gradient in the preferred direction of spontaneous whole-body rotation or rather to a lack of comparability between measures used in observational versus Internet-based studies remains to be further investigated. Regarding a purported association between body turns and magical thinking, our study is preliminary, as only one single question was used to probe the latter.

  12. Thunderstorm-scale variations of echoes associated with left-turn tornado families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The origin of tornadoes is studied on the basis of changing radar echo shapes and tornado location relative to the echoes. Three types of tornadoes appear to be associated with different hook echo configurations. No-turn or right-turn tornadoes are linked to a steady hook which does not change shape or orientation. Left-turn tornado families are generated in cases where the hook is unsteady and changes orientation at each successive tornado birth. Finally, left-turn tornado families may also be formed when the hook undergoes no orientation change and the tornadoes move along the rear of the hook. The correlation between a thunderstorm-scale cycle and periodic tornado production is also discussed.

  13. Thunderstorm-scale variations of echoes associated with left-turn tornado families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The origin of tornadoes is studied on the basis of changing radar echo shapes and tornado location relative to the echoes. Three types of tornadoes appear to be associated with different hook echo configurations. No-turn or right-turn tornadoes are linked to a steady hook which does not change shape or orientation. Left-turn tornado families are generated in cases where the hook is unsteady and changes orientation at each successive tornado birth. Finally, left-turn tornado families may also be formed when the hook undergoes no orientation change and the tornadoes move along the rear of the hook. The correlation between a thunderstorm-scale cycle and periodic tornado production is also discussed.

  14. Safety effects of traffic signing for left turn flashing yellow arrow signals.

    PubMed

    Schattler, Kerrie L; Gulla, Cody J; Wallenfang, Travis J; Burdett, Beau A; Lund, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, the left turn flashing yellow arrow (FYA) signal displays were installed at signalized intersections on state routes in the Peoria, Illinois, area. Supplemental traffic signs with text "Left Turn Yield on Flashing Yellow Arrow" were mounted on the mast arm adjacent to the left turn signal at over half of the FYA installations. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the effectiveness evaluation of the FYA supplemental sign on safety. Analyses are presented on the effects of the FYA supplemental sign for all drivers and a subset of drivers age 65 and older. A crash-based comparison of 164 FYA approaches including 90 approaches with the sign and 74 approaches without the sign showed greater crash reductions when the supplemental FYA sign was present. The results also showed that crashes involving drivers age 65 and older did not experience the same magnitudes of crash reductions as compared to all drivers. The findings of this research indicate that supplemental FYA signs may help in improving safety for left-turning vehicles during the permissive interval. Thus, it is recommended that supplemental signs be used when initially implementing the FYA, and that effort to educate the driving public on new traffic control be made to further improve safety at signalized intersections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Bicycle accidents and drivers' visual search at left and right turns.

    PubMed

    Summala, H; Pasanen, E; Räsänen, M; Sievänen, J

    1996-03-01

    The accident data base of the City of Helsinki shows that when drivers cross a cycle path as they enter a non-signalized intersection, the clearly dominant type of car-cycle crashes is that in which a cyclist comes from the right and the driver is turning right, in marked contrast to the cases with drivers turning left (Pasanen 1992; City of Helsinki, Traffic Planning Department, Report L4). This study first tested an explanation that drivers turning right simply focus their attention on the cars coming from the left-those coming from the right posing no threat to them-and fail to see the cyclist from the right early enough. Drivers' scanning behavior was studied at two T-intersections. Two well-hidden video cameras were used, one to measure the head movements of the approaching drivers and the other one to measure speed and distance from the cycle crossroad. The results supported the hypothesis: the drivers turning right scanned the right leg of the T-intersection less frequently and later than those turning left. Thus, it appears that drivers develop a visual scanning strategy which concentrates on detection of more frequent and major dangers but ignores and may even mask visual information on less frequent dangers. The second part of the study evaluated different countermeasures, including speed humps, in terms of drivers' visual search behavior. The results suggested that speed-reducing countermeasures changed drivers' visual search patterns in favor of the cyclists coming from the right, presumably at least in part due to the fact that drivers were simply provided with more time to focus on each direction.

  16. AUGMENTED REALITY CUES TO ASSIST OLDER DRIVERS WITH GAP ESTIMATION FOR LEFT-TURNS

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to assist middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairments, judging when to make left-turns across oncoming traffic. Previous studies have shown that AR cues can help middle-aged and older drivers respond to potential roadside hazards by increasing hazard detection without interfering with other driving tasks. Intersections pose a critical challenge for cognitively impaired drivers, prone to misjudge time-to-contact with oncoming traffic. We investigated whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in left-turns across oncoming traffic for drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Sixty-four middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairment judged when it would be safe to turn left across oncoming traffic approaching the driver from the opposite direction in a rural stop-sign controlled intersection scenario implemented in a static base driving simulator. Outcome measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of AR cueing included: Time-to-Contact (TTC), Gap Time Variation (GTV), Response Rate, and Gap Response Variation (GRV). All drivers estimated TTCs were shorter in cued than in uncued conditions. In addition, drivers responded more often in cued conditions than in uncued conditions and GRV decreased for all drivers in scenarios that contained AR cues. For both TTC and response rate, drivers also appeared to adjust their behavior to be consistent with the cues, especially drivers with the poorest UFOV scores (matching their behavior to be close to middle-aged drivers). Driver ratings indicated that cueing was not considered to be distracting. Further, various conditions of reliability (e.g., 15% miss rate) did not appear to affect performance or driver ratings. PMID:24950128

  17. Safety evaluation of intersections with dynamic use of exit-lanes for left-turn using field data.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yue

    2017-05-01

    As a newly proposed unconventional intersection design, the exit-lanes for left-turn (EFL) intersection is found to be effective in increasing the intersection capacity with high level of application flexibility, especially under heavy left-turn traffic conditions. However, the operational safety of EFL is of most concern to the authority prior to its implementation. This paper evaluates the safety of the EFL intersections by studying the behavior of left-turn maneuvers using field data collected at 7 locations in China. A total of 22830 left-turn vehicles were captured, in which 9793 vehicles turned left using the mixed-usage area. Four potential safety problems, including the red-light violations, head-on collision risks, trapped vehicles, and rear-end crash risks, were discussed. Statistical analyses were carried out to compare the safety risk between the EFL intersection and the conventional one. Results indicate that the safety problems of EFL intersections mainly lie in higher percentages in red-light violations at the pre-signal (1.83% higher), wrong-way violation problems during the peak hours (the violation rate reaches up to 11.07%), and the lower travel speeds in the mixed-usage area (18.75% lower). Such risks can be counteracted, however, by providing more guiding information, installing cameras to investigate and punish violation maneuvers, and adjusting design parameter values for layout design and signal timing, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A two phase harmonic model for left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Shay; Dubi, Chen; Dubi, Yonatan

    2007-11-01

    A minimal model for mechanical motion of the left ventricle is proposed. The model assumes the left ventricle to be a harmonic oscillator with two distinct phases, simulating the systolic and diastolic phases, at which both the amplitude and the elastic constant of the oscillator are different. Taking into account the pressure within the left ventricle, the model shows qualitative agreement with functional parameters of the left ventricle. The model allows for a natural explanation of heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function, also termed diastolic heart failure. Specifically, the rise in left ventricular filling pressures following increased left-ventricular wall stiffness is attributed to a mechanism aimed at preserving heart rate and cardiac output.

  19. Driving simulator evaluation of drivers' response to intersections with dynamic use of exit-lanes for left-turn.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Yun, Meiping; Zhang, H Michael; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-08-01

    With the worsening of urban traffic congestion in large cities around the world, researchers have been looking for unconventional designs and/or controls to squeeze more capacity out of intersections, the most common bottlenecks of the road network. One of these innovative intersection designs, known as the exit-lanes for left-turn (EFL), opens up exit-lanes to be used by left-turn traffic with the help of an additional traffic light installed at the median opening (the pre-signal). This paper studies how drivers respond to EFL intersections with a series of driving simulator experiments. In our experiments, 64 drivers were recruited and divided into two groups. One group is trained to use the EFL while the other group is not. In addition, four scenarios were considered with different sign and marking designs and traffic conditions in the experiments. Results indicate that drivers show certain amount of confusion and hesitation when encountering an EFL intersection for the first time. They can be overcome, however, by increasing exposure through driver education or by cue provided from other vehicles. Moreover, drivers unfamiliar with EFL operation can make a left turn using the conventional left-turn lanes as usual. The EFL operation is not likely to pose any serious safety risk of the intersection in real life operations.

  20. Evaluation of a Risk Awareness Perception Training Program on Novice Teen Driver Behavior at Left-Turn Intersections

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Kandadai, Venk; Loeb, Helen; Seacrist, Thomas; Lee, Yi-Ching; Bonfiglio, Dana; Fisher, Donald L.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2015-01-01

    Collisions at left turn intersections are among the most prevalent types of teen driver serious crashes, with inadequate surveillance as a key factor. Risk awareness perception training (RAPT) has shown effectiveness in improving hazard anticipation for latent hazards. The goal of this study was to determine if RAPT version 3 (RAPT-3) improved intersection turning behaviors among novice teen drivers when the hazards were not latent and frequent glancing to multiple locations at the intersection was needed. Teens aged 16–18 with ≤180 days of licensure were randomly assigned to: 1) an intervention group (n=18) that received RAPT-3 (Trained); or 2) a control group (n=19) that received no training (Untrained). Both groups completed RAPT-3 Baseline Assessment and the Trained group completed RAPT-3 Training and RAPT-3 Post Assessment. Training effects were evaluated on a driving simulator. Simulator (gap selection errors and collisions) and eye tracker (traffic check errors) metrics from six left-turn stop sign controlled intersections in the Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) were analyzed. The Trained group scored significantly higher in RAPT-3 Post Assessment than RAPT-3 Baseline Assessment (p< 0.0001). There were no significant differences in either traffic check and gap selection errors or collisions among Trained and Untrained teens in the SDA. Though Trained teens learned about hazard anticipation related to latent hazards, learning did not translate to performance differences in left-turn stop sign controlled intersections where the hazards were not latent. Our findings point to further research to better understand the challenges teens have with left turn intersections. PMID:26709331

  1. Bolivia’s Left Turn Toward Rentier Plurinationalism And Its Effects On Ethnic Tensions And Solidarity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Bolivia became part of a Leftist shift in governments across South America . With the election of Bolivia’s first indigenous president, Evo Morales...extractive energy resources. In the early 2000s, Bolivia became part of a Leftist shift in governments across South America . With the election of Bolivia’s...with Latin America ...................................43 x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xi LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Maternal and Infant

  2. Effects of major-road vehicle speed and driver age and gender on left-turn gap acceptance.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam; Guo, Dahai

    2007-07-01

    Because the driver's gap-acceptance maneuver is a complex and risky driving behavior, it is a highly concerned topic for traffic safety and operation. Previous studies have mainly focused on the driver's gap acceptance decision itself but did not pay attention to the maneuver process and driving behaviors. Using a driving simulator experiment for left-turn gap acceptance at a stop-controlled intersection, this study evaluated the effects of major traffic speed and driver age and gender on gap acceptance behaviors. The experiment results illustrate relationships among drivers' left-turn gap decision, driver's acceleration rate, steering action, and the influence of the gap-acceptance maneuver on the vehicles in the major traffic stream. The experiment results identified an association between high crash risk and high traffic speed at stop-controlled intersections. The older drivers, especially older female drivers, displayed a conservative driving attitude as a compensation for reduced driving ability, but also showed to be the most vulnerable group for the relatively complex driving maneuvers.

  3. Exposure to lateral collision in signalized intersections with protected left turn under different traffic control strategies.

    PubMed

    Midenet, Sophie; Saunier, Nicolas; Boillot, Florence

    2011-11-01

    This paper proposes an original definition of the exposure to lateral collision in signalized intersections and discusses the results of a real world experiment. This exposure is defined as the duration of situations where the stream that is given the right-of-way goes through the conflict zone while road users are waiting in the cross-traffic approach. This measure, obtained from video sensors, makes it possible to compare different operating conditions such as different traffic signal strategies. The data from a real world experiment is used, where the adaptive real-time strategy CRONOS (ContRol Of Networks by Optimization of Switchovers) and a time-plan strategy with vehicle-actuated ranges alternately controlled an isolated intersection near Paris. Hourly samples with similar traffic volumes are compared and the exposure to lateral collision is different in various areas of the intersection and various traffic conditions for the two strategies. The total exposure under peak hour traffic conditions drops by roughly 5 min/h with the CRONOS strategy compared to the time-plan strategy, which occurs mostly on entry streams. The results are analyzed through the decomposition of cycles in phase sequences and recommendations are made for traffic control strategies.

  4. Evidence of population-level lateralized behaviour in giant water bugs, Belostoma flumineum Say (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae): T-maze turning is left biased.

    PubMed

    Kight, Scott L; Steelman, Laura; Coffey, Gena; Lucente, Julie; Castillo, Marianne

    2008-09-01

    Lateralized behaviour occurs in diverse animals, but relatively few studies examine the phenomenon in invertebrates. Here we report a population-level left turn bias in the giant water bug Belostoma flumineum Say (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae) in an underwater T-maze. Individuals made significantly more left turns than right turns, including when they were naïve and first introduced to the maze. Water bugs also showed significantly longer runs of consecutive left turns than right turns (i.e. LLLLL). The length of these runs, however, did not increase with experience in the maze, suggesting that the effect is not the result of learning. There were also no differences in turning bias between male and female water bugs. The proximate mechanism(s) underlying the left turn bias is unknown, but directional cues in the environment were eliminated by rotating the maze 180 degrees between experiments, suggesting the mechanism(s) is endogenous. To our knowledge this is the first study of lateralized behaviour in the Heteroptera or in a swimming invertebrate animal.

  5. Turn Left at Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolmagno, Guy; Davis, Dan M.

    2011-09-01

    1. How do you get to Albireo?; 2. How to use this book; 3. The Moon; 4. The planets; 5. Seasonal skies: January-March; 6. Seasonal skies: April-June; 7. Seasonal skies: July-September; 8. Seasonal skies: October-December; 9. Northern skies; 10. Southern skies; 11. Where do you go from here?; Index; Behind the eyepiece.

  6. 3D Left Ventricular Strain from Unwrapped Harmonic Phase Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Bharath Ambale; Gupta, Himanshu; Lloyd, Steven G.; ‘Italia, Louis Dell; Denney, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To validate a method for measuring 3D left ventricular (LV) strain from phase-unwrapped harmonic phase (HARP) images derived from tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods A set of 40 human subjects were imaged with tagged MRI. In each study HARP phase was computed and unwrapped in each short-axis and long-axis image. Inconsistencies in unwrapped phase were resolved using branch cuts manually placed with a graphical user interface. 3D strain maps were computed for all imaged timeframes in each study. The strain from unwrapped phase (SUP) and displacements were compared to those estimated by a feature-based (FB) technique and a HARP technique. Results 3D strain was computed in each timeframe through systole and mid diastole in approximately 30 minutes per study. The standard deviation of the difference between strains measured by the FB and the SUP methods was less than 5% of the average of the strains from the two methods. The correlation between peak circumferential strain measured using the SUP and HARP techniques was over 83%. Conclusion The SUP technique can reconstruct full 3-D strain maps from tagged MR images through the cardiac cycle in a reasonable amount of time and user interaction compared to other 3D analysis methods. PMID:20373429

  7. Phase Retrieval System for Assessing Diamond Turning and Optical Surface Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce; Maldonado, Alex; Bolcar, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    An optical design is presented for a measurement system used to assess the impact of surface errors originating from diamond turning artifacts. Diamond turning artifacts are common by-products of optical surface shaping using the diamond turning process (a diamond-tipped cutting tool used in a lathe configuration). Assessing and evaluating the errors imparted by diamond turning (including other surface errors attributed to optical manufacturing techniques) can be problematic and generally requires the use of an optical interferometer. Commercial interferometers can be expensive when compared to the simple optical setup developed here, which is used in combination with an image-based sensing technique (phase retrieval). Phase retrieval is a general term used in optics to describe the estimation of optical imperfections or aberrations. This turnkey system uses only image-based data and has minimal hardware requirements. The system is straightforward to set up, easy to align, and can provide nanometer accuracy on the measurement of optical surface defects.

  8. Ocular Reflex Phase during Off-Vertical Axis Rotation in Humans is Modified by Head-Turn-On-Trunk Position

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Samantha B.; Clément, Gilles; Denise, Pierre; Wood, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    Constant velocity Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) imposes a continuously varying orientation of the head and body relative to gravity, which generates a modulation of horizontal (conjugate and vergence), vertical, and torsional eye movements. We introduced the head-turn-on-trunk paradigm during OVAR to examine the extent to whether the modulation of these ocular reflexes is mediated by graviceptors in the head, i.e., otoliths, versus other body graviceptors. Ten human subjects were rotated in darkness about their longitudinal axis 20° off-vertical at a constant velocity of 45 and 180°/s, corresponding to 0.125 and 0.5 Hz. Binocular responses were obtained with the head and trunk aligned, and then with the head turned relative to the trunk 40° to the right or left of center. The modulation of vertical and torsional eye position was greater at 0.125 Hz while the modulation of horizontal and vergence slow phase velocity was greater at 0.5 Hz. The amplitude modulation was not significantly altered by head-on-trunk position, but the phases shifted towards alignment with the head. These results are consistent with the modulation of ocular reflexes during OVAR being primarily mediated by the otoliths in response to the sinusoidally varying linear acceleration along the interaural and naso-occipital head axis. PMID:28176802

  9. Time to turn the other cheek? The influence of left and right poses on perceptions of academic specialisation.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Annukka K; Savill, Nicola J

    2010-11-01

    The human face expresses emotion asymmetrically. Whereas the left cheek is more emotionally expressive, the right cheek appears more impassive, hence the appropriate cheek to put forward depends on the circumstance. Nicholls, Clode, Wood, and Wood (1999, Proceedings of the Royal Society (Section B), 266, 1517-1522) demonstrated that people posing for family portraits offer the left cheek, whereas those posing as a Royal Society scientist favour the right. Given that the stereotypical representations of members of different academic disciplines differ markedly in their perceived openness and emotionality (e.g., "serious" scientist vs. "creative" writer), we reasoned that people may use cheek as a cue when determining a model's area of academic interest. Two hundred and nine participants (M=90, F=119) viewed pairs of left and right cheek poses, and made a forced-choice decision indicating which image depicted a Chemistry, Psychology or English student. Half the images were mirror-reversed to control for perceptual and aesthetic biases. Consistent with prediction, participants were more likely to select left cheek images for English students, and right cheek images for Chemistry students, irrespective of image orientation. The results confirm that determining the best cheek to put forward depends on your academic expertise: an impassive right cheek suggests hard science, whereas an emotive left cheek implies the arts. Psychology produced no left or right bias, consistent with its position as a discipline perpetually straddling the boundary between art and science.

  10. Opportunities and limitations for intersection collision intervention-A study of real world 'left turn across path' accidents.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    Turning across the path of oncoming vehicle accidents are frequent and dangerous. To date not many car manufacturers have introduced Automated Emergency Braking (AEB) systems addressing this type of conflict situation, but it is foreseeable that these scenarios will be part of the Euro NCAP 2020 rating. Nine out of ten collisions are caused by the driver of the turning vehicle. An AEB system evaluating the ego and conflict vehicle driver's possibilities to avoid a pending crash by either braking or steering was specified for application in various constellations of vehicle collisions. In virtual simulation, AEB system parameters were varied, covering parameters that are relevant for driver comfort such as longitudinal and lateral acceleration (to define avoidance possibilities), expected steering maneuvers to avoid conflict, and intervention response characteristics (brake delay and ramp up) to assess the safety benefit. The reference simulation showed a potential of the AEB system in the turning vehicle to avoid approximately half of the collisions. An AEB system of the straight going vehicle was less effective. The effectiveness of the turning vehicle's AEB system increases if spatial limitations for the collision-avoidance steering maneuver are known. Such information could be provided by sensors detecting free space in or around the road environment or geographical information shared via vehicle to cloud communication. AEB interventions rarely result in collision avoidance for turning vehicles with speeds above 40km/h or for straight going vehicles with speeds above 60km/h. State of the art field-of-views of forward looking sensing systems designed for AEB rear-end interventions are capable of addressing turning across path situations.

  11. Detecting of Multi Phase Inter Turn Short Circuit in the Five Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassa, N.; Rachek, M.; Djerdir, A.; Becherif, M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a general model of five phase permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) which is capable of representing the multiphase Inter Turn Short Circuit (ITSC) occurring in several phase simultaneously this model is based on a coupled magnetic circuit approach leading to a differential equations system goveming the induction machine behavior. The obtained time-differential state equations system is implemented under Matlab environment and numerically solved using the fourth order Rung-Kutta method with variable step time corrected at each rotor displacement through the electromagnetic torque. Also, Fast Fourier Transform and (FFT) analysis is performed to the phase current signal to detect the frequency spectrum, Power Spectral Density (PSD) is chosen as a classification method. Its efficiency depends on its ability to discriminate between various faults generating the same range of harmonics in the stator current spectrum and on its ability to evaluate the fault severity. So, in order to improve the efficiency of these diagnosis methods, one needs a relatively accurate model to simulate the five-phase PMSM in the case of inter-tum short circuit fault helping to predict performances andor to extract fault signature in the machine main quantities. Simulation work has been carried out using MATLAB to verify the performance of the proposed detection/diagnosis method.

  12. Influence of slope steepness, foot position and turn phase on plantar pressure distribution during giant slalom alpine ski racing.

    PubMed

    Falda-Buscaiot, Thomas; Hintzy, Frédérique; Rougier, Patrice; Lacouture, Patrick; Coulmy, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the evolution of ground reaction force during alpine skiing turns. Specifically, this study investigated how turn phases and slope steepness affected the whole foot normal GRF pattern while performing giant slalom turns in a race-like setting. Moreover, the outside foot was divided into different plantar regions to see whether those parameters affected the plantar pressure distribution. Eleven skiers performed one giant slalom course at race intensity. Runs were recorded synchronously using a video camera in the frontal plane and pressure insoles under both feet's plantar surface. Turns were divided according to kinematic criteria into four consecutive phases: initiation, steering1, steering2 and completion; both steering phases being separated by the gate passage. Component of the averaged Ground Reaction Force normal to the ski's surface([Formula: see text], /BW), and Pressure Time Integral relative to the entire foot surface (relPTI, %) parameters were calculated for each turn phases based on plantar pressure data. Results indicated that [Formula: see text] under the total foot surface differed significantly depending on the slope (higher in steep sections vs. flat sections), and the turn phase (higher during steering2 vs. three other phases), although such modifications were observable only on the outside foot. Moreover, [Formula: see text] under the outside foot was significantly greater than under the inside foot.RelPTI under different foot regions of the outside foot revealed a global shift from forefoot loading during initiation phase, toward heel loading during steering2 phase, but this was dependent on the slope studied. These results suggest a differentiated role played by each foot in alpine skiing turns: the outside foot has an active role in the turning process, while the inside foot may only play a role in stability.

  13. N-ethylformamide dimer. A β-turn model peptide in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero-Vara, V.; Alstadt, V.; Sewatsky, T. P.; Claughton, J. L.; Finneran, I. A.; Shipman, S. T.; Pate, B. H.; Pratt, D. W.

    2017-05-01

    Reported here are CP-FTMW experiments on N-ethylformamide (NEF), previously studied by pure rotational spectroscopy in the gas phase by Hirota and co-workers (2005). Two conformers of the monomer (trans sc and cis ac), the trans-trans sc dimer, and several NEF-water complexes have been detected. (Only trans sc was observed in the earlier experiments.) Of these species, the trans-trans sc dimer is the most interesting since its three-dimensional structure bears a striking resemblance to β-turns in folded peptides. The well-known anti-parallel β-sheet structures would be expected to have near-zero dipole moments and are therefore discriminated against by the CP-FTMW method.

  14. A circuit motif in the zebrafish hindbrain for a two alternative behavioral choice to turn left or right

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Minoru; Minale, Francesca; Shum, Jennifer; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Fetcho, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Animals collect sensory information from the world and make adaptive choices about how to respond to it. Here, we reveal a network motif in the brain for one of the most fundamental behavioral choices made by bilaterally symmetric animals: whether to respond to a sensory stimulus by moving to the left or to the right. We define network connectivity in the hindbrain important for the lateralized escape behavior of zebrafish and then test the role of neurons by using laser ablations and behavioral studies. Key inhibitory neurons in the circuit lie in a column of morphologically similar cells that is one of a series of such columns that form a developmental and functional ground plan for building hindbrain networks. Repetition within the columns of the network motif we defined may therefore lie at the foundation of other lateralized behavioral choices. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16808.001 PMID:27502742

  15. Reflectance and reflection phase of photonic crystal with anisotropic left-handed materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Chunmin; Yao, Baoli

    2016-11-01

    The reflectance and reflection phase properties of one dimensional photonic crystals with anisotropic left-handed materials is investigated by transfer matrix method. It is demonstrated that the width of zero- n band gap is influenced by the incident angle, polarization, the proportion of lattice and the ratio of thickness which is different from the zero- n band gap with isotropic left hand materials. The value of reflection phase is affected by incident angle and polarization and not affected by the proportion of lattice and the ratio of thickness. These characteristic may be useful for making photonic crystal phase compensators and the dispersion compensators.

  16. Quasi-phase-matching of the dual-band nonlinear left-handed metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yahong Song, Kun; Gu, Shuai; Liu, Zhaojun; Guo, Lei; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Xin

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate a type of nonlinear meta-atom creating a dual-band nonlinear left-handed metamaterial (DNLHM). The DNLHM operates at two distinct left-handed frequency bands where there is an interval of one octave between the two center frequencies. Under the illumination of a high-power signal at the first left-handed frequency band corresponding to fundamental frequency (FF), second-harmonic generation (SHG) is observed at the second left-handed band. This means that our DNLHM supports backward-propagating waves both at FF and second-harmonic (SH) frequency. We also experimentally demonstrate quasi-phase-matching configurations for the backward SHG. This fancy parametric process can significantly transmits the SH generated by an incident FF wave.

  17. Manifestation of Latent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in the Acute Phase of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Kazuyuki; Okubo, Takeshi; Tanaka, Komei; Hosaka, Yukio; Tsuchida, Keiichi; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Hirotaka; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Objective Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is a complication in 15-25% of patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and sometimes leads to catastrophic outcomes, such as cardiogenic shock or cardiac rupture. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. Methods and Results We experienced 22 cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during 3 years, and 4 of these 22 cases were complicated with LVOT obstruction in the acute phase (mean age 79±5 years, 1 man, 21 women). The LVOT pressure gradient in the acute phase was 100±17 mmHg. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in one case and sigmoid-shaped septum without LVH in three cases. The complete resolution of the LVOT obstruction was achieved in a few days with normalization of the left ventricular wall motion following administration of beta-blockers. A dobutamine provocation test after normalization of the left ventricular wall motion reproduced the LVOT obstruction in all cases and revealed the presence of latent LVOT obstruction. Conclusion The manifestation of latent LVOT obstruction in the acute phase of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is one potential reason for the complication of LVOT obstruction with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:27904102

  18. Manifestation of Latent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in the Acute Phase of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Kazuyuki; Okubo, Takeshi; Tanaka, Komei; Hosaka, Yukio; Tsuchida, Keiichi; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Hirotaka; Minamino, Tohru

    Objective Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is a complication in 15-25% of patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and sometimes leads to catastrophic outcomes, such as cardiogenic shock or cardiac rupture. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. Methods and Results We experienced 22 cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during 3 years, and 4 of these 22 cases were complicated with LVOT obstruction in the acute phase (mean age 79±5 years, 1 man, 21 women). The LVOT pressure gradient in the acute phase was 100±17 mmHg. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in one case and sigmoid-shaped septum without LVH in three cases. The complete resolution of the LVOT obstruction was achieved in a few days with normalization of the left ventricular wall motion following administration of beta-blockers. A dobutamine provocation test after normalization of the left ventricular wall motion reproduced the LVOT obstruction in all cases and revealed the presence of latent LVOT obstruction. Conclusion The manifestation of latent LVOT obstruction in the acute phase of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is one potential reason for the complication of LVOT obstruction with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  19. Evaluation of variability of phase indices of the left ventricle in the course of time.

    PubMed

    Emer, Ozdes; Karacalioglu, Alper O; Gursoy, Erol; Ince, Semra

    2014-11-01

    Since the effect of time on phase indices is still unclear, the aim of the study was to evaluate the variability of phase indices of the left ventricle which were derived from stress and rest single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging acquired at early and late times. One hundred twenty-one patients (72 men, 49 women) were included into the study. All stress and rest gated myocardial perfusion imaging (gMPI) acquisitions were acquired at two different time points as early in 15 ± 5 min and late in 45 ± 5 min. The peak of the phase histogram (PP), the standard deviation of the phase distribution (SDPH), the width of the band (BPH), and the symmetry (histogram skewness, HS) and peakedness of the phase histogram (histogram kurtosis, HK) which are the parameters for assessing left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony were calculated in all stress and rest SPECT images acquired twice. The phase indices derived from the late rest scans were smaller than those of the early rest scans but, the differences were not significant. When considering the comparisons of phase indices derived from two different time points after stress, PP showed a tendency to decrease (from 160.8 ± 18.3 to 152.5 ± 17.3; p < 0.001) over time but SDPH (from 20.2 ± 10.6 to 22.4 ± 12.2; p = 0.018) and BPH (from 61.5 ± 36.0 to 66.3 ± 37.3; p = 0.045) tended to increase over time. When the post-stress and the resting dyssynchrony parameters derived at two different time points were compared to each other; PP decreased at early and late times approximately 12 and 9 %, respectively, SDPH increased at early and late times approximately 28.5 and 14 %, respectively, and BPH increased at early and late times approximately 23 and 12 %, respectively. In resting conditions, phase indices of the left ventricle, and therefore, the phase histogram tend to remain constant over time but, in conditions after exercise, the phase histogram tend to be long and narrow due to

  20. Phase-constant-nonreciprocal composite right/left-handed metamaterials based on coplanar waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Porokhnyuk, Andrey Ueda, Tetsuya; Kado, Yuichi; Itoh, Tatsuo

    2014-05-07

    The purely phase-constant-nonreciprocal composite right-left handed metamaterial structure is proposed based on coplanar waveguides loaded with a ferrite layer. The structure exhibits considerably large nonreciprocity in phase constant which depends on the effective magnetization and whose magnitude can remain in leaky wave region of wavenumbers or can overcome a boundary to slow wave region. The nonreciprocity in amplitude of transmission coefficients, on the other hand, is effectively reduced by using a cavity-backed design to prevent undesired nonreciprocal radiation loss.

  1. Phase-constant-nonreciprocal composite right/left-handed metamaterials based on coplanar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porokhnyuk, Andrey; Ueda, Tetsuya; Kado, Yuichi; Itoh, Tatsuo

    2014-05-01

    The purely phase-constant-nonreciprocal composite right-left handed metamaterial structure is proposed based on coplanar waveguides loaded with a ferrite layer. The structure exhibits considerably large nonreciprocity in phase constant which depends on the effective magnetization and whose magnitude can remain in leaky wave region of wavenumbers or can overcome a boundary to slow wave region. The nonreciprocity in amplitude of transmission coefficients, on the other hand, is effectively reduced by using a cavity-backed design to prevent undesired nonreciprocal radiation loss.

  2. The topological pressure-temperature phase diagram of fluoxetine nitrate: monotropy unexpectedly turning into enantiotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Céolin, René; Rietveld, Ivo B.

    2016-09-01

    The phase behavior of pharmaceuticals is important for regulatory requirements and dosage form development. Racemic fluoxetine nitrate possesses two crystalline forms for which initial measurements indicated that they have a monotropic relationship with form I the only stable form. By constructing the topological pressure-temperature phase diagram, it has been shown that unexpectedly form II has a stable domain in the phase diagram and can be easily obtained by heating and grinding. The pressure necessary to obtain form II is only 11 MPa, which is much lower than most pressure used for tableting in the pharmaceutical industry.

  3. The topological pressure-temperature phase diagram of fluoxetine nitrate: monotropy unexpectedly turning into enantiotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Céolin, René; Rietveld, Ivo B.

    2017-04-01

    The phase behavior of pharmaceuticals is important for regulatory requirements and dosage form development. Racemic fluoxetine nitrate possesses two crystalline forms for which initial measurements indicated that they have a monotropic relationship with form I the only stable form. By constructing the topological pressure-temperature phase diagram, it has been shown that unexpectedly form II has a stable domain in the phase diagram and can be easily obtained by heating and grinding. The pressure necessary to obtain form II is only 11 MPa, which is much lower than most pressure used for tableting in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Semantic priming increases left hemisphere theta power and inter-trial phase synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Dean F; Taylor, Grantley

    2011-01-01

    Information is stored in distributed cortical networks, but it is unclear how distributed stores are synthesized into a unified percept. Activation of local circuits in the gamma range (30<>80 Hz), and distributed stores in the low theta range (3–5 Hz) may underlie perceptual binding. Words have a crucial role in semantic memory. Within memory the activation of distributed semantic stores is facilitated by conceptually related previous items, termed semantic priming. We sought to detect event-related brain oscillations (EROs) sensitive to semantic activation and priming. Here we show that low theta evoked power and inter-trial phase locking (4–5 Hz) from 250–350 msec over left hemisphere language areas was greater to related than to unrelated words. Theta band event-related oscillations over left hemisphere language areas may provide a brain signature for semantic activation across distributed stores being facilitated by semantic priming. PMID:22176140

  5. Folding and unfolding of helix-turn-helix motifs in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Zilch, Lloyd W; Kaleta, David T; Kohtani, Motoya; Krishnan, Ranjani; Jarrold, Martin F

    2007-07-01

    Ion mobility measurements and molecular dynamic simulations have been performed for a series of peptides designed to have helix-turn-helix motifs. For peptides with two helical sections linked by a short loop region: AcA(14)KG(3)A(14)K+2H(+), AcA(14)KG(5)A(14)K+2H(+), AcA(14)KG(7)A(14)K+2H(+), and AcA(14)KSar(3)A(14)K+2H(+) (Ac = acetyl, A = alanine, G = glycine, Sar = sarcosine and K = lysine); a coiled-coil geometry with two anti-parallel helices is the lowest energy conformation. The helices uncouple and the coiled-coil unfolds as the temperature is raised. Equilibrium constants determined as a function of temperature yield enthalpy and entropy changes for the unfolding of the coiled-coil. The enthalpy and entropy changes depend on the length and nature of the loop region. For a peptide with three helical sections: protonated AcA(14)KG(3)A(14)KG(3)A(14)K; a coiled-coil bundle with three helices side-by-side is substantially less stable than a geometry with two helices in an antiparallel coiled-coil and the third helix collinear with one of the other two.

  6. Hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that depict action stem from a left hemispheric system of conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Helmich, I; Lausberg, H

    2014-10-01

    The present study addresses the previously discussed controversy on the contribution of the right and left cerebral hemispheres to the production and conceptualization of spontaneous hand movements and gestures. Although it has been shown that each hemisphere contains the ability to produce hand movements, results of left hemispherically lateralized motor functions challenge the view of a contralateral hand movement production system. To examine hemispheric specialization in hand movement and gesture production, ten right-handed participants were tachistoscopically presented pictures of everyday life actions. The participants were asked to demonstrate with their hands, but without speaking what they had seen on the drawing. Two independent blind raters evaluated the videotaped hand movements and gestures employing the Neuropsychological Gesture Coding System. The results showed that the overall frequency of right- and left-hand movements is equal independent of stimulus lateralization. When hand movements were analyzed considering their Structure, the presentation of the action stimuli to the left hemisphere resulted in more hand movements with a phase structure than the presentation to the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the presentation to the left hemisphere resulted in more right and left-hand movements with a phase structure, whereas the presentation to the right hemisphere only increased contralateral left-hand movements with a phase structure as compared to hand movements without a phase structure. Gestures that depict action were primarily displayed in response to stimuli presented in the right visual field than in the left one. The present study shows that both hemispheres possess the faculty to produce hand movements in response to action stimuli. However, the left hemisphere dominates the production of hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that depict action. We therefore conclude that hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that

  7. Testing Sequences of Wheel Turns

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-21

    Mars Exploration Rover team members on July 21, 2009, tested how altering the order in which individual wheels turn for steering affects how those turns dig the wheels deeper into soft soil. From left: Alfonso Herrera, Vandana Verma, Bruce Banerdt.

  8. Protons accumulation during anodic phase turned to advantage for oxygen reduction during cathodic phase in reversible bioelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Elise; Pécastaings, Sophie; Erable, Benjamin; Roques, Christine; Bergel, Alain

    2014-12-01

    Reversible bioelectrodes were designed by alternating acetate and oxygen supply. It was demonstrated that the protons produced and accumulated inside the biofilm during the anodic phase greatly favored the oxygen reduction reaction when the electrode was switched to become the biocathode. Protons accumulation, which hindered the bioanode operation, thus became an advantage for the biocathode. The bioanodes, formed from garden compost leachate under constant polarization at -0.2 V vs. SCE, were able to support long exposure to forced aeration, with only a slight alteration of their anodic efficiency. They produced a current density of 16±1.7 A/m2 for acetate oxidation and up to -0.4 A/m2 for oxygen reduction. Analysis of the microbial communities by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed strong selection of Chloroflexi (49±1%), which was not observed for conventional bioanodes not exposed to oxygen. Chloroflexi were found as the dominant phylum of electroactive biofilms for the first time.

  9. A Phase-Conjugate-Mirror Inspired Approach for Building Cloaking Structures with Left-handed Materials

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoan; Heng, Xin; Yang, Changhuei

    2009-01-01

    A phase conjugate mirror (PCM) has a remarkable property of cancellation the back-scattering wave of the lossless scatterers. The similarity of a phase conjugate mirror to the interface of a matched RHM (right-handed material) and a LHM (left-handed material) prompts us to explore the potentials of using the RHM-LHM structure to achieve the anti-scattering property of the PCM. In this paper, we present two such structures. The first one is a RHM-LHM cloaking structure with a lossless arbitrary-shape scatterer imbedded in the RHM and its left-handed duplicate imbedded in the matched LHM. It is shown that such a structure is transparent to the incident electromagnetic (EM) field. As a special case of this structure, we proposed an EM tunnel that allows EM waves to spatially transport to another location in space without significant distortion and reflection. The second one is an RHM-PEC (perfect electric conductor)-LHM cloaking structure, which is composed of a symmetric conducting shell embedded in the interface junction of an RHM and the matched LHM layer. Such a structure presents an anomalously small scattering cross-section to an incident propagating EM field, and the interior of the shell can be used to shield small objects (size comparable to the wavelength) from interrogation. We report the results of 2D finite-element-method (FEM) simulations that were performed to verify our idea, and discuss the unique properties of the proposed structures as well as their limitations. PMID:20126415

  10. Changing pulsatility by delaying the rotational speed phasing of a rotary left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Date, Kazuma; Nishimura, Takashi; Arakawa, Mamoru; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Kishimoto, Satoru; Umeki, Akihide; Ando, Masahiko; Mizuno, Toshihide; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Ono, Minoru; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2017-03-01

    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have improved the prognosis of end-stage heart failure. However, continuous-flow LVADs diminish pulsatility, which possibly result in bleeding, aortic insufficiency, and other adverse effects. We previously developed a novel control system for a continuous-flow LVAD (EVAHEART(®); Sun Medical), and demonstrated that we could create sufficient pulsatility by increasing its rotational speed (RS) in the systolic phase (Pulsatile Mode) in the normal heart model. Here, we aimed to evaluate differences between systolic assist with advanced and delayed loads by shifting the timing of increased RS. We implanted EVAHEART in six goats (55.3 ± 4.3 kg) with normal hearts. We reduced their heart rates to <60 bpm using propranolol and controlled the heart rates at 80 and 120 bpm using ventricular pacing. We shifted the timing of increasing RS from -60 to +60 ms in the systolic phase. We found significant increases in all the following parameters when assessments of delayed timing (+60 ms) were compared with assessments of advanced timing (-60 ms): pulse pressure, mean dP/dt max of aortic pressure, and energy-equivalent pulse pressure. During continuous-flow LVAD support, pulsatility can be controlled using a rotary pump. In particular, pulsatility can be shifted by delaying increased RS.

  11. Electromagnetic equivalent model for phase conjugate mirror based on the utilization of left-handed material.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoan; Ran, Lixin; Yang, Changhuei

    2007-10-17

    An electromagnetic equivalent model for the phase conjugate mirror (PCM) is proposed in this paper. The model is based on the unique property of the isotropic left-handed material (LHM) - the ability of LHM to reverse the phase factors of propagative waves. We show that a PCM interface can be substituted with a LHM-RHM (right-handed material) interface and associated image sources and objects in the LHM. This equivalent model is fully equivalent in the treatment of propagative wave components. However, we note that the presence of evanescent wave components can lead to undesirably surface resonance at the LHM-RHM interface. This artefact can be kept well bounded by introducing a small refractive index mismatch between the LHM and RHM. We demonstrate the usefulness of this model by modelling several representative scenarios of light patterns interacting with a PCM. The simulations were performed by applying the equivalent model to a commercial finite element method (FEM) software. This equivalent model also points to the intriguing possibility of realizing some unique LHM based systems in the optical domain by substituting a PCM in place of a LHM-RHM interface.

  12. Improved Leg Tracking Considering Gait Phase and Spline-Based Interpolation during Turning Motion in Walk Tests.

    PubMed

    Yorozu, Ayanori; Moriguchi, Toshiki; Takahashi, Masaki

    2015-09-04

    Falling is a common problem in the growing elderly population, and fall-risk assessment systems are needed for community-based fall prevention programs. In particular, the timed up and go test (TUG) is the clinical test most often used to evaluate elderly individual ambulatory ability in many clinical institutions or local communities. This study presents an improved leg tracking method using a laser range sensor (LRS) for a gait measurement system to evaluate the motor function in walk tests, such as the TUG. The system tracks both legs and measures the trajectory of both legs. However, both legs might be close to each other, and one leg might be hidden from the sensor. This is especially the case during the turning motion in the TUG, where the time that a leg is hidden from the LRS is longer than that during straight walking and the moving direction rapidly changes. These situations are likely to lead to false tracking and deteriorate the measurement accuracy of the leg positions. To solve these problems, a novel data association considering gait phase and a Catmull-Rom spline-based interpolation during the occlusion are proposed. From the experimental results with young people, we confirm   that the proposed methods can reduce the chances of false tracking. In addition, we verify the measurement accuracy of the leg trajectory compared to a three-dimensional motion analysis system (VICON).

  13. Improved Leg Tracking Considering Gait Phase and Spline-Based Interpolation during Turning Motion in Walk Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yorozu, Ayanori; Moriguchi, Toshiki; Takahashi, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Falling is a common problem in the growing elderly population, and fall-risk assessment systems are needed for community-based fall prevention programs. In particular, the timed up and go test (TUG) is the clinical test most often used to evaluate elderly individual ambulatory ability in many clinical institutions or local communities. This study presents an improved leg tracking method using a laser range sensor (LRS) for a gait measurement system to evaluate the motor function in walk tests, such as the TUG. The system tracks both legs and measures the trajectory of both legs. However, both legs might be close to each other, and one leg might be hidden from the sensor. This is especially the case during the turning motion in the TUG, where the time that a leg is hidden from the LRS is longer than that during straight walking and the moving direction rapidly changes. These situations are likely to lead to false tracking and deteriorate the measurement accuracy of the leg positions. To solve these problems, a novel data association considering gait phase and a Catmull–Rom spline-based interpolation during the occlusion are proposed. From the experimental results with young people, we confirm that the proposed methods can reduce the chances of false tracking. In addition, we verify the measurement accuracy of the leg trajectory compared to a three-dimensional motion analysis system (VICON). PMID:26404302

  14. Analysis of the NK2 homeobox gene ceh-24 reveals sublateral motor neuron control of left-right turning during sleep.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Juliane; Bringmann, Henrik

    2017-02-28

    Sleep is a behavior that is found in all animals that have a nervous system and that have been studied carefully. In Caenorhabditis elegans larvae, sleep is associated with a turning behavior, called flipping, in which animals rotate 180{degree sign} about their longitudinal axis. However, the molecular and neural substrates of this enigmatic behavior are not known. Here, we identified the conserved NK-2 homeobox gene ceh-24 to be crucially required for flipping. ceh-24 is required for the formation of processes and for cholinergic function of sublateral motor neurons, which separately innervate the four body muscle quadrants. Knockdown of cholinergic function in a subset of these sublateral neurons, the SIAs, abolishes flipping. The SIAs depolarize during flipping and their optogenetic activation induces flipping in a fraction of events. Thus, we identified the sublateral SIA neurons to control the three-dimensional movements of flipping. These neurons may also control other types of motion.

  15. The meaning of the turning point of the index of motor current amplitude curve in controlling a continuous flow pump or evaluation of left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Endo, G J; Kojima, K; Nakamura, K; Matsuzaki, Y; Onitsuka, T

    2003-03-01

    In this series, we investigated the meaning of the t-point of index of motor current amplitude (ICA) curve from a point of view of flow rate on in vitro and in vivo studies. On mock circulation loop and left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-equipped pigs, we detected the t-point and compared the pump flow at the t-point with the simultaneous cardiac output. The pump flow at the t-point showed high correlation against the simultaneous cardiac output for in vitro or in vivo study. By detection of the t-point of the ICA curve and measuring or estimating the pump flow at t-point, the cardiac output may be assessed without any sensor in various cardiac conditions.

  16. The quest for load-independent left ventricular chamber properties: Exploring the normalized pressure phase plane

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Erina; Kovács, Sándor J

    2013-01-01

    The pressure phase plane (PPP), defined by dP(t)/dt versus P(t) coordinates has revealed novel physiologic relationships not readily obtainable from conventional, time domain analysis of left ventricular pressure (LVP). We extend the methodology by introducing the normalized pressure phase plane (nPPP), defined by 0 ≤ P ≤ 1 and −1 ≤ dP/dt ≤ +1. Normalization eliminates load-dependent effects facilitating comparison of conserved features of nPPP loops. Hence, insight into load-invariant systolic and diastolic chamber properties and their coupling to load can be obtained. To demonstrate utility, high-fidelity P(t) data from 14 subjects (4234 beats) was analyzed. PNR, the nPPP (dimensionless) pressure, where –dP/dtpeak occurs, was 0.61 and had limited variance (7%). The relative load independence of PNR was corroborated by comparison of PPP and nPPP features of normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and (ejecting and nonejecting) premature ventricular contraction (PVC) beats. PVCs had lower P(t)max and lower peak negative and positive dP(t)/dt values versus NSR beats. In the nPPP, +dP/dtpeak occurred at higher (dimensionless) P in PVC beats than in regular beats (0.44 in NSR vs. 0.48 in PVC). However, PNR for PVC versus NSR remained unaltered (PNR = 0.64; P > 0.05). Possible mechanistic explanation includes a (near) load-independent (constant) ratio of maximum cross-bridge uncoupling rate to instantaneous wall stress. Hence, nPPP analysis reveals LV properties obscured by load and by conventional temporal P(t) and dP(t)/dt analysis. nPPP identifies chamber properties deserving molecular and cellular physiologic explanation. PMID:24303128

  17. Turning crocodilian hearts into bird hearts: growth rates are similar for alligators with and without right-to-left cardiac shunt.

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Gwalthney, June; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Blank, Jason M; Hicks, James W

    2010-08-01

    The functional and possible adaptive significance of non-avian reptiles' dual aortic arch system and the ability of all non-avian reptiles to perform central vascular cardiac shunts have been of great interest to comparative physiologists. The unique cardiac anatomy of crocodilians - a four-chambered heart with the dual aortic arch system - allows for only right-to-left (R-L; pulmonary bypass) cardiac shunt and for surgical elimination of this shunt. Surgical removal of the R-L shunt, by occluding the left aorta (LAo) upstream and downstream of the foramen of Panizza, results in a crocodilian with an obligatory, avian/mammalian central circulation. In this study, R-L cardiac shunt was eliminated in age-matched, female American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; 5-7 months of age). We tested the hypothesis that surgical elimination of R-L cardiac shunt would impair growth (a readily measured proxy for fitness) compared with sham-operated, age-matched controls, especially in animals subjected to exhaustive exercise. While regular exercise caused a decrease in size (snout-to-vent length, head length and body mass), elimination of the capacity for R-L cardiac shunt did not greatly reduce animal growth, despite a chronic ventricular enlargement in surgically altered juvenile alligators. We speculate that, despite being slightly smaller, alligators with an occluded LAo would have reached sexual maturity in the same breeding season as control alligators. This study suggests that crocodilian R-L cardiac shunt does not provide an adaptive advantage for juvenile alligator growth and supports the logic that cardiac shunts persist in crocodilians because they have not been selected against.

  18. Turning crocodilian hearts into bird hearts: growth rates are similar for alligators with and without right-to-left cardiac shunt

    PubMed Central

    Eme, John; Gwalthney, June; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Blank, Jason M.; Hicks, James W.

    2010-01-01

    The functional and possible adaptive significance of non-avian reptiles' dual aortic arch system and the ability of all non-avian reptiles to perform central vascular cardiac shunts have been of great interest to comparative physiologists. The unique cardiac anatomy of crocodilians – a four-chambered heart with the dual aortic arch system – allows for only right-to-left (R–L; pulmonary bypass) cardiac shunt and for surgical elimination of this shunt. Surgical removal of the R–L shunt, by occluding the left aorta (LAo) upstream and downstream of the foramen of Panizza, results in a crocodilian with an obligatory, avian/mammalian central circulation. In this study, R–L cardiac shunt was eliminated in age-matched, female American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; 5–7 months of age). We tested the hypothesis that surgical elimination of R–L cardiac shunt would impair growth (a readily measured proxy for fitness) compared with sham-operated, age-matched controls, especially in animals subjected to exhaustive exercise. While regular exercise caused a decrease in size (snout-to-vent length, head length and body mass), elimination of the capacity for R–L cardiac shunt did not greatly reduce animal growth, despite a chronic ventricular enlargement in surgically altered juvenile alligators. We speculate that, despite being slightly smaller, alligators with an occluded LAo would have reached sexual maturity in the same breeding season as control alligators. This study suggests that crocodilian R–L cardiac shunt does not provide an adaptive advantage for juvenile alligator growth and supports the logic that cardiac shunts persist in crocodilians because they have not been selected against. PMID:20639429

  19. Analysis of the NK2 homeobox gene ceh-24 reveals sublateral motor neuron control of left-right turning during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Juliane; Bringmann, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior that is found in all animals that have a nervous system and that have been studied carefully. In Caenorhabditis elegans larvae, sleep is associated with a turning behavior, called flipping, in which animals rotate 180° about their longitudinal axis. However, the molecular and neural substrates of this enigmatic behavior are not known. Here, we identified the conserved NK-2 homeobox gene ceh-24 to be crucially required for flipping. ceh-24 is required for the formation of processes and for cholinergic function of sublateral motor neurons, which separately innervate the four body muscle quadrants. Knockdown of cholinergic function in a subset of these sublateral neurons, the SIAs, abolishes flipping. The SIAs depolarize during flipping and their optogenetic activation induces flipping in a fraction of events. Thus, we identified the sublateral SIA neurons to control the three-dimensional movements of flipping. These neurons may also control other types of motion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24846.001 PMID:28244369

  20. Optimal left ventricular lead position assessed with phase analysis on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Boogers, Mark J.; Chen, Ji; van Bommel, Rutger J.; Borleffs, C. Jan Willem; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; van der Hiel, Bernies; Al Younis, Imad; Schalij, Martin J.; van der Wall, Ernst E.; Garcia, Ernest V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between the site of latest mechanical activation as assessed with gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS), left ventricular (LV) lead position and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods The patient population consisted of consecutive patients with advanced heart failure in whom CRT was currently indicated. Before implantation, 2-D echocardiography and GMPS were performed. The echocardiography was performed to assess LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV ejection fraction (LVEF). The site of latest mechanical activation was assessed by phase analysis of GMPS studies and related to LV lead position on fluoroscopy. Echocardiography was repeated after 6 months of CRT. CRT response was defined as a decrease of ≥15% in LVESV. Results Enrolled in the study were 90 patients (72% men, 67±10 years) with advanced heart failure. In 52 patients (58%), the LV lead was positioned at the site of latest mechanical activation (concordant), and in 38 patients (42%) the LV lead was positioned outside the site of latest mechanical activation (discordant). CRT response was significantly more often documented in patients with a concordant LV lead position than in patients with a discordant LV lead position (79% vs. 26%, p<0.01). After 6 months, patients with a concordant LV lead position showed significant improvement in LVEF, LVESV and LVEDV (p<0.05), whereas patients with a discordant LV lead position showed no significant improvement in these variables. Conclusion Patients with a concordant LV lead position showed significant improvement in LV volumes and LV systolic function, whereas patients with a discordant LV lead position showed no significant improvements. PMID:20953608

  1. Left Versus Right: Does Location Matter for Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients in Phase 1 Clinical Trials?

    PubMed

    Arora, Sukeshi Patel; Ketchum, Norma S; Michalek, Joel; Gelfond, Jonathon; Mahalingam, Devalingam

    2017-04-22

    Location of the primary tumor is prognostic and predictive of efficacy with VEGF-inhibitors (I) versus EGFR-I given first-line to metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. However, little is known regarding the effect of location on prognosis and prediction in refractory mCRC. We assessed the efficacy of VEGF-I and EGFR-I in regards to location of the primary tumor in patients with refractory mCRC enrolled in early phase studies. A historical cohort analysis of mCRC patients, including 44 phase I trials our institution, from March 2004 to September 2012. Median Progression free survival (mPFS) and overall survival (mOS) were estimated from Kaplan-Meier curves and groups were statistically compared with the log-rank test. One hundred thirty-nine patients with a median age 59 (33-81). 73.9% received 3+ lines of therapy. All KRAS wild-type patients had received prior EGFR-I. right 20.9%, left 61.9%, and transverse 4.3%. For survival analysis, transverse CRC were included with right. Of the 112 patients, mOS was left (N = 80) 6.6 months versus right (N = 32) 5.9 months, P = 0.18. mPFS was left (n = 86) 2.0 months versus right (N = 35) 2.0 months, P = 0.76. In subgroup analysis, survival was significant for KRAS wild-type patients with left-sided mCRC had mOS of 6.2 months with other agents versus 9.4 months with EGFR-I (P = 0.03). In phase 1 clinical trials, although location alone was not prognostic in heavily pretreated patients, left-sided mCRC had improved survival with EGFR-I. Despite progression on EGFR-I, left-sided KRAS wild mCRC patients should be considered for phase 1 studies of agents targeting growth factor pathways.

  2. Taking Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Two people take turns selecting from an even number of items. Their relative preferences over the items can be described as a permutation, then tools from algebraic combinatorics can be used to answer various questions. We describe each person's optimal selection strategies including how each could make use of knowing the other's preferences. We…

  3. Phase encoding in the Mauthner system: implications in left-right sound source discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Shennan A.; Preuss, Thomas; Faber, Donald S.

    2009-01-01

    The paired Teleost Mauthner (M-) cells and their associated network serve as an excellent system to study the biophysical basis of decision making. In teleosts, an abrupt sound evokes a M-spike, triggering a C-start escape that is usually directed away from a sound source. The response latency is minimized by electrical synapses between auditory afferents and the M-cell lateral dendrite. Here, we demonstrate that the electrical synapses also mediate phase encoding. Ramped sound pressure waves (150-250 Hz) evoked electrotonic postsynaptic potentials in the M-cell locked to two diametrically opposed phase angles that were frequency dependent but intensity independent. Phase encoding was also evident at the behavioral level underwater, as the stimuli evoked directional C-starts with an onset that was phase locked to the sound wave. In interneurons inhibitory to the M-cell these same stimuli also evoked phase locked electrotonic postsynaptic potentials and action potentials. The resulting chemical and electrical, i.e field effect, inhibitions functioned tonically and phasically respectively. Phase encoding could be important in underwater sound source localization, which is thought to require a neural computation involving a phase comparison between the pressure and the directional particle motion components of sound. This computation may be implemented by an inter-play between phase dependent afferent excitation and feedforward inhibition that activates the appropriate M-cell and directs the C-start away from the sound source. PMID:19295149

  4. Gait modification strategies of trunk over left stance phase in patients with right anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongliang; Li, Nannan; Wang, Yubin; Jiang, Shuyun; Li, Jinglong; Zhu, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the gait modification strategies of trunk over left stance phase in patients with right anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACL-D). Thirty-six patients with right ACL-D and thirty-six health subjects (control) were recruited to undergo a 3-dimensional (3D) gait analysis. Coordinate data from 26 reflective markers positioned on the body surface of participants were recorded with a 3D optical video motion capture system, as they walked on the ground, ascended and descended a custom-built staircase. Angle changes in the 3-planes under different walking conditions were analyzed. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the trunk at the transverse plane angle in most measurements. With the walk pattern of stair descent, the trunk at all 3-plane angles, at the maximum value of the left knee sagittal/coronal/transverse plane moment, was significantly different between the two groups (P ≤ 0.03). Our findings suggested that special gait modification of trunk is apparent over stance of left (healthy) side in patients with right ACL-D. The results of this study may supply more insight with respect to improving the diagnosis and rehabilitation of ACL-D. This information may also be helpful for a better use of walk and stair tasks as part of a rehabilitation program and provide a safe guideline for the patients.

  5. Effect of through-plane motion on left ventricular rotation: a study using slice-following harmonic phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Brotman, David; Zhang, Ziheng; Sampath, Smita

    2013-05-01

    Noninvasive quantification of regional left ventricular rotation may improve understanding of cardiac function. Current methods used to quantify rotation typically acquire data on a set of prescribed short-axis slices, neglecting effects due to through-plane myocardial motion. We combine principles of slice-following tagged imaging with harmonic phase analysis methods to account for through-plane motion in regional rotation measurements. We compare rotation and torsion measurements obtained using our method to those obtained from imaging datasets acquired without slice-following. Our results in normal volunteers demonstrate differences in the general trends of average and regional rotation-time plots in midbasal slices and the rotation versus circumferential strain loops. We observe substantial errors in measured peak average rotation of the order of 58% for basal slices (due to change in the pattern of the curve), -6.6% for midventricular slices, and -8.5% for apical slices; and an average error in base-to-apex torsion of 19% when through-plane motion is not considered. This study concludes that due to an inherent base-to-apex gradient in rotation that exists in the left ventricular, accounting for through-plane motion is critical to the accuracy of left ventricular rotation quantification.

  6. Gait modification strategies of trunk over left stance phase in patients with right anterior cruciate ligament deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dongliang; Li, Nannan; Wang, Yubin; Jiang, Shuyun; Li, Jinglong; Zhu, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the gait modification strategies of trunk over left stance phase in patients with right anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACL-D). Methods: Thirty-six patients with right ACL-D and thirty-six health subjects (control) were recruited to undergo a 3-dimensional (3D) gait analysis. Coordinate data from 26 reflective markers positioned on the body surface of participants were recorded with a 3D optical video motion capture system, as they walked on the ground, ascended and descended a custom-built staircase. Angle changes in the 3-planes under different walking conditions were analyzed. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the trunk at the transverse plane angle in most measurements. With the walk pattern of stair descent, the trunk at all 3-plane angles, at the maximum value of the left knee sagittal/coronal/transverse plane moment, was significantly different between the two groups (P ≤ 0.03). Conclusions: Our findings suggested that special gait modification of trunk is apparent over stance of left (healthy) side in patients with right ACL-D. The results of this study may supply more insight with respect to improving the diagnosis and rehabilitation of ACL-D. This information may also be helpful for a better use of walk and stair tasks as part of a rehabilitation program and provide a safe guideline for the patients. PMID:26550279

  7. Development of a phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system to measure mouse organ of Corti vibrations in two cochlear turns

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Zhang, Yuan; Jacques, Steven; Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2015-12-31

    In this study, we have developed a phase-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system to simultaneously measure the in vivo inner ear vibrations in the hook area and second turn of the mouse cochlea. This technical development will enable measurement of intra-cochlear distortion products at ideal locations such as the distortion product generation site and reflection site. This information is necessary to un-mix the complex mixture of intra-cochlear waves comprising the DPOAE and thus leads to the non-invasive identification of the local region of cochlear damage.

  8. Development of a phase-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system to measure mouse organ of Corti vibrations in two cochlear turns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Zhang, Yuan; Petrie, Tracy; Jacques, Steven; Wang, Ruikang; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we have developed a phase-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system to simultaneously measure the in vivo inner ear vibrations in the hook area and second turn of the mouse cochlea. This technical development will enable measurement of intra-cochlear distortion products at ideal locations such as the distortion product generation site and reflection site. This information is necessary to un-mix the complex mixture of intra-cochlear waves comprising the DPOAE and thus leads to the non-invasive identification of the local region of cochlear damage.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In a brief ceremony in the Space Station Processing Facility, Chuck Hardison (left), Boeing senior truss manager, turns over the “key” for the starboard truss segment S3/S4 to Scott Gahring, ISS Vehicle Office manager (acting), Johnson Space Center. The trusses are scheduled to be delivered to the International Space Station on mission STS-117.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-12

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In a brief ceremony in the Space Station Processing Facility, Chuck Hardison (left), Boeing senior truss manager, turns over the “key” for the starboard truss segment S3/S4 to Scott Gahring, ISS Vehicle Office manager (acting), Johnson Space Center. The trusses are scheduled to be delivered to the International Space Station on mission STS-117.

  10. The relationship between acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA) protein concentrations and left ventricular systolic function in acute myocardial infarction patients treated with primary coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Toshiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Honda, Yukiharu; Suzuki, Shin; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Iwasaki, Yoshihiro; Yano, Katsusuke

    2007-01-01

    Our study was planned to investigate the relationship between plasma levels of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) concentrations and the subsequent left ventricular systolic function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with primary coronary angioplasty. Reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention was successful in 486 consecutive AMI patients who were admitted within 12 hours of onset. Plasma SAA concentrations were evaluated 24 hours after onset. Left ventricular (LV) function was serially determined by left ventriculography performed in the acute (soon after recanalization) and chronic phases (6 months after onset). (I) There was no significant correlation between SAA concentration and acute phase left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or regional wall motion (RWM). (II) The SAA concentration was significantly correlated with both highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the peak-CK value (hs-CRP: r = 0.69, P < 0.0001, peak-CK: r = 0.21, P = 0.0003). (III) SAA was significantly negatively correlated with both LVEF and RWM in the chronic phase (LVEF: r = -0.42, P = 0.001; RWM: r = -0.41, P = 0.007). (IV) The plasma level of SAA also showed a significant negative correlation with the differences in LVEF between the 2 stages (delta-LVEF) (r = -0.43, P = 0.02). In the setting of AMI, plasma SAA concentrations may be closely related to subsequent left-ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  11. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in the early phase after left ventricular assist device implant: Implications for surgery and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Compostella, Leonida; Russo, Nicola; Setzu, Tiziana; Tursi, Vincenzo; Bottio, Tomaso; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Compostella, Caterina; Covolo, Elisa; Livi, Ugolino; Gerosa, Gino; Sani, Guido; Bellotto, Fabio

    2013-06-25

    In congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, a profound cardiac autonomic derangement, clinically expressed by reduced heart rate variability (HRV), is present and is related to the degree of ventricular dysfunction. Implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) can progressively improve HRV, associated with an increased circulatory output. Data from patients studied at different times after LVAD implantation are controversial. The aims of this study were to assess cardiac autonomic function in the early phases after axial-flow LVAD implantation, and to estimate the potential relevance of recent major surgical stress on the autonomic balance.
 HRV (time-domain; 24-h Holter) was evaluated in 14 patients, 44.8 ± 25.8 days after beginning of Jarvik-2000 LVAD support; 47 advanced stage CHF, 24 cardiac surgery (CS) patients and 
30 healthy subjects served as control groups. sinus rhythm, stable clinical conditions, no diabetes or other known causes of HRV alteration.
 HRV was considerably reduced in LVAD patients in the early phases after device implantation in comparison to all control groups. A downgrading of HRV parameters was also present in CS controls. Circadian oscillations were highly depressed in LVAD and CHF patients, and slightly reduced in CS patients.
 In CHF patients supported by a continuous-flow LVAD, a profound cardiac dysautonomia is still evident in the first two months from the beginning of circulatory support; the degree of cardiac autonomic imbalance is even greater in comparison to advanced CHF patients. The recent surgical stress could be partly linked to these abnormalities.

  12. The Effect of Through-Plane Motion on Left Ventricular Rotation: A Study Using Slice Following Harmonic Phase Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, David; Zhang, Ziheng; Sampath, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive quantification of regional left ventricular (LV) rotation may improve understanding of cardiac function. Current methods employed to quantify rotation typically acquire data on a set of prescribed short-axis slices, neglecting effects due to through-plane myocardial motion. We combine principles of slice-following tagged imaging with harmonic phase analysis methods to account for through-plane motion in regional rotation measurements. We compare rotation and torsion measurements obtained using our method to those obtained from imaging datasets acquired without slice-following. Our results in normal volunteers demonstrate differences in the general trends of average and regional rotation-time plots in mid-basal slices, and of the rotation versus circumferential strain loops. We observe substantial errors in measured peak average rotation of the order of 58% for basal slices (due to change in the pattern of the curve), −6.6% for mid-ventricular slices, and −8.5% for apical slices; and an average error in base-to-apex torsion of 19% when through-plane motion is not considered. This study concludes that due to an inherent base-to-apex gradient in rotation that exists in the LV, accounting for through-plane motion is critical to the accuracy of LV rotation quantification. PMID:22700308

  13. The evolution of stellar metallicity gradients of the Milky Way disk from LSS-GAC main sequence turn-off stars: a two-phase disk formation history?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Huang, Yang; Wang, Chun; Ren, Juan-Juan; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Sun, Ning-Chen; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Huo, Zhi-Ying; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Accurate measurements of stellar metallicity gradients in the radial and vertical directions of the disk and their temporal variations provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of the Milky Way disk. We use 297 042 main sequence turn-off stars selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC) to determine the radial and vertical gradients of stellar metallicity, Δ[Fe/H]/ΔR and Δ[Fe/H]/Δ|Z| of the Milky Way disk in the direction of the anticenter. We determine ages of those turn-off stars by isochrone fitting and measure the temporal variations of metallicity gradients. We have carried out a detailed analysis of the selection effects resulting from the selection, observation and data reduction of LSS-GAC targets and the potential biases of a magnitude limited sample on the determinations of metallicity gradients. Our results show that the gradients, both in the radial and vertical directions, exhibit significant spatial and temporal variations. The radial gradients yielded by stars with the oldest ages (≳ 11 Gyr) are essentially zero at all heights from the disk midplane, while those given by younger stars are always negative. The vertical gradients deduced from stars with the oldest ages (≳ 11 Gyr) are negative and only show very weak variations with Galactocentric distance in the disk plane, R, while those yielded by younger stars show strong variations with R. After being essentially flat at the earliest epochs of disk formation, the radial gradients steepen as age decreases, reaching a maximum (steepest) at age 7-8 Gyr, and then they flatten again. Similar temporal trends are also found for the vertical gradients. We infer that the assembly of the Milky Way disk may have experienced at least two distinct phases. The earlier phase is probably related to a slow, pressure-supported collapse of gas, when the gas settles down to the disk mainly in the vertical direction. In the later phase, there are

  14. Left Atrial Late Gadolinium Enhancement with Water-Fat Separation: the Importance of Phase-encoding Order

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jaime L.; Knowles, Benjamin R.; Goldfarb, James W.; Manning, Warren J.; Peters, Dana C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare two late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) methods: a Dixon LGE sequence with sequential phase-encoding order, reconstructed using water-fat separation, and standard fat-saturated LGE. Materials and Methods We have implemented a dual-echo Dixon LGE method for reconstructing water-only images, and compared it to fat-saturated LGE in twelve patients prior to their first pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) procedure. Images were analyzed for quality and fat-suppression. Regions of the left atrium were evaluated by a blinded observer (1=prominent enhancement, 0=mild or absent enhancement) on two sets of images (fat-saturated and water-only LGE), and agreement was assessed. Results Water-only LGE showed a trend toward better fat-suppression (p=0.06), with a significantly more homogeneous blood pool signal and reduced inflow artifacts (both p<0.01). Agreement between fat-saturated LGE and water-only methods was found in 84% of regions, significantly correlated by chi-squared test (p<0.001). The kappa value was 0.52 (moderate). The average number of enhancing segments was higher for fat-saturated LGE than water-only LGE (4.2 ±2.7 vs. 3.2±2.9, p=0.03). Conclusion The two-point Dixon LGE technique reduces artifacts due to a centric k-space order. A similar enhancement pattern was observed irrespective of the LGE technique, with more enhancement detected by fat-saturated LGE. PMID:24105717

  15. Left atrial late gadolinium enhancement with water-fat separation: the importance of phase-encoding order.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jaime L; Knowles, Benjamin R; Goldfarb, James W; Manning, Warren J; Peters, Dana C

    2014-07-01

    To compare two late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) methods: a Dixon LGE sequence with sequential phase-encoding order, reconstructed using water-fat separation, and standard fat-saturated LGE. We implemented a dual-echo Dixon LGE method for reconstructing water-only images and compared it to fat-saturated LGE in 12 patients prior to their first pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) procedure. Images were analyzed for quality and fat-suppression. Regions of the left atrium were evaluated by a blinded observer (1 = prominent enhancement, 0 = mild or absent enhancement) on two sets of images (fat-saturated and water-only LGE) and agreement was assessed. Water-only LGE showed a trend toward better fat-suppression (P = 0.06), with a significantly more homogeneous blood pool signal and reduced inflow artifacts (both P < 0.01). Agreement between fat-saturated LGE and water-only methods was found in 84% of regions, significantly correlated by chi-squared test (P < 0.001). The kappa value was 0.52 (moderate). The average number of enhancing segments was higher for fat-saturated LGE than water-only LGE (4.2 ± 2.7 vs. 3.2 ± 2.9, P = 0.03). The two-point Dixon LGE technique reduces artifacts due to a centric k-space order. A similar enhancement pattern was observed irrespective of the LGE technique, with more enhancement detected by fat-saturated LGE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Note on Hovering Turns with Tandem Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, John P; Tapscott, Robert J

    1955-01-01

    The source of an appreciable pitching-moment difference between left and right hovering turns for a tandem helicopter is described. The difference in pitching moment results from the difference in rotational speed of the counter rotating rotors with respect to the air while the helicopter is turning.

  17. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    PubMed

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  18. Agricultural Turns, Geographical Turns: Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carol; Evans, Nick

    2004-01-01

    It is accepted that British rural geography has actively engaged with the "cultural turn", leading to a resurgence of research within the sub-discipline. However, a reading of recent reviews suggests that the cultural turn has largely, if not completely, bypassed those geographers interested in the agricultural sector. Farming centred…

  19. Turning towards History: Turning towards Utopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman-Moir, John

    2004-01-01

    Turning towards history--to be contrasted with turning away from history--captures the Marxian sense of education. Marx worked out the elements of a theory of political education in relation to history by equating education with the coincidence of the changing of circumstances and people. This theory received its most comprehensive yet succinct…

  20. Characteristics of intra-left atrial flow dynamics and factors affecting formation of the vortex flow – analysis with phase-resolved 3-dimensional cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Kenichiro; Saitoh, Takeji; Takehara, Yasuo; Sano, Makoto; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Masataka; Wakayama, Tetsuya; Alley, Marcus; Sakahara, Harumi; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2015-01-01

    The intra-left atrial (LA) blood flow from pulmonary veins (PVs) to the left ventricle (LV) changes under various conditions and might affect global cardiac function. By using phase-resolved 3-dimensional cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (4D-Flow), the intra-LA vortex formation was visualized and the factors affecting the intra-LA flow dynamics were examined. Thirty-two patients with or without organic heart diseases underwent 4D-Flow and transthoracic echocardiography. The intra-LA velocity vectors from each PV were post-processed to delineate streamline and pathline images. The vector images revealed intra-LA vortex formation in 20 of 32 patients. All the vortices developed during the late systolic and early diastolic phases and were directed counter-clockwise when viewed from the subjects' cranial side. The flow vectors from the right PVs lengthened predominantly toward the mitral valves and partly toward the LA appendage, whereas those from the left PVs directed rightward along the posterior wall and joined the vortex. Patients with vortex had less organic heart diseases, smaller LV and LA volume, and greater peak flow velocity and volume mainly in the left PVs, although the flow directions from each PV or PV areas did not differ. 4D-Flow can clearly visualize the intra-LA vortex formation and analyze its characteristic features. The vortex formation might depend on LV and LA volume and on flow velocity and volume from PVs.

  1. Locomotor Trajectories of Stroke Patients during Oriented Gait and Turning

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Angele; Bensmail, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Background The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is widely used to assess locomotion in patients with stroke and is considered to predict the risk of falls. The analysis of locomotor trajectories during the TUG appears pertinent in stroke patients. The aims of this study were i) to analyze locomotor trajectories in patients with stroke during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the TUG, and to compare them with healthy subjects, ii) to determine whether trajectory parameters provide additional information to that provided by the conventional measure (performance time), iii) to compare the trajectory parameters of fallers and non-fallers with stroke and of patients with right and left hemisphere stroke, and iv) to evaluate correlations between trajectory parameters and Berg Balance Scale scores. Methods 29 patients with stroke (mean age 54.2±12.2 years, 18 men, 8 fallers) and 25 healthy subjects (mean age 51.6±8.7 years, 11 men) underwent three-dimensional analysis of the TUG. The trajectory of the center of mass was analyzed by calculation of the global trajectory length, Hausdorff distance and Dynamic Time Warping. The parameters were compared with a reference trajectory during the total task and each sub-task (Go, Turn, Return) of the TUG. Results Values of trajectory parameters were significantly higher for the stroke group during the total TUG and the Go and Turn sub-tasks (p<0.05). Moreover, logistic regression indicated that these parameters better discriminated stroke patients and healthy subjects than the conventional timed performance during the Go sub-task. In addition, fallers were distinguished by higher Dynamic Time Warping during the Go (p<0.05). There were no differences between patients with right and left hemisphere stroke. Discussion and Conclusion The trajectories of the stroke patients were longer and more deviated during the turn and the preceding phase. Trajectory parameters provided additional information to timed performance of this locomotor

  2. [Effects of prolonged endocardial stimulation on left ventricular mechanical synchrony. A pilot study applying gated-SPECT phase analysis. Endocardial stimulation and dyssynchrony].

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Castagnetto, Federico; Ricca-Mallada, Roberto; Vidal, Alejandro; Ferrando, Rodolfo

    2017-01-25

    To evaluate left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) associated to prolonged right ventricular pacing through an innovative imaging technique, as a pilot study in Uruguay. We performed 99mTc-MIBI gated-SPECT and phase analysis in 12 patients with pacemakers implanted at least one year before scintigraphy due to advanced atrioventricular block. Clinical data, QRS duration, rate, mode and site of pacing in right ventricle, chamber diameters, presence and extension of myocardial scar and ischemia and rest LVEF were recorded. Using V-Sync of Emory Cardiac Toolbox we obtained standard deviation (PSD) and bandwidth (PBW) from rest phase histogram and then we compared these indexes with controls in the subgroups of patients with LVEF≥and<50%. Patients with prolonged RV endocardial pacing exhibited marked LVMD. More severe dyssynchrony was found in patients with impaired LVEF than in patients with preserved LVEF (PSD: 46.67(o) vs. 26.81(o), P<.05; PBW: 144.33(o) vs. 77.41(o), P<.05). Higher left ventricle diameters, extensive infarct or significant ischemia were found in patients with impaired LVEF. Chronic right ventricular pacing was invariably associated with LVMD, even when systolic function was preserved. Phase analysis could be a potentially useful technique to evaluate LMVD associated with myocardial scar in patients with pacemanker and to decide promptly the upgrading to biventricular pacing. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Left ventricular dyssynchrony assessed by two three-dimensional imaging modalities: phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT and tri-plane tissue Doppler imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Henneman, Maureen M.; Chen, Ji; Ypenburg, Claudia; Dibbets, Petra; Ghio, Stefano; Bleeker, Gabe B.; Stokkel, Marcel P.; van der Wall, Ernst E.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Garcia, Ernest V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To compare left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony assessment by phase analysis from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS) with LV dyssynchrony assessment by tri-plane tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Baseline LV dyssynchrony assessed with standard deviation (SD) of time-to-peak systolic velocity of 12 LV segments (Ts-SD) with TDI has proven to be a powerful predictor of response to CRT. Information on LV dyssynchrony can also be provided by GMPS with phase analysis of regional LV maximal count changes throughout the cardiac cycle. Methods Forty heart failure patients, referred for evaluation of potential eligibility for CRT, underwent both 3D echocardiography, with tri-plane TDI, and resting GMPS. From tri-plane TDI, Ts-SD was used as a validated parameter of LV dyssynchrony and compared with different indices (histogram bandwidth, phase SD, histogram skewness and kurtosis) derived from phase analysis of GMPS. Results Histogram bandwidth and phase SD showed good correlation with Ts-SD (r=0.77 and r=0.74, p<0.0001, respectively). Patients with substantial LV dyssynchrony assessed with tri-plane TDI (Ts-SD ≥33 ms) had also significantly higher values of histogram bandwidth and phase SD. Conclusions The results of this study support the use of phase analysis by GMPS to evaluate LV dyssynchrony. Histogram bandwidth and phase SD showed the best correlation with Ts-SD assessed with tri-plane TDI and appeared the most optimal variables for assessment of LV dyssynchrony with GMPS. PMID:17874098

  4. 32 CFR 935.135 - Turns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motion from a stopped position, or change from or merge into a lane of traffic, until he can safely make... center of the road, except that on multi-lane roads of one-way traffic flow he may make the turn only from the left lane. (c) No person may make a U-turn in a motor vehicle if he cannot be seen by...

  5. 32 CFR 935.135 - Turns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motion from a stopped position, or change from or merge into a lane of traffic, until he can safely make... center of the road, except that on multi-lane roads of one-way traffic flow he may make the turn only from the left lane. (c) No person may make a U-turn in a motor vehicle if he cannot be seen by...

  6. 32 CFR 935.135 - Turns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motion from a stopped position, or change from or merge into a lane of traffic, until he can safely make... center of the road, except that on multi-lane roads of one-way traffic flow he may make the turn only from the left lane. (c) No person may make a U-turn in a motor vehicle if he cannot be seen by...

  7. [Value of the replacement of intravenous trinitrin by oral trinitrin in the acute phase of myocardial infarction complicated by regressive left ventricular insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Gibelin, P; Ferrari, E; Tiger, F; Morand, P

    1991-09-01

    Left ventricular failure is a common complication of the acute phase of myocardial infarction. The most appropriate current treatment, when an increase in preload is the predominant or sole feature, involves nitroglycerin by infusion combined in varying degrees with diuretics. The aim of this study was to assess the value of maintenance treatment following intravenous nitroglycerin based upon a long acting nitrate derivative designed to achieve a hemodynamic result. Twenty patients with a mean age of 62 and with left ventricular failure during the acute phase of a myocardial infarction were studied. They were all treated with IV nitroglycerin using an automatic pump syringe. Pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, cardiac output, blood pressure and heart rate were measured hourly for six hours then every 6 hours. When PADP fell to below 18 mmHg, maintenance treatment with placebo or long acting nitroglycerin was given double-blind (10 patients were given long acting nitroglycerin and 10 patients the placebo). Pulmonary artery pressures, blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 2 hours for 8 hours, then at 12 and 24 hours. No significant difference was found in heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output nor PADP (10 +/- 3.5 mmHg cf. 12 +/- 2.8 mmHg; NS) between the two groups. In total, maintenance treatment with long acting nitrate derivatives following IV nitroglycerin for hemodynamic purposes in patients with an acute myocardial infarction complicated by regressive cardiac failure would no appear to be necessary.

  8. Multilayer structures as negative refractive and left-handed materials.

    PubMed

    Chui, S T; Chan, C T; Lin, Z F

    2006-02-15

    We examine multilayer structures as negative refractive index and left-handed materials, and find that for one polarization there is a wide range (≈90°) of incident angle within which negative refraction will occur. This comes about because the group velocity and the Poynting vector have a large component parallel to the layers, no matter what the angle of incidence of the incoming radiation is. This behaviour in turn comes from the large anisotropy of the phase velocities. If one of the components is a ferromagnetic metal, the system can be a left-handed material above the ferromagnetic resonance frequency.

  9. Study design and rationale for ELPIS: A phase I/IIb randomized pilot study of allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cell injection in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Sunjay; Wehman, Brody; Pietris, Nicholas; Naughton, Casey; Bentzen, Soren M; Bigham, Grace; Mishra, Rachana; Sharma, Sudhish; Vricella, Luca; Everett, Allen D; Deatrick, Kristopher B; Huang, Sihong; Mehta, Helina; Ravekes, William A; Hibino, Naru; Difede, Darcy L; Khan, Aisha; Hare, Joshua M

    2017-10-01

    Despite advances in surgical technique and postoperative care, long-term survival of children born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) remains limited, with cardiac transplantation as the only alternative for patients with failing single ventricle circulations. Maintenance of systemic right ventricular function is crucial for long-term survival, and interventions that improve ventricular function and avoid or defer transplantation in patients with HLHS are urgently needed. We hypothesize that the young myocardium of the HLHS patient is responsive to the biological cues delivered by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve and preserve right ventricle function. The ELPIS trial (Allogeneic Human MEsenchymal Stem Cell Injection in Patients with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: An Open Label Pilot Study) is a phase I/IIb trial designed to test whether MSC injection will be both safe and feasible by monitoring the first 10 HLHS patients for new major adverse cardiac events. If our toxicity stopping rule is not activated, we will proceed to the phase IIb component of our study where we will test our efficacy hypothesis that MSC injection improves cardiac function compared with surgery alone. Twenty patients will be enrolled in a randomized phase II trial with a uniform allocation to MSC injection versus standard surgical care (no injection). The 2 trial arms will be compared with respect to improvement of right ventricular function, tricuspid valve annulus size, and regurgitation determined by cardiac magnetic resonance and reduced mortality, morbidity, and need for transplantation. This study will establish the safety and feasibility of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell injection in HLHS patients and provide important insights in the emerging field of stem cell-based therapy for congenital heart disease patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of high temporal resolution spiral phase velocity mapping of temporal patterns of left and right coronary artery blood flow against Doppler guidewire.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Jennifer; Raphael, Claire E; Parker, Kim; Simpson, Robin M; Strain, Stephen; de Silva, Ranil; Di Mario, Carlo; Collinson, Julian; Stables, Rod H; Wage, Ricardo; Drivas, Peter; Sugathapala, Malindie; Prasad, Sanjay K; Firmin, David N

    2015-10-02

    Temporal patterns of coronary blood flow velocity can provide important information on disease state and are currently assessed invasively using a Doppler guidewire. A non-invasive alternative would be beneficial as it would allow study of a wider patient population and serial scanning. A retrospectively-gated breath-hold spiral phase velocity mapping sequence (TR 19 ms) was developed at 3 Tesla. Velocity maps were acquired in 8 proximal right and 15 proximal left coronary arteries of 18 subjects who had previously had a Doppler guidewire study at the time of coronary angiography. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) velocity-time curves were processed semi-automatically and compared with corresponding invasive Doppler data. When corrected for differences in heart rate between the two studies, CMR mean velocity through the cardiac cycle, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and peak diastolic velocity (PDV) were approximately 40 % of the peak Doppler values with a moderate - good linear relationship between the two techniques (R(2): 0.57, 0.64 and 0.79 respectively). CMR values of PDV/PSV showed a strong linear relationship with Doppler values with a slope close to unity (0.89 and 0.90 for right and left arteries respectively). In individual vessels, plots of CMR velocities at all cardiac phases against corresponding Doppler velocities showed a consistent linear relationship between the two with high R(2) values (mean +/-SD: 0.79 +/-.13). High temporal resolution breath-hold spiral phase velocity mapping underestimates absolute values of coronary flow velocity but allows accurate assessment of the temporal patterns of blood flow.

  11. Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, Giuliano; Giavazzi, Fabio; Nakata, Michi; Buscaglia, Marco; Cerbino, Roberto; Clark, Noel A; Bellini, Tommaso

    2010-10-12

    Concentrated solutions of duplex-forming DNA oligomers organize into various mesophases among which is the nematic (N(∗)), which exhibits a macroscopic chiral helical precession of molecular orientation because of the chirality of the DNA molecule. Using a quantitative analysis of the transmission spectra in polarized optical microscopy, we have determined the handedness and pitch of this chiral nematic helix for a large number of sequences ranging from 8 to 20 bases. The B-DNA molecule exhibits a right-handed molecular double-helix structure that, for long molecules, always yields N(∗) phases with left-handed pitch in the μm range. We report here that ultrashort oligomeric duplexes show an extremely diverse behavior, with both left- and right-handed N(∗) helices and pitches ranging from macroscopic down to 0.3 μm. The behavior depends on the length and the sequence of the oligomers, and on the nature of the end-to-end interactions between helices. In particular, the N(∗) handedness strongly correlates with the oligomer length and concentration. Right-handed phases are found only for oligomers shorter than 14 base pairs, and for the sequences having the transition to the N(∗) phase at concentration larger than 620 mg/mL. Our findings indicate that in short DNA, the intermolecular double-helical interactions switch the preferred liquid crystal handedness when the columns of stacked duplexes are forced at high concentrations to separations comparable to the DNA double-helix pitch, a regime still to be theoretically described.

  12. Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkel, J.A.; Biggs, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    The Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector has been developed to facilitate the location of shorted turns in magnet coils. Finding these shorted turns is necessary to determine failure modes that are a necessary step in developing future production techniques. Up to this point, coils with shorted turns had the insulation burned off without the fault having been located. This disassembly process destroyed any chance of being able to find the fault. In order to maintain a flux balance in a coupled system such as a magnet coil, the current in a shorted turn must be opposed to the incident current. If the direction of the current in each conductor can be measured relative to the incident current, then the exact location of the short can be determined. In this device, an AC voltage is applied to the magnet under test. A small hand held B-dot pickup coil monitors the magnetic field produced by current in the individual magnet conductors. The relative phase of this pickup coil voltage is compared to a reference signal derived from the input current to detect a current reversal as the B-dot pickup coil is swept over the conductors of the coil under test. This technique however, is limited to only those conductors that are accessible to the hand held probe.

  13. To turn or not to turn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beta, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria typically swim in straight runs, interruped by sudden turning events. In particular, some species are limited to a reversal in the swimming direction as the only turning maneuver at their disposal. In a recent article, Großmann et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043009) introduce a theoretical framework to analyze the diffusive properties of active particles following this type of run-and-reverse pattern. Based on a stochastic clock model to mimic the regulatory pathway that triggers reversal events, they show that a run-and-reverse swimmer can optimize its diffusive spreading by tuning the reversal rate according to the level of rotational noise. With their approach, they open up promising new perspectives of how to incorporate the dynamics of intracellular signaling into coarse-grained active particle descriptions.

  14. Z-score of Mitral Annular Plane Systolic Excursion is a Useful Indicator of Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Acute-Phase Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-01

    We previously reported the clinical usefulness of the mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) in the acute-phase. However, the feasibility of the MAPSE z-score has not been evaluated in patients with acute KD. We prospectively studied 60 KD patients without coronary aneurysms. The MAPSE z-scores were calculated using our standard MAPSE data. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was measured as a parameter of LV function. In total, 281 healthy age- and body size-matched subjects were chosen as the control group. The MAPSE z-score decreased in the acute-phase (median value, -1.4) and increased in the convalescent phase (median value, 0.18; P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in the MAPSE z-score between patients in the convalescent phase and the control patients (0.18 vs. 0.02, P = 0.199). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that BNP was an independent predictor of the MAPSE z-score (β = 0.40, P < 0.005). According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the optimal cutoff value for the MAPSE z-score to judge LV dysfunction was -0.9. The MAPSE z-score is a useful index to evaluate LV function, and the cutoff value of -0.9 can be an indicator to judge LV dysfunction in the patients with acute-phase KD.

  15. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    PubMed

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  16. Chronic phase improvements in electrocardiographic and echocardiographic manifestations of left ventricular hypertrophy after alcohol septal ablation for drug-refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Junya; Kitamura, Mitsunobu; Takayama, Morimasa; Imori, Yoichi; Shibuya, Junsuke; Kubota, Yoshiaki; Sangen, Hideto; Nakamura, Shunichi; Takano, Hitoshi; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru

    2017-09-30

    After alcohol septal ablation (ASA), regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been observed in several studies using echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance, and favorable changes of myocardial excitation have been expected. However, no studies have focused on the alteration of electrocardiography (ECG) findings after ASA. Therefore, we evaluated serial changes in ECG parameters during the chronic phase after ASA for drug-refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). From 1998 to 2014, we performed 187 ASA procedures in 157 drug-refractory HOCM patients. After excluding patients who underwent dual-chamber pacing therapy and who underwent staged or repeat ASA within 2 years after the index ASA, 25 patients without bundle branch block and additional pacemaker implantation were enrolled in the main study group. ECGs, echocardiograms, and clinical follow-up data were evaluated at baseline and, 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after ASA. Patients with bundle branch block or additional pacemaker implantation were assigned in a referential group (n = 79), in which the echocardiographic changes between baseline and at 1 year were evaluated. Sokolow-Lyon index (SLi), Cornell index, and total 12-lead QRS amplitude significantly decreased during 2-year follow-up after ASA. SLi and Cornell index significantly decreased from 6 to 12 months (p < 0.05 vs. p < 0.01). Changes in SLi were significantly associated with changes in the interventricular septal thickness (r = 0.54, p < 0.005), left ventricular mass index (r = 0.40, p = 0.050), and peak creatine phosphokinase level (r = -0.41, p = 0.042), but not in the Cornell index and 12-lead QRS amplitude. In the comparison between baseline and at 1 year, significant improvements in the interventricular septal thickness, posterior wall thickness, left atrial size, E/A ratio, and E/e' were observed in the echocardiographic study. Changes of SLi reflected regression of LVH after ASA with the

  17. Construction at Turn Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Precast concrete poles are being driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin; later filled with concrete. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  18. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  19. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Precast concrete poles are being driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  20. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the 300,000-pound core booster aboard the modified Pegasus barge. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  1. Rover Pre-Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit before the rover begins a crucial 3-point turn to face in a west direction and roll off the lander.

  2. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core booster aboard the barge Pegasus. Construction workers with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. work to shore up the turn basin area. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the 300,000-pound core booster aboard the modified Pegasus barge. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  3. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-30

    At NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, cement is poured as part of a construction project to upgrade the turn basin wharf. The work includes driving multiple precast concrete piles to a depth of about 70 feet to accommodate arrival of the core stage for the agency's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. When the stage for NASA's SLS departs the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, it will be shipped by the agency's modified barge to the Launch Complex 39 turn basin.

  4. Measuring zebrafish turning rate.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; di Bernardo, Mario; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a popular animal model in preclinical research, and zebrafish turning rate has been proposed for the analysis of activity in several domains. The turning rate is often estimated from the trajectory of the fish centroid that is output by commercial or custom-made target tracking software run on overhead videos of fish swimming. However, the accuracy of such indirect methods with respect to the turning rate associated with changes in heading during zebrafish locomotion is largely untested. Here, we compare two indirect methods for the turning rate estimation using the centroid velocity or position data, with full shape tracking for three different video sampling rates. We use tracking data from the overhead video recorded at 60, 30, and 15 frames per second of zebrafish swimming in a shallow water tank. Statistical comparisons of absolute turning rate across methods and sampling rates indicate that, while indirect methods are indistinguishable from full shape tracking, the video sampling rate significantly influences the turning rate measurement. The results of this study can aid in the selection of the video capture frame rate, an experimental design parameter in zebrafish behavioral experiments where activity is an important measure.

  5. Take a breath and take the turn: how breathing meets turns in spontaneous dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Physiological rhythms are sensitive to social interactions and could contribute to defining social rhythms. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the implications of breathing in conversational turn exchanges remains limited. In this paper, we addressed the idea that breathing may contribute to timing and coordination between dialogue partners. The relationships between turns and breathing were analysed in unconstrained face-to-face conversations involving female speakers. No overall relationship between breathing and turn-taking rates was observed, as breathing rate was specific to the subjects' activity in dialogue (listening versus taking the turn versus holding the turn). A general inter-personal coordination of breathing over the whole conversation was not evident. However, specific coordinative patterns were observed in shorter time-windows when participants engaged in taking turns. The type of turn-taking had an effect on the respective coordination in breathing. Most of the smooth and interrupted turns were taken just after an inhalation, with specific profiles of alignment to partner breathing. Unsuccessful attempts to take the turn were initiated late in the exhalation phase and with no clear inter-personal coordination. Finally, breathing profiles at turn-taking were different than those at turn-holding. The results support the idea that breathing is actively involved in turn-taking and turn-holding. PMID:25385777

  6. Take a breath and take the turn: how breathing meets turns in spontaneous dialogue.

    PubMed

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2014-12-19

    Physiological rhythms are sensitive to social interactions and could contribute to defining social rhythms. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the implications of breathing in conversational turn exchanges remains limited. In this paper, we addressed the idea that breathing may contribute to timing and coordination between dialogue partners. The relationships between turns and breathing were analysed in unconstrained face-to-face conversations involving female speakers. No overall relationship between breathing and turn-taking rates was observed, as breathing rate was specific to the subjects' activity in dialogue (listening versus taking the turn versus holding the turn). A general inter-personal coordination of breathing over the whole conversation was not evident. However, specific coordinative patterns were observed in shorter time-windows when participants engaged in taking turns. The type of turn-taking had an effect on the respective coordination in breathing. Most of the smooth and interrupted turns were taken just after an inhalation, with specific profiles of alignment to partner breathing. Unsuccessful attempts to take the turn were initiated late in the exhalation phase and with no clear inter-personal coordination. Finally, breathing profiles at turn-taking were different than those at turn-holding. The results support the idea that breathing is actively involved in turn-taking and turn-holding.

  7. Neutron diffraction and NQR study of the intermediate turn angle phase formed during AFI to AFII reordering in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3{minus}x}Al{sub x}O{sub 6+{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Brecht, E.; Schmahl, W.W.; Fuess, H.; Schmenn, S.; Luetgemeier, H.; Andersen, N.H.; Lebech, B.

    1997-07-01

    The reordering mechanism from the antiferromagnetic phase AFI to the antiferromagnetic phase AFII in an oxygen-deficient YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2.94}Al{sub 0.06}O{sub 6+{delta}} single crystal with an oxygen content {delta}=0.18 in the Cu(1) layer has been studied by neutron diffraction and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). The crystal orders magnetically from the paramagnetic state to the antiferromagnetic AFI state at the N{acute e}el temperature T{sub N}=403 K with an empirical critical exponent of {beta}=0.26. Reordering to the antiferromagnetic AFII state sets in at T{sub 2}=12 K. In both the AFI and AFII phases the ordered magnetic moments on the Cu(2) lattice sites are identical and take a value of {l_angle}S{r_angle}{sub Cu(2)}{approx}0.56{mu}{sub B}; no ordered moment is found on the Cu(1) lattice sites. From the temperature dependence of the Cu(1) NQR spectrum, the magnetic hyperfine field at Cu(1) sites is found to vary continuously as a function of temperature. This result indicates unequivocally that the AFI{leftrightarrow}AFII reordering takes place via a noncollinear intermediate turn angle phase AFI{circle_plus}II. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2015-12-18

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.

  9. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-03-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well polarized flocks. The continuum equations are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. When the inertia is large, we find a novel instability that signals the transition to complex spatio-temporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. This work was supported by the NSF Awards DMR-1305184 and DGE-1068780 at Syracuse University and NSF Award PHY11-25915 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. 2919 at the KITP at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

  10. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Equipment is staged and a crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  11. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-12-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.

  12. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Tammy Kelly, in the center, site manager, with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. talks with construction workers. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  13. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. In the foreground is Tammy Kelly, site manager, with Southeast Cherokee Construction Inc. A crane will be used to lift up precast concrete poles and position them to be driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  14. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-30

    Across from the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, cement is poured as part of a construction project to upgrade the turn basin wharf. The work includes driving multiple precast concrete piles to a depth of about 70 feet to accommodate arrival of the core stage for the agency's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. When the stage for NASA's SLS departs the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, it will be shipped by the agency's modified barge to the Launch Complex 39 turn basin.

  15. Turn Basin Construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-30

    Across from the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, cement trucks stand by to support a construction project to upgrade the turn basin wharf. The work includes driving multiple precast concrete piles to a depth of about 70 feet to accommodate arrival of the core stage for the agency's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. When the stage for NASA's SLS departs the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, it will be shipped by the agency's modified barge to the Launch Complex 39 turn basin.

  16. Bacteria turn tiny gears

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Swarms of bacteria turn two 380-micron long gears, opening the possibility of building hybrid biological machines at the microscopic scale. Read more at Wired: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/12/bacterial-micro-machine/#more-15684 or Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=brownian-motion-bacteria

  17. Flip Turns with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queeney, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Kate Queeney, a professor of chemistry at Smith College, turned to a former student to receive one-on-one instruction in swimming. The student, who had been unsure and scared in chemistry class, seemed like an entirely different person when teaching the teacher. This article describes how the author learned that there is something undeniably…

  18. Flip Turns with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queeney, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Kate Queeney, a professor of chemistry at Smith College, turned to a former student to receive one-on-one instruction in swimming. The student, who had been unsure and scared in chemistry class, seemed like an entirely different person when teaching the teacher. This article describes how the author learned that there is something undeniably…

  19. Optimizing turning for locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Lisa; Hatton, Ross; Choset, Howie; Hosoi, A. E.

    2012-02-01

    Speed and efficiency are common and often adequate metrics to compare locomoting systems. These metrics, however, fail to account for a system's ability to turn, a key component in a system's ability to move a confined environment and an important factor in optimal motion planning. To explore turning strokes for a locomoting system, we develop a kinematic model to relate a system's shape configuration to its external velocity. We exploit this model to visualize the dynamics of the system and determine optimal strokes for multiple systems, including low Reynolds number swimmers and biological systems dominated by inertia. Understanding how shape configurations are related to external velocities enables a better understanding of biological and man made systems. Using these tools, we can justify biological system motion and determine optimal shape configurations for robots to maneuver through difficult environments.

  20. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  1. Assessment of left ventricular myocardial scar in infiltrative and non-ischemic cardiac diseases by free breathing three dimensional phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) TurboFLASH.

    PubMed

    Kino, Aya; Keeling, Aoife N; Farrelly, Cormac T; Sheehan, John J; Davarpanah, Amir H; Weele, Peter J; Zuehldorff, Sven; Carr, James C

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a navigator gated free breathing 3D Phase Sensitive Inversion Recovery (PSIR) TurboFLASH to an established 2D PSIR TurboFLASH method for detecting myocardial late gadolinium hyperenhanced lesions caused by infiltrative and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Under an IRB approved protocol; patients with suspected non-ischemic infiltrative myocardial heart disease were examined on a 1.5T MR scanner for late enhancement after the administration of gadolinium using a segmented 2D PSIR TurboFLASH sequence followed by a navigator-gated 3D PSIR TurboFLASH sequence. Two independent readers analyzed image quality using a four point Likert scale for qualitative analysis (0 = poor, non diagnostic; 1 = fair, diagnostic may be impaired; 2 = good, some artifacts but not interfering in diagnostics, 3 = excellent, no artifacts) and also reported presence or absence of scar. Detected scars were classified based on area and location and also compared quantitatively in volume. Twenty-seven patients were scanned using both protocols. Image quality score did not differ significantly (p = 0.358, Wilcoxon signed rank test) for both technique. Scars were detected in 24 patients. Larger numbers of hyperenhanced scars were detected with 3D PSIR (200) compared to 2D PSIR (167) and scar volume were significant larger in 3D PSIR (p = 0.004). The mean scar volume over all cases was 49.95 cm(3) for 2D PSIR and 70.02 cm(3) for 3D PSIR. The navigator gated free breathing 3D PSIR approach is a suitable method for detecting myocardial late gadolinium hyperenhanced lesions caused by non-ischemic cardiomyopathy due to its complete isotropic coverage of the left ventricle, improving detection of scar lesions compared to 2D PSIR imaging.

  2. Phase II study of the oxygen saturation curve left shifting agent BW12C in combination with the hypoxia activated drug mitomycin C in advanced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Propper, D J; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Braybrooke, J P; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Thompson, C H; Rajagopalan, B; Littlewood, T J; Dixon, R M; Harris, A L

    2000-01-01

    BW12C (5-[2-formyl-3-hydroxypenoxyl] pentanoic acid) stabilizes oxyhaemoglobin, causing a reversible left-shift of the oxygen saturation curve (OSC) and tissue hypoxia. The activity of mitomycin C (MMC) is enhanced by hypoxia. In this phase II study, 17 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer resistant to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) received BW12C and MMC. BW12C was given as a bolus loading dose of 45 mg kg−1over 1 h, followed by a maintenance infusion of 4 mg kg−1h−1for 5 h. MMC 6 mg m−2was administered over 15 min immediately after the BW12C bolus. The 15 evaluable patients had progressive disease after a median of 2 (range 1–4) cycles of chemotherapy. Haemoglobin electrophoresis 3 and 5 h after the BW12C bolus dose showed a fast moving band consistent with the BW12C-oxyhaemoglobin complex, accounting for approximately 50% of total haemoglobin. The predominant toxicities – nausea/vomiting and vein pain – were mild and did not exceed CTC grade 2. Liver31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of patients with hepatic metastases showed no changes consistent with tissue hypoxia. The principle of combining a hypoxically activated drug with an agent that increases tissue hypoxia is clinically feasible, producing an effect equivalent to reducing tumour oxygen delivery by at least 50%. However, BW12C in combination with MMC for 5-FU-resistant colorectal cancer is not an effective regimen. This could be related to drug resistance rather than a failure to enhance cytotoxicity. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10839290

  3. Influence of acquisition orbit on phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging for assessment of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony.

    PubMed

    Misaka, Tomofumi; Hosono, Makoto; Kudo, Takashi; Ito, Takamichi; Syomura, Tsutomu; Uemura, Masanobu; Okajima, Kaoru

    2017-04-01

    The association between left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony parameters, given by phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), and acquisition orbits is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the dependence of LV dyssynchrony parameters on acquisition orbits. Ninety-nine patients who underwent (201)Tl-gated SPECT MPI were categorized into minor hypoperfusion or major hypoperfusion groups. Forty-four patients who underwent (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin-gated SPECT MPI were categorized into minor hypoperfusion or major hypoperfusion groups. The major hypoperfusion group with (201)Tl was divided into inferior or non-inferior wall hypoperfusion subgroups, and anteroseptal or non-anteroseptal wall hypoperfusion subgroups. Gated SPECT MPI data over a 360° acquisition orbit (360° images) and a 180° acquisition orbit (180° images) were reconstructed, and histogram bandwidth (HBW) and phase standard deviation (PSD) were compared. Between 360° and 180° images with (201)Tl, there were significant differences in HBW and PSD both globally (HBW 34.8 ± 16.6 vs. 29.1 ± 10.2; PSD 8.8 ± 4.9 vs. 7.0 ± 2.3, p < 0.05 for both) and in the inferior wall (HBW 29.5 ± 15.5 vs. 23.3 ± 9.0; PSD 7.6 ± 4.6 vs. 5.6 ± 2.4, p < 0.001 for both) in the major hypoperfusion group, and also in the inferior wall in all subgroups of the major hypoperfusion group. In contrast, no segment had any significant differences in HBW or PSD between 360° and 180° images with (99m)Tc. Differences in acquisition orbit had a significant influence on HBW and PSD with (201)Tl-gated SPECT MPI in the inferior wall in patients with major hypoperfusion myocardium.

  4. Eye Gaze Behavior at Turn Transition: How Aphasic Patients Process Speakers' Turns during Video Observation.

    PubMed

    Preisig, Basil C; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Zito, Giuseppe; Vanbellingen, Tim; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Gutbrod, Klemens; Nyffeler, Thomas; Cazzoli, Dario; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Müri, René M

    2016-10-01

    The human turn-taking system regulates the smooth and precise exchange of speaking turns during face-to-face interaction. Recent studies investigated the processing of ongoing turns during conversation by measuring the eye movements of noninvolved observers. The findings suggest that humans shift their gaze in anticipation to the next speaker before the start of the next turn. Moreover, there is evidence that the ability to timely detect turn transitions mainly relies on the lexico-syntactic content provided by the conversation. Consequently, patients with aphasia, who often experience deficits in both semantic and syntactic processing, might encounter difficulties to detect and timely shift their gaze at turn transitions. To test this assumption, we presented video vignettes of natural conversations to aphasic patients and healthy controls, while their eye movements were measured. The frequency and latency of event-related gaze shifts, with respect to the end of the current turn in the videos, were compared between the two groups. Our results suggest that, compared with healthy controls, aphasic patients have a reduced probability to shift their gaze at turn transitions but do not show significantly increased gaze shift latencies. In healthy controls, but not in aphasic patients, the probability to shift the gaze at turn transition was increased when the video content of the current turn had a higher lexico-syntactic complexity. Furthermore, the results from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping indicate that the association between lexico-syntactic complexity and gaze shift latency in aphasic patients is predicted by brain lesions located in the posterior branch of the left arcuate fasciculus. Higher lexico-syntactic processing demands seem to lead to a reduced gaze shift probability in aphasic patients. This finding may represent missed opportunities for patients to place their contributions during everyday conversation.

  5. Induction motor inter turn fault detection using infrared thermographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Anil Kumar, T. Ch.; Naikan, V. N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Induction motors are the most commonly used prime movers in industries. These are subjected to various environmental, thermal and load stresses that ultimately reduces the motor efficiency and later leads to failure. Inter turn fault is the second most commonly observed faults in the motors and is considered the most severe. It can lead to the failure of complete phase and can even cause accidents, if left undetected or untreated. This paper proposes an online and non invasive technique that uses infrared thermography, in order to detect the presence of inter turn fault in induction motor drive. Two methods have been proposed that detect the fault and estimate its severity. One method uses transient thermal monitoring during the start of motor and other applies pseudo coloring technique on infrared image of the motor, after it reaches a thermal steady state. The designed template for pseudo-coloring is in acquiescence with the InterNational Electrical Testing Association (NETA) thermographic standard. An index is proposed to assess the severity of the fault present in the motor.

  6. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B with tachycardia-dependent (phase 3) block in the accessory pathway and in left bundle-branch coexisting with rate-unrelated right bundle-branch block.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, I J; Castellanos, A; Sung, R J

    1980-01-01

    A patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B developed 2:1 atrioventricular block resulting from the association of persistent right bundle-branch block with tachycardia-dependent (phase 3) left bundle-branch block. Electrophysiological studies disclosed the coexistence of a tachycardia-dependent (phase 3) block in the accessory pathway. This conduction disturbance was exposed, not by carotid sinus massage as in previous studies, but by pacing-induced prolongation of the interval between two consecutively conducted atrial impulses. Furthermore, the surface electrocardiogram showed, at different times, ventricular complexes resulting from: (1) exclusive atrioventricular conduction through the normal pathway without bundle-branch block; (2) predominant, or exclusive, atrioventricular conduction through a right-sided accessory pathway; (3) exclusive atrioventricular conduction through the normal pathway with right bundle-branch block; (4) exclusive conduction through the normal pathway, with left bundle-branch block; (5) fusion between (1) and (2); and finally, (6) fusion between (2) and (3) However, QRS complexes resulting from simultaneously occurring Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B and left bundle-branch block could not be identified. Future electrophysiological investigations should re-evaluate the criteria used to diffrentiate between true and false patterns of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B coexisting with left bundle-branch block. PMID:7397051

  7. A Quasar Turns On

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) has discovered a quasar the brightly-shining, active nucleus of a galaxy abruptly turning on in what appears to be the fastest such transition ever seen in such an object.A Rapid TransitionQuasars are expected to show variations in brightness on timescales of hours to millions of years, but its not often that we get to study their major variability in real time! So far, weve discovered only a dozen changing-look quasars active galactic nuclei that exhibit major changes in their spectral class and brightness between observations. Roughly half of these were quasars that turned on and half were quasars that turned off, generally on timescales of maybe 5 or 10 years.The dramatic change in spectrum of iPTF 16bco between the archival SDSS data from 2004 (bottom) and the follow-up spectroscopy from Keck 2+DEIMOS in 2016 (top). [Adapted from Gezari et al. 2017]In June 2016, however, a team of scientists led by Suvi Gezari (University of Maryland) discovered iPTF 16bco, a nuclear transient that wasnt there the last time Palomar checked in 2012. A search through archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX data in addition to some follow-up X-ray imaging and spectroscopic observations told the team what they needed to know: iPTF 16bco is a quasar that only just turned on within the 500 days preceding the iPTF observations.This source, in fact, is a 100-million-solar-mass black hole located at the center of a galaxy at a redshift of z= 0.237. In just over a year, the source changed classification from a galaxy with weak narrow-line emission to a quasar with characteristic strong, broad emission lines and a ten-fold increase in continuum brightness! What caused this sudden transition?Instabilities at Fault?iPTF 16bco and the other known changing-look quasars with disappearing (red circles) and appearing (blue circles) broad-line emission. [Adapted from Gezari et al. 2017]Gezari and collaborators used the large number of recent

  8. When advertising turns "cheeky"!

    PubMed

    Burkitt, Jennifer A; Saucier, Deborah M; Thomas, Nicole A; Ehresman, Crystal

    2006-05-01

    Portraits typically exhibit leftward posing biases, with people showing more of their left cheek than their right. The current study investigated posing biases in print advertising to determine whether the product advertised affects the posing bias. As the posing bias may be decreasing over time, we also investigated changes in posing biases over a span of more than 100 years. The current investigation coded 2664 advertisements from two time periods; advertisements were coded for target group of advertisement (men, women, both) and posing bias (rightward, leftward, or central). Unlike other studies that typically observe a leftward posing bias, print advertisements exhibit a rightward posing bias, regardless of time-frame. Thus, print advertisements differ greatly from portraits, which may relate to the purpose of advertisements and the role of attractiveness in advertising.

  9. Cellular automaton simulations of a four-leg intersection with two-phase signalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Hao

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a cellular automaton (CA) simulation of a signalized intersection. When there is no exclusive lane for left-turn vehicles, through vehicles and left-turn vehicles have to share one lane. Under such situation usually two-phase signalization is adopted, and the conflicts between the two traffic streams need to be analyzed. We use a refined configuration for the intersection simulation: the geometry of the intersection has been considered and vehicles are assumed to move along 1/4 circle arcs. We focus on the averaged travel times on left lanes and their distributions. The diagrams of intersection approach capacities (IACs) and the corresponding phase diagrams are also presented, which depend on the approach flow rates and the percentage of left-turn vehicles. Besides, we find that the minimum green time could be determined by finding out the critical value for the travel times.

  10. Lattice Calibration with Turn-By-Turn BPM Data

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Sebek, James; /SLAC

    2012-07-02

    Turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data from multiple BPMs are fitted with a tracking code to calibrate magnet strengths in a manner similar to the well known LOCO code. Simulation shows that this turn-by-turn method can be a quick and efficient way for optics calibration. The method is applicable to both linacs and ring accelerators. Experimental results for a section of the SPEAR3 ring is also shown.

  11. Wind tunnel studies of turns by flying dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D E

    1986-05-01

    High-speed movies of dragonflies turning in flight on flexible tethers show that there are two distinct modes of turning. In the 'conventional' mode, dragonflies use left-right asymmetries in the wing stroke amplitude, and occasionally in the angle of attack, to produce more lift and thrust on one side than the other. This causes the animal to roll into a bank, so that the lift vector has a sideward component; this sideward component produces the turn, much as in an airplane. This type of turn is probably most useful during fast forward flight. The second mode of turning in the 'yaw turn'. Yaw turns are accomplished without banking, and the dragonfly's long axis may turn more than 90 degrees in the period of two wing strokes. The kinematics of this turn could not be as closely analysed, but it appears that dragonflies use drag on the inner wing upstroke and the outer wing downstroke to turn, much like pivoting a rowing boat. This turn may be hampered by drag on the abdomen during fast forward flight and would be most useful at low speeds or during hovering.

  12. Page turning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J. (Inventor); Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device for holding reading materials for use by readers without arm mobility is presented. The device is adapted to hold the reading materials in position for reading with the pages displayed to enable turning by use of a rubber tipped stick that is held in the mouth and has a pair of rectangular frames. The frames are for holding and positioning the reading materials opened in reading posture with the pages displayed at a substantially unobstructed sighting position for reading. The pair of rectangular frames are connected to one another by a hinge so the angle between the frames may be varied thereby varying the inclination of the reading material. A pair of bent spring mounted wires for holding opposing pages of the reading material open for reading without substantial visual interference of the pages is mounted to the base. The wires are also adjustable to the thickness of the reading material and have a variable friction adjustment. This enables the force of the wires against the pages to be varied and permits the reader to manipulate the pages with the stick.

  13. IASI is turning ten!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; George, Maya; Bauduin, Sophie; Boynard, Anne; Coheur, Pierre-François; Clarisse, Lieven; Crevoisier, Cyril; Doniki, Stamatia; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Hurtmans, Daniel; Lacour, Jean-Lionel; Ronsmans, Gaétane; Safieddine, Sarah; Van Damme, Martin; Wespes, Catherine; Whitburn, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The IASI mission is a versatile mission that fulfills the needs of three different communities: numerical weather prediction, climate research and atmospheric composition monitoring. In order to converge on the design of such an instrument all three communities had to make "reasonable accommodations" 20 years ago, and it turns out that this mission is now recognized as essential for weather forecasting, and for tracking pollutants/greenhouse gases from space. With the launch of MetOp-B and -C and the continuity and new challenges offered by IASI-NG, an exceptional data record will be available in the next few years. The presentation (movie) illustrates some of the major findings related to atmospheric composition changes as monitored by IASI during the last 10 years. It relies on accurate data available in near real time along with an excellent horizontal coverage. We will show the global scale mapping of gases, along with the detection of dust and ash particles, as well as the potential of the mission to catch special events such as volcanic eruptions, large fires and pollution peaks.

  14. Spirit Takes a Turn for Adirondack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This rear hazard-identification camera image looks back at the circular tracks made in the martian soil when the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove about 3 meters (10 feet) toward the mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack, Spirit's first rock target. Spirit made a series of arcing turns totaling approximately 1 meter (3 feet). It then turned in place and made a series of short, straightforward movements totaling approximately 2 meters (6.5 feet). The drive took about 30 minutes to complete, including time stopped to take images. The two rocks in the upper left corner of the image are called 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi.' In the upper right corner is a portion of the lander, now known as the Columbia Memorial Station.

  15. Spirit Takes a Turn for Adirondack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This rear hazard-identification camera image looks back at the circular tracks made in the martian soil when the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove about 3 meters (10 feet) toward the mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack, Spirit's first rock target. Spirit made a series of arcing turns totaling approximately 1 meter (3 feet). It then turned in place and made a series of short, straightforward movements totaling approximately 2 meters (6.5 feet). The drive took about 30 minutes to complete, including time stopped to take images. The two rocks in the upper left corner of the image are called 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi.' In the upper right corner is a portion of the lander, now known as the Columbia Memorial Station.

  16. Turn Continuation and Clause Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the viability of the analytic distinction between "turn-constructional unit (TCU) continuation" (i.e., continuing a turn beyond a point of possible completion with grammatically dependent material) and "new TCU" (i.e., continuing a turn with grammatically independent material) when hypotactic clause combinations are involved.…

  17. Turn Continuation and Clause Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the viability of the analytic distinction between "turn-constructional unit (TCU) continuation" (i.e., continuing a turn beyond a point of possible completion with grammatically dependent material) and "new TCU" (i.e., continuing a turn with grammatically independent material) when hypotactic clause combinations are involved.…

  18. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sequence of nine true-color, narrow-angle images shows the varying appearance of Jupiter as it rotated through more than a complete 360-degree turn. The smallest features seen in this sequence are no bigger than about 380 kilometers (about 236 miles). Rotating more than twice as fast as Earth, Jupiter completes one rotation in about 10 hours. These images were taken on Oct. 22 and 23, 2000. From image to image (proceeding left to right across each row and then down to the next row), cloud features on Jupiter move from left to right before disappearing over the edge onto the nightside of the planet. The most obvious Jovian feature is the Great Red Spot, which can be seen moving onto the dayside in the third frame (below and to the left of the center of the planet). In the fourth frame, taken about 1 hour and 40 minutes later, the Great Red Spot has been carried by the planet's rotation to the east and does not appear again until the final frame, which was taken one complete rotation after the third frame.

    Unlike weather systems on Earth, which change markedly from day to day, large cloud systems in Jupiter's colder, thicker atmosphere are long-lived, so the two frames taken one rotation apart have a very similar appearance. However, when this sequence of images is eventually animated, strong winds blowing eastward at some latitudes and westward at other latitudes will be readily apparent. The results of such differential motions can be seen even in the still frames shown here. For example, the clouds of the Great Red Spot rotate counterclockwise. The strong westward winds northeast of the Great Red Spot are deflected around the spot and form a wake of turbulent clouds downstream (visible in the fourth image), just as a rock in a rapidly flowing river deflects the fluid around it.

    The equatorial zone on Jupiter is currently bright white, indicating the presence of clouds much like cirrus clouds on Earth, but made of ammonia instead of water ice. This

  19. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sequence of nine true-color, narrow-angle images shows the varying appearance of Jupiter as it rotated through more than a complete 360-degree turn. The smallest features seen in this sequence are no bigger than about 380 kilometers (about 236 miles). Rotating more than twice as fast as Earth, Jupiter completes one rotation in about 10 hours. These images were taken on Oct. 22 and 23, 2000. From image to image (proceeding left to right across each row and then down to the next row), cloud features on Jupiter move from left to right before disappearing over the edge onto the nightside of the planet. The most obvious Jovian feature is the Great Red Spot, which can be seen moving onto the dayside in the third frame (below and to the left of the center of the planet). In the fourth frame, taken about 1 hour and 40 minutes later, the Great Red Spot has been carried by the planet's rotation to the east and does not appear again until the final frame, which was taken one complete rotation after the third frame.

    Unlike weather systems on Earth, which change markedly from day to day, large cloud systems in Jupiter's colder, thicker atmosphere are long-lived, so the two frames taken one rotation apart have a very similar appearance. However, when this sequence of images is eventually animated, strong winds blowing eastward at some latitudes and westward at other latitudes will be readily apparent. The results of such differential motions can be seen even in the still frames shown here. For example, the clouds of the Great Red Spot rotate counterclockwise. The strong westward winds northeast of the Great Red Spot are deflected around the spot and form a wake of turbulent clouds downstream (visible in the fourth image), just as a rock in a rapidly flowing river deflects the fluid around it.

    The equatorial zone on Jupiter is currently bright white, indicating the presence of clouds much like cirrus clouds on Earth, but made of ammonia instead of water ice. This

  20. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  1. Thrust-vectored differential turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Lefton, L.

    1980-01-01

    Barrier surface construction in the joint space of the differential turning game for thrust-vectored vs. conventional aircraft is discussed. Differential-turn studies are based on modifications of existing computer programs including an energy-turn program, and one which generates hodograph data. Optimal turning flight in energy approximation is discussed for the conventional aircraft configurations. It is concluded that any advantages realized from thrust-vectoring are minor, unless hover is possible, where advantages would be major at low energies, and affect tactics at high energies as well.

  2. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  3. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    HLHS; Congenital heart - hypoplastic left heart; Cyanotic heart disease - hypoplastic left heart ... Hypoplastic left heart is a rare type of congenital heart disease. It is more common in males than in females. As ...

  4. Effects of changing airfoil aerodynamic characteristics on turning diffuser performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh@Seth, Nur Hazirah; Isa, Norasikin Mat

    2017-04-01

    Combining both turning and diffusing activities by using 3-dimensional turning diffuser offer more advantages as compared to bend-diffuser systems. However, adverse pressure gradient and curvature design of turning diffuser itself will result in existence of secondary flow at the inner wall and both left and right wall region, which will disrupt turning diffuser performance. Introduction of baffle has successfully proven able to improve the performance of 3-dimensional turning diffuser in terms of both pressure recovery and flow uniformity using experimental approach. Preliminary design airfoil referred to previous study was used, and the results were used to validate present study simulation work. Aerodynamic characteristic of the airfoil were varied and series of simulation were conducted to study the effects of changing aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil on turning diffuser performance. Optimum parameters proposed in this study have successfully improved 3-dimensional turning diffuser performance by 7.20% in terms of flow uniformity and 6.16% in terms of pressure recovery. Turning diffuser efficiency was also improved with increment of 6.12%. These parameters can be used in the future for reference in the design of airfoil baffle especially for usage involving 3-dimensional turning diffuser.

  5. The prognostic value of mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony defined by phase analysis from gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging among patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hess, Paul L; Shaw, Linda K; Fudim, Marat; Iskandrian, Ami E; Borges-Neto, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    The prognostic value of left ventricular dyssynchrony measured by gated single-photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and its relationship to electrical dyssynchrony measured by QRS duration are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the independent and incremental prognostic value of dyssynchrony in yet the largest group of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients presenting for GSPECT- MPI between July 1993 and May 1999 in normal sinus rhythm were identified from the Duke Nuclear Cardiology Databank and the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease (N = 1244). After a median of 4.2 years, 336 deaths occurred. At 8 years, the Kaplan-Meier estimates of the probability of death were 34.0% among patients with a phase bandwidth <100° and 56.8% among those with a bandwidth ≥100°. After adjustment for standard clinical variables, QRS dyssynchrony was independently associated with death (Hazard Ratio (HR), per 10°: 1.092, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.048,1.139, P < .0001). Phase bandwidth was similarly associated with death after clinical adjustment (HR per 10°: 1.056, 95% CI 1.041,1.072, P < .0001). In clinically adjusted models examining QRS duration in addition to phase bandwidth, phase bandwidth had a stronger association with mortality. After accounting for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), neither QRS duration nor phase bandwidth were statistically significant. Among patients with EF >35%, QRS duration and phase bandwidth together provided value above that provided by LVEF alone (P = 0.0181). When examining cardiovascular death, results were consistent with all-cause death. Among patients with CAD, mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony measured by GSPECT MPI has a stronger relationship with outcomes than electrical dyssynchrony measured by QRS duration. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and LVEF, neither mechanical nor electrical

  6. 14 CFR 417.209 - Malfunction turn analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... times during the thrusting phases of flight. (2) When a malfunction begins to cause each turn throughout... malfunction begins to cause a turn until aerodynamic breakup, inertial breakup, or ground impact. The analysis... longitudinal axis measured relative to the nominal launch vehicle longitudinal axis or Earth relative velocity...

  7. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Print A A A en español ¿ ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  8. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does Hair Turn Gray? A A A en español ¿Por ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  9. A Turning Point for Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the publication "A Turning Point for Literacy" edited by Leon Bataille, and based on information from the International Symposium for Literacy (1975). The author notes that the document represents the complete history and background of literacy from the point of departure in 1965 to a turning point in 1975. (TA)

  10. Mycogen magically turns around agrigenetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, G.

    1995-05-01

    This short article describes how Mycogen, which acquired Agrigenetics/Lubrizol`s seed industry in the 1993, finally turned a profit after drastic sales and brand consolidation updates. Lubrizol is a supplier of lubricant additives to the energy industry. Until Mycogen turned it around, Agrigenetics stood as a stark example of the unfulfilled dreams plaguing agbiotech.

  11. Turns and maneuvers during swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Amneet; Mosberg, Noah; Bale, Rahul; Patankar, Neelesh

    2011-11-01

    In this work we use fully resolved fluid dynamics computations based on an immersed body approach to study fish turns and maneuvers. We present a numerical method to control the trajectory of fish during turns and maneuvers. Fish tracking a prey is presented as an example case. Numerical simulations are carried out on spatially adaptive grid for speed and accuracy. The effect of deformation kinematics and Reynolds number (Re), on the turn radius of an undulatory swimmer, is studied. Power spent during turning at different turn radii and Re is also reported. These results can be used to quantify the cost of various maneuvers and to identify efficient maneuvers to attain the same objective, e.g., reaching a target location during prey tracking. NSF support is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Effects of a continuous lateral turning device on pressure relief

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nam Ho; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, So Young; Kang, Na Kyung; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the pressure-relieving effects of a continuous lateral turning device on common pressure ulcer sites. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adults participated. [Methods] The design of our continuous lateral turning device was motivated by the need for an adequate pressure-relieving device for immobile and/or elderly people. The procedure of manual repositioning is embodied in our continuous lateral turning device. The interface pressure and time were measured, and comfort grade was evaluated during sessions of continuous lateral turning at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. We quantified the pressure-relieving effect using peak pressure, mean pressure, and pressure time integration. [Results] Participants demonstrated pressure time integration values below the pressure-time threshold at 15°, 30°, and 45° at all the common pressure ulcer sites. Moreover, the most effective angles for pressure relief at the common pressure ulcer sites were 30° at the occiput, 15° at the left scapula, 45° at the right scapula, 45° at the sacrum, 15° at the right heel, and 30° at the left heel. However, angles greater than 30° induced discomfort. [Conclusion] Continuous lateral turning with our specially designed device effectively relieved the pressure of targeted sites. Moreover, the suggested angles of continuous lateral turning can be used to relieve pressure at targeted sites. PMID:27065531

  13. Effects of a continuous lateral turning device on pressure relief.

    PubMed

    Do, Nam Ho; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, So Young; Kang, Na Kyung; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the pressure-relieving effects of a continuous lateral turning device on common pressure ulcer sites. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adults participated. [Methods] The design of our continuous lateral turning device was motivated by the need for an adequate pressure-relieving device for immobile and/or elderly people. The procedure of manual repositioning is embodied in our continuous lateral turning device. The interface pressure and time were measured, and comfort grade was evaluated during sessions of continuous lateral turning at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. We quantified the pressure-relieving effect using peak pressure, mean pressure, and pressure time integration. [Results] Participants demonstrated pressure time integration values below the pressure-time threshold at 15°, 30°, and 45° at all the common pressure ulcer sites. Moreover, the most effective angles for pressure relief at the common pressure ulcer sites were 30° at the occiput, 15° at the left scapula, 45° at the right scapula, 45° at the sacrum, 15° at the right heel, and 30° at the left heel. However, angles greater than 30° induced discomfort. [Conclusion] Continuous lateral turning with our specially designed device effectively relieved the pressure of targeted sites. Moreover, the suggested angles of continuous lateral turning can be used to relieve pressure at targeted sites.

  14. Local transverse coupling impedance measurements in a synchrotron light source from turn-by-turn acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlà, Michele; Benedetti, Gabriele; Günzel, Thomas; Iriso, Ubaldo; Martí, Zeus

    2016-12-01

    Transverse beam coupling impedance is a source of beam instabilities that limits the machine performance in circular accelerators. Several beam based techniques have been used to measure the transverse impedance of an accelerator, usually based on the optics distortion produced by the impedance source itself. Beam position monitor turn-by-turn analysis for impedance characterization has been usually employed in large circumference machines, while synchrotron light sources have mainly used slow orbit based techniques. Instead, the work presented in this paper uses for the first time turn-by-turn data at ALBA to advance the measurement technique into the range of the typically small impedance values of modern light sources. We have measured local impedance contributions through the observation of phase advance versus bunch charge using the betatron oscillations excited with a fast dipole kicker. The ALBA beam position monitor system and the precision of the turn-by-turn analysis allowed to characterize the main sources of transverse impedance, in good agreement with the model values, including the impedance of an in-vacuum undulator.

  15. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  16. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  17. Left-ventricular systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony as assessed by multi-harmonic phase analysis of gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with end-stage renal disease and normal LVEF

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P.; Verdes, Liudmila; Butler, Javed; Garcia, Ernest V.

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to develop a multi-harmonic phase analysis method to measure diastolic dyssynchrony from conventional gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging(MPI) data and to compare it with systolic dyssynchrony in normal subjects and in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and normal left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods 121 consecutive patients with ESRD and normal LVEF and 30 consecutive normal controls were enrolled. Diastolic dyssynchrony parameters were calculated using 3-harmonic phase analysis. Systolic dyssynchrony parameters were calculated using the established 1-harmonic phase analysis. Results The systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony parameters were correlated, but significantly different in both control and ESRD groups, indicating they were physiologically related but measured different LV mechanisms. The systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony parameters were each significantly different between the control and the ESRD groups. Significant systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony were found in 47% and 65% of the entire ESRD group. Conclusion Multi-harmonic phase analysis has been developed to assess diastolic dyssynchrony, which measured a new LV mechanism of regional function from gated SPECT MPI and showed a significantly higher prevalence rate than systolic dyssynchrony in patients with ESRD and normal LVEF. PMID:21229401

  18. Biophysical Modeling to Determine the Optimization of Left Ventricular Pacing Site and AV/VV Delays in the Acute and Chronic Phase of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    LEE, ANGELA W. C.; CROZIER, ANDREW; HYDE, EOIN R.; LAMATA, PABLO; TRUONG, MICHAEL; SOHAL, MANAV; JACKSON, THOMAS; BEHAR, JONATHAN M.; CLARIDGE, SIMON; SHETTY, ANOOP; SAMMUT, EVA; PLANK, GERNOT; RINALDI, CHRISTOPHER ALDO

    2017-01-01

    Device Optimization for Acute and Chronic CRT Background Cardiac anatomy and function adapt in response to chronic cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The effects of these changes on the optimal left ventricle (LV) lead location and timing delay settings have yet to be fully explored. Objective To predict the effects of chronic CRT on the optimal LV lead location and device timing settings over time. Methods Biophysical computational cardiac models were generated for 3 patients, immediately post‐implant (ACUTE) and after at least 6 months of CRT (CHRONIC). Optimal LV pacing area and device settings were predicted by pacing the ACUTE and CHRONIC models across the LV epicardium (49 sites each) with a range of 9 pacing settings and simulating the acute hemodynamic response (AHR) of the heart. Results There were statistically significant differences between the distribution of the AHR in the ACUTE and CHRONIC models (P < 0.0005 in all cases). The site delivering the maximal AHR shifted location between the ACUTE and CHRONIC models but provided a negligible improvement (<2%). The majority of the acute optimal LV pacing regions (76–100%) and device settings (76–91%) remained optimal chronically. Conclusion Optimization of the LV pacing location and device settings were important at the time of implant, with a reduced benefit over time, where the majority of the acute optimal LV pacing region and device settings remained optimal with chronic CRT. PMID:27885749

  19. Biophysical Modeling to Determine the Optimization of Left Ventricular Pacing Site and AV/VV Delays in the Acute and Chronic Phase of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angela W C; Crozier, Andrew; Hyde, Eoin R; Lamata, Pablo; Truong, Michael; Sohal, Manav; Jackson, Thomas; Behar, Jonathan M; Claridge, Simon; Shetty, Anoop; Sammut, Eva; Plank, Gernot; Rinaldi, Christopher Aldo; Niederer, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac anatomy and function adapt in response to chronic cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The effects of these changes on the optimal left ventricle (LV) lead location and timing delay settings have yet to be fully explored. To predict the effects of chronic CRT on the optimal LV lead location and device timing settings over time. Biophysical computational cardiac models were generated for 3 patients, immediately post-implant (ACUTE) and after at least 6 months of CRT (CHRONIC). Optimal LV pacing area and device settings were predicted by pacing the ACUTE and CHRONIC models across the LV epicardium (49 sites each) with a range of 9 pacing settings and simulating the acute hemodynamic response (AHR) of the heart. There were statistically significant differences between the distribution of the AHR in the ACUTE and CHRONIC models (P < 0.0005 in all cases). The site delivering the maximal AHR shifted location between the ACUTE and CHRONIC models but provided a negligible improvement (<2%). The majority of the acute optimal LV pacing regions (76-100%) and device settings (76-91%) remained optimal chronically. Optimization of the LV pacing location and device settings were important at the time of implant, with a reduced benefit over time, where the majority of the acute optimal LV pacing region and device settings remained optimal with chronic CRT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. After a U-Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity made its first U-Turn on Mars on Feb. 14, 2004, as the completing move of its longest one-day drive, about 9 meters or 30 feet. This view from the right front hazard identification camera shows the scene in front of Opportunity after the turn, with the selected location for the mission's first trenching operation now directly in front of the rover.

  1. Ontological turns, turnoffs and roundabouts.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    There has been much talk of an 'ontological turn' in Science and Technology Studies. This commentary explores some recent work on multiple and historical ontologies, especially articles published in this journal, against a background of constructivism. It can be tempting to read an ontological turn as based and promoting a version of perspectivism, but that is inadequate to the scholarly work and opens multiple ontologies to serious criticisms. Instead, we should read our ontological turn or turns as being about multiplicities of practices and the ways in which these practices shape the material world. Ontologies arise out of practices through which people engage with things; the practices are fundamental and the ontologies derivative. The purchase in this move comes from the elucidating power of the verbs that scholars use to analyze relations of practices and objects--which turn out to be specific cases of constructivist verbs. The difference between this ontological turn and constructivist work in Science and Technology Studies appears to be a matter of emphases found useful for different purposes.

  2. Turning assistive machines into assistive robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argall, Brenna D.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the potential for automation in particular, in the form of smart wheelchairs to aid those with motor, or cognitive, impairments has been recognized. It is a paradox that often the more severe a person's motor impairment, the more challenging it is for them to operate the very assistive machines which might enhance their quality of life. A primary aim of my lab is to address this confound by incorporating robotics autonomy and intelligence into assistive machines turning the machine into a kind of robot, and offloading some of the control burden from the user. Robots already synthetically sense, act in and reason about the world, and these technologies can be leveraged to help bridge the gap left by sensory, motor or cognitive impairments in the users of assistive machines. This paper overviews some of the ongoing projects in my lab, which strives to advance human ability through robotics autonomy.

  3. A preliminary fMRI study of a novel self-paced written fluency task: observation of left-hemispheric activation, and increased frontal activation in late vs. early task phases

    PubMed Central

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Das, Sunit; Schweizer, Tom A.; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of significant interest—but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s). As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consistent with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s) of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05) than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s). Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among these areas, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9) and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32) likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources. Consistent with previous pertinent fMRI literature involving overt and covert verbal responses, these findings highlight

  4. Study of left ventricular rotation and torsion in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction by speckle tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Govind, Satish C; Gadiyaram, Varuna K; Quintana, Miguel; Ramesh, Srinivasiah Saligrama; Saha, Samir

    2010-01-01

    The mechanics of the complex left ventricular (LV) myocardial fiber architecture may accurately be assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). The role of STE to assess LV mechanical dysfunction in the setting of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (AMI) is still poorly studied. 29 consecutive patients (55 +/- 13 years) presenting with AMI underwent STE within 72 hours of admission. Reperfusion was achieved with thrombolysis in 15 patients and with primary percutaneous coronary intervention in 14. LV rotational and torsion data were registered during peak systole. Standard Doppler data included LV ejection fraction (EF), mitral inflow deceleration time (DT), and conventional E/A ratio. E/E' ratio (mitral inflow E velocity/tissue Doppler E velocity) was calculated as a marker of LV filling pressure. Twelve subjects with clinically indicated but negative dobutamine stress echocardiogram served as Controls. Peak systolic torsion was not only significantly lower in AMI compared with Controls (13.3 +/- 7.6 vs. 21.8 +/- 6.1; P < 0.01), it was also lower in subjects with LVEF <40% (5.0 +/- 2.9) compared with those who had LVEF >40% (10.6 +/- 6.6; P < 0.02). Torsion had a modest but significantly positive linear relation (R = 0.6; P < 0.05) with DT, not with E/E' or LVEF. LV systolic torsion is decreased in AMI and more markedly decreased in patients with LVEF <40%. The most significant linear relationship between DT and torsion may possibly indicate that the LV mechanical dysfunction is also associated with altered filling dynamics.

  5. Residual Myocardial Iron Following Intramyocardial Hemorrhage During the Convalescent Phase of Reperfused ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Rosmini, Stefania; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; White, Steven K; Bhuva, Anish N; Treibel, Thomas A; Fontana, Marianna; Ramlall, Manish; Hamarneh, Ashraf; Sirker, Alex; Herrey, Anna S; Manisty, Charlotte; Yellon, Derek M; Kellman, Peter; Moon, James C; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-10-01

    The presence of intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH) in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients reperfused by primary percutaneous coronary intervention has been associated with residual myocardial iron at follow-up, and its impact on adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling is incompletely understood and is investigated here. Forty-eight ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 4±2 days post primary percutaneous coronary intervention, of whom 40 had a follow-up scan at 5±2 months. Native T1, T2, and T2* maps were acquired. Eight out of 40 (20%) patients developed adverse LV remodeling. A subset of 28 patients had matching T2* maps, of which 15/28 patients (54%) had IMH. Eighteen of 28 (64%) patients had microvascular obstruction on the acute scan, of whom 15/18 (83%) patients had microvascular obstruction with IMH. On the follow-up scan, 13/15 patients (87%) had evidence of residual iron within the infarct zone. Patients with residual iron had higher T2 in the infarct zone surrounding the residual iron when compared with those without. In patients with adverse LV remodeling, T2 in the infarct zone surrounding the residual iron was also higher than in those without (60 [54-64] ms versus 53 [51-56] ms; P=0.025). Acute myocardial infarct size, extent of microvascular obstruction, and IMH correlated with the change in LV end-diastolic volume (Pearson's rho of 0.64, 0.59, and 0.66, respectively; P=0.18 and 0.62, respectively, for correlation coefficient comparison) and performed equally well on receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting adverse LV remodeling (area under the curve: 0.99, 0.94, and 0.95, respectively; P=0.19 for receiver operating characteristic curve comparison). The majority of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients with IMH had residual myocardial iron at follow-up. This was associated with persistently elevated T2 values in the surrounding infarct tissue and

  6. Residual Myocardial Iron Following Intramyocardial Hemorrhage During the Convalescent Phase of Reperfused ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Rosmini, Stefania; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; White, Steven K.; Bhuva, Anish N.; Treibel, Thomas A.; Fontana, Marianna; Ramlall, Manish; Hamarneh, Ashraf; Sirker, Alex; Herrey, Anna S.; Manisty, Charlotte; Yellon, Derek M.; Kellman, Peter; Moon, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The presence of intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH) in ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction patients reperfused by primary percutaneous coronary intervention has been associated with residual myocardial iron at follow-up, and its impact on adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling is incompletely understood and is investigated here. Methods and Results— Forty-eight ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 4±2 days post primary percutaneous coronary intervention, of whom 40 had a follow-up scan at 5±2 months. Native T1, T2, and T2* maps were acquired. Eight out of 40 (20%) patients developed adverse LV remodeling. A subset of 28 patients had matching T2* maps, of which 15/28 patients (54%) had IMH. Eighteen of 28 (64%) patients had microvascular obstruction on the acute scan, of whom 15/18 (83%) patients had microvascular obstruction with IMH. On the follow-up scan, 13/15 patients (87%) had evidence of residual iron within the infarct zone. Patients with residual iron had higher T2 in the infarct zone surrounding the residual iron when compared with those without. In patients with adverse LV remodeling, T2 in the infarct zone surrounding the residual iron was also higher than in those without (60 [54–64] ms versus 53 [51–56] ms; P=0.025). Acute myocardial infarct size, extent of microvascular obstruction, and IMH correlated with the change in LV end-diastolic volume (Pearson’s rho of 0.64, 0.59, and 0.66, respectively; P=0.18 and 0.62, respectively, for correlation coefficient comparison) and performed equally well on receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting adverse LV remodeling (area under the curve: 0.99, 0.94, and 0.95, respectively; P=0.19 for receiver operating characteristic curve comparison). Conclusions— The majority of ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction patients with IMH had residual myocardial iron at follow-up. This was associated with

  7. [Changes in the morphology of the normal left ventricle during the phases of isovolumic contraction and relaxation. Consequences on the calculation of the volume and cardiac output by cineangiocardiographic methods].

    PubMed

    Nitenberg, A; Geschwind, H; Herreman, F

    1976-04-01

    It is well known that the left ventricular volume, as measured by the cineangiographic method, decreases during the phase of isometric contraction. What is more, the cardiac index and the ejection fraction measured by this method are definitely larger than those derived from dilution methods. These discrepancies can be explained by movements of the mitral valve during the phases of isometric contraction and relaxation. The systolic ejection volume (SEV) was measured by three different methods: 1. End-diastolic volume (EDV) -end-systolic volume (ESV) ; 2. EDV - pre-filling volume (PFV) ; 3. Pre-ejection volume (PEV) - ESV. It has emerged that the results given by the methods (2) and (3) correspond closely, and differ significantly from those given by method (1); they are also close to those obtained by the dilution method. This difference seems to arise from the fact that the movements of the mitral valve during the phase of isometric relaxation are diametrically opposite to those which occur during isometric contraction; thus, when the values EDV-ESV are used in the calculation of SEV, an overestimate is made because the mitral valve is not to be found in the same position within the ventricular cavity for both values.

  8. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography as a Novel Approach to Quantify Left Ventricular Dyssynchrony: A Comparison Study with Phase Analysis of Gated Myocardial Perfusion Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Henneman, Maureen M.; Chen, Ji; Ypenburg, Claudia; Dibbets, Petra; Ghio, Stefano; Bleeker, Gabe B.; Stokkel, Marcel P.; van der Wall, Ernst E.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Garcia, Ernest V.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Different imaging modalities have been explored for assessment of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (GMPS) with phase analysis is a reliable technique to quantify LV dyssynchrony and predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Objective Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is a novel imaging technique that provides a LV systolic dyssynchrony index, based on regional volumetric changes as a function of time and calculated as the SD of time to minimum systolic volume of 16 standard myocardial segments expressed in percentage of cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to compare LV dyssynchrony evaluated with GMPS with LV dyssynchrony assessed with RT3DE. Methods The study population consisted of 40 patients with heart failure who underwent both GMPS and RT3DE. Results Good correlations between LV dyssynchrony assessed with RT3DE and GMPS were demonstrated (r = 0.76 for histogram bandwidth, r = 0.80 for phase SD, P < .0001). Patients with substantial LV dyssynchrony on GMPS (defined as ≥135 degrees for histogram bandwidth and ≥43 degrees for phase SD) had significantly higher LV systolic dyssynchrony index than patients without substantial LV dyssynchrony. Conclusions The good correlations between LV dyssynchrony assessed with GMPS and with RT3DE provide further support for the use of RT3DE for reliable assessment of LV dyssynchrony. PMID:18222645

  9. Genesis of a flexible turning center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanclemente, Paul; French, Robert D.

    GE - Aircraft Engines has designed, built, and is operating a flexible turning center for jet engine hardware. Although the plant is in the forefront of manufacturing technology development, it was intended from the start to be a production facility. So while there was much to learn from being involved in all phases of the project, meeting production schedules was, and is, key to its success. This paper reviews the early history of the project and ends with a view of its recent production status.

  10. Left ventricular bronchogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang; Omo, Alfred; Pan, Tiecheng; Li, Jun; Liu, Ligang; Hu, Min

    2006-04-01

    Bronchogenic cysts occurring in the left ventricle are a medical rarity. One successfully operated case is reported herein. The location of the cyst was just between the epicardium and myocardium of the inferior left ventricular wall, adjacent to the apex of the heart. Complete excision was achieved through a left anterolateral thoracotomy without extracorporeal circulation.

  11. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Petrenko, A.V.; Valishev, A.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  12. Effects of a left ventricular assist device with a centrifugal pump on left ventricular diastolic hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze how left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with a centrifugal pump alters left ventricular diastolic hemodynamics and energy by means of a left ventricular pressure volume relationship. Fifteen anesthetized normal pig hearts were studied after placement of an apical drainage LVAD with a centrifugal pump. Indices of the left ventricular isovolumic relaxation phase, left ventricular filling phase and general hemodynamic data were recorded with the LVAD in on and off situations. The pump assist rate was adjusted to 25%, 50% and 75%. Left ventricular stroke work, with a high correlation with oxygen consumption, decreased as the assist rate increased. Left ventricular relaxation delayed as the assist rate increased, but the atrioventricular pressure gradient increased in the left ventricular rapid filling phase. This finding clarifies left ventricular rapid filling. In this study, it was suggested that although left ventricular isovolumic relaxation was affected, 75% assistance is the most effective for the pump flow in terms of circulation support and restoration of cardiac function.

  13. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  14. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  15. Delayed Next Turn Repair Initiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jean

    A study examined a form of other-initiated repair which occurs later than next turn, a form which is produced by nonnative speakers of English whose native language is Mandarin. Data consists of transcriptions of naturally occurring conversations from 12 native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) dyads, friends who ordinarily chat. Conversational…

  16. The Physics of Ski Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonle, John I.; Nordick, Douglas L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the application of basic dynamics of rotations to the case of turning on skis, first without and then with external torques. Various elements are combined in different techniques and suggestions for further extensions and a list of laboratory exercises based on skiing are included. (DF)

  17. The Physics of Ski Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonle, John I.; Nordick, Douglas L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the application of basic dynamics of rotations to the case of turning on skis, first without and then with external torques. Various elements are combined in different techniques and suggestions for further extensions and a list of laboratory exercises based on skiing are included. (DF)

  18. Turning Sunlight into Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    An aqueous solution contains silica particles that have been embedded with photooxidizing cobalt oxide nanocrystals plus a sensitizer to allow the water-splitting reaction to be driven by visible light. When laser light hits the solution it turns blue as the sensitizer absorbs light. Bubbles soon begin to form as oxygen gas is released from the spilt water molecules.

  19. Wrong Turn on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Petrilli, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In the run-up to the 2000 presidential election, candidate George W. Bush and his advisors made a strategic decision to appropriate educational rhetoric generally associated with Democrats and the left. This decision helped Bush present himself as "different kind of Republican" and a "compassionate conservative" and to…

  20. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MULTI - MILLION - TURN BEAM POSITION MONITORS FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    SATOGATA,T.CAMERON,P.CERNIGLIA,P.CUPOLO,J.DAWSON,CDEGEN,CMEAD,JVETTER,K

    2003-05-12

    During the RHIC 2003 run, two beam position monitors (BPMs) in each transverse plane in the RHIC blue ring were upgraded with high-capacity mezzanine cards. This upgrade provided these planes with the capability to digitize up to 128 million consecutive turns of RHIC beam, or almost 30 minutes of continuous beam centroid phase space evolution for a single RHIC bunch. This paper describes necessary hardware and software changes and initial system performance. We discuss early uses and results for diagnosis of coherent beam oscillations, turn-by-turn (TBT) acquisition through a RHIC acceleration ramp, and ac-dipole nonlinear dynamics studies.

  2. [Social aspects of left-handedness].

    PubMed

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Throughout human history left-handedness has been considered as sinful. It has been associated with the devil, weakness, female gender, unhealthiness, evil, something that has to be turned to a "good"--right side by force. Left-handedness is being more and more acceptable at rational level, but in everyday life it is still considered to be unusual if someone writes with the left hand. Lessening of the number of lefthanders is associated with ageing. There are about 13% lefthanders among people in twenties and less than 1% lefthanders among those in eighties. This finding may be explaned with more pronounced socio-cultural pressure on left-handed people in the past, compared to nowadays. On the other hand, this may also support the hypothesis about a reduced life span of lefthanded people. With cross-exercising of left-handedness, certain typical characteristics and behavioural patterns appear in these people. This was a sort of provoked behaviour and an attack on the integrity of an emotional attitude toward oneself. Stuttering may also appear as a consequence of unsuccessful cross-exercising of left-handedness. The hypothesis about left-handedness as an advantage is supported with the reports about relatively more lefthanders in some specific groups such as: mathematicians, sculptors, architects, painters, musicians, actors, tennis players, as well as famous army commanders and rulers.

  3. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  4. Bacteria turn a tiny gear

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of tiny Bacillus subtillis bacteria turn a single gear, just 380 microns across. (A human hair is about 100 microns across.) The method could be used to create micro-machines. Argonne National Laboratory scientist Igor Aronson pioneered this technique. Read more at the New York Times: http://ow.ly/ODfI or at Argonne: http://ow.ly/ODfa Video courtesy Igor Aronson.

  5. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  6. Turning points in reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  7. Eye and head motion during head turns in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    Eye-head motion was studied pre-, in- and postflight during single voluntary head turns. A transient increase in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain occurred early in the flight, but later trended toward normal. This increased gain was produced by a relative increase in eye counterrotation velocity. Asymmetries in gain with right and left turns also occurred, caused by asymmetries in eye counterrotation velocities. These findings were remarkably similar to those from Soviet primate studies using gaze fixation targets, except the human study trended more rapidly toward normal. These findings differ substantially from those measuring VOR gain by head oscillation, in which no significant changes were found inflight. No visual disturbances were noted in either test condition or in normal activities. These head turn studies are the only ones to date documenting any functional change in VOR in weightlessness.

  8. Adaptive control of surface finish in automated turning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Plaza, E.; Núñez, P. J.; Martín, A. R.; Sanz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to design and develop an on-line control system of finished surfaces in automated machining process by CNC turning. The control system consisted of two basic phases: during the first phase, surface roughness was monitored through cutting force signals; the second phase involved a closed-loop adaptive control system based on data obtained during the monitoring of the cutting process. The system ensures that surfaces roughness is maintained at optimum values by adjusting the feed rate through communication with the PLC of the CNC machine. A monitoring and adaptive control system has been developed that enables the real-time monitoring of surface roughness during CNC turning operations. The system detects and prevents faults in automated turning processes, and applies corrective measures during the cutting process that raise quality and reliability reducing the need for quality control.

  9. Low scale left-right-right-left symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Gauhar

    2017-01-01

    We propose an effective left-right-right-left model with a parity breaking scale around a few TeV. One of the main achievements of the model is that the mirror fermions as well as the mirror gauge sector simultaneously could be at TeV scale. It is shown that the most dangerous quadratic divergence of the SM Higgs boson involving the top quark in the loop is naturally suppressed, and begins at three loop. The model postpones the fine-tuning of the mass of the SM Higgs boson up to a sufficiently high scale. The model explains the smallness of the neutrino masses whether they are Dirac or Majorana. Furthermore, the strong C P phase is zero in this model.

  10. Reducing gait speed affects axial coordination of walking turns.

    PubMed

    Forsell, Caroline; Conradsson, David; Paquette, Caroline; Franzén, Erika

    2017-05-01

    Turning is a common feature of daily life and dynamic coordination of the axial body segments is a cornerstone for safe and efficient turning. Although slow walking speed is a common trait of old age and neurological disorders, little is known about the effect of walking speed on axial coordination during walking turns. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of walking speed on axial coordination during walking turns in healthy elderly adults. Seventeen healthy elderly adults randomly performed 180° left and right turns while walking in their self-selected comfortable pace and in a slow pace speed. Turning velocity, spatiotemporal gait parameters (step length and step time), angular rotations and angular velocity of the head and pelvis, head-pelvis separation (i.e. the angular difference in degrees between the rotation of the head and pelvis) and head-pelvis velocity were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. During slow walking, turning velocity was 15% lower accompanied by shorter step length and longer step time compared to comfortable walking. Reducing walking speed also led to a decrease in the amplitude and velocity of the axial rotation of the head and pelvis as well as a reduced head-pelvis separation and angular velocity. This study demonstrates that axial coordination during turning is speed dependent as evidenced by a more 'en bloc' movement pattern (i.e. less separation between axial segments) at reduced speeds in healthy older adults. This emphasizes the need for matching speed when comparing groups with diverse walking speeds to differentiate changes due to speed from changes due to disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Family matters: Directionality of turning bias while kissing is modulated by context.

    PubMed

    Sedgewick, Jennifer R; Elias, Lorin J

    2016-01-28

    When leaning forward to kiss to a romantic partner, individuals tend to direct their kiss to the right more often than the left. Studies have consistently demonstrated this kissing asymmetry, although other factors known to influence lateral biases, such as sex or situational context, had yet to be explored. The primary purpose of our study was to investigate if turning direction was consistent between a romantic (parent-parent) and parental (parent-child) kissing context, and secondly, to examine if sex differences influenced turning bias between parent-child kissing partners. An archival analysis coded the direction of turning bias for 161 images of romantic kissing (mothers kissing fathers) and 529 images of parental kissing (mothers or fathers kissing sons or daughters). The results indicated that the direction of turning bias differed between kissing contexts. As expected, a right-turn bias was observed for romantic kissing; however, a left-turn bias was exhibited for parental kissing. There was no significant difference of turning bias between any parent-child kissing partners. Interpretations for the left-turn bias discuss parental kissing as a learned lateral behaviour.

  12. When Is It My Turn To Speak?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orestrom, Bengt

    A study analyzed four dyadic conversations for evidence of the signals operating in the turn-taking process and facilitating the smooth exchange of turns. It found over 20 syntactic, prosodic, and semantic features occurring frequently with turn-taking. The five most significant factors correlating with turn-taking were a prosodically completed…

  13. When Is It My Turn To Speak?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orestrom, Bengt

    A study analyzed four dyadic conversations for evidence of the signals operating in the turn-taking process and facilitating the smooth exchange of turns. It found over 20 syntactic, prosodic, and semantic features occurring frequently with turn-taking. The five most significant factors correlating with turn-taking were a prosodically completed…

  14. Bodily-Visual Practices and Turn Continuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Cecilia E.; Thompson, Sandra A.; Drake, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This article considers points in turn construction where conversation researchers have shown that talk routinely continues beyond possible turn completion, but where bodily-visual behavior doing such turn extension work is found. The bodily-visual behaviors examined share many features with verbal turn extensions, but it is argued that embodied…

  15. Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) Study: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paulden, Mike; Bergstrom, Nancy; Horn, Susan D.; Rapp, Mary; Stern, Anita; Barrett, Ryan; Watkiss, Michael; Krahn, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Background The Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) study was a multisite, randomized controlled trial that aimed to determine the optimal frequency of turning nursing facility residents with mobility limitations who are at moderate and high risk for pressure ulcer (PrU) development. Here we present data from the economic analysis. Objectives This economic analysis aims to estimate the economic consequences for Ontario of switching from a repositioning schedule of 2-hour intervals to a schedule of 3-hour or 4-hour intervals. Data Sources Costs considered in the analysis included those associated with nursing staff time spent repositioning residents and with incontinent care supplies, which included briefs, barrier cream, and washcloths. Results The total economic benefit of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning is estimated to be $11.05 or $16.74 per day, respectively, for every resident at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs. For a typical facility with 123 residents, 41 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefit is estimated to be $453 daily for 3-hour or $686 daily for 4-hour repositioning. For Ontario as a whole, assuming that there are 77,933 residents at 634 LTC facilities, 25,927 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefits of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning are estimated to be $286,420 or $433,913 daily, respectively, equivalent to $104.5 million or $158.4 million per year. Limitations We did not consider the savings the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care might incur should less frequent repositioning reduce the incidence of work-related injury among nursing staff, so our findings are potentially conservative. Conclusions A switch to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning appears likely to yield substantial economic benefits to Ontario without placing residents at greater risk of developing PrUs. PMID:26330894

  16. Characteristics of turn signal use at intersections in baseline naturalistic driving.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John M; Bao, Shan; Goudy, Roy; Konet, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a driver's use of turn signals is sufficiently reliable to forecast a vehicle's future path around an intersection, when detailed information about the intersection is unavailable. Naturalistic observations of turn signal use among 108 drivers on surface streets were extracted from the baseline portion of a field operational test of a safety system. Left and right turns that resulted in heading changes of between 70 and 110° and turn radii between 18 and 90 m were selected from the dataset. The odds that a driver would signal a turn were modeled as a function of road type, turn direction, presence of a forward vehicle, whether the vehicle stopped before the turn, and driver age and gender. Overall, 25 percent of left turns and 29 percent of right turns were not signaled. Road type, turn direction, and presence of a forward vehicle were found to influence the odds that a turn is signaled, while gender and age of the driver did not. The results suggest that situational factors like road type and turn direction are more powerful predictors of whether a turn will be signaled than either age or gender. Signaling on major and minor surface roads was about 5 times more likely than on local roads and 1.5 times more likely when a forward vehicle was present, suggesting a possible effect of traffic volume. It was concluded that turn signal activation alone may be insufficiently reliable to forecast a driver's path. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of different swimming race constraints on turning movements.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Santiago; Mallo, Javier; Navandar, Archit; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different swimming race constraints on the evolution of turn parameters. One hundred and fifty-eight national and regional level 200-m (meters) male swimming performances were video-analyzed using the individualized-distance model in the Open Comunidad de Madrid tournament. Turn (p<.001, ES=0.36) and underwater distances (p<.001, ES=0.38) as well as turn velocity (p<.001, ES=0.69) significantly dropped throughout the race, although stroke velocity and underwater velocity were maintained in the last lap of the race (p>.05). Higher expertise swimmers obtained faster average velocities and longer distances in all the turn phases (p<.001, ES=0.59), except the approach distance. In addition, national level swimmers showed the ability to maintain most of the turn parameters throughout the race, which assisted them in improving average velocity at the end of races. Therefore, the variations in the turning movements of a swimming race were expertise-related and focused on optimizing average velocity. Turning skills should be included in the swimming race action plan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensory-evoked turning locomotion in red-eared turtles: kinematic analysis and electromyography.

    PubMed

    Welch, Dan B; Currie, Scott N

    2014-07-01

    We examined the limb kinematics and motor patterns that underlie sensory-evoked turning locomotion in red-eared turtles. Intact animals were held by a band-clamp in a water-filled tank. Turn-swimming was evoked by slowly rotating turtles to the right or left via a motor connected to the shaft of the band-clamp. Animals executed sustained forward turn-swimming against the direction of the imposed rotation. We recorded video of turn-swimming and computer-analyzed the limb and head movements. In a subset of turtles, we also recorded electromyograms from identified limb muscles. Turning exhibited a stereotyped pattern of (1) coordinated forward swimming in the hindlimb and forelimb on the outer side of the turn, (2) back-paddling in the hindlimb on the inner side, (3) a nearly stationary, "braking" forelimb on the inner side, and (4) neck bending toward the direction of the turn. Reversing the rotation caused animals to switch the direction of their turns and the asymmetric pattern of right and left limb activities. Preliminary evidence suggested that vestibular inputs were sufficient to drive the behavior. Sensory-evoked turning may provide a useful experimental platform to examine the brainstem commands and spinal neural networks that underlie the activation and switching of different locomotor forms.

  19. Compensatory turning strategies while walking in patients with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Tsukagoshi, Rui; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Haruhiko; So, Kazutaka; Kuroda, Yutaka; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2014-04-01

    The ability to change directions while walking is an integral component of adaptive locomotor behavior. Patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) experience prolonged hip dysfunction. Gait compensation adopted by the patients with hip OA may become more pronounced while they turn. The purposes of this study were to identify the turning strategy while walking in patients with hip OA, and to examine the relationship between the turning strategy and the patient's functional level. Fourteen patients with hip OA and 13 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. The hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and moments, and the foot progression angle were measured under three walking conditions (straight walking, 45° step turn, and 45° crossover turn), and the gait variables for each walking condition were compared between the 2 groups. The relationship between the increasing rate of knee and ankle joint moments in the turning to the straight walking and the functional point in the Harris hip score (HHS) was examined. The OA group showed decreased hip flexion, extension, and abduction angles, and hip flexion moment during the step turn, and decreased hip flexion, extension, and adduction angles, and hip abduction moment during the crossover turn. Furthermore, the ankle plantarflexion moment and the change in the foot angle during the stance phase were significantly increased during the crossover turn in the OA group. The increasing rate of the ankle plantarflexion moment correlated significantly with the functional point in the HHS. Patients with hip OA rely primarily on the ankle plantarflexors to compensate for the hip dysfunction while changing the walking direction.

  20. Left-Handed Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Alice M.

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of left-handedness are discussed: etiology and associated learning and developmental disorders; right-brain dominance and how to detect it; adaptations to the physical learning environment; behavior patterns; and teaching techniques. (JW)

  1. Left heart catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  2. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... than are white people with similar blood pressure measurements. Sex. Women with hypertension are at higher risk ... hypertrophy than are men with similar blood pressure measurements. Left ventricular hypertrophy changes the structure and working ...

  3. Pre- and unplanned walking turns in Parkinson's disease - Effects of dopaminergic medication.

    PubMed

    Conradsson, David; Paquette, Caroline; Lökk, Johan; Franzén, Erika

    2017-01-26

    Although dopaminergic medication improves functional mobility in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), its effects on walking turns are uncertain. Our goals was to determine whether dopaminergic medication improves preplanned and unplanned walking turns in individuals with PD, compared to healthy controls. Nineteen older adults with mild-to-moderate PD and 17 healthy controls performed one of the following three tasks, presented randomly: walking straight, or walking and turning 180° to the right or left. The walking direction was visually cued before starting to walk (preplanned) or after (unplanned, i.e., 0.6m before reaching the turning point). Subjects with PD were assessed off dopaminergic medication (OFF) and on dopaminergic medication (ON) medication. Turning strategy (step and spin turns), turning performance (turning distance and body rotation) and walking pattern were analyzed for three turning steps. Irrespective of medication state and turning condition, step and spin turns followed a nearly 50:50 distribution. After intake of dopaminergic medication, subjects with PD increased their turning distance but not the amount of body rotation or their walking pattern. Compared to controls, turning impairments in subjects with PD remained while ON medication and problems regulating step width were the most prominent features of their walking pattern. Specifically, subjects with PD turned with narrower cross-over steps, i.e. when the external foot crossed over the line of progression of the internal leg. We conclude that turning impairments remained even after dopaminergic medication and problems modulating step width appears to be a critical feature for turning in PD.

  4. Left Atrial Myxoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    enhanced pulmonary CT angiogram demonstrated normal pulmonary arteries (i.e. no pulmonary embolus) and confirmed the presence of left-sided pulmonary ... arteries without evidence for pulmonary embolism but note of patchy airspace disease within the left upper and lower lobes (Figure 1C), which...1A) and lateral (Figure 1B) chest radiographs were obtained and the patient also underwent a contrast-enhanced pulmonary CT angiogram (CTA; Figure

  5. Aircraft control forces and EMG activity: comparison of novice and experienced pilots during simulated rolls, loops and turns.

    PubMed

    Hewson, D J; McNair, P J; Marshall, R N

    2000-08-01

    Flying an aircraft requires a considerable degree of coordination, particularly during aerobatic activities such as rolls, loops and turns. Only one previous study has examined the magnitude of muscle activity required to fly an aircraft, and that was restricted to takeoff and landing maneuvers. The aim of this study was to examine the phasing of muscle activation and control forces of novice and experienced pilots during more complex simulated flight maneuvers. There were 12 experienced and 9 novice pilots who were tested on an Aermacchi flight simulator while performing a randomized set of rolling, looping, and turning maneuvers. Four different runaway trim settings were used to increase the difficulty of the turns (elevator-up, elevator-down, aileron-left, and aileron-right). Variables recorded included aircraft attitude, pilot applied forces, and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Discriminant function analysis was used to distinguish between novice and experienced pilots. Over all maneuvers, 70% of pilots were correctly classified as novice or experienced. Better levels of classification were achieved when maneuvers were analyzed individually (67-91%), although the maneuvers that required the greatest force application, elevator-up turns, were unable to discriminate between novice and experienced pilots. There were no differences in the phasing of muscle activity between experienced and novice pilots. The only consistent difference in EMG activity between novice and experienced pilots was the reduced EMG activity in the wrist extensors of experienced pilots (p < 0.05). The increased wrist extensor activity of the novice pilots is indicative of a distal control strategy, whereby distal muscles with smaller motor units are used to perform a task that requires precise control. Muscle activity sensors could be used to detect the onset of high G maneuvers prior to any change in aircraft attitude and control G-suit inflation accordingly.

  6. Turning Erythrocytes to Functional Micromotors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiguang; Li, Tianlong; Li, Jinxing; Gao, Wei; Xu, Tailin; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Galarnyk, Michael; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to apply artificial nano/micromotors for diverse biomedical applications have inspired a variety of strategies for designing new motors with unique propulsion mechanisms and functions. However, existing artificial motors are made exclusively of synthetic materials, which are subject to serious immune attack and clearance upon entering the bloodstream. Herein we report an elegant approach that turns natural red blood cells (RBCs) into functional micromotors with the aid of ultrasound propulsion and magnetic guidance. Iron oxide nanoparticles are loaded into the RBCs, where their asymmetric distribution within the cells results in a net magnetization, thus enabling magnetic alignment and guidance under acoustic propulsion. The RBC motors display efficient guided and prolonged propulsion in various biological fluids, including undiluted whole blood. The stability and functionality of the RBC motors, as well as the tolerability of regular RBCs to the ultrasound operation, are carefully examined. Since the RBC motors preserve the biological and structural features of regular RBCs, these motors possess a wide range of antigenic, transport, and mechanical properties that common synthetic motors cannot achieve and thus hold considerable promise for a number of practical biomedical uses. PMID:25415461

  7. William Friedman, Geneticist Turned Cryptographer.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Irwin L

    2017-05-01

    William Friedman (1891-1969), trained as a plant geneticist at Cornell University, was employed at Riverbank Laboratories by the eccentric millionaire George Fabyan to work on wheat breeding. Friedman, however, soon became intrigued by and started working on a pet project of Fabyan's involving the conjecture that Francis Bacon, a polymath known for the study of ciphers, was the real author of Shakespeare's plays. Thus, beginning in ∼1916, Friedman turned his attention to the so called "Baconian cipher," and developed decryption techniques that bore similarity to approaches for solving problems in population genetics. His most significant, indeed pathbreaking, work used ideas from genetics and statistics, focusing on analysis of the frequencies of letters in language use. Although he had transitioned from being a geneticist to a cryptographer, his earlier work had resonance in his later pursuits. He soon began working directly for the United States government and produced solutions used to solve complex military ciphers, in particular to break the Japanese Purple code during World War II. Another important legacy of his work was the establishment of the Signal Intelligence Service and eventually the National Security Agency. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants by analyzing pulse wave phases on photoplethysmography signals measured in the right hand and the left foot.

    PubMed

    Goudjil, Sabrina; Imestouren, Fatiha; Armougon, Aurelie; Razafimanantsoa, Lucie; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Wallois, Fabrice; Leke, André; Kongolo, Guy

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on the pulse phase difference (PPD) between the left foot (postductal region) and the right hand (preductal region). PPD was determined from arterial photoplethysmography signals (pulse waves) measured by infrared sensors routinely used for pulse oximetry in 56 premature infants less than 32 weeks gestation. Only infants with significant PDA (sPDA) diagnosed by echocardiography were treated with ibuprofen (for 3 days). Patients were classified according to whether or not they responded (Success/Failure) to this treatment. The Control group was composed of infants in whom ductus had already closed spontaneously at the time of the first echocardiography. The 3 groups were compared in terms of PPD at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the study. For patients in the Failure (n = 17) and Success groups (n = 18), T1 corresponded to the first day of treatment and T2 to the day after completion of the course of ibuprofen. In the Control group (n = 21), T1 corresponded to 1 to 3 days of life (DOL), and T2 to 4-6 DOL. Compared to the Control group, PPD was higher in the Failure (at T1 and T2) and Success (at T1) groups characterized by sPDA. After ibuprofen therapy, PPD in the Success group decreased to about the level observed in the Control group. The area under the ROC curve of PPD for the diagnosis of sPDA was 0.98 (95% CI 0.96-1); for an optimal cut-off of PPD ≥ 1.65 deg/cm, the sensitivity was 94.2% and the specificity was 98.3%. In this study, PPD was correlated with ductus arteriosus status evaluated by echocardiography, indicating involvement of the ductal shunt in the mechanism of redistribution in systemic vascular territories. PPD can be considered for the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant PDA.

  9. Hypervelocity, minimum-radii, coordinated turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    An analytic solution is presented for the most basic powered-flight maneuver, consisting of a constant-altitude coordinated turn and expressions for minimum-turn radii; associated flight conditions are derived. It is shown that the formulation for hypervelocity turns differs from that for subsonic and hypersonic speeds. Illustrative calculations using approximate aerodynamics based on Newtonian theory are presented, and these demonstrate the differences of hypersonic flight conditions and their associated turning radii from those at lower speeds.

  10. Turn-Taking Patterns in Deaf Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Jennifer; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the turn-taking patterns of Deaf signers and compares them with turn-taking patterns found in spoken interaction. Reports on research involving conversational data obtained from two Deaf friendship groups that aimed to establish whether Deaf interactants orient to a one-at-a-time model of turn-taking or whether there was any evidence to…

  11. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a congenital heart condition that occurs during the development of the heart in the ... womb. During the heart's development, parts of the left side of the heart (mitral valve, left ventricle ...

  12. As the Third World turns.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, E

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the 3rd World, family planners have turned to television in order to spread their message. Combining education and entertainment in the form of advertisements and soap operas, television offers a way to provide clear and memorable information about an otherwise sensitive issue. In 1977, Mexico's Miguel Sabido developed the idea of using television as a means of social instruction. His initial soap opera dealt with adult literacy, and the success of that program led him to develop a show focusing on family planning called "Come Along with Me." Following the airing of this soap opera, attendance to family planning clinics increased by 32%. Since then, Mexico has produced a series of soap operas dealing with sex education, women's status, and the treatment of children. Soon, Mexican viewers will see a soap opera addressing the issue of AIDS. Family planners in other countries have also begun employing television. Conventional communication methods require trained counselors travelling villages, and most often, those most in need of family planning are the most difficult to reach. But over the last 10 years, the number of televisions in the Third World has doubled, and there is now approximately 1 television for every 12 people in the developing nations. In Turkey, advertisements have been used to promote modern methods of contraception. In Brazil, vasectomy has been one of the topics of ad campaigns. Mexico, the Philippines, and Nigeria have also experimented with the use of music videos. Nigeria has already had great success in integrating family planning themes to an already existing variety show. Family planning visits have increased by 47%. International agencies have recognized the value of television and have provided financial support.

  13. Alterations in left ventricular volumes induced by Valsalva manoeuvre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. Z.; Alderman, E. L.; Harrison, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Five patients were studied with left ventriculography during different phases of the Valsalva manoeuvre. Small doses of contrast medium allowed adequate repetitive visualization of the left ventricle for volume calculation. During strain phase, the volume of the left ventricle decreased by nearly 50 per cent in each case, and stroke volume and cardiac output also dropped strikingly. Release of straining was attended by a sharp rebound of left ventricular volume to control levels, with a transient surge of increased cardiac output 42 per cent above that of the resting state.

  14. Alterations in left ventricular volumes induced by Valsalva manoeuvre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. Z.; Alderman, E. L.; Harrison, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Five patients were studied with left ventriculography during different phases of the Valsalva manoeuvre. Small doses of contrast medium allowed adequate repetitive visualization of the left ventricle for volume calculation. During strain phase, the volume of the left ventricle decreased by nearly 50 per cent in each case, and stroke volume and cardiac output also dropped strikingly. Release of straining was attended by a sharp rebound of left ventricular volume to control levels, with a transient surge of increased cardiac output 42 per cent above that of the resting state.

  15. Giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Sumi; Garg, Nadish; Xie, Gong-Yuan; Dellsperger, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) pseudoaneurysm (PS) is an uncommon, often fatal complication associated with myocardial infarction, cardiothoracic surgery, trauma, and, rarely, infective endocarditis. A 28-year-old man with prior history of bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement presented with congestive heart failure and bacteremia with Abiotrophia granulitica. Transesophageal echocardiogram showed bioprosthesis dysfunction, large vegetations, mitral regurgitation, and probable PS. Cardiac and chest CT confirmed a PS communicating with the left ventricle Patient had pulseless electrical activity and died. Autopsy showed a giant PS with layered thrombus and pseudo-endothelialized cavity. Our case highlights the importance of multimodality imaging as an important tool in management of PS.

  16. No Baby Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    "No Baby Left Behind" was created to have an impact on the school readiness of children in the community today and in the future. Each year, there are an increasing number of students who have learning difficulties. Many of these problems are preventable. Accidents, poor nutrition (of the mother and/or child), drug use, alcohol use, and lack of…

  17. No Cow Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remsen, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    As a principal facing the task of figuring out all the complexities of the No Child Left Behind legislation, Kenneth Remsen, has concluded there is a strong belief that testing students is the answer to bringing about improvements in student performance. Because testing seems to be a cornerstone to improving performance, he doesn't understand why…

  18. No Cow Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remsen, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    As a principal facing the task of figuring out all the complexities of the No Child Left Behind legislation, Kenneth Remsen, has concluded there is a strong belief that testing students is the answer to bringing about improvements in student performance. Because testing seems to be a cornerstone to improving performance, he doesn't understand why…

  19. Accountability Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testani, Rocco E.; Mayes, Joshua A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the reversal of the dismissal of an "unfunded-mandates" challenge to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) brought by the National Education Association (NEA), several of its affiliates, and a number of school districts by the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. The decision in "School District…

  20. No Baby Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    "No Baby Left Behind" was created to have an impact on the school readiness of children in the community today and in the future. Each year, there are an increasing number of students who have learning difficulties. Many of these problems are preventable. Accidents, poor nutrition (of the mother and/or child), drug use, alcohol use, and lack of…

  1. Left hemisphere dominance for movement.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2006-12-01

    Clinical neuropsychology's dependence upon a core scientific background in clinical neuropsychology, and clinical psychology, neurology, and neuroanatomy, as well as biopsychology, cognitive neuroscience, and cognitive science is the basis of its designation as an APA-approved clinical specialty. This dependence highlights the importance of these scientific underpinnings and the scientist-practitioner model of training, detailed in the Houston Guidelines. This presentation is meant to demonstrate that cognitive neuroscience research should influence our conception of brain behavior relationships, which, in turn, should influence our clinical work. In addition, I want to illustrate how the utilization of converging methods, which is an increasingly popular approach to research, can ensure more valid conclusions about the neuroanatomical substrates for complex skills. Limb apraxia will be used as an example of a deficit that has functional implications and whose cognitive mechanisms and neuroanatomical correlates are better understood as a result of research that combines neuroanatomical imaging of brain damaged patients, functional imaging, and cognitive paradigms. This work demonstrates that left frontoparietal circuits control limb praxis and motor sequencing, suggesting that these complex motor skills should be examined in patients with such damage.

  2. Noninvasive Technique for the Diagnosis of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Infants by Analyzing Pulse Wave Phases on Photoplethysmography Signals Measured in the Right Hand and the Left Foot

    PubMed Central

    Goudjil, Sabrina; Imestouren, Fatiha; Armougon, Aurelie; Razafimanantsoa, Lucie; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Wallois, Fabrice; Leke, André; Kongolo, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on the pulse phase difference (PPD) between the left foot (postductal region) and the right hand (preductal region). Materials and Methods PPD was determined from arterial photoplethysmography signals (pulse waves) measured by infrared sensors routinely used for pulse oximetry in 56 premature infants less than 32 weeks gestation. Only infants with significant PDA (sPDA) diagnosed by echocardiography were treated with ibuprofen (for 3 days). Patients were classified according to whether or not they responded (Success/Failure) to this treatment. The Control group was composed of infants in whom ductus had already closed spontaneously at the time of the first echocardiography. The 3 groups were compared in terms of PPD at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the study. For patients in the Failure (n = 17) and Success groups (n = 18), T1 corresponded to the first day of treatment and T2 to the day after completion of the course of ibuprofen. In the Control group (n = 21), T1 corresponded to 1 to 3 days of life (DOL), and T2 to 4–6 DOL. Results Compared to the Control group, PPD was higher in the Failure (at T1 and T2) and Success (at T1) groups characterized by sPDA. After ibuprofen therapy, PPD in the Success group decreased to about the level observed in the Control group. The area under the ROC curve of PPD for the diagnosis of sPDA was 0.98 (95% CI 0.96–1); for an optimal cut-off of PPD ≥1.65 deg/cm, the sensitivity was 94.2% and the specificity was 98.3%. Conclusion In this study, PPD was correlated with ductus arteriosus status evaluated by echocardiography, indicating involvement of the ductal shunt in the mechanism of redistribution in systemic vascular territories. PPD can be considered for the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant PDA. PMID:24892695

  3. Ribbon structure stabilized by C10 and C12 turns in αγ hybrid peptide.

    PubMed

    Wani, Naiem Ahmad; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Rai, Rajkishor

    2016-04-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and crystallographic analysis of αγ hybrid peptides, Boc-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (1), Boc-Aib-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (2), and Boc-L-Pro-Aib-Gpn-L-Pro-NHMe (3). Peptides 1 and 2 adopt expanded 12-membered (C12 ) helical turn over γα segment. Peptide 3 promotes the ribbon structure stabilized by type II β-turn (C10 ) followed by the expanded C12 helical γα turn. Both right-handed and left-handed helical conformations for Aib residue are observed in peptides 2 and 3, respectively.

  4. Four-phase or two-phase signal plan? A study on four-leg intersection by cellular automaton simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui

    2016-08-01

    The proper setting of traffic signals at signalized intersections is one of the most important tasks in traffic control and management. This paper has evaluated the four-phase traffic signal plans at a four-leg intersection via cellular automaton simulations. Each leg consists of three lanes, an exclusive left-turn lane, a through lane, and a through/right-turn lane. For a comparison, we also evaluate the two-phase signal plan. The diagram of the intersection states in the space of inflow rate versus turning ratio has been presented, which exhibits four regions: In region I/II/III, congestion will propagate upstream and laterally and result in queue spillover with both signal plans/two-phase signal plan/four-phase signal plan, respectively. Therefore, neither signal plan works in region I, and only the four-phase signal plan/two-phase signal plan works in region II/III. In region IV, both signal plans work, but two-phase signal plan performs better in terms of average delays of vehicles. Finally, we study the diagram of the intersection states and average delays in the asymmetrical configurations.

  5. Realistic page-turning of electronic books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chaoran; Li, Haisheng; Bai, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    The booming electronic books (e-books), as an extension to the paper book, are popular with readers. Recently, many efforts are put into the realistic page-turning simulation o f e-book to improve its reading experience. This paper presents a new 3D page-turning simulation approach, which employs piecewise time-dependent cylindrical surfaces to describe the turning page and constructs smooth transition method between time-dependent cylinders. The page-turning animation is produced by sequentially mapping the turning page into the cylinders with different radii and positions. Compared to the previous approaches, our method is able to imitate various effects efficiently and obtains more natural animation of turning page.

  6. A procedure for diamond turning KDP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R.C.; Thompson, S.L.

    1995-07-07

    A procedure and the equipment necessary for single-point diamond flycutting (loosely referred to as diamond turning) potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are described. It is based on current KDP diamond turning activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), drawing upon knowledge from the Nova crystal finishing development during the 1980`s and incorporating refinements from our efforts during 1995. In addition to describing a step-by-step process for diamond turning KDP, specific discussions are included on the necessary diamond tool geometry and edge sharpness, cutting fluid, and crystal preparation, handling, cleaning, and inspection. The authors presuppose that the reader is already familiar with diamond turning practices.

  7. Mechanics of the Fouetté turn.

    PubMed

    Imura, Akiko; Yeadon, M R

    2010-12-01

    The Fouetté turn in classical ballet is performed repeatedly on one leg with swinging of the free limbs, producing a continued sequence of turns with one turn leading into the next. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible time history profiles of the twisting torque between the supporting leg and the remainder of the body that will allow continued performances of the Fouetté turn. Simulations were performed using a model which comprised the supporting leg and the remainder of the body to find torque profiles that maintain the initial angular velocity so that the state after one revolution is the same as the initial state. The solution space of torque profiles was determined for various rotation times and coefficients of friction between foot and floor. As the time for one revolution became shorter the solution space became smaller and for a given turn time there was a lower limit on the coefficient of friction. As the frictional coefficient became smaller the solution space became smaller and for a given coefficient there was a lower limit on the turn time. Turns of a given tempo can be performed on floors with different friction by modifying the twisting torque profile. When a turn is completed with a net change in angular velocity this can be compensated for in the next turn by adjusting the twisting torque profile. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Left ventricular mural thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.V.

    1983-08-01

    The identification of mural thrombus in patients with left ventricular aneurysm and mural thrombus probably warrants consideration of long-term anticoagulation. In patients with acute, large, anterior or anteroapical, transmural myocardial infarctions, serial noninvasive examinations are warranted to define a group of patients at high risk for the development of left ventricular aneurysm and/or mural thrombus. Anticoagulants should be considered in patients in whom mural thrombi develop as a complication of their infarction. Patients with congestive cardiomyopathy should be considered for long-term anticoagulation. These recommendations are all tempered by the realization that the use of anticoagulant therapy is not without its own risks. The decision to anticoagulate must be balanced against each individual patient's suitability for such therapy and the individual likelihood of the development of side effects.

  9. Left musculus sternalis.

    PubMed

    Arráez-Aybar, L A; Sobrado-Perez, J; Merida-Velasco, J R

    2003-07-01

    During routine dissection in the Morphological Sciences Department II of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, the presence of a sternalis muscle was observed in the left hemithorax of a 70-year-old male cadaver. We report on its position, relationships, and innervation, as well as its clinical relevance, indicating some guidelines for its physical examination. We also present a brief overview of the existing literature regarding the nomenclature, historical reports, and incidence of this muscle.

  10. Classifying Step and Spin Turns Using Wireless Gyroscopes and Implications for Fall Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Fino, Peter C.; Frames, Christopher W.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a greater prevalence of spin turns, which are more unstable than step turns, in older adults compared to young adults in laboratory settings. Currently, turning strategies can only be identified through visual observation, either in-person or through video. This paper presents two unique methods and their combination to remotely monitor turning behavior using three uniaxial gyroscopes. Five young adults performed 90° turns at slow, normal, and fast walking speeds around a variety of obstacles while instrumented with three IMUs (attached on the trunk, left and right shank). Raw data from 360 trials were analyzed. Compared to visual classification, the two IMU methods’ sensitivity/specificity to detecting spin turns were 76.1%/76.7% and 76.1%/84.4%, respectively. When the two methods were combined, the IMU had an overall 86.8% sensitivity and 92.2% specificity, with 89.4%/100% sensitivity/specificity at slow speeds. This combined method can be implemented into wireless fall prevention systems and used to identify increased use of spin turns. This method allows for longitudinal monitoring of turning strategies and allows researchers to test for potential associations between the frequency of spin turns and clinically relevant outcomes (e.g., falls) in non-laboratory settings. PMID:25954950

  11. Causal Role of Motor Simulation in Turn-Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Overlap between sensory and motor representations has been documented for a range of human actions, from grasping (Rizzolatti et al., 1996b) to playing a musical instrument (Novembre and Keller, 2014). Such overlap suggests that individuals use motor simulation to predict the outcome of observed actions (Wolpert, 1997). Here we investigate motor simulation as a basis of human communication. Using a musical turn-taking task, we show that pianists call on motor representations of their partner's part to predict when to come in for their own turn. Pianists played alternating solos with a videoed partner, and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied around the turn-switch to temporarily disrupt processing in two cortical regions implicated previously in different forms of motor simulation: (1) the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), associated with automatic motor resonance during passive observation of hand actions, especially when the actions are familiar (Lahav et al., 2007); and (2) the supplementary motor area (SMA), involved in active motor imagery, especially when the actions are familiar (Baumann et al., 2007). Stimulation of the right dPMC decreased the temporal accuracy of pianists' (right-hand) entries relative to sham when the partner's (left-hand) part had been rehearsed previously. This effect did not occur for dPMC stimulation without rehearsal or for SMA stimulation. These findings support the role of the dPMC in predicting the time course of observed actions via resonance-based motor simulation during turn-taking. Because turn-taking spans multiple modes of human interaction, we suggest that simulation is a foundational mechanism underlying the temporal dynamics of joint action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Even during passive observation, seeing or hearing somebody execute an action from within our repertoire activates motor cortices of our brain. But what is the functional relevance of such “motor simulation”? By combining a musical duet

  12. Do benzodiazepines mimic reverse-turn structures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Masayuki; Marshall, Garland R.

    2006-05-01

    The role of benzodiazepine derivatives (BZD) as a privileged scaffold that mimics β-turn structures (Ripka et al. (1993) Tetrahedron 49:3593-3608) in peptide/protein recognition was reexamined in detail. Stable BZD ring conformers were determined with MM3, and experimental reverse-turn structures were extracted from the basis set of protein crystal structures previously defined by Ripka et al. Ideal β-turns were also modeled and similarly compared with BZD conformers. Huge numbers of conformers were generated by systematically scanning the torsional degrees of freedom for BZDs, as well as those of ideal β-turns for comparison. Using these structures, conformers of BZDs were fit to experimental structures as suggested by Ripka et al., or modeled classical β-turn conformers, and the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) values were calculated for each pairwise comparison. Pairs of conformers with the smallest RMSD values for overlap of the four α-β side-chain orientations were selected. All overlaps of BZD conformers with experimental β-turns yielded one or more comparisons where the least RMSD was significantly small, 0.48-0.86 Å, as previously suggested. Utilizing a different methodology, the overall conclusion that benzodiazepines could serve as reverse-turn mimetics of Ripka et al. is justified. The least RMSD values for the overlap of BZDs and modeled classical β-turns were also less than 1 Å. When comparing BZDs with experimental or classical β-turns, the set of experimental β-turns selected by Ripka et al. fit the BZD scaffolds better than modeled classical β-turns; however, all the experimental β-turns did not fit a particular BZD scaffold better. A single BZD ring conformation, and/or chiral orientation, can mimic some, but not all, of the experimental β-turn structures. BZD has two central ring conformations and one chiral center that explains why the four variations of the BZD scaffold can mimic all types of β-turn structure examined. It was

  13. Required coefficient of friction in the anteroposterior and mediolateral direction during turning at different walking speeds.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akito; Hokkirigawa, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) and the tangent of center of mass (COM)-center of pressure (COP) angle in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions during turning at different walking speeds. Sixteen healthy young adults (8 males and 8 females) participated in this study. The participants were instructed to conduct trials of straight walking and 90° step and spin turns to the right at each of three self-selected speeds (slow, normal, and fast). The ML and AP directions during turning gait were defined using the orientation of the pelvis to construct a body-fixed reference frame. The RCOF values and COM-COP angle tangent in the ML direction during turning at weight acceptance phase were higher than those during straight walking, and those values increased with increasing walking speed. The ML component of the RCOF and COM-COP tangent values during weight acceptance for step turns were higher than those for spin turns. The mean centripetal force during turning tended to increase with an increase in walking speed and had a strong positive correlation with the RCOF values in the ML direction (R = 0.97 during the weight acceptance phase; R = 0.95 during the push-off phase). Therefore, turning, particularly step turn, is likely to cause lateral slip at weight acceptance because of the increased centripetal force compared with straight walking. Future work should test at-risk population and compare with the present results.

  14. Turning the School Around: The Transformation of a Secondary School from Underperforming to Highly Achieving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Cynthia Monroe

    2013-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 put a focus on each child in a school being proficient. Since 1957 when Sputnik was launched, the United States has been attempting to improve its schools. The existing literature has a gap as to how to turn around an underperforming school in a fairly short period of time. A qualitative case study methodology…

  15. Turning the School Around: The Transformation of a Secondary School from Underperforming to Highly Achieving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Cynthia Monroe

    2013-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 put a focus on each child in a school being proficient. Since 1957 when Sputnik was launched, the United States has been attempting to improve its schools. The existing literature has a gap as to how to turn around an underperforming school in a fairly short period of time. A qualitative case study methodology…

  16. Exterior, looking west, Equipment Building to left, Tower at center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking west, Equipment Building to left, Tower at center, Civil Engineering Storage Building (Building 5765) at left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Microwave Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  17. An application for tunes and coupling evaluation from turn-by-turn data at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, W.; Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A console application using the phasing of Turn-by-Turn signals from the different BPMs has been tested at the Fermilab Booster. This technique allows the on-line detection of the beam tunes during the fast Booster ramp in conditions where other algorithms were unsuccessful. The application has been recently expanded to include the computation of the linear coupling coefficients. Algorithm and measurement results are presented. Although improved by the phased sum technique the automatic identification of the tunes is not always successful. This makes the use of the on-line application difficult. Ideas for further improvements are under investigation. Measurements have indicated that the effect of the skew quadrupoles is by a factor 3 weaker than expected from the nominal optics. A calibration of the skew quadrupole circuits using the TBT data is planned.

  18. Differences of Ballet Turns ("Pirouette") Performance between Experienced and Novice Ballet Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns ("pirouettes"). Method: Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination…

  19. Differences of Ballet Turns ("Pirouette") Performance between Experienced and Novice Ballet Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns ("pirouettes"). Method: Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination…

  20. Computer controlled precision optical polishing on the diamond turning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, P.R.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.

    1993-10-01

    This abstract reports the force and wear data required to predict the material removal, or wear, for the Numerical controlled (N/C) polishing program. The program`s aim is to provide the operator of a N/C diamond turning machine or N/C grinding machine with the wear characteristics necessary to achieve uniform material removal. The first phase of the program looks at a rotating polishing wheel, moving from near the center to edge of a rotating glass disc. future phases will look at more complex shapes.

  1. 14 CFR 25.495 - Turning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turning. 25.495 Section 25.495 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.495 Turning. In the static position,...

  2. 14 CFR 25.495 - Turning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turning. 25.495 Section 25.495 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.495 Turning. In the static position,...

  3. 14 CFR 25.495 - Turning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turning. 25.495 Section 25.495 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.495 Turning. In the static position,...

  4. 14 CFR 25.495 - Turning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turning. 25.495 Section 25.495 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.495 Turning. In the static position,...

  5. Benchmarks to Becoming a Turning Points School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Jordan

    2002-01-01

    Turning Points is a national design for middle school change, coordinated by the Center for Collaborative Education in Boston, Massachusetts, which serves as the National Turning Points Center. The design focuses on restructuring middle schools to improve learning, teaching, and assessment for all students. It is based on the seminal "Turning…

  6. Turns and Increments: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Kang-kwong; Thompson, Sandra A.; Ono, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge of interest in "increments" among students of conversational interaction. This article first outlines "incrementing" as an analytical problem (i.e., as turn constructional unit [TCU] extensions) by tracing its origins back to Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson's (1974) famous turn-taking article. Then, the article…

  7. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section 401.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel...

  8. Close view looking to left side of statue showing left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view looking to left side of statue showing left hand, shield, and laurel wreath - U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom, Intersection of North, South, & East Capitol Streets & Capitol Mall, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Place-cell firing does not depend on the direction of turn in a Y-maze alternation task.

    PubMed

    Lenck-Santini, P P; Save, E; Poucet, B

    2001-03-01

    Hippocampal place cells were recorded while rats solved a continuous spatial alternation task requiring short-term spatial memory. All cells that had a firing field on the stem of the Y-shaped maze were found to have a very similar pattern of discharge whether the rat was about to make a right or a left turn, and whether the preceding turn was a right or a left turn. Thus, the view that place cells encode a variety of events (including the direction of turns) useful for solving memory tasks is not well supported by the present data. We suggest several possible explanations to account for the discrepancy with other recent studies showing turn-related modulation of place-cell activity.

  10. Kinematics of 90 degrees running turns in wild mice.

    PubMed

    Walter, Rebecca M

    2003-05-01

    Turning is a requirement for locomotion on the variable terrain that most terrestrial animals inhabit and is a deciding factor in many predator-prey interactions. Despite this, the kinematics and mechanics of quadrupedal turns are not well understood. To gain insight to the turning kinematics of small quadrupedal mammals, six adult wild mice were videotaped at 250 Hz from below as they performed 90 degrees running turns. Four markers placed along the sagittal axis were digitized to allow observation of lateral bending and body rotation throughout the turn. Ground contact periods of the fore- and hindlimbs were also noted for each frame. During turning, mice increased their ground contact time, but did not change their stride frequency relative to straight running at maximum speed. Postcranial body rotation preceded deflection in heading, and did not occur in one continuous motion, but rather in bouts of 15-53 degrees. These bouts were synchronized with the stride cycle, such that the majority of rotation occurred during the second half of forelimb support and the first half of hindlimb support. In this phase of the stride cycle, the trunk was sagittally flexed and rotational inertia was 65% of that during maximal extension. By synchronizing body rotation with this portion of the stride cycle, mice can achieve a given angular acceleration with much lower applied torque. Compared with humans running along curved trajectories, mice maintained relatively higher speeds at proportionately smaller radii. A possible explanation for this difference lies in the more crouched limb posture of mice, which increases the mechanical advantage for horizontal ground force production. The occurrence of body rotation prior to deflection in heading may facilitate acceleration in the new direction by making use of the relatively greater force production inherent in the parasagittal limb posture of mice.

  11. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm perceived as a left lung mass

    PubMed Central

    Yaliniz, Hafize; Gocen, Ugur; Atalay, Atakan; Salih, Orhan Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of a surgically treated left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, and surgical repair are described. PMID:27516793

  12. Phase diagram of a non-signalized T-shaped intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated a non-signalized T-shaped intersection using the cellular automata model under the open boundary condition. Two different priority rules at intersection are introduced (Rule 1, Rule 2) to eliminate the jam-packed state. Phase diagram and its variation with the ratios of right and/or left turning vehicles are investigated. The space-time and the density profiles are also studied. The simulation results indicate that the system does not show the same performance under different priority rules, where Rule 1 (resp. Rule 2) can be better than Rule 2 (resp. Rule 1) according to the ratios of turning vehicles.

  13. Predictions of Substorms and Intensifications Following Northward Turnings of the IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, G. T.; Lyons, L. R.; Spann, J.

    1999-01-01

    Substorms are often observed to occur at the end of intervals of Southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), i.e. following the northward turning. Despite the significant correlation between northward turning and substorms, no direct causal relationship between northward turnings and substorms has been demonstrated. Assuming such a causal relationship, we predict that substorms will occur within a particular interval following the observation of a northward turning in the IMF. We observe 16 northward turnings following steady, southward IMF in data taken by the WIND spacecraft magnetic field instrument (MFI). To ensure that the northward turning was observed at the magnetosphere, we require that the northward turning also be observed by instruments on either one of Geotail or IMP-8 while the separation of the second spacecraft from WIND was more that 10 R(sub E). These two-spacecraft observations also allow us to predict more accurately the arrival time of the northward turning at the Earth. Of the predictions substorms, 10 predictions were clearly successful to within +/- 12 min. Five predictions failed, but the failures reveal clear shortcomings in the criteria for a northward turning that we correct. The failures were caused by an increase in the absolute value of B(sub YGSM) simultaneous with the northward turning in 3 cases, and a weak southward IMF preceding the northward turning in 2 cases. The final northward turning arrived in the recovery phase of an ongoing substorm, and resulted in unusual auroral activity. The implication of the predictability of substorms following sharp northward turnings is that the postulated causal relationship between northward turnings and substorm onset exists. The effect of increases in the absolute value of B(sub YGSM) to negate the triggering ability of northward turnings suggests that the triggering mechanism involves sharp reductions in the magnetospheric convection electric field.

  14. Predictions of Substorms and Intensifications Following Northward Turnings of the IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, G. T.; Lyons, L. R.; Spann, J.

    1999-01-01

    Substorms are often observed to occur at the end of intervals of Southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), i.e. following the northward turning. Despite the significant correlation between northward turning and substorms, no direct causal relationship between northward turnings and substorms has been demonstrated. Assuming such a causal relationship, we predict that substorms will occur within a particular interval following the observation of a northward turning in the IMF. We observe 16 northward turnings following steady, southward IMF in data taken by the WIND spacecraft magnetic field instrument (MFI). To ensure that the northward turning was observed at the magnetosphere, we require that the northward turning also be observed by instruments on either one of Geotail or IMP-8 while the separation of the second spacecraft from WIND was more that 10 R(sub E). These two-spacecraft observations also allow us to predict more accurately the arrival time of the northward turning at the Earth. Of the predictions substorms, 10 predictions were clearly successful to within +/- 12 min. Five predictions failed, but the failures reveal clear shortcomings in the criteria for a northward turning that we correct. The failures were caused by an increase in the absolute value of B(sub YGSM) simultaneous with the northward turning in 3 cases, and a weak southward IMF preceding the northward turning in 2 cases. The final northward turning arrived in the recovery phase of an ongoing substorm, and resulted in unusual auroral activity. The implication of the predictability of substorms following sharp northward turnings is that the postulated causal relationship between northward turnings and substorm onset exists. The effect of increases in the absolute value of B(sub YGSM) to negate the triggering ability of northward turnings suggests that the triggering mechanism involves sharp reductions in the magnetospheric convection electric field.

  15. The silent social/emotional signals in left and right cheek poses: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2013-01-01

    When posing for a painted or photographic portrait, people are more likely to offer their left, rather than right, cheek (e.g., the Mona Lisa). Why? This paper reviews research investigating the left cheek bias, and the reasons underlying this posing asymmetry. Ruling out mechanical and perceptual biases, the paper focuses on the silent emotional and social signals conveyed by left and right cheek poses, demonstrating that people intuitively offer the left cheek to express emotion and perceive left cheek poses as more emotional. Moreover, because the left cheek appears more emotionally expressive, we unconsciously use cheek shown as a cue when presenting or determining academic specialisation, scientific standing, and even political affiliation. The research is consistent in suggesting that something as subtle as a 15° head turn implicitly influences others' perceptions: if you want to be perceived as open and creative, rather than dry and scientific, it might be time to turn the other cheek.

  16. Wave-front correctors by diamond turning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.; Stacy, J. E.; Saito, T. T.; Patterson, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The production of wave-front correctors by single-point diamond turning is reported. Interferograms are shown which demonstrate excellent agreement between the diamond-turned surface and the desired surface. It is concluded from this experiment that it is now feasible by means of single-point diamond turning to make generalized wave-front control surfaces or to produce any unusual surface desired by the optical designer. The maximum departure from the nearest regular surface is set by the dynamic range and maximum diamond point acceleration permitted by the machine.

  17. Gate-assisted turn-off thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, L. R.; Page, D. J.; Schlegel, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    1,000-volt, 200-ampere gate-assisted turn-off thyristor has been developed for power circuits requiring high efficiency, small size, and low weight. Design features include shunted cathode for high dV/dt capability. Cathode in interdigitated with dynamic gate for fast, low-loss switching. Operating frequency exceeds 20 kHz with overall energy dissipation of less that 12 mJ per pulse for typical 20-microsecond half-sine waveform. Device has turn-on time of 2 microseconds and turn-off time as short as 3 microseconds with only 2 amperes of gate drive.

  18. Peace Corps service as a turning point.

    PubMed

    Starr, J M

    1994-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study of twenty-one U.S. Peace Corps Volunteers, first interviewed in the mid-1960s during their tour of service in the Republic of the Philippines and then twenty years later as middle-aged adults. Life events reported after their service and the high degree of response agreement in the two interviews confirm that their Peace Corps experience constituted a turning point in their life courses. The study reviews the literature on turning points, proposes an appropriate definition for the concept, identifies conditions that promote turning points, especially for youth, and indicates directions for future research.

  19. Which Cheek did the Resurrected Jesus Turn?

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lealani Mae Y; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-06-01

    Secular portraits are likely to show more of the left than right side of the face (hemiface). Prior research has shown that emotions are more strongly expressed by the left hemiface. In addition, the valence theory of emotion proposes that the right hemisphere is dominant for mediating negative emotions, and the left hemisphere for positive emotions. Since religious art depicting a scene such as the Resurrection of Jesus is more likely to be associated with positive emotions, we postulated that there would be a significant smaller percentage number of artistic works of the Resurrection that reveal the left side of the face of Jesus than in those art works portraying the Crucifixion. Thus, we analyzed artistic portrayals of the Resurrection of Jesus and compared them to the artistic scenes of the Crucifixion. This analysis revealed that the left side of the face of Jesus is less commonly depicted in portraits of the Resurrection than the Crucifixion. In addition, both the right hemiface, and forward-facing faces were also more commonly portrayed in painting of the Resurrection than the Crucifixion. Whereas this right-left hemiface, Resurrection-Crucifixion dichotomy may be related to right-left hemispheric difference in the mediation of emotional valence other factors such as agency, action-intention, and biblical text may have influenced these differences.

  20. Toward Real-Time Automated Detection of Turns during Gait Using Wearable Inertial Measurement Units

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Domen; Goršič, Maja; Podobnik, Janez; Munih, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have presented algorithms for detection of turns during gait using wearable sensors, but those algorithms were not built for real-time use. This paper therefore investigates the optimal approach for real-time detection of planned turns during gait using wearable inertial measurement units. Several different sensor positions (head, back and legs) and three different detection criteria (orientation, angular velocity and both) are compared with regard to their ability to correctly detect turn onset. Furthermore, the different sensor positions are compared with regard to their ability to predict the turn direction and amplitude. The evaluation was performed on ten healthy subjects who performed left/right turns at three amplitudes (22, 45 and 90 degrees). Results showed that turn onset can be most accurately detected with sensors on the back and using a combination of orientation and angular velocity. The same setup also gives the best prediction of turn direction and amplitude. Preliminary measurements with a single amputee were also performed and highlighted important differences such as slower turning that need to be taken into account. PMID:25310470

  1. Next Speakers Plan Their Turn Early and Speak after Turn-Final "Go-Signals".

    PubMed

    Barthel, Mathias; Meyer, Antje S; Levinson, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    In conversation, turn-taking is usually fluid, with next speakers taking their turn right after the end of the previous turn. Most, but not all, previous studies show that next speakers start to plan their turn early, if possible already during the incoming turn. The present study makes use of the list-completion paradigm (Barthel et al., 2016), analyzing speech onset latencies and eye-movements of participants in a task-oriented dialogue with a confederate. The measures are used to disentangle the contributions to the timing of turn-taking of early planning of content on the one hand and initiation of articulation as a reaction to the upcoming turn-end on the other hand. Participants named objects visible on their computer screen in response to utterances that did, or did not, contain lexical and prosodic cues to the end of the incoming turn. In the presence of an early lexical cue, participants showed earlier gaze shifts toward the target objects and responded faster than in its absence, whereas the presence of a late intonational cue only led to faster response times and did not affect the timing of participants' eye movements. The results show that with a combination of eye-movement and turn-transition time measures it is possible to tease apart the effects of early planning and response initiation on turn timing. They are consistent with models of turn-taking that assume that next speakers (a) start planning their response as soon as the incoming turn's message can be understood and (b) monitor the incoming turn for cues to turn-completion so as to initiate their response when turn-transition becomes relevant.

  2. A computational theory of turn-taking

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.

    1996-12-31

    My research is concerned with the problem of turn-taking in discourse, especially as applied to intelligent interfaces, such as advice-giving systems or software help systems. A limitation of many discourse systems is their need for explicit turn-ending signals (e.g. pressing a return key). In such systems, mid-turn interruptions are impossible, although there are practical examples of where mid-turn interruptions are highly desirable. For example, an interface agent should promptly inform the user of important pieces of information, such as a lack of disk space or the loss of a network connection, especially if the user is engaged in some activity that relies on that information.

  3. Clarification of 'Turn Performance of Aircraft'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, William F.

    1996-01-01

    A recent note analyzed the minimum turning radius of an airplane in terms of its airspeed and angle of bank. Unfortunately, some misconceptions concerning the underlying physics were introduced. This note is intended to clarify those areas.

  4. 14 CFR 25.495 - Turning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... center of gravity are 1.0 vertically and 0.5 laterally. The side ground reaction of each wheel must be 0... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.495 Turning. In the static position,...

  5. MedlinePlus.gov Turns 10!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues MedlinePlus.gov Turns 10! Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... Photo courtesy of Michael Spencer, NIH NIH's MedlinePlus.gov , the popular, consumer-friendly health Web site produced ...

  6. Turning Main Street into a Green Street

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With EPA assistance, a small community near Pittsburgh is turning its main street into a green street to control stormwater runoff that has caused flooding, sewer backups and combined sewer overflows.

  7. X-31 in flight - Herbst Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an airplane with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust-vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls

  8. Left ventricular apical diseases.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Silvia; Duarte, Ricardo; Fernandez-Perez, Gabriel C; Castellon, Daniel; Calatayud, Julia; Lecumberri, Iñigo; Larrazabal, Eneritz; Ruiz, Berta Irene

    2011-08-01

    There are many disorders that may involve the left ventricular (LV) apex; however, they are sometimes difficult to differentiate. In this setting cardiac imaging methods can provide the clue to obtaining the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the spectrum of diseases that most frequently affect the apex of the LV including Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy, LV aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, apical diverticula, apical ventricular remodelling, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LV non-compaction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia with LV involvement and LV false tendons, with an emphasis on the diagnostic criteria and imaging features. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13244-011-0091-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  9. Turning breech babies after 34 weeks: the if, how, & when of turning breech babies.

    PubMed

    Cohain, Judy Slome

    2007-01-01

    Techniques for turning a term breech baby are 1). External cephalic version (ECV) using hands and ultrasound only; 2). Acupuncture point stimulation, by needle or moxibustion; 3). Chiropractic "Webster" technique; 4). Hypnotherapy; and 5). Special exercises. Fifty % of breech fetuses at 34 weeks will turn by themselves to head down by 38 weeks. Therefore, to be considered effective, a technique for turning breech must turn the baby and keep it turned more than 50% of the time. Only ECV with an experienced practitioner has been documented to have a greater than 50% success rate at 37 weeks; in 95% of cases the head stays down. Most women experience the fetus turning by hand as quick but very painful. "Unstable lie" is sometimes used as a baseless excuse for inducing labor after the baby turns from breech to head down. (judyslome@hotmail.com).

  10. The use of turning tasks in clinical gait analysis for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2016-02-01

    Turning while walking is a crucial component of locomotion that is performed using an outside (step) or inside (spin) limb strategy. The aims of this paper were to determine how children with cerebral palsy perform turning maneuvers and if specific kinematic and kinetic adaptations occur compared to their typically developing peers. Motion capture data from twenty-two children with cerebral palsy and fifty-four typically developing children were collected during straight and 90° turning gait trials. Experimental data were used to compute spatio-temporal parameters, margin of stability, ground reaction force impulse, as well as joint kinematics and kinetics. Both child groups preferred turning using the spin strategy. The group of children with cerebral palsy exhibited the following adaptations during turning gait compared to the typically developing group: stride length was decreased across all phases of the turn with largest effect size for the depart phase (2.02), stride width was reduced during the turn phase, but with a smaller effect size (0.71), and the average margin of stability during the approach phase of turning was reduced (effect size of 0.98). Few overall group differences were found for joint kinematic and kinetic measures; however, in many cases, the intra-subject differences between straight walking and turning gait were larger for the majority of children with cerebral palsy than for the typically developing children. In children with cerebral palsy, turning gait may be a better discriminant of pathology than straight walking and could be used to improve the management of gait abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface Integrity in Turning of Annealed Brass: Hardness Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita, O.; Di Graci, V.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the effects of cutting parameters (depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed) on the surface integrity of, in terms of superficial hardening, annealed brass during a turning process. The results indicate that no significant phase transformations occurred for any of the turning conditions evaluated; however, microstructural changes were observed, as well as changes in the superficial hardness were measured. It was found that when the studied cutting parameters increase, the superficial hardness increases, with the cutting speed having less influence (2.56%), and feed rate having the greatest effect (22.67%). Finally, a mathematical expression is proposed, which relates the cutting parameters to the maximum hardness obtained for a given cutting condition.

  12. Left-handedness and tongue-rolling ability.

    PubMed

    Fry, C J

    1988-08-01

    948 undergraduates at The Ohio State University were administered the 10-item Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and asked to indicate the extent to which they could turn up the sides of their tongues. Significantly fewer left-handers than right-handers (62.8% and 74.8%, respectively) reported being able to turn up either or both sides. Sex differences in tongue-rolling ability were also noted. Among the 403 men included in the final sample, 77.4% could roll their tongues, whereas only 69.7% of the 491 women could do so.

  13. [Left-handedness and health].

    PubMed

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  14. Neglect severity after left and right brain damage.

    PubMed

    Suchan, Julia; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-05-01

    While unilateral spatial neglect after left brain damage is undoubtedly less common than spatial neglect after a right hemisphere lesion, it is also assumed to be less severe. Here we directly test this latter hypothesis using a continuous measure of neglect severity: the so-called Center of Cancellation (CoC). Rorden and Karnath (2010) recently validated this index for right brain damaged neglect patients. A first aim of the present study was to evaluate this new measure for spatial neglect after left brain damage. In a group of 48 left-sided stroke patients with and without neglect, a score greater than -0.086 on the Bells Test and greater than -0.024 on the Letter Cancellation Task turned out to indicate neglect behavior for acute left brain damaged patients. A second aim was to directly compare the severity of spatial neglect after left versus right brain injury by using the new CoC measure. While neglect is less frequent following left than right hemisphere injury, we found that when this symptom occurs it is of similar severity in acute left brain injury as in patients after acute right brain injury.

  15. Bodily-visual practices and turn continuation

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Cecilia E.; Thompson, Sandra A.; Drake, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers points in turn construction where conversation researchers have shown that talk routinely continues beyond possible turn completion, but where we find bodily-visual behavior doing such turn extension work. The bodily-visual behaviors we examine share many features with verbal turn extensions, but we argue that embodied movements have distinct properties that make them well-suited for specific kinds of social action, including stance display and by-play in sequences framed as subsidiary to a simultaneous and related verbal exchange. Our study is in line with a research agenda taking seriously the point made by Goodwin (2000a, b, 2003), Hayashi (2003, 2005), Iwasaki (2009), and others that scholars seeking to account for practices in language and social interaction do themselves a disservice if they privilege the verbal dimension; rather, as suggested in Stivers/Sidnell (2005), each semiotic system/modality, while coordinated with others, has its own organization. With the current exploration of bodily-visual turn extensions, we hope to contribute to a growing understanding of how these different modes of organization are managed concurrently and in concert by interactants in carrying out their everyday social actions. PMID:23526861

  16. [What is a "left"?].

    PubMed

    Morin, C; Taillefer, C; Vallat, C; Helsly, N; Thibierge, S; Pradat-Diehl, P

    2001-05-01

    Patients with right hemisphere syndrome may be labeled as "gauche" by the rehabilitation staff. This term corresponds to a variety of oddities in behavior or discourse. The aim of this study is to understand the coherence of these oddities with the classical elements of right hemisphere syndrome. In this article, we present a detailed study of the discourse and the relation with others of a patient with severe left hemineglect, who was followed up for twelve months and did not exhibited any significant change in his symptomatology. This study relies on the data from neuropsychological examination, on notes written after rehabilitation session by the therapists and on data from weekly non-directive interviews. This follow-up revealed disturbances of time sense, reduplication for places, misidentification of therapists, pseudo hallucinations, and showed that the transferential relation was "floating". The non-directive interviews permitted the patient to express his own interpretation of his troubles. He described them in terms of gaps in his body "carapace" and disorganization of the oral drive. We propose to consider the symptomatology of this patient in relation with the subjective effects of the breaking up of his body image and the concomitant intrusion of the oral object (in the psychoanalytic sense of this term) in his psychic reality.

  17. Understanding left-handedness.

    PubMed

    Gutwinski, Stefan; Löscher, Anna; Mahler, Lieselotte; Kalbitzer, Jan; Heinz, Andreas; Bermpohl, Felix

    2011-12-01

    The human cerebrum is asymmetrical, consisting of two hemispheres with differing functions. Recent epidemiological and neurobiological research has shed new light on the development of the cerebral lateralization of motor processes, including handedness. In this article, we present these findings from a medical perspective. We selectively searched the PubMed online database for articles including the terms "handedness," "left handedness," "right handedness," and "cerebral lateralization." Highly ranked and commonly cited articles were included in our analysis. The emergence of handedness has been explained by physiological and pathological models. Handedness arose early in evolution and has probably been constitutive for the development of higher cognitive functions. For instance, handedness may have provided the basis for the development of speech and fine motor skills, both of which have played a critical role in the evolution of mankind. The disadvantages of certain types of handedness are discussed, as some cases seem to be associated with disease. The consideration of handedness from the epidemiological, neurobiological, and medical points of view provides insight into cerebral lateralization.

  18. Turn-on and turn-off voltages of an avalanche p—n junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Dejun, Han; Changjun, Zhu; Xuejun, Zhai

    2012-09-01

    Characteristics of the turn-on and turn-off voltage of avalanche p—n junctions were demonstrated and studied. As opposed to existing reports, the differences between the turn-on and turn-off voltage cannot be neglected when the size of the p—n junction is in the order of microns. The difference increases inversely with the area of a junction, exerting significant influences on characterizing some parameters of devices composed of small avalanche junctions. Theoretical analyses show that the mechanism for the difference lies in the increase effect of the threshold multiplication factor at the turn-on voltage of a junction when the area of a junction decreases. Moreover, the “breakdown voltage" in the formula of the avalanche asymptotic current is, in essence, the avalanche turn-off voltage, and consequently, the traditional expression of the avalanche asymptotic current and the gain of a Geiger mode avalanche photodiode were modified.

  19. Neovascularization in Left Atrial Myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Laxman; Chaurasia, Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report a case with a left atrial mass who underwent coronary angiography to rule out coronary artery disease. Coronary angiography revealed an anomalous tortuous vascular structure originating from the left circumflex coronary artery to the left atrial tumor suggestive of neovascularization. Preoperative coronary angiography is useful for coronary artery evaluation and also provides additional information regarding the feeding vessel supplying the mass. PMID:24757609

  20. An external tank is moved from a barge in the turn basin to the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A newly arrived external tank begins the turn on the road leading to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), seen behind the tank. Seated in his perch near the rear left wheels is the transporter driver. The tank will be moved through the open door (facing the tank) into the main transfer aisle. From there it will be moved to one of the high bays and await stacking for a future Shuttle mission. External tanks are built by the NASA Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans and transported by barge to Cape Canaveral and then up the Banana River to the turn basin in the Launch Complex 39 Area.

  1. Magnetic substorms and northward IMF turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    To determine the relation of the northward IMF turnings to substorm sudden onsets, we separated all events with sharp northward IMF turnings observed in years of solar maximum (1999-2002) and solar minimum (2007-2008). The events (N=261) have been classified in 5 groups in accordance with average magnetic activity in auroral zone (low, moderate or high levels of AL index) at unchanged or slightly changed PC index and with dynamics of PC (steady distinct growth or distinct decline) at arbitrary values of AL index. Statistical analysis of relationships between the IMF turning and changes of PC and AL indices has been fulfilled separately for each of 5 classes. Results of the analysis showed that, irrespective of geophysical conditions and solar activity epoch, the magnetic activity in the polar caps and in the auroral zone demonstrate no response to the sudden northward IMF turning, if the moment of northward turning is taken as a key date. Sharp increases of magnetic disturbance in the auroral zone are observed only under conditions of the growing PC index and statistically they are related to moment of the PC index exceeding the threshold level (~1.5 mV/m), not to northward turnings timed, as a rule, after the moment of sudden onset. Magnetic disturbances observed in these cases in the auroral zone (magnetic substorms) are guided by behavior of the PC index, like to ordinary magnetic substorms or substorms developed under conditions of the prolonged northward IMF impact on the magnetosphere. The evident inconsistency between the sharp IMF changes measured outside of the magnetosphere and behavior of the ground-based PC index, the latter determining the substorm development, provides an additional argument in favor of the PC index as a ground-based proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into magnetosphere.

  2. Quantitative laryngeal electromyography: turns and amplitude analysis.

    PubMed

    Statham, Melissa McCarty; Rosen, Clark A; Nandedkar, Sanjeev D; Munin, Michael C

    2010-10-01

    Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is primarily a qualitative examination, with no standardized approach to interpretation. The objectives of our study were to establish quantitative norms for motor unit recruitment in controls and to compare with interference pattern analysis in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (VFP). Retrospective case-control study We performed LEMG of the thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid muscle complex (TA-LCA) in 21 controls and 16 patients with unilateral VFP. Our standardized protocol used a concentric needle electrode with subjects performing variable force TA-LCA contraction. To quantify the interference pattern density, we measured turns and mean amplitude per turn for ≥10 epochs (each 500 milliseconds). Logarithmic regression analysis between amplitude and turns was used to calculate slope and intercept. Standard deviation was calculated to further define the confidence interval, enabling generation of a linear-scale graphical "cloud" of activity containing ≥90% of data points for controls and patients. Median age of controls and patients was similar (50.7 vs. 48.5 years). In controls, TA-LCA amplitude with variable contraction ranged from 145-1112 μV, and regression analysis comparing mean amplitude per turn to root-mean-square amplitude demonstrated high correlation (R = 0.82). In controls performing variable contraction, median turns per second was significantly higher compared to patients (450 vs. 290, P = .002). We first present interference pattern analysis in the TA-LCA in healthy adults and patients with unilateral VFP. Our findings indicate that motor unit recruitment can be quantitatively measured within the TA-LCA. Additionally, patients with unilateral VFP had significantly reduced turns when compared with controls.

  3. [Left ventricular dyssynchrony in prolonged septal stimulation].

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Castagnetto, Federico; Ricca-Mallada, Roberto; Vidal, Alejandro; Martínez, Fabián; Ferrando, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker stimulation is associated with unpredictable severe cardiac events. We evaluated left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) during prolonged septal right ventricular pacing. We performed 99mTc-MIBI gated-SPECT and phase analysis in 6 patients with pacemakers implanted at least one year before scintigraphy due to advanced atrioventricular block. Using V-Sync of Emory Cardiac Toolbox we obtained phase bandwidth (PBW) and standard deviation (PSD) from rest phase histogram. Clinical variables, QRS duration, rate and mode of pacing in septal right ventricle wall, chamber diameters, presence and extension of myocardial scar and ischemia and rest LVEF were recorded. Prolonged septal endocardial pacing is associated with marked LVMD, even when systolic function was preserved. More severe dyssynchrony was found in patients with impaired LVEF, higher left ventricle diameters, extensive infarct or severe ischemia than in patients with preserved LVEF (PBW: 177.3o vs. 88.3o; PSD: 53.1o vs. 33.8o). In the patients with ischemic heart disease and pacemaker, gated-SPECT phase analysis is a valid and potentially useful technique to evaluate LMVD associated with myocardial scar and to decide the upgrading to biventricular pacing mode.

  4. Turning of thick thermal spray coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López de Lacalle, L. N.; Lamikiz, A.; Fernandes, M. H.; Gutiérrez, A.; Sánchez, J. A.

    2001-06-01

    This technical note looks at several attempts to machine parts coated with Ni5Al thermal spray. This coating is used in the overhaul and repair of gas turbine components. Machining the thermal sprays to achieve the dimensional tolerances and surface finish is needed. Turning tests were performed with small carbide inserts and with CBN. A study was made of tool performance and cutting process. In this way, tool life, wear mechanism, chip formation process, and actual roughness of turned parts were analyzed. In addition to the good performance of CBN inserts, some disadvantages of using coolant with CBN tools were detected and analyzed.

  5. The 'Key' to the U.S. Lab is turned over to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers and the STS-98 crew gather for a ceremony that turns over the '''key''' for the U.S. Lab Destiny to NASA. Holding the key (left) is STS-98 Commander Ken Cockrell. To his left is Mission Specialist Thomas Jones; at right (in uniform) is Mission Specialist Marsha Ivins. Also in the group are Pilot Mark Polansky and Mission Specialist Robert Curbeam. . Launch of mission STS-98 on Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Jan. 18, 2001. The mission will carry the U.S. Lab Destiny to the International Space Station with five system racks and experiments already installed inside the module.

  6. Left ventricle to left atrium shunt via a paravalvular abscess.

    PubMed

    Gasparovic, H; Smalcelj, A; Brida, M

    2009-10-01

    Intracardiac fistulas are rare complications of infective endocarditis that contribute to the complexity of surgical management, and impose an additional hemodynamic burden on the already challenged heart. We report on a case of successful surgical management of a paravalvular communication between the left ventricle and the left atrium via an abscess cavity. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  7. 1. Postandbeam garage (far left), oneroom log cabin (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Post-and-beam garage (far left), one-room log cabin (left of center), house (right of center), garden shed and outhouse (far right). View to west-southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  9. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  10. Advantages in exploring a new environment with the left eye in lizards.

    PubMed

    Bonati, Beatrice; Csermely, Davide; Sovrano, Valeria Anna

    2013-07-01

    Lizards (Podarcis muralis) preferentially use the left eye during spatial exploration in a binocular condition. Here we allowed 44 adult wild lizards to explore an unknown maze for 20 min under a temporary monocular condition whilst recording their movements, particularly the direction of turns made whilst walking within the maze. Lizards with a patch on their right eye, i.e. using their left eye to monitor the environment, moved faster than lizards with a patch on their left eye when turning both leftward and rightward in a T-cross. Hence, right eye-patched lizards were faster than left eye-patched lizards also in turning right, although their right eye was covered. Thus, lizards that could use the left eye/right hemisphere to attend spatial cues appeared to have more control and to be more prompt in exploring the maze. In addition, female lizards with their left eye covered stopped very frequently when they reached crosses, showing a high level of indecision. Results confirm that P. muralis lizards using their left eye only in exploring a new environment react faster and more efficiently than those using the right eye only in exploration. Hence lateralisation of spatial stimuli mediated by the left eye/right hemisphere could provide an advantage to this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Three-Way-Switchable (Right/Left/OFF) Selective Reflection of Circularly Polarized Light on Solid Thin Films of Helical Polymer Blends.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuuya; Uno, Makoto; Suginome, Michinori

    2016-06-13

    Two poly(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl) copolymers bearing miscibility-enhancing 8-chlorooctyloxy and (S)-2-methylbutoxy or n-butoxy side chains were synthesized. After annealing in CHCl3 vapor, a polymer-blend film of these copolymers exhibited selective reflection of right-handed circularly polarized light (CPL) in the visible region. The handedness of the CPL reflected was completely inverted upon annealing of the film in THF vapor. Annealing in n-hexane vapor resulted in the phase separation of the polymer blend, which turned the selective reflection off. This three-way-switchable reflection, that is, reflection of right-handed or left-handed CPL, together with an OFF state, could be observed visually through right- and left-handed CPL filters.

  12. Turn-timing in signed conversations: coordinating stroke-to-stroke turn boundaries

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Connie; Torreira, Francisco; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    In spoken interactions, interlocutors carefully plan, and time their utterances, minimizing gaps and overlaps between consecutive turns. Cross-linguistic comparison has indicated that spoken languages vary only minimally in terms of turn-timing, and language acquisition research has shown pre-linguistic vocal turn-taking in the first half year of life. These observations suggest that the turn-taking system may provide a fundamental basis for our linguistic capacities. The question remains, however, to what extent our capacity for rapid turn-taking is determined by modality constraints. The avoidance of overlapping turns could be motivated by the difficulty of hearing and speaking at the same time. If so, turn-taking in sign might show greater toleration for overlap. Alternatively, signed conversations may show a similar distribution of turn-timing as spoken languages, thus avoiding both gaps and overlaps. To address this question we look at turn-timing in question–answer sequences in spontaneous conversations of Sign Language of the Netherlands. The findings indicate that although there is considerable overlap in two or more signers’ articulators in conversation, when proper allowance is made for onset preparation, post-utterance retraction and the intentional holding of signs for response, turn-taking latencies in sign look remarkably like those reported for spoken language. This is consistent with the possibility that, at least with regard to responses to questions, speakers and signers follow similar time courses in planning and producing their utterances in on-going conversation. This suggests that turn-taking systems may well be a shared cognitive infrastructure underlying all modern human languages, both spoken and signed. PMID:25852593

  13. Nanostructural Evolution of Hard Turning Layers in Carburized Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedekar, Vikram

    speed indicated thermal transformation. Nanoindentation tests showed that the substructures produced by plastic deformation follow the Hall-Petch relationship while the structures produced by thermal transformation did not. This indicated a change in the hardness driver from dislocation hardening to phase transformation, both of which have a significant impact on fatigue life. Using hardness based flow stress numerical model, these relationships between the processing conditions and structural parameters were further explored. Results indicated that the hard turning process design space can be partitioned into three regions based on thermal phase transformations, plastic grain refinement, and a third regime where both mechanisms are active. It was found that the Zener-Holloman parameter can not only be used to predict post-turning grain size but also to partition the process space into regions of dominant microstructural mechanisms.

  14. 32 CFR 636.23 - Turning movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Turning movements. 636.23 Section 636.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.23...

  15. A Practice Turn for Teacher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    Within the Research Institute for Professional Practice, Learning and Education (RIPPLE) at Charles Sturt University, teacher education researchers have been quick to respond to the opportunities created by what is known as "the practice turn" that characterises contemporary theory around the globe and across disciplines. We are working,…

  16. Can Language Classrooms Take the Multilingual Turn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquet-Gauthier, Myriam; Beaulieu, Suzie

    2016-01-01

    For the past three decades, momentum has gathered in favour of a multilingual turn in second language acquisition research and teaching. "Multicompetence" has been proposed to replace "nativeness" and "monolingualism" to measure L2 learners' success. This proposed shift has not made its way into L2 teaching settings.…

  17. Turning Down the Noise in the Blogosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Turning Down the Noise in the Blogosphere Khalid El-Arini, Gaurav Veda , Dafna Shahaf, Carlos Guestrin May 2009 CMU-ML-09-103 Report Documentation...Arini Gaurav Veda Dafna Shahaf Carlos Guestrin May 2009 CMU-ML-09-103 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213

  18. Leadership Helps Turn around a Troubled School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Von

    2013-01-01

    The author tells how he employed leadership skills to help turn around a failing school loaded with at-risk students. Dayton's Bluff Elementary School was one of the worst in St. Paul when Von Sheppard took over as principal in 2001. Changing the staff and attitudes at the largely low-income, minority majority school in a tough neighborhood helped…

  19. Panoramic View of Lander During Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree panoramic mosaic image composed of data from the hazard avoidance camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a view of the lander from under the rover deck. The images were taken as the rover turned from its landing position 95 degrees toward the northwest side of the lander.

  20. Turning Parents from Critics to Allies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarese, Margaret M.; Giannetti, Charlene C.

    1998-01-01

    Authors of "The Roller Coaster Years" (1997) advise how middle-level educators can turn wary, disinterested parents into allies. Teachers should welcome parents, advertise their own expertise, implement an early-warning system, portray children positively, convey shared values, reassure parents about children's safety, demonstrate insider…

  1. Turning Parents from Critics to Allies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarese, Margaret M.; Giannetti, Charlene C.

    1998-01-01

    Authors of "The Roller Coaster Years" (1997) advise how middle-level educators can turn wary, disinterested parents into allies. Teachers should welcome parents, advertise their own expertise, implement an early-warning system, portray children positively, convey shared values, reassure parents about children's safety, demonstrate insider…

  2. Turning Practitioners into Professors: Exploring Effective Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Gustafson, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents results of focus interviews with 25 "practitioners turned professors" regarding their transition from industry to academia. Finds a general consensus that all advertising and public relations programs should implement a formal mentoring process to include teacher training and inservice, greater explanation of and assistance with promotion…

  3. 32 CFR 935.135 - Turns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Turns. 935.135 Section 935.135 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND... motion from a stopped position, or change from or merge into a lane of traffic, until he can safely...

  4. 32 CFR 935.135 - Turns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Turns. 935.135 Section 935.135 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND... motion from a stopped position, or change from or merge into a lane of traffic, until he can safely...

  5. Zigzag turning preference of freely crawling cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Park, Jin-Sung; Choi, Youngwoon; Choi, Wonshik; Ko, Tae-Wook; Lee, Kyoung J

    2011-01-01

    The coordinated motion of a cell is fundamental to many important biological processes such as development, wound healing, and phagocytosis. For eukaryotic cells, such as amoebae or animal cells, the cell motility is based on crawling and involves a complex set of internal biochemical events. A recent study reported very interesting crawling behavior of single cell amoeba: in the absence of an external cue, free amoebae move randomly with a noisy, yet, discernible sequence of 'run-and-turns' analogous to the 'run-and-tumbles' of swimming bacteria. Interestingly, amoeboid trajectories favor zigzag turns. In other words, the cells bias their crawling by making a turn in the opposite direction to a previous turn. This property enhances the long range directional persistence of the moving trajectories. This study proposes that such a zigzag crawling behavior can be a general property of any crawling cells by demonstrating that 1) microglia, which are the immune cells of the brain, and 2) a simple rule-based model cell, which incorporates the actual biochemistry and mechanics behind cell crawling, both exhibit similar type of crawling behavior. Almost all legged animals walk by alternating their feet. Similarly, all crawling cells appear to move forward by alternating the direction of their movement, even though the regularity and degree of zigzag preference vary from one type to the other.

  6. Turn Allocation Patterns and Learning Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on data from three English classrooms at two Chinese universities, this paper documents the turn-taking patterns that the teachers and students developed over time and explores how these patterns affected students' opportunities to participate in classroom discourse. The data were collected through observations, audio- and video-taping,…

  7. The Linguistic Turn within Curriculum Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    If, as the linguistic turn has taught us, there is no representational knowledge, but more agreements and/or struggles over how to talk and learn about what we call reality, we need to address and analyse the consequences of different vocabularies of educational phenomena and schooling, in order to better understand and make use of both the…

  8. Peace Corps Service as a Turning Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1994-01-01

    Conducted longitudinal study of 21 U.S. Peace Corps volunteers, first interviewed in 1960s during tour of service in Republic of Philippines and then 20 years later as middle-aged adults. Life events reported after their service and high degree of response agreement in two interviews confirm that Peace Corps experience constituted turning point in…

  9. Saccadic body turns in walking Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Geurten, Bart R. H.; Jähde, Philipp; Corthals, Kristina; Göpfert, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster structures its optic flow during flight by interspersing translational movements with abrupt body rotations. Whether these “body saccades” are accompanied by steering movements of the head is a matter of debate. By tracking single flies moving freely in an arena, we now discovered that walking Drosophila also perform saccades. Movement analysis revealed that the flies separate rotational from translational movements by quickly turning their bodies by 15 degrees within a tenth of a second. Although walking flies moved their heads by up to 20 degrees about their bodies, their heads moved with the bodies during saccadic turns. This saccadic strategy contrasts with the head saccades reported for e.g., blowflies and honeybees, presumably reflecting optical constraints: modeling revealed that head saccades as described for these latter insects would hardly affect the retinal input in Drosophila because of the lower acuity of its compound eye. The absence of head saccades in Drosophila was associated with the absence of haltere oscillations, which seem to guide head movements in other flies. In addition to adding new twists to Drosophila walking behavior, our analysis shows that Drosophila does not turn its head relative to its body when turning during walking. PMID:25386124

  10. Business Intelligence: Turning Knowledge into Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Krista

    2009-01-01

    Today, many school districts are turning to business intelligence tools to retrieve, organize, and share knowledge for faster analysis and more effective, guided decision making. Business intelligence (BI) tools are the technologies and applications that gather and report information to help an organization's leaders make better decisions. BI…

  11. The Linguistic Turn within Curriculum Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    If, as the linguistic turn has taught us, there is no representational knowledge, but more agreements and/or struggles over how to talk and learn about what we call reality, we need to address and analyse the consequences of different vocabularies of educational phenomena and schooling, in order to better understand and make use of both the…

  12. The Social Turn in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    This book is about the prospect of a social turn in the field of second language acquisition (SLA), in particular, that part of SLA that is devoted to the input-interaction-output (IIO) model. The book is intended to critically examine some of the basic notions and assumptions that underpin this model and to suggest a more interdisciplinary and…

  13. Can Language Classrooms Take the Multilingual Turn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquet-Gauthier, Myriam; Beaulieu, Suzie

    2016-01-01

    For the past three decades, momentum has gathered in favour of a multilingual turn in second language acquisition research and teaching. "Multicompetence" has been proposed to replace "nativeness" and "monolingualism" to measure L2 learners' success. This proposed shift has not made its way into L2 teaching settings.…

  14. A Practice Turn for Teacher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    Within the Research Institute for Professional Practice, Learning and Education (RIPPLE) at Charles Sturt University, teacher education researchers have been quick to respond to the opportunities created by what is known as "the practice turn" that characterises contemporary theory around the globe and across disciplines. We are working,…

  15. Tevatron stripline turn by turn data and the head-tail instability

    SciTech Connect

    James L Crisp

    2002-12-09

    Vic Scarpine recently collected turn by turn data from the vertical wideband stripline in the Tevatron during proton injection for store 1841. The data file name is ''PHT004.txt''. The single bunch intensity was roughly 200e9. The chromaticity was set to ''+6'' horizontal and ''-2'' vertical to induce instability. The data shown represents an extreme condition that shortly preceded losses leading to an abort. A Yokogawa DL 7200 oscilloscope was used to measure A-B and A+B simultaneously from the 1 meter long stripline. The scope has an analogue bandwidth of 500MHz with a 2 GHz sample rate. On each of the 2048 turns taken, 200 samples were saved. Vic Scarpine assembled some movie files from the same data that revealed intriguing variations in the A-B signals. The Excel data file contains 2048 turns of A+B followed by 2048 turns of A-B. The 200 samples taken on each turn is placed on one line in the file. Beam was injected at line 14 for A+B and line 2062 for A-B. Eight consecutive turns of data are examined starting at 1490 turns after injection (lines 1504-11 for A+B and 3552-9 for A-B).

  16. Aptamer-mediated 'turn-off/turn-on' nanozyme activity of gold nanoparticles for kanamycin detection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Weerathunge, Pabudi; Mohammadtaheri, Mahsa; Daima, Hemant Kumar; Shukla, Ravi; Bansal, Vipul

    2014-12-28

    A new ultrafast and highly sensitive 'turn-off/turn-on' biosensing approach that combines the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with the high affinity and specificity of a ssDNA aptamer is presented for the efficient detection of a model small molecule kanamycin.

  17. Determination of linear optics functions from turn-by-turn data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.

    2011-10-01

    A method for evaluation of coupled optics functions, detection of strong perturbing elements, determination of BPM calibration errors and tilts using turn-by-turn (TBT) data is presented as well as the new version of the Hamiltonian perturbation theory of betatron oscillations the method is based upon. An example of application of the considered method to the Tevatron is given.

  18. Formation and changes of the subembryonic liquid from turned, unturned, and cultured Japanese quail eggs.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, J; Kaltner, H

    1988-08-01

    Japanese quail eggs belonging to the same flock of hens were incubated under different conditions: group 1 eggs were turned 3 times a day, group 2 eggs were left unturned, and group 3 eggs were cultured and left unturned. The results indicate that failure to turn eggs results in a delayed efflux of liquid and glucose from albumen and from the subembryonic liquid. Furthermore, the major difference between unturned and cultured eggs was that in the first group the glucose levels and in the second group the lactate levels of the subembryonic liquid were increased. It is suggested that reduced glucose supply may be involved in the disturbance of development of unturned and cultured eggs.

  19. Silicon Carbide Emitter Turn-Off Thyristor

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Gangyao; Li, Jun; ...

    2008-01-01

    A novel MOS-conmore » trolled SiC thyristor device, the SiC emitter turn-off thyristor (ETO) is a promising technology for future high-voltage switching applications because it integrates the excellent current conduction capability of a SiC thyristor with a simple MOS-control interface. Through unity-gain turn-off, the SiC ETO also achieves excellent Safe Operation Area (SOA) and faster switching speeds than silicon ETOs. The world's first 4.5-kV SiC ETO prototype shows a forward voltage drop of 4.26 V at 26.5  A / cm 2 current density at room and elevated temperatures. Tested in an inductive circuit with a 2.5 kV DC link voltage and a 9.56-A load current, the SiC ETO shows a fast turn-off time of 1.63 microseconds and a low 9.88 mJ turn-off energy. The low switching loss indicates that the SiC ETO could operate at about 4 kHz if 100  W / cm 2 conduction and the 100  W / cm 2 turn-off losses can be removed by the thermal management system. This frequency capability is about 4 times higher than 4.5-kV-class silicon power devices. The preliminary demonstration shows that the SiC ETO is a promising candidate for high-frequency, high-voltage power conversion applications, and additional developments to optimize the device for higher voltage (>5 kV) and higher frequency (10 kHz) are needed.« less

  20. Turn Around Time (TAT) as a Benchmark of Laboratory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Binita; Chawla, Ranjna; Gupta, V. K.; Mallika, V.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory analytical turnaround time is a reliable indicator of laboratory effectiveness. Our study aimed to evaluate laboratory analytical turnaround time in our laboratory and appraise the contribution of the different phases of analysis towards the same. The turn around time (TAT) for all the samples (both routine and emergency) for the outpatient and hospitalized patients were evaluated for one year. TAT was calculated from sample reception to report dispatch. The average TAT for the clinical biochemistry samples was 5.5 h for routine inpatient samples while the TAT for the outpatient samples was 24 h. The turnaround time for stat samples was 1 h. Pre- and Post-analytical phases were found to contribute approximately 75% to the total TAT. The TAT demonstrates the need for improvement in the pre- and post-analytical periods. We need to tread the middle path to perform optimally according to clinician expectations. PMID:21966108

  1. Examining anticipatory turn signaling in typically developing 4- and 5-year-old children for applications in active orthotic devices.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Leia; Weatherly, Jake

    2013-03-01

    To develop active pediatric orthotics, it is important to accurately predict alterations to a straight path, such as turns. In this study we examine anticipatory signals prior to a pre-defined turn in seven healthy children. Subjects walked along a predefined 4.25m straight path and then made either a 40-degree turn left or right, or continued straight based on a pre-set color panel at the endpoint. The forward center of mass (COM) velocity for the stride prior to the turn region was 1.16±0.22m/s (no significant difference was seen with respect to turn direction, p>0.05). In the stride prior to landing in the turn region, subjects showed a significant difference in the mediolateral COM velocity with respect to the turn direction (p=0.003 for 30% and p<0.0005 for 40-100% of the gait cycle). No significant differences were observed in the sagittal plane kinematics of the hip, knee, or ankle during the preparatory stride with respect to turn direction (p>0.05) when compared at 10% gait increments. However, significant differences were observed in pelvic rotation for 10-30% (p<0.05) and 70-100% (p<0.0005) of the gait cycle. The subjects were inconsistent in strategy used to perform a turn. In trials to the left and right, 66% and 56% of the trials were step turns, respectively. The varying turn strategy may be a function of limited instructions provided to the child, or ongoing development in the children's COM control. Yet even with the varying strategies, there exist anticipatory signals that can be used to design real-time controllers for assistive devices with readily available sensor systems.

  2. A Time-Motion Analysis of Turns Performed by Highly Ranked Viennese Waltz Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Prosen, Jerneja; James, Nic; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Perš, Janez; Vučković, Goran

    Twenty-four dance couples performing at the 2011 IDSF (International DanceSport Federation) International Slovenia Open were divided into two groups: the first twelve placed couples (top ranked) and the last twelve placed couples (lower ranked). Video recordings were processed automatically using computer vision tracking algorithms under operator supervision to calculate movement parameters. Time and speed of movement were analysed during single natural (right) and reverse (left) turns performed during the Viennese waltz. Both top and lower ranked dancers tended to perform similar proportionate frequencies of reverse (≈ 35%) and natural (≈ 65%) turns. Analysis of reverse turns showed that the top ranked dancers performed less turns on a curved trajectory (16%) than the lower ranked dancers (33%). The top ranked couples performed all turns at similar speeds (F = 1.31, df = 3, p = 0.27; mean = 2.09m/s) all of which were significantly quicker than the lower ranked couples (mean = 1.94m/s), the greatest differences found for reverse turns (12.43% faster for curved trajectories, 8.42% for straight trajectories). This suggests that the ability to maintain a high speed in the more difficult turns, particularly the reverse turns on a curved trajectory, results in the overall dance appearing more fluent as the speed of movement does not fluctuate as much. This aspect of performance needs to be improved by lower ranked dancers if they wish to improve rating of their performance. Future research should determine which factors relate to the speed of turns. PMID:24146705

  3. A time-motion analysis of turns performed by highly ranked viennese waltz dancers.

    PubMed

    Prosen, Jerneja; James, Nic; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Perš, Janez; Vučković, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-four dance couples performing at the 2011 IDSF (International DanceSport Federation) International Slovenia Open were divided into two groups: the first twelve placed couples (top ranked) and the last twelve placed couples (lower ranked). Video recordings were processed automatically using computer vision tracking algorithms under operator supervision to calculate movement parameters. Time and speed of movement were analysed during single natural (right) and reverse (left) turns performed during the Viennese waltz. Both top and lower ranked dancers tended to perform similar proportionate frequencies of reverse (≈ 35%) and natural (≈ 65%) turns. Analysis of reverse turns showed that the top ranked dancers performed less turns on a curved trajectory (16%) than the lower ranked dancers (33%). The top ranked couples performed all turns at similar speeds (F = 1.31, df = 3, p = 0.27; mean = 2.09m/s) all of which were significantly quicker than the lower ranked couples (mean = 1.94m/s), the greatest differences found for reverse turns (12.43% faster for curved trajectories, 8.42% for straight trajectories). This suggests that the ability to maintain a high speed in the more difficult turns, particularly the reverse turns on a curved trajectory, results in the overall dance appearing more fluent as the speed of movement does not fluctuate as much. This aspect of performance needs to be improved by lower ranked dancers if they wish to improve rating of their performance. Future research should determine which factors relate to the speed of turns.

  4. Scattering Forces within a Left-Handed Photonic Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Angeleene S.; Sukhov, Sergey V.; Dogariu, Aristide; Shalin, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves are known to exert optical forces on particles through radiation pressure. It was hypothesized previously that electromagnetic waves inside left-handed metamaterials produce negative radiation pressure. Here we numerically examine optical forces inside left-handed photonic crystals demonstrating negative refraction and reversed phase propagation. We demonstrate that even though the direction of force might not follow the flow of energy, the positive radiation pressure is maintained inside photonic crystals.

  5. Scattering Forces within a Left-Handed Photonic Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Angeleene S.; Sukhov, Sergey V.; Dogariu, Aristide; Shalin, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves are known to exert optical forces on particles through radiation pressure. It was hypothesized previously that electromagnetic waves inside left-handed metamaterials produce negative radiation pressure. Here we numerically examine optical forces inside left-handed photonic crystals demonstrating negative refraction and reversed phase propagation. We demonstrate that even though the direction of force might not follow the flow of energy, the positive radiation pressure is maintained inside photonic crystals. PMID:28112217

  6. Scattering Forces within a Left-Handed Photonic Crystal.

    PubMed

    Ang, Angeleene S; Sukhov, Sergey V; Dogariu, Aristide; Shalin, Alexander S

    2017-01-23

    Electromagnetic waves are known to exert optical forces on particles through radiation pressure. It was hypothesized previously that electromagnetic waves inside left-handed metamaterials produce negative radiation pressure. Here we numerically examine optical forces inside left-handed photonic crystals demonstrating negative refraction and reversed phase propagation. We demonstrate that even though the direction of force might not follow the flow of energy, the positive radiation pressure is maintained inside photonic crystals.

  7. Interior view, Array Room, transmitterreceiver modules, left to right, middle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, Array Room, transmitter-receiver modules, left to right, middle ground. Sub-array drive modules mounted on girders. Array module power supply equipment on floor in foreground, left to right. - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  8. Left Atrial Reverse Remodeling: Mechanisms, Evaluation, and Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Liza; Abhayaratna, Walter P

    2017-01-01

    The left atrium is considered a biomarker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes, particularly in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and atrial fibrillation in whom left atrial (LA) enlargement is of prognostic importance. LA enlargement with a consequent decrease in LA function represents maladaptive structural and functional "remodeling" that in turn promotes electrical remodeling and a milieu conducive for incident atrial fibrillation. Medical and nonmedical interventions may arrest this pathophysiologic process to the extent that subsequent reverse remodeling results in a reduction in LA size and improvement in LA function. This review examines cellular and basic mechanisms involved in LA remodeling, evaluates the noninvasive techniques that can assess these changes, and examines potential mechanisms that may initiate reverse remodeling.

  9. Bank-to-turn control technology survey for homing missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The potential advantages of bank-to-turn control are summarized. Recent and current programs actively investigating bank-to-turn steering are reviewed and critical technology areas concerned with bank-to-turn control are assessed.

  10. Pulmonary vein isolation and left atrial complex-fractionated atrial electrograms ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation with phased radio frequency energy and multi-electrode catheters: efficacy and safety during 12 months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Anton A W; Wijffels, Maurits C E F; Wever, Eric F D; Boersma, Lucas V A

    2011-12-01

    Ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) remains a difficult and time-consuming procedure with varying degrees of success. We evaluated the long-term effects of a novel approach for ablation of persistent AF using multi-electrode catheters. In 89 patients with longstanding persistent AF (>1 year), multi-electrode ablation was performed with a pulmonary vein ablation catheter (PVAC), a multi-array septal catheter (MASC), and a multi-array ablation catheter (MAAC) for ablation of complex-fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) at the septum, left atrial (LA) roof, floor, posterior wall, and mitral isthmus. Follow-up was performed at 6 and 12 months with electrocardiogram, 7 days Holter, and occasionally ambulant event recordings. Average procedure and fluoroscopy times were 112 ± 32 and 21 ± 10 min. The pre-specified endpoint of pulmonary vein isolation and LA CFAE ablation was reached in all patients. No procedural complications were observed. At 12 months after a single treatment 44 of 89 (49%) remained in sinus rhythm, including direct current cardioversion in 12 patients. At 12 months, after a redo PVAC/MASC/MAAC, an additional 6 of 15 patients (40%) were free of AF. In 18 of 89 (20%) patients AF was changed to paroxysmal. In this single centre study, ablation for longstanding persistent AF with the PVAC/MASC/MAAC resulted in 56% freedom of AF at 1 year after 1.2 ± 0.4 procedures. This approach is time efficient and has a favourable safety profile.

  11. Diamond Turning of Nonrotationally Symmetric Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falter, Peter John

    Conventional techniques for ultraprecision turning have been successfully applied to the generation of optical quality surfaces. These resulting geometries however have been limited to surfaces of revolution. To investigate the machining of more general geometries, equipment has been developed to allow the production of accurate non -rotationally symmetric optical surfaces. This apparatus utilizes high speed digital control and a piezoelectric tool servo in conjunction with a workpiece-based metrology frame to synchronize tool position with spindle rotation. Machining experiments have been conducted to investigate the limits of producibility and the mechanics of this type of turning. The influences of tool forces, machine dynamics and metrology/control equipment on the accuracy of the finished part have also been determined.

  12. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  13. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  14. Right turn resuscitation: frequently asked questions.

    PubMed

    Tai, N R M; Russell, R

    2011-09-01

    In this article the process of operating room resuscitation - commonly known as Right Turn Resuscitation (RTR) when conducted in the medical treatment facility at Camp Bastion - is described. The place of RTR within the concepts of damage control resuscitation and surgery is discussed along with activation criteria and protocols. The medical leadership, team roles, advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. Finally, studies describing the impact of RTR and operating room resuscitation are briefly described.

  15. Minimum Time Turns Using Vectored Thrust.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    small, typicilly on the order of 10 seconds, the fuel consumed during the maneuver is negligible and the aircraft weight remains constant. The aircraft...practical (2, 3), these angles were allowed full range in order to determine how much range of thrust vectoring would be exploited if it were available...angle. 15q 15 *q 111. The Optimial Control Problem The formulation of the minimum turning time problem involves first- order non-linear differential

  16. Pediatric finger fractures: which ones turn ugly?

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Roger

    2012-06-01

    The majority of pediatric finger fractures can be treated by closed means with expected excellent outcomes. However, a subset of fractures can turn "ugly," with complications such as growth arrest, malunion, and joint dysfunction if not recognized and treated appropriately. The present paper discusses several fractures in a child's fingers that can cause substantial problems if not recognized promptly, highlighting important themes in the evaluation and treatment of a child's injured finger.

  17. Crack Turning in Integrally Stiffened Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Richard Glen

    2000-01-01

    Current emphasis in the aircraft industry toward reducing manufacturing cost has created a renewed interest in integrally stiffened structures. Crack turning has been identified as an approach to improve the damage tolerance and fail-safety of this class of structures. A desired behavior is for skin cracks to turn before reaching a stiffener, instead of growing straight through. A crack in a pressurized fuselage encounters high T-stress as it nears the stiffener--a condition favorable to crack turning. Also, the tear resistance of aluminum alloys typically varies with crack orientation, a form of anisotropy that can influence the crack path. The present work addresses these issues with a study of crack turning in two-dimensions, including the effects of both T-stress and fracture anisotropy. Both effects are shown to have relation to the process zone size, an interaction that is central to this study. Following an introduction to the problem, the T-stress effect is studied for a slightly curved semi-infinite crack with a cohesive process zone, yielding a closed form expression for the future crack path in an infinite medium. For a given initial crack tip curvature and tensile T-stress, the crack path instability is found to increase with process zone size. Fracture orthotropy is treated using a simple function to interpolate between the two principal fracture resistance values in two-dimensions. An extension to three-dimensions interpolates between the six principal values of fracture resistance. Also discussed is the transition between mode I and mode II fracture in metals. For isotropic materials, there is evidence that the crack seeks out a direction of either local symmetry (pure mode I) or local asymmetry (pure mode II) growth. For orthotropic materials the favored states are not pure modal, and have mode mixity that is a function of crack orientation.

  18. Gasdynamic Evaluation of Choking Cascade Turns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    often volume limited, requiring extensive integration of components. One such component is the air intake systems which are needed for environmental...GASDYNANqIC EVALUATION OF CHOKING CASCADE TURNS THESIS Dennis R. Perez Capt, USAF E T~ AFIT/GAE/AA/84D-21 SELECTE Approved for public release; distribution...Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in

  19. Lower extremity control during turns initiated with and without hip external rotation.

    PubMed

    Zaferiou, Antonia M; Flashner, Henryk; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2017-02-08

    The pirouette turn is often initiated in neutral and externally rotated hip positions by dancers. This provides an opportunity to investigate how dancers satisfy the same mechanical objectives at the whole-body level when using different leg kinematics. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity control strategies during the turn initiation phase of pirouettes performed with and without hip external rotation. Skilled dancers (n=5) performed pirouette turns with and without hip external rotation. Joint kinetics during turn initiation were determined for both legs using ground reaction forces (GRFs) and segment kinematics. Hip muscle activations were monitored using electromyography. Using probability-based statistical methods, variables were compared across turn conditions as a group and within-dancer. Despite differences in GRFs and impulse generation between turn conditions, at least 90% of each GRF was aligned with the respective leg plane. A majority of the net joint moments at the ankle, knee, and hip acted about an axis perpendicular to the leg plane. However, differences in shank alignment relative to the leg plane affected the distribution of the knee net joint moment when represented with respect to the shank versus the thigh. During the initiation of both turns, most participants used ankle plantar flexor moments, knee extensor moments, flexor and abductor moments at the push leg׳s hip, and extensor and abductor moments at the turn leg׳s hip. Representation of joint kinetics using multiple reference systems assisted in understanding control priorities.

  20. Swine manure composting by means of experimental turning equipment.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, A; Da Borso, F; Rodar, T; Chiumenti, R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research was to test the effectiveness of a prototype of a turning machine and to evaluate the feasability of a farm-scale composting process of the solid fraction of swine manure. A qualitative evaluation of the process and final product was made by monitoring the following parameters: process temperature, oxygen concentration inside the biomass, gaseous emissions (CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O), respiration index, humification index, total and volatile solids, carbon and nitrogen, pH and microbial load. The prototype proved to be very effective from a technical-operational point of view. The composting process exhibited a typical time-history, characterised by a thermophilic phase followed by a curing phase [Chiumenti, A., Chiumenti, R., Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Goldstein, N., 2005. Modern Composting Technologies. BioCycle-JG Press, Emmaus, PA, USA]. Gas emissions from compost the windrow were more intense during the active phase of the process and showed a decreasing trend from the thermophilic to the curing phase. The final compost was characterized by good qualitative characteristics, a significant level of humification [Rossi, L., Piccinini, S., 1999. La qualità agronomica dei compost derivanti da liquami suinicoli. (Agronomic quality of swine manure compost). L'informatore Agrario 38, 29-31] and no odor emissions. This method of managing manure represents an effective, low cost approach that could be an interesting opportunity for swine farms.

  1. Evaluating the Operational Features of an Unconventional Dual-Bay U-Turn Design for Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yun; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jingxu; Wang, Hao; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Median U-turn intersection treatment (MUTIT) has been considered an alternative measure to reduce congestion and traffic conflict at intersection areas. The MUTIT is sometimes difficult to implement in the field because it requires wide median on arterials for U-turn vehicles. The objective of this study is to introduce an unconventional U-turn treatment (UUT) for intersections which requires less median space but is also effective. The UUT has a dual-bay design with different turning radiuses for small and large vehicles. The VISSIM simulation model was developed to evaluate the operational features of the UUT. The model was calibrated using data collected from intersections in China. The capacity, delay and number of stops were evaluated and compared with the direct-left-turn (DLT) for the same intersections. The results showed that the UUT significantly improved the operations at intersection areas, especially when volume/capacity ratio is small, and ratio of left-turn to through traffic is small. With the UUT, the capacity is increased by 9.81% to 10.38%, vehicle delay is decreased by 18.5% to 40.1%, and number of stops is decreased by 23.19% to 36.62%, when volume/capacity ratio is less than 0.50. The study also found that traffic efficiency could be further improved when the UUT is designed in conjunction with signal control. In the case, the UUT plus signalized control increases the capacity by 25% to 26.02%, decreases vehicle delay by 50.5% to 55.8%, and reduces number of stops by 69.5%, compared with the traditional DLT. PMID:27467127

  2. Apraxia in left-handers.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  3. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    PubMed

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p < 0.001) but not for right CC patients (HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.50-1.14, p = 0.69). As a consequence, patients with distal CC have a better outcome than patients with proximal CC (HR for left vs. right CC: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.72-0.90, p < 0.001). Our data indicate that, contrary to left CC, survival of patients with right CC did not improve since 1980. Of all colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  5. Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Read, Tyson J. G.; Segre, Paolo S.; Middleton, Kevin M.; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left–right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a quasi-steady model. During arcing turns, hummingbirds symmetrically banked the stroke plane of both wings, and the body, into turns, supporting a body-dependent mechanism. However, several wingbeat asymmetries were present during turning, including a higher and flatter outer wingtip path and a lower more deviated inner wingtip path. A quasi-steady analysis of arcing turns performed with different trajectories revealed that changes in radius were associated with asymmetrical kinematics and forces, and changes in velocity were associated with symmetrical kinematics and forces. Collectively, our results indicate that both body-dependent and -independent force orientation mechanisms are available to hummingbirds, and that these kinematic strategies are used to meet the separate aerodynamic challenges posed by changes in velocity and turning radius. PMID:27030042

  6. [Electrovectocardiographic manifestations of left ventricular and biventricular growth].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1988-01-01

    The basic criteria for the electrical diagnosis of left ventricular and biventricular enlargements are discussed on the basis of the myocardial depolarization and repolarization sequence. Left ventricular dilatation secondary to isolated diastolic overloading increases the manifestation of the main vectors resulting from the activation of this ventricle. These changes reflect the proximity of the left ventricular walls to the exploring electrodes. The above mentioned vectors appear as tall R waves and wide ventricular curves with counterclockwise rotation on the three planes. If the diastolic overload is a isolated phenomenon, T waves are positive and asymmetric on the left leads while the T loop, of secondary type, is concordant in its orientation with the R loop. This fact is due to a prolonged duration of the repolarization phase of the left ventricle. Global left ventricular hypertrophy produced by a sustained systolic overloading increases the magnitude and manifestation of all the vectors resulting from the depolarization of this ventricle (I, II l, III l) owing to the prolonged duration of the corresponding activation fronts. When LBBB is also present, the first septal vector is not evident. In extreme degrees of the systolic overload, the T wave is inverted and shows morphologic secondary characteristics in left leads, and the T loop opposes the R loop on frontal and horizontal planes. The directional changes of the repolarization fronts of free left ventricular walls can satisfactorily explain these features. Left ventricular hypertrophy of a segmentary type, such as that observed in idiopathic myocardiopathy, generally increases the magnitude and manifestation of septal vector I and II left. When both ventricles are hypertrophied, the electromotive forces originating in the more severely affected heart chamber predominate in electrical records.

  7. Magic-angle turning with double acquisition.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tatsuya; Takegoshi, K

    2017-01-01

    The double-acquisition scheme for efficient data collection of hypercomplex data (the States method) of a two-dimensional experiment is adopted to magic-angle hopping (MAH) and magic-angle turning (MAT) experiments, which are powerful methods to measure the principal values of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) in a powder sample. It is shown that the double acquisition MAT (DAMAT) sequence realizes the S/N ratio comparable to or better than those of other variants of the MAH/MAT sequences. In addition, we show that DAMAT has preferable features that there are no spinning sidebands in the indirect dimension, and no spectral shearing is necessary.

  8. Magic-angle turning with double acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tatsuya; Takegoshi, K.

    2017-01-01

    The double-acquisition scheme for efficient data collection of hypercomplex data (the States method) of a two-dimensional experiment is adopted to magic-angle hopping (MAH) and magic-angle turning (MAT) experiments, which are powerful methods to measure the principal values of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) in a powder sample. It is shown that the double acquisition MAT (DAMAT) sequence realizes the S/N ratio comparable to or better than those of other variants of the MAH/MAT sequences. In addition, we show that DAMAT has preferable features that there are no spinning sidebands in the indirect dimension, and no spectral shearing is necessary.

  9. Virtual Rover Takes its First Turn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-13

    This image shows a screenshot from the software used by engineers to drive the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The software simulates the rover's movements across the martian terrain, helping to plot a safe course for the rover. The virtual 3-D world around the rover is built from images taken by Spirit's stereo navigation cameras. Regions for which the rover has not yet acquired 3-D data are represented in beige. This image depicts the state of the rover before it backed up and turned 45 degrees on Sol 11 (01-13-04). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05063

  10. Virtual Rover Takes its First Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows a screenshot from the software used by engineers to drive the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The software simulates the rover's movements across the martian terrain, helping to plot a safe course for the rover. The virtual 3-D world around the rover is built from images taken by Spirit's stereo navigation cameras. Regions for which the rover has not yet acquired 3-D data are represented in beige. This image depicts the state of the rover before it backed up and turned 45 degrees on Sol 11 (01-13-04).

  11. Fewer users seen turning to energy consultants

    SciTech Connect

    Ulanoff, J.

    1983-06-20

    Energy-consulting firms are having to adjust to a drop in business because of dissatisfaction among their customers with the recommendations they have made and the fact that companies have developed better in-house expertise. Some consulting firms are going out of business, while others are restructuring and shifting their emphasis from energy management to equipment replacement. Consultants also blame user indifference to energy matters because of the current fuel prices, but users cite their own financial problems and in-place conservation programs as reasons for turning away from the consultants. (DCK)

  12. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-16

    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  13. Wind tunnel turning vanes of modern design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, T. F.; Moore, R. D.; Sanz, J. M.; Mcfarland, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rehabilitation of the Altitude Wind Tunnel includes the need for new corner turning vanes to match its upgraded performance. The design and experimental performance results from a 0.1-full scale model of the highest speed corner (M = 0.35) are presented and discussed along with some two dimensional inviscid analyses of two vaned corners. With a vane designed by an inverse two dimensional technique, the overall corner loss was about 12% of the inlet dynamic pressure of which about 4% was caused by vane skin friction. Comparable values with a conventionally designed circular arc vane were about 14% overall with about 7% due to skin friction.

  14. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  15. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao

    2016-05-13

    Here, we propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. Finally, the method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  16. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. Furthermore, the fitting results are used for lattice correction. Our method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  17. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao

    2016-05-13

    Here, we propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. Finally, the method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  18. Optimal turning method of composting regarding hygienic safety.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Masafumi; Le, Duc Trung; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    The new turning method was proposed and verified its effectiveness to pathogens by laboratory scale experiments. Considering the results obtained from the previous studies, it could be said that turning of a composting pile was essential in terms of hygienic aspects but the number of turning should be minimized. Effectiveness of inactivation was estimated for each composting run. From this estimation, turning by layers, which is different from conventional turning that mixes compost pile entirely, was proposed and investigated its performance by experiments. Composting operations with static pile method, complete mix (conventional) turning method, and proposed turning (layer turning) method were done and their effectiveness on inactivation of indicator microorganism was evaluated and compared. As results, the conventional turning method was not a proper method in terms of pathogen inactivation, whereas, the proposed turning method showed an excellent performance and should be employed in a composting operation.

  19. Terminal retrograde turn of rolling rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Sarebangholi, Milad S.; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-09-01

    We report an unexpected reverse spiral turn in the final stage of the motion of rolling rings. It is well known that spinning disks rotate in the same direction of their initial spin until they stop. While a spinning ring starts its motion with a kinematics similar to disks, i.e., moving along a cycloidal path prograde with the direction of its rigid body rotation, the mean trajectory of its center of mass later develops an inflection point so that the ring makes a spiral turn and revolves in a retrograde direction around a new center. Using high speed imaging and numerical simulations of models featuring a rolling rigid body, we show that the hollow geometry of a ring tunes the rotational air drag resistance so that the frictional force at the contact point with the ground changes its direction at the inflection point and puts the ring on a retrograde spiral trajectory. Our findings have potential applications in designing topologically new surface-effect flying objects capable of performing complex reorientation and translational maneuvers.

  20. Slug phototaxis, thermotaxis, and spontaneous turning behavior.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Paul R; Annesley, Sarah J

    2006-01-01

    Dictyostelium slug phototaxis and thermotaxis are readily assayed phenotypes that reflect with great sensitivity and specificity the interactions of environmental stimuli with morphogenetic signaling systems controlling the collective movement of slug cells. Methods are described for conducting and recording phototaxis, thermotaxis, and spontaneous turning experiments, although it is pointed out that spontaneous turning rates are not easily measured in most strains of molecular biological interest. Both phototaxis and thermotaxis can be assayed qualitatively for rapid screening of prospective mutants and quantitatively for detailed phenotypic analysis. Both types of assay are simple to conduct, but require care to avoid the potentially misleading effects of other factors such as cell density and extraneous thermal and chemical gradients that might influence slug behavior. The quantitative analysis and statistical testing of conclusions are carried out using directional statistics, because traditional statistical methods for linear data are inappropriate and potentially misleading when applied to directional data. The appropriate statistical methods are given for measuring maximum likelihood estimates and confidence intervals for the average direction (mu) and the accuracy of orientation (kappa) for unidirectional orientation, as well as the two preferred directions (+/-alpha) and accuracy of orientation in bidirectional phototaxis. In addition, tests for uniformity (kappa = 0), for equality of kappa in the two-sample and multisample cases, and for bidirectional phototaxis vs unidirectional phototaxis are described. These methods are readily implemented in the R environment for statistical computing and the functions required to do so are described and provided.

  1. Teaching Introductory Physics with Turning Point Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Seth

    2008-10-01

    Physics professors attempt to engage students in the learning of physics by teaching this subject in a manner that students will perceive as relevant, interesting, fun, intriguing, and clear. Perhaps, the most valuable contribution that a professor can make to a student's education is to stimulate an interest in a particular discipline. To accomplish this, a professor has to be a performer. One doesn't necessarily have to entertain, but one must bring a certain level of enthusiasm and energy to a classroom in order to engage the students. If they are not engaged in the classroom, students will not learn effectively. Towards this end, Turning Point software was used to create new classroom presentations for FMU's introductory physics class in the Fall of 2008. Turning Point is essentially Power Point, but it provides one with the ability to embed interactive questions within a presentation. Students in the class respond to these questions by using radio frequency devices known as ``clickers.'' An analysis of the effectiveness of this approach, as well as a comparison to traditional chalk and blackboard methods, will be presented.

  2. Terminal retrograde turn of rolling rings.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Sarebangholi, Milad S; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-09-01

    We report an unexpected reverse spiral turn in the final stage of the motion of rolling rings. It is well known that spinning disks rotate in the same direction of their initial spin until they stop. While a spinning ring starts its motion with a kinematics similar to disks, i.e., moving along a cycloidal path prograde with the direction of its rigid body rotation, the mean trajectory of its center of mass later develops an inflection point so that the ring makes a spiral turn and revolves in a retrograde direction around a new center. Using high speed imaging and numerical simulations of models featuring a rolling rigid body, we show that the hollow geometry of a ring tunes the rotational air drag resistance so that the frictional force at the contact point with the ground changes its direction at the inflection point and puts the ring on a retrograde spiral trajectory. Our findings have potential applications in designing topologically new surface-effect flying objects capable of performing complex reorientation and translational maneuvers.

  3. CREST Modelling of PBX 9502 Corner Turning Experiments at Different Initial Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Corner turning is an important problem in regard to detonation wave propagation in TATB-based explosives. Experimentally, a sudden change in direction of the propagating wave, such as turning a sharp corner, can result in dead-zones being left behind in the corner turn region, with the observed behaviour being particularly sensitive to the initial temperature of the explosive. In this paper, the entropy-dependent CREST reactive burn model is used to simulate corner turning experiments on the TATB-based explosive PBX 9502. Calculated results of double cylinder tests at three different initial temperatures (-54°C, 25°C, and 75°C), and a ``hockey puck'' experiment at ambient temperature, are compared to the corresponding test measurements. The results show that the model is able to: (i) calculate persistent dead-zones in PBX 9502 without recourse to any shock desensitisation treatment, and (ii) predict changes in corner turning behaviour with initial temperature using one set of coefficients.

  4. CREST modelling of PBX 9502 corner turning experiments at different initial temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, N. J.

    2014-05-01

    Corner turning is an important problem in regard to detonation wave propagation in TATB-based explosives. Experimentally, a sudden change in the direction of the propagating wave, such as turning a sharp corner, can result in dead-zones being left behind in the corner turn region, with the observed behaviour being particularly sensitive to the initial temperature of the explosive. In this paper, the entropy-dependent CREST reactive burn model is used to simulate corner turning experiments on the TATB-based explosive PBX 9502. Calculated results of double cylinder tests at three different initial temperatures (-54°C, ~23°C, and 75°C), and a "hockey puck" experiment at ambient temperature, are compared to the corresponding test measurements. The results show that the model is able to: (i) calculate persistent dead-zones in PBX 9502 without recourse to any shock desensitisation treatment, and (ii) predict changes in corner turning behaviour with initial temperature using one set of coefficients.

  5. [Left pulmonary agenesis diagnosed late].

    PubMed

    Deleanu, Oana; Pătraşcu, Natalia; Nebunoiu, Ana-Maria; Vintilă, V; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Mihălţan, F D

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 51 years old female-patient, with severe dextroscoliosis, having like unique symptom progressive dyspnea. The blood samples reveals polycythemia, the radiological exam shows the opacification of 2/3 of the left thorax, the absence of the lung structure in the other 1/3, the deviation of the mediastinum, and dextroscoliosis; the computed tomography reveals the absence of the left lung artery and the left airways, compensatory hyperinflation of the right lung and dilatation of the trunk and right pulmonary artery; the bronchoscopy does not visualize the carina or the left main bronchus, typical for pulmonary agenesis. Echocardiography confirmed the absence of left pulmonary artery and shows mild pulmonary hypertension (systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery of 33 mmHg) with dilatation of the right cavities, but good cinetics. We face a case of pulmonary agenesis lately diagnosed, with modest functional cardiologic implications, limited therapeutic options and good survival, justified by the late appearance of the pulmonary hypertension of low severity and without worsening in time.

  6. Summer Turns to Autumn in New England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The green hues of summer give way to the reds and browns of autumn in this pair of MISR nadir-camera views acquired on August 26, 2000 (left) and October 20, 2000 (right). The images include eastern Vermont, New Hampshire, and western Maine, as well as the southeastern corner of Quebec province. New Hampshire's White Mountains run roughly north-south through the center of each image.

    Linear patterns associated with forest clear cuts are apparent in the upper left quadrant of the images. Some scattered cumulus clouds are present, and urban centers show up as patches of gray. The city of Portland, Maine, is at the lower right corner, to the southeast of Sebago Lake. Sherbooke, Quebec, is visible to the northeast of Lake Memphremagog, which straddles the US-Canadian border.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  7. Winter Snowfall Turns an Emerald White

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Ireland's climate is normally mild due to the nearby Gulf Stream, but the waning days of 2000 saw the Emerald Isle's green fields swathed in an uncommon blanket of white. The contrast between summer and winter is apparent in this pair of images of southwestern Ireland acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on August 23, 2000 (left) and December 29, 2000 (right). The corresponding Terra orbit numbers are 3628 and 5492, respectively.

    The year 2000 brought record-breaking weather to the British Isles. England and Wales experienced the wettest spring and autumn months since 1766. Despite being one of the warmest years in recent history, a cold snap arrived between Christmas and New Year's Day. According to the UK Meteorological Office, the 18 centimeters (7 inches) of snow recorded at Aldergrove, Northern Ireland, on December 27-28 was the deepest daily fall since 1930.

    Prominent geographical features visible in the MISR images include Galway Bay near the top left. Further south, the mouth of the River Shannon, the largest river in the British Isles, meets the Atlantic Ocean. In the lower portions of the images are the counties of Limerick, Kerry and Cork.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology

  8. Summer Turns to Autumn in New England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The green hues of summer give way to the reds and browns of autumn in this pair of MISR nadir-camera views acquired on August 26, 2000 (left) and October 20, 2000 (right). The images include eastern Vermont, New Hampshire, and western Maine, as well as the southeastern corner of Quebec province. New Hampshire's White Mountains run roughly north-south through the center of each image.

    Linear patterns associated with forest clear cuts are apparent in the upper left quadrant of the images. Some scattered cumulus clouds are present, and urban centers show up as patches of gray. The city of Portland, Maine, is at the lower right corner, to the southeast of Sebago Lake. Sherbooke, Quebec, is visible to the northeast of Lake Memphremagog, which straddles the US-Canadian border.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Biased optimal guidance for a bank-to-turn missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, D. V.

    A practical terminal-phase guidance law for controlling the pitch acceleration and roll rate of a bank-to-turn missile with zero autopilot lags was derived and tested, so as to minimize squared miss distance without requiring overly large commands. An acceleration bias is introduced to prevent excessive roll commands due to noise. The Separation Theorem is invoked and the guidance (control) law is derived by applying optimal control theory, linearizing the nonlinear plant equation around the present missile orientation, and obtaining a closed-form solution. The optimal pitch-acceleration and roll-rate commands are respectively proportional to two components of the projected, constant-bias, miss distance, with a resemblance to earlier derivations and proportional navigation. Simulaiation results and other related work confirm the suitability of the guidance law.

  10. Turning the LHC ring into a new physics search machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orava, Risto

    2017-03-01

    The LHC Collider Ring is proposed to be turned into an ultimate automatic search engine for new physics in four consecutive phases: (1) Searches for heavy particles produced in Central Exclusive Process (CEP): pp → p + X + p based on the existing Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the LHC; (2) Feasibility study of using the LHC Ring as a gravitation wave antenna; (3) Extensions to the current BLM system to facilitate precise registration of the selected CEP proton exit points from the LHC beam vacuum chamber; (4) Integration of the BLM based event tagging system together with the trigger/data acquisition systems of the LHC experiments to facilitate an on-line automatic search machine for the physics of tomorrow.

  11. Is the Podarcis muralis lizard left-eye lateralised when exploring a new environment?

    PubMed

    Csermely, Davide; Bonati, Beatrice; Lopez, Pilar; Martin, Jose

    2011-03-01

    The typical lateral eye position in ectotherms likely facilitated the spread of visual lateralisation--i.e., the different use of the eyes--in those species. The diffusion of this form of lateralisation seems due to the possibility of carrying out more than one task simultaneously, some controlled by one eye and the visual structures it feeds and some by the other. Similar to other species, exploratory and monitoring behaviours seem to be under left "eye system" control. Wild individuals of the Common wall lizard Podarcis muralis were tested individually in captivity to ascertain whether they showed lateralisation when exploring a new environment, using preferentially the left eye. In Experiment 1, the lizards explored a maze. A left-turning bias was found, both at individual and population level, indicating a possible right hemisphere visual control. In Experiment 2, lizards explored a T-maze, preferring to enter the left rather than the right arm though without any particular preference in the head turns. In Experiment 3, the lizards had to exit an opaque box within a terrarium. We found a left-eye preference again for head turn while leaving the box. Our findings support the hypothesis of right hemisphere mediation of exploratory and monitoring behaviours in Podarcis muralis. In addition to previous studies on the same species, our results support the hypothesis of a simultaneous control of anti-predatory and exploratory behaviours (left-eye mediated) and predatory behaviour (right-eye mediated).

  12. Moexipril and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Nguyen, P K

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors today are the standard therapy of patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure due to their proven beneficial effects in left ventricular remodeling and left ventricular function. ACE inhibitors have also been demonstrated to lead to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It is believed that the mechanism of action of LVH regression with ACE inhibitors arises from more than simple blood pressure reduction. LVH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality independent of blood pressure. Moexipril hydrochloride is a long-acting, non-sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor that can be taken once daily for the treatment of hypertension. Moexipril has now also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on LVH and can lead to LVH regression.

  13. Moexipril and left ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chrysant, George S; Nguyen, PK

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors today are the standard therapy of patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure due to their proven beneficial effects in left ventricular remodeling and left ventricular function. ACE inhibitors have also been demonstrated to lead to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It is believed that the mechanism of action of LVH regression with ACE inhibitors arises from more than simple blood pressure reduction. LVH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality independent of blood pressure. Moexipril hydrochloride is a long-acting, non-sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor that can be taken once daily for the treatment of hypertension. Moexipril has now also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on LVH and can lead to LVH regression. PMID:17583172

  14. Left Hemisphere Dysfunction and Left Hemisphere Overactivation in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Raquel E.

    1978-01-01

    Reports two studies relating schizophrenia to functional brain asymmetry. The first study found support for the hypothesis of left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, occurring at a rather early stage of information processing; the second study, using eye directionality as a measure of hemispheric activation, found that schizophrenics…

  15. The left atrial "Medusa myxoma".

    PubMed

    Williams, Elbert E; Pratt, Jerry W; Martin, David E

    2014-02-01

    Although myxomas are the most commonly seen primary cardiac tumors, encompassing 30% to 50% of all primary tumors of the heart, they remain a rare finding with an annual reported incidence of 0.5 per million. The presenting symptoms of an atrial myxoma are widely varied as are the clinical consequences. Regardless of presentation, once a diagnosis is made prompt surgical excision is recommended to minimize the potential complications of obstruction or embolization. We present the "Medusa myxoma," an arborizing 4-fingered left atrial myxoma extending from the fossa ovalis across the left atrium.

  16. Reflexive and preparatory selection and suppression of salient information in the right and left posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Mevorach, Carmel; Humphreys, Glyn W; Shalev, Lilach

    2009-06-01

    Attentional cues can trigger activity in the parietal cortex in anticipation of visual displays, and this activity may, in turn, induce changes in other areas of the visual cortex, hence, implementing attentional selection. In a recent TMS study [Mevorach, C., Humphreys, G. W., & Shalev, L. Opposite biases in salience-based selection for the left and right posterior parietal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 740-742, 2006b], it was shown that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can utilize the relative saliency (a nonspatial property) of a target and a distractor to bias visual selection. Furthermore, selection was lateralized so that the right PPC is engaged when salient information must be selected and the left PPC when the salient information must be ignored. However, it is not clear how the PPC implements these complementary forms of selection. Here we used on-line triple-pulse TMS over the right or left PPC prior to or after the onset of global/local displays. When delivered after the onset of the display, TMS to the right PPC disrupted the selection of the more salient aspect of the hierarchical letter. In contrast, left PPC TMS delivered prior to the onset of the stimulus disrupted responses to the lower saliency stimulus. These findings suggest that selection and suppression of saliency, rather than being "two sides of the same coin," are fundamentally different processes. Selection of saliency seems to operate reflexively, whereas suppression of saliency relies on a preparatory phase that "sets up" the system in order to effectively ignore saliency.

  17. Beam diagnostics via model independent analysis of the turn-by-turn BPM data

    SciTech Connect

    Xi Yang

    2004-08-11

    Model independent analysis (MIA) can be used to obtain all the eigen modes included in the turn-by-turn BPM data. Not only the synchrotron tune and betatron tune can be obtained from the fast Fourier transforms (FFT) of the temporal eigen vector of the corresponding mode, but also the error mode, which could be caused by the different gain of a BPM, can be observed in both the temporal and spatial eigen vectors of the error mode. It can be applied as a diagnostic tool for Booster.

  18. ACCELERATORS: Preliminary application of turn-by-turn data analysis to the SSRF storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Hui; Zhao, Zhen-Tang

    2009-07-01

    There is growing interest in utilizing the beam position monitor turn-by-turn (TBT) data to debug accelerators. TBT data can be used to determine the linear optics, coupled optics and nonlinear behaviors of the storage ring lattice. This is not only a useful complement to other methods of determining the linear optics such as LOCO, but also provides a possibility to uncover more hidden phenomena. In this paper, a preliminary application of a β function measurement to the SSRF storage ring is presented.

  19. Utilizing the N beam position monitor method for turn-by-turn optics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, A.; Benedetti, G.; Carlà, M.; Iriso, U.; Martí, Z.; de Portugal, J. Coello; Tomás, R.

    2016-09-01

    The N beam position monitor method (N -BPM) which was recently developed for the LHC has significantly improved the precision of optics measurements that are based on BPM turn-by-turn data. The main improvement is due to the consideration of correlations for statistical and systematic error sources, as well as increasing the amount of BPM combinations which are used to derive the β -function at one location. We present how this technique can be applied at light sources like ALBA, and compare the results with other methods.

  20. Chatter detection in turning using persistent homology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasawneh, Firas A.; Munch, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a new approach for ascertaining the stability of stochastic dynamical systems in their parameter space by examining their time series using topological data analysis (TDA). We illustrate the approach using a nonlinear delayed model that describes the tool oscillations due to self-excited vibrations in turning. Each time series is generated using the Euler-Maruyama method and a corresponding point cloud is obtained using the Takens embedding. The point cloud can then be analyzed using a tool from TDA known as persistent homology. The results of this study show that the described approach can be used for analyzing datasets of delay dynamical systems generated both from numerical simulation and experimental data. The contributions of this paper include presenting for the first time a topological approach for investigating the stability of a class of nonlinear stochastic delay equations, and introducing a new application of TDA to machining processes.

  1. Optimized chatter resistance of viscoelastic turning bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffury, J.; Altus, E.

    2009-07-01

    The regenerative-chatter resistance of a viscoelastic cantilever beam is analyzed and compared to the common dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) system. The beam represents a tool holder for turning operation in machining. The optimum structural parameters are found by maximizing the most negative real part of the frequency response function (FRF). The FRF is found analytically by using an appropriate Green's function. Keeping the cantilever static stiffness constant, further increase in the optimal resistance is achieved by changing the ratio between the two elastic moduli in the 3-parameter solid viscoelastic material model. Three additional chatter resistance indicators are also investigated: the most positive real part of the FRF, the magnitude of the FRF and the resonant frequency. It is found that in contrast to the DVA system, the chatter resistance of the viscoelastic beam is optimal with respect to the above indicators for approximately unique set of the same material parameters.

  2. Turning points in removable partial denture philosophy.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Michael P

    2010-10-01

    This article discusses key turning points in removable partial denture (RPD) philosophy. Early advancements tended to focus upon improving the technical quality of the prosthesis itself. The beginning of the 20th century brought significant public pressure upon the dental profession due to consequences associated with poor quality fixed prostheses. The result was dramatic improvement and heavy demand for RPDs. Technical and efficiency issues conspired to temper this enthusiasm, eventually resulting in reduced respect for RPDs. By highlighting key writings and technical issues during these periods of change it is hoped the reader will gain a more precise understanding of the current status of RPD philosophy. © 2010 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  4. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2013-07-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  5. Twists and turns: a scientific journey.

    PubMed

    Tilghman, Shirley M

    2014-01-01

    In this perspective I look back on the twists and turns that influenced the direction of my scientific career over the past 40 years. From my early ambition to be a chemist to my training in Philadelphia and Bethesda as a molecular biologist, I benefited enormously from generous and valuable mentoring. In my independent career in Philadelphia and Princeton, I was motivated by a keen interest in the changes in gene expression that direct the development of the mammalian embryo and inspired by the creativity and energy of my students, fellows, and research staff. After twelve years as President of Princeton University, I have happily returned to the faculty of the Department of Molecular Biology.

  6. Hard turning micro-machine tool

    SciTech Connect

    DeVor, Richard E; Adair, Kurt; Kapoor, Shiv G

    2013-10-22

    A micro-scale apparatus for supporting a tool for hard turning comprises a base, a pivot coupled to the base, an actuator coupled to the base, and at least one member coupled to the actuator at one end and rotatably coupled to the pivot at another end. A tool mount is disposed on the at least one member. The at least one member defines a first lever arm between the pivot and the tool mount, and a second lever arm between the pivot and the actuator. The first lever arm has a length that is less than a length of the second lever arm. The actuator moves the tool mount along an arc.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Dr. Grant Gilmore (left), Dynamac Corp., talks to another member of the research team conducting underwater acoustic research in the Launch Complex 39 turn basin. Several government agencies, including NASA, NOAA, the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission are involved in the testing. The research involves demonstrations of passive and active sensor technologies, with applications in fields ranging from marine biological research to homeland security. The work is also serving as a pilot project to assess the cooperation between the agencies involved. Equipment under development includes a passive acoustic monitor developed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and mobile robotic sensors from the Navy’s Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Dr. Grant Gilmore (left), Dynamac Corp., talks to another member of the research team conducting underwater acoustic research in the Launch Complex 39 turn basin. Several government agencies, including NASA, NOAA, the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission are involved in the testing. The research involves demonstrations of passive and active sensor technologies, with applications in fields ranging from marine biological research to homeland security. The work is also serving as a pilot project to assess the cooperation between the agencies involved. Equipment under development includes a passive acoustic monitor developed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and mobile robotic sensors from the Navy’s Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit.

  8. Within compound, looking southeast Power Plant (Building 5761) to left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, looking southeast Power Plant (Building 5761) to left, Satellite Communications Terminal (Building 5771), center - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  9. Exterior, looking northwest towards Main Gate, Gate House on left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking northwest towards Main Gate, Gate House on left, Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) in background to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Gate House, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) center, Power Plant (Building 5761), to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  11. Exterior with Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) in background left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior with Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) in background left, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Power Plant, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  12. Mutism following left hemisphere infarction.

    PubMed Central

    David, A S; Bone, I

    1984-01-01

    A case of mutism due to left hemisphere infarction is described. Recovery revealed mild motor dysphasia. Review of the literature showed that the case resembles aphemia but is unique by virtue of its duration, and the absence of associated apraxia and paresis. Images PMID:6210346

  13. Why Critical Literacy Should Turn to "The Affective Turn": Making a Case for Critical Affective Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2016-01-01

    The central argument of this essay is that critical literacy with a rationalistic bent may not enable us to cope with ethical dilemmas in our responsiveness to human sufferings. I argue that critical literacy education would benefit from turning to the recent scholarship on affect/emotion studies. I draw upon the works of Sara Ahmed--one of the…

  14. Why Critical Literacy Should Turn to "The Affective Turn": Making a Case for Critical Affective Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2016-01-01

    The central argument of this essay is that critical literacy with a rationalistic bent may not enable us to cope with ethical dilemmas in our responsiveness to human sufferings. I argue that critical literacy education would benefit from turning to the recent scholarship on affect/emotion studies. I draw upon the works of Sara Ahmed--one of the…

  15. Turn-by-Turn Imaging of the Transverse Beam Profile in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan A.; Petree, Mark; /SLAC

    2006-12-18

    During injection or instability, the transverse profile of an individual bunch in a storage ring can change significantly in a few turns. However, most synchrotron-light imaging techniques are not designed for this time scale. We have developed a novel diagnostic that enhances the utility of a fast gated camera by adding, inexpensively, some features of a dual-axis streak camera, in order to watch the turn-by-turn evolution of the transverse profile, in both x and y. The beam's elliptical profile is reshaped using cylindrical lenses to form a tall and narrow ellipse--essentially the projection of the full ellipse onto one transverse axis. We do this projection twice, by splitting the beam into two paths at different heights, and rotating the ellipse by 90{sup o} on one path. A rapidly rotating mirror scans these vertical ''pencils'' of light horizontally across the photocathode of the camera, which is gated for 3 ns on every Nth ring turn. A single readout of the camera captures 100 images, looking like a stroboscopic photograph of a moving object. We have observed the capture of injected charge into a bunch and the rapid change of beam size at the onset of a fast instability.

  16. Predicting Turns in Proteins with a Unified Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qi; Li, Tonghua; Cong, Peisheng; Sun, Jiangming; Li, Dapeng; Tang, Shengnan

    2012-01-01

    Motivation Turns are a critical element of the structure of a protein; turns play a crucial role in loops, folds, and interactions. Current prediction methods are well developed for the prediction of individual turn types, including α-turn, β-turn, and γ-turn, etc. However, for further protein structure and function prediction it is necessary to develop a uniform model that can accurately predict all types of turns simultaneously. Results In this study, we present a novel approach, TurnP, which offers the ability to investigate all the turns in a protein based on a unified model. The main characteristics of TurnP are: (i) using newly exploited features of structural evolution information (secondary structure and shape string of protein) based on structure homologies, (ii) considering all types of turns in a unified model, and (iii) practical capability of accurate prediction of all turns simultaneously for a query. TurnP utilizes predicted secondary structures and predicted shape strings, both of which have greater accuracy, based on innovative technologies which were both developed by our group. Then, sequence and structural evolution features, which are profile of sequence, profile of secondary structures and profile of shape strings are generated by sequence and structure alignment. When TurnP was validated on a non-redundant dataset (4,107 entries) by five-fold cross-validation, we achieved an accuracy of 88.8% and a sensitivity of 71.8%, which exceeded the most state-of-the-art predictors of certain type of turn. Newly determined sequences, the EVA and CASP9 datasets were used as independent tests and the results we achieved were outstanding for turn predictions and confirmed the good performance of TurnP for practical applications. PMID:23144872

  17. 14 CFR 417.209 - Malfunction turn analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., aerodynamic breakup or inertial breakup. (6) The launch vehicle's turning behavior from the time when a malfunction begins to cause a turn until aerodynamic breakup, inertial breakup, or ground impact. The...

  18. 14 CFR 417.209 - Malfunction turn analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., aerodynamic breakup or inertial breakup. (6) The launch vehicle's turning behavior from the time when a malfunction begins to cause a turn until aerodynamic breakup, inertial breakup, or ground impact. The...

  19. 14 CFR 417.209 - Malfunction turn analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., aerodynamic breakup or inertial breakup. (6) The launch vehicle's turning behavior from the time when a malfunction begins to cause a turn until aerodynamic breakup, inertial breakup, or ground impact. The...

  20. 14 CFR 417.209 - Malfunction turn analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., aerodynamic breakup or inertial breakup. (6) The launch vehicle's turning behavior from the time when a malfunction begins to cause a turn until aerodynamic breakup, inertial breakup, or ground impact. The...

  1. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  2. THE NEOLIBERAL TURN IN AMERICAN HEALTH CARE.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Leaving millions both uninsured and underinsured, the Affordable Care Act does not create a system of universal health care in the United States. To understand its shortcomings, we have to understand it as part of a historic shift in the political economy of American health care. This "neoliberal turn" began as a reaction against the welfare state as it expanded during the New Deal and post-World War II period. What began as a movement associated with philosophers like Friedrich Hayek ultimately had a powerful impact via the attraction of powerful corporate sponsors and political supporters, and it was to historically transform American health care thought and organization. In health policy circles, for example, it can be seen in a rising emphasis on "moral hazard," overuse, and cost sharing above a concern with universalism and equity. It was likewise manifested by the corporatization of the health maintenance organization and the rise of the "consumer-driven" health care movement. By the time of the health care reform debate, the influence of corporate "stakeholders" was to prove predominant. These developments, however, must be construed as connected parts of a much larger political transformation, reflected in rising inequality and privatization, occurring both domestically and internationally.

  3. Maize leaves turn away from neighbors.

    PubMed

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J

    2002-11-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16-23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield.

  4. Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1

    PubMed Central

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield. PMID:12427985

  5. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    PubMed

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Left ventricular diastolic function following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Solomon, Scott D

    2006-12-01

    An acute myocardial infarction causes a loss of contractile fibers which reduces systolic function. Parallel to the effect on systolic function, a myocardial infarction also impacts diastolic function, but this relationship is not as well understood. The two physiologic phases of diastole, active relaxation and passive filling, are both influenced by myocardial ischemia and infarction. Active relaxation is delayed following a myocardial infarction, whereas left ventricular stiffness changes depending on the extent of infarction and remodeling. Interstitial edema and fibrosis cause an increase in wall stiffness which is counteracted by dilation. The effect on diastolic function is correlated to an increased incidence of adverse outcomes. Moreover, patients with comorbid conditions that are associated with worse diastolic function tend to have more adverse outcomes after infarction. There are currently no treatments aimed specifically at treating diastolic dysfunction following a myocardial infarction, but several new drugs, including aldosterone antagonists, may offer promise.

  7. 33 CFR 164.42 - Rate of turn indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rate of turn indicator. 164.42...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.42 Rate of turn indicator. Each vessel of... turn indicator....

  8. Conversational Turn-Taking: An Example with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlich, Patricia; And Others

    While sequencing of speaking turns occurs in both adult and child systems, the adult system is elaborated by nonverbal signaling of speaker/listener roles and is constrained by expectations of speaking turns responsive to a shared topic. Children's speaking turns are not accompanied regularly by nonverbal signals; the speaker role does not require…

  9. Pitch, Loudness, and Turn Regulation in Akan Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between turn-regulation, the phonetic features of pitch, and loudness is examined in a study of two recorded natural conversations in Akan. Analysis of patterns in turn-delimitation suggests that (1) diminuendo loudness, a low pitch height, and falling pitch movement are treated by turn-occupants and their co-participants as…

  10. Turn Openings in Academic Talk: Where Goals and Roles Intersect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evison, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This study uses Corpus Linguistic (CL) techniques to explore multiple turn openings in conjunction with comparative measures of turn-initial priming (the proportion of occurrences of a form that are turn-initial). Using a benchmark corpus of casual conversation as a point of comparison, six frequent items which have a particularly strong affinity…

  11. History of Education in Canada: Historiographic "Turns" and Widening Horizons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno-Jofré, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores major historiographic "turns" in history of education with a focus, although not exclusively, on English-speaking Canada. It addresses the transformative intellectual impact of the turn toward social history on the history of education, the impact of cultural history and the linguistic turn, the reception of Michel…

  12. History of Education in Canada: Historiographic "Turns" and Widening Horizons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno-Jofré, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores major historiographic "turns" in history of education with a focus, although not exclusively, on English-speaking Canada. It addresses the transformative intellectual impact of the turn toward social history on the history of education, the impact of cultural history and the linguistic turn, the reception of Michel…

  13. Left-handed interfaces for electromagnetic surface waves.

    PubMed

    Kats, A V; Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, V A; Nori, Franco

    2007-02-16

    We show that surface electromagnetic waves (SEMWs) propagating along two-dimensional (2D) interfaces separating different metamaterials can behave analogously to 3D electromagnetic waves in either usual or left-handed media, depending on the permeabilities and/or permittivities of the two materials forming the interface. We derive the conditions when SEMWs carry energy opposite to the phase velocity. In analogy to three-dimensional (3D) left-handed media, we derive both an anomalous Cherenkov emission and a reversed Doppler effect. We also predict a negative refraction at the boundary between two different interfaces, which can be useful for perfect 2D lensing.

  14. Adverse effect of failure to turn the avian egg on the embryo oxygen exchange.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, H

    1980-08-01

    Fertile chicken eggs belonging to the same flock of hens were divided into two groups and incubated for 16 days. During incubation, group 1 eggs were turned twice a day and group 2 eggs were left unturned. Blood sampled from the allantoic vein or artery was analyzed for gas tensions (PO2 and PCO2), pH and Hct. These values were compared by unmpaired t-test for significance differences between the two groups. While the differences of PCO2 and pH were found insignificant, failure to turn the eggs caused a pronounced fall in the arterialized PO2 which was accompanied with an increase in Hct. In addition, the embryo weight was reduced in unturned eggs. Lack of turning retarded the absorption of albumen. The unabsorbed albumen interposed between the chorioallantoic membrane and inner shell membrane, impeding the blood oxygenation through the chorioallantois. Little change in PCO2 might be attributed to a large diffusive conductance of the chorioallantois for CO2. The present results suggest that the eggs must be turned periodically during incubation to prevent the distortion of normal oxygen exchange especially for the study of egg respiration.

  15. Removal of single point diamond-turning marks by abrasive jet polishing.

    PubMed

    Li, Z Z; Wang, J M; Peng, X Q; Ho, L T; Yin, Z Q; Li, S Y; Cheung, C F

    2011-06-01

    Single point diamond turning (SPDT) is highly controllable and versatile in producing axially symmetric forms, non-axially-symmetric forms, microstructured surfaces, and free forms. However, the fine SPDT marks left in the surface limit its performance, and they are difficult to reduce or eliminate. It is unpractical for traditional methods to remove the fine marks without destroying their forms, especially for the aspheres and free forms. This paper introduces abrasive jet polishing (AJP) for the posttreatment of diamond-turned surfaces to remove the periodic microstructures. Samples of diamond-turned electroless nickel plated plano mirror were used in the experiments. One sample with an original surface roughness of more than 400 nm decreased to 4 nm after two iterations abrasive jet polishing; the surface roughness of another sample went from 3.7 nm to 1.4 nm after polishing. The periodic signatures on both of the samples were removed entirely after polishing. Contrastive experimental research was carried out on electroless nickel mirror with magnetorheological finishing, computer controlled optical surfacing, and AJP. The experimental results indicate that AJP is more appropriate in removing the periodic SPDT marks. Also, a figure maintaining experiment was carried out with the AJP process; the uniform polishing process shows that the AJP process can remove the periodic turning marks without destroying the original form.

  16. Secondary flow vortices and flow separation of 2-D turning diffuser via particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, N.; Seri, S. M.; Taib, I.; Mohammed, A. N.; Abdullah, M. K.; Sapit, A.

    2017-08-01

    It is often necessary in fluid flow systems to simultaneously decelerate and turn the flow. This can be achieved by employing turning diffusers in the fluid flow systems. The flow through a turning diffuser is complex, apparently due to the expansion and inflexion introduced along the direction of flow. In the present work, the flow characteristics of 2-D turning diffuser by means of varying inflow Reynolds number are investigated. The flow characteristics within the outlet cross-section and longitudinal section were examined respectively by the 3-D stereoscopic PIV and 2-D PIV. The flow uniformity is affected with the increase of inflow Reynolds number due to the dispersion of the core flow throughout the outlet cross-section. It becomes even worse with the presences of secondary flow of 22% to 28%. The secondary flow vortices occur almost the same scale at both left and right sides of the outlet. The flow separation takes place within the inner wall region early on half of the inner wall length and is gradually resolved with the increase of inflow Reynolds number.

  17. The left-sided pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, G.D.; Gibson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    Ultrasonography (US) performed in nine patients (two with pancreatic carcinoma, one with hepatomegaly), six with no relevant abdominal disease) showed the pancreas to lie wholly to the left of the aorta. This not uncommon location may give rise to difficulty in demonstrating the pancreas on real-time US scans. The superior mesenteric vessels and splenic vein remain useful land-marks for locating the head of the pancreas in this position.

  18. Boeing turns over P6 ITS to NASA and commander of STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Boeing workers officially turn over the P6 Integrated Truss Structure to the NASA shuttle integration team in a ceremony in the Space Station Processing Facility. A symbolic key will be presented to Brent Jett (at left), commander on mission STS-97, which is taking the P6 to the International Space Station. Next to Jett are (left to right) Bill Dowdell, mission manager; Mark Sorensen, outboard truss cargo element manager for Boeing; and John Elbon, Boeing ISS director of ground operations at KSC. Among the attendees at left watching the ceremony are other STS- 97 crew members (in uniform, from left) Mission Specialists Joe Tanner and Carlos Noriega and Pilot Mike Bloomfield. Mission STS- 97is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission involves two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at 10:05 p.m. EST.

  19. Boeing turns over P6 ITS to NASA and commander of STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station ground operations officially turn over the P6 Integrated Truss Structure to the NASA shuttle integration team in a ceremony in the Space Station Processing Facility. A symbolic key is presented to Brent Jett (at left), commander on mission STS-97, which is taking the P6 to the International Space Station. Next to him are (left to right) Bill Dowdell, mission manager; Mark Sorensen, outboard truss cargo element manager for Boeing; and John Elbon, Boeing ISS director of ground operations at KSC. Among the attendees at left watching the ceremony are other STS-97 crew members (in uniform, from left) Mission Specialists Joe Tanner and Carlos Noriega and Pilot Mike Bloomfield. Mission STS-97is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission involves two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at 10:05 p.m. EST.

  20. An evaluation system for experimental silicon and silicon carbide super gate turn off thyristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayne, Stephen; Lacouture, Shelby; Lawson, Kevin; Giesselmann, Michael; Scozzie, Charles J.; O'Brien, Heather; Ogunniyi, Aderinto A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a small-scale pulsed power system specifically intended to evaluate the suitability of experimental silicon and silicon carbide high power Super Gate Turn Off thyristors for high action (500 A2 s and above) pulsed power applications where energy is extracted from a storage element in a rapid and controlled manner. To this end, six of each type of device was placed in a controlled three phase rectifier circuit which was in turn connected to an aircraft ground power motor-generator set and subjected to testing protocols with varying power levels, while parameters such as offset firing angle were varied.

  1. A Game of Simon Says: Latin America’s Left Turn and Its Effects on US Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Airmen. Projects selected for publication com- bine solid research, innovative thought, and lucid presentation in exploring war at the operational...the American dream .”38 That being the case, the next obvious question needing to be studied is whether edu- cation levels in the region are rising or

  2. A Right Turn on the Left Coast: Max Rafferty as California State Superintendent of Public Instruction 1963-1971

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The 1960s was a tumultuous decade in American public education. It was a time of transition and change. To many Americans in the early 1960s, Max Rafferty appeared to be a reactionary conservative harking back to an educational past. The longer perspective of history may instead see Rafferty as a harbinger of the educational policies of the 1990s.…

  3. Reaching a turning point--how patients in forensic care describe trajectories of recovery.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Helen; Strand, Susanne; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2014-09-01

    In Sweden, the duration of treatment is increasing for patients admitted to forensic psychiatric care. To reduce the length of stay, it is important for the forensic rehabilitation and recovery process to be effective and safe. Not much is known about how the process of recovery and transition begins and how it is described by the forensic patients. The purpose of this study was to explore how forensic patients with a history of high risk for violence experienced the turn towards recovery. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse interviews with 10 patients who had decreased their assessed risk for violence on the risk assessment instrument HCR-20 and who were successfully managed a lower level of security. Three themes were identified: (i) the high-risk phase: facing intense negative emotions and feelings (ii) the turning point phase: reflecting on and approaching oneself and life in a new way (iii) the recovery phase: recognising, accepting and maturing. In the high-risk phase, chaotic and overwhelming feelings were experienced. The turning point phase was experienced as a sensitive stage, and it was marked by being forced to find a new, constructive way of being. The recovery phase was characterised by recognising personal circumstances in life, including accepting the need for structure, a feeling of maturity and a sense of responsibility for their own life. In order to ensure a successful recovery, the forensic nursing staff needs to recognise and support processes related to treatment motivation and turning points. Recommendations for best nursing practice are given accordingly.

  4. Comparison of Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping and Left Ventricular Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio; Silva, Guilherme V.; Dohman, Hans F.R.; Rocha, Ricardo Mourilhe; Dohman, Hans J.F.; de Mattos, Nelson Durval S.G.; Carvalho, Luis Antonio; Gottschall, Carlos A.M.; Perin, Emerson C.

    2003-01-01

    We performed this prospective cohort study to correlate the findings of left ventricular angiography (LVA) and NOGA™ left ventricular electromechanical mapping (LVEM) in the evaluation of cardiac wall motion and also to establish standards for wall motion assessment by LVEM. Fifty-five patients (35 men; mean age, 60.4 ± 11.8 years) eligible for elective left cardiac catheterization underwent LVA and LVEM. Wall motion scores, LV ejection fractions (LVEF), and LV volumes derived from LVA versus LVEM data were compared and analyzed statistically. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the accuracy of LVEM in distinguishing between normal, hypokinetic, and akinetic/dyskinetic wall motion. Mean LVEM procedure time was 37 ± 11 minutes. The LVEM and LVA findings differed for mean LVEF (55% ± 13% vs 36% ± 9%), mean end-systolic volume (56 ± 13 mL vs 36 ± 10 mL), and mean end-diastolic volume (174 ± 104 mL vs 123 ± 65 mL). Mean wall motion scores (± SD) for normokinetic, hypokinetic, and akinetic/dyskinetic segments were 13.9% ± 5.6%, 8.3% ± 5.2%, and 3.2% ± 3.1%, respectively. Cutpoints for differentiating between wall motion types were 12% and 6%. The ROC curves showed LVEM to have a 93% accuracy in differentiating between normokinetic and akinetic/dyskinetic segments and a 73% accuracy between normokinetic and hypokinetic segments. These data suggest that LVEM can differentiate between normal and abnormal cardiac wall motion, although it is more accurate at differentiating between normokinetic and akinetic/dyskinetic motion than between normokinetic and hypokinetic motion. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:19–26) PMID:12638666

  5. Computational microscopy: Turning megapixels into gigapixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmeyer, Roarke

    The layout of a typical optical microscope has remained effectively unchanged over the past century. Besides the widespread adoption of digital focal plane arrays, relatively few innovations have helped improve standard imaging with bright-field microscopes. This thesis presents a new microscope imaging method, termed Fourier ptychography, which uses an LED to provide variable sample illumination and post-processing algorithms to recover useful sample information. Examples include increasing the resolution of megapixel-scale images to one gigapixel, measuring quantitative phase, achieving oil-immersion quality resolution without an immersion medium, and recovering complex three dimensional sample structure.

  6. Extension of the classical classification of β-turns.

    PubMed

    de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2016-09-15

    The functional properties of a protein primarily depend on its three-dimensional (3D) structure. These properties have classically been assigned, visualized and analysed on the basis of protein secondary structures. The β-turn is the third most important secondary structure after helices and β-strands. β-turns have been classified according to the values of the dihedral angles φ and ψ of the central residue. Conventionally, eight different types of β-turns have been defined, whereas those that cannot be defined are classified as type IV β-turns. This classification remains the most widely used. Nonetheless, the miscellaneous type IV β-turns represent 1/3(rd) of β-turn residues. An unsupervised specific clustering approach was designed to search for recurrent new turns in the type IV category. The classical rules of β-turn type assignment were central to the approach. The four most frequently occurring clusters defined the new β-turn types. Unexpectedly, these types, designated IV1, IV2, IV3 and IV4, represent half of the type IV β-turns and occur more frequently than many of the previously established types. These types show convincing particularities, in terms of both structures and sequences that allow for the classical β-turn classification to be extended for the first time in 25 years.

  7. Protein beta-turn prediction using nearest-neighbor method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saejoon

    2004-01-01

    With the emerging success of protein secondary structure prediction through the applications of various statistical and machine learning techniques, similar techniques have been applied to protein beta-turn prediction. In this study, we perform protein beta-turn prediction using a k-nearest neighbor method, which is combined with a filter that uses predicted protein secondary structure information. Traditional beta-turn prediction from k-nearest neighbor method is modified to account for the unbalanced ratio of the natural occurrence of beta-turns and non-beta-turns. Our prediction scheme is tested on a set of 426 non-homologous protein sequences. The prediction scheme consists of two stages: k-nearest neighbor method stage and filtering stage. Variations of the k-nearest neighbor method were used to take property of beta-turns into consideration. Our filtering method uses beta-turn/non-beta-turn estimates from the k-nearest neighbor method stage and predicted protein secondary structure information from PSI-PRED in order to get new beta-turn/non-beta-turn estimate. Our result is compared with the previously best known beta-turn prediction method on the dataset of 426 non-homologous protein sequences and is shown to give slightly superior performance at significantly lower computational complexity. Contact the author for information on the source code of the programs used.

  8. Extension of the classical classification of β-turns

    PubMed Central

    de Brevern, Alexandre G.

    2016-01-01

    The functional properties of a protein primarily depend on its three-dimensional (3D) structure. These properties have classically been assigned, visualized and analysed on the basis of protein secondary structures. The β-turn is the third most important secondary structure after helices and β-strands. β-turns have been classified according to the values of the dihedral angles φ and ψ of the central residue. Conventionally, eight different types of β-turns have been defined, whereas those that cannot be defined are classified as type IV β-turns. This classification remains the most widely used. Nonetheless, the miscellaneous type IV β-turns represent 1/3rd of β-turn residues. An unsupervised specific clustering approach was designed to search for recurrent new turns in the type IV category. The classical rules of β-turn type assignment were central to the approach. The four most frequently occurring clusters defined the new β-turn types. Unexpectedly, these types, designated IV1, IV2, IV3 and IV4, represent half of the type IV β-turns and occur more frequently than many of the previously established types. These types show convincing particularities, in terms of both structures and sequences that allow for the classical β-turn classification to be extended for the first time in 25 years. PMID:27627963

  9. Faller Classification in Older Adults Using Wearable Sensors Based on Turn and Straight-Walking Accelerometer-Based Features.

    PubMed

    Drover, Dylan; Howcroft, Jennifer; Kofman, Jonathan; Lemaire, Edward D

    2017-06-07

    Faller classification in elderly populations can facilitate preventative care before a fall occurs. A novel wearable-sensor based faller classification method for the elderly was developed using accelerometer-based features from straight walking and turns. Seventy-six older individuals (74.15 ± 7.0 years), categorized as prospective fallers and non-fallers, completed a six-minute walk test with accelerometers attached to their lower legs and pelvis. After segmenting straight and turn sections, cross validation tests were conducted on straight and turn walking features to assess classification performance. The best "classifier model-feature selector" combination used turn data, random forest classifier, and select-5-best feature selector (73.4% accuracy, 60.5% sensitivity, 82.0% specificity, and 0.44 Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC)). Using only the most frequently occurring features, a feature subset (minimum of anterior-posterior ratio of even/odd harmonics for right shank, standard deviation (SD) of anterior left shank acceleration SD, SD of mean anterior left shank acceleration, maximum of medial-lateral first quartile of Fourier transform (FQFFT) for lower back, maximum of anterior-posterior FQFFT for lower back) achieved better classification results, with 77.3% accuracy, 66.1% sensitivity, 84.7% specificity, and 0.52 MCC score. All classification performance metrics improved when turn data was used for faller classification, compared to straight walking data. Combining turn and straight walking features decreased performance metrics compared to turn features for similar classifier model-feature selector combinations.

  10. Turning the tables: language and spatial reasoning.

    PubMed

    Li, Peggy; Gleitman, Lila

    2002-04-01

    This paper investigates possible influences of the lexical resources of individual languages on the spatial organization and reasoning styles of their users. That there are such powerful and pervasive influences of language on thought is the thesis of the Whorf-Sapir linguistic relativity hypothesis which, after a lengthy period in intellectual limbo, has recently returned to prominence in the anthropological, linguistic, and psycholinguistic literatures. Our point of departure is an influential group of cross-linguistic studies that appear to show that spatial reasoning is strongly affected by the spatial lexicon in everyday use in a community (e.g. Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1993). Linguistic and nonlinguistic coding of spatial arrays: explorations in Mayan cognition (Working Paper No. 24). Nijmegen: Cognitive Anthropology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics; Cognitive Linguistics 6 (1995) 33). Specifically, certain groups customarily use an externally referenced spatial-coordinate system to refer to nearby directions and positions ("to the north") whereas English speakers usually employ a viewer-perspective system ("to the left"). Prior findings and interpretations have been to the effect that users of these two types of spatial system solve rotation problems in different ways, reasoning strategies imposed by habitual use of the language-particular lexicons themselves. The present studies reproduce these different problem-solving strategies in speakers of a single language (English) by manipulating landmark cues, suggesting that language itself may not be the key causal factor in choice of spatial perspective. Prior evidence on rotation problem solution from infants (e.g. Acredolo, L.P. (1979). Laboratory versus home: the effect of environment on the 9-month-old infant's choice of spatial reference system. Developmental Psychology, 15 (6), 666-667) and from laboratory animals (e.g. Restle, F. (1975). Discrimination of cues in mazes: a

  11. Automated left ventricular capture management.

    PubMed

    Crossley, George H; Mead, Hardwin; Kleckner, Karen; Sheldon, Todd; Davenport, Lynn; Harsch, Manya R; Parikh, Purvee; Ramza, Brian; Fishel, Robert; Bailey, J Russell

    2007-10-01

    The stimulation thresholds of left ventricular (LV) leads tend to be less reliable than conventional leads. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) requires continuous capture of both ventricles. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a novel algorithm for the automatic measurement of the stimulation threshold of LV leads in cardiac resynchronization systems. We enrolled 134 patients from 18 centers who had existing CRT-D systems. Software capable of automatically executing LV threshold measurements was downloaded into the random access memory (RAM) of the device. The threshold was measured by pacing in the left ventricle and analyzing the interventricular conduction sensed in the right ventricle. Automatic LV threshold measurements were collected and compared with manual LV threshold tests at each follow-up visit and using a Holter monitor system that recorded both the surface electrocardiograph (ECG) and continuous telemetry from the device. The proportion of Left Ventricular Capture Management (LVCM) in-office threshold tests within one programming step of the manual threshold test was 99.7% (306/307) with a two-sided 95% confidence interval of (98.2%, 100.0%). The algorithm measured the threshold successfully in 96% and 97% of patients after 1 and 3 months respectively. Holter monitor analysis in a subset of patients revealed accurate performance of the algorithm. This study demonstrated that the LVCM algorithm is safe, accurate, and highly reliable. LVCM worked with different types of leads and different lead locations. LVCM was demonstrated to be clinically equivalent to the manual LV threshold test. LVCM offers automatic measurement, output adaptation, and trends of the LV threshold and should result in improved ability to maintain LV capture without sacrificing device longevity.

  12. Searching for Criteria in Evaluating the Monofin Swimming Turn from the Perspective of Coaching and Improving Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rejman, Marek; Borowska, Grażyna

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analysise the selected kinematic parameters of the monofin swimming turn. The high complexity of performing turns is hindered by the large surface of the monofin, which disturbs control and sense of the body in water. A lack of objective data available on monofin swimming turns has resulted in field research connected with the specification of parameters needed for the evaluation of the technique. Therefore, turns observed in elite swimmers contain underlying conclusions for objective criteria, ensuring the highest level of coaching and the improving of turns in young swimmers. Six, high level, male swimmers participated in the study. The subject of the analysis was the fastest turn, from one out of three trial turns made after swimming a distance of 25 m. Images of the turns were collected from two cameras located under water in accordance with the procedures of the previous analyses of freestyle turns. The images were digitized and analysed by the SIMI®- Movement Analysis System. The interdependency of the total turn time and the remaining recorded parameters, constituted the basis for analysis of the kinematic parameters of five turn phases. The interdependency was measured using r- Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The novel character of the subject covered in this study, forced interpretation of the results on the basis of turn analyses in freestyle swimming. The results allow for the creation of a diagram outlinig area of search for an effective and efficient monofin swimming turn mechanism. The activities performed from the moment of wall contact until the commencement of stroking seem to be crucial for turn improvement. A strong belief has resulted that, the correct monofin swimming turn, is more than just a simple consequence of the fastest performance of all its components. The most important criteria in evaluating the quality of the monofin swimming turn are: striving for the optimal extension of wall contact time, push-off time

  13. Peptidomimetic design of unusual turns by incorporating flexible and rigid ω-amino acids simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Sudeshna; Drew, Michael G. B.; Pramanik, Animesh

    2010-01-01

    The tripeptides Boc-Gly-Aib- m-ABA-OMe ( I), Boc-βAla-Aib- m-ABA-OMe ( II) and Boc-γAbu-Aib- m-ABA-OMe ( III) (Aib: α-aminoisobutyric acid, βAla: β-alanine, γAbu: γ-aminobutyric acid, m-ABA: meta-aminobenzoic acid) with homologated amino acids at the N-terminus, the rigid γ-amino acid m-ABA at the C-terminus and the helicogenic Aib at the central position have been chosen to create unusual turns. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, solvent dependent NMR titrations and 2D NMR analysis reveal that peptides II and III adopt unusual turns of 11- and 12-membered rings stabilized by modified 4 → 1 type intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Solution phase studies indicate that peptide I exists in the β-turn conformation stabilized by 10-membered intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

  14. Age-related modifications in steering behaviour: effects of base-of-support constraints at the turn point.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Maxime R; Fuller, Jason R; Adkin, Allan L; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of altering the base of support (BOS) at the turn point on anticipatory locomotor adjustments during voluntary changes in travel direction in healthy young and older adults. Participants were required to walk at their preferred pace along a 3-m straight travel path and continue to walk straight ahead or turn 40 degrees to the left or right for an additional 2-m. The starting foot and occasionally the gait starting point were adjusted so that participants had to execute the turn using a cross-over step with a narrow BOS or a lead-out step with a wide BOS. Spatial and temporal gait variables, magnitudes of angular segmental movement, and timing and sequencing of body segment reorientation were similar despite executing the turn with a narrow or wide BOS. A narrow BOS during turning generated an increased step width in the step prior to the turn for both young and older adults. Age-related changes when turning included reduced step velocity and step length for older compared to young adults. Age-related changes in the timing and sequencing of body segment reorientation prior to the turn point were also observed. A reduction in walking speed and an increase in step width just prior to the turn, combined with a delay in motion of the center of mass suggests that older adults used a more cautious combined foot placement and hip strategy to execute changes in travel direction compared to young adults. The results of this study provide insight into mobility constraints during a common locomotor task in older adults.

  15. [Haemangioma of the left atrium].

    PubMed

    Revishvili, A Sh; Popov, V A; Korostelev, A N; Il'ina, M V; Goloviuk, A L; Kalinin, D V

    Presented herein is a clinical case report concerning successful surgical management of a rare variety of a primary tumour of the heart, i. e., a capillary haemangioma of the left atrium, simulating by the contours and localization a myxoma. The final diagnosis was verified only by histological examination. The authors describe difficulties of diagnosis of the disease involved, underlying the necessity of plastic correction for restoration of the normal anatomical configuration of the heart. This is followed by a review of the literature, reflecting a possible course of the disease, problems of diagnosis, and therapeutic policy.

  16. Do Left- and Right-Handed People Have Similar Iron Deposition in the Basal Ganglia?

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Li, Yue-Hua; Wang, He

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether right-, left-, or mixed-handed people differ in terms of iron deposition using susceptibility weighted imaging in healthy subjects. A total of 87 people (right-handed, 51 subjects; left-handed, 19 subjects; mixed-handed, 17 subjects) aged 20 to 40 years participated. All underwent magnetic resonance examination, including conventional and susceptibility weighted imaging sequences. Phase images were used to quantify iron deposition in the head of the caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus. The radian angle value was calculated and compared between the 3 (right-, left-, or mixed-handed) groups. There was no significant difference in the radian angle values between left-, right-, or mixed-handed people for either the right or left side of the caudate nucleus head. However, the amount of iron deposition in the left lenticular nucleus was significantly higher for right-handed than for the left-handed subjects (P < 0.001) and significantly higher for mixed-handed than for left-handed subjects (P = 0.006). In addition, the amount of iron deposition in the right lenticular nucleus was significantly lower for left-handed than for right-handed subjects (P < 0.001). The results revealed no significant differences in iron deposition in the head of the caudate nucleus. However, there was a significant difference in iron deposition in the lenticular nucleus between left- and right-handed subjects and between left- and mixed-handed subjects.

  17. Tracking the Turn Maneuvering Target Using the Multi-Target Bayes Filter with an Adaptive Estimation of Turn Rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zong-Xiang; Wu, De-Hui; Xie, Wei-Xin; Li, Liang-Qun

    2017-02-15

    Tracking the target that maneuvers at a variable turn rate is a challenging problem. The traditional solution for this problem is the use of the switching multiple models technique, which includes several dynamic models with different turn rates for matching the motion mode of the target at each point in time. However, the actual motion mode of a target at any time may be different from all of the dynamic models, because these models are usually limited. To address this problem, we establish a formula for estimating the turn rate of a maneuvering target. By applying the estimation method of the turn rate to the multi-target Bayes (MB) filter, we develop a MB filter with an adaptive estimation of the turn rate, in order to track multiple maneuvering targets. Simulation results indicate that the MB filter with an adaptive estimation of the turn rate, is better than the existing filter at tracking the target that maneuvers at a variable turn rate.

  18. Revisiting GNRA and UNCG folds: U-turns versus Z-turns in RNA hairpin loops

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    When thinking about RNA three-dimensional structures, coming across GNRA and UNCG tetraloops is perceived as a boon since their folds have been extensively described. Nevertheless, analyzing loop conformations within RNA and RNP structures led us to uncover several instances of GNRA and UNCG loops that do not fold as expected. We noticed that when a GNRA does not assume its “natural” fold, it adopts the one we typically associate with a UNCG sequence. The same folding interconversion may occur for loops with UNCG sequences, for instance within tRNA anticodon loops. Hence, we show that some structured tetranucleotide sequences starting with G or U can adopt either of these folds. The underlying structural basis that defines these two fold types is the mutually exclusive stacking of a backbone oxygen on either the first (in GNRA) or the last nucleobase (in UNCG), generating an oxygen–π contact. We thereby propose to refrain from using sequences to distinguish between loop conformations. Instead, we suggest using descriptors such as U-turn (for “GNRA-type” folds) and a newly described Z-turn (for “UNCG-type” folds). Because tetraloops adopt for the largest part only two (inter)convertible turns, we are better able to interpret from a structural perspective loop interchangeability occurring in ribosomes and viral RNA. In this respect, we propose a general view on the inclination for a given sequence to adopt (or not) a specific fold. We also suggest how long-noncoding RNAs may adopt discrete but transient structures, which are therefore hard to predict. PMID:27999116

  19. Revisiting GNRA and UNCG folds: U-turns versus Z-turns in RNA hairpin loops.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Leonarski, Filip; Vicens, Quentin; Auffinger, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    When thinking about RNA three-dimensional structures, coming across GNRA and UNCG tetraloops is perceived as a boon since their folds have been extensively described. Nevertheless, analyzing loop conformations within RNA and RNP structures led us to uncover several instances of GNRA and UNCG loops that do not fold as expected. We noticed that when a GNRA does not assume its "natural" fold, it adopts the one we typically associate with a UNCG sequence. The same folding interconversion may occur for loops with UNCG sequences, for instance within tRNA anticodon loops. Hence, we show that some structured tetranucleotide sequences starting with G or U can adopt either of these folds. The underlying structural basis that defines these two fold types is the mutually exclusive stacking of a backbone oxygen on either the first (in GNRA) or the last nucleobase (in UNCG), generating an oxygen-π contact. We thereby propose to refrain from using sequences to distinguish between loop conformations. Instead, we suggest using descriptors such as U-turn (for "GNRA-type" folds) and a newly described Z-turn (for "UNCG-type" folds). Because tetraloops adopt for the largest part only two (inter)convertible turns, we are better able to interpret from a structural perspective loop interchangeability occurring in ribosomes and viral RNA. In this respect, we propose a general view on the inclination for a given sequence to adopt (or not) a specific fold. We also suggest how long-noncoding RNAs may adopt discrete but transient structures, which are therefore hard to predict.

  20. Plasticity of the RNA Kink Turn Structural Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Antonioli, A.; Cochrane, J; Lipchock, S; Strobel, S

    2010-01-01

    The kink turn (K-turn) is an RNA structural motif found in many biologically significant RNAs. While most examples of the K-turn have a similar fold, the crystal structure of the Azoarcus group I intron revealed a novel RNA conformation, a reverse kink turn bent in the direction opposite that of a consensus K-turn. The reverse K-turn is bent toward the major grooves rather than the minor grooves of the flanking helices, yet the sequence differs from the K-turn consensus by only a single nucleotide. Here we demonstrate that the reverse bend direction is not solely defined by internal sequence elements, but is instead affected by structural elements external to the K-turn. It bends toward the major groove under the direction of a tetraloop-tetraloop receptor. The ability of one sequence to form two distinct structures demonstrates the inherent plasticity of the K-turn sequence. Such plasticity suggests that the K-turn is not a primary element in RNA folding, but instead is shaped by other structural elements within the RNA or ribonucleoprotein assembly.

  1. Measurement and comparison of taekwondo and yongmudo turning kick impact force for two target heights.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, David; Chung, Chulsoo; Lee, Kikwang; Kim, Euihwan; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Taewhan; Shin, Insik

    2009-11-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to compare the impact characteristics of Taekwondo (TKD) and Yongmudo (YMD) player's turning kick according to the target height. 5 highly skilled YMD and 5 TKD players participated in this study. To measure the impact force, two accelerometers were fixed to a PVC pipe in a sandbag. Each participant performed 10 turning kicks trunk and face height in random order. Only the trial with the most accurate (most central impact) measurement was used in the statistical analysis (p < 0.05).There was a significant difference for impact force according to the target height approximately 6400 ± 898 N, 6393 ± 1382 N for the mid section and 5419 ± 659 N, 5475 ± 1293 N for the high section of TKD and YMD groups, but not between groups. The swing phase for the TKD group was significantly shorter than the YMD group's. The TKD groups' recovery phase of the trunk height turning kick was significantly shorter. There was a difference in the players' center of mass (COM) movement as the TKD players' moved significantly more forward, suggesting that the TKD players tended to slide towards the target during the execution of the kick. In conclusion, as the turning kick was performed quicker by the TKD players with a similar impact force and more forward motion, it is evaluated to be a better technique of turning kicking. Key PointsThis impact force measuring device had a significantly smaller standard deviation then that of impact force measuring devices.There was a significant difference between the impact forces according to the height approximately 6400 ± 898N, 6393 ± 1382N for the mid section and 5419 ± 659N, 5475 ± 1293N for the high section of TKD and YMD groups.The turning kick was performed quicker by the TKD players with a similar impact force and more forward motion.

  2. Measurement and Comparison of Taekwondo and Yongmudo Turning Kick Impact Force for Two Target Heights

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, David; Chung, Chulsoo; Lee, Kikwang; Kim, Euihwan; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Taewhan; Shin, Insik

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to compare the impact characteristics of Taekwondo (TKD) and Yongmudo (YMD) player’s turning kick according to the target height. 5 highly skilled YMD and 5 TKD players participated in this study. To measure the impact force, two accelerometers were fixed to a PVC pipe in a sandbag. Each participant performed 10 turning kicks trunk and face height in random order. Only the trial with the most accurate (most central impact) measurement was used in the statistical analysis (p < 0.05).There was a significant difference for impact force according to the target height approximately 6400 ± 898 N, 6393 ± 1382 N for the mid section and 5419 ± 659 N, 5475 ± 1293 N for the high section of TKD and YMD groups, but not between groups. The swing phase for the TKD group was significantly shorter than the YMD group’s. The TKD groups’ recovery phase of the trunk height turning kick was significantly shorter. There was a difference in the players’ center of mass (COM) movement as the TKD players’ moved significantly more forward, suggesting that the TKD players tended to slide towards the target during the execution of the kick. In conclusion, as the turning kick was performed quicker by the TKD players with a similar impact force and more forward motion, it is evaluated to be a better technique of turning kicking. Key Points This impact force measuring device had a significantly smaller standard deviation then that of impact force measuring devices. There was a significant difference between the impact forces according to the height approximately 6400 ± 898N, 6393 ± 1382N for the mid section and 5419 ± 659N, 5475 ± 1293N for the high section of TKD and YMD groups. The turning kick was performed quicker by the TKD players with a similar impact force and more forward motion. PMID:24474880

  3. Facts about Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... left and right sides of the heart: the patent ductus arteriosus and the patent foramen ovale . Normally, these openings will close a ... functioning left side of the heart through the patent ductus arteriosus and the patent foramen ovale. The ...

  4. Phase analysis of the first pass radionuclide angiocardiogram.

    PubMed Central

    Walton, S; Ell, P J; Jarritt, P H; Swanton, R H

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-two subjects with suspected coronary artery disease were studied by first pass radionuclide angiocardiography using a single crystal gamma camera. Phase analysis, a new technique which can detect ventricular regions with abnormal emptying patterns, was applied to the resulting left ventricular radionuclide angiocardiograms. Eighteen turned out be normal and in these subjects the variation of phase values in each of eight ventricular segments was established. Thirty-four had coronary artery disease. By comparison with the normal subjects, 21 had at least one segment with an abnormally high phase value. Such high values were associated with low values of ejection fraction, as determined by a radionuclide technique, total occlusion of a major coronary artery and significant wall motion abnormalities on the radiographic ventriculogram. A comparison between phase analysis and wall motion on a regional basis disclosed progressively high phase values with increasing severity of wall motion abnormality. Particularly high values were found in association with ventricular aneurysm. Phase analysis of first pass radionuclide angiocardiograms is a valid method for the detection of regional abnormalities of ventricular contraction in coronary artery disease. Images PMID:7138707

  5. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B and left bundle-branch block: electrophysiologic and radionuclide study

    SciTech Connect

    Rakovec, P.; Kranjec, I.; Fettich, J.J.; Jakopin, J.; Fidler, V.; Turk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Coinciding left bundle-branch block and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B, a very rare electrocardiographic occurrence, was found in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. Electrophysiologic study revealed eccentric retrograde atrial activation during ventricular pacing, suggesting right-sided accessory pathway. At programmed atrial pacing, effective refractory period of the accessory pathway was 310 ms; at shorter pacing coupling intervals, normal atrioventricular conduction with left bundle-branch block was seen. Left bundle-branch block was seen also with His bundle pacing. Radionuclide phase imaging demonstrated right ventricular phase advance and left ventricular phase delay; both right and left ventricular phase images revealed broad phase distribution histograms. Combined electrophysiologic and radionuclide investigations are useful to disclose complex conduction abnormalities and their mechanical correlates.

  6. Experimental Investigation of White Layer formation in Hard Turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbrello, D.; Rotella, G.; Crea, F.

    2011-05-01

    Hard turning with super hard cutting tools, like PCBN or Ceramics inserts, represents an interesting advance in the manufacturing industry, regarding the finishing of hardened steels. This innovative machining technique is considered an attractive alternative to traditional finish grinding operations because of the high flexibility, the ability to achieve higher metal removal rates, the possibility to operate without the use of coolants, and the capability to achieve comparable workpiece quality. However, the surface integrity effects of hard machining need to be taken into account due to their influence on the life of machined components. In particular, the formation of a usually undesirable white layer at the surface needs further investigation. Three different mechanisms have been proposed as main responsible of the white layer genesis: (i) microstructural phase transformation due to a rapid heating and quenching, (ii) severe plastic deformation resulting in a homogenous structure and/or a very fine grain size microstructure; (iii) surface reaction with the environment. In this research, an experimental campaign was carried out and several experimental techniques were used in order to analyzed the machined surface and to understand which of the above mentioned theories is the main cause of the white layer formation when AISI 52100 hardened steel is machined by PCBN inserts. In particular, the topography characterization has obtained by means of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while microstructural phase composition and chemical characterization have been respectively detected using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The results prove that the white layer is the result of microstructural alteration, i.e. the generation of a martensitic structure.

  7. Phasic Compression of Left Circumflex Coronary Artery during Atrial Systole.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Edward Samuel; Agarwal, Ajay

    2017-04-01

    Phasic coronary artery compression is typically associated with spasm or myocardial bridging. Compression caused by acquired anatomic changes to the surrounding heart chambers has been reported only infrequently. We present a possibly unique case of phasic compression of the proximal left circumflex coronary artery during atrial contraction in association with a dilated left atrium. A 55-year-old man with multiple cardiac risk factors presented with worsening exertional dyspnea. An electrocardiogram and echocardiogram revealed marked left atrial dilation and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.15 to 0.20 with elevated filling pressures. Angiograms showed compression of the proximal segment of the left circumflex coronary artery during late ventricular diastole: the compression occurred in phase with atrial systole, whereas good flow without compression was present during atrial diastole. We attributed this phenomenon to ballooning of the lateral region of the atrial wall toward the atrioventricular groove during atrial systole. The patient complied with antihypertensive therapy, and his status improved after one year. To identify coronary artery compression in the presence of abnormal chamber geometry and to guide the treatment of the contributing medical conditions, we recommend careful analysis of angiographic results.

  8. Excimer lasers turning flexible: variable marking with micromirror devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntze, Thomas; Klotzbach, Udo; Beyer, Eckhard

    2004-07-01

    Higher and higher through-puts in marking industry are todays requirements: especially part-by-part varying markings like serial numbers, weight, date or barcodes are asked for. Taking advantage of the photosensitivity of commonly used opigments like titanium oxide marking industry is interested in turning existing excimer laser marking processes into a flexible, high-speed on-the-fly marking technique. Current laser marking techniques like direct writing using a scanned laser beam offer flexibility but have limitations with sensitive materials like paper or plastics. Excimer laser mask projection technique is best suitable for sensitive materials but up to now has the drawback of invariability due to fixed transmittive masks. The Fraunhofer IWS developed a marking system using excimer laser mask projection with a micro mirror device (MMD) as 'flexible mask'. With up to 2 million separate controllable micro mirrors the MMD provides variability: with every single laser pulse a new complex marking can be achieved. To demostrate the capabilities the FhG IWS used a 308nm excimer laser and a reflective phase-shifting mask from FhG IMS. It was possible to generate free-programmable, high-contrast markings on materials like paper and plastic. Furthermore, it could be shown that the technique is also usable to generate 3D structures in PI. Result of the studies is the development of a very fast marking technique using MMDs in combination with short wavelength and short pulse lasers. It also has high potential in 3D laser micromachining.

  9. [Echocardiographic and Doppler echocardiographic characterization of left ventricular diastolic function].

    PubMed

    Muscholl, M; Dennig, K; Kraus, F; Rudolph, W

    1990-12-01

    atrial filling phase which characterize the ventricular filling and the diameter changes of the left ventricle during these time intervals can be derived. The maximal velocity of the diastolic diameter change (PFR) is used to characterize the maximal early diastolic flow. The atrial emptying index characterizes the fraction of filling volume in the first third of diastole with respect to total filling volume of the left ventricle. As an indirect parameter for description of the early-diastolic filling, the steepness of the early-diastolic closure of the anterior mitral leaflet is used. From Doppler velocity profiles of the mitral inflow, early and late diastolic maximal velocities and their velocity time integrals as well as the relationships of these parameters to each other are determined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  10. Left supraclavicular spindle cell lipoma.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, Oladejo; Fu, Bertram; Moorthy, Ram; Lawson, Charles; Black, Myles; Mitchell, David

    2010-01-01

    Background. Spindle cell lipoma (SCL) is a benign lipomatous tumour, typically occurring in the posterior neck, shoulder or upper back of elderly males. They compose of fat, CD34 positive spindle cells, and ropey collagen on a myxoid matrix. This case highlights a rare presentation of SCL and the need for pre-operative diagnosis. Case Report. A 63-year-old gentleman presented with a pre-existing left supraclavicular mass that had recently increased in size. FNA and CT Scans were performed and results discussed in the mutidisciplinary team meeting. Excisional biopsy was recommended. Radiology. CT neck showed a left supraclavicular mass of fatty density with fine internal septations. A low-grade liposarcoma could not be excluded. Histopathology. FNA was indeterminate. Histology of specimen showed bland spindle cells with no evidence of malignancy. Immuno-histochemistry showed SCL with CD34 positivity and negative staining on CDK4 and p16. Management. Excision biopsy of the mass was performed which was technically difficult as the mass invaginated around the brachial plexus. The patient recovered well post-operatively with no neurological deficits. Conclusion. Spindle cell lipoma is a rare benign tumour and a pre-operative diagnosis based on the clinical context, imaging and immuno-histochemistry is crucial to management.

  11. [Pulmonary hypertension caused by left heart disease].

    PubMed

    Erer, Betül; Eren, Mehmet

    2010-09-01

    Increased resistance to pulmonary venous drainage is the main mechanism in pulmonary hypertension (PH) developing due to left heart disease. This condition may occur as a result of various diseases affecting left ventricle, left atrium, mitral or aortic valves. Pulmonary hypertension is the common and well-recognized complication of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension accompanying chronic heart failure is related to increased mortality. Treatment should be tailored according to the underlying disease.

  12. Transcortical mixed aphasia with left frontoparietal lesions.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, S; Uematsu, Y; Terada, T; Nakai, K; Itakura, T; Komai, N

    1996-05-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia following a left frontoparietal infarct caused by vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Although CT showed low-density areas in the left frontal lobe and basal ganglia, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere, except for the left perisylvian speech areas. Hence, transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas due to disconnection from surrounding areas.

  13. Micro-simulation of vehicle conflicts involving right-turn vehicles at signalized intersections based on cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D

    2014-02-01

    At intersection, vehicles coming from different directions conflict with each other. Improper geometric design and signal settings at signalized intersection will increase occurrence of conflicts between road users and results in a reduction of the safety level. This study established a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate vehicular interactions involving right-turn vehicles (as similar to left-turn vehicles in US). Through various simulation scenarios for four case cross-intersections, the relationships between conflict occurrences involving right-turn vehicles with traffic volume and right-turn movement control strategies are analyzed. Impacts of traffic volume, permissive right-turn compared to red-amber-green (RAG) arrow, shared straight-through and right-turn lane as well as signal setting are estimated from simulation results. The simulation model is found to be able to provide reasonable assessment of conflicts through comparison of existed simulation approach and observed accidents. Through the proposed approach, prediction models for occurrences and severity of vehicle conflicts can be developed for various geometric layouts and traffic control strategies.

  14. [About the turning point in a nurse's life when giving up the profession. A qualitative-empirical study on the willingness to continue to work and on the conditions for continuing to work in the post-professional phase of life].

    PubMed

    Schöbel, Jacqueline; Rester, David; Them, Christa; Seeberger, Bernd

    2010-10-01

    Due to the increasing life expectancy and population ageing, the post-professional phase of life is becoming more and more important to the individual and to society as a whole. The perception of the potentials of elderly people and, hence, the call for self-directed and independent activities in the post-professional phase are becoming more intense. The relation between retirement and work in nurses has not been of scientific importance so far. This is primarily due to the assumption that nurses cannot or do not stay in their profession until retirement. However, nurses do manage to pursue their profession continuously and permanently until they reach the age of retirement. The aim of this qualitative research study is to investigate the post-professional phase of life of former nurses within the context of the profession pursued. The guiding research questions in this regard were: How do former nurses spend their retirement period? How do nurses use their nursing-related abilities and experiences in their postprofessional phase of life? What do nurses associate with their former profession in the post-professional phase of life? In one-to-one interviews, these questions were posed to eight retired nurses who had pursued their profession for many years. The assessment instruments used were a socio-demographic questionnaire, a guideline and a record from memory. All data were summarized and evaluated analytically with regard to their content according to Mayring (2008). The present article shows the partial results of the study on retirement and work in the post-professional life of nurses. The results indicate that the transition to retirement is often accompanied by problems, that retired nurses do not fundamentally refuse to continue to work and that the willingness to continue to work is subject to certain conditions. Reasons and conditions for and against profession-based post-professional activities were revealed. Consequentially, concepts for the systematic

  15. Turning by buckling: a cheap evolutionary strategy for turning among marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Kwangmin; Guasto, Jeffrey; Stocker, Roman

    2012-02-01

    Marine bacteria have long been known to swim forward and backward (`run and reverse') by controlling the rotational direction of a 20 nm helical flagellum. Recent detailed observations have shown that these bacteria can also make sharp, ˜90^o turns, an astounding feature for a micron-scale organism with just one degree of freedom under its control. We demonstrate that a buckling instability originating from the flexible linkage (`hook') between the body and the flagellum is responsible for the reorientation. Using high-magnification (40˜100X) observations based on high-speed video microscopy (420˜1000 fps), we captured the extreme deformation of the flagellum and the hook involved in this process. The mechanical properties of the hook are finely tuned to the hydrodynamic loads experienced by the cell: the hook becomes unstable only when the compressive load during the onset of forward swimming exceeds the threshold for Euler buckling. Combining the data with a model of buckling of thin structures, we show that bacteria take advantage of the flexibility of the flagellum and the hook to generate a turn, which may represent the evolutionarily cheapest bacterial strategy to actively change direction.

  16. The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costas, Elaine Fowler

    The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

  17. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  18. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  19. The use of data turning in airborne radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightstone, L.; Faubert, D.

    Data turning is a digital signal processing method that achieves good signal-to-noise ratio and target/interference resolution while reducing the number of pulses processed in the discrete Fourier transform/fast Fourier transform operation. A mathematical description is provided of data turning, along with a mathematical example of the impact of data turning on a bank of discrete Fourier transform filters. Data turning is discussed from the frequency domain and time domain perspectives, and a simulated performance example is taken from an airborne pulse doppler radar system. It is shown that data turning can, with a proper choice of signal processing parameters, approximate the integration improvement of non-coherent integration. Data turning can be significantly faster than either full coherent processing or non-coherent processing.

  20. Analysis of a turning point problem in flight trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, C.

    1989-01-01

    The optimal control policy for the aeroglide portion of the minimum fuel, orbital plane change problem for maneuvering entry vehicles is reduced to the solution of a turning point problem for the bank angle control. For this problem a turning point occurs at the minimum altitude of the flight, when the flight path angle equals zero. The turning point separates the bank angle control into two outer solutions that are valid away from the turning point. In a neighborhood of the turning point, where the bank angle changes rapidly, an inner solution is developed and matched with the two outer solutions. An asymptotic analysis of the turning point problem is given, and an analytic example is provided to illustrate the construction of the bank angle control.

  1. On the Predictability of Substorms Following Sharp Northward Turnings of the IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, G. T.; Lyons, Larry R.; Spann, James F., Jr.; Reeves, G. D.

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that there is an association between changes of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) that are expected to lead to a reduction in magnetospheric convection (northward turnings, reductions) and the onset of the expansion phase of substorms. This has been previously demonstrated by analyses of IMF data during time intervals associated with identified substorm onsets. Here we examine whether observations of northward turnings of the IMF can be used to predict the occurrence of substorms. We first identified sharp northward turnings that follow an interval of steady, southward IMF using measurements from the Wind spacecraft during the first 180 days of 1997. We also required that the northward turning be observed by either IMP-8 or GEOTAIL, in addition to Wind, and that one of the observing satellites be sufficiently close to the Earth-Sun line, or that the two observing satellites be sufficiently separated, that we are reasonably certain that the northward turning affected the magnetosphere. We also used the dual observations to estimate the arrival of the northward turning at the Earth. Using these criteria, we predicted 17 substorms. We then searched for the following signatures of substorm onset around the time of the predicted onset: auroral brightening followed by auroral bulge expansion observed by Polar UVI, geosynchronous particle injection, geosynchronous magnetic field dipolarization, and an appropriate magnetic disturbance at the surface of the Earth. Of the 17 predictions of substorms, 10 were successful in that a substorm onset was observed within 12 min of the predicted onset, 1 is indeterminate due to a lack of data at the Earth, 1 had unusual activity that we have not been able to identify, and 5 were unsuccessful. The failure of these last 5 predictions is explicable. Two of the northward turnings that failed to produce substorms were preceded by the lowest average of the set. The remaining 3 were the only cases in which the

  2. Differences of ballet turns (pirouette) performance between experienced and novice ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shing-Jye; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the different postural control strategies exhibited by experienced and novice dancers in ballet turns (pirouettes). Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed ballet turns with dominant-leg support. The peak push force was measured in the double-leg support phase. The inclination angles of rotation axis with respect to vertical axis were calculated in the early single-leg support phase as well as the initiation sequence of ankle, knee, and hip joints on the supporting leg. Moreover, the anchoring index of the head was computed in the transverse plane during turning. The novice dancers applied a greater push force, an increased inclination angle of rotation axis, and an insufficient proximal-to-distal extension sequence pattern. The novice dancers also had a smaller head-anchoring index compared with experienced dancers, which meant novice dancers were not using a space target as a stability reference. A poorer performance in novice dancers could result from higher push force in propulsion, lack of a "proximal-to-distal extension sequence" pattern, and lack of visual spotting for postural stability. Training on sequential initiation of lower-extremity joints and rehearsal of visual spotting are essential for novice dancers to obtain better performance on ballet turns.

  3. Anticipation in turn-taking: mechanisms and information sources

    PubMed Central

    Riest, Carina; Jorschick, Annett B.; de Ruiter, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    During conversations participants alternate smoothly between speaker and hearer roles with only brief pauses and overlaps. There are two competing types of accounts about how conversationalists accomplish this: (a) the signaling approach and (b) the anticipatory (‘projection’) approach. We wanted to investigate, first, the relative merits of these two accounts, and second, the relative contribution of semantic and syntactic information to the timing of next turn initiation. We performed three button-press experiments using turn fragments taken from natural conversations to address the following questions: (a) Is turn-taking predominantly based on anticipation or on reaction, and (b) what is the relative contribution of semantic and syntactic information to accurate turn-taking. In our first experiment we gradually manipulated the information available for anticipation of the turn end (providing information about the turn end in advance to completely removing linguistic information). The results of our first experiment show that the distribution of the participants’ estimation of turn-endings for natural turns is very similar to the distribution for pure anticipation. We conclude that listeners are indeed able to anticipate a turn-end and that this strategy is predominantly used in turn-taking. In Experiment 2 we collected purely reacted responses. We used the distributions from Experiments 1 and 2 together to estimate a new dependent variable called Reaction Anticipation Proportion. We used this variable in our third experiment where we manipulated the presence vs. absence of semantic and syntactic information by low-pass filtering open-class and closed class words in the turn. The results suggest that for turn-end anticipation, both semantic and syntactic information are needed, but that the semantic information is a more important anticipation cue than syntactic information. PMID:25699004

  4. A causal involvement of the left supramarginal gyrus during the retention of musical pitches.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Nora K; Williamson, Victoria J; Kelly, Maria; Muggleton, Neil G; Pollok, Bettina; Krause, Vanessa; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Brain stimulation studies have previously demonstrated a causal link between general pitch memory processes and activity within the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Building on this evidence, the present study tested the impact of left SMG stimulation on two distinct pitch memory phases, retention and encoding. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was employed during the retention stage (Experiment 1) and the encoding phase (Experiment 2) of a pitch recognition task. Stimulation was applied on a trial-by-trial basis over the left SMG (target site) or the vertex (control site). A block without TMS was also completed. In Experiment 1, rTMS over the left SMG during pitch retention led to significantly increased reaction times compared to control conditions. In Experiment 2 no rTMS modulation effects were found during encoding. Experiment 3 was conducted as a control for non-specific stimulation effects; no effects were found when rTMS was applied over the left SMG at the two different time points during a perceptual task. Taken together, these findings highlight a phase-specific involvement of the left SMG in the retention phase of pitch memory, thereby indicating that the left SMG is involved in the maintenance of pitch information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Left atrial function and deformation in chronic primary mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Borg, Alexander N; Pearce, Keith A; Williams, Simon G; Ray, Simon G

    2009-10-01

    To study global and regional left atrial (LA) mechanics in chronic primary mitral regurgitation (MR) with echocardiography. LA volumes during reservoir, conduit, and contractile phases were measured in 27 MR patients and 25 controls. LA ejection fraction (EF) and ejection force were calculated. Reservoir (SR-R), conduit (SR-C), and contractile phase (SR-A) strain rates, and reservoir phase strain were obtained. LA volumes were higher in MR in all phases. In MR, ejection force was increased (21.5 vs. 12.3 kdynes, P = 0.001); reservoir phase strain (32.91 +/- 14.26%), SR-R (2.65 +/- 0.87), SR-C (-2.02 +/- 0.58), and SR-A (-2.55 +/- 1.31 s(-1)) were increased (23.14 +/- 7.96%, 1.62 +/- 0.53, -1.29 +/- 0.59, -1.98 +/- 0.65 s(-1), in controls, respectively, P < or = 0.004). Regional deformation correlated with corresponding volumetric parameters. Despite enhanced SR-A in MR, LA EF was unchanged (31.34 vs. 29.23%, P = ns), and LA contractile tissue velocity (A') was reduced (-5.39 +/- 1.95 vs. -6.91 +/- 1.80 cm/s, P = 0.006). The LA contractile contribution to left ventricular filling was significantly reduced in MR. LA deformation is increased in all phases in MR. Unchanged LA EF and reduced A' may reflect the reduced contractile contribution to left ventricular filling.

  6. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, J W; Lemole, G M

    1994-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle most often occurs after transmural myocardial infarction but may also follow cardiac operations, trauma, inflammation, or infection. In contrast to patients with true ventricular aneurysm, those with false aneurysm most commonly die of hemorrhage. Review of the reported surgical experience and of our 14 cases confirms that standard chest radiographs with an abnormal cardiac silhouette and rapidly expanding size may alert the physician to this sometimes overlooked diagnosis. Noninvasive tests such as color-flow Doppler echocardiography, 2-dimensional echocardiography, cineangiographic computed tomography, and transesophageal echocardiography allow relatively easy recognition of these apparently rare lesions with increasing frequency. Cardiac catheterization, however, is usually still necessary for a clear picture of the location and anatomy of the aneurysm and the state of the coronary arteries. Finally, a new classification is proposed, consisting of true aneurysm, false aneurysm, pseudo-false aneurysm, and mixed aneurysm. Images PMID:7888805

  7. Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Jorge; Perez, Irving E; Krumerman, Andrew; Garcia, Mario J; Lucariello, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk for thromboembolic stroke five-fold. The left atrial appendage (LAA) has been shown to be the main source of thrombus formation in the majority of strokes associated with AF. Oral anticoagulation with warfarin and novel anticoagulants remains the standard of care; however, it has several limitations, including bleeding and poor compliance. Occlusion of the LAA has been shown to be an alternative therapeutic approach to drug therapy. The purpose of this article is to review the different techniques and devices that have emerged for the purpose of occluding this structure, with a particular emphasis on the efficacy and safety studies published to date in the medical literature. PMID:24963274

  8. Short turn-around intercontinental clock synchronization using very-long-baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madrid, G. A.; Yunck, T. P.; Henderson, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    During the past year work was accomplished to bring into regular operation a VLBI system for making intercontinental clock comparisons with a turn around of a few days from the time of data taking. Earlier VLBI systems required several weeks to produce results. The present system, which is not yet complete, incorporates a number of refinements not available in earlier systems, such as dual frequency inosopheric delay cancellation and wider synthesized bandwidths with instrumental phase calibration.

  9. Giant and thrombosed left ventricular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez

    2015-07-26

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention.

  10. Giant and thrombosed left ventricular aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention. PMID:26225205

  11. Asymptomatic post-rheumatic giant left atrium

    PubMed Central

    Özkartal, Tardu; Tanner, Felix C; Niemann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred to our clinic for a second opinion regarding indication for mitral valve surgery. An echocardiogram showed a moderate mitral stenosis with a concomitant severe regurgitation. The most striking feature, however, was a giant left atrium with a parasternal anteroposterior diameter of 79 mm and a left atrial volume index of 364 mL/m². There are various echocardiographic definitions of a giant left atrium, which are mainly based on measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium using M-mode in the parasternal long axis view. Since the commonly accepted method for echocardiographic evaluation of left atrial size is left atrial volume index, we propose a cut-off value of 140 mL/m2 for the definition of a “giant left atrium”. PMID:27354895

  12. Children coordinate in a recurrent social dilemma by taking turns and along dominance asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Grueneisen, Sebastian; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Humans constantly have to coordinate their decisions with others even when their interests are conflicting (e.g., when 2 drivers have to decide who yields at an intersection). So far, however, little is known about the development of these abilities. Here, we present dyads of 5-year-olds (N = 40) with a repeated chicken game using a novel methodology: Two children each steered an automated toy train carrying a reward. The trains simultaneously moved toward each other so that in order to avoid a crash-which left both children empty-handed-1 train had to swerve. By swerving, however, the trains lost a portion of the rewards so that it was in each child's interest to go straight. Children coordinated their decisions successfully over multiple rounds, and they mostly did so by taking turns at swerving. In dyads in which turn-taking was rare, dominant children obtained significantly higher payoffs than their partners. Moreover, the coordination process was more efficient in turn-taking dyads as indicated by a significant reduction in conflicts and verbal protest. These findings indicate that already by the late preschool years children can independently coordinate decisions with peers in recurrent conflicts of interest. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Left lobe living related liver transplantation in the absence of an extrahepatic left portal vein.

    PubMed

    Lerut, Jan; Ciccarelli, Olga; Danse, Etienne; Goffette, Pierre; Van Beers, Bernard; Reding, Raymond; Otte, Jean-Bernard

    2002-07-27

    Absence of a normal left extrahepatic portal vein is considered to be a contraindication to left lobe living-related liver transplantation. This report is of a successful case of living- related liver transplantation using a left lobe procured in a patient presenting with an absent horizontal segment of the left extrahepatic vein.

  14. Effects of leg dominance on performance of ballet turns (pirouettes) by experienced and novice dancers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Turns (pirouettes) are an important movement in ballet and may be affected by "lateral bias". This study investigated physiological differences exhibited by experienced and novice dancers, respectively, when performing pirouette with dominant and non-dominant leg supports, respectively. Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed turns on dominant or non-dominant legs. The maximum ankle plantarflexion, knee extension and hip extension were measured during the single-leg support phase. The inclination angle of rotation axis is the angle between instantaneous rotation axis and global vertical axis in the early single-leg support phase. Both groups exhibited a greater hip extension, knee extension, and ankle plantarflexion when performing a turn on the non-dominant leg. For experienced dancers, the inclination angle of rotation axis during the pre-swing phase was generally smaller for dominant leg support than non-dominant leg. However, no significant difference was found in inclination angle of rotation axis of novice dancers. For experienced dancers, an improved performance is obtained when using the dominant leg for support. By contrast, for novice dancers, the performance is independent of choice of support leg. The significant lateral bias in experienced dancers indicates the possible influence of training. That is, repetitive rehearsal on the preferred leg strengthens the impact of side dominance in experienced dancers.

  15. Turn-Continuation by Self and by Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidnell, Jack

    2012-01-01

    At the possible completion of a turn constructional unit (TCU) that has not selected a next speaker, a speaker has two available options: either begin a new TCU or continue the one that has just come to a point of possible completion. This article describes some of the complex turns that result from exercising the second option. These can be seen…

  16. Turning Points in the Development of Classical Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Elena

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the vocational socialization turning points in families of classical musicians. I sampled and interviewed 20 parent-child dyads, for a total of 46 interviews. Data analysis revealed that classical musicians' experiences were marked by 11 turning points that affected their identification with the occupation:…

  17. On the number of turns in human cochleae.

    PubMed

    Biedron, Slavomir; Westhofen, Martin; Ilgner, Justus

    2009-04-01

    The number of human cochlear turns is generally accepted being 2 1/2, although cases with up to 2 3/4 or even 3 turns are known from literature. This study was performed to evaluate the actual number of cochlear turns and its variance. Histologic temporal bone series from the "Wittmaack temporal bone collection" (Hamburg, Germany) were examined, and the number of scala media segments was counted using the midmodiolar sections. These data were evaluated in reference to the cochlear spiral to obtain the number of cochlear turns. Sixty-five percent of the investigated specimens had more than 2 1/2 cochlear turns, of which, 11% had more than 2 3/4 turns. The number of human cochlear turns shows a higher variance than is represented in literature. Cases with up to 3 turns can be regarded as upper limit of the normal range. This finding may carry further implications for cochlear implantation to focus on the development of individually shaped electrode carriers and stimulation strategies.

  18. Turning Points: Priorities for Teacher Education in a Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Rosalie M.

    2009-01-01

    Every generation has its moment, some turning point that will mark its place in the historical record. Such points provide the direction of our history and our future. Turning points are, characteristically, times of turmoil based on a fundamental change in models or events--what Thomas Kuhn called a "paradigm shift." In terms of a democratic…

  19. Every Child, Every Promise: Turning Failure into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Every Child, Every Promise: Turning Failure into Action" is the first national research that comprehensively measures the presence of the essential resources that correlate with success in both youth and adulthood. The report indicates that there is much work to do as a nation. It also shows how failure can be turned into action to improve the…

  20. High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL mushroom test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

    1998-07-01

    The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less sensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore{close_quote}s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL Mushroom test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

    1997-09-01

    The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less insensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore`s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples.

  2. Human Rights Education and the Post Secular Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, Bob

    2012-01-01

    This article questions whether human rights education (HRE) scholarship is responding adequately to the post secular turn in thinking about the place and nature of religion in society. Here the post secular turn is used to describe the discrediting of secularisation theory, the recognition of religion as an enduring and pervasive global cultural…

  3. Turn-Final or in English: A Conversation Analytic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Anna Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Or is commonly understood to be a conjunction linking two or more constituents. Ending a sentence with "or" is considered non-canonical in written interaction, but ending a turn with "or" occurs regularly in spoken interaction. This dissertation investigates the interactional work of turn-final or as in "Did his oxygen get…

  4. Turning Points in the Development of Classical Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Elena

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the vocational socialization turning points in families of classical musicians. I sampled and interviewed 20 parent-child dyads, for a total of 46 interviews. Data analysis revealed that classical musicians' experiences were marked by 11 turning points that affected their identification with the occupation:…

  5. Case Study Using Ultrasound to Treat /[turned r]/

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modha, Geetanjalee; Bernhardt, B. May; Church, Robyn; Bacsfalvi, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    Background: Ultrasound has shown promise as visual feedback in remediation of /[turned r]/.Aims: To compare treatment for [turned r] with and without ultrasound.Methods & Procedures: A Canadian English-speaking adolescent participated in a case study with a no treatment baseline, alternating treatment blocks with and without ultrasound and a…

  6. Human Rights Education and the Post Secular Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, Bob

    2012-01-01

    This article questions whether human rights education (HRE) scholarship is responding adequately to the post secular turn in thinking about the place and nature of religion in society. Here the post secular turn is used to describe the discrediting of secularisation theory, the recognition of religion as an enduring and pervasive global cultural…

  7. Case Study Using Ultrasound to Treat /[turned r]/

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modha, Geetanjalee; Bernhardt, B. May; Church, Robyn; Bacsfalvi, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    Background: Ultrasound has shown promise as visual feedback in remediation of /[turned r]/.Aims: To compare treatment for [turned r] with and without ultrasound.Methods & Procedures: A Canadian English-speaking adolescent participated in a case study with a no treatment baseline, alternating treatment blocks with and without ultrasound and a…

  8. Compensatory mechanisms of transtibial amputees during circular turning.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2011-07-01

    Turning plays a prominent role in daily living activities and requires the modulation of the ground reaction forces to accelerate the body's center-of-mass along the path of the turn. With the ankle plantarflexors being prominent contributors to the propulsive ground reaction forces, it is not clear how transtibial amputees perform turning tasks without these important muscles. The purpose of this study was to identify the compensatory mechanisms used by transtibial amputees during a simple turning task by analyzing the radial and anterior-posterior ground reaction impulses and sagittal, transverse and coronal joint work of the residual and intact legs. These quantities were analyzed with the residual leg on both the inside and outside of the turn and compared to non-amputees. The analysis showed that amputees and non-amputees use different joint strategies to turn. Amputees rely primarily on sagittal plane hip joint work to turn while non-amputees rely primarily on ankle work in the sagittal plane and hip joint work in the coronal plane. Differences in strategies are most likely due to the minimal power output provided by the passive prosthetic feet used by amputees and perhaps a desire to minimize the risk of falling. Understanding these differences in turning strategies will aid in developing effective rehabilitation therapies and prosthetic devices that improve amputee mobility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Turning Points: Priorities for Teacher Education in a Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Rosalie M.

    2009-01-01

    Every generation has its moment, some turning point that will mark its place in the historical record. Such points provide the direction of our history and our future. Turning points are, characteristically, times of turmoil based on a fundamental change in models or events--what Thomas Kuhn called a "paradigm shift." In terms of a democratic…

  10. 33 CFR 164.42 - Rate of turn indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rate of turn indicator. 164.42 Section 164.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.42 Rate of turn indicator. Each vessel...

  11. Turn-Final or in English: A Conversation Analytic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Anna Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Or is commonly understood to be a conjunction linking two or more constituents. Ending a sentence with "or" is considered non-canonical in written interaction, but ending a turn with "or" occurs regularly in spoken interaction. This dissertation investigates the interactional work of turn-final or as in "Did his oxygen get…

  12. Turn-Continuation by Self and by Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidnell, Jack

    2012-01-01

    At the possible completion of a turn constructional unit (TCU) that has not selected a next speaker, a speaker has two available options: either begin a new TCU or continue the one that has just come to a point of possible completion. This article describes some of the complex turns that result from exercising the second option. These can be seen…

  13. Density of Plutonium Turnings Generated from Machining Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, John Robert; Vigil, Duane M.; Jachimowski, Thomas A.; Archuleta, Alonso; Arellano, Gerald Joseph; Melton, Vince Lee

    2016-10-20

    The purpose of this project was to determine the density of plutonium (Pu) turnings generated from the range of machining activities, using both surrogate material and machined Pu turnings. Verify that 500 grams (g) of plutonium will fit in a one quart container using a surrogate equivalent volume and that 100 grams of Pu will fit in a one quart Savy container.

  14. Interaction of the body, head, and eyes during walking and turning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imai, T.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Body, head, and eye movements were measured in five subjects during straight walking and while turning corners. The purpose was to determine how well the head and eyes followed the linear trajectory of the body in space and whether head orientation followed changes in the gravito-inertial acceleration vector (GIA). Head and body movements were measured with a video-based motion analysis system and horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements with video-oculography. During straight walking, there was lateral body motion at the stride frequency, which was at half the frequency of stepping. The GIA oscillated about the direction of heading, according to the acceleration and deceleration associated with heel strike and toe flexion, and the body yawed in concert with stepping. Despite the linear and rotatory motions of the head and body, the head pointed along the forward motion of the body during straight walking. The head pitch/roll component appeared to compensate for vertical and horizontal acceleration of the head rather than orienting to the tilt of the GIA or anticipating it. When turning corners, subjects walked on a 50-cm radius over two steps or on a 200-cm radius in five to seven steps. Maximum centripetal accelerations in sharp turns were ca.0.4 g, which tilted the GIA ca.21 degrees with regard to the heading. This was anticipated by a roll tilt of the head of up to 8 degrees. The eyes rolled 1-1.5 degrees and moved down into the direction of linear acceleration during the tilts of the GIA. Yaw head deviations moved smoothly through the turn, anticipating the shift in lateral body trajectory by as much as 25 degrees. The trunk did not anticipate the change in trajectory. Thus, in contrast to straight walking, the tilt axes of the head and the GIA tended to align during turns. Gaze was stable in space during the slow phases and jumped forward in saccades along the trajectory, leading it by larger angles when the angular velocity of turning was greater

  15. Interaction of the body, head, and eyes during walking and turning.

    PubMed

    Imai, T; Moore, S T; Raphan, T; Cohen, B

    2001-01-01

    Body, head, and eye movements were measured in five subjects during straight walking and while turning corners. The purpose was to determine how well the head and eyes followed the linear trajectory of the body in space and whether head orientation followed changes in the gravito-inertial acceleration vector (GIA). Head and body movements were measured with a video-based motion analysis system and horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements with video-oculography. During straight walking, there was lateral body motion at the stride frequency, which was at half the frequency of stepping. The GIA oscillated about the direction of heading, according to the acceleration and deceleration associated with heel strike and toe flexion, and the body yawed in concert with stepping. Despite the linear and rotatory motions of the head and body, the head pointed along the forward motion of the body during straight walking. The head pitch/roll component appeared to compensate for vertical and horizontal acceleration of the head rather than orienting to the tilt of the GIA or anticipating it. When turning corners, subjects walked on a 50-cm radius over two steps or on a 200-cm radius in five to seven steps. Maximum centripetal accelerations in sharp turns were ca.0.4 g, which tilted the GIA ca.21 degrees with regard to the heading. This was anticipated by a roll tilt of the head of up to 8 degrees. The eyes rolled 1-1.5 degrees and moved down into the direction of linear acceleration during the tilts of the GIA. Yaw head deviations moved smoothly through the turn, anticipating the shift in lateral body trajectory by as much as 25 degrees. The trunk did not anticipate the change in trajectory. Thus, in contrast to straight walking, the tilt axes of the head and the GIA tended to align during turns. Gaze was stable in space during the slow phases and jumped forward in saccades along the trajectory, leading it by larger angles when the angular velocity of turning was greater

  16. Interaction of the body, head, and eyes during walking and turning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imai, T.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Body, head, and eye movements were measured in five subjects during straight walking and while turning corners. The purpose was to determine how well the head and eyes followed the linear trajectory of the body in space and whether head orientation followed changes in the gravito-inertial acceleration vector (GIA). Head and body movements were measured with a video-based motion analysis system and horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements with video-oculography. During straight walking, there was lateral body motion at the stride frequency, which was at half the frequency of stepping. The GIA oscillated about the direction of heading, according to the acceleration and deceleration associated with heel strike and toe flexion, and the body yawed in concert with stepping. Despite the linear and rotatory motions of the head and body, the head pointed along the forward motion of the body during straight walking. The head pitch/roll component appeared to compensate for vertical and horizontal acceleration of the head rather than orienting to the tilt of the GIA or anticipating it. When turning corners, subjects walked on a 50-cm radius over two steps or on a 200-cm radius in five to seven steps. Maximum centripetal accelerations in sharp turns were ca.0.4 g, which tilted the GIA ca.21 degrees with regard to the heading. This was anticipated by a roll tilt of the head of up to 8 degrees. The eyes rolled 1-1.5 degrees and moved down into the direction of linear acceleration during the tilts of the GIA. Yaw head deviations moved smoothly through the turn, anticipating the shift in lateral body trajectory by as much as 25 degrees. The trunk did not anticipate the change in trajectory. Thus, in contrast to straight walking, the tilt axes of the head and the GIA tended to align during turns. Gaze was stable in space during the slow phases and jumped forward in saccades along the trajectory, leading it by larger angles when the angular velocity of turning was greater

  17. Experience sharing, emotional reciprocity, and turn-taking

    PubMed Central

    Stevanovic, Melisa; Peräkylä, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1) the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2) the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, people’s inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research. PMID:25926811

  18. Turn-by-Turn and Bunch-by-Bunch Transverse Profiles of a Single Bunch in a Full Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, R.; Fisher, A.S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The apparatus described in this paper can image the evolution of the transverse profile of a single bunch, isolated from a full PEP-II ring of 1500 bunches. Using this apparatus there are two methods of single bunch imaging; bunch-by-bunch beam profiling can image every bunch in the ring a single bunch at a time with the images of sequential bunches being in order, allowing one to see variations in beam size along a train. Turn-by-turn beam profiling images a single bunch on each successive turn it makes around the ring. This method will be useful in determining the effect that an injected bunch has on a stable bunch as the oscillations of the injected bunch damp out. Turn-by-turn imaging of the synchrotron light uses a system of lenses and mirrors to image many turns of both the major and minor axis of a single bunch across the photocathode of a gateable camera. The bunch-by-bunch method is simpler: because of a focusing mirror used in porting the light from the ring, the synchrotron light from the orbiting electrons becomes an image at a certain distance from the mirror; and since the camera does not use a lens, the photocathode is set exactly at this image distance. Bunch-by-bunch profiling has shown that in the Low Energy Ring (LER) horizontal bunch size decreases along a train. Turn-by-turn profiling has been able to image 100 turns of a single bunch on one exposure of the camera. The turn-by-turn setup has also been able to image 50 turns of the minor axis showing part of the damping process of an oscillating injected charge during a LER fill. The goal is to image the damping of oscillations of injected charge for 100 turns of both the major and minor axis throughout the damping process during trickle injection. With some changes to the apparatus this goal is within reach and will make turn-by-turn imaging a very useful tool in beam diagnostics.

  19. Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basinger, Scott A.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Cohen, David; Green, Joseph J.; Lou, John; Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval software uses the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm, an image-based sensing method that can turn any focal plane science instrument into a wavefront sensor, avoiding the need to use external metrology equipment. Knowledge of the wavefront enables intelligent control of active optical systems.

  20. Water and side-chain embedded π-turns.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Dey, Sucharita; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2014-05-01

    Elucidating protein function from its structure is central to the understanding of cellular mechanisms. This involves deciphering the dependence of local structural motifs on sequence. These structural motifs may be stabilized by direct or water-mediated hydrogen bonding among the constituent residues. π-Turns, defined by interactions between (i) and (i + 5) positions, are large enough to contain a central space that can embed a water molecule (or a protein moiety) to form a stable structure. This work is an analysis of such embedded π-turns using a nonredundant dataset of protein structures. A total of 2965 embedded π-turns have been identified, as also 281 embedded Schellman motif, a type of π-turn which occurs at the C-termini of α-helices. Embedded π-turns and Schellman motifs have been classified on the basis of the protein atoms of the terminal turn residues that are linked by the embedded moiety, conformation, residue composition, and compared with the turns that have terminal residues connected by direct hydrogen bonds. Geometrically, the turns have been fitted to a circle and the position of the linker relative to its center analyzed. The hydroxyl group of Ser and Thr, located at (i + 3) position, is the most prominent linker for the side-chain mediated π-turns. Consideration of residue conservation among homologous sequences indicates the terminal and the linker positions to be the most conserved. The embedded π-turn as a binding site (for the linker) is discussed in the context of "nest," a concave depression that is formed in protein structures with adjacent residues having enantiomeric main-chain conformations.