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Sample records for leg length discrepancy

  1. Dynamic leg length asymmetry during gait is not a valid method for estimating mild anatomic leg length discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Leporace, Gustavo; Batista, Luiz Alberto; Serra Cruz, Raphael; Zeitoune, Gabriel; Cavalin, Gabriel Armondi; Metsavaht, Leonardo

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity of dynamic leg length discrepancy (DLLD) during gait as a radiation-free screening method for measuring anatomic leg length discrepancy (ALLD). Thirty-three subjects with mild leg length discrepancy walked along a walkway and the dynamic leg length discrepancy (DLLD) was calculated using a motion analysis system. Pearson correlation and paired Student t -tests were applied to calculate the correlation and compare the differences between DLLD and ALLD (α = 0.05). The results of our study showed DLLD is not a valid method to predict ALLD in subjects with mild limb discrepancy.

  2. Microdose acquisition in adolescent leg length discrepancy using a low-dose biplane imaging system.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo R; Hjarbæk, John; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Pedersen, Niels W; Gerke, Oke; Torfing, Trine

    2017-09-01

    Background Children with leg length discrepancy often undergo repeat imaging. Therefore, every effort to reduce radiation dose is important. Using low dose preview images and noise reduction software rather than diagnostic images for length measurements might contribute to reducing dose. Purpose To compare leg length measurements performed on diagnostic images and low dose preview images both acquired using a low-dose bi-planar imaging system. Material and Methods Preview and diagnostic images from 22 patients were retrospectively collected (14 girls, 8 boys; mean age, 12.8 years; age range, 10-15 years). All images were anonymized and measured independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Three sets of measurements were performed on all images; the mechanical axis lines of the femur and the tibia as well as the anatomical line of the entire extremity. Statistical significance was tested with a paired t-test. Results No statistically significant difference was found between measurements performed on the preview and on the diagnostic image. The mean tibial length difference between the observers was -0.06 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.01) and -0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.21 to 0.05), respectively; 0.10 cm (95% CI, 0.02-0.17) and 0.06 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.14) for the femoral measurements and 0.12 cm (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26) and 0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.19) for total leg length discrepancy. ICCs were >0.99 indicating excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. Conclusion The data strongly imply that leg length measurements performed on preview images from a low-dose bi-planar imaging system are comparable to measurements performed on diagnostic images.

  3. Does structural leg-length discrepancy affect postural control? Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Eliks, Małgorzata; Ostiak-Tomaszewska, Wioleta; Lisiński, Przemysław; Koczewski, Paweł

    2017-08-09

    Leg-length inequality results in an altered position of the spine and pelvis. Previous studies on the influence of leg asymmetry on postural control have been inconclusive. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of structural leg-length discrepancy (LLD) on the control of posture. We studied 38 individuals (19 patients with structural LLD, 19 healthy subjects). The examination included measurement of the length of the lower limbs and weight distribution as well as a static posturography. All statistical analyses were performed with Statistica software version 10.0. Non-parametrical Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn's post test and Spearman test were used. Differences between the groups and correlation between mean COP sway velocity and the value of LLD as well as the value of LLD and weight distribution were assumed as statistically significant at p < 0.05. There was a significant difference in the asymmetry of weight distribution between the group of patients and the healthy subjects (p = 0.0005). Differences in a posturographic examination between the groups were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Meaningful differences in mean COP velocity in mediolateral direction between tandem stance with eyes open and closed were detected in both groups (in controls p = 0.000134, in patients both with the shorter leg in a front and rear position, p = 0.029, p = 0.026 respectively). There was a positive moderate correlation between the value of LLD and the value of mean COP velocity in normal standing in mediolateral direction with eyes open (r = 0.47) and closed (r = 0.54) and in anterioposterior plane with eyes closed (r = 0.05). The fact that there were no significant differences in posturography between the groups might indicate compensations to the altered posture and neuromuscular adaptations in patients with structural leg-length inequality. LLD causes an increased asymmetry of weight distribution. This study confirmed a fundamental

  4. Effects of experimental leg length discrepancies on body posture and dental occlusion.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Nozomi; Sakaguchi, Kiwamu; Mehta, Noshir R; Abdallah, Emad F; Forgione, Albert G; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of experimental leg length discrepancies on body posture and dental occlusion. Thirty asymptomatic subjects (15 males and 15 females, ages 19-33, mean age 25.6 years) were included in this study and randomly assigned to one of two groups based on a table of random numbers. The only difference between group A and group B was the sequence of testing. Experimental leg length discrepancies were provided by using ten types of insoles with heights ranging from one to ten mm at one mm intervals, placed under both feet. The MatScan (Nitta Corp., Osaka, Japan) system was used to measure changes in body posture (center of foot pressure: COP) while subjects maintained the following three postural positions: 1. natural standing posture (control); 2. control with a heel lift under the right foot; or 3. control with a heel lift under the left foot. The T-Scan II system (Nitta Corp., Osaka, Japan) was used to analyze the results of changes in dental occlusion (center of occlusal force: COF) in the above-mentioned three postural positions. When subjects used a heel lift of six mm or more under the right foot, lateral weight distribution (LWD) shifted to the right side compared to the control (p<0.05). When a heel lift of four mm or more was used under the left foot, LWD shifted to the left side compared to the control (p<0.05). When subjects used a heel lift of eight mm or more under the right foot, occlusal force shifted to the right side compared to the control (p<0.05). When subjects used a heel lift of seven mm or more under the left foot, occlusal force shifted to the left side compared to the control (p<0.05). Based on these findings, it was concluded that leg length discrepancy affected body posture and dental occlusion.

  5. Static innominate asymmetry and leg length discrepancy in asymptomatic collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Krawiec, C J; Denegar, C R; Hertel, J; Salvaterra, G F; Buckley, W E

    2003-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess: (1) static innominate asymmetry in the sagittal plane, (2) leg length discrepancy (LLD), and (3) the relationship between static innominate rotation and LLD in asymptomatic collegiate athletes. The study was an observational study by design which took place in a University athletic training research laboratory. The participants were twenty-four male and 20 female asymptomatic intercollegiate athletes who volunteered to take part in the study. Static innominate asymmetry was assessed with a caliper/inclinometer tool and LLD was measured with a tape measure using standard clinical methods. Results showed that forty-two subjects (95%) demonstrated some degree of static innominate asymmetry. In 32 subjects (73%), the right innominate was more anteriorly rotated than the left. Nearly all subjects were determined to have unequal leg lengths with a majority, 30 subjects (68%), showing a slightly longer left leg. Weak correlations (r=0.33 - 0.44) were identified between static innominate asymmetry and LLD. In Conclusion static innominate asymmetry and LLD are common among asymptomatic collegiate athletes. This information provides clinicians with normative data of common clinical measures in a physically active population.

  6. Inequality in leg length is important for the understanding of the pathophysiology of lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Balik, Mehmet Sabri; Kanat, Ayhan; Erkut, Adem; Ozdemir, Bulent; Batcik, Osman Ersagun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Inequality in leg length may lead to to abnormal transmission of load across the endplates and degeneration lumbar spine and the disc space. There has been no study focusing on lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and leg length discrepancy. This subject was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: Consecutive adult patients with leg length discrepancy and low back pain (LBP) admitted to our department were respectivelly studied. Results: A total number of 39 subjects (31 women and eight men) with leg length discrepancy and LBP and 43 (25 females and 18 males) patients with LBP as a control group were tested. Occurrence of disc herniation is statistically different between patients with hip dysplasia and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed a statistically significant association between leg length discrepancy and occurrence of LDH. The changes of spine anatomy with leg length discrepancy in hip dysplastic patients are of importance in understanding the nature of LDH. PMID:27217654

  7. Clinical effects of leg length discrepancy through ground and joint reaction force responses: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabri, S. W. K. Ali; Basaruddin, K. S.; Salleh, A. F.; Rusli, W. M. R.; Daud, R.

    2017-09-01

    Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is caused either due to functional disorder or shortening of bone structure. This disorder could contribute to the significant effects on body weight distribution and lumbar scoliosis at the certain extend. Ground reaction force and joint reaction force are the parameters that can be used to analyze the responses in weight distribution and kinetics changes on the body joints, respectively. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to review the studies that focus on the clinical effects of LLD to the lower limb and spine through ground and joint reaction force responses that could lead to the orthopedics disorder.

  8. Leg length discrepancy and osteoarthritis in the knee, hip and lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kelvin J.; Azari, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an extremely common condition that creates substantial personal and health care costs. An important recognised risk factor for OA is excessive or abnormal mechanical joint loading. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is a common condition that results in uneven and excessive loading of not only knee joints but also hip joints and lumbar motion segments. Accurate imaging methods of LLD have made it possible to study the biomechanical effects of mild LLD (LLD of 20mm or less). This review examines the accuracy of these methods compared to clinical LLD measurements. It then examines the association between LLD and OA of the joints of the lower extremity. More importantly, it addresses the largely neglected association between LLD and degeneration of lumbar motion segments and the patterns of biomechanical changes that accompany LLD. We propose that mild LLD may be an important instigator or contributor to OA of the hip and lumbar spine, and that it deserves to be rigorously studied in order to decrease OA’s burden of disease. PMID:26500356

  9. Functional leg length discrepancy between theories and reliable instrumental assessment: a study about newly invented NPoS system

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Asmaa; Abundo, Paolo; Basile, Luisanna; Albensi, Caterina; Marasco, Morena; Bellizzi, Letizia; Galasso, Franco; Foti, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background In spite the instinct social&financial impact of Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD), controversial and conflicting results still exist regarding a reliable assessment/correction method. For proper management it’s essential to discriminate between anatomical&functional Leg Length Discrepancy (FLLD). With the newly invented NPoS (New Postural Solution), under the umbrella of the collaboration of PRM Department, Tor Vergata University with Baro Postural Instruments srl, positive results were observed in both measuring& compensating the hemi-pelvic antero-medial rotation in FLLD through personalized bilateral heel raise using two NPoS components: Foot Image System (FIS) and Postural Optimizer System (POS). This led our research interest to test the validity of NPoS as a preliminary step before evaluating its implementations in postural disorders. Methods After clinical evaluation, 4 subjects with FLLD have been assessed by NPoS. Over a period of 2 months, every subject was evaluated 12 times by two different operators, 48 measurements in total, results have been verified in correlation to BTS GaitLab results. Results Intra-Operator&inter-operator variability analysis showed statistically insignificant differences, while inter-method variability between NPoS and BTS parameters expressed a linear correlation. Conclusion Results suggest a significant validity of NPoS in assessment&correction of FLLD, with high degree of reproducibility with minimal operator dependency. This can be considered a base for promising clinical implications of NPoS as a reliable cost effective postural assessment/corrective tool. Level of evidence V. PMID:29264341

  10. Functional leg length discrepancy between theories and reliable instrumental assessment: a study about newly invented NPoS system.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Asmaa; Abundo, Paolo; Basile, Luisanna; Albensi, Caterina; Marasco, Morena; Bellizzi, Letizia; Galasso, Franco; Foti, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    In spite the instinct social&financial impact of Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD), controversial and conflicting results still exist regarding a reliable assessment/correction method. For proper management it's essential to discriminate between anatomical&functional Leg Length Discrepancy (FLLD). With the newly invented NPoS (New Postural Solution), under the umbrella of the collaboration of PRM Department, Tor Vergata University with Baro Postural Instruments srl, positive results were observed in both measuring& compensating the hemi-pelvic antero-medial rotation in FLLD through personalized bilateral heel raise using two NPoS components: Foot Image System (FIS) and Postural Optimizer System (POS). This led our research interest to test the validity of NPoS as a preliminary step before evaluating its implementations in postural disorders. After clinical evaluation, 4 subjects with FLLD have been assessed by NPoS. Over a period of 2 months, every subject was evaluated 12 times by two different operators, 48 measurements in total, results have been verified in correlation to BTS GaitLab results. Intra-Operator&inter-operator variability analysis showed statistically insignificant differences, while inter-method variability between NPoS and BTS parameters expressed a linear correlation. Results suggest a significant validity of NPoS in assessment&correction of FLLD, with high degree of reproducibility with minimal operator dependency. This can be considered a base for promising clinical implications of NPoS as a reliable cost effective postural assessment/corrective tool. V.

  11. A rationale for treating leg length discrepancy using photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Johnson, Crystal; Diab, Mohammed; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in regulating bone development with a view to its potential role in treating Juvenile leg length discrepancy (LLD). Transgenic mice expressing the luciferase firefly gene upon activation of a promoter sequence specific to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene were subject to benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-mediated PDT in the right, tibial epiphyseal growth plate at the age of 3 weeks. BPD-MA was administered intracardially (2mg/kg) followed 10 mins later by a laser light (690 +/- 5 nm) at a range of doses (5-27J, 50 mW output) delivered either as a single or repeat regimen (x2-3). Contra-lateral legs served as no-light controls. Further controls included animals that received light treatment in the absence of photosensitizer or no treatment. Mice were imaged for VEGF related bioluminescence (photons/sec/steradian) at t= 0, 24, 48, 72 h and 1-4 weeks post PDT. FaxitronTM x-ray images provided accurate assessment of bone morphometry. Upon sacrifice, the tibia and femur of the treated and untreated limbs were harvested, imaged and measured again and prepared for histology. A number of animals were sacrificed at 24 h post PDT to allow immunohistochemical staining for CD31, VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha) within the bone. PDT-treated (10 J, x2) mice displayed enhanced bioluminescence at the treatment site (and ear nick) for up to 4 weeks post treatment while control mice were bioluminescent at the ear-nick site only. Repeat regimens provided greater shortening of the limb than the corresponding single treatment. PDT-treated limbs were shorter by 3-4 mm on average as compared to the contra lateral and light only controls (10 J, x2). Immunohistochemistry confirmed the enhanced expression VEGF and CD31 at 4 weeks post-treatment although no increase in HIF-1α was evident at either 24 h or 4 weeks post PDT treatment. Results confirm the utility of PDT to provide localized

  12. The influence of the choice of closing wedge angle on leg length discrepancy after proximal femoral varus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Segaren, N; Abdul-Jabar, H B; Hashemi-Nejad, A

    2014-08-01

    Proximal femoral varus osteotomy improves the biomechanics of the hip and can stimulate normal acetabular development in a dysplastic hip. Medial closing wedge osteotomy remains the most popular technique, but is associated with shortening of the ipsilateral femur. We produced a trigonometric formula which may be used pre-operatively to predict the resultant leg length discrepancy (LLD). We retrospectively examined the influence of the choice of angle in a closing wedge femoral osteotomy on LLD in 120 patients (135 osteotomies, 53% male, mean age six years, (3 to 21), 96% caucasian) over a 15-year period (1998 to 2013). A total of 16 of these patients were excluded due to under or over varus correction. The patients were divided into three age groups: paediatric (< 10 years), adolescent (10 to 16 years) and adult (> 16 years). When using the same saw blades as in this series, the results indicated that for each 10° of angle of resection the resultant LLD equates approximately to multiples of 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm in the three age groups, respectively. Statistical testing of the 59 patients who had a complete set of pre- and post-operative standing long leg radiographs, revealed a Pearson's correlation coefficient for predicted versus radiologically observed shortening when using a wedge of either 10° or 20° of 0.93 (p < 0.001). The 95% limits of agreement from the Bland-Altman analysis for this subgroup were -3.5 mm to +3.3 mm. It has been accepted that a 10 mm discrepancy is clinically acceptable. This study identified a geometric model that provided satisfactory accuracy when using specific saw blades of known thicknesses for this formula to be used in clinical practice. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. Fluoroscopy and imageless navigation enable an equivalent reconstruction of leg length and global and femoral offset in THA.

    PubMed

    Weber, Markus; Woerner, Michael; Springorum, Robert; Sendtner, Ernst; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Grifka, Joachim; Renkawitz, Tobias

    2014-10-01

    Restoration of biomechanics is a major goal in THA. Imageless navigation enables intraoperative control of leg length equalization and offset reconstruction. However, the effect of navigation compared with intraoperative fluoroscopy is unclear. We asked whether intraoperative use of imageless navigation (1) improves the relative accuracy of leg length and global and femoral offset restoration; (2) increases the absolute precision of leg length and global and femoral offset equalization; and (3) reduces outliers in a reconstruction zone of ± 5 mm for leg length and global and femoral offset restoration compared with intraoperative fluoroscopy during minimally invasive (MIS) THA with the patient in a lateral decubitus position. In this prospective study a consecutive series of 125 patients were randomized to either navigation-guided or fluoroscopy-controlled THA using sealed, opaque envelopes. All patients received the same cementless prosthetic components through an anterolateral MIS approach while they were in a lateral decubitus position. Leg length, global or total offset (representing the combination of femoral and acetabular offset), and femoral offset differences were restored using either navigation or fluoroscopy. Postoperatively, residual leg length and global and femoral offset discrepancies were analyzed on magnification-corrected radiographs of the pelvis by an independent and blinded examiner using digital planning software. Accuracy was defined as the relative postoperative difference between the surgically treated and the unaffected contralateral side for leg length and offset, respectively; precision was defined as the absolute postoperative deviation of leg length and global and femoral offset regardless of lengthening or shortening of leg length and offset throughout the THA. All analyses were performed per intention-to-treat. Analyzing the relative accuracy of leg length restoration we found a mean difference of 0.2 mm (95% CI, -1.0 to +1.4 mm; p

  14. Anatomic and functional leg-length inequality: A review and recommendation for clinical decision-making. Part II, the functional or unloaded leg-length asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Gary A

    2005-01-01

    Background Part II of this review examines the functional "short leg" or unloaded leg length alignment asymmetry, including the relationship between an anatomic and functional leg-length inequality. Based on the reviewed evidence, an outline for clinical decision making regarding functional and anatomic leg-length inequality will be provided. Methods Online databases: Medline, CINAHL and Mantis. Plus library searches for the time frame of 1970–2005 were done using the term "leg-length inequality". Results and Discussion The evidence suggests that an unloaded leg-length asymmetry is a different phenomenon than an anatomic leg-length inequality, and may be due to suprapelvic muscle hypertonicity. Anatomic leg-length inequality and unloaded functional or leg-length alignment asymmetry may interact in a loaded (standing) posture, but not in an unloaded (prone/supine) posture. Conclusion The unloaded, functional leg-length alignment asymmetry is a likely phenomenon, although more research regarding reliability of the measurement procedure and validity relative to spinal dysfunction is needed. Functional leg-length alignment asymmetry should be eliminated before any necessary treatment of anatomic LLI. PMID:16080787

  15. Minimizing Leg Length Discrepancy After Intramedullary Nailing of Comminuted Femoral Shaft Fractures: A Quality Improvement Initiative Using the Scout Computed Tomography Scanogram.

    PubMed

    Gheraibeh, Petra; Vaidya, Rahul; Hudson, Ian; Meehan, Robert; Tonnos, Frederick; Sethi, Anil

    2018-05-01

    To prevent leg length discrepancy (LLD) after locked femoral nailing in patients with comminuted femoral shaft fractures. Prospective consecutive case series aimed at quality improvement. Level 1 Trauma Center PATIENTS:: Ninety-eight consecutive patients with a comminuted femoral shaft fracture underwent statically locked intramedullary nailing, with a focused attempt at minimizing LLD during surgery. A computed tomography scanogram of both legs was performed on postoperative day 1 to assess for residual LLD. Patients were offered the option to have LLD >1.5 cm corrected before discharge. LLD >1.5 cm. Twenty-one patients (21.4%) were found to have an LLD >1.5 cm. An LLD >1.5 cm occurred in 10/55 (18%) antegrade nail patients and 11/43 (26%) retrograde nail patients (P = 0.27). No difference was noted based on the mechanism of injury, surgeon training and OTA/AO type B versus C injury. Ninety of 98 patients left with <1.5 cm LLD, 13/21 had a correction all to ≤0.6 cm, and 8 decided to accept the LLD and declined early correction. No patient left the hospital with an LLD >1.5 cm after locked intramedullary nailing for a comminuted femoral shaft fracture without being informed and the option of early correction. We recommend using a full-length computed tomography scanogram after IM nailing of comminuted femur fractures to prevent iatrogenic LLD. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. A case of 45,X/47,XXX mosaic Turner syndrome with limb length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Hishimura-Yonemaru, Nozomi; Okuhara, Koji; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Iizuka, Susumu; Tajima, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) frequently show short stature and skeletal deformities, such as kyphosis and scoliosis. However, to the best of our knowledge, limb length discrepancy (LLD) has not yet been reported in patients with TS. The case of a 12-yr-old girl with 45,X/47,XXX mosaic TS showing LLD is herein presented. She was on GH therapy for short stature and was noted to have scoliosis in the standing position at a regular examination; however, the scoliosis became less evident in the supine position, which is indicative of LLD. The length of the left leg was 5.0 cm shorter than that of the right leg when measured. She was referred to orthopedics and underwent right distal femoral and right proximal tibial staple epiphysiodesis to shorten the abnormally long limb at 10 yr 6 mo of age. One year after the operation, the LLD decreased from 5.0 to 1.5 cm. During this period, GH was continued. LLD is a rare complication in TS, but when patients with TS show scoliosis in the standing position, re-evaluation for scoliosis in the supine position should be performed and the lengths of both legs should be measured. PMID:29026275

  17. A case of 45,X/47,XXX mosaic Turner syndrome with limb length discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Hishimura-Yonemaru, Nozomi; Okuhara, Koji; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Iizuka, Susumu; Tajima, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) frequently show short stature and skeletal deformities, such as kyphosis and scoliosis. However, to the best of our knowledge, limb length discrepancy (LLD) has not yet been reported in patients with TS. The case of a 12-yr-old girl with 45,X/47,XXX mosaic TS showing LLD is herein presented. She was on GH therapy for short stature and was noted to have scoliosis in the standing position at a regular examination; however, the scoliosis became less evident in the supine position, which is indicative of LLD. The length of the left leg was 5.0 cm shorter than that of the right leg when measured. She was referred to orthopedics and underwent right distal femoral and right proximal tibial staple epiphysiodesis to shorten the abnormally long limb at 10 yr 6 mo of age. One year after the operation, the LLD decreased from 5.0 to 1.5 cm. During this period, GH was continued. LLD is a rare complication in TS, but when patients with TS show scoliosis in the standing position, re-evaluation for scoliosis in the supine position should be performed and the lengths of both legs should be measured.

  18. The effects of real and artificial Leg Length Discrepancy on mechanical work and energy cost during the gait.

    PubMed

    Assogba, T F; Boulet, S; Detrembleur, C; Mahaudens, P

    2018-01-01

    The impacts of Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) on the kinematic and dynamic parameters of walking have been widely discussed. But little is known on total mechanical work and energy cost. These two variables are more representative of the functional impairment undergone by the LLD patients. To assess the changes of the mechanical work and energy cost of walking in subjects with real LLD and to compare their results with healthy subjects in whom the LLD has been simulated. The mechanical work and energy cost data of 60 healthy subjects (speed: 4km/h) with artificial LLD induced by soles (2 and 4cm), 20 patients (speed: 3.75±0.5km/h) with real LLD and 20 matched subjects (speed: 3.75±0.5km/h) were collected. Statistical comparisons between the groups were performed using a t-paired test and ANOVA. Patients with a real LLD showed a significant decrease in mechanical work and energy cost when compared to norms. Patients with real LLD provide a better recovery when compared to subjects with artificial LLD of 2cm, and a decrease of energy cost and higher muscular efficiency (mechanical work/energy cost) when compared to subjects with artificial LLD of 4cm. Our results showed that patients with a real LLD develop compensatory strategies during gait, probably to minimize the displacement of the body center of mass and consequently reduce the amount of energy expenditure useful for their displacement. Moreover, they adopt a better gait strategy compared to the subjects in whom LLD was simulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Are differences in leg length predictive of lateral patello-femoral pain?

    PubMed

    Carlson, Mary; Wilkerson, Jerry

    2007-03-01

    Lateral patello-femoral pain can shorten an athletic career and generally decrease an individual's physical activity and functional level, such as preventing stair climbing and reducing the ability to rise from a chair. Leg length inequality is associated with patello-femoral pain. A leg length test that best distinguishes the difference between people who have lateral patello-femoral pain and those who do not would have clinical utility. The purpose of the present study was, first, to determine if unilateral, lateral patello-femoral pain was associated with the longer leg when inequality of leg lengths existed and, second, to determine if leg length direct measurement, indirect measurement or quadriceps angle (Q angle) could correctly classify participants according to the presence or absence of patello-femoral pain. The study used an ex post facto, two-group quasi-experimental design. A volunteer sample of 52 participants (14 males, 38 females), ranged in age from 18 to 52 years. Three methods were used to measure leg lengths: palpation meter (PALM) on anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) while participants maintained centred weight-bearing position on a high resolution pressure mat; tape measurement from ASIS to medial malleolus (supine); tape measurement from ASIS to lateral malleolus (supine). Additionally, Q angle was measured in supine position. Patellar grind test, medial retinacular and lateral patellar palpation screened for patello-femoral pain. Logistic regression analysis determined correctness of membership in painful and non-painful patello-femoral groups. The PALM method of indirect measurement of leg length differences overall correctly classified approximately 83 % of the participants. Tape measure to medial and lateral malleoli as well as Q angle did not yield significant results. The results suggested that the PALM method of measuring leg length differences may have clinical utility in differentiating between patients who are likely to sustain

  20. Usefulness of intraoperative radiographs in reducing errors of cup placement and leg length during total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wind, Michael A; Morrison, J Craig; Christie, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Traditional methods of component placement during total hip arthroplasty (THA) can lead to errors in cup abduction angle and leg length. Intraoperative radiographs were used to assess and correct errors during surgery in a consecutive series of 278 THAs performed by a single surgeon. After exclusions, 262 cases were available for cup abduction angle assessment and 224 for leg length discrepancy (LLD) assessment. Components were initially placed in a position determined as appropriate by the surgeon. Intraoperative radiographs were taken and appropriate corrections made. Postoperative radiographs were assessed at 6 weeks. Mean abduction angle on intraoperative radiographs was 39.6°±5.9° versus 38.6°±4.1° on postoperative radiographs. Thirty-eight cups were outside the target abduction range on intraoperative radiographs versus 4 on postoperative radiographs. Mean LLD was 3.7 mm ± 3.6 mm on intraoperative radiographs and 2.5 mm ± 2.7 mm on postoperative radiographs. Use of intraoperative radiographs is a valid, useful technique for minimizing errors in THA.

  1. Relationship and significance of gait deviations associated with limb length discrepancy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Sam; Carmeli, Eli

    2017-09-01

    Controversy still exists as to the clinical significance of leg length discrepancy (LLD) in spite of the fact that further evidence has been emerging regarding the relationship between several clinical conditions and LLD. The objectives of our study were to review the available research with regard to LLD as a cause of clinically significant gait deviations, to determine if there is a relationship between the magnitude of LLD and the presence of gait deviations and to identify the most common gait deviations associated with LLD. In line with the PRISMA guidelines, a literature search was carried out throughout the Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. Twelve articles met the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Quality assessment using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scale was completed for all included studies. Two main methodologies were found in 4 studies evaluating gait asymmetry in patients or healthy participants with anatomic LLD and 8 studies evaluating gait deviations while simulating LLD by employing artificial lifts of 1-5cm on healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between anatomic LLD and gait deviation. Evidence suggests that gait deviations may occur with discrepancies of >1cm, with greater impact seen as the discrepancy increases. Compensatory strategies were found to occur in both the shorter and longer limb, throughout the lower limb. As the discrepancy increases, more compensatory strategies occur. Sagittal plane deviations seem to be the most effective deviations, although, frontal plane compensations also occur in the pelvis, hip and foot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Leg length, body proportion, and health: a review with a note on beauty.

    PubMed

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2010-03-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature), or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature x 100), among others) are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility.

  3. Leg Length, Body Proportion, and Health: A Review with a Note on Beauty

    PubMed Central

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2010-01-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature), or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature × 100), among others) are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. PMID:20617018

  4. Unilateral total hip replacement patients with symptomatic leg length inequality have abnormal hip biomechanics during walking.

    PubMed

    Li, Junyan; McWilliams, Anthony B; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Stone, Martin H; Redmond, Anthony C; Stewart, Todd D

    2015-06-01

    Symptomatic leg length inequality accounts for 8.7% of total hip replacement related claims made against the UK National Health Service Litigation authority. It has not been established whether symptomatic leg length inequality patients following total hip replacement have abnormal hip kinetics during gait. Hip kinetics in 15 unilateral total hip replacement patients with symptomatic leg length inequality during gait was determined through multibody dynamics and compared to 15 native hip healthy controls and 15 'successful' asymptomatic unilateral total hip replacement patients. More significant differences from normal were found in symptomatic leg length inequality patients than in asymptomatic total hip replacement patients. The leg length inequality patients had altered functions defined by lower gait velocity, reduced stride length, reduced ground reaction force, decreased hip range of motion, reduced hip moment and less dynamic hip force with a 24% lower heel-strike peak, 66% higher mid-stance trough and 37% lower toe-off peak. Greater asymmetry in hip contact force was also observed in leg length inequality patients. These gait adaptions may affect the function of the implant and other healthy joints in symptomatic leg length inequality patients. This study provides important information for the musculoskeletal function and rehabilitation of symptomatic leg length inequality patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. True or apparent leg length discrepancy: which is a better predictor of short-term functional outcomes after total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Nakanowatari, Tatsuya; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Suga, Toshimitsu; Okii, Akira; Fujii, Genji; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    The associations between leg length discrepancy (LLD) and patient-perceived inequality and functional outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA) are unclear in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the types of LLD after THA and to identify the best predictor of patient-perceived LLD and functional outcome in the short term after THA. We subdivided LLD into true and apparent types and prospectively studied 53 consecutive patients undergoing unilateral primary THA to determine whether there is an association between the type of LLD and functional outcome 2 months after the operation. Apparent LLD was measured by the block test and true LLD was measured by hip radiography. We classified the patients into 4 groups: true, apparent, mixed, and no-LLD groups. The questionnaire included a visual analog scale of pain, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and patient-perceived inequality. Physical performance was measured using walking speed and the Timed Up and Go test. The apparent and mixed LLD groups had a higher prevalence of patient-perceived inequality than the true and no-LLD groups. The results of physical performance showed that the walking speed of the mixed LLD group and the results of the Timed Up and Go Test of the apparent LLD group were significantly slower than those of the true LLD group. We suggested that the true LLD group may have a weak relationship with functional outcome after THA while the apparent LLD resulting from pelvic obliquity due to hip contracture or scoliosis is correlated with the short-term functional outcome after THA. Apparent LLD can be a better predictor of patient-perceived inequality and physical performance than true LLD.

  6. Measuring Clearance Mechanics Based on Dynamic Leg Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Sam; Danino, Barry; Hayek, Shlomo; Carmeli, Eli

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify clearance mechanics during gait. Seventeen children diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy underwent a three-dimensional gait analysis evaluation. Dynamic leg lengths were measured from the hip joint center to the heel, to the ankle joint center and to the forefoot throughout the gait cycle. Significant…

  7. Head circumference, leg length and its association with dementia among older adult population in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sherilyn; Ong, Hui Lin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Shafie, Saleha; Mahendran, Rathi; Subramaniam, Mythily; Chong, Siow Ann

    2017-12-01

    Head circumference and leg length serve as reliable proxy indicators of early-life environment. Research studies have shown that these anthropometric measurements are associated with cognitive impairment and dementia among older adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between dementia with head circumference and leg length among the older adult population in Singapore. This study also aimed to examine the sociodemographic correlates of these anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from 2565 older adults aged 60 years and above, in a population study on the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly. Head circumference and leg length measurements were obtained, and sociodemographic information was recorded. Dementia diagnosis was made using the 10/66 dementia algorithm. Anthropometric measurements were first stratified into quarters, and then logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with head circumference and leg length, as well as to examine the association between dementia with these measurements. Sociodemographic correlates of head circumference and leg length include age, gender, ethnicity and education level. Smaller head circumference was independently associated with higher odds of 10/66 dementia (OR = 2.173-2.709). When the regression analysis was stratified by gender, the association was found only in the male sample. Leg length was not significantly associated with dementia after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Smaller head circumference is independently associated with dementia among older adults in Singapore. Findings from this study suggest that risk factors for dementia begin their influence in early life. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Leg length, sitting height, and body proportions references for achondroplasia: New tools for monitoring growth.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Mariana; Ramos Mejía, Rosario; Fano, Virginia

    2018-04-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. We report leg length, sitting height, and body proportion curves for achondroplasia. Seven centile format of sitting height, leg length, sitting height/leg length ratio, sitting height/height ratio, and head circumference/height ratio were estimated by the LMS method. The Q-test was applied to assess the goodness of fit. For comparison, centiles of sitting height and leg length were graphed using Argentine national growth references for achondroplasia and non-achondroplasia populations. The sample consisted of 342 children with achondroplasia (171 males, 171 females) aged 0-18 years. The median (interquartile range) number of measurements per child was 6 (3, 12) for sitting height and 8 (3, 13) for head circumference. Median leg length increased from 14 cm at age 1 week to 44 and 40 cm (males and females, respectively) in achondroplasia adolescents which is 3.5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children at age 1 week and, 38 cm shorter at adolescence. Median sitting height increased from 34 cm at birth to 86 and 81 in adolescents' boys and girls respectively, only 5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children. Sitting height/leg length decreased from 2.61 at birth to approximately 1.90 at adolescent. Median head circumference/height ratio decreased from 0.79 at birth to 0.46 at 18 years in both sexes. Growth of lower limbs is affected early in life and becomes more noticeable throughout childhood. The disharmonic growth between the less affected trunk and the severely affected limbs determine body disproportion in achondroplasia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Leg Length Versus Torso Length in Pedophilia: Further Evidence of Atypical Physical Development Early in Life.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M

    2017-08-01

    Adult men's height results from an interaction among positive and negative influences, including genetic predisposition, conditions in utero, and influences during early development such as nutritional quality, pathogen exposure, and socioeconomic status. Decreased height, reflected specifically as a decreased leg length, is strongly associated with increased risk of poorer health outcomes. Although prior research has repeatedly shown that pedophiles are shorter than nonpedophiles, the largest study to date relied on self-reported height. In the present study, pedophiles demonstrated reduced measured height and reduced leg length as compared with teleiophiles. Given the prenatal and early childhood origins of height, these findings contribute additional evidence to a biological, developmental origin of pedophilia. In addition, the magnitude of this height difference was substantially larger than that found in children exposed to a variety of early environmental stressors, but similar to that seen in other biologically based neurodevelopmental disorders.

  10. Height and relative leg length as indicators of the quality of the environment among Mozambican juveniles and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padez, Cristina; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Bogin, Barry

    2009-01-01

    The growth status of Mozambique adolescents was assessed to test the hypothesis that relative leg length is a more sensitive indicator of the quality of the environment than the total height. The sample comprised 690 boys and 727 girls, aged between 9 and 17 years, from Maputo. It is divided between those living in the Centre of Maputo and those living in the slums on the periphery of the city. Height, weight, and sitting height were measured and the sitting height ratio was calculated. The hypothesis that relative leg length is more sensitive than total stature as an indicator of environmental quality is not uniformly confirmed. Overall, mean stature is greater for the centre group than the slum group, but relative leg length as measured by the sitting height ratio does not differ. Compared with African-American references (NHANES II), all centre girls, 9- to 14-year-old slum girls, all slum boys, and the oldest centre boys show relatively shorter legs. These findings show that within the Mozambique sample, relative leg length is not sensitive enough to distinguish the quality of the living environment. Mozambique was a colony of Portugal until 1975. Civil unrest and warfare characterized the late Colonial period and the postindependence period until a peace settlement was concluded in 1992. It is possible that all socioeconomic status groups within the country suffered sufficiently to reduce relative leg length compared with the better-off African-American reference sample. Possible genetic influences on relative leg length are also discussed.

  11. Effect of leg length inequality on body weight distribution during walking with load: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabri, S. W. K. Ali; Basaruddin, K. S.; Salleh, A. F.; Rusli, W. M. R.; Daud, R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a pilot study on the effect of leg length inequality (LLI) on the body weight distribution. Plywood block was used to mimic the artificial LLI. The height of the plywood was increased up to 4.0 cm with 0.5 cm increment. Hence, eight different height of LLI was considered in order to investigate which height of LLI initiated the significant effect. The experiment was conducted on a healthy subject that walking on the force plate in two conditions; with a load of 2 kg (carried by a backpack worn by the subject) and without load. Qualisys Track Manager (QTM) system was employed for data processing. The results showed that the short leg subjected to more weight compared to the long leg during walking with inequality of leg length especially when carrying additional load.

  12. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty; Dumoulin, Christine; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria; Biunno, Ida; Bauer, Peter; Kline, Margaret; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards. PMID:21811303

  13. Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

  14. Leg length, skull circumference, and the prevalence of dementia in low and middle income countries; a 10/66 population-based cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Dangour, Alan D; Uauy, Ricardo; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J.; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D.; Acosta, Isaac; Albanese, Emiliano; Dewey, Michael E.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Stewart, Robert; Gaona, Ciro; Jotheeswaran, AT.; Senthil Kumar, P; Li, Shuran; Llibre Guerra, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Diana; Rodriguez, Guillermina

    2017-01-01

    Background Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. There is a limited literature linking short legs and small skulls to an increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in late life. Methods One phase cross-sectional surveys of all over 65 year old residents (n=14,960) in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru. The cross-culturally validated 10/66 dementia diagnosis, and a sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaire were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken. Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios for the effect of leg length and skull circumference upon 10/66 Dementia, controlling for age, gender, education and family history of dementia. Results The pooled meta-analysed fixed effect for leg length (highest vs. lowest quarter) was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-0.98) and for skull circumference 0.75 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89). While point estimates varied between sites, the proportion of the variability attributable to heterogeneity between studies as opposed to sampling error (I2) was 0% for leg length and 22% for skull circumference. The effects were independent and not mediated by family history of dementia. The effect of skull circumference was not modified by educational level or gender, and the effect of leg length was not modified by gender. Conclusions Since leg length and skull circumference are said to remain stable throughout adulthood into old age, reverse causality is an unlikely explanation for the findings. Early life nutritional programming, as well as neurodevelopment may protect against neurodegeneration. PMID:20701817

  15. Leg length, skull circumference, and the incidence of dementia in Latin America and China: A 10/66 population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin J; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Dewey, Michael E; Guerchet, Maelenn M; Liu, Zhaorui; Llibre Guerra, Jorge J; Prina, A Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. Cross-sectional studies indicate inverse associations with dementia risk, but there have been few prospective studies. Population-based cohort studies in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken, with ascertainment of incident dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. Of the original at risk cohort of 13,587 persons aged 65 years and over, 2,443 (18.0%) were lost to follow-up; 10,540 persons with skull circumference assessments were followed up for 40,466 person years, and 10,400 with leg length assessments were followed up for 39,954 person years. There were 1,009 cases of incident dementia, and 1,605 dementia free deaths. The fixed effect pooled meta-analysed adjusted subhazard ratio (ASHR) for leg length (highest vs. lowest quarter) was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.66-0.97) and for skull circumference was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.84-1.25), with no heterogeneity of effect between sites (I2 = 0%). Leg length measurements tended to be shorter at follow-up, particularly for those with baseline cognitive impairment and dementia. However, leg length change was not associated with dementia incidence (ASHR, per cm 1.006, 95% CI 0.992-1.020), and the effect of leg length was little altered after adjusting for baseline frailty (ASHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67-0.99). A priori hypotheses regarding effect modification by gender or educational level were not supported. However, the effect of skull circumference was modified by gender (M vs F ASHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.98), but in the opposite direction to that hypothesized with a greater protective effect of larger skull dimensions in men. Consistent findings across settings provide quite strong support for an

  16. Discrepancies Between Plastic Surgery Meeting Abstracts and Subsequent Full-Length Manuscript Publications.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Rafael; Araujo, Gustavo Henrique; Pinho, Andre Silveira; Denadai, Rodrigo; Samartine, Hugo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this bibliometric study was to assess the discrepancies between plastic surgery meeting abstracts and subsequent full-length manuscript publications. Abstracts presented at the Brazilian Congress of Plastic Surgery from 2010 to 2011 were compared with matching manuscript publications. Discrepancies between the abstract and the subsequent manuscript were categorized as major (changes in the purpose, methods, study design, sample size, statistical analysis, results, and conclusions) and minor (changes in the title and authorship) variations. The overall discrepancy rate was 96 %, with at least one major (76 %) and/or minor (96 %) variation. There were inconsistencies between the study title (56 %), authorship (92 %), purpose (6 %), methods (20 %), study design (36 %), sample size (51.2 %), statistical analysis (14 %), results (20 %), and conclusions (8 %) of manuscripts compared with their corresponding meeting abstracts. As changes occur before manuscript publication of plastic surgery meeting abstracts, caution should be exercised in referencing abstracts or altering surgical practices based on abstracts' content. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Selection on male size, leg length and condition during mate search in a sexually highly dimorphic orb-weaving spider.

    PubMed

    Foellmer, Matthias W; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2005-02-01

    Mate search plays a central role in hypotheses for the adaptive significance of extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Spiders (Araneae) are the only free-living terrestrial taxon where extreme SSD is common. The "gravity hypothesis" states that small body size in males is favoured during mate search in species where males have to climb to reach females, because body length is inversely proportional to achievable speed on vertical structures. However, locomotive performance of males may also depend on relative leg length. Here we examine selection on male body size and leg length during mate search in the highly dimorphic orb-weaving spider Argiope aurantia, using a multivariate approach to distinguish selection targeted at different components of size. Further, we investigate the scaling relationships between male size and energy reserves, and the differential loss of reserves. Adult males do not feed while roving, and a size-dependent differential energy storage capacity may thus affect male performance during mate search. Contrary to predictions, large body size was favoured in one of two populations, and this was due to selection for longer legs. Male size was not under selection in the second population, but we detected direct selection for longer third legs. Males lost energy reserves during mate search, but this was independent of male size and storage capacity scaled isometrically with size. Thus, mate search is unlikely to lead to selection for small male size, but the hypothesis that relatively longer legs in male spiders reflect a search-adapted morphology is supported.

  18. Tibial lengthening using a humeral intramedullary nail combined with a single-plane external fixator for leg discrepancy in sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Liu, Fanggang; Jiang, Yao

    2011-03-01

    The sequelae of poliomyelitis are the common causes of leg discrepancy. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem but it is associated with a high rate of complications. In this study, we combined the use of humeral nail and external fixator in tibial lengthening with the purpose of reducing lengthening complications. Compared with the cases lengthened by a single-plane external fixator alone, this combined strategy was found to be beneficial in maintaining the tibial alignment. Therefore, it can be recommended as a good technique for tibial lengthening in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  19. Insect-computer hybrid legged robot with user-adjustable speed, step length and walking gait.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Choo, Hao Yu; Sato, Hirotaka

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed an insect-computer hybrid legged robot using a living beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata; Coleoptera). The protraction/retraction and levation/depression motions in both forelegs of the beetle were elicited by electrically stimulating eight corresponding leg muscles via eight pairs of implanted electrodes. To perform a defined walking gait (e.g., gallop), different muscles were individually stimulated in a predefined sequence using a microcontroller. Different walking gaits were performed by reordering the applied stimulation signals (i.e., applying different sequences). By varying the duration of the stimulation sequences, we successfully controlled the step frequency and hence the beetle's walking speed. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first demonstration of living insect locomotion control with a user-adjustable walking gait, step length and walking speed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Insect–computer hybrid legged robot with user-adjustable speed, step length and walking gait

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Choo, Hao Yu

    2016-01-01

    We have constructed an insect–computer hybrid legged robot using a living beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata; Coleoptera). The protraction/retraction and levation/depression motions in both forelegs of the beetle were elicited by electrically stimulating eight corresponding leg muscles via eight pairs of implanted electrodes. To perform a defined walking gait (e.g. gallop), different muscles were individually stimulated in a predefined sequence using a microcontroller. Different walking gaits were performed by reordering the applied stimulation signals (i.e. applying different sequences). By varying the duration of the stimulation sequences, we successfully controlled the step frequency and hence the beetle's walking speed. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first demonstration of living insect locomotion control with a user-adjustable walking gait, step length and walking speed. PMID:27030043

  1. Leg lengthening and femoral-offset reduction after total hip arthroplasty: where is the problem - stem or cup positioning?

    PubMed

    Al-Amiry, Bariq; Mahmood, Sarwar; Krupic, Ferid; Sayed-Noor, Arkan

    2017-09-01

    Background Restoration of femoral offset (FO) and leg length is an important goal in total hip arthroplasty (THA) as it improves functional outcome. Purpose To analyze whether the problem of postoperative leg lengthening and FO reduction is related to the femoral stem or acetabular cup positioning or both. Material and Methods Between September 2010 and April 2013, 172 patients with unilateral primary osteoarthritis treated with THA were included. Postoperative leg-length discrepancy (LLD) and global FO (summation of cup and FO) were measured by two observers using a standardized protocol for evaluation of antero-posterior plain hip radiographs. Patients with postoperative leg lengthening ≥10 mm (n = 41) or with reduced global FO >5 mm (n = 58) were further studied by comparing the stem and cup length of the operated side with the contralateral side in the lengthening group, and by comparing the stem and cup offset of the operated side with the contralateral side in the FO reduction group. We evaluated also the inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of the radiological measurements. Results Both observers found that leg lengthening was related to the stem positioning while FO reduction was related to the positioning of both the femoral stem and acetabular cup. Both inter-observer reliability and intra-observer reproducibility were moderate to excellent (intra-class correlation co-efficient, ICC ≥0.69). Conclusion Post THA leg lengthening was mainly caused by improper femoral stem positioning while global FO reduction resulted from improper positioning of both the femoral stem and the acetabular cup.

  2. Incidence of foot rotation, pelvic crest unleveling, and supine leg length alignment asymmetry and their relationship to self-reported back pain.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Gary A

    2002-02-01

    To determine the incidence of pelvic unleveling, foot rotation, and supine leg length alignment asymmetry in a nonclinical population and to examine the validity (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values) of these visual tests and their relationship to self-reported back pain. Volunteers answered a questionnaire regarding back pain and were then examined by a chiropractor who was unaware of the status of their back pain. Seventy-four unscreened volunteers answered the questionnaire. The association of visual tests with back pain and their validity indices; Visual Analogue Scale ratings. Fifty-one percent (n = 74) of volunteers examined had supine leg length alignment asymmetry (LLA). Pain intensity on a Visual Analogue Scale was significantly higher (P <.001) for those demonstrating supine LLA than for those without LLA. Those with back pain and recurrent back pain were significantly (P <.001) more likely to have supine LLA. The validity indices of the supine leg check showed acceptable levels for sensitivity (74%), specificity (78%), and positive predictive value (82%) [corrected] in recurrent back pain. Findings also indicated a high incidence of supine LLA in volunteers with chronic back pain (85%). The results indicated that, in this group of volunteers, the supine leg length alignment check had clinical validity as a stand-alone test for recurring back pain. Further testing on a larger, statistically defined cross-section of the population is recommended.

  3. Leg lengthening and shortening

    MedlinePlus

    ... to match its length. Proper timing of this treatment is important for best results. Certain health conditions can lead to very unequal leg lengths. They include: Poliomyelitis Cerebral palsy Small, weak muscles or short, tight ( ...

  4. Static balance according to hip joint angle of unsupported leg during one-leg standing.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Jang-Joon; Ye, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Seul-Ji; Hong, Jeong-Mi; Choi, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine static balance according to hip joint angle of the unsupported leg during one-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 45 healthy adult males and females in their 20s. During one-leg standing on the non-dominant leg, the position of the unsupported leg was classified according to hip joint angles of point angle was class. Static balance was then measured using a force plate with eyes open and closed. The total length, sway velocity, maximum deviation, and velocity on the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes of center of pressure were measured. [Results] In balance assessment with eyes open, there were significant differences between groups according to hip joint angle, except for maximum deviation on the anteroposterior axis. In balance assessment with eyes closed, there were significant differences between total length measurements at 0° and 30°, 60° and between 30° and 90°. There were significant differences between sway velocity measurements at 0° and 30° and between 30° and 90°. [Conclusion] Thus, there were differences in static balance according to hip joint angle. It is necessary to clearly identify the hip joint angle during one-leg standing testing.

  5. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain.

    PubMed

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Hubicki, Christian M; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W; Daley, Monica A

    2014-11-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force-length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force-length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain

    PubMed Central

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force–length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force–length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. PMID:25355848

  7. Airway compliance and dynamics explain the apparent discrepancy in length adaptation between intact airways and smooth muscle strips.

    PubMed

    Dowie, Jackson; Ansell, Thomas K; Noble, Peter B; Donovan, Graham M

    2016-01-01

    Length adaptation is a phenomenon observed in airway smooth muscle (ASM) wherein over time there is a shift in the length-tension curve. There is potential for length adaptation to play an important role in airway constriction and airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma. Recent results by Ansell et al., 2015 (JAP 2014 10.1152/japplphysiol.00724.2014) have cast doubt on this role by testing for length adaptation using an intact airway preparation, rather than strips of ASM. Using this technique they found no evidence for length adaptation in intact airways. Here we attempt to resolve this apparent discrepancy by constructing a minimal mathematical model of the intact airway, including ASM which follows the classic length-tension curve and undergoes length adaptation. This allows us to show that (1) no evidence of length adaptation should be expected in large, cartilaginous, intact airways; (2) even in highly compliant peripheral airways, or at more compliant regions of the pressure-volume curve of large airways, the effect of length adaptation would be modest and at best marginally detectable in intact airways; (3) the key parameters which control the appearance of length adaptation in intact airways are airway compliance and the relaxation timescale. The results of this mathematical simulation suggest that length adaptation observed at the level of the isolated ASM may not clearly manifest in the normal intact airway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of fibular hemimelia using the Ilizarov method at Siriraj Hospital in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Unprasert, Prangthong; Kaewpornsawan, Kamolporn; Chotigavanichaya, Chatupon; Eamsobhana, Perajit

    2014-09-01

    Fibular hemimelia is one of the most common congenital longitudinal bone deficiencies. Previous treatment protocols called for amputation of the deficient limb; while others made attempts to save the limb. The objective of treatment is to restore function and achieve patient satisfaction. The authors evaluated the outcomes of the Ilizarov technique for the treatment of leg-length discrepancy and bone associated deformities in patients with fibular hemimelia. The present study also evaluated and assessed complications, knee and ankle function, and patient satisfaction with the treatment. Nine patients with fibular hemimelia who underwent tibial lengthening using the Ilizarov method were reviewed in the present study. Initial condition data, including age, gender type offibular hemimelia, initial limb-length discrepancy, predicted limb-length discrepancy, and the data were collected and analyzed. Activity level, patient satisfaction, complications, and residual leg-length discrepancy were assessed at the end of treatment. According to Achterman and Kalamchi classification, there were 4 patients with Type IA, 3 patients with Type IB, and 2 patients with Type II. In Type IA, the affected leg-length discrepancy and mean age at the initial treatment were 3.25 cm and 7.75 years, respectively. In type IB, the affected leg-length discrepancy and mean age at the initial treatment were 5.83 cm and 4.3 years, respectively. In Type II, the affected leg-length discrepancy and mean age at the initial treatment were 5.5 cm and 5 years, respectively. The mean follow-up was 5 years (range: 7-10). The mean lengthening was 7.52 cm (range: 4-13). The lengthening index was 1.28 mo/cm. The mean residual leg-length discrepancy was 0.94 cm. There was ankle joint stiffness and mild equinous foot in type II cases, but patients could walk well without gait aid. No patients were experiencing pain by the end of treatment. All patients expressed satisfaction with this technique. The Ilizarov

  9. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  11. Discrepancies between leg-to-leg bioelectrical Impedance analysis and computerized tomography in abdominal visceral fat measurement.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Yeh, Chinagwen; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lai, Chung-Liang; Casebolt, Kevin M; Huang, Ai-Chun; Lin, Wen-Long; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2017-08-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) using a four-contact electrode system for measuring abdominal visceral fat area (VFA). The present study recruited 381 (240 male and 141 female) Chinese participants to compare VFA measurements estimated by a standing LBIA system (VFALBIA) with computerized tomography (CT) scanned at the L4-L5 vertebrae (VFA CT ). The total mean body mass index (BMI) was 24.7 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 . Correlation analysis, regression analysis, Bland-Altman plot, and paired sample t-tests were used to analyze the accuracy of the VFA LBIA . For the total subjects, the regression line was VFA LBIA  = 0.698 VFA CT  + 29.521, (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.789, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 24.470 cm 2 , p < 0.001), Lin's correlation coefficient (CCC) was 0.785; and the limit of agreement (LOA; mean difference ±2 standard deviation) ranged from -43.950 to 67.951 cm 2 , LOA% (given as a percentage of mean value measured by the CT) was 48.2%. VFA LBIA and VFA CT showed significant difference (p < 0.001). Collectively, the current study indicates that LBIA has limited potential to accurately estimate visceral fat in a clinical setting.

  12. The effect of leg preference on postural stability in healthy athletes.

    PubMed

    Huurnink, Arnold; Fransz, Duncan P; Kingma, Idsart; Hupperets, Maarten D W; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2014-01-03

    In research regarding postural stability, leg preference is often tested and controlled for. However, leg preference may vary between tasks. As athletes are a group of interest for postural stability testing, we evaluated the effect of five leg preference tasks categorization (step up, hop, ball kick, balance, pick up) on single-leg postural stability of 16 field hockey athletes. The 'center of pressure speed' was calculated as the primary outcome variable of single-leg postural stability. Secondary variables were 'mean length of the GRF vector in the horizontal plane', 'mean length of the ankle angular velocity vector', and 'mean length of the hip angular velocity vector', as well as the separate outcomes per degree of freedom. Results showed that leg preference was inconsistent between leg preference tasks. Moreover, the primary and secondary variables yielded no significant difference between the preferred and non-preferred legs, regardless of the applied leg preference task categorization (p>0.05). The present findings do not support the usability of leg preference tasks in controlling for bias of postural stability. In conclusion, none of the applied leg preference tasks revealed a significant effect on postural stability in healthy field hockey athletes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Nutritional status of Maya children, their mothers, and their grandmothers residing in the City of Merida, Mexico: revisiting the leg-length hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Azcorra, Hugo; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Rodriguez, Luis; Bogin, Barry; Dickinson, Federico

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that leg length-relative-to-stature is a more sensitive indicator of nutrition and health than is total height (HT) or sitting height (SH) in a sample of 109 triads of urban Maya children (6.0-8.99 years), their mothers, and maternal grandmothers from Merida, Mexico. From September 2011 to June 2012, the following factors were obtained from all participants: (1) HT, SH, and leg length (LL); (2) the sitting height ratio (SHR = [SH × 100]/HT), relative leg length index (RLLI = [LL × 100]/height), and percentiles and z-scores of HT, SH, and LL were calculated; and (3) the percentages of stunting for children or very short ZHT for the adults, short ZSH, and short ZLL: HT-for-age, SH-for-age, or LL-for-age below the 5th percentile of the reference were calculated. Correlations were performed to examine the association between z-scores of HT, SH, and LL among three generations. Stunting in children was 11% (short ZLL = 29%, short ZSH = 7%). Short ZHT was present in 71% of mothers (short ZLL = 54%, short ZSH = 50%) and 90% of grandmothers (short ZLL = 69%, short ZSH = 83%). Significant correlations in ZHT, ZSH, and ZLL were found in mother-to-child and grandmother-to-mother, with the strongest correlations for ZLL. These findings support the hypothesis for children and mothers. Based on ZLL, there is evidence that childhood and nutrition have improved somewhat for each younger generation. Persistent environmental adversity during growth resulted in growth deficits for LL and SH for the mothers and grandmothers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws (PETS): prospective case study and review.

    PubMed

    Nouth, Fred; Kuo, Leonard A

    2004-01-01

    Percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws (PETS) is a relatively new procedure being used for the correction of moderate leg length discrepancy and angular deformities in children. Over a mean follow-up of 2.4 years the authors followed prospectively 18 patients who underwent PETS. Nine had correction of angular deformity and nine had leg length inequality. The average reduction in leg length discrepancy was from 3.33 to 1.36 cm. The average improvement in angular deformity was 69%. This quick, minimally invasive, and potentially reversible procedure has the added benefits of a short hospital stay with low morbidity, making it a suitable alternative to the more traditional methods of epiphysiodesis.

  15. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    PubMed

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    PubMed

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  17. Reference charts of sitting height, leg length and body proportions for Chinese children aged 0-18 years.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-qin; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The reference charts of sitting height (SH), subischial leg length (LL) and the sitting height/leg length ratio (SH/LL) are useful tools in assessing body proportion for clinicians and researchers in related areas. However, reference charts of body proportions for Chinese children and adolescents are limited. To construct reference charts of SH, LL and SH/LL for Chinese children and adolescents. Stature and sitting height of 92 494 (46 240 boys and 46 254 girls) healthy Han nationality children, aged 0-18 years, were measured in two national large-scale cross-sectional surveys in 2005 in China. SH/LL was selected as the indicator of body proportion. References of SH, LL and SH/LL were constructed using the LMS method. The reference charts demonstrated that SH and LL increased with age. Growth in SH slowed by the age of 17 years in boys and 15 years in girls. Similarly, growth in LL slowed at 16 years in boys and 14 years in girls. The SH/LL ratio declined from birth (2.00 in boys and 2.03 in girls) to 13 years in boys (1.11) and to 11 years in girls (1.13), then increased slightly to the age of 18 (1.16 in boys and 1.18 in girls). The gender difference of SH/LL was not significantly different before the age of 11 years. After the age of 11, SH/LL appeared elevated in girls compared to boys. The reference charts of SH, LL and SH/LL are useful tools for assessing body proportions for Chinese children and adolescent individuals.

  18. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  19. On the biomimetic design of agile-robot legs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  20. A comparison and update of direct kinematic-kinetic models of leg stiffness in human running.

    PubMed

    Liew, Bernard X W; Morris, Susan; Masters, Ashleigh; Netto, Kevin

    2017-11-07

    Direct kinematic-kinetic modelling currently represents the "Gold-standard" in leg stiffness quantification during three-dimensional (3D) motion capture experiments. However, the medial-lateral components of ground reaction force and leg length have been neglected in current leg stiffness formulations. It is unknown if accounting for all 3D would alter healthy biologic estimates of leg stiffness, compared to present direct modelling methods. This study compared running leg stiffness derived from a new method (multiplanar method) which includes all three Cartesian axes, against current methods which either only include the vertical axis (line method) or only the plane of progression (uniplanar method). Twenty healthy female runners performed shod overground running at 5.0 m/s. Three-dimensional motion capture and synchronised in-ground force plates were used to track the change in length of the leg vector (hip joint centre to centre of pressure) and resultant projected ground reaction force. Leg stiffness was expressed as dimensionless units, as a percentage of an individual's bodyweight divided by standing leg length (BW/LL). Leg stiffness using the line method was larger than the uniplanar method by 15.6%BW/LL (P < .001), and multiplanar method by 24.2%BW/LL (P < .001). Leg stiffness from the uniplanar method was larger than the multiplanar method by 8.5%BW/LL (6.5 kN/m) (P < .001). The inclusion of medial-lateral components significantly increased leg deformation magnitude, accounting for the reduction in leg stiffness estimate with the multiplanar method. Given that limb movements typically occur in 3D, the new multiplanar method provides the most complete accounting of all force and length components in leg stiffness calculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Youth Baseball Pitching Stride Length: Normal Values and Correlation With Field Testing.

    PubMed

    Fry, Karl E; Pipkin, Andrew; Wittman, Kelcie; Hetzel, Scott; Sherry, Marc

    Pitching biomechanical analysis has been recommended as an important component of performance, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. Normal values for youth pitching stride length have not been established, leading to application of normative values found among professional pitchers to youth pitchers. The average youth pitching stride length will be significantly less than that of college and professional pitchers. There will be a positive correlation between stride length, lower extremity power, balance, and pitching experience. Prospective cohort study. Level 3. Ninety-two youth baseball pitchers (aged 9-14 years) met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and completed the study. Stride length was recorded using a Dartfish video system over 3 maximal effort pitches. Both intra- and interrater reliability was calculated for the assessment of stride length. Double-leg vertical jump, single-leg stance time, leg length, weight, age, and pitching experience were also recorded. Mean (SD) stride length was 66.0% (7.1%) of height. Stride length was correlated ( P < 0.01) with vertical jump (0.38), pitching experience (0.36), and single-leg balance (0.28), with excellent intra- and interrater reliability (0.985 or higher). No significant correlations between stride length and body weight, leg length, or age existed. There was a significant difference between youth pitching stride length and the current published norms for older and more elite throwers. There was a positive correlation between stride length and lower extremity power, pitching experience, and single-leg balance. Two-dimensional analysis of stride length allows for the assessment of pitching biomechanics in a practical manner. These values can be used for return to pitching parameters after an injury and designing injury prevention and performance programs.

  2. The influence of pelvic adjustment on vertical jump height in female university students with functional leg length inequality.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of pelvic adjustment on vertical jump height (VJH) in female university students with functional leg length inequality (FLLI). [Subjects] Thirty female university students with FLLI were divided into a pelvic adjustment group (n = 15) and a stretching (control) group (n = 15). [Methods] VJH was measured using an OptoGait. [Results] After the intervention, jump height improved significantly compared with the pre-intervention height only in the pelvic adjustment group, while FLLI showed statistically significant improvement in both groups. [Conclusion] Pelvic adjustment as per the Gonstead method can be applied as a method of reducing FLLI and increasing VJH.

  3. Evaluation of arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Leblanc, H; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2004-10-01

    This study proposes a new method to evaluate arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke. Five arm and leg stroke phases were defined with a velocity-video system. Five time gaps quantified the time between arm and leg actions during three paces of a race (200 m, 100 m and 50 m) in 16 top level swimmers. Based on these time gaps, effective glide, effective propulsion, effective leg insweep and effective recovery were used to identify the different stroke phases of the body. A faster pace corresponded to increased stroke rate, decreased stroke length, increased propulsive phases, shorter glide phases, and a shorter T1 time gap, which measured the effective body glide. The top level swimmers showed short time gaps (T2, T3, T4, measuring the timing of arm-leg recoveries), which reflected the continuity in arm and leg actions. The measurement of these time gaps thus provides a pertinent evaluation of swimmers' skill in adapting their arm-leg coordination to biomechanical constraints.

  4. Youth Baseball Pitching Stride Length: Normal Values and Correlation With Field Testing

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Karl E.; Pipkin, Andrew; Wittman, Kelcie; Hetzel, Scott; Sherry, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pitching biomechanical analysis has been recommended as an important component of performance, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. Normal values for youth pitching stride length have not been established, leading to application of normative values found among professional pitchers to youth pitchers. Hypotheses: The average youth pitching stride length will be significantly less than that of college and professional pitchers. There will be a positive correlation between stride length, lower extremity power, balance, and pitching experience. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Ninety-two youth baseball pitchers (aged 9-14 years) met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and completed the study. Stride length was recorded using a Dartfish video system over 3 maximal effort pitches. Both intra- and interrater reliability was calculated for the assessment of stride length. Double-leg vertical jump, single-leg stance time, leg length, weight, age, and pitching experience were also recorded. Results: Mean (SD) stride length was 66.0% (7.1%) of height. Stride length was correlated (P < 0.01) with vertical jump (0.38), pitching experience (0.36), and single-leg balance (0.28), with excellent intra- and interrater reliability (0.985 or higher). No significant correlations between stride length and body weight, leg length, or age existed. Conclusions: There was a significant difference between youth pitching stride length and the current published norms for older and more elite throwers. There was a positive correlation between stride length and lower extremity power, pitching experience, and single-leg balance. Clinical Relevance: Two-dimensional analysis of stride length allows for the assessment of pitching biomechanics in a practical manner. These values can be used for return to pitching parameters after an injury and designing injury prevention and performance programs. PMID:27864504

  5. Cost and quality implications of discrepancies between admitting and discharge diagnoses.

    PubMed

    McNutt, Robert; Johnson, Tricia; Kane, Jason; Ackerman, Mariel; Odwazny, Richard; Bardhan, Jaydeep

    2012-01-01

    Presenting and discharge diagnoses of hospitalized patients may differ as a result of patient complexity, diagnostic dilemmas, or errors in clinical judgment at the time of primary assessment. When diagnoses at admission and discharge are not in agreement, this discrepancy may indicate more complex processes of care and resultant costs. It is unclear whether surrogate measures reflecting quality of care are impacted by discrepant diagnoses. To assess whether an association exists between admitting and discharge International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes and other quality markers including hospital length of stay, total cost of care, and 30-day readmission rate. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of general internal medicine patients aged 18 years and older. Diagnosis discrepancy was defined as a difference between the 3-digit ICD-9 diagnosis code at admission and the principal 3-digit ICD-9 diagnosis code at discharge. Sixty-eight percent of patients had a diagnosis discrepancy. Diagnosis discrepancy was associated with a 0.41-day increase in length of stay (P < .001), $663 increase in direct costs (P < .001), and a 1.55 times greater odds of readmission within 30 days (P < .001). Diagnosis discrepancy was associated with hospital quality outcome measures. This finding likely reflects variations in patients' diagnostic complexity.

  6. Pilot study of the impact that bilateral sacroiliac joint manipulation using a drop table technique has on gait parameters in asymptomatic individuals with a leg length inequality.

    PubMed

    Ward, John; Sorrels, Ken; Coats, Jesse; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Deleon, Carlos; Daigneault, Paige

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test our study procedures and estimate parameters for sample size calculations for a randomized controlled trial to determine if bilateral sacroiliac (SI) joint manipulation affects specific gait parameters in asymptomatic individuals with a leg length inequality (LLI). Twenty-one asymptomatic chiropractic students engaged in a baseline 90-second walking kinematic analysis using infrared Vicon® cameras. Following this, participants underwent a functional LLI test. Upon examination participants were classified as: left short leg, right short leg, or no short leg. Half of the participants in each short leg group were then randomized to receive bilateral corrective SI joint chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT). All participants then underwent another 90-second gait analysis. Pre- versus post-intervention gait data were then analyzed within treatment groups by an individual who was blinded to participant group status. For the primary analysis, all p-values were corrected for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. Within groups, no differences in measured gait parameters were statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. The protocol of this study was acceptable to all subjects who were invited to participate. No participants refused randomization. Based on the data collected, we estimated that a larger main study would require 34 participants in each comparison group to detect a moderate effect size.

  7. Tooth-size discrepancy: A comparison between manual and digital methods

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Gabriele Dória Cabral; Habib, Fernando Antonio Lima; Vogel, Carlos Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Technological advances in Dentistry have emerged primarily in the area of diagnostic tools. One example is the 3D scanner, which can transform plaster models into three-dimensional digital models. Objective This study aimed to assess the reliability of tooth size-arch length discrepancy analysis measurements performed on three-dimensional digital models, and compare these measurements with those obtained from plaster models. Material and Methods To this end, plaster models of lower dental arches and their corresponding three-dimensional digital models acquired with a 3Shape R700T scanner were used. All of them had lower permanent dentition. Four different tooth size-arch length discrepancy calculations were performed on each model, two of which by manual methods using calipers and brass wire, and two by digital methods using linear measurements and parabolas. Results Data were statistically assessed using Friedman test and no statistically significant differences were found between the two methods (P > 0.05), except for values found by the linear digital method which revealed a slight, non-significant statistical difference. Conclusions Based on the results, it is reasonable to assert that any of these resources used by orthodontists to clinically assess tooth size-arch length discrepancy can be considered reliable. PMID:25279529

  8. Muscle fiber type, Achilles tendon length, potentiation, and running economy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; McCarthy, John P; Carter, Stephen J; Bamman, Marcas M; Gaddy, Emily S; Fisher, Gordon; Katsoulis, Kostantina; Plaisance, Eric P; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a potential model for how muscle fiber type, Achilles tendon length, stretch-shortening cycle potentiation (SSCP), and leg strength interact with running economy. Twenty trained male distance runners 24-40 years of age served as subjects. Running economy (net oxygen uptake) was measured while running on a treadmill. Leg press SSCP(force) and SSCP(velocity) were determined by measuring the difference in velocity between a static leg press throw and a countermovement leg press throw. Vertical jump SSCP was determined by measuring the difference in jump height between a static jump and a drop jump from a 20.3-cm bench. Tendon length was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and muscle fiber type was made from a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy. Type IIx muscle fiber percent (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) and leg strength (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) were positively and independently related to late eccentric force development. Achilles tendon length (r = 0.42, p ≤ 0.05) and late eccentric force during stretch-shortening cycle (r = 0.76, p < 0.001) were independently related to SSCP(force). SSCP(force) was related to SSCP(velocity), which in turn was related to running economy (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). These results suggest that longer Achilles tendon length, type II fiber, and muscular leg strength may enhance the potential for SSCP, running economy, and physiological effort while running.

  9. Skipping on uneven ground: trailing leg adjustments simplify control and enhance robustness.

    PubMed

    Müller, Roy; Andrada, Emanuel

    2018-01-01

    It is known that humans intentionally choose skipping in special situations, e.g. when descending stairs or when moving in environments with lower gravity than on Earth. Although those situations involve uneven locomotion, the dynamics of human skipping on uneven ground have not yet been addressed. To find the reasons that may motivate this gait, we combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations on a bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model (BSLIP). To drive the model, the following parameters were estimated from nine subjects skipping across a single drop in ground level: leg lengths at touchdown, leg stiffness of both legs, aperture angle between legs, trailing leg angle at touchdown (leg landing first after flight phase), and trailing leg retraction speed. We found that leg adjustments in humans occur mostly in the trailing leg (low to moderate leg retraction during swing phase, reduced trailing leg stiffness, and flatter trailing leg angle at lowered touchdown). When transferring these leg adjustments to the BSLIP model, the capacity of the model to cope with sudden-drop perturbations increased.

  10. Stride length: the impact on propulsion and bracing ground reaction force in overhand throwing.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2018-03-26

    Propulsion and bracing ground reaction force (GRF) in overhand throwing are integral in propagating joint reaction kinetics and ball velocity, yet how stride length effects drive (hind) and stride (lead) leg GRF profiles remain unknown. Using a randomised crossover design, 19 pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to throw 2 simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated motion capture system with two force plates and radar gun tracked each throw. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRF was normalised then impulse was derived. Paired t-tests identified whether differences between conditions were significant. Late in single leg support, peak propulsion GRF was statistically greater for the drive leg with increased stride. Stride leg peak vertical GRF in braking occurred before acceleration with longer strides, but near ball release with shorter strides. Greater posterior shear GRF involving both legs demonstrated increased braking with longer strides. Conversely, decreased drive leg propulsion reduced both legs' braking effects with shorter strides. Results suggest an interconnection between normalised stride length and GRF application in propulsion and bracing. This work has shown stride length to be an important kinematic factor affecting the magnitude and timing of external forces acting upon the body.

  11. Lower Extremity Limb Salvage with Cross Leg Pedicle Flap, Cross Leg Free Flap, and Cross Leg Vascular Cable Bridge Flap.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Oscar J; Bishop, Sarah N; Ciudad, Pedro; Adabi, Kian; Martinez-Jorge, Jorys; Moran, Steven L; Huang, Tony; Vijayasekaran, Aparna; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2018-05-16

     Lower extremity salvage following significant soft tissue loss can be complicated by lack of recipient vessel for free tissue transfer. We describe our experience in lower limb salvage for patients with no recipient vessels with the use of pedicle, free and cable bridge flaps.  A retrospective review from 1985 to 2017 of patients undergoing lower limb salvage using a contralateral pedicle cross leg (PCL) flaps, free cross leg (FCL) flaps, or free cable bridge (FCB) flaps was conducted. Demographics, etiology of the reconstruction, type of flap used, donor-site vessels, defect size, operating time, time of pedicle division, length of hospital stay, time to ambulation, and complications were analyzed.  A total of 53 patients (48 males and 5 females) with an average age of 35 years (range, 29-38 years) were identified. The etiology for the reconstruction was trauma in 52 patients and oncological resection in 1 patient. There were 18 PCL, 25 FCL, and 10 FCB completed. The recipient vessels for all flaps were the posterior tibial artery and vein. The average operating room times for PCL, FCL, and FCB flaps were 4, 9, and 10 hours, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5 weeks and average time to ambulation was 4 weeks. The average follow-up time was 7.5 years (range, 3-12 years). Complications encountered were hematoma (six), prolonged pain (six), total flap loss (two), reoperation (five), and infection (four). Limb salvage rates were 96.2%.  When ipsilateral limb vessels are not available, and other reconstructive options have been exhausted, cross leg flaps can be a viable option for limb salvage in the setting of extensive defects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Ostergaard, Kristine H; Andresen, Joergen; Broegger, Torbjoern; Skovgaard, Nini; Telinius, Niklas; Laher, Ismael; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Smerup, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Brøndum, Emil; Hasenkam, John M; Wang, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2013-11-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along the artery. Histology of the isolated median artery confirmed dense sympathetic innervation at the narrowing. Structure and contractility of small arteries from muscular beds in the leg and neck were compared. The arteries from the legs demonstrated an increased media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio, increased media volume, and increased numbers of smooth muscle cells per segment length and furthermore, they contracted more strongly than arteries from the neck (500 ± 49 vs. 318 ± 43 mmHg; n = 6 legs and neck, respectively). Finally, the transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure following injection of saline was 5.5 ± 1.7 times larger (n = 8) in the leg than in the neck. We conclude that 1) tissue compliance in the legs is low; 2) large arteries of the legs function as resistance arteries; and 3) structural adaptation of small muscle arteries allows them to develop an extraordinary tension. All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure.

  13. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    PubMed

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P < 0.05), relative leg swing (r = 0.71), and gliding time (r = 0.74), hip flexion range of motion (ROM) during swing (r = 0.73) and knee extension ROM during gliding (r = 0.71). Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  14. The desert ant odometer: a stride integrator that accounts for stride length and walking speed.

    PubMed

    Wittlinger, Matthias; Wehner, Rüdiger; Wolf, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Desert ants, Cataglyphis, use path integration as a major means of navigation. Path integration requires measurement of two parameters, namely, direction and distance of travel. Directional information is provided by a celestial compass, whereas distance measurement is accomplished by a stride integrator, or pedometer. Here we examine the recently demonstrated pedometer function in more detail. By manipulating leg lengths in foraging desert ants we could also change their stride lengths. Ants with elongated legs ('stilts') or shortened legs ('stumps') take larger or shorter strides, respectively, and misgauge travel distance. Travel distance is overestimated by experimental animals walking on stilts, and underestimated by animals walking on stumps - strongly indicative of stride integrator function in distance measurement. High-speed video analysis was used to examine the actual changes in stride length, stride frequency and walking speed caused by the manipulations of leg length. Unexpectedly, quantitative characteristics of walking behaviour remained almost unaffected by imposed changes in leg length, demonstrating remarkable robustness of leg coordination and walking performance. These data further allowed normalisation of homing distances displayed by manipulated animals with regard to scaling and speed effects. The predicted changes in homing distance are in quantitative agreement with the experimental data, further supporting the pedometer hypothesis.

  15. Discriminant musculo-skeletal leg characteristics between sprint and endurance elite Caucasian runners.

    PubMed

    Bex, T; Iannaccone, F; Stautemas, J; Baguet, A; De Beule, M; Verhegghe, B; Aerts, P; De Clercq, D; Derave, W

    2017-03-01

    Excellence in either sprinting or endurance running requires specific musculo-skeletal characteristics of the legs. This study aims to investigate the morphology of the leg of sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity. Eight male sprinters and 11 male endurance runners volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. They underwent magnetic resonance imaging and after data collection, digital reconstruction was done to calculate muscle volumes and bone lengths. Sprinters have a higher total upper leg volume compared to endurance runners (7340 vs 6265 cm 3 ). Specifically, the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and hamstrings showed significantly higher muscle volumes in the sprint group. For the lower leg, only a higher muscle volume was found in the gastrocnemius lateralis for the sprinters. No differences were found in muscle volume distribution, center of mass in the different muscles, or relative bone lengths. There was a significant positive correlation between ratio hamstrings/quadriceps volume and best running performance in the sprint group. Sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity showed the greatest distinctions in muscle volumes, rather than in muscle distributions or skeletal measures. Sprinters show higher volumes in mainly the proximal and lateral leg muscles than endurance runners. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Three-dimensional reduction and finite element analysis improves the treatment of pelvic malunion reconstructive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Sascha; Pieroh, Philipp; Lenk, Maximilian; Josten, Christoph; Böhme, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Pelvic malunion is a rare complication and is technically challenging to correct owing to the complex three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the pelvic girdle. Hence, precise preoperative planning is required to ensure appropriate correction. Reconstructive surgery is generally a 2- or 3-stage procedure, with transiliac osteotomy serving as an alternative to address limb length discrepancy. Patient concerns: A 38-year-old female patient with a Mears type IV pelvic malunion with previous failed reconstructive surgery was admitted to our department due to progressive immobilization, increasing pain especially at the posterior pelvic arch and a leg length discrepancy. The leg discrepancy was approximately 4 cm and rotation of the right hip joint was associated with pain. Diagnosis: Radiography and computer tomography (CT) revealed a hypertrophic malunion at the site of the previous posterior osteotomy (Mears type IV) involving the anterior and middle column, according to the 3-column concept, as well as malunion of the left anterior arch (Mears type IV). Interventions: The surgery was planned virtually via 3D reconstruction, using the patient's CT, and subsequently performed via transiliac osteotomy and symphysiotomy. Finite element method (FEM) was used to plan the osteotomy and osteosynthesis as to include an estimation of the risk of implant failure. Outcomes: There was not incidence of neurological injury or infection, and the remaining leg length discrepancy was ≤ 2 cm. The patient recovered independent, pain free, mobility. Virtual 3D planning provided a more precise measurement of correction parameters than radiographic-based measurements. FEM analysis identified the highest risk for implant failure at the symphyseal plate osteosynthesis and the parasymphyseal screws. No implant failure was observed. Lessons: Transiliac osteotomy, with additional osteotomy or symphysiotomy, was a suitable surgical procedure for the correction of pelvic

  17. Growth disturbance in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and the consequences of surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Leitch, J M; Paterson, D C; Foster, B K

    1991-01-01

    Seventy-two patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease were studied to assess the interference with proximal femoral growth as a result of the disease itself and of surgical treatment. Twenty-five patients were treated nonoperatively, 20 were treated by femoral varus derotation osteotomy, and 27 by innominate osteotomy. All patients were studied clinically for evidence of abductor weakness and leg-length discrepancy. They were also studied roentgenographically for evidence of femoral head deformity and trochanteric overgrowth. The overall results showed a 6% incidence of leg-length discrepancy greater than 2 cm after both operative and nonoperative treatment. The articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD) was less than +5 mm in 23% of patients, of which 43% had a positive Trendelenburg sign. A significantly lower mean ATD was found in patients treated by femoral varus osteotomy, which should be avoided in patients over eight years of age. The study also demonstrated a strong association between coxa magna and growth disturbance of the proximal femoral physis manifesting itself as either a leg-length discrepancy or as a low ATD. The significant effects of growth disturbance after treatment must be considered, as well as the sphericity of the healed femoral head, in the final assessment in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  18. A novel inverse association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and leg length in boys up to three years. An Odense Child Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mathilde Egelund; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Dalgård, Christine; Larsen, Søs Dragsbæk; Lykkedegn, Sine; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Husby, Steffen; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2018-01-01

    Long standing vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets with growth impairment. We investigated whether sub-ischial leg length (SLL) is shorter, and cephalo-caudal length:length (CCL:L) ratio and sitting height:height (SH:H) ratio larger, with lower cord s-25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in the population-based prospective Odense Child Cohort, Denmark. We included healthy singletons born to term with available measures of cord 25OHD and anthropometrics up to three years' age. Linear regression was stratified by sex a priori and adjusted for maternal ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking during pregnancy, season of blood sampling and child age. Median (IQR) cord 25OHD was 48.0 (34.0-62.4) nmol/L. At mean age 19.1 months, n = 504, mean (SD) SLL was 31.7 (1.7) cm; CCL:L-ratio 0.62 (0.01). At 36.3 months, n = 956, mean SLL was 42.9 (2.0) cm; SH:H-ratio 0.56 (0.01). No participants had rickets. In adjusted analyses, 19-months-old boys had 0.1 cm shorter SLL (p = 0.009) and 0.1% higher CCL:L-ratio (p = 0.04) with every 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25OHD. Similar findings were seen for late pregnancy 25OHD. In the highest cord 25OHD quartile (>60.7 nmol/L), SLL was 0.8 cm shorter (95% C.I.: 1.36;-0.29, linear trend, p = 0.004), and CCL:L-ratio 0.8% higher (95% C.I. 8.0x10-05;0.01, linear trend, p = 0.01), compared to lowest quartile (<30.7 nmol/L). Similar associations with cord 25OHD were observed in 3-year-old boys. No consistent associations between 25OHD and anthropometrics were seen in girls at either age. No leg shortening was found with decreasing cord s-25OHD in a healthy population of infants. A small, yet significant inverse association between cord 25OHD and SLL in boys 1½-3 years warrants further investigations.

  19. [Problems and complications of leg lengthening with the Wagner apparatus].

    PubMed

    Herzog, R; Hefti, F

    1992-06-01

    Since 1971, we have performed 189 leg lengthening procedures using the Wagner method at our institution. The results obtained in the first 26 cases (1971-1973) showed a high complication rate, which led us to reconsider the indications for this procedure. In the present paper, we analyze the results of 37 leg lengthening procedures carried out in 32 patients during the last 10 years (1981-1990) in the children's unit of the orthopedic department of the University of Basle. We found a complication rate of 78%, and in 46% of cases there was more than one major complication. We did not distinguish between "complications" and "problems", because such distinctions are of little importance to the patient. The average age at the time of surgery was 14.8 years, and the average increase in length was 4.3 (2.2-9.2) cm. For each 1 cm of lengthening, an average of 21 days in hospital and 64 days of reduced weight-bearing were needed. Our conclusion is that the Wagner method makes it possible to attain the goal of leg lengthening, but the second step cannot reduce the length of stay in hospital or the length of time the patient needs the help of crutches. Bone remodeling is disturbed. Our preliminary experience with the Ilizarov method is more encouraging.

  20. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150 °C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow.

  1. Strategies for diagnosing leg oedema in primary care: a qualitative study of GPs' approaches.

    PubMed

    Diederich, Judith; Hartel, Simone; Baum, Erika; Bösner, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    The symptom leg oedema represents a broad range of possible underlying aetiologies. The background of leg oedema is multifactorial and usually the GP is the first contact point for patients presenting with this symptom. GPs rely on patient history and physical examination as their main diagnostic tools. To identify GPs' diagnostic approaches and heuristics in patients presenting with leg oedema. Interviews with 15 GPs (20-30 min) using a semi-structured interview-guideline were conducted. GPs described their individual diagnostic strategies concerning all patients presenting with leg oedema they had prospectively identified during the previous four weeks. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative analysis was conducted by two independent raters. GPs applied a variety of diagnostic approaches, which can be grouped in active and passive strategies. Active strategies comprised the use of decision rules and guidelines, Bayesian arguing, problem dichotomisation and discrepancy heuristics. Passive approaches included test of time, therapy as diagnosis, and taking patient assumptions into account. When dealing with leg oedema, GPs use prior information of individual patients in a specific way. There is a broad variety of diagnostic approaches that can be grouped in 'active' and 'passive' behaviour. Approaches mostly match with established diagnostic strategies in primary care.

  2. Long-legged bees make adaptive leaps: linking adaptation to coevolution in a plant-pollinator network.

    PubMed

    Pauw, Anton; Kahnt, Belinda; Kuhlmann, Michael; Michez, Denis; Montgomery, Graham A; Murray, Elizabeth; Danforth, Bryan N

    2017-09-13

    Adaptation is evolution in response to natural selection. Hence, an adaptation is expected to originate simultaneously with the acquisition of a particular selective environment. Here we test whether long legs evolve in oil-collecting Rediviva bees when they come under selection by long-spurred, oil-secreting flowers. To quantify the selective environment, we drew a large network of the interactions between Rediviva species and oil-secreting plant species. The selective environment of each bee species was summarized as the average spur length of the interacting plant species weighted by interaction frequency. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts, we calculated divergence in selective environment and evolutionary divergence in leg length between sister species (and sister clades) of Rediviva We found that change in the selective environment explained 80% of evolutionary change in leg length, with change in body size contributing an additional 6% of uniquely explained variance. The result is one of four proposed steps in testing for plant-pollinator coevolution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. THE DIFFUSION LENGTH OF THERMAL NEUTRONS IN PORTLAND CONCRETE

    SciTech Connect

    Dugdale, R.A.; Healy, E.

    1957-10-01

    A measurement of the diffusion length of thermal neutrons in Portland concrete, originally raade by Salmon two years previously, has been repeated. An apparent decrease from 7.04 cm to 6.61 cm has oocurred. This change, which is only four times the standard deviation of the result, could be due to a small increase in water content. In assessing the amount required, a discrepancy between calculated and measured diffusion length was found. Possible explanations of the discrepancy are discussed. (auth)

  4. Bilateral differences in muscle fascicle architecture are not related to the preferred leg in jumping athletes.

    PubMed

    Aeles, Jeroen; Lenchant, Sietske; Vanlommel, Liesbeth; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-07-01

    In many sports, athletes have a preferred leg for sport-specific tasks, such as jumping, which leads to strength differences between both legs, yet the underlying changes in force-generating mechanical properties of the muscle remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the muscle architecture of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) is different between both legs in well-trained jumping athletes and untrained individuals. In addition, we investigated the effect of two ankle joint positions on ultrasound muscle architecture measurements. Muscle architecture of both legs was measured in 16 athletes and 11 untrained individuals at two ankle joint angles: one with the ankle joint in a tendon slack length (TSL) angle and one in a 90° angle. Fascicle lengths and pennation angles at TSL were not different between the preferred and non-preferred legs in either group. The comparison between groups showed no difference in fascicle length, but greater pennation angles were found in the athletes (21.7° ± 0.5°) compared to the untrained individuals (19.8° ± 0.6°). Analyses of the muscle architecture at a 90° angle yielded different results, mainly in the comparison between groups. These results provide only partial support for the notion of training-induced changes in muscle architecture as only differences in pennation angles were found between athletes and untrained individuals. Furthermore, our results provide support to the recommendation to take into account the tension-length relationship and to measure muscle architecture at individually determined tendon slack joint angles.

  5. Active and Inactive Leg Hemodynamics during Sequential Single-Leg Interval Cycling.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nicole; Abbiss, Chris R; Ihsan, Mohammed; Maiorana, Andrew J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2018-06-01

    Leg order during sequential single-leg cycling (i.e., exercising both legs independently within a single session) may affect local muscular responses potentially influencing adaptations. This study examined the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle hemodynamic responses during double-leg and sequential single-leg cycling. Ten young healthy adults (28 ± 6 yr) completed six 1-min double-leg intervals interspersed with 1 min of passive recovery and, on a separate occasion, 12 (six with one leg followed by six with the other leg) 1-min single-leg intervals interspersed with 1 min of passive recovery. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood pressure, muscle oxygenation, muscle blood volume, and power output were measured throughout each session. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, and power output were not different between sets of single-leg intervals, but the average of both sets was lower than the double-leg intervals. Mean arterial pressure was higher during double-leg compared with sequential single-leg intervals (115 ± 9 vs 104 ± 9 mm Hg, P < 0.05) and higher during the initial compared with second set of single-leg intervals (108 ± 10 vs 101 ± 10 mm Hg, P < 0.05). The increase in muscle blood volume from baseline was similar between the active single leg and the double leg (267 ± 150 vs 214 ± 169 μM·cm, P = 0.26). The pattern of change in muscle blood volume from the initial to second set of intervals was significantly different (P < 0.05) when the leg was active in the initial (-52.3% ± 111.6%) compared with second set (65.1% ± 152.9%). These data indicate that the order in which each leg performs sequential single-leg cycling influences the local hemodynamic responses, with the inactive muscle influencing the stimulus experienced by the contralateral leg.

  6. Tendon length and joint flexibility are related to running economy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Katsoulis, Konstantina; McCarthy, John P; Ogard, William K; Bamman, Marcas M; Wood, David S; Den Hollander, Jan A; Blaudeau, Tamilane E; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of study was to determine whether quadriceps/patella and Achilles tendon length and flexibility of the knee extensors and plantar flexors are related to walking and running economy. Twenty-one male distance runners were subjects. Quadriceps/patella and Achilles tendon length were measured by magnetic resonance imaging; body composition was measured DXA; oxygen uptake at rest while seated, walking (3 mph), and running (6 and 7 mph) were measured by indirect calorimetry; knee and ankle joint flexibility were measured by goniometry; and leg lengths were measured by anthropometry while seated. Correlations were used to identify relationships between variables of interest. Net VO2 (exercise VO2 - rest VO2) for walking (NVOWK) and running at 6 and 7 mph (NVO6 and NVO7, respectively) was significantly related to Achilles tendon length (r varying from -0.40 to -0.51, P all < 0.04). Achilles tendon cross section was not related to walking or running economy. Quadriceps/patella tendon length was significantly related to NVO7 (r = -0.43, P = 0.03) and approached significance for NVO6 (r = -0.36, P = 0.06). Flexibility of the plantar flexors was related to NVO7 (+0.38, P = 0.05). Multiple regression showed that Achilles tendon length was independently related to NVO6 and NVO7 (partial r varying from -0.53 to -0.64, all P < 0.02) independent of lower leg length, upper leg length, quadriceps/patella tendon length, knee extension flexibility, or plantarflexion flexibility. These data support the premise that longer lower limb tendons (especially Achilles tendon) and less flexible lower limb joints are associated with improved running economy.

  7. Development of PIMAL: Mathematical Phantom with Moving Arms and Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice; Eckerman, Keith F.

    2007-05-01

    The computational model of the human anatomy (phantom) has gone through many revisions since its initial development in the 1970s. The computational phantom model currently used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is based on a model published in 1974. Hence, the phantom model used by the NRC staff was missing some organs (e.g., neck, esophagus) and tissues. Further, locations of some organs were inappropriate (e.g., thyroid).Moreover, all the computational phantoms were assumed to be in the vertical-upright position. However, many occupational radiation exposures occur with the worker in other positions. In the first phase of this work, updates onmore » the computational phantom models were reviewed and a revised phantom model, which includes the updates for the relevant organs and compositions, was identified. This revised model was adopted as the starting point for this development work, and hence a series of radiation transport computations, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5, was performed. The computational results were compared against values reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) in Publication 74. For some of the organs (e.g., thyroid), there were discrepancies between the computed values and the results reported in ICRP-74. The reasons behind these discrepancies have been investigated and are discussed in this report.Additionally, sensitivity computations were performed to determine the sensitivity of the organ doses for certain parameters, including composition and cross sections used in the simulations. To assess the dose for more realistic exposure configurations, the phantom model was revised to enable flexible positioning of the arms and legs. Furthermore, to reduce the user time for analyses, a graphical user interface (GUI) was developed. The GUI can be used to visualize the positioning of the arms and legs as desired posture is achieved to generate the input file, invoke the computations, and extract the

  8. Making Better Lives: Patient-Focused Care for Low Back Pain (LBP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-26

    Chronic Low Back Pain; Hip Ostearthritis; Myofascial Pain Syndrome; Fibromyalgia; Depression; Maladaptive Coping; Lumbar Spinal Stenosis; Insomnia; Sacroiliac Joint Pain; Lateral Hip and Thigh Pain; Anxiety; Dementia; Recent Leg Length Discrepancy

  9. Percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws for limb-length discrepancies: high variability among growth predictor models.

    PubMed

    Monier, Bryan C; Aronsson, David D; Sun, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws (PETS) was developed as a minimally invasive outpatient procedure to address limb-length discrepancy (LLD) that allowed immediate postoperative weight bearing and was potentially reversible by removing the screws. The aims of our study were to report our results using PETS for LLD and evaluate the accuracy of three growth predictor models. Sixteen patients with an average age of 14 years were treated for LLD using PETS. Thirteen patients had screws inserted in a parallel fashion and 3 had crossed screws. We compared the predicted LLD at skeletal maturity using the three growth predictor methods with the actual LLD at skeletal maturity and preoperative LLD with the final LLD at skeletal maturity. The mean LLD at skeletal maturity between the predicted and final measurements was 0.2 cm using the Green-Anderson method, 1.4 cm using the Moseley method, and -0.1 cm using the Paley method. The mean preoperative LLD of 3.1 cm was corrected to 1.7 cm at skeletal maturity (p < 0.001). Six patients complained of pain over the screw heads; however, no patient developed an infection or angular deformity. The three growth predictor methods predicted the final LLD within an average of 1.4 cm, but there was high variability. Although PETS improved the LLD by a mean of 1.4 cm, we believe the results would have been better if PETS was performed at an earlier skeletal age.

  10. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  11. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... CT scan makes detailed pictures of the body very quickly. The test may help look for: An abscess ...

  12. Leg kinematics and kinetics in landing from a single-leg hop for distance. A comparison between dominant and non-dominant leg.

    PubMed

    van der Harst, J J; Gokeler, A; Hof, A L

    2007-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can be a major problem for athletes and subsequent reconstruction of the ACL may be indicated if a conservative regimen has failed. After ACL reconstruction signs of abnormality in the use of the leg remain for a long time. It is expected that the landing after a single-leg hop for distance (horizontal hop) might give insight in the differences in kinematics and kinetics between uninjured legs and ACL-reconstructed legs. Before the ACL-reconstructed leg can be compared with the contralateral leg, knowledge of differences between legs of uninjured subjects is needed. Kinematic and kinetic variables of both legs were measured with an optoelectronic system and a force plate and calculated by inverse dynamics. The dominant leg (the leg with biggest horizontal hop distance) and the contralateral leg of nine uninjured subjects were compared. No significant differences were found in most of the kinematic and kinetic variables between dominant leg and contralateral leg of uninjured subjects. Only hop distance and hip extension angles differed significantly. This study suggests that there are no important differences between dominant leg and contralateral leg in healthy subjects. As a consequence, the uninvolved leg of ACL-reconstructed patients can be used as a reference. The observed variables of this study can be used as a reference of normal values and normal differences between legs in healthy subjects.

  13. Predicting a 10 repetition maximum for the free weight parallel squat using the 45 degrees angled leg press.

    PubMed

    Willardson, Jeffrey M; Bressel, Eadric

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to devise prediction equations whereby a 10 repetition maximum (10RM) for the free weight parallel squat could be predicted using the following predictor variables: 10RM for the 45 degrees angled leg press, body mass, and limb length. Sixty men were tested over a 3-week period, with 1 testing session each week. During each testing session, subjects performed a 10RM for the free weight parallel squat and 45 degrees angled leg press. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed leg press mass lifted to be a significant predictor of squat mass lifted for both the advanced and the novice groups (p < 0.05). Leg press mass lifted accounted for approximately 25% of the variance in squat mass lifted for the novice group and 55% of the variance in squat mass lifted for the advanced group. Limb length and body mass were not significant predictors of squat mass lifted for either group. The following prediction equations were devised: (a) novice group squat mass = leg press mass (0.210) + 36.244 kg, (b) advanced group squat mass = leg press mass (0.310) + 19.438 kg, and (c) subject pool squat mass = leg press mass (0.354) + 2.235 kg. These prediction equations may save time and reduce the risk of injury when switching from the leg press to the squat exercise.

  14. Optimal Body Size and Limb Length Ratios Associated with 100-m Personal-Best Swim Speeds.

    PubMed

    Nevill, Alan M; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to identify optimal body size and limb segment length ratios associated with 100-m personal-best (PB) swim speeds in children and adolescents. Fifty national-standard youth swimmers (21 males and 29 females age 11-16 yr; mean ± SD age, 13.5 ± 1.5 yr) participated in the study. Anthropometry comprised stature; body mass; skinfolds; maturity offset; upper arm, lower arm, and hand lengths; and upper leg, lower leg, and foot lengths. Swimming performance was taken as the PB time recorded in competition for the 100-m freestyle swim. To identify the optimal body size and body composition components associated with 100-m PB swim speeds (having controlled for age and maturity offset), we adopted a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. Lean body mass was the singularly most important whole-body characteristic. Stature and body mass did not contribute to the model, suggesting that the advantage of longer levers was limb-specific rather than a general whole-body advantage. The allometric model also identified that having greater limb segment length ratios [i.e., arm ratio = (low arm)/(upper arm); foot-to-leg ratio = (foot)/(lower leg)] was key to PB swim speeds. It is only by adopting multiplicative allometric models that the above mentioned ratios could have been derived. The advantage of having a greater lower arm is clear; however, having a shorter upper arm (achieved by adopting a closer elbow angle technique or by possessing a naturally endowed shorter upper arm), at the same time, is a new insight into swimming performance. A greater foot-to-lower-leg ratio suggests that a combination of larger feet and shorter lower leg length may also benefit PB swim speeds.

  15. Pelvic step: the contribution of horizontal pelvis rotation to step length in young healthy adults walking on a treadmill.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bo Wei; Wu, Wen Hua; Meijer, Onno G; Lin, Jian Hua; Lv, Go Rong; Lin, Xiao Cong; Prins, Maarten R; Hu, Hai; van Dieën, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-01-01

    Transverse plane pelvis rotations during walking may be regarded as the "first determinant of gait". This would assume that pelvis rotations increase step length, and thereby reduce the vertical movements of the centre of mass-"the pelvic step". We analysed the pelvic step using 20 healthy young male subjects, walking on a treadmill at 1-5 km/h, with normal or big steps. Step length, pelvis rotation amplitude, leg-pelvis relative phase, and the contribution of pelvis rotation to step length were calculated. When speed increased in normal walking, pelvis rotation changed from more out-of-phase to in-phase with the upper leg. Consequently, the contribution of pelvis rotation to step length was negative at lower speeds, switching to positive at 3 km/h. With big steps, leg and pelvis were more in-phase, and the contribution of pelvis rotation to step length was always positive, and relatively large. Still, the overall contribution of pelvis rotations to step length was small, less than 3%. Regression analysis revealed that leg-pelvis relative phase predicted about 60% of the variance of this contribution. The results of the present study suggest that, during normal slow walking, pelvis rotations increase, rather than decrease, the vertical movements of the centre of mass. With large steps, this does not happen, because leg and pelvis are in-phase at all speeds. Finally, it has been suggested that patients with hip flexion limitation may use larger pelvis rotations to increase step length. This, however, may only work as long as the pelvis rotates in-phase with the leg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A springy pendulum could describe the swing leg kinetics of human walking.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunggwi; Park, Heewon; Park, Sukyung

    2016-06-14

    The dynamics of human walking during various walking conditions could be qualitatively captured by the springy legged dynamics, which have been used as a theoretical framework for bipedal robotics applications. However, the spring-loaded inverted pendulum model describes the motion of the center of mass (CoM), which combines the torso, swing and stance legs together and does not explicitly inform us as to whether the inter-limb dynamics share the springy legged dynamics characteristics of the CoM. In this study, we examined whether the swing leg dynamics could also be represented by springy mechanics and whether the swing leg stiffness shows a dependence on gait speed, as has been observed in CoM mechanics during walking. The swing leg was modeled as a spring-loaded pendulum hinged at the hip joint, which is under forward motion. The model parameters of the loaded mass were adopted from body parameters and anthropometric tables, whereas the free model parameters for the rest length of the spring and its stiffness were estimated to best match the data for the swing leg joint forces. The joint forces of the swing leg were well represented by the springy pendulum model at various walking speeds with a regression coefficient of R(2)>0.8. The swing leg stiffness increased with walking speed and was correlated with the swing frequency, which is consistent with previous observations from CoM dynamics described using the compliant leg. These results suggest that the swing leg also shares the springy dynamics, and the compliant walking model could be extended to better present swing leg dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Added Mass on Optimal Step Length in Running.

    PubMed

    Reenalda, Jasper; Maas, Maurice T F; de Koning, Jos J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the influence of induced changes in the morphology of the leg by adding mass on the optimal step length (OSL) in experienced runners to get more insight into parameters that influence preferred step length (PSL) and OSL. Thirteen experienced male runners (mean age 26.9 ± 6.1 y, height 183.7 ± 7.1 cm, mass 71.8 ± 5.9 kg) ran on a treadmill in 3 different conditions: unloaded (UL), loaded with 2 kg mass at the ankles (MA), and loaded with 2 kg mass at the hips (MH) at 7 different step lengths (SLs). SL deviations were expressed as deviations in relative leg length (%LL) from the individual PSL: 0%LL, ±5%LL, ±10%LL, and ±15%LL. Trials lasted 8 min, and 8 min of rest was given between trials. Oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 ) was expressed as a fraction of V̇O 2 at PSL + 0%LL in the unloaded condition (%V̇O 2 ). The %SL with the lowest value of %V̇O 2 was considered the OSL for this group of participants. OSL at the UL condition was 6% shorter than PSL. The MA condition resulted in a 7%LL larger OSL than at UL and MH (P < .05). The mass distribution of the leg is a determinant of the OSL. As a consequence of the added mass to the ankles, OSL was 7%LL longer. Morphological characteristics of the leg might therefore play an important role in determining the runner's individual optimal SL.

  18. Radiographic parameters improve lower extremity prosthetic alignment.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Ryan; Carry, Patrick; Wylie, Erin; Schultz, Abby; McNair, Bryan; Page, Carol; Biffl, Susan; Heare, Travis

    2013-12-01

    The goal of prosthetic fitting is to provide comfort and functionality to the patient. It is thought that incorporating the use of standing anterior-posterior long leg radiographs (LLR) into the fitting of lower extremity prostheses will provide an objective guide when making adjustments, and be a better assessment of alignment. This study compares prosthetic alignment before and after radiography-guided adjustments. This retrospective study was performed at a multidisciplinary amputee clinic on patients with congenital and/or acquired limb deficiencies. Their prosthetic alignment was evaluated by LLR and adjusted as needed. Satisfactory alignment was defined as a mechanical axis angular deviation of ≤1° and a leg length discrepancy of ≤10 mm. A total of 45 unique prostheses from 24 subjects (10 female and 14 male) were included. Post-adjustment radiographs were obtained from 29 prostheses. After the initial prosthetic fitting, the probability of a satisfactory fit was 20.0 % (95 % CI 10.9-34.9 %). Following the baseline adjustment, the probability of a satisfactory fit improved to 53.3 % (95 % CI 37.5-70.9 %). After adjustment number 4, the probability of a satisfactory fit further improved to 76.7 % (95 % CI 41.9-98.0 %). There were also significant improvements in distal offset distance (p = 0.0040) and leg length discrepancy (p = 0.0206). The distal offset distance decreased by an average of 10.7 mm (95 % CI 3.6-17.8), and leg length discrepancy decreased by an average of 3.0 mm (95 % CI 00.48-5.5). The addition of LLRs to existing fitting methods significantly improves prosthetic alignment and length.

  19. Three-dimensional topographies of water surface dimples formed by superhydrophobic water strider legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.; Zheng, Y. L.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhang, X. J.; Tian, Y.

    2016-10-01

    A water strider has a remarkable capability to stand and walk freely on water. Supporting forces of a water strider and a bionic robot have been calculated from the side view of pressed depth of legs to reconstruct the water surface dimples. However, in situ measurements of the multiple leg forces and significantly small leg/water contact dimples have not been realized yet. In this study, a shadow method was proposed to reconstruct the in situ three-dimensional topographies of leg/water contact dimples and their corresponding supporting forces. Results indicated that the supporting forces were affected by the depth, width, and length of the dimple, and that the maximum dimple depth was not proportional to the supporting forces. The shadow method also has advantages in disclosing tiny supporting force of legs in their subtle actions. These results are helpful for understanding the locomotion principles of water-walking insects and the design of biomimetic aquatic devices.

  20. [Paraesthesia in the legs].

    PubMed

    Eisensehr, Ilonka

    2007-10-18

    Paraesthesia in the legs can have numerous causes. In addition to the restless legs syndrome, other primary causes include venous insufficiency in the leg, propriospinal myoclonus, nocturnal leg cramps, peripheral polyneuropathy that affects mostly the legs or neuroleptic drug-induced akathisia. Through detailed questioning of the patient, restless legs syndrome can be specifically distinguished from the other named differential diagnoses.

  1. CT scanography for limb length determination.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K J; Grady, J F; Hollander, M

    1988-04-01

    The authors present an alternative to classic techniques used to measure limb length discrepancy radiographically. CT scanography seems to have advantages over currently-used Bell-Thompson roentgenography in that it uses less radiation and is of no increase in cost.

  2. The short legs of great apes: evidence for aggressive behavior in australopiths.

    PubMed

    Carrier, David R

    2007-03-01

    Early hominins, australopiths, were similar to most large primates in having relatively short hindlimbs for their body size. The short legs of large primates are thought to represent specialization for vertical climbing and quadrupedal stability on branches. Although this may be true, there are reasons to suspect that the evolution of short legs may also represent specialization for physical aggression. Fighting in apes is a behavior in which short legs are expected to improve performance by lowering the center of mass during bipedal stance and by increasing the leverage through which muscle forces can be applied to the ground. Among anthropoid primates, body size sexual dimorphism (SSD) and canine height sexual dimorphism (CSD) are strongly correlated with levels of male-male competition, allowing SSD and CSD to be used as indices of male-male aggression. Here I show that the evolution of hindlimb length in apes is inversely correlated with the evolution of SSD (R(2)= 0.683, P-value = 0.006) and the evolution of CSD (R(2)= 0.630, P-value = 0.013). In contrast, a significant correlation was not observed for the relationship between the evolution of hindlimb and forelimb lengths. These observations are consistent with the suggestion that selection for fighting performance has maintained relatively short hindlimbs in species of Hominoidea with high levels of male-male competition. Although australopiths were highly derived for striding bipedalism when traveling on the ground, they retained short legs compared to those of Homo for over two million years, approximately 100,000 generations. Their short legs may be indicative of persistent selection for high levels of aggression.

  3. Task driven optimal leg trajectories in insect-scale legged microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Benjamin; Jayaram, Kaushik; Wood, Robert

    Origami inspired layered manufacturing techniques and 3D-printing have enabled the development of highly articulated legged robots at the insect-scale, including the 1.43g Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Research on these platforms has expanded its focus from manufacturing aspects to include design optimization and control for application-driven tasks. Consequently, the choice of gait selection, body morphology, leg trajectory, foot design, etc. have become areas of active research. HAMR has two controlled degrees-of-freedom per leg, making it an ideal candidate for exploring leg trajectory. We will discuss our work towards optimizing HAMR's leg trajectories for two different tasks: climbing using electroadhesives and level ground running (5-10 BL/s). These tasks demonstrate the ability of single platform to adapt to vastly different locomotive scenarios: quasi-static climbing with controlled ground contact, and dynamic running with un-controlled ground contact. We will utilize trajectory optimization methods informed by existing models and experimental studies to determine leg trajectories for each task. We also plan to discuss how task specifications and choice of objective function have contributed to the shape of these optimal leg trajectories.

  4. Bilateral asymmetries in max effort single-leg vertical jumps.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Thomas M; Lawson, Brooke R; Reiser, Raoul F

    2005-01-01

    While asymmetries in the lower extremity during jumping may have implications during rehabilitation, it is not clear if healthy subjects should be expected to jump equivalently on each leg. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if asymmetries exist in maximal effort single-leg vertical jumps. After obtaining university-approved informed consent, 13 men and 12 women with competitive volleyball playing experience and no injuries of the lower-extremity that would predispose them to asymmetries participated. After thorough warm-up, five maximal effort vertical jumps with countermovement were performed on each leg (random order) with ground reaction forces and lower extremity kinematics recorded. The best three jumps from each leg were analyzed, assigning the leg with the highest jump height average as the dominant side. Asymmetry was assessed by determining statistical significance in the dominant versus non-dominant sides (p < 0.05). A significant interaction existed between side and gender for thigh length and peak vertical ground reaction force. Women had a significantly shorter thigh and men a greater peak vertical ground reaction force on their dominant side. All other parameters were assessed as whole group. Jumps were significantly greater off the dominant leg (2.8 cm on average). No other differences between sides were observed. Significant differences in magnitude (p < 0.05) existed between the men and women in jump height, several anthropometric parameters, minimum ankle and hip angles, and vertical ground reaction forces (peak and average). In conclusion, though a person may jump slightly higher on one leg relative to the other, and women may jump slightly differently than men, the magnitude of the difference should be relatively small and due to the multi-factorial nature of jump performance, individual parameters related to performance may not be consistently different.

  5. Pressurized water nuclear reactor system with hot leg vortex mitigator

    DOEpatents

    Lau, Louis K. S.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor system includes a vortex mitigator in the form of a cylindrical conduit between the hot leg conduit and a first section of residual heat removal conduit, which conduit leads to a pump and a second section of residual heat removal conduit leading back to the reactor pressure vessel. The cylindrical conduit is of such a size that where the hot leg has an inner diameter D.sub.1, the first section has an inner diameter D.sub.2, and the cylindrical conduit or step nozzle has a length L and an inner diameter of D.sub.3 ; D.sub.3 /D.sub.1 is at least 0.55, D.sub.2 is at least 1.9, and L/D.sub.3 is at least 1.44, whereby cavitation of the pump by a vortex formed in the hot leg is prevented.

  6. Arm to leg coordination in elite butterfly swimmers.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2006-04-01

    This study proposed the use of four time gaps to assess arm-to-leg coordination in the butterfly stroke at increasing race paces. Fourteen elite male swimmers swam at four velocities corresponding to the appropriate paces for, respectively, the 400-m, 200-m, 100-m, and 50-m events. The different stroke phases of the arm and leg were identified by video analysis and then used to calculate four time gaps (T1: time gap between entry of the hands in the water and the high break-even point of the first undulation; T2: time gap between the beginning of the hands' backward movement and the low break-even point of the first undulation; T3: time gap between the hands' arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders and the high break-even point of the second undulation; T4: time gap between the hands' release from the water and the low break-even point of the second undulation), the values of which described the changing relationship of arm to leg movements over an entire stroke cycle. With increases in pace, elite swimmers increased the stroke rate, the relative duration of the arm pull, the recovery and the first downward movement of the legs, and decreased the stroke length, the relative duration of the arm catch phase and the body glide with arms forward (measured by T2), until continuity in the propulsive actions was achieved. Whatever the paces, the T1, T3, and T4 values were close to zero and revealed a high degree of synchronisation at key motor points of the arm and leg actions. This new method to assess butterfly coordination could facilitate learning and coaching by situating the place of the leg undulation in relation with the arm stroke.

  7. Profiling Isokinetic Strength by Leg Preference and Position in Rugby Union Athletes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott R; Brughelli, Matt; Bridgeman, Lee A

    2016-05-01

    Muscle imbalances aid in the identification of athletes at risk for lower-extremity injury. Little is known regarding the influence that leg preference or playing position may have on lower-extremity muscle strength and asymmetry. To investigate lower-extremity strength profiles in rugby union athletes and compare isokinetic knee- and hip-strength variables between legs and positions. Thirty male academy rugby union athletes, separated into forwards (n = 15) and backs (n = 15), participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque, angle of peak torque, and strength ratios of the preferred and nonpreferred legs during seated knee extension/flexion and supine hip extension/flexion at 60°/s. Backs were older (ES = 1.6) but smaller in stature (ES = -0.47) and body mass (ES = -1.3) than the forwards. The nonpreferred leg was weaker than the preferred leg for forwards during extension (ES = -0.37) and flexion (ES = -0.21) actions and for backs during extension (ES = -0.28) actions. Backs were weaker at the knee than forwards in the preferred leg during extension (ES = -0.50) and flexion (ES = -0.66) actions. No differences were observed in strength ratios between legs or positions. Backs produced peak torque at longer muscle lengths in both legs at the knee (ES = -0.93 to -0.94) and hip (ES = -0.84 to -1.17) than the forwards. In this sample of male academy rugby union athletes, the preferred leg and forwards displayed superior strength compared with the nonpreferred leg and backs. These findings highlight the importance of individualized athletic assessments to detect crucial strength differences in male rugby union athletes.

  8. Leg Stiffness in Female Soccer Players: Intersession Reliability and the Fatiguing Effects of Soccer-Specific Exercise.

    PubMed

    De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Hughes, Jonathan D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Read, Paul J

    2017-11-01

    De Ste Croix, MBA, Hughes, JD, Lloyd, RS, Oliver, JL, and Read, PJ. Leg stiffness in female soccer players: intersession reliability and the fatiguing effects of soccer-specific exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3052-3058, 2016-Low levels of leg stiffness and reduced leg stiffness when fatigue is present compromise physical performance and increase injury risk. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the reliability of leg stiffness measures obtained from contact mat data and (b) explore age-related differences in leg stiffness after exposure to a soccer-specific fatigue protocol in young female soccer players. Thirty-seven uninjured female youth soccer players divided into 3 subgroups based on chronological age (under 13 [U13], under 15 [U15], and under 17 [U17] year-olds) volunteered to participate in the study. After baseline data collection, during which relative leg stiffness, contact time, and flight time were collected, participants completed an age-appropriate soccer-specific fatigue protocol (SAFT). Upon completion of the fatigue protocol, subjects were immediately retested. Intersession reliability was acceptable and could be considered capable of detecting worthwhile changes in performance. Results showed that leg stiffness decreased in the U13 year-olds, was maintained in the U15 age group, and increased in the U17 players. Contact times and flight times did not change in the U13 and U15 year-olds, but significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the U17 age group. The data suggest that age-related changes in the neuromuscular control of leg stiffness are present in youth female soccer players. Practitioners should be aware of these discrepancies in neuromuscular responses to soccer-specific fatigue, and should tailor training programs to meet the needs of individuals, which may subsequently enhance performance and reduce injury risk.

  9. The effect of Vitamin D and calcium plus Vitamin D on leg cramps in pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Ameneh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad Alizadeh; Najafi, Moslem

    2017-01-01

    This study intended to determine the effects of Vitamin D and calcium-Vitamin D in treating leg cramps in pregnant women. This study was conducted as a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial on 126 participants, 18-35-year-old pregnant women with a minimum of two leg cramps per week who were referred to health-care centers in Tabriz-Iran in 2013. The participants were allocated to three 42 member groups using a randomized block design. For 42 days, the intervention groups took a 1000 unit Vitamin D pill or 300 mg calcium carbonate plus a 1000 unit Vitamin D pill, and the control group received a placebo pill every day. The participants were evaluated with regard to the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps during the week before and during the 3 rd and 6 th week of the intervention. The ANCOVA and repeated measurement test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that controlling for the effects before the intervention, calcium-Vitamin D, and Vitamin D supplements had no effect on the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps. The results of this study showed that the calcium-Vitamin D and the Vitamin D supplements have no effect on the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps during the 6 weeks of the study.

  10. How performing a repetitive one-legged stance modifies two-legged postural control.

    PubMed

    Burdet, Cyril; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Rougier, Patrice R

    2011-10-01

    The proprioceptive cues in the control of movement is recognized as playing a major role in postural control. However, little is known about its possible increased contribution to postural control consecutive to repetitive muscular activations. To test this, the short-term effects induced by a 1-legged exercise on 2-legged postural control with the eyes closed were assessed in healthy subjects. The center-of-pressure (CP) displacements obtained using a force platform were split into 2 elementary movements: center-of-gravity vertical projection (CGv) and the difference (CP - CGv). These movements assessed the net postural performance and the level of neuromuscular activity, respectively, and were processed afterward (a) through variances, mean velocity, and the average surface covered by the trajectories and (b) a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) modeling. The latter provides further information about how much the subject controls the movements and the spatiotemporal relation between the successive control mechanisms. No difference was found using the classical parameters. In contrast, fBm parameters showed statistically significant changes in postural control after 1-legged exercises: The spatial and temporal coordinates of the transition points for the CG movements along the anteroposterior axis are decreased. Because the body movement control does not rely on visual or vestibular cues, this ability to trigger the corrective process of the CG movements more quickly in the postexercise condition and once a more reduced distance has been covered emphasizes how prior muscular activation improves body movement detection. As a general rule, these data show that the motor systems control body motions better after repetitive stimulation of the sensory cues. These insights should be of interest in physical activities based on a precise muscular length control.

  11. The Relationship of Explicit-Implicit Evaluative Discrepancy to Exercise Dropout in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Rodgers, Wendy M; Divine, Alison; Hall, Craig

    2018-06-19

    Discrepancies between automatically activated associations (i.e., implicit evaluations) and explicit evaluations of motives (measured with a questionnaire) could lead to greater information processing to resolve discrepancies or self-regulatory failures that may affect behavior. This research examined the relationship of health and appearance exercise-related explicit-implicit evaluative discrepancies, the interaction between implicit and explicit evaluations, and the combined value of explicit and implicit evaluations (i.e., the summed scores) to dropout from a yearlong exercise program. Participants (N = 253) completed implicit health and appearance measures and explicit health and appearance motives at baseline, prior to starting the exercise program. The sum of implicit and explicit appearance measures was positively related to weeks in the program, and discrepancy between the implicit and explicit health measures was negatively related to length of time in the program. Implicit exercise evaluations and their relationships to oft-cited motives such as appearance and health may inform exercise dropout.

  12. The Lindsay Leg Club: supporting the NHS to provide leg ulcer care.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Morag

    2013-06-01

    Public health services will need to cope with additional demands due to an ageing society and the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions. Lower-limb ulceration is a long-term, life-changing condition and leg ulcer management can be challenging for nursing staff. The Lindsay Leg Club model is a unique partnership between community nurses, members and the local community, which provides quality of care and empowerment for patients with leg ulcers, while also supporting and educating nursing staff. The Leg Club model works in accord with core themes of Government and NHS policy. Patient feedback on the Leg Club model is positive and the Leg Clubs provide a service to members which is well accepted by patients, yet is more economically efficient than the traditional district nursing practice of home visits. Lindsay Leg Clubs provide a valuable support service to the NHS in delivering improved quality of care while improving efficiency.

  13. Scaling of avian bipedal locomotion reveals independent effects of body mass and leg posture on gait.

    PubMed

    Daley, Monica A; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra

    2018-05-22

    Birds provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationships between body size, limb morphology and bipedal locomotor function. Birds are ecologically diverse and span a large range of body size and limb proportions, yet all use their hindlimbs for bipedal terrestrial locomotion, for at least some part of their life history. Here, we review the scaling of avian striding bipedal gaits to explore how body mass and leg morphology influence walking and running. We collate literature data from 21 species, spanning a 2500× range in body mass from painted quail to ostriches. Using dynamic similarity theory to interpret scaling trends, we find evidence for independent effects of body mass, leg length and leg posture on gait. We find no evidence for scaling of duty factor with body size, suggesting that vertical forces scale with dynamic similarity. However, at dynamically similar speeds, large birds use relatively shorter stride lengths and higher stride frequencies compared with small birds. We also find that birds with long legs for their mass, such as the white stork and red-legged seriema, use longer strides and lower swing frequencies, consistent with the influence of high limb inertia on gait. We discuss the observed scaling of avian bipedal gait in relation to mechanical demands for force, work and power relative to muscle actuator capacity, muscle activation costs related to leg cycling frequency, and considerations of stability and agility. Many opportunities remain for future work to investigate how morphology influences gait dynamics among birds specialized for different habitats and locomotor behaviors. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Trunk orientation causes asymmetries in leg function in small bird terrestrial locomotion.

    PubMed

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Sutedja, Yefta; Nyakatura, John A; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-12-22

    In contrast to the upright trunk in humans, trunk orientation in most birds is almost horizontal (pronograde). It is conceivable that the orientation of the heavy trunk strongly influences the dynamics of bipedal terrestrial locomotion. Here, we analyse for the first time the effects of a pronograde trunk orientation on leg function and stability during bipedal locomotion. For this, we first inferred the leg function and trunk control strategy applied by a generalized small bird during terrestrial locomotion by analysing synchronously recorded kinematic (three-dimensional X-ray videography) and kinetic (three-dimensional force measurement) quail locomotion data. Then, by simulating quail gaits using a simplistic bioinspired numerical model which made use of parameters obtained in in vivo experiments with real quail, we show that the observed asymmetric leg function (left-skewed ground reaction force and longer leg at touchdown than at lift-off) is necessary for pronograde steady-state locomotion. In addition, steady-state locomotion becomes stable for specific morphological parameters. For quail-like parameters, the most common stable solution is grounded running, a gait preferred by quail and most of the other small birds. We hypothesize that stability of bipedal locomotion is a functional demand that, depending on trunk orientation and centre of mass location, constrains basic hind limb morphology and function, such as leg length, leg stiffness and leg damping. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Leg-to-Body Ratio on Body Shape Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Kiire, Satoru

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have examined various aspects of human physical attractiveness. Attractiveness is considered an evolved psychological mechanism acquired via natural selection because an attractive body reflects an individual's health and fertility. The length of the legs is an often-emphasized aspect of attractiveness and has been investigated using the leg-to-body ratio (LBR), which reflects nutritional status of the infant, health status, fecundity, and other factors that are predictive of physical fitness. However, previous studies of leg length and physical fitness have produced mixed results. The present study investigated the relationship between LBR, defined as the height to perineum divided by total height, and perceived attractiveness. Three-dimensional stimuli (11 male and 11 female) were constructed with various LBR features. Each stimulus was rated by 40 women and 40 men in Japan on a 7-point scale. The results showed that the values closest to the average LBRs were rated as the most attractive. Furthermore, by fitting a quadratic curve on the relationship between attractiveness and LBR, an inverted U-shaped curve with the peak located at the average LBR was observed. In addition, high LBR values were rated as more attractive in females, whereas the opposite was true for males. These results suggest that average LBR is indicative of good health and good reproductive potential, whereas more extreme values are avoided because they could be indicative of diseases and other maladaptive conditions.

  16. Kinematic primitives for walking and trotting gaits of a quadruped robot with compliant legs.

    PubMed

    Spröwitz, Alexander T; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2-3 primitives) than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (νm4 primitives), although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.

  17. A new biarticular actuator design facilitates control of leg function in BioBiped3.

    PubMed

    Sharbafi, Maziar Ahmad; Rode, Christian; Kurowski, Stefan; Scholz, Dorian; Möckel, Rico; Radkhah, Katayon; Zhao, Guoping; Rashty, Aida Mohammadinejad; Stryk, Oskar von; Seyfarth, Andre

    2016-07-01

    Bioinspired legged locomotion comprises different aspects, such as (i) benefiting from reduced complexity control approaches as observed in humans/animals, (ii) combining embodiment with the controllers and (iii) reflecting neural control mechanisms. One of the most important lessons learned from nature is the significant role of compliance in simplifying control, enhancing energy efficiency and robustness against perturbations for legged locomotion. In this research, we investigate how body morphology in combination with actuator design may facilitate motor control of leg function. Inspired by the human leg muscular system, we show that biarticular muscles have a key role in balancing the upper body, joint coordination and swing leg control. Appropriate adjustment of biarticular spring rest length and stiffness can simplify the control and also reduce energy consumption. In order to test these findings, the BioBiped3 robot was developed as a new version of BioBiped series of biologically inspired, compliant musculoskeletal robots. In this robot, three-segmented legs actuated by mono- and biarticular series elastic actuators mimic the nine major human leg muscle groups. With the new biarticular actuators in BioBiped3, novel simplified control concepts for postural balance and for joint coordination in rebounding movements (drop jumps) were demonstrated and approved.

  18. Kinematic primitives for walking and trotting gaits of a quadruped robot with compliant legs

    PubMed Central

    Spröwitz, Alexander T.; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2–3 primitives) than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (νm4 primitives), although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware. PMID:24639645

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lumbar spine in elite horseback riders: correlations with back pain, body mass index, trunk/leg-length coefficient, and riding discipline.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Clayton N; Pennekamp, Peter H; Becker, Ute; Young, Mei; Diedrich, Oliver; Lüring, Christian; von Falkenhausen, Makus

    2009-11-01

    Most orthopaedic problems experienced by competitive horseback riders are related to pain in the lower back, hip joint, and hamstring muscles. Riders-especially, show jumpers-are frequently hampered in their performance because of lumbar pain. To date, there has been no research into lumbar disk degeneration in elite competitive riders. Competitive horseback riding accelerates lumbar disk degeneration. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-eight elite riders (18 men, 40 women; mean age, 32.4 years) and a control group of 30 nonriding volunteers (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 28.7 years) were evaluated for lumbar disk degeneration, cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscles, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of disk degeneration between the 2 groups was compared, and the relationship was investigated between low back pain (LBP), riding discipline, body mass index (BMI), trunk/leg-length coefficient, and MRI results. Eighty-eight percent of elite riders (n = 51) had a history of LBP, versus 33% of the controls (P < .05). There was no statistical difference for the prevalence of LBP among the different riding disciplines. However, there was a high rate of pathologic T2 signal intensity of the lumbar intervertebral disk among riders-specifically, dressage riders-yet no significant increase when compared with controls. History of LBP symptoms, riding discipline, BMI, and trunk/leg-length ratio had no significant effect on the development of lumbar disk degeneration. Occult fractures of the pars interarticularis and manifest spondylolysis were not seen for any rider. Two controls had spondylolisthesis Meyerding grade 1 not associated with back pain. Although riders have a high prevalence of LBP, there is no conclusive MRI evidence to suggest that the cause lies in undue disk degeneration, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, or pathologic changes of the paraspinal muscles of the lumbar spine.

  20. Kinematic and EMG Responses to Pelvis and Leg Assistance Force during Treadmill Walking in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Janis; Arora, Pooja; Zhang, Yunhui

    2016-01-01

    Treadmill training has been used for improving locomotor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but the functional gains are relatively small, suggesting a need to improve current paradigms. The understanding of the kinematic and EMG responses to forces applied to the body of subjects during treadmill walking is crucial for improving current paradigms. The objective of this study was to determine the kinematics and EMG responses to the pelvis and/or leg assistance force. Ten children with spastic CP were recruited to participate in this study. A controlled assistance force was applied to the pelvis and/or legs during stance and swing phase of gait through a custom designed robotic system during walking. Muscle activities and spatial-temporal gait parameters were measured at different loading conditions during walking. In addition, the spatial-temporal gait parameters during overground walking before and after treadmill training were also collected. Applying pelvis assistance improved step height and applying leg assistance improved step length during walking, but applying leg assistance also reduced muscle activation of ankle flexor during the swing phase of gait. In addition, step length and self-selected walking speed significantly improved after one session of treadmill training with combined pelvis and leg assistance. PMID:27651955

  1. The mediation roles of discrepancy stress and self-esteem between masculine role discrepancy and mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Ma, Yee-Ling; Lau, Mason C M

    2018-08-01

    Masculine role discrepancy and discrepancy stress occur when men perceive that they fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions. The present study examined the associations between masculine role discrepancy and two emotional and mental health problems (social anxiety and depressive symptoms), and potential mediation effects through discrepancy stress and self-esteem in a male general population. Based on random population-based sampling, 2000 male residents in Hong Kong were interviewed. Levels of masculine role discrepancy, discrepancy stress, self-esteem, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed by using validated scales. Results of structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the proposed model fit the sample well. (χ 2 (118) = 832.34, p < .05, CFI = 0.94, NNFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06). Those who were young, single and less educated were vulnerable to masculine role discrepancy, discrepancy stress, and emotional/mental health problems. We found that discrepancy stress significantly mediated the association between masculine role discrepancy and social anxiety, while self-esteem significantly mediated the associations between masculine role discrepancy and both social anxiety and depression. Study limitations mainly included the cross-sectional design and reliance on self-reported questionnaires. The associations between masculine discrepancy and social anxiety/depressive symptoms among men may be explained by the increase in discrepancy stress and decrease in self-esteem. The findings suggest needs and directions for future research for the relationship between masculine role discrepancy and men's mental health, mechanisms involved, and interventions for improvement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Numerical analysis of finite Debye-length effects in induced-charge electro-osmosis.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Misha Marie; Andersen, Mathias Baekbo; Soni, Gaurav; Meinhart, Carl; Bruus, Henrik

    2009-06-01

    For a microchamber filled with a binary electrolyte and containing a flat unbiased center electrode at one wall, we employ three numerical models to study the strength of the resulting induced-charge electro-osmotic (ICEO) flow rolls: (i) a full nonlinear continuum model resolving the double layer, (ii) a linear slip-velocity model not resolving the double layer and without tangential charge transport inside this layer, and (iii) a nonlinear slip-velocity model extending the linear model by including the tangential charge transport inside the double layer. We show that, compared to the full model, the slip-velocity models significantly overestimate the ICEO flow. This provides a partial explanation of the quantitative discrepancy between observed and calculated ICEO velocities reported in the literature. The discrepancy increases significantly for increasing Debye length relative to the electrode size, i.e., for nanofluidic systems. However, even for electrode dimensions in the micrometer range, the discrepancies in velocity due to the finite Debye length can be more than 10% for an electrode of zero height and more than 100% for electrode heights comparable to the Debye length.

  3. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  4. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening

    PubMed Central

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father’s age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications. PMID:25952108

  5. GABAergic inhibition of leg motoneurons is required for normal walking behavior in freely moving Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Swetha B. M.; Paranjpe, Pushkar D.; Reddy, O. Venkateswara; Thiagarajan, Devasena; Palliyil, Sudhir; Reichert, Heinrich

    2018-01-01

    Walking is a complex rhythmic locomotor behavior generated by sequential and periodical contraction of muscles essential for coordinated control of movements of legs and leg joints. Studies of walking in vertebrates and invertebrates have revealed that premotor neural circuitry generates a basic rhythmic pattern that is sculpted by sensory feedback and ultimately controls the amplitude and phase of the motor output to leg muscles. However, the identity and functional roles of the premotor interneurons that directly control leg motoneuron activity are poorly understood. Here we take advantage of the powerful genetic methodology available in Drosophila to investigate the role of premotor inhibition in walking by genetically suppressing inhibitory input to leg motoneurons. For this, we have developed an algorithm for automated analysis of leg motion to characterize the walking parameters of wild-type flies from high-speed video recordings. Further, we use genetic reagents for targeted RNAi knockdown of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in leg motoneurons together with quantitative analysis of resulting changes in leg movement parameters in freely walking Drosophila. Our findings indicate that targeted down-regulation of the GABAA receptor Rdl (Resistance to Dieldrin) in leg motoneurons results in a dramatic reduction of walking speed and step length without the loss of general leg coordination during locomotion. Genetically restricting the knockdown to the adult stage and subsets of motoneurons yields qualitatively identical results. Taken together, these findings identify GABAergic premotor inhibition of motoneurons as an important determinant of correctly coordinated leg movements and speed of walking in freely behaving Drosophila. PMID:29440493

  6. GABAergic inhibition of leg motoneurons is required for normal walking behavior in freely moving Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Swetha B M; Paranjpe, Pushkar D; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Thiagarajan, Devasena; Palliyil, Sudhir; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2018-02-27

    Walking is a complex rhythmic locomotor behavior generated by sequential and periodical contraction of muscles essential for coordinated control of movements of legs and leg joints. Studies of walking in vertebrates and invertebrates have revealed that premotor neural circuitry generates a basic rhythmic pattern that is sculpted by sensory feedback and ultimately controls the amplitude and phase of the motor output to leg muscles. However, the identity and functional roles of the premotor interneurons that directly control leg motoneuron activity are poorly understood. Here we take advantage of the powerful genetic methodology available in Drosophila to investigate the role of premotor inhibition in walking by genetically suppressing inhibitory input to leg motoneurons. For this, we have developed an algorithm for automated analysis of leg motion to characterize the walking parameters of wild-type flies from high-speed video recordings. Further, we use genetic reagents for targeted RNAi knockdown of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in leg motoneurons together with quantitative analysis of resulting changes in leg movement parameters in freely walking Drosophila Our findings indicate that targeted down-regulation of the GABA A receptor Rdl (Resistance to Dieldrin) in leg motoneurons results in a dramatic reduction of walking speed and step length without the loss of general leg coordination during locomotion. Genetically restricting the knockdown to the adult stage and subsets of motoneurons yields qualitatively identical results. Taken together, these findings identify GABAergic premotor inhibition of motoneurons as an important determinant of correctly coordinated leg movements and speed of walking in freely behaving Drosophila . Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in "turnout".

    PubMed

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve "turning out" or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in "turned out" postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat.

  8. Intra-operative digital imaging: assuring the alignment of components when undertaking total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hambright, D; Hellman, M; Barrack, R

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the rate at which the positioning of the acetabular component, leg length discrepancy and femoral offset are outside an acceptable range in total hip arthroplasties (THAs) which either do or do not involve the use of intra-operative digital imaging. A retrospective case-control study was undertaken with 50 patients before and 50 patients after the integration of an intra-operative digital imaging system in THA. The demographics of the two groups were comparable for body mass index, age, laterality and the indication for surgery. The digital imaging group had more men than the group without. Surgical data and radiographic parameters, including the inclination and anteversion of the acetabular component, leg length discrepancy, and the difference in femoral offset compared with the contralateral hip were collected and compared, as well as the incidence of altering the position of a component based on the intra-operative image. Digital imaging took a mean of five minutes (2.3 to 14.6) to perform. Intra-operative changes with the use of digital imaging were made for 43 patients (86%), most commonly to adjust leg length and femoral offset. There was a decrease in the incidence of outliers when using intra-operative imaging compared with not using it in regard to leg length discrepancy (20% versus 52%, p = 0.001) and femoral offset inequality (18% versus 44%, p = 0.004). There was also a difference in the incidence of outliers in acetabular inclination (0% versus 7%, p = 0.023) and version (0% versus 4%, p = 0.114) compared with historical results of a high-volume surgeon at the same centre. The use of intra-operative digital imaging in THA improves the accuracy of the positioning of the components at THA without adding a substantial amount of time to the operation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100B(1 Supple A):36-43. ©2018 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Total hip arthroplasty performed in patients with residual poliomyelitis: does it work?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Byung-Ho; Lee, Young-Kyun; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2014-03-01

    Patients with residual poliomyelitis can have advanced degenerative arthritis of the hip in the paralytic limb or the nonparalytic contralateral limb. Although THA is a treatment option for some of these patients, there are few studies regarding THA in this patient population. We therefore reviewed a group of patients with residual poliomyelitis who underwent cementless THA on either their paralytic limb or nonparalytic limb to assess (1) Harris hip scores, (2) radiographic results, including implant loosening, (3) complications, including dislocation, and (4) limb length discrepancy after recovery from surgery. From January 2000 to December 2009, 10 patients with residual poliomyelitis (10 hips, four paralytic limbs and six nonparalytic contralateral limbs) underwent THA using cementless prostheses. Harris hip scores, complications, and leg length discrepancy were determined by chart review, and confirmed by questionnaire and examination; radiographs were reviewed by two observers for this study. Followup was available for all 10 patients at a minimum of 3 years (median, 7 years; range, 3.4-13 years). Surgery was done at the same side of the paralytic limb in four hips and contralateral to the paralytic limb in six. All patients had pain relief and improvement in function; the Harris hip score improved from mean of 68 preoperatively to 92 at last followup (p = 0.043). However, only three patients had complete pain relief. One hip dislocated, which was treated successfully with closed reduction and a hip spica cast for 2 months. There was no loosening or osteolysis in this series. Leg length discrepancy improved after the index operation, but only in the THAs performed in the paralytic limbs. Cementless THA may be suitable for painful hips in adult patients with residual poliomyelitis. Nonetheless, these patients should be informed of the possibility of mild residual pain and persistent leg length discrepancy, particularly patients whose THA is performed on the

  10. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-27

    sweeps the leg during stance, and the third places the foot during flight and controls body attitude during stance. Each of the three methods elucidates...secondary strategy has been to examine systems with springy legs, so that the role of resonant oscillatory leg behavior might be better understood. ’ The ...body attitude : I lopping _leit: ’ The control system rcgulate:; hopping height by manlil)Lulating hopping energy. The leg is springy, so hopping is a

  11. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids

  12. Physiological cross-sectional area of human leg muscles based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukunaga, T.; Roy, R. R.; Shellock, F. G.; Hodgson, J. A.; Day, M. K.; Lee, P. L.; Kwong-Fu, H.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to determine the physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) of the major muscles or muscle groups of the lower leg. For 12 healthy subjects, the boundaries of each muscle or muscle group were digitized from images taken at 1-cm intervals along the length of the leg. Muscle volumes were calculated from the summation of each anatomical CSA (ACSA) and the distance between each section. Muscle length was determined as the distance between the most proximal and distal images in which the muscle was visible. The PCSA of each muscle was calculated as muscle volume times the cosine of the angle of fiber pinnation divided by fiber length, where published fiber length:muscle length ratios were used to estimate fiber lengths. The mean volumes of the major plantarflexors were 489, 245, and 140 cm3 for the soleus and medial (MG) and lateral (LG) heads of the gastrocnemius. The mean PCSA of the soleus was 230 cm2, about three and eight times larger than the MG (68 cm2) and LG (28 cm2), respectively. These PCSA values were eight (soleus), four (MG), and three (LG) times larger than their respective maximum ACSA. The major dorsiflexor, the tibialis anterior (TA), had a muscle volume of 143 cm2, a PCSA of 19 cm2, and an ACSA of 9 cm2. With the exception of the soleus, the mean fiber length of all subjects was closely related to muscle volume across muscles. The soleus fibers were unusually short relative to the muscle volume, thus potentiating its force potential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  14. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  15. Effects of Wheelchair Seat-height Settings on Alternating Lower Limb Propulsion With Both Legs.

    PubMed

    Murata, Tomoyuki; Asami, Toyoko; Matsuo, Kiyomi; Kubo, Atsuko; Okigawa, Etsumi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seat-height settings of wheelchairs with alternating propulsion with both legs. Seven healthy individuals with no orthopedic disease participated. Flexion angles at initial contact (FA-IC) of each joint, range of motion during propulsion period (ROM-PP), and ground reaction force (GRF) were measured using a three dimensional motion capture system and force plates, and compared with different seat-height settings. Statistically significant relationships were found between seat-height and speed, stride length, knee FA-IC, ankle FA-IC, hip ROM-PP, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), and anterior posterior ground reaction force (APGRF). Speed, hip ROM-PP, VGRF and APGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. This effect diminished when the seat-height was set below -40 mm. VGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. The results suggest that the seat-height effect can be attributed to hip ROM-PP; therefore, optimal foot propulsion cannot be achieved when the seat height is set either too high or too low. Efficient foot propulsion of the wheelchair can be achieved by setting the seat height to lower leg length according to a combination of physical characteristics, such as the user's physical functions, leg muscles, and range of motion.

  16. Exaggerated male legs increase mating success by reducing disturbance to females in the cave wētā Pachyrhamma waitomoensis.

    PubMed

    Fea, Murray; Holwell, Gregory I

    2018-06-13

    Mate guarding is a widespread behaviour resulting from sperm competition and conflict over optimal remating rates. It is a key way in which males exhibit differential mating investment, and represents a complex interplay between mating effort, intrasexual competition, opportunity costs and sexual conflict. Nevertheless, although there are many examples of exaggerated male structures used to fight rivals, few animals have developed specialized male morphological adaptations for directly sheltering females from disturbance by non-rivals. Here we report on the use of sexually dimorphic, elongated male hind legs, which are used to guard females in the New Zealand cave wētā Pachyrhamma waitomoensis (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae). We found that male hind legs alongside the female failed to deter rivals from accessing her or disrupting copulation. However, they did reduce the disturbance to females from other, non-rival animals such as juveniles and heterospecifics. Males with longer hind legs were more effective in reducing disturbance, and remained with females for longer. Longer guarding periods also led to higher numbers of matings between pairs. Models of males with artificially altered hind leg dimensions also showed a benefit to greater leg length, and artificially altering the disturbance rate to females also had a significant effect on pair duration. Our results indicate that nuisance disturbance to females may play an important role in driving sexual selection on male leg length and its exaggeration in this species. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300–800 ms by compressing their body 40–60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s−1, despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion—“body-friction legged crawling” with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces. PMID:26858443

  18. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J

    2016-02-23

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300-800 ms by compressing their body 40-60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s(-1), despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion--"body-friction legged crawling" with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces.

  19. Strategies for Managing Massive Defects of the Foot in High-Energy Combat Injuries of the Lower Extremity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    infection, or avascular necrosis is extremely difficult. Tibiocalcaneal fusion typically leaves a patient with a leg length discrepancy unless large bone...fractures. J Orthop Trauma 2004;18(5):265–70. 37. Dennison MG, Pool RD, Simonis RB, et al. Tibiocalcaneal fusion for avascular necrosis of the talus

  20. Selection on an extreme weapon in the frog-legged leaf beetle (Sagra femorata).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Devin M; Katsuki, Masako; Emlen, Douglas J

    2017-11-01

    Biologists have been fascinated with the extreme products of sexual selection for decades. However, relatively few studies have characterized patterns of selection acting on ornaments and weapons in the wild. Here, we measure selection on a wild population of weapon-bearing beetles (frog-legged leaf beetles: Sagra femorata) for two consecutive breeding seasons. We consider variation in both weapon size (hind leg length) and in relative weapon size (deviations from the population average scaling relationship between hind leg length and body size), and provide evidence for directional selection on weapon size per se and stabilizing selection on a particular scaling relationship in this population. We suggest that whenever growth in body size is sensitive to external circumstance such as nutrition, then considering deviations from population-level scaling relationships will better reflect patterns of selection relevant to evolution of the ornament or weapon than will variation in trait size per se. This is because trait-size versus body-size scaling relationships approximate underlying developmental reaction norms relating trait growth with body condition in these species. Heightened condition-sensitive expression is a hallmark of the exaggerated ornaments and weapons favored by sexual selection, yet this plasticity is rarely reflected in the way we think about-and measure-selection acting on these structures in the wild. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Legs Syndrome Condition Restless Legs Syndrome Share Print Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Treatment5. Questions Overview ... twitch when you try and sleep (also called periodic limb movements of sleep or PLMS). Diagnosis How ...

  2. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri

  3. Finite length-scale anti-gravity and observations of mass discrepancies in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    The modification of Newtonian attraction suggested by Sanders (1984) contains a repulsive Yukawa component which is characterised by two physical parameters: a coupling constant, α, and a length scale, r0. Although this form of the gravitational potential can result in flat rotation curves for a galaxy (or a point mass) it is not obvious that any modification of gravity associated with a definite length scale can reproduce the observed rotation curves of galaxies covering a wide range of mass and size. Here it is shown that the rotation curves of galaxies ranging in size from 5 to 40 kpc can be reproduced by this modified potential. Moreover, the implied mass-to-light ratios for a larger sample of galaxies are reasonable (one to three) and show no systematic trend with the size of the galaxy. The observed infrared Tully-Fisher law is shown to be consistent with the prediction of this revised gravity. The modified potential permits the X-ray emitting halos observed around elliptical galaxies to be bound without the addition of dark matter.

  4. Time to stabilization in single leg drop jump landings: an examination of calculation methods and assessment of differences in sample rate, filter settings and trial length on outcome values.

    PubMed

    Fransz, Duncan P; Huurnink, Arnold; de Boode, Vosse A; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-01-01

    Time to stabilization (TTS) is the time it takes for an individual to return to a baseline or stable state following a jump or hop landing. A large variety exists in methods to calculate the TTS. These methods can be described based on four aspects: (1) the input signal used (vertical, anteroposterior, or mediolateral ground reaction force) (2) signal processing (smoothed by sequential averaging, a moving root-mean-square window, or fitting an unbounded third order polynomial), (3) the stable state (threshold), and (4) the definition of when the (processed) signal is considered stable. Furthermore, differences exist with regard to the sample rate, filter settings and trial length. Twenty-five healthy volunteers performed ten 'single leg drop jump landing' trials. For each trial, TTS was calculated according to 18 previously reported methods. Additionally, the effects of sample rate (1000, 500, 200 and 100 samples/s), filter settings (no filter, 40, 15 and 10 Hz), and trial length (20, 14, 10, 7, 5 and 3s) were assessed. The TTS values varied considerably across the calculation methods. The maximum effect of alterations in the processing settings, averaged over calculation methods, were 2.8% (SD 3.3%) for sample rate, 8.8% (SD 7.7%) for filter settings, and 100.5% (SD 100.9%) for trial length. Differences in TTS calculation methods are affected differently by sample rate, filter settings and trial length. The effects of differences in sample rate and filter settings are generally small, while trial length has a large effect on TTS values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    PubMed

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  7. Depression and anxiety before and after limb length discrepancy correction in patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiyu; Li, Yongwei; Fan, Lihong; Mu, Mingchao; Wang, Kunzheng; Song, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Limb length discrepancy (LLD) is common in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and may influence the psychological status of these patients. The present study aims to investigate depression and anxiety in DDH patients with different extents of LLD and to assess the effect of LLD correction on these two psychological factors. 161 patients with DDH were recruited and divided into two groups based on whether they could perceive LLD preoperatively. The patients who could not perceive LLD were assigned to group N, and those who could perceive LLD were assigned to group P. Depression/anxiety, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores and LLD were assessed one week before, six months and two years after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Depression and anxiety were significantly higher in group P patients compared to group N patients. The patients in group N presented significant improvement in depression and anxiety six months after arthroplasty, while DDH patients in group P did two years after arthroplasty. Correlation analyses revealed their improvement was associated with pain relief and improved hip function in both groups of patients and was also related to changes in the perception of LLD in group P patients. Depression and anxiety levels were higher in DDH patients with perceived LLD. Their improvement was related to pain relief and improved hip function following THA. In DDH patients with perceived LLD, a change in the perception of LLD also played a part in their improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Discrepancy Reporting Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tonja M.; Lin, James C.; Chatillon, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) is a computer program designed for use in the stations of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to help establish the operational history of equipment items; acquire data on the quality of service provided to DSN customers; enable measurement of service performance; provide early insight into the need to improve processes, procedures, and interfaces; and enable the tracing of a data outage to a change in software or hardware. DRMS is a Web-based software system designed to include a distributed database and replication feature to achieve location-specific autonomy while maintaining a consistent high quality of data. DRMS incorporates commercial Web and database software. DRMS collects, processes, replicates, communicates, and manages information on spacecraft data discrepancies, equipment resets, and physical equipment status, and maintains an internal station log. All discrepancy reports (DRs), Master discrepancy reports (MDRs), and Reset data are replicated to a master server at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Master DR data are replicated to all the DSN sites; and Station Logs are internal to each of the DSN sites and are not replicated. Data are validated according to several logical mathematical criteria. Queries can be performed on any combination of data.

  9. Developmental Study on Leg-to-Body Ratio Preferences.

    PubMed

    Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have tested developmental differences in the perception of human body attractiveness and none have investigated development of Leg-to-Body Ratio (LBR) preferences. The aim of the current study was to determine whether preferences for LBR are largely innate and present among children in their early childhood, acquired in the course of socialization, and/or triggered by biological and hormonal changes. The study included 450 Polish men and women from Lower Silesia and Opole Province, Poland, whose ages ranged from 3 to 20 years. Participants were asked to choose which figurine they found the most attractive from a set of male and female figurines of various LBRs. We found that children below 8 years of age did not prefer any particular LBR and starting from about 9 years of age, preferences towards the legs of average length emerged. Importantly an LBR higher than the population average was not perceived as the most attractive until the age of 15 years. Therefore, we have empirically confirmed that LBR preferences change during develop ment.

  10. A bipedal DNA Brownian motor with coordinated legs.

    PubMed

    Omabegho, Tosan; Sha, Ruojie; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2009-04-03

    A substantial challenge in engineering molecular motors is designing mechanisms to coordinate the motion between multiple domains of the motor so as to bias random thermal motion. For bipedal motors, this challenge takes the form of coordinating the movement of the biped's legs so that they can move in a synchronized fashion. To address this problem, we have constructed an autonomous DNA bipedal walker that coordinates the action of its two legs by cyclically catalyzing the hybridization of metastable DNA fuel strands. This process leads to a chemically ratcheted walk along a directionally polar DNA track. By covalently cross-linking aliquots of the walker to its track in successive walking states, we demonstrate that this Brownian motor can complete a full walking cycle on a track whose length could be extended for longer walks. We believe that this study helps to uncover principles behind the design of unidirectional devices that can function without intervention. This device should be able to fulfill roles that entail the performance of useful mechanical work on the nanometer scale.

  11. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  12. Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)

  13. Influence of running velocity on vertical, leg and joint stiffness : modelling and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John

    2008-01-01

    Human running can be modelled as either a spring-mass model or multiple springs in series. A force is required to stretch or compress the spring, and thus stiffness, the variable of interest in this paper, can be calculated from the ratio of this force to the change in spring length. Given the link between force and length change, muscle stiffness and mechanical stiffness have been areas of interest to researchers, clinicians, and strength and conditioning practitioners for many years. This review focuses on mechanical stiffness, and in particular, vertical, leg and joint stiffness, since these are the only stiffness types that have been directly calculated during human running. It has been established that as running velocity increases from slow-to-moderate values, leg stiffness remains constant while both vertical stiffness and joint stiffness increase. However, no studies have calculated vertical, leg or joint stiffness over a range of slow-to-moderate values to maximum values in an athletic population. Therefore, the effects of faster running velocities on stiffness are relatively unexplored. Furthermore, no experimental research has examined the effects of training on vertical, leg or joint stiffness and the subsequent effects on running performance. Various methods of training (Olympic style weightlifting, heavy resistance training, plyometrics, eccentric strength training) have shown to be effective at improving running performance. However, the effects of these training methods on vertical, leg and joint stiffness are unknown. As a result, the true importance of stiffness to running performance remains unexplored, and the best practice for changing stiffness to optimize running performance is speculative at best. It is our hope that a better understanding of stiffness, and the influence of running speed on stiffness, will lead to greater interest and an increase in experimental research in this area.

  14. Problems with Excessive Residual Lower Leg Length in Pediatric Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Osebold, William R; Lester, Edward L; Christenson, Donald M

    2001-01-01

    We studied six pediatric amputees with long below-knee residual limbs, in order to delineate their functional and prosthetic situations, specifically in relation to problems with fitting for dynamic-response prosthetic feet. Three patients had congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia secondary to neurofibromatosis, one had fibular hemimelia, one had a traumatic amputation, and one had amputation secondary to burns. Five patients had Syme's amputations, one had a Boyd amputation. Ages at amputation ranged from nine months to five years (average age 3 years 1 month). After amputation, the long residual below-knee limbs allowed fitting with only the lowest-profile prostheses, such as deflection plates. In three patients, the femoral dome to tibial plafond length was greater on the amputated side than on the normal side. To allow room for more dynamic-response (and larger) foot prostheses, two patients have undergone proximal and distal tibial-fibular epiphyseodeses (one at age 5 years 10 months, the other at 3 years 7 months) and one had a proximal tibial-fibular epiphyseodesis at age 7 years 10 months. (All three patients are still skeletally immature.) The families of two other patients are considering epiphyseodeses, and one patient is not a candidate (skeletally mature). Scanogram data indicate that at skeletal maturity the epiphyseodesed patients will have adequate length distal to their residual limbs to fit larger and more dynamic-response prosthetic feet. PMID:11813953

  15. Sagittal plane bending moments acting on the lower leg during running.

    PubMed

    Haris Phuah, Affendi; Schache, Anthony G; Crossley, Kay M; Wrigley, Tim V; Creaby, Mark W

    2010-02-01

    Sagittal bending moments acting on the lower leg during running may play a role in tibial stress fracture development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these moments at nine equidistant points along the length of the lower leg (10% point-90% point) during running. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected for 20 male runners, who each performed 10 running trials. Inverse dynamics and musculoskeletal modelling techniques were used to estimate sagittal bending moments due to reaction forces and muscle contraction. The muscle moment was typically positive during stance, except at the most proximal location (10% point) on the lower leg. The reaction moment was predominantly negative throughout stance and greater in magnitude than the muscle moment. Hence, the net sagittal bending moment acting on the lower leg was principally negative (indicating tensile loads on the posterior tibia). Peak moments typically occurred around mid-stance, and were greater in magnitude at the distal, compared with proximal, lower leg. For example, the peak reaction moment at the most distal point was -9.61+ or - 2.07%Bw.Ht., and -2.73 + or - 1.18%Bw.Ht. at the most proximal point. These data suggest that tensile loads on the posterior tibia are likely to be higher toward the distal end of the bone. This finding may explain the higher incidence of stress fracture in the distal aspect of the tibia, observed by some authors. Stress fracture susceptibility will also be influenced by bone strength and this should also be accounted for in future studies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decreasing an Offloading Device's Size and Offsetting Its Imposed Limb Length Discrepancy Lead to Improved Comfort and Gait.

    PubMed

    Crews, Ryan T; Candela, Joseph

    2018-04-17

    Patient adherence is a challenge in offloading diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) with removable cast walkers (RCWs). The size and weight of an RCW, changes to gait, and imposed limb length discrepancies may all discourage adherence. This study sought to determine whether RCW size and provision of a contralateral limb lift affected users' comfort and gait. Twenty-five individuals at risk for DFUs completed several 20-m walking trials under five footwear conditions: bilateral standardized shoes, a knee-high RCW with shoe with or without an external shoe lift contralaterally, and an ankle-high RCW with shoe with or without an external shoe lift contralaterally. Perceived comfort ratings were assessed through the use of visual analog scales. Spatial and temporal parameters of gait were captured by an instrumented walkway, and plantar pressure was measured and recorded using pedobarographic insoles. The bilateral shoes condition was reported to be most comfortable; both RCW conditions without the lift were significantly less comfortable ( P < 0.01). In contrast to the ankle-high RCW, the knee-high RCW resulted in significantly slower walking (5.6%; P < 0.01) but greater offloading in multiple forefoot regions of the offloaded foot (6.8-8.1%; P < 0.01). Use of the contralateral shoe lift resulted in significantly less variability in walking velocity (52.8%; P < 0.01) and reduced stance time for the offloaded foot (2.6%; P = 0.01), but it also reduced offloading in multiple forefoot regions of the offloaded foot (3.7-6.0%; P < 0.01). Improved comfort and gait were associated with the ankle-high RCW and contralateral limb lift. Providing this combination to patients with active DFUs may increase offloading adherence and subsequently improve healing. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Maneuvers during legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu

    2009-06-01

    horizontal plane. Changes in the horizontal projection of leg length were linearly related to changes in horizontal-plane leg forces. Consequently, the passive dynamic stabilization associated with spring-mass behavior may contribute to stability during maneuvers in bipeds. Understanding the mechanics of maneuverability will be important for understanding the motor control of maneuvers and also potentially be useful for understanding stability.

  18. Athletes' leg pains.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Puranen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888

  19. Leg extensor muscle strength, postural stability, and fear of falling after a 2-month home exercise program in women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rätsepsoo, Monika; Gapeyeva, Helena; Sokk, Jelena; Ereline, Jaan; Haviko, Tiit; Pääsuke, Mati

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to compare the leg extensor muscle strength, the postural stability, and the fear of falling in the women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) before and after a 2-month home exercise program (HEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS. In total, 17 women aged 46-72 years with late-stage knee joint OA scheduled for total knee arthroplasty participated in this study before and after the 2-month HEP with strengthening, stretching, balance, and step exercises. The isometric peak torque (PT) of the leg extensors and postural stability characteristics when standing on a firm or a foam surface for 30 seconds were recorded. The fear of falling and the pain intensity (VAS) were estimated. RESULTS. A significant increase in the PT and the PT-to-body weight (PT-to-BW) ratio of the involved leg as well as the bilateral PT and the PT-to-BW ratio was found after the 2-month HEP compared with the data before the HEP (P<0.05). The PT and the PT-to-BW ratio of the involved leg were significantly lower compared with the uninvolved leg before the HEP (P<0.05). The center of the pressure sway length (foam surface) decreased significantly after the HEP (P<0.05). Significant correlations were found between the PT of the involved leg and the bilateral PT and the fear of falling and between the PT of the involved leg and the postural sway (foam surface) before the HEP. CONCLUSIONS. After the 2-month HEP, the leg extensor muscle strength increased and the postural sway length on a foam surface decreased. The results indicate that the increased leg extensor muscle strength improves postural stability and diminishes the fear of falling in women with late-stage knee joint OA.

  20. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Changes in kinematics and arm-leg coordination during a 100-m breaststroke swim.

    PubMed

    Oxford, Samuel W; James, Rob S; Price, Michael J; Payton, Carl J; Duncan, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare arm-leg coordination and kinematics during 100 m breaststroke in 26 (8 female; 18 male) specialist breaststroke swimmers. Laps were recorded using three 50-Hz underwater cameras. Heart rate and blood lactate were measured pre- and post-swim. Arm-leg coordination was defined using coordination phases describing continuity between recovery and propulsive phases of upper and lower limbs: coordination phase 1 (time between end of leg kick and start of the arm pull phases); and coordination phase 2 (time between end of arm pull and start of leg kick phases). Duration of stroke phases, coordination phases, swim velocity, stroke length (SL), stroke rate (SR) and stroke index (SI) were analysed during the last three strokes of each lap that were unaffected by turning or finishing. Significant changes in velocity, SI and SL (P < 0.05) were found between laps. Both sexes showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in heart rate and blood lactate pre- to post-swim. Males had significantly (P < 0.01) faster swim velocities resulting from longer SLs (P = 0.016) with no difference in SR (P = 0.064). Sex differences in kinematic parameters can be explained by anthropometric differences providing males with increased propelling efficiency.

  2. Human Leg Model Predicts Muscle Forces, States, and Energetics during Walking.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Jared; Herr, Hugh

    2016-05-01

    Humans employ a high degree of redundancy in joint actuation, with different combinations of muscle and tendon action providing the same net joint torque. Both the resolution of these redundancies and the energetics of such systems depend on the dynamic properties of muscles and tendons, particularly their force-length relations. Current walking models that use stock parameters when simulating muscle-tendon dynamics tend to significantly overestimate metabolic consumption, perhaps because they do not adequately consider the role of elasticity. As an alternative, we posit that the muscle-tendon morphology of the human leg has evolved to maximize the metabolic efficiency of walking at self-selected speed. We use a data-driven approach to evaluate this hypothesis, utilizing kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic (EMG), and metabolic data taken from five participants walking at self-selected speed. The kinematic and kinetic data are used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths, muscle moment arms, and joint moments while the EMG data are used to estimate muscle activations. For each subject we perform an optimization using prescribed skeletal kinematics, varying the parameters that govern the force-length curve of each tendon as well as the strength and optimal fiber length of each muscle while seeking to simultaneously minimize metabolic cost and maximize agreement with the estimated joint moments. We find that the metabolic cost of transport (MCOT) values of our participants may be correctly matched (on average 0.36±0.02 predicted, 0.35±0.02 measured) with acceptable joint torque fidelity through application of a single constraint to the muscle metabolic budget. The associated optimal muscle-tendon parameter sets allow us to estimate the forces and states of individual muscles, resolving redundancies in joint actuation and lending insight into the potential roles and control objectives of the muscles of the leg throughout the gait cycle.

  3. A Kinematic Analysis of the Jumping Front-Leg Axe-Kick in Taekwondo

    PubMed Central

    Preuschl, Emanuel; Hassmann, Michaela; Baca, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The jumping front-leg axe-kick is a valid attacking and counterattacking technique in Taekwondo competition (Streif, 1993). Yet, the existing literature on this technique is sparse (Kloiber et al., 2009). Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine parameters contributing significantly to maximum linear speed of the foot at impact. Parameters are timing of segment and joint angular velocity characteristics and segment lengths of the kicking leg. Moreover, we were interested in the prevalence of proximal-to-distal-sequencing. Three-dimensional kinematics of the kicks of 22 male Taekwondo-athletes (age: 23.3 ± 5.3 years) were recorded via a motion capturing system (Vicon Motion Systems Limited, Oxford, UK). The participants performed maximum effort kicks onto a rack-held kicking pad. Only the kick with the highest impact velocity was analysed, as it was assumed to represent the individual’s best performance. Significant Pearson correlations to impact velocity were found for pelvis tilt angular displacement (r = 0.468, p < 0.05) and for hip extension angular velocity (r = -0.446, p < 0.05) and for the timing of the minima of pelvis tilt velocity (r = -0.426, p < 0.05) and knee flexion velocity (r = -0.480, p < 0.05). Backward step linear regression analysis suggests a model consisting of three predictor variables: pelvis tilt angular displacement, hip flexion velocity at target contact and timing of pelvic tilt angular velocity minimum (adjusted R2 = 0.524). Results of Chi-Squared tests show that neither for the leg-raising period (χ2 = 2.909) of the technique, nor for the leg-lowering period a pattern of proximal-to-distal sequencing is prevalent (χ2 = 0.727). From the results we conclude that the jumping front-leg axe-kick does not follow a proximal-to-distal pattern. Raising the leg early in the technique and apprehending the upper body to be leant back during the leg-lowering period seems to be beneficial for high impact velocity. Furthermore, striking

  4. Are the hamstrings from the drive leg or landing leg more active in baseball pitchers? An electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Zaferiou, Antonia; Chalmers, Peter N; Ruby, Deana; Malloy, Phillip; Luchetti, Timothy J; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-11-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among baseball players of all levels. There are several graft choices in performing UCLR, one of which is a hamstring (gracilis or semitendinosus) autograft. It is unclear whether the hamstring muscle from a pitcher's drive leg (ipsilateral side of the UCLR) or landing leg (contralateral side of the UCLR) is more active during the pitching motion. We hypothesized that the landing leg semitendinosus will be more electromyographically active than the drive leg. Healthy, elite male pitchers aged 16-21 years were recruited. Sixteen pitchers (average age, 17.6 ± 1.6 years; 67% threw right handed) underwent electromyographic analysis. Pitchers threw 5 fastballs at 100% effort from the wind-up with electromyographic analysis of every pitch. Activation of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris in both legs was compared within pitchers and between pitchers. Hamstring activity was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg during each phase and in sum, although the difference was significant only during the double support phase (P = .021). On within-pitcher analysis, 10 of 16 pitchers had significantly more sum hamstring activity in the drive leg than in the landing leg, while only 4 of 16 had more activity in the landing leg (P = .043). During the baseball pitch, muscle activity of the semitendinosus was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg in most pitchers. Surgeons performing UCLR using hamstring autograft should consider harvesting the graft from the pitcher's landing leg to minimize disruption to the athlete's pitching motion. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Perforator Flap Training Model Using a Chicken Leg.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Ignacio J; Yañez, Ricardo A; Salisbury, Maria C; Rodriguez, José R; Varas, Julian E; Dagnino, Bruno L

    2016-04-01

    Living animal models are frequently used for perforator flap dissection training, but no ex vivo models have been described. The aim of this study is to present a novel nonliving model for perforator flap training based on a constant perforator in the chicken leg. A total of 15 chicken legs were used in this study. Anatomical dissection of the perforator was performed after its identification using ink injection, and in four of these specimens a perforator-based flap was raised. The anatomical dissection revealed a constant intramuscular perforator with a median length of 5.7 cm. Median proximal and distal vessel diameters were 0.93 and 0.4 mm, respectively. The median dissection time was 77.5 minutes. This study introduces a novel, affordable, and reproducible model for the intramuscular dissection of a perforator-based flap using an ex vivo animal model. Its consistent perforator and appropriate-sized vessels make it useful for training.

  6. A Novel Perforator Flap Training Model Using a Chicken Leg

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, Ignacio J.; Yañez, Ricardo A.; Salisbury, Maria C.; Rodriguez, José R.; Varas, Julian E.; Dagnino, Bruno L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Living animal models are frequently used for perforator flap dissection training, but no ex vivo models have been described. The aim of this study is to present a novel nonliving model for perforator flap training based on a constant perforator in the chicken leg. Methods  A total of 15 chicken legs were used in this study. Anatomical dissection of the perforator was performed after its identification using ink injection, and in four of these specimens a perforator-based flap was raised. Results  The anatomical dissection revealed a constant intramuscular perforator with a median length of 5.7 cm. Median proximal and distal vessel diameters were 0.93 and 0.4 mm, respectively. The median dissection time was 77.5 minutes. Conclusion  This study introduces a novel, affordable, and reproducible model for the intramuscular dissection of a perforator-based flap using an ex vivo animal model. Its consistent perforator and appropriate-sized vessels make it useful for training. PMID:27616823

  7. Sex differences in leg dexterity are not present in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Emily L; Peppoloni, Lorenzo; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2017-10-03

    We studied whether the time-varying forces that control unstable foot-ground interactions provide insight into the neural control of dynamic leg function. Twenty elite (10F, 26.4±3.5yrs) and 20 recreational (10F, 24.8±2.4yrs) athletes used an isolated leg to maximally compress a slender spring designed to buckle at low forces while seated. The foot forces during the compression at the edge of instability quantify the maximal sensorimotor ability to control dynamic foot-ground interactions. Using the nonlinear analysis technique of attractor reconstruction, we characterized the spatial (interquartile range IQR) and geometric (trajectory length TL, volume V, and sum of edge lengths SE) features of the dynamical behavior of those force time series. ANOVA confirmed the already published effect of sex, and a new effect of athletic ability, respectively, in TL (p=0.014 and p<0.001), IQR (p=0.008 and p<0.001), V (p=0.034 and p=0.002), and SE (p=0.033 and p<0.001). Further analysis revealed that, for recreational athletes, females exhibited weaker corrective actions and greater stochasticity than males as per their greater mean values of TL (p=0.003), IQR (p=0.018), V (p=0.017), and SE (p=0.025). Importantly, sex differences disappeared in elite athletes. These results provide an empirical link between sex, athletic ability, and nonlinear dynamical control. This is a first step in understanding the sensorimotor mechanisms for control of unstable foot-ground interactions. Given that females suffer a greater incidence of non-contact knee ligament injuries, these non-invasive and practical metrics of leg dexterity may be both indicators of athletic ability, and predictors of risk of injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feminine Discrepancy Stress and Psychosocial Maladjustment Among Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Kernsmith, Poco D; Malone, Carolyn A; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Smith-Darden, Joanne P

    2018-04-01

    Discrepancy stress, stress about being perceived to not conform to one's gender role (i.e., gender role discrepancy), has demonstrated effects on risky sexual and violent behaviors. However, evidence of these effects has been limited to men and boys, neglecting the impact gender role discrepancy and discrepancy stress may have on girls. In addition, no study to date, has assessed the mental health correlates of gender role discrepancy and discrepancy stress. In the current study, we sought to elucidate the relationship between perceived feminine discrepancy and feminine discrepancy stress and psychosocial maladjustment while controlling for trauma symptoms stemming from the potential repercussions of feminine discrepancy. Maladjustment was measured by creating a second-order latent factor derived from four first-order latent constructs: sexual behavior, substance use, mood disorder symptoms, and hopelessness. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional sample of female students in middle and high school (N = 643) who completed self-report questionnaires. Using structural equation modeling, we found girls reporting feminine discrepancy (i.e., less feminine than the average girl) were more likely to report feminine discrepancy stress and trauma symptomatology. Controlling for feminine discrepancy and trauma symptoms, the relationship between discrepancy stress and maladjustment was positive and significant. Additionally, girls reporting feminine discrepancy scored higher on trauma symptomatology, and trauma demonstrated a strong direct effect on psychosocial maladjustment. These data suggest that developing trauma focused prevention strategies that incorporate social norms around gender socialization may have an impact on multiple behavioral and mental health problems.

  9. Effects of ipsilateral anterior thigh soft tissue stretching on passive unilateral straight-leg raise.

    PubMed

    Clark, S; Christiansen, A; Hellman, D F; Hugunin, J W; Hurst, K M

    1999-01-01

    Randomized 3-group pretest-posttest with blind assessment of outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sagittal plane hold-relax exercise applied to the ipsilateral anterior thigh, and prone positioning on passive unilateral straight-leg raise measurements. Straight-leg raising has been viewed as a measurement for hamstring muscle length, but literature suggests that other structures may affect this measurement. Sixty subjects (45 men, 15 women) qualified for inclusion into the study based on a straight-leg raise measurement of < or = 65 degrees. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, static stretch, or sagittal plane hold-relax exercise. Pretest and posttest straight-leg raise measurements of the right lower extremity were performed for each subject. A 1-way ANOVA of the change scores showed a significant difference between groups. A Tukey post hoc analysis of the change scores showed that both treatment groups' means differed significantly from the control group and from each other, with the sagittal plane hold-relax group exhibiting the largest change (mean of 7.8 degrees +/- 2.8 degrees). The results of this study show that sagittal plane hold-relax exercise and passive prone results of this study show that sagittal plane hold-relax and passive prone positioning can significantly increase straight-leg raise range of motion, however the sagittal plane hold-relax stretching of the anterior thigh is more effective than passive prone positioning.

  10. Restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ekbom, Karl; Ulfberg, J

    2009-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological sensory-motor disorder that is characterized by intense restlessness and unpleasant creeping sensations deep inside the lower legs. Symptoms appear when the legs are at rest and are worst in the evening and at night. They force patients to keep moving their legs, and often to get out of bed and wander about. Periodic limb movements (PLMS) are also common during sleep amongst those suffering from RLS, and sleep efficiency is severely reduced. There are idiopathic as well as symptomatic forms of RLS, the latter being associated with e.g. pregnancy, iron deficiency and chronic renal failure. A family history of RLS is very common and pedigrees in these cases suggest an autosomal-dominant transmission with high penetrance. Genetic investigations have been performed in order to identify genes associated with RLS. Several loci have been found (on chromosomes 12q, 14q, 9p, 2q, 20p and 16p). Pathophysiology of RLS remains incompletely understood. However, advanced brain imaging studies and positive results of dopaminergic treatment suggest that RLS may be generated by dopamine dysfunction locally within the central nervous system. At present, there is a wide range of treatment options including levodopa, dopamine agonists, opioids, benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs and iron supplements.

  11. Algorithms in Discrepancy Theory and Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadas, Harishchandra

    This thesis deals with algorithmic problems in discrepancy theory and lattices, and is based on two projects I worked on while at the University of Washington in Seattle. A brief overview is provided in Chapter 1 (Introduction). Chapter 2 covers joint work with Avi Levy and Thomas Rothvoss in the field of discrepancy minimization. A well-known theorem of Spencer shows that any set system with n sets over n elements admits a coloring of discrepancy O(√n). While the original proof was non-constructive, recent progress brought polynomial time algorithms by Bansal, Lovett and Meka, and Rothvoss. All those algorithms are randomized, even though Bansal's algorithm admitted a complicated derandomization. We propose an elegant deterministic polynomial time algorithm that is inspired by Lovett-Meka as well as the Multiplicative Weight Update method. The algorithm iteratively updates a fractional coloring while controlling the exponential weights that are assigned to the set constraints. A conjecture by Meka suggests that Spencer's bound can be generalized to symmetric matrices. We prove that n x n matrices that are block diagonal with block size q admit a coloring of discrepancy O(√n . √log(q)). Bansal, Dadush and Garg recently gave a randomized algorithm to find a vector x with entries in {-1,1} with ∥Ax∥infinity ≤ O(√log n) in polynomial time, where A is any matrix whose columns have length at most 1. We show that our method can be used to deterministically obtain such a vector. In Chapter 3, we discuss a result in the broad area of lattices and integer optimization, in joint work with Rebecca Hoberg, Thomas Rothvoss and Xin Yang. The number balancing (NBP) problem is the following: given real numbers a1,...,an in [0,1], find two disjoint subsets I1,I2 of [ n] so that the difference |sumi∈I1a i - sumi∈I2ai| of their sums is minimized. An application of the pigeonhole principle shows that there is always a solution where the difference is at most O √n/2

  12. The Motor and the Brake of the Trailing Leg in Human Walking: Leg Force Control Through Ankle Modulation and Knee Covariance

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Megan E.; Chang, Young-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Human walking is a complex task, and we lack a complete understanding of how the neuromuscular system organizes its numerous muscles and joints to achieve consistent and efficient walking mechanics. Focused control of select influential task-level variables may simplify the higher-level control of steady state walking and reduce demand on the neuromuscular system. As trailing leg power generation and force application can affect the mechanical efficiency of step-to-step transitions, we investigated how joint torques are organized to control leg force and leg power during human walking. We tested whether timing of trailing leg force control corresponded with timing of peak leg power generation. We also applied a modified uncontrolled manifold analysis to test whether individual or coordinated joint torque strategies most contributed to leg force control. We found that leg force magnitude was adjusted from step-to-step to maintain consistent leg power generation. Leg force modulation was primarily determined by adjustments in the timing of peak ankle plantar-flexion torque, while knee torque was simultaneously covaried to dampen the effect of ankle torque on leg force. We propose a coordinated joint torque control strategy in which the trailing leg ankle acts as a motor to drive leg power production while trailing leg knee torque acts as a brake to refine leg power production. PMID:27334888

  13. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  14. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... commercial storage or disposal facility shall attempt to reconcile the discrepancy with the waste generator... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES...

  15. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... commercial storage or disposal facility shall attempt to reconcile the discrepancy with the waste generator... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES...

  16. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 31. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician . 2013;88( ...

  17. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  18. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  19. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawlmore » through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.« less

  20. Zinc finger protein rotund deficiency affects development of the thoracic leg in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Yan; Zha, Xing-Fu; Liu, Hua-Wei; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-06-01

    The insect limb develops from the imaginal disc or larval leg during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the development from the larval to the adult leg are poorly understood. Herein, we cloned the full length of a zinc finger gene rotund from Bombyx mori (Bmrn), which contained a 1419 bp open reading frame, and encoded a 473 amino acid protein. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses demonstrated that Bmrn was expressed at higher levels in the epidermis than in other tissues tested, and it showed a very high expression level during metamorphosis. Knock-down of Bmrn produced defects in the tarsus and pretarsus, including the fusion and reduction of tarsomeres, and the developmental arrest of pretarsus. Our data showed that Bmrn is involved in the formation of the tarsus and pretarsus, whereas its homologous gene in Drosophila has been shown to affect three tarsal segments (t2-t4), suggesting that the remodeling of the leg has involved changes in the patterning of gene regulation during evolution. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  2. The Benslimane's Artistic Model for Leg Beauty.

    PubMed

    Benslimane, Fahd

    2012-08-01

    In 2000, the author started observing legs considered to be attractive. The goal was to have an ideal aesthetic model and compare the disparity between this model and a patient's reality. This could prove helpful during leg sculpturing to get closer to this ideal. Postoperatively, the result could then be compared to the ideal curves of the model legs and any remaining deviations from the ideal curves could be pointed out and eventually corrected in a second session. The lack of anthropometric studies of legs from the knee to the ankle led the author to select and study attractive legs to find out the common denominators of their beauty. The study consisted in analyzing the features that make legs look attractive. The legs of models in magazines were scanned and inserted into a PowerPoint program. The legs of live models, Barbie dolls, and athletes were photographed. Artistic drawings by Leonardo da Vinci were reviewed and Greek sculptures studied. Sculptures from the National Archaeological Museum of Athens were photographed and included in the PowerPoint program. This study shows that the first criterion for beautiful legs is the straightness of the leg column. Not a single attractive leg was found to deviate from the vertical, and each was in absolute continuity with the thigh. The second criterion is the similarity of curve distribution and progression from knee to ankle. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at www.springer.com/00266.

  3. A modular network for legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Collins, J. J.

    1998-04-01

    In this paper we use symmetry methods to study networks of coupled cells, which are models for central pattern generators (CPGs). In these models the cells obey identical systems of differential equations and the network specifies how cells are coupled. Previously, Collins and Stewart showed that the phase relations of many of the standard gaits of quadrupeds and hexapods can be obtained naturally via Hopf bifurcation in small networks. For example, the networks they used to study quadrupeds all had four cells, with the understanding that each cell determined the phase of the motion of one leg. However, in their work it seemed necessary to employ several different four-oscillator networks to obtain all of the standard quadrupedal gaits. We show that this difficulty with four-oscillator networks is unavoidable, but that the problems can be overcome by using a larger network. Specifically, we show that the standard gaits of a quadruped, including walk, trot and pace, cannot all be realized by a single four-cell network without introducing unwanted conjugacies between trot and pace - conjugacies that imply a dynamic equivalence between these gaits that seems inconsistent with observations. In this sense a single network with four cells cannot model the CPG of a quadruped. We also introduce a single eight-cell network that can model all of the primary gaits of quadrupeds without these unwanted conjugacies. Moreover, this network is modular in that it naturally generalizes to provide models of gaits in hexapods, centipedes, and millipedes. The analysis of models for many-legged animals shows that wave-like motions, similar to those obtained by Kopell and Ermentrout, can be expected. However, our network leads to a prediction that the wavelength of the wave motion will divide twice the length of the animal. Indeed, we reproduce illustrations of wave-like motions in centipedes where the animal is approximately one-and-a-half wavelength long - motions that are consistent

  4. Atrophic femoral nonunion with bone loss: treatment with monorail transport: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gay, David M; Voss, Frank R

    2004-08-01

    Nonunions are an uncommon outcome of femoral fractures. Atrophic nonunions with a leg length discrepancy secondary to bone loss are often the most difficult to treat, and the treatment options are limited. We present a case that uses concomitant monolateral external fixation and intramedullary nailing to heal a nonunion and perform a simultaneous 7-cm lengthening procedure in a 33-year-old female.

  5. Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

  6. Acute Effects of Stretching on Leg and Vertical Stiffness During Treadmill Running.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Panagiotis T; Paradisis, Giorgos P; Exell, Timothy A; Smirniotou, Athanasia S; Tsolakis, Charilaos K; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2017-12-01

    Pappas, PT, Paradisis, GP, Exell, TA, Smirniotou, AS, Tsolakis, CK, and Arampatzis, A. Acute effects of stretching on leg and vertical stiffness during treadmill running. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3417-3424, 2017-The implementation of static (SS) and dynamic (DS) stretching during warm-up routines produces significant changes in biological and functional properties of the human musculoskeletal system. These properties could affect the leg and vertical stiffness characteristics that are considered important factors for the success of athletic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of SS and DS on selected kinematic variables, and leg and vertical stiffness during treadmill running. Fourteen men (age: 22.58 ± 1.05 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 72.74 ± 10.04 kg) performed 30-second running bouts at 4.44 m·s, under 3 different stretching conditions (SS, DS, and no stretching). The total duration in each stretching condition was 6 minutes, and each of the 4 muscle groups was stretched for 40 seconds. Leg and vertical stiffness values were calculated using the "sine wave" method, with no significant differences in stiffness found between stretching conditions. After DS, vertical ground reaction force increased by 1.7% (p < 0.05), which resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increases in flight time (5.8%), step length (2.2%), and vertical displacement of the center of mass (4.5%) and a decrease in step rate (2.2%). Practical durations of SS and DS stretching did not influence leg or vertical stiffness during treadmill running. However, DS seems to result in a small increase in lower-limb force production which may influence running mechanics.

  7. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The hybrid mass-spring pendulum model of human leg swinging: stiffness in the control of cycle period.

    PubMed

    Obusek, J P; Holt, K G; Rosenstein, R M

    1995-07-01

    Human leg swinging is modeled as the harmonic motion of a hybrid mass-spring pendulum. The cycle period is determined by a gravitational component and an elastic component, which is provided by the attachment of a soft-tissue/muscular spring of variable stiffness. To confirm that the stiffness of the spring changes with alterations in the inertial properties of the oscillator and that stiffness is relevant for the control of cycle period, we conducted this study in which the simple pendulum equivalent length was experimentally manipulated by adding mass to the ankle of a comfortably swinging leg. Twenty-four young, healthy adults were videotaped as they swung their right leg under four conditions: no added mass and with masses of 2.27, 4.55, and 6.82kg added to the ankle. Strong, linear relationships between the acceleration and displacement of the swinging leg within subjects and conditions were found, confirming the motion's harmonic nature. Cycle period significantly increased with the added mass. However, the observed increases were not as large as would be predicted by the induced changes in the gravitational component alone. These differences were interpreted as being due to increases in the active muscular stiffness. Significant linear increases in the elastic component (and hence stiffness) were demonstrated with increases in the simple pendulum equivalent length in 20 of the individual subjects, with r2 values ranging between 0.89 and 0.99. Significant linear relationships were also demonstrated between the elastic and gravitational components in 22 subjects, with individual r2 values between 0.90 and 0.99.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Discrepant Events: A Challenge to Students' Intuition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Espada, Wilson J.; Birriel, Jennifer; Birriel, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    Studies on cognitive aspects of science education, especially how students achieve conceptual change, have been a focus of interest for many years. Researchers of student learning and conceptual change have developed several easily applicable teaching strategies. One of these strategies is known as discrepant events. Discrepant events are very powerful ways to stimulate interest, motivate students to challenge their covert science misconceptions, and promote higher-order thinking skills. The key point is that directly challenging students' naive ideas will lead to more quality science learning going on in the classroom. In this paper, we summarize the research-based role of discrepant events in conceptual change and we share several highly successful discrepant events we use in our own classes.

  10. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper and the quantity or type of PCB waste actually delivered to and received by a designated facility...

  11. [Case-control study on methods of limb length control in hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang-yang; Zuo, Jian-lin; Gao, Zhong-li

    2016-02-01

    To introduce a new measuring tool for measuring postoperative limb length exactly, and to provide a convenient and effective method to control limb length after total hip replacement. From January 2013 to September 2014, 102 patients undergoing primary unilateral hip replacement were divided into two groups: experimental group and control group. There were 51 patients in the experimental group, including 25 males and 26 females, ranging in age from 37 to 92 years old, with an average of 60.41 years old. The patients in experimental group were treated with new method to control limb length. Other 51 patients in the control group, including 27 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 35 to 87 years old, with an average of 61.00 years old. The patients in the control group were treated with normal methods such as shuck test or limb touching. All the patients were operated by the same experienced surgeon. In the experimental group,total hip arthroplasties (THA) were performed on 35 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head or femoral neck fracture, and 16 patients were treated with hemiarthroplasty (HA). In the control group, 38 patients received THA and 13 patients received HA. On the anterior-posterior X-ray radiograph, several indexes were measured as follows: the distance of bilateral femoral offset (a), the height from tip of great trochanter to the rotation center of the femoral head (b) and the vertical distance between the top of the minor trochanter and the two tear drops line (c). The leg length discrepancy can be assessed with three parameters as follows: d1, the absolute value of the difference between the bilateral a values; d2, the difference between the bilateral b values; d3, the difference between the bilateral c values. The SPSS 21.0 was applied for the statistical analysis. In the experimental and control groups, d1 were 4.49 mm and 7.32 mm (P = 0.013); d2 were 2.37 mm and 4.32 mm (P = 0.033); d3 were 3.32 mm and 6.08 mm (P = 0.031). The

  12. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1991-04-02

    This invention is comprised of a pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing. between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair laying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is widemore » and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.« less

  13. The Legs Problem--For All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an example of a versatile multi-solution problem that can be used right across the primary years. The basic problem is: "Noah saw 16 legs go past him into the Ark. How many creatures did he see?" Any even number can be used, although, 2 legs allows only one answer and with 16 legs there are already 14 different…

  14. Multisystemic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Pretibial Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Baunacke, Anja; Hansel, Gesina

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Up to 30% of patients develop cutaneous manifestations, either specific or nonspecific. Ulcerating sarcoidosis leading to leg ulcers is a rare observation that may lead to confusions with other, more common types of chronic leg ulcers. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with pretibial leg ulcers. Other etiology could be excluded. Histology revealed nonspecific findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of nonspecific leg ulcers in sarcoidosis was confirmed. Treatment consisted of oral prednisolone and good ulcer care. Complete healing was achieved within 6 months. Sarcoidosis is a rare cause of leg ulcers and usually sarcoid granulomas can be found. Our patient illustrates that even in the absence of sarcoid granulomas, leg ulcers can be due to sarcoidosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Intraoperative pulse oximetry: frequency and distribution of discrepant data.

    PubMed

    Pan, P H; Gravenstein, N

    1994-01-01

    To determine the types of discrepant data during intraoperative pulse oximetry and their frequency and duration. Prospective study. University medical center. 46 consecutive ASA physical status I-III patients undergoing general anesthesia for elective surgical operations. With an integrated computer algorithm on the pulse oximeter and another computer linked to it, data were screened and the frequency and distribution of the following oximeter signals recorded: absent; low quality or interrupted, as detected by the pulse oximeter algorithm; nonphysiologic, identified by the personal computer as a heart rate change greater than 10 beats per minute within 2 consecutive 2-second samples, with no similar abrupt change reported simultaneously on ECG. The number of episodes per hour of discrepant oximeter data and the duration of the episodes were recorded by phase of anesthesia: induction, maintenance, and emergence. Discrepant data occurred most frequently and lasted longest during emergence (p < 0.05); the majority of episodes of discrepant data during emergence lasted less than 12 seconds. Excluding discrepant data that lasted less than 12 seconds decreased the frequency of discrepant data by 63% and excluding those that lasted less than 30 seconds decreased the frequency of discrepant data by 93%. Pulse oximeters frequently report discrepant data intraoperatively, most frequently during emergence from anesthesia. An alarm delay triggered by discrepant data and lasting 12 to 30 seconds would keep most discrepant data from becoming false alarms and, thus, may reduce distracting sound pollution in the operating room.

  16. Effects of myofascial release leg pull and sagittal plane isometric contract-relax techniques on passive straight-leg raise angle.

    PubMed

    Hanten, W P; Chandler, S D

    1994-09-01

    Experimental evidence does not currently exist to support the claims of clinical effectiveness for myofascial release techniques. This presents an obvious need to document the effects of myofascial release. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two techniques, sagittal plane isometric contract-relax and myofascial release leg pull for increasing hip flexion range of motion (ROM) as measured by the angle of passive straight-leg raise. Seventy-five nondisabled, female subjects 18-29 years of age were randomly assigned to contract-relax, leg pull, or control groups. Pretest hip flexion ROM was measured for each subject's right hip with a passive straight-leg raise test using a fluid-filled goniometer. Subjects in the treatment groups received either contract-relax or leg pull treatment applied to the right lower extremity; subjects in the control group remained supine quietly for 5 minutes. Following treatment, posttest straight-leg raise measurements were performed. A one-way analysis of variance followed by a Newman-Keuls post hoc comparison of mean gain scores showed that subjects receiving contract-relax treatment increased their ROM significantly more than those who received leg pull treatment, and the increase in ROM of subjects in both treatment groups was significantly higher than those of the control group. The results suggest that while both contract-relax and leg pull techniques can significantly increase hip flexion ROM in normal subjects, contract-relax treatment may be more effective and efficient than leg pull treatment.

  17. [Replantation at lower leg level].

    PubMed

    Daigeler, A; Fansa, H; Westphal, T; Schneider, W

    2003-11-01

    Replantation in reconstructive surgery is an established procedure due to microsurgical techniques. It can be routinely performed in unilateral lower leg amputation. In some cases of bilateral amputation, in which orthotopic replantation is not possible due to the complex trauma, heterotopic replantation is a therapeutic option. This avoids prosthetic fitting. We report five cases of orthotopic and two of heterotopic lower limb replantations. Functional outcome concerning sensibility, mobility, pain, and aesthetic result were assessed clinically and using a questionnaire. Functional outcome and patient satisfaction were good. The psychological situation of the patients as well as mobility and stability of the replanted limbs were satisfying. Heterotopically replanted patients found the replanted legs superior to the prostheses. We conclude that, in lower leg amputation, attempts should be made to replant the extremity. In bilateral lower leg amputations, at least one limb should be reconstructed, even if "only" a heterotopic replantation can be performed.

  18. Leg stiffness and expertise in men jumping.

    PubMed

    Laffaye, Guillaume; Bardy, Benoît G; Durey, Alain

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate: a) the leg spring behavior in the one-leg vertical jump, b) the contribution of impulse parameters to this behavior, and c) the effect of jumping expertise on leg stiffness. Four categories of experts (handball, basketball, volleyball players, and Fosbury athletes), as well as novice subjects performed a run-and-jump test to touch a ball with the head. Five experimental conditions were tested from 55 to 95% of the maximum jump height. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using six cameras and a force plate. The mechanical behavior of the musculoskeleton component of the human body can be modeled as a simple mass-spring system, from which leg stiffness values can be extracted to better understand energy transfer during running or jumping. The results indicate that leg stiffness (mean value of 11.5 kN.m) decreased with jumping height. Leg shortening at takeoff also increased with jumping height, whereas contact time decreased (-18%). No difference was found between experts and novices for leg stiffness. However, a principal components analysis (PCA) indicated the contribution of two main factors to the performance. The first factor emerged out of vertical force, stiffness, and duration of impulse. The second factor included leg shortening and jumping height. Differences between experts and novices were observed in terms of the contribution of leg stiffness to jump height, and more importantly, clear differences existed between experts in jumping parameters. The analysis performed on the sport categories indeed revealed different jumping profiles, characterized by specific, sport-related impulse parameters.

  19. The Effect of Commonly Performed Exercises on the Levator Hiatus Area and the Length and Strength of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Siff, Lauren N; Hill, Audra J; Walters, Samantha J; Walters, Ginny; Walters, Mark D

    2018-05-02

    The aim oft his study was to compare the effects of 10 common exercises to traditional pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions (Kegel) on levator hiatus (LH) area and PFM length and strength. This is a cross-sectional study of 15 healthy postpartum women. Ten exercises were studied. These were common variations of leg, core, and back exercises used in yoga, Pilates, strength training, and physical therapy. Each participant performed all 10 exercises at a single visit in 2 examination settings: transperineal ultrasound and perineometry. Ultrasound measured the LH area and PFM length, and perineometry measured the muscle strength (peak squeeze pressure). Kegel generates an increase in squeeze pressure (24.3 cm H2O), shortens the muscles (-0.46 cm) and narrows the LH (-0.13 cm). The bird-dog and plank exercises were not different from Kegel in any measurement. While the leg-lift ultrasound dimensions are similar to Kegel, leg lifts generated peak squeeze pressures stronger than any other exercise (including Kegel). Whereas ultrasound dimensions were similar to Kegel, tucked and untucked squats and thigh adductions generated weaker contractions than Kegel. While crunch generated a squeeze pressure similar to Kegel, the ultrasound dimensions showed a significantly wider LH and longer muscle than Kegel. Bridge, clam, and plié exercises affected the PFMs differently than Kegel in all measures. Bird-dog, plank, and leg-lift exercises should be evaluated as alternative exercises to Kegel as they affect PFM strength and length and LH area similarly to Kegel, and leg lifts generate a stronger contraction than Kegel.

  20. INTRA-RATER RELIABILITY OF THE MULTIPLE SINGLE-LEG HOP-STABILIZATION TEST AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH AGE, LEG DOMINANCE AND TRAINING.

    PubMed

    Sawle, Leanne; Freeman, Jennifer; Marsden, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Balance is a complex construct, affected by multiple components such as strength and co-ordination. However, whilst assessing an athlete's dynamic balance is an important part of clinical examination, there is no gold standard measure. The multiple single-leg hop-stabilization test is a functional test which may offer a method of evaluating the dynamic attributes of balance, but it needs to show adequate intra-tester reliability. The purpose of this study was to assess the intra-rater reliability of a dynamic balance test, the multiple single-leg hop-stabilization test on the dominant and non-dominant legs. Intra-rater reliability study. Fifteen active participants were tested twice with a 10-minute break between tests. The outcome measure was the multiple single-leg hop-stabilization test score, based on a clinically assessed numerical scoring system. Results were analysed using an Intraclass Correlations Coefficient (ICC 2,1 ) and Bland-Altman plots. Regression analyses explored relationships between test scores, leg dominance, age and training (an alpha level of p = 0.05 was selected). ICCs for intra-rater reliability were 0.85 for the dominant and non-dominant legs (confidence intervals = 0.62-0.95 and 0.61-0.95 respectively). Bland-Altman plots showed scores within two standard deviations. A significant correlation was observed between the dominant and non-dominant leg on balance scores (R 2 =0.49, p<0.05), and better balance was associated with younger participants in their non-dominant leg (R 2 =0.28, p<0.05) and their dominant leg (R 2 =0.39, p<0.05), and a higher number of hours spent training for the non-dominant leg R 2 =0.37, p<0.05). The multiple single-leg hop-stabilisation test demonstrated strong intra-tester reliability with active participants. Younger participants who trained more, have better balance scores. This test may be a useful measure for evaluating the dynamic attributes of balance. 3.

  1. Broken Leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... devices into the broken bone to maintain proper alignment during healing. Other injuries may be treated with ... that extend into the joint and poor bone alignment can cause osteoarthritis years later. If your leg ...

  2. Negligence claims in UK total hip arthroplasty: a series of 167 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Whittingham-Jones, Paul; Williams, D; Raja, S; Bridle, S; Bircher, M

    2012-01-01

    A review of negligence reports, detailing 227 complaints from the practices of two orthopedic surgeons, was undertaken. There were demonstrable differences in the number of complaints over leg-length discrepancy; femoral fracture and cup malposition when cemented versus uncemented implants were compared. Surgeons must appreciate the less forgiving nature of uncemented hip implants and the importance of preoperative planning particularly in the presence of abnormal anatomy.

  3. Avascular Necrosis in the Contralateral Hip in Patients With Congenital Femoral Deficiency: A Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy S; Wimberly, Robert L; Birch, John G

    2017-01-01

    Congenital femoral deficiency is an uncommon clinical entity. We report 3 patients who developed avascular necrosis of the hip in the long (normal) leg during longitudinal observation and/or treatment of congenital femoral deficiency. Patients were identified in limb length discrepancy clinic and their charts were retrospectively reviewed for clinical and radiographic data collection. We describe the occurrence of idiopathic avascular necrosis in the normal limb in patients being followed for limb length discrepancy. Although no conclusion could be drawn about the etiology of the avascular necrosis, we describe a previously undocumented relationship between congenital femoral deficiency and avascular necrosis in the contralateral hip. This occurred in our congenital femoral deficiency population at a rate higher than expected compared with published incidences of avascular necrosis of the hip in children. Level IV-case series.

  4. Vascular anomalies and the growth of limbs: a review.

    PubMed

    Enjolras, Odile; Chapot, René; Merland, Jean Jacques

    2004-11-01

    Growth of the limb in a child can be impaired, with the coexistence of a vascular malformation. In these vascular bone syndromes, altered growth is manifest as overgrowth or hypotrophy. The vascular malformation is usually complex and gets progressively worse with time. The two types of vascular anomalies in limbs, fast-flow and slow-flow, can be associated with limb length discrepancies. The fast-flow vascular malformations together with arteriovenous fistulae are part of Parkes Weber syndrome, characterized by congenital red cutaneous staining, hypertrophy in girth and increasing of limb length, lymphedema, increasing skin alterations due to a distal vascular steal, and pain, all of which develop during childhood. Treatment is generally conservative. An affected lower extremity can be complicated by pelvic tilting and scoliosis because leg length discrepancy may reach 10 cm. To avoid such a course, stapling epiphysiodesis of the knee cartilages is often performed, but this orthopedic procedure may augment the worsening of the arterial venous malformation in the limb. Therefore, less aggressive orthopedic management is preferable. Slow-flow vascular anomalies associated with limb growth alteration include (1) a diffuse capillary malformation (port-wine stain) with congenital hypertrophy of the involved extremity which is non-progressive; (2) purely venous malformations invading skin, muscles and joints, with pain, functional impairment, a chronic localized intravascular coagulopathy requiring distinctive management, and usually a slight undergrowth of the affected extremity and progressing amyotrophy; (3) the triad of a port-wine stain, anomalous veins and overgrowth of the limb, often known as Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, which requires orthopedic management to decide the optimal timing for epiphysiodesis (i.e. when leg length discrepancy is >2.5 cm). Varicose veins are sometimes surgically removed after ultrasonographic and Doppler evaluation has confirmed a

  5. [Acute leg compartment syndrome after exertion].

    PubMed

    Misović, Sidor; Kronja, Goran; Ignjatović, Dragan; Tomić, Aleksandar

    2005-03-01

    A case of a 22-year old soldier, with a history of pain in the leg during heavy exercise, which desisted at rest, was presented. One day before admission, the patient had felt an extreme exertion-induced pain in his right leg which had not lessenned at rest. At the same time, the patient noticed persistent severe leg edema. On physical examination, the intracompartmental pressure was 62 mmHg (> 30 mmHg). The patient was urgently operated on, and fasciotomy according to Mubarak was used. At second surgery, the debridement of the muscles of the posterior group of the leg, and the evacuation of hemathoma from the anterior and lateral group of the right leg muscles were perfomed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Fasciotomy wounds were closed within 14 days of the surgery. The complete physical treatment was done. Follow-up examinations 1, 3, and 6 months afterwards were satisfactory. The soldier completed his compulsory military service without any sequelae. Laboratory results were normal. Overlooked, unrecognized or surgically untreated compartment syndrome can cause severe damage, including even the loss of the extremity.

  6. Modulation of corticospinal input to the legs by arm and leg cycling in people with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, R; Alvarado, L; Kim, S; Chong, S L; Mushahwar, V K

    2017-10-01

    The spinal cervico-lumbar interaction during rhythmic movements in humans has recently been studied; however, the role of arm movements in modulating the corticospinal drive to the legs is not well understood. The goals of this study were to investigate the effect of active rhythmic arm movements on the corticospinal drive to the legs ( study 1 ) and assess the effect of simultaneous arm and leg training on the corticospinal pathway after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) ( study 2). In study 1 , neurologically intact (NI) participants or participants with iSCI performed combinations of stationary and rhythmic cycling of the arms and legs while motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle. In the NI group, arm cycling alone could facilitate the VL MEP amplitude, suggesting that dynamic arm movements strongly modulate the corticospinal pathway to the legs. No significant difference in VL MEP between conditions was found in participants with iSCI. In study 2 , participants with iSCI underwent 12 wk of electrical stimulation-assisted cycling training: one group performed simultaneous arm and leg (A&L) cycling and the other legs-only cycling. MEPs in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were compared before and after training. After training, only the A&L group had a significantly larger TA MEP, suggesting increased excitability in the corticospinal pathway. The findings demonstrate the importance of arm movements in modulating the corticospinal drive to the legs and suggest that active engagement of the arms in lower limb rehabilitation may produce better neural regulation and restoration of function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of arm movements in modulating the corticospinal drive to the legs. It provides direct evidence in humans that active movement of the arms could facilitate corticospinal transmission to the legs and, for the first time, shows that facilitation is absent after spinal cord

  7. Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running.

    PubMed

    Farley, C T; González, O

    1996-02-01

    When humans and other mammals run, the body's complex system of muscle, tendon and ligament springs behaves like a single linear spring ('leg spring'). A simple spring-mass model, consisting of a single linear leg spring and a mass equivalent to the animal's mass, has been shown to describe the mechanics of running remarkably well. Force platform measurements from running animals, including humans, have shown that the stiffness of the leg spring remains nearly the same at all speeds and that the spring-mass system is adjusted for higher speeds by increasing the angle swept by the leg spring. The goal of the present study is to determine the relative importance of changes to the leg spring stiffness and the angle swept by the leg spring when humans alter their stride frequency at a given running speed. Human subjects ran on treadmill-mounted force platform at 2.5ms-1 while using a range of stride frequencies from 26% below to 36% above the preferred stride frequency. Force platform measurements revealed that the stiffness of the leg spring increased by 2.3-fold from 7.0 to 16.3 kNm-1 between the lowest and highest stride frequencies. The angle swept by the leg spring decreased at higher stride frequencies, partially offsetting the effect of the increased leg spring stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the spring-mass system. We conclude that the most important adjustment to the body's spring system to accommodate higher stride frequencies is that leg spring becomes stiffer.

  8. Should congruence between intra- and interspecific ecomorphological relationships be expected? A case study with the great tit, Parus major

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, E.; Barbosa, A.; Carrascal, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the relationship between leg morphology and posture while feeding in a population of great tits (Parus major) under controlled conditions to investigate to what extent morphology and ecology are linked at the individual level. From predictions generated at the interspecific level within the genus Parus (Moreno and Carrascal 1993), we tested whether intra- and interspecific ecomorphological relationships are consistent. Within our population, neither leg bone lengths nor leg muscle morphology were related to the feeding posture of individuals. However, differences in body weight were correlated with inter-individual differences in time spent hanging. These results demonstrate that the association between intra- and interspecific ecomorphological relationships is not uniform. We argue that, at the intraspecific level, body weight overrides the significance of other traits that have a functional meaning at the interspecific level (i.e. leg segment lengths, muscular morphology), due to isometric variation of morphological traits (muscular and skeletal) with body mass. Thus, the discrepancy between the ecomorphological associations at intra- and interspecific levels is the result of a problem of scale (morphological changes in evolutionary time and isometric variation of morphological traits with body mass in ecological time).

  9. Discrepancy detection in the retrieval-enhanced suggestibility paradigm.

    PubMed

    Butler, Brendon Jerome; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2018-04-01

    Retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) refers to the finding that immediately recalling the details of a witnessed event can increase susceptibility to later misinformation. In three experiments, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of the role that retrieval plays in the RES paradigm. Consistent with past research, initial testing did increase susceptibility to misinformation - but only for those who failed to detect discrepancies between the original event and the post-event misinformation. In all three experiments, subjects who retrospectively detected discrepancies in the post-event narratives were more resistant to misinformation than those who did not. In Experiments 2 and 3, having subjects concurrently assess the consistency of the misinformation narratives negated the RES effect. Interestingly, in Experiments 2 and 3, subjects who had retrieval practice and detected discrepancies were more likely to endorse misinformation than control subjects who detected discrepancies. These results call attention to limiting conditions of the RES effect and highlight the complex relationship between retrieval practice, discrepancy detection, and misinformation endorsement.

  10. Outbreak of encephalitic listeriosis in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa).

    PubMed

    Jeckel, S; Wood, A; Grant, K; Amar, C; King, S A; Whatmore, A M; Koylass, M; Anjum, M; James, J; Welchman, D de B

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of neurological disease was investigated in red-legged partridges between 8 and 28 days of age. Clinical signs included torticollis, head tilt and incoordination and over an initial eight day period approximately 30-40 fatalities occurred per day. No significant gross post mortem findings were detected. Histopathological examination of the brain and bacterial cultures followed by partial sequencing confirmed a diagnosis of encephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes. Further isolates were obtained from follow-up carcasses, environmental samples and pooled tissue samples of newly imported day-old chicks prior to placement on farm. These isolates had the same antibiotic resistance pattern as the isolate of the initial post mortem submission and belonged to the same fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) subtype. This suggested that the isolates were very closely related or identical and that the pathogen had entered the farm with the imported day-old chicks, resulting in disease manifestation in partridges between 8 and 28 days of age. Reports of outbreaks of encephalitic listeriosis in avian species are rare and this is to the best of our knowledge the first reported outbreak in red-legged partridges.

  11. A new leg voxel model in two different positions for simulation of the non-uniform distribution of (241)Am in leg bones.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Majid; Brey, Richard R; Meldrum, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    A new leg voxel model in two different positions (straight and bent) has been developed for in vivo measurement calibration purposes. This voxel phantom is a representation of a human leg that may provide a substantial enhancement to Monte Carlo modeling because it more accurately models different geometric leg positions and the non-uniform distribution of Am throughout the leg bones instead of assuming a one-position geometry and a uniform distribution of radionuclides. This was accomplished by performing a radiochemical analysis on small sections of the leg bones from the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) case 0846. USTUR case 0846 represents an individual who was repeatedly contaminated by Am via chronic inhalation. To construct the voxel model, high resolution (2 mm) computed tomography (CT) images of the USTUR case 0846 leg were obtained in different positions. Thirty-six (36) objects (universes) were segmented manually from the CT images using 3D-Doctor software. Bones were divided into 30 small sections with an assigned weight exactly equal to the weight of bone sections obtained from radiochemical analysis of the USTUR case 0846 leg. The segmented images were then converted into a boundary file, and the Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) voxelizer was used to convert the boundary file into the leg voxel phantom. Excluding the surrounding air regions, the straight leg phantom consists of 592,023 voxels, while the bent leg consists of 337,567 voxels. The resulting leg voxel model is now ready for use as an MCNPX input file to simulate in vivo measurement of bone-seeking radionuclides.

  12. Discrepant Events: A Challenge to Students' Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-spada, Wilson J.; Birriel, Jennifer; Birriel, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Studies on cognitive aspects of science education, especially how students achieve conceptual change, have been a focus of interest for many years. Researchers of student learning and conceptual change have developed several easily applicable teaching strategies. One of these strategies is known as "discrepant events". Discrepant events are very…

  13. Housing system, milk production, and zero-grazing effects on lameness and leg injury in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Haskell, M J; Rennie, L J; Bowell, V A; Bell, M J; Lawrence, A B

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of grazing (G) vs. zero-grazing (ZG), level of milk production, and quality and type of housing system [free stalls (FS) and straw yards (SY)] on the prevalence of lameness and leg injuries in dairy cows. Observations were made on 37 commercial dairy farms across Great Britain. A single visit of 5 d duration was made to each farm. During this visit, lameness scores and the incidence of swellings, rubs, and injuries to hocks and knees were recorded on all the peak- or mid-lactation cows. Aspects of the quality of housing and management that were likely to affect foot and leg health were recorded. There were more lame cows on ZG farms (39 +/- 0.02%) than on grazing (G) farms (15 +/- 0.01%), and lameness scores were higher on FS farms compared with SY farms (0.25 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.05 +/- 0.01). Cows on SY farms had fewer hock and knee injuries compared with FS farms. The frequency of knee swellings was higher on ZG farms (0.31 +/- 0.02) than on G farms (0.15 +/- 0.01). Aspects of the free-stall design affected foot and leg health. The number of hock swellings increased with increasing stall gradient (0.16 +/- 0.01 with no slope vs. 0.39 +/- 0.02 at a 0 to 1.5% slope). There was an interaction between the length of the free-stall lunging space and the hip width of the cow, indicating that the incidence of lameness is generally highest on farms with small free stalls and heavy cows. High levels of milk production did not affect lameness or leg injury. The results indicate that housing cows throughout the year potentially has a detrimental effect on foot and leg health. However, good free-stall design may reduce lameness and leg lesions.

  14. Ocean Drilling Program: Completed Legs

    Science.gov Websites

    . Austin Leg summary Repository Wolfgang Schlager 102 14-Mar-85 25-Apr-85 Miami, Florida 418 Bermuda Rise Lisbon, Portugal 902-906 New Jersey Sea-Level Transect Peter Blum Gregory Mountain Leg summary Repository , Nova Scotia 1071-1073 Continuing the New Jersey Sea-Level Transect Mitchell J. Malone James A. Austin

  15. RELAP5 Analyses of OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Experiments on Intermediate-Break LOCAs at Hot Leg or Cold Leg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Maruyama, Yu; Watanabe, Tadashi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Experiments simulating PWR intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accidents (IBLOCAs) with 17% break at hot leg or cold leg were conducted in OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project using the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). In the hot leg IBLOCA test, core uncovery started simultaneously with liquid level drop in crossover leg downflow-side before loop seal clearing (LSC) induced by steam condensation on accumulator coolant injected into cold leg. Water remained on upper core plate in upper plenum due to counter-current flow limiting (CCFL) because of significant upward steam flow from the core. In the cold leg IBLOCA test, core dryout took place due to rapid liquid level drop in the core before LSC. Liquid was accumulated in upper plenum, steam generator (SG) U-tube upflow-side and SG inlet plenum before the LSC due to CCFL by high velocity vapor flow, causing enhanced decrease in the core liquid level. The RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2 post-test analyses of the two LSTF experiments were performed employing critical flow model in the code with a discharge coefficient of 1.0. In the hot leg IBLOCA case, cladding surface temperature of simulated fuel rods was underpredicted due to overprediction of core liquid level after the core uncovery. In the cold leg IBLOCA case, the cladding surface temperature was underpredicted too due to later core uncovery than in the experiment. These may suggest that the code has remaining problems in proper prediction of primary coolant distribution.

  16. Discrepancy-based and anticipated emotions in behavioral self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christina M; McConnell, Allen R

    2011-10-01

    Discrepancies between one's current and desired states evoke negative emotions, which presumably guide self-regulation. In the current work we evaluated the function of discrepancy-based emotions in behavioral self-regulation. Contrary to classic theories of self-regulation, discrepancy-based emotions did not predict the degree to which people engaged in self-regulatory behavior. Instead, expectations about how future self-discrepancies would make one feel (i.e., anticipated emotions) predicted self-regulation. However, anticipated emotions were influenced by previous discrepancy-based emotional experiences, suggesting that the latter do not directly motivate self-regulation but rather guide expectations. These findings are consistent with the perspective that emotions do not necessarily direct immediate behavior, but rather have an indirect effect by guiding expectations, which in turn predict goal-directed action.

  17. Self-Discrepancies, Negative Mood States, and Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thein, Roman D.

    This study examined effects of accessible self-discrepancies on subjects' mood states and the effects of these mood states on compliance. Two affective states, agitation and dejection, were induced in 115 college students by priming their available self-discrepancies. After the subjects had received specific primes and their mood states had been…

  18. Not letting the left leg know what the right leg is doing: limb-specific locomotor adaptation to sensory-cue conflict.

    PubMed

    Durgin, Frank H; Fox, Laura F; Hoon Kim, Dong

    2003-11-01

    We investigated the phenomenon of limb-specific locomotor adaptation in order to adjudicate between sensory-cue-conflict theory and motor-adaptation theory. The results were consistent with cue-conflict theory in demonstrating that two different leg-specific hopping aftereffects are modulated by the presence of conflicting estimates of self-motion from visual and nonvisual sources. Experiment 1 shows that leg-specific increases in forward drift during attempts to hop in place on one leg while blindfolded vary according to the relationship between visual information and motor activity during an adaptation to outdoor forward hopping. Experiment 2 shows that leg-specific changes in performance on a blindfolded hopping-to-target task are similarly modulated by the presence of cue conflict during adaptation to hopping on a treadmill. Experiment 3 shows that leg-specific aftereffects from hopping additionally produce inadvertent turning during running in place while blindfolded. The results of these experiments suggest that these leg-specific locomotor aftereffects are produced by sensory-cue conflict rather than simple motor adaptation.

  19. Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarau, Stefan; Žáček, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

    2012-12-01

    Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed.

  20. Self-Discrepancy and Eating Disorder Symptoms Across Eating Disorder Diagnostic Groups.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Strauman, Timothy J; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Le Grange, Daniel; Klein, Marjorie H; Smith, Tracey L; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-11-01

    This study examined self-discrepancy, a construct of theoretical relevance to eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, across different types of EDs. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 112), bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 72), and binge eating disorder (BED; n = 199) completed semi-structured interviews assessing specific types of self-discrepancies. Results revealed that actual:ideal (A:I) discrepancy was positively associated with AN, actual:ought (A:O) discrepancy was positively associated with BN and BED, and self-discrepancies did not differentiate BN from BED. Across diagnoses, A:O discrepancy was positively associated with severity of purging, binge eating, and global ED psychopathology. Further, there were significant interactions between diagnosis and A:O discrepancy for global ED psychopathology and between diagnosis and A:I discrepancy for binge eating and driven exercise. These results support the importance of self-discrepancy as a potential causal and maintenance variable in EDs that differentiates among different types of EDs and symptom severity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Frequency of Bolton tooth-size discrepancies among orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J E; Maskeroni, A J; Lorton, L

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of orthodontic patients who present with an interarch tooth-size discrepancy likely to affect treatment planning or results. The Bolton tooth-size discrepancies of 157 patients accepted for treatment in an orthodontic residency program were evaluated for the frequency and the magnitude of deviation from Bolton's mean. Discrepancies outside of 2 SD were considered as potentially significant with regard to treatment planning and treatment results. Although the mean of the sample was nearly identical to that of Bolton's, the range and standard deviation varied considerably with a large percentage of the orthodontic patients having discrepancies outside of Bolton's 2 SD. With such a high frequency of significant discrepancies it would seem prudent to routinely perform a tooth-size analysis and incorporate the findings into orthodontic treatment planning.

  2. Quantifying Leg Movement Activity During Sleep.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Fulda, Stephany

    2016-12-01

    Currently, 2 sets of similar rules for recording and scoring leg movement (LM) exist, including periodic LM during sleep (PLMS) and periodic LM during wakefulness. The former were published in 2006 by a task force of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, and the second in 2007 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article reviews the basic recording methods, scoring rules, and computer-based programs for PLMS. Less frequent LM activities, such as alternating leg muscle activation, hypnagogic foot tremor, high-frequency LMs, and excessive fragmentary myoclonus are briefly described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trochanteric bursitis after total hip arthroplasty: incidence and evaluation of response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Kevin W; Jones, Lynne C; Brownson, Kirstyn E; Khanuja, Harpal S; Hungerford, Marc W

    2010-02-01

    We examined the efficacy of corticosteroid injection as treatment for postarthroplasty trochanteric bursitis and the risk factors for failure of nonoperative treatment. There were 32 (4.6%) cases of postsurgical trochanteric bursitis in 689 primary total hip arthroplasties. Of the 25 hips with follow-up, 11 (45%) required multiple injections. Symptoms resolved in 20 (80%) but persisted in 5. We found no statistically significant differences between patients who did and did not develop trochanteric bursitis, or between those who did and did not respond to treatment. There was a trend toward younger age and greater limb-length discrepancy in nonresponders. In conclusion, (1) corticosteroid injection(s) for postoperative trochanteric bursitis is effective; and (2) nonoperative management may be more likely to fail in young patients and those with leg-length discrepancy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Loading and performance of the support leg in kicking.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    The punt kick is important in many football codes and support leg kinematics and ground reaction forces have been implicated in injury and performance in kicking. To evaluate ground reaction forces and support leg kinematics in the punt kick. Cross sectional study. Seven elite Australian football players performed maximal kicks into a net using both the preferred and non-preferred legs. A force plate measured ground reaction forces and an optical motion capture system (200Hz) collected kinematic data during the stance phase of the kick. Preferred and non-preferred legs were compared and performance was evaluated by correlating parameters with foot speed at ball contact. Vertical forces were larger than running at a similar speed but did not reach levels that might be considered an injury risk. Braking forces were directed solely posteriorly, as for soccer kicks, but lateral force patterns varied with some players experiencing greater forces medially and others laterally. A more extended support leg, larger peak vertical and braking force during the stance phase and a shorter stance contact time was associated with larger kick leg foot speed at ball contact. No difference existed between the preferred and non-preferred legs for ground reaction forces or support leg mechanics. To punt kick longer, a straighter support leg, less time on the ground and stronger braking should be encouraged. Conditioning the support leg to provide stronger braking potential is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How to find home backwards? Locomotion and inter-leg coordination during rearward walking of Cataglyphis fortis desert ants.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Sarah E; Wahl, Verena L; Wittlinger, Matthias

    2016-07-15

    For insects, flexibility in the performance of terrestrial locomotion is a vital part of facing the challenges of their often unpredictable environment. Arthropods such as scorpions and crustaceans can switch readily from forward to backward locomotion, but in insects this behaviour seems to be less common and, therefore, is only poorly understood. Here we present an example of spontaneous and persistent backward walking in Cataglyphis desert ants that allows us to investigate rearward locomotion within a natural context. When ants find a food item that is too large to be lifted up and to be carried in a normal forward-faced orientation, they will drag the load walking backwards to their home nest. A detailed examination of this behaviour reveals a surprising flexibility of the locomotor output. Compared with forward walks with regular tripod coordination, no main coordination pattern can be assigned to rearward walks. However, we often observed leg-pair-specific stepping patterns. The front legs frequently step with small stride lengths, while the middle and the hind legs are characterized by less numerous but larger strides. But still, these specializations show no rigidly fixed leg coupling, nor are they strictly embedded within a temporal context; therefore, they do not result in a repetitive coordination pattern. The individual legs act as separate units, most likely to better maintain stability during backward dragging. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Towards a Comparative Measure of Legged Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus” [18]. Notwithstanding the many informative and inspiring studies of legged...specific power (watts per kilogram taken over a gait cycle of leg power output relative to leg muscle mass or body mass) [22, 26–28] but it is not scale...closest to the body mass normalized mea- sure we will introduce below. In contrast, characterizing directional aspects of agility performance seems

  7. A review of models of vertical, leg, and knee stiffness in adults for running, jumping or hopping tasks.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Benjamin G; Ball, Nick B; Scarvell, Jennie M; Smith, Paul N

    2012-01-01

    The 'stiffness' concept originates from Hooke's law which states that the force required to deform an object is related to a spring constant and the distance that object is deformed. Research into stiffness in the human body is undergoing unprecedented popularity; possibly because stiffness has been associated with sporting performance and some lower limb injuries. However, some inconsistencies surrounding stiffness measurement exists bringing into question the integrity of some research related to stiffness. The aim of this study was to review literature which describes how vertical, leg and knee stiffness has been measured in adult populations while running, jumping or hopping. A search of the entire MEDLINE, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases and an iterative reference check was performed. Sixty-seven articles were retrieved; 21 measured vertical stiffness, 51 measured leg stiffness, and 22 measured knee stiffness. Thus, some studies measured several 'types' of stiffness. Vertical stiffness was typically the quotient of ground reaction force and centre of mass displacement. For leg stiffness it was and change in leg length, and for the knee it was the quotient of knee joint moments and change in joint angle. Sample size issues and measurement techniques were identified as limitations to current research.

  8. Motion of the center of mass in children with spastic hemiplegia: balance, energy transfer, and work performed by the affected leg vs. the unaffected leg.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing; Pierce, Rosemary; Do, K Patrick; Aiona, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry between limbs in people with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HEMI) adversely affects limb coordination and energy generation and consumption. This study compared how the affected leg and the unaffected leg of children with HEMI would differ based on which leg trails. Full-body gait analysis data and force-plate data were analyzed for 31 children (11.9 ± 3.8 years) with HEMI and 23 children (11.1 ± 3.1 years) with typical development (TD). Results showed that peak posterior center of mass-center of pressure (COM-COP) inclination angles of HEMI were smaller than TD when the affected leg trailed but not when the unaffected leg trailed. HEMI showed greater peak medial COM-COP inclination angles and wider step width than TD, no matter which leg trailed. More importantly, when the affected leg of HEMI trailed, it did not perform enough positive work during double support to propel COM motion. Consequently, the unaffected leg had to perform additional positive work during the early portion of single support, which costs more energy. When the unaffected leg trailed, the affected leg performed more negative work during double support; therefore, more positive work was still needed during early single support, but energy efficiency was closer to that of TD. Energy recovery factor was lower when the affected leg trailed than when the unaffected leg trailed; both were lower than TD. These findings suggest that the trailing leg plays a significant role in propelling COM motion during double support, and the 'unaffected' side of HEMI may not be completely unaffected. It is important to strengthen both legs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic Lower Leg Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078

  10. Changes in leg spring behaviour, plantar loading and foot mobility magnitude induced by an exhaustive treadmill run in adolescent middle-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Fourchet, François; Girard, Olivier; Kelly, Luke; Horobeanu, Cosmin; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine adjustments in spring-mass model characteristics, plantar loading and foot mobility induced by an exhaustive run. Within-participants repeated measures. Eleven highly-trained adolescent middle-distance runners ran to exhaustion on a treadmill at a constant velocity corresponding to 95% of velocity associated with VO₂max (17.8 ± 1.4 kmh(-1), time to exhaustion=8.8 ± 3.4 min). Contact time obtained from plantar pressure sensors was used to estimate spring-mass model characteristics, which were recorded (during 30 s) 1 min after the start and prior to exhaustion using pressure insoles. Foot mobility magnitude (a composite measure of vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot) was measured before and after the run. Mean contact area (foot to ground), contact time, peak vertical ground reaction force, centre of mass vertical displacement and leg compression increased significantly with fatigue, while flight time, leg stiffness and mean pressure decreased. Leg stiffness decreased because leg compression increased to a larger extent than peak vertical ground reaction forces. Step length, step frequency and foot mobility magnitude did not change at exhaustion. The stride pattern of adolescents when running on a treadmill at high constant velocity deteriorates near exhaustion, as evidenced by impaired leg-spring behaviour (leg stiffness) and altered plantar loading. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human hopping on damped surfaces: strategies for adjusting leg mechanics.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Chet T; Farley, Claire T

    2003-08-22

    Fast-moving legged animals bounce along the ground with spring-like legs and agilely traverse variable terrain. Previous research has shown that hopping and running humans maintain the same bouncing movement of the body's centre of mass on a range of elastic surfaces by adjusting their spring-like legs to exactly offset changes in surface stiffness. This study investigated human hopping on damped surfaces that dissipated up to 72% of the hopper's mechanical energy. On these surfaces, the legs did not act like pure springs. Leg muscles performed up to 24-fold more net work to replace the energy lost by the damped surface. However, considering the leg and surface together, the combination appeared to behave like a constant stiffness spring on all damped surfaces. By conserving the mechanics of the leg-surface combination regardless of surface damping, hoppers also conserved centre-of-mass motions. Thus, the normal bouncing movements of the centre of mass in hopping are not always a direct result of spring-like leg behaviour. Conserving the trajectory of the centre of mass by maintaining spring-like mechanics of the leg-surface combination may be an important control strategy for fast-legged locomotion on variable terrain.

  12. Grounded running in quails: simulations indicate benefits of observed fixed aperture angle between legs before touch-down.

    PubMed

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2013-10-21

    Many birds use grounded running (running without aerial phases) in a wide range of speeds. Contrary to walking and running, numerical investigations of this gait based on the BSLIP (bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum) template are rare. To obtain template related parameters of quails (e.g. leg stiffness) we used x-ray cinematography combined with ground reaction force measurements of quail grounded running. Interestingly, with speed the quails did not adjust the swing leg's angle of attack with respect to the ground but adapted the angle between legs (which we termed aperture angle), and fixed it about 30ms before touchdown. In simulations with the BSLIP we compared this swing leg alignment policy with the fixed angle of attack with respect to the ground typically used in the literature. We found symmetric periodic grounded running in a simply connected subset comprising one third of the investigated parameter space. The fixed aperture angle strategy revealed improved local stability and surprising tolerance with respect to large perturbations. Starting with the periodic solutions, after step-down step-up or step-up step-down perturbations of 10% leg rest length, in the vast majority of cases the bipedal SLIP could accomplish at least 50 steps to fall. The fixed angle of attack strategy was not feasible. We propose that, in small animals in particular, grounded running may be a common gait that allows highly compliant systems to exploit energy storage without the necessity of quick changes in the locomotor program when facing perturbations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Difficulty in detecting discrepancies in a clinical trial report: 260-reader evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Graham D; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Nowbar, Alexandra N; Buell, Kevin G; Al-Mayahi, Faisal; Zargaran, David; Mahmood, Saliha; Singh, Bharpoor; Mielewczik, Michael; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scientific literature can contain errors. Discrepancies, defined as two or more statements or results that cannot both be true, may be a signal of problems with a trial report. In this study, we report how many discrepancies are detected by a large panel of readers examining a trial report containing a large number of discrepancies. Methods: We approached a convenience sample of 343 journal readers in seven countries, and invited them in person to participate in a study. They were asked to examine the tables and figures of one published article for discrepancies. 260 participants agreed, ranging from medical students to professors. The discrepancies they identified were tabulated and counted. There were 39 different discrepancies identified. We evaluated the probability of discrepancy identification, and whether more time spent or greater participant experience as academic authors improved the ability to detect discrepancies. Results: Overall, 95.3% of discrepancies were missed. Most participants (62%) were unable to find any discrepancies. Only 11.5% noticed more than 10% of the discrepancies. More discrepancies were noted by participants who spent more time on the task (Spearman’s ρ = 0.22, P < 0.01), and those with more experience of publishing papers (Spearman’s ρ = 0.13 with number of publications, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Noticing discrepancies is difficult. Most readers miss most discrepancies even when asked specifically to look for them. The probability of a discrepancy evading an individual sensitized reader is 95%, making it important that, when problems are identified after publication, readers are able to communicate with each other. When made aware of discrepancies, the majority of readers support editorial action to correct the scientific record. PMID:26174517

  14. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  15. Nurses take ownership of rads discrepancies.

    PubMed

    2010-02-01

    The ED at Catawba Valley Medical Center in Hickory, NC, has improved its responses to radiology discrepancies by redesigning its process and giving ownership of that process to two nurses. Here are some of the key aspects of the process: every day the coordinators check the computer system, into which discrepancies are entered by radiology. Diagnosis and treatment are reviewed with one of the ED physicians. If the patient has been discharged, the coordinator will contact the patient via phone or follow-up letter.

  16. Effect of EHR user interface changes on internal prescription discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Turchin, A; Sawarkar, A; Dementieva, Y A; Breydo, E; Ramelson, H

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of "as directed" option to the dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195 / month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145 / month (p = 0.03). Addition of a "Renew / Sign" button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes.

  17. Correlation lengths in hydrodynamic models of active nematics.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Ewan J; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M Cristina; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2016-09-28

    We examine the scaling with activity of the emergent length scales that control the nonequilibrium dynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal, using two popular hydrodynamic models that have been employed in previous studies. In both models we find that the chaotic spatio-temporal dynamics in the regime of fully developed active turbulence is controlled by a single active scale determined by the balance of active and elastic stresses, regardless of whether the active stress is extensile or contractile in nature. The observed scaling of the kinetic energy and enstrophy with activity is consistent with our single-length scale argument and simple dimensional analysis. Our results provide a unified understanding of apparent discrepancies in the previous literature and demonstrate that the essential physics is robust to the choice of model.

  18. In-series compliance of gastrocnemius muscle in cat step cycle: do spindles signal origin-to-insertion length?

    PubMed Central

    Elek, J; Prochazka, A; Hulliger, M; Vincent, S

    1990-01-01

    1. It has been claimed that stretch in the non-contractile (extramysial) portion of muscles is substantial, and may produce large discrepancies between the origin-to-insertion muscle length and the internal length variations 'seen' by muscle spindle endings. 2. In eight pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats, we estimated stretch in the extramysial portion of medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle with a method similar to the spindle null technique. 3. Length variations of MG previously monitored in a normal step cycle were reproduced with a computer-controlled length servo. The responses of test MG spindle endings were monitored in dorsal root filaments. Distributed stimulation of ventral root filaments, rate-modulated by the step-cycle EMG envelope, served to reproduce step-cycle forces. The filaments were selected so as to have no fusimotor action on the test spindle. 4. Spindle responses in active cycles were compared with those in passive cycles (stretch, but no distributed stimulation). In some cases concomitant tonic fusimotor stimulation was used to maintain spindle responsiveness throughout the cycle, both in active and passive trials. Generally, small discrepancies in spindle firing were seen. The passive trials were now repeated, with iterative adjustments of the length function, until the response matched the spindle firing profile in the active trial. The spindle 'saw' the same internal length change in the final passive trial as in the active trial. Any difference between the corresponding length profiles was attributed to extramysial displacement. 5. Extramysial displacement estimated in this was was maximal at short mean muscle lengths, reaching about 0.5 mm in a typical step cycle (force rising from 0 to 10 N). At longer mean muscle lengths where muscle force rose from say 2 to 12 N in the cycle, extramysial displacement was in the range 0.2-0.4 mm. 6. Except at very short lengths, the displacement was probably mainly tendinous. On this assumption, our

  19. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  20. Human hopping on damped surfaces: strategies for adjusting leg mechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Chet T; Farley, Claire T

    2003-01-01

    Fast-moving legged animals bounce along the ground with spring-like legs and agilely traverse variable terrain. Previous research has shown that hopping and running humans maintain the same bouncing movement of the body's centre of mass on a range of elastic surfaces by adjusting their spring-like legs to exactly offset changes in surface stiffness. This study investigated human hopping on damped surfaces that dissipated up to 72% of the hopper's mechanical energy. On these surfaces, the legs did not act like pure springs. Leg muscles performed up to 24-fold more net work to replace the energy lost by the damped surface. However, considering the leg and surface together, the combination appeared to behave like a constant stiffness spring on all damped surfaces. By conserving the mechanics of the leg-surface combination regardless of surface damping, hoppers also conserved centre-of-mass motions. Thus, the normal bouncing movements of the centre of mass in hopping are not always a direct result of spring-like leg behaviour. Conserving the trajectory of the centre of mass by maintaining spring-like mechanics of the leg-surface combination may be an important control strategy for fast-legged locomotion on variable terrain. PMID:12965003

  1. Night Leg Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet or thighs might cramp as well. Forcefully stretching the contracted muscle relieves the pain. Most of ... include Drinking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration Stretching your leg muscles or riding a stationary bicycle ...

  2. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... anything that contains metal into the scanner room. Considerations Tests that may be done instead of an ... Magnetic resonance imaging - ankle; MRI - femur; MRI - leg Patient Instructions Femur fracture repair - discharge Hip fracture - discharge ...

  3. A load-based mechanism for inter-leg coordination in insects

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Animals rely on an adaptive coordination of legs during walking. However, which specific mechanisms underlie coordination during natural locomotion remains largely unknown. One hypothesis is that legs can be coordinated mechanically based on a transfer of body load from one leg to another. To test this hypothesis, we simultaneously recorded leg kinematics, ground reaction forces and muscle activity in freely walking stick insects (Carausius morosus). Based on torque calculations, we show that load sensors (campaniform sensilla) at the proximal leg joints are well suited to encode the unloading of the leg in individual steps. The unloading coincides with a switch from stance to swing muscle activity, consistent with a load reflex promoting the stance-to-swing transition. Moreover, a mechanical simulation reveals that the unloading can be ascribed to the loading of a specific neighbouring leg, making it exploitable for inter-leg coordination. We propose that mechanically mediated load-based coordination is used across insects analogously to mammals. PMID:29187626

  4. Accuracy of self-reported length of coma and posttraumatic amnesia in persons with medically verified traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Mark; Sander, Angelle M; Maestas, Kacey Little; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Nick, Todd G; Li, Jingyun

    2015-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of self-reported length of coma and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) in persons with medically verified traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate factors that affect self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Prospective cohort study. Specialized rehabilitation center with inpatient and outpatient programs. Persons (N=242) with medically verified TBI who were identified from a registry of persons who had previously participated in TBI-related research. Not applicable. Self-reported length of coma and self-reported PTA duration. Review of medical records revealed that the mean medically documented length of coma and PTA duration was 6.9±12 and 19.2±22 days, respectively, and the mean self-reported length of coma and PTA duration was 16.7±22 and 106±194 days, respectively. The average discrepancy between self-report and medical record for length of coma and PTA duration was 8.2±21 and 64±176 days, respectively. Multivariable regression models revealed that time since injury, performance on cognitive tests, and medical record values were associated with self-reported values for both length of coma and PTA duration. In this investigation, persons with medically verified TBI showed poor accuracy in their self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Discrepancies were large enough to affect injury severity classification. Caution should be exercised when considering self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Frustrated S = 1/2 Two-Leg Ladder with Different Leg Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonegawa, Takashi; Okamoto, Kiyomi; Hikihara, Toshiya; Sakai, Tôru

    2017-04-01

    We explore the ground-state phase diagram of the S = 1/2 two-leg ladder. The isotropic leg interactions J1,a and J1,b between nearest neighbor spins in the legs a and b, respectively, are different from each other. The xy and z components of the uniform rung interactions are denoted by Jr and ΔJr, respectively, where Δ is the XXZ anisotropy parameter. This system has a frustration when J1,aJ1,b < 0 irrespective of the sign of Jr. The phase diagrams on the Δ (0≤Δ<1) versus J1,b plane in the cases of J1,a = - 0.2 and J1,a = 0.2 with Jr = -1 are determined numerically. We employ the physical consideration, the level spectroscopy analysis of the results obtained by the exact diagonalization method and also the density-matrix renormalization-group method. It is found that the non-collinear ferrimagnetic (NCFR) state appears as the ground state in the frustrated region of the parameters. Furthermore, the direct-product triplet-dimer (TD) state in which all rungs form the TD pair is the exact ground state, when J1,a + J1,b = 0 and 0≤ Δ ≲ 0.83. The obtained phase diagrams consist of the TD, XY and Haldane phases as well as the NCFR phase.

  6. Increased delivery stride length places greater loads on the ankle joint in elite male cricket fast bowlers.

    PubMed

    Spratford, Wayne; Hicks, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect stride length has on ankle biomechanics of the leading leg with reference to the potential risk of injury in cricket fast bowlers. Ankle joint kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 51 male fast bowlers during the stance phase of the final delivery stride. The bowling cohort comprised national under-19, first class and international-level athletes. Bowlers were placed into either Short, Average or Long groups based on final stride length, allowing statistical differences to be measured. A multivariate analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post-hoc correction (α = 0.05) revealed significant differences between peak plantarflexion angles (Short-Long P = 0.005, Average and Long P = 0.04) and negative joint work (Average-Long P = 0.026). This study highlighted that during fast bowling the ankle joint of the leading leg experiences high forces under wide ranges of movement. As stride length increases, greater amounts of negative work and plantarflexion are experienced. These increases place greater loads on the ankle joint and move the foot into positions that make it more susceptible to injuries such as posterior impingement syndrome.

  7. Effect of EHR User Interface Changes on Internal Prescription Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Sawarkar, A.; Dementieva, Y.A.; Breydo, E.; Ramelson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Results Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of „as directed“ option to the dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195 / month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145 / month (p = 0.03). Addition of a „Renew / Sign“ button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Conclusions Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes. PMID:25298811

  8. A Biomechanical Comparison of Single-Leg Landing and Unplanned Sidestepping.

    PubMed

    Chinnasee, Chamnan; Weir, Gillian; Sasimontonkul, Siriporn; Alderson, Jacqueline; Donnelly, Cyril

    2018-06-14

    Unplanned sidestepping and single-leg landing have both been used to screen athletes for injury risk in sport. The aim of this study was to directly compare the lower limb mechanics of three single-leg landing tasks and an unplanned sidestepping task. Thirteen elite female team sport athletes completed a series of non-contact single-leg drop landings, single-leg countermovement jumps, single-leg jump landings and unplanned sidestepping in a randomized counterbalanced design. Three dimensional kinematics (250 Hz) and ground reaction force (2,000 Hz) data with a participant specific lower limb skeletal model were used to calculate and compare hip, knee and ankle joint kinematics, peak joint moments, instantaneous joint power and joint work during the weight acceptance phase of each sporting task (α=0.05). Peak knee joint moments and relevant injury risk thresholds were used to classify each athlete's anterior cruciate ligament injury risk during unplanned sidestepping and single-leg jump landing. Results showed that peak joint moments, power and work were greater during the single-leg jump landing task when compared to the single-leg drop landings and single-leg countermovement jumps tasks. Peak frontal and sagittal plane knee joint moments, knee joint power, as well as hip and knee joint work were greater during unplanned sidestepping when compared to the landing tasks. Peak ankle joint moments, power and work were greater during the landing tasks when compared to unplanned sidestepping. For 4 of the 13 athletes tested, their anterior cruciate ligament injury risk classification changed depending on whether they performed an unplanned sidestepping or single-leg jump landing testing procedure. To summarize, a single-leg jump landing testing procedure places a larger mechanical on the ankle joint when compared to single-leg drop landings, single-leg countermovement jumps and unplanned sidestepping. An unplanned sidestepping testing procedure places a larger

  9. Sensitivity of sensor-based sit-to-stand peak power to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    Increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance can improve mobility and reduce fall risk. Sensor-based assessment of peak power during the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer may be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Therefore, this study investigated whether sensor-based STS peak power and related measures are sensitive to the effects of increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance in older adults. A further aim was to compare sensitivity between sensor-based STS measures and standard clinical measures of leg strength, leg power, balance, mobility and fall risk, following an exercise-based intervention. To achieve these aims, 26 older adults (age: 70-84 years) participated in an eight-week exercise program aimed at improving leg strength, leg power and balance. Before and after the intervention, performance on normal and fast STS transfers was evaluated with a hybrid motion sensor worn on the hip. In addition, standard clinical tests (isometric quadriceps strength, Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale) were performed. Standard clinical tests as well as sensor-based measures of peak power, maximal velocity and duration of normal and fast STS showed significant improvements. Sensor-based measurement of peak power, maximal velocity and duration of normal STS demonstrated a higher sensitivity (absolute standardized response mean (SRM): ≥ 0.69) to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance than standard clinical measures (absolute SRM: ≤ 0.61). Therefore, the presented sensor-based method appears to be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  11. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactormore » (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.« less

  12. The specific scintigraphic pattern of "shin splints in the lower leg": concise communication.

    PubMed

    Holder, L E; Michael, R H

    1984-08-01

    The clinical entity, "shin splints," is now being recognized, and more specifically characterized by the findings of exercise-induced pain and tenderness to palpation along the posterior medial border of the tibia. In this prospective study, ten patients with this syndrome were evaluated using three-phase bone scintigrams, and a specific scintigraphic pattern was determined. Radionuclide angiograms and blood-pool images were all normal. On delayed images, tibial lesions involved the posterior cortex, were longitudinally oriented, were long, involving one third of the length of the bone, and often showed varying tracer uptake along that length. Obtaining both lateral and medial views was crucial. The location of activity suggested that this entity is related to the soleus muscle. These scintigraphic findings can be used to differentiate shin splints from stress fractures or other conditions causing pain in the lower leg in athletes.

  13. Managing leg ulceration in intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Jemell

    2015-09-01

    Chronic venous leg ulceration is a long-term condition commonly associated with lower-limb injecting and chronic venous hypertension caused by collapsed veins, incompetent valves, deep vein thrombosis and reflux. It is not usually a medical emergency, but intravenous (IV) drug users with leg ulcers can attend emergency departments (EDs) with a different primary complaint such as pain or because they cannot access local primary care or voluntary services. Leg ulceration might then be identified during history taking, so it is important that ED nurses know how to assess and manage these wounds. This article explains how to assess and manage chronic venous leg ulcers in patients with a history of IV drug use, and highlights the importance of referral to specialist services when required, and to local primary care or voluntary services, before discharge to prevent admission and re-attendance.

  14. Lower Limb Symmetry: Comparison of Muscular Power Between Dominant and Nondominant Legs in Healthy Young Adults Associated With Single-Leg-Dominant Sports.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, Alex; Guiloff, Rodrigo; Rojas, Juan; Delgado, Iris; Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael

    2017-12-01

    Achieving a symmetrical power performance (difference <15%) between lower limbs is generally recommended during sports rehabilitation. However, athletes in single-leg-dominant sports, such as professional soccer players, could develop significant asymmetry between their dominant and nondominant legs, such that symmetry does not act as a viable comparison. To (1) compare maximal muscular power between the dominant and nondominant legs in healthy young adults, (2) evaluate the effect of a single-leg-dominant sport activity performed at the professional level, and (3) propose a parameter of normality for maximal power difference in the lower limbs of this young adult population. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 78 healthy, male, young adults were divided into 2 groups according to sport activity level. Group 1 consisted of 51 nonathletes (mean ± SD age, 20.8 ± 1.5 years; weight, 71.9 ± 10.5 kg) who participated in less than 8 hours a week of recreational physical activity with nonspecific training; group 2 consisted of 27 single-leg-dominant professional soccer players (age, 18.4 ± 0.6 years; weight, 70.1 ± 7.5 kg) who specifically trained and competed at their particular activity 8 hours or more a week. For assessment of maximal leg power, both groups completed the single-leg squat jump test. Dominance was determined when participants completed 2 of 3 specific tests with the same extremity. Statistical analysis included the Student t test. No statistical difference was found for maximal power between dominant and nondominant legs for nonathletes ( t = -1.01, P = .316) or single-leg-dominant professional soccer players ( t = -1.10, P = .281). A majority (95%) of participants studied showed a power difference of less than 15% between their lower extremities. Among young healthy adults, symmetrical power performance is expected between lower extremities independent of the existence of dominance and difference in sport activity level. A less than 15

  15. [The Activation of Interlimb Interactions Increase the Motor Output in Legs in Healthy Subjects under the Conditions of Arm and Leg Unloading].

    PubMed

    Selionov, V A; Solopova, I A; Zhvansky, D S

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of arm movements and movements of separate arm joints on the electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of voluntary and vibration-triggered stepping-like leg movements under the conditions of horizontal support of upper and lower limbs. The horizontal support of arms provided a significantly increase in the rate of activation of locomotor automatism by non-invasive impact on tonic sensory inputs. The addition of active arm movements during involuntary rhytmic stepping-like leg movements led to an increase in EMG activity of hip muscles and was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of hip and shin movements. Passive arm movements had the same effect on induced leg movements. The movement of the shoulder joints led to an increase in the activity of hip muscles and an increase in the amplitude of movements of the knee and hip joints. At the same time, the movement of forearms. and wrists had similar facilitating effect on electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of rhytmic stepping-like movements, but influenced the distal segments of legs to a greater extent. Under the conditions of sub-threshold vibration of leg muscles, voluntary arm movements led to the activation of involuntary rhytmic stepping movements. During voluntary leg movements, the addition of arm movements had a significantly smaller impact on the parameters of rhytmic stepping than during involuntary leg movements. Thus, the simultaneous movements of upper and lower limbs are an effective method of activation of neural networks connecting the rhythm generators of arms and legs. Under the conditions of arm and leg unloading, the interactions between the cervical and lumbosacral segments of the spinal cord seem to play the major role in the impact of arm movements on the patterns of leg movements. The described methods of activation of interlimb interactions can be used in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients and patients with spinal cord injuries

  16. 19 CFR 4.12 - Explanation of manifest discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explanation of manifest discrepancy. 4.12 Section 4.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Explanation of manifest discrepancy. (a)(1) Vessel masters or agents shall notify the port director on Customs...

  17. Leg pairs as virtual wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Russel; Duttweiler, Mark; Khanlian, Luke; Setrakian, Mark

    2005-05-01

    We propose the use of virtual wheels as the starting point of a new vehicle design. Each virtual wheel incorporates a pair of simple legs that, by simulating the rotary motion and ground contact of a traditional wheel, combine many of the benefits of legged and wheeled motion. We describe the use of virtual wheels in the design of a robotic mule, presenting an analysis of the mule's mobility the results of our efforts to model and build such a device.

  18. Fiber-type distribution in insect leg muscles parallels similarities and differences in the functional role of insect walking legs.

    PubMed

    Godlewska-Hammel, Elzbieta; Büschges, Ansgar; Gruhn, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase) enzyme activity in muscle fibers determines their contraction properties. We analyzed mATPase activities in muscles of the front, middle and hind legs of the orthopteran stick insect (Carausius morosus) to test the hypothesis that differences in muscle fiber types and distributions reflected differences in their behavioral functions. Our data show that all muscles are composed of at least three fiber types, fast, intermediate and slow, and demonstrate that: (1) in the femoral muscles (extensor and flexor tibiae) of all legs, the number of fast fibers decreases from proximal to distal, with a concomitant increase in the number of slow fibers. (2) The swing phase muscles protractor coxae and levator trochanteris, have smaller percentages of slow fibers compared to the antagonist stance muscles retractor coxae and depressor trochanteris. (3) The percentage of slow fibers in the retractor coxae and depressor trochanteris increases significantly from front to hind legs. These results suggest that fiber-type distribution in leg muscles of insects is not identical across leg muscles but tuned towards the specific function of a given muscle in the locomotor system.

  19. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  20. Injury due to leg bands in willow flycatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, J.A.; Klus, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We report an apparently unusually high incidence of leg injury in Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) as a result of banding and color banding. Color bands and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) bands applied to Willow Flycatchers from 1988-1995 resulted in an overall leg injury rate of 9.6% to birds returning to our study areas in subsequent years. Most injuries occurred on legs with only color band(s) (58.3%) or on legs with both a USFWS band and a color band (35%); only 6.7% of injuries (4/60) were due to USFWS bands alone, yielding an overall USFWS band injury rate of only 0.6%. Injuries ranged from severe (swollen, bleeding legs; a missing foot) to relatively minor (irritations on the tarsus). Amputation of the foot occurred in 33.9% of the cases. Return rates of adult injured birds in the year(s) following injury were significantly lower than for the population at large.

  1. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. DO THE LEGS OF MAGNETIC CLOUDS CONTAIN TWISTED FLUX-ROPE MAGNETIC FIELDS?

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, M. J.

    2016-02-20

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) characterized primarily by a smooth rotation in the magnetic field direction indicative of the presence of a magnetic flux rope. Energetic particle signatures suggest MC flux ropes remain magnetically connected to the Sun at both ends, leading to widely used model of global MC structure as an extended flux rope, with a loop-like axis stretching out from the Sun into the heliosphere and back to the Sun. The time of flight of energetic particles, however, suggests shorter magnetic field line lengths than such a continuous twisted flux ropemore » would produce. In this study, two simple models are compared with observed flux rope axis orientations of 196 MCs to show that the flux rope structure is confined to the MC leading edge. The MC “legs,” which magnetically connect the flux rope to the Sun, are not recognizable as MCs and thus are unlikely to contain twisted flux rope fields. Spacecraft encounters with these non-flux rope legs may provide an explanation for the frequent observation of non-MC ICMEs.« less

  3. Discrepancy rates in reporting of acute stroke CT.

    PubMed

    Astill, Christopher Sj; Agzarian, Marc J

    2017-06-01

    With increasing after-hours workloads there has been reliance on registrars to report after-hours acute stroke CT scans at our institution. This practice was reviewed for the perceived possibility of error and poor patient outcomes by the reliance on after-hours registrar reports. Through an audit of 3 years of these studies, we proposed to investigate if our current practice is safe and whether it results in poor patient outcomes. Following ethics approval, all after-hours acute stroke CT scan reports from September 2012 to August 2015 were identified using the PACS. All reports were reviewed with data recorded on a written worksheet then transferred to an Excel spreadsheet for analysis. The consultant report was used as the gold standard. In cases where discrepancies occurred, medical records were reviewed. Eight hundred and ninety-four acute stroke CT scans were identified in the audit period with a subset of 316 studies identified where a registrar report was issued at time of scan and checked the following day by a radiology consultant. There were 114 discrepancies (10 were major, 51 were minor, and 53 other). In three discrepancy cases, the patient's clinical course was altered. There were no adverse outcomes as a result of a discrepancy. Using a radiology consultant as the gold standard the major discrepancy rate was ≈3% in the after-hours setting. Our 3 year retrospective audit demonstrates that our practice of registrar report issued at the time of CT scan checked the following day by a radiologist has a low major discrepancy rate and that patient safety was not compromised. These results support the continuation of our current practice. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. Integrated system for single leg walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Reid; Krotkov, Eric; Roston, Gerry

    1990-07-01

    The Carnegie Mellon University Planetary Rover project is developing a six-legged walking robot capable of autonomously navigating, exploring, and acquiring samples in rugged, unknown environments. This report describes an integrated software system capable of navigating a single leg of the robot over rugged terrain. The leg, based on an early design of the Ambler Planetary Rover, is suspended below a carriage that slides along rails. To walk, the system creates an elevation map of the terrain from laser scanner images, plans an appropriate foothold based on terrain and geometric constraints, weaves the leg through the terrain to position it above the foothold, contacts the terrain with the foot, and applies force enough to advance the carriage along the rails. Walking both forward and backward, the system has traversed hundreds of meters of rugged terrain including obstacles too tall to step over, trenches too deep to step in, closely spaced obstacles, and sand hills. The implemented system consists of a number of task-specific processes (two for planning, two for perception, one for real-time control) and a central control process that directs the flow of communication between processes.

  5. Agreement and correlation between the straight leg raise and slump tests in subjects with leg pain.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jeremy; Hall, Toby

    2009-01-01

    The straight leg raise (SLR) and slump tests have traditionally been used to identify nerve root compression arising from disk herniation. However, they may be more appropriate as tests of lumbosacral neural tissue mechanosensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine agreement and correlation between the SLR and slump tests in a population presenting with back and leg pain. This was an observational, cross-sectional study design. Forty-five subjects with unilateral leg pain were recruited from an outpatient Back Pain Screening Clinic at a large teaching hospital in Ireland. The SLR and slump tests were performed on each side. In the event of symptom reproduction, the ankle was dorsiflexed. Reproduction of presenting symptoms, which were intensified by ankle dorsiflexion, was interpreted as a positive test. An inclinometer was used to measure range of motion (ROM). There was substantial agreement between SLR and slump test interpretation (kappa = 0.69) with good correlation in ROM between the 2 tests (r = 0.64) on the symptomatic side. In subjects who had positive results, ROM for both tests was significantly reduced compared to ROM on the contralateral side and ROM in subjects who had negative results. When the SLR and slump tests are interpreted as positive in the event of reproduction of presenting leg pain that are intensified by ankle dorsiflexion, these tests show substantial agreement and good correlation in the leg pain population. When interpreted in this way, these tests may be appropriate tests of neural tissue mechanosensitivity, but further criteria must be met before a definitive conclusion in relation to neural tissue mechanosensitivity may be drawn.

  6. Compliant leg behaviour explains basic dynamics of walking and running

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Hartmut; Seyfarth, Andre; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    The basic mechanics of human locomotion are associated with vaulting over stiff legs in walking and rebounding on compliant legs in running. However, while rebounding legs well explain the stance dynamics of running, stiff legs cannot reproduce that of walking. With a simple bipedal spring–mass model, we show that not stiff but compliant legs are essential to obtain the basic walking mechanics; incorporating the double support as an essential part of the walking motion, the model reproduces the characteristic stance dynamics that result in the observed small vertical oscillation of the body and the observed out-of-phase changes in forward kinetic and gravitational potential energies. Exploring the parameter space of this model, we further show that it not only combines the basic dynamics of walking and running in one mechanical system, but also reveals these gaits to be just two out of the many solutions to legged locomotion offered by compliant leg behaviour and accessed by energy or speed. PMID:17015312

  7. Comparative morphology of the prothoracic leg in heliconian butterflies: Tracing size allometry, podite fusions and losses in ontogeny and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Gilson R P; Silva, Denis S; Gonçalves, Gislene L

    2017-07-01

    Prothoracic legs of heliconian butterflies (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae, Heliconiini) are reduced in size compared to mesothoracic and metathoracic legs. They have no apparent function in males, but are used by females for drumming on host plants, a behavior related to oviposition site selection. Here, taking into account all recognized lineages of heliconian butterflies, we described their tarsi using optical and scanning electron microscopy and searched for podite fusions and losses, and analyzed allometry at the static, ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels. Female tarsi were similar, club-shaped, showing from four to five tarsomeres, each bearing sensilla chaetica and trichodea. Male tarsi were cylindrical, formed from five (early diverging lineages) to one (descendant lineages) either partially or totally fused tarsomeres, all deprived of sensilla. Pretarsi were reduced in both sexes, in some species being either vestigial or absent. Tarsal lengths were smaller for males in almost all species. An abrupt decrease in size was detected for the prothoracic legs during molting to the last larval instar at both histological and morphometric levels. In both sexes, most allometric coefficients found at the population level for the prothoracic legs were negative compared to the mesothoracic leg and also to wings. Prothoracic tarsi decreased proportionally in size over evolutionary time; the largest and smallest values being found for nodes of the oldest and youngest lineages, respectively. Our results demonstrate that evolution of the prothoracic leg in heliconian butterflies has been based on losses and fusions of podites, in association with negative size allometry at static, ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels. These processes have been more pronounced in males. Our study provided further support to the hypothesis that evolution of these leg structures is driven by females, by changing their use from walking to drumming during oviposition site selection. In males the

  8. Sprint running: how changes in step frequency affect running mechanics and leg spring behaviour at maximal speed.

    PubMed

    Monte, Andrea; Muollo, Valentina; Nardello, Francesca; Zamparo, Paola

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in selected biomechanical variables in 80-m maximal sprint runs while imposing changes in step frequency (SF) and to investigate if these adaptations differ based on gender and training level. A total of 40 athletes (10 elite men and 10 women, 10 intermediate men and 10 women) participated in this study; they were requested to perform 5 trials at maximal running speed (RS): at the self-selected frequency (SF s ) and at SF ±15% and ±30%SF s . Contact time (CT) and flight time (FT) as well as step length (SL) decreased with increasing SF, while k vert increased with it. At SF s , k leg was the lowest (a 20% decrease at ±30%SF s ), while RS was the largest (a 12% decrease at ±30%SF s ). Only small changes (1.5%) in maximal vertical force (F max ) were observed as a function of SF, but maximum leg spring compression (ΔL) was largest at SF s and decreased by about 25% at ±30%SF s . Significant differences in F max , Δy, k leg and k vert were observed as a function of skill and gender (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that RS is optimised at SF s and that, while k vert follows the changes in SF, k leg is lowest at SF s .

  9. Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Emotion-Regulation Difficulties, and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Danielle S.; Reidy, Dennis E.; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that masculine socialization processes contribute to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) by men. Although this research has traditionally focused on men who strongly adhere to traditional gender norms, men who negatively evaluate themselves as falling short of these norms (a construct termed masculine discrepancy stress) have proven to be at increased risk of IPV perpetration. Likewise, men experiencing problems with emotion regulation, a multidimensional construct reflecting difficulties in effectively experiencing and responding to emotional states, are also at risk of IPV perpetration. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that the link between discrepancy stress and IPV perpetration is mediated via difficulties in emotion regulation. Three hundred fifty-seven men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, emotion-regulation difficulties, and history of IPV perpetration. Results indicated that discrepancy-stressed men's use of physical IPV was fully mediated by emotion-regulation difficulties. In addition, emotion-regulation difficulties partially mediated the association between discrepancy stress and sexual IPV. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of emotion-focused interventions for modifying men's experience and expression of discrepancy stress and reducing perpetration of IPV. PMID:27226013

  10. Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Emotion-Regulation Difficulties, and Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Berke, Danielle S; Reidy, Dennis E; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-05-24

    Research suggests that masculine socialization processes contribute to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) by men. Although this research has traditionally focused on men who strongly adhere to traditional gender norms, men who negatively evaluate themselves as falling short of these norms (a construct termed masculine discrepancy stress) have proven to be at increased risk of IPV perpetration. Likewise, men experiencing problems with emotion regulation, a multidimensional construct reflecting difficulties in effectively experiencing and responding to emotional states, are also at risk of IPV perpetration. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that the link between discrepancy stress and IPV perpetration is mediated via difficulties in emotion regulation. Three hundred fifty-seven men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, emotion-regulation difficulties, and history of IPV perpetration. Results indicated that discrepancy-stressed men's use of physical IPV was fully mediated by emotion-regulation difficulties. In addition, emotion-regulation difficulties partially mediated the association between discrepancy stress and sexual IPV. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of emotion-focused interventions for modifying men's experience and expression of discrepancy stress and reducing perpetration of IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Children's Recall and Recognition of Sex Role Stereotyped and Discrepant Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Kropp, Jerri Jaudon

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the influence of differing levels of sex role stereotyped and discrepant information on immediate and delayed memory. Compared kindergarten and second-grade children's recall and recognition of stereotyped, moderately discrepant, and highly discrepant pictures. Results suggested significantly better recall of highly discrepant…

  12. Swimming with stiff legs at low Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke

    2015-08-01

    Locomotion at low Reynolds number is not possible with cycles of reciprocal motion, an example being the oscillation of a single pair of rigid paddles or legs. Here, I demonstrate the possibility of swimming with two or more pairs of legs. They are assumed to oscillate collectively in a metachronal wave pattern in a minimal model based on slender-body theory for Stokes flow. The model predicts locomotion in the direction of the traveling wave, as commonly observed along the body of free-swimming crustaceans. The displacement of the body and the swimming efficiency depend on the number of legs, the amplitude, and the phase of oscillations. This study shows that paddling legs with distinct orientations and phases offers a simple mechanism for driving flow.

  13. Dimensional synthesis of a leg mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, F.; Lovasz, E.-Ch; Pop, C.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    An eight bar leg mechanism dimensional synthesis is presented. The mathematical model regarding the synthesis is described and the results obtained after computation are verified with help of 2D mechanism simulation in Matlab. This mechanism, inspired from proposed solution of Theo Jansen, is integrated into the structure of a 2 DOF quadruped robot. With help of the kinematic synthesis method described, it is tried to determine new dimensions for the mechanism, based on a set of initial conditions. These are established by taking into account the movement of the end point of the leg mechanism, which enters in contact with the ground, during walking. An optimization process based on the results obtained can be conducted further in order to find a better solution for the leg mechanism.

  14. Coordination of planar cell polarity pathways through Spiny-legs

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis and physiology of tissues and organs requires planar cell polarity (PCP) systems that orient and coordinate cells and their behaviors, but the relationship between PCP systems has been controversial. We have characterized how the Frizzled and Dachsous-Fat PCP systems are connected through the Spiny-legs isoform of the Prickle-Spiny-legs locus. Two different components of the Dachsous-Fat system, Dachsous and Dachs, can each independently interact with Spiny-legs and direct its localization in vivo. Through characterization of the contributions of Prickle, Spiny-legs, Dachsous, Fat, and Dachs to PCP in the Drosophila wing, eye, and abdomen, we define where Dachs-Spiny-legs and Dachsous-Spiny-legs interactions contribute to PCP, and provide a new understanding of the orientation of polarity and the basis of PCP phenotypes. Our results support the direct linkage of PCP systems through Sple in specific locales, while emphasizing that cells can be subject to and must ultimately resolve distinct, competing PCP signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09946.001 PMID:26505959

  15. The Lower Extremity Biomechanics of Single- and Double-Leg Stop-Jump Tasks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common occurrence in sports requiring stop-jump tasks. Single- and double-leg stop-jump techniques are frequently executed in sports. The higher risk of ACL injury in single-leg drop landing task compared to a double-leg drop landing task has been identified. However the injury bias between single- and double-leg landing techniques has not been investigated for stop-jump tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between single- and double-leg stop-jump tasks in knee kinetics that were influenced by the lower extremity kinematics during the landing phase. Ground reaction force, lower extremity kinematics, and knee kinetics data during the landing phase were obtained from 10 subjects performing single- and double-leg stop-jump tasks, using motion-capture system and force palates. Greater peak posterior and vertical ground reaction forces, and peak proximal tibia anterior and lateral shear forces (p < 0.05) during landing phase were observed of single-leg stop-jump. Single-leg stop-jump exhibited smaller hip and knee flexion angle, and knee flexion angular velocity at initial foot contact with the ground (p < 0.05). We found smaller peak hip and knee flexion angles (p < 0.05) during the landing phase of single-leg stop-jump. These results indicate that single-leg landing may have higher ACL injury risk than double-leg landing in stop-jump tasks that may be influenced by the lower extremity kinematics during the landing phase. Key points Non-contact ACL injuries are more likely to occur during the single-leg stop-jump task than during the double-leg stop-jump task. Single-leg stop-jump exhibited greater peak proximal tibia anterior and lateral shear forces, and peak posterior and vertical ground reaction forces during the landing phase than the double-leg stop-jump task. Single-leg stop-jump exhibited smaller hip flexion angle, knee flexion angle, and knee flexion angular velocity at initial foot

  16. Leg exoskeleton reduces the metabolic cost of human hopping.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Alena M; Herr, Hugh M

    2009-09-01

    During bouncing gaits such as hopping and running, leg muscles generate force to enable elastic energy storage and return primarily from tendons and, thus, demand metabolic energy. In an effort to reduce metabolic demand, we designed two elastic leg exoskeletons that act in parallel with the wearer's legs; one exoskeleton consisted of a multiple leaf (MLE) and the other of a single leaf (SLE) set of fiberglass springs. We hypothesized that hoppers, hopping on both legs, would adjust their leg stiffness while wearing an exoskeleton so that the combination of the hopper and exoskeleton would behave as a linear spring-mass system with the same total stiffness as during normal hopping. We also hypothesized that decreased leg force generation while wearing an exoskeleton would reduce the metabolic power required for hopping. Nine subjects hopped in place at 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, and 2.6 Hz with and without an exoskeleton while we measured ground reaction forces, exoskeletal compression, and metabolic rates. While wearing an exoskeleton, hoppers adjusted their leg stiffness to maintain linear spring-mass mechanics and a total stiffness similar to normal hopping. Without accounting for the added weight of each exoskeleton, wearing the MLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 6% and wearing the SLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 24% compared with hopping normally at frequencies between 2.0 and 2.6 Hz. Thus, when hoppers used external parallel springs, they likely decreased the mechanical work performed by the legs and substantially reduced metabolic demand compared with hopping without wearing an exoskeleton.

  17. Study on Mucin in Normal-Appearing Leg Skin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2017-03-01

    Dermal deposits of mucin in the legs have been described associated with venous insufficiency. However, some degree of stasis dermatitis is generally common in aged individuals. Therefore, some amount of mucin is expected a priori in the reticular dermis of aged patients, even in the absence of clinical lesions. To test this hypothesis, the authors investigated the mucin in the legs of aged individuals without any dermatologic disease. Cutaneous samples were taken from the legs of 15 autopsy cases. A sample of the skin of the legs (either from the left or the right leg without any distinction being made) was randomly taken (without selecting any specific area or attending to macroscopical features). The skin samples were fixed in formaldehyde, and sections obtained from all samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, iron, and Alcian blue. Iron deposits were graded as 0/4 in 7 cases, as 1/4 in 4 cases, as 2/4 in 2 cases, and as 4/4 in 2 cases. Cases with greater deposits of iron also had other signs of stasis, such as neovascularization. All the samples scored 0 for dermal mucin deposits in the reticular dermis. The authors conclude that mucin deposits in the legs are not inherent to aging. Therefore, any mucin deposit in the reticular dermis, as well as expansion of the periadnexal dermis by mucin deposits, should be considered abnormal.

  18. Laboratory on legs: an architecture for adjustable morphology with legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, G. Clark; Pusey, Jason; Knopf, Ryan; Johnson, Aaron M.; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2012-06-01

    For mobile robots, the essential units of actuation, computation, and sensing must be designed to fit within the body of the robot. Additional capabilities will largely depend upon a given activity, and should be easily reconfigurable to maximize the diversity of applications and experiments. To address this issue, we introduce a modular architecture originally developed and tested in the design and implementation of the X-RHex hexapod that allows the robot to operate as a mobile laboratory on legs. In the present paper we will introduce the specification, design and very earliest operational data of Canid, an actively driven compliant-spined quadruped whose completely different morphology and intended dynamical operating point are nevertheless built around exactly the same "Lab on Legs" actuation, computation, and sensing infrastructure. We will review as well, more briefly a second RHex variation, the XRL platform, built using the same components.

  19. Children's Recall and Recognition of Sex Role Stereotyped and Discrepant Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Kropp, Jerri Jaudon

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the influence of differing levels of sex role stereotyped and discrepant information on the immediate and delayed memory of young children. Specifically, kindergarten and 2nd-grade children's recall and recognition of stereotyped, moderately discrepant, and highly discrepant pictures were compared. In…

  20. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  1. An index for breathlessness and leg fatigue.

    PubMed

    Borg, E; Borg, G; Larsson, K; Letzter, M; Sundblad, B-M

    2010-08-01

    The features of perceived symptoms causing discontinuation of strenuous exercise have been scarcely studied. The aim was to characterize the two main symptoms causing the discontinuation of heavy work in healthy persons as well as describe the growth of symptoms during exercise. Breathlessness (b) and leg fatigue (l) were assessed using the Borg CR10 Scale and the Borg CR100 (centiMax) Scale, during a standardized exercise test in 38 healthy subjects (24-71 years). The b/l-relationships were calculated for terminal perceptions (ERI(b/l)), and the growth of symptoms determined by power functions for the whole test, as well as by growth response indexes (GRI). This latter index was constructed as a ratio between power levels corresponding to a very strong and a moderate perception. In the majority (71%) of the test subjects, leg fatigue was the dominant symptom at the conclusion of exercise (P<0.001) and the b/l ratio was 0.77 (CR10) and 0.75 (CR100), respectively. The GRI for breathlessness and leg fatigue was similar, with good correlations between GRI and the power function exponent (P<0.005). In healthy subjects, leg fatigue is the most common cause for discontinuing an incremental exercise test. The growth functions for breathlessness and leg fatigue during work are, however, almost parallel.

  2. An unintended consequence of electronic prescriptions: prevalence and impact of internal discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Palchuk, Matvey B; Fang, Elizabeth A; Cygielnik, Janet M; Labreche, Matthew; Shubina, Maria; Ramelson, Harley Z; Hamann, Claus; Broverman, Carol; Einbinder, Jonathan S

    2010-01-01

    Many e-prescribing systems allow for both structured and free-text fields in prescriptions, making possible internal discrepancies. This study reviewed 2914 electronic prescriptions that contained free-text fields. Internal discrepancies were found in 16.1% of the prescriptions. Most (83.8%) of the discrepancies could potentially lead to adverse events and many (16.8%) to severe adverse events, involving a hospital admission or death. Discrepancies in doses, routes or complex regimens were most likely to have a potential for a severe event (p=0.0001). Discrepancies between structured and free-text fields in electronic prescriptions are common and can cause patient harm. Improvements in electronic medical record design are necessary to minimize the risk of discrepancies and resulting adverse events. PMID:20595316

  3. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  4. Comparison of submuscular and open plating of pediatric femur fractures: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Matthew D; Loder, Randall T; Anglen, Jeffrey O

    2013-01-01

    Plate osteosynthesis is an accepted method of treatment of pediatric femur fractures. Historically, open plating has been used. Submuscular bridge plating has gained recent popularity due to the theoretical advantages of decreased operative time, decreased blood loss, and decreased risk for infection. The purpose of this study was to compare submuscular bridge plating to open plating of pediatric femur fractures. We retrospectively reviewed 79 patients (80 treated femur fractures) between 1999 and 2011 that underwent either open plating (58 femur fractures) or submuscular bridge plating (22 femur fractures). The outcome measures evaluated were operative time, estimated blood loss, malunion, leg length discrepancy, time to union, infection, unplanned return to the operating room, and length of hospital stay after surgery. Among our outcome measures, there was no difference between the 2 groups in terms of operative time, leg length discrepancy, time to union, infection, or length of hospital stay after surgery. There was greater estimated blood loss in the open plating group (P≤0.0001) and greater rotational asymmetry in the submuscular bridge plating group (P=0.005). There was a trend of increased unplanned return to the operating room in the open plating group (5/58 vs. 0/22) although not statistically significant (P=0.32). Submuscular bridge plating and open plating seem to be equally viable options for the management of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures. In this study, open plating had an increase in estimated blood loss and a trend of more unplanned returns to the operating room, whereas submuscular bridge plating had an increase in asymptomatic rotational asymmetry. Further larger, prospective, randomized studies are necessary to further evaluate these operative techniques. Therapeutic Level III.

  5. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Leg deformation during imaginal ecdysis in the downy emerald, Cordulia aenea (Odonata, Corduliidae).

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Frantsevich, Ludmilla

    2018-04-01

    A dragonfly larva migrates from the water to the shore, perches on a plant stem and grasps it with strongly flexed legs. Adult legs inside the larval exoskeleton fit to the larval legs joint-to-joint. The adult emerges with stretched legs. During the molt, an imaginal leg must follow all the angles in exuvial joints. In turn, larval apodemes are withdrawn from imaginal legs. We visualized transient shapes of the imaginal legs by the instant fixation of insects at different moments of the molt, photographed isolated exuvial legs with the imaginal legs inside and then removed the exuvial sheath. Instant shapes of the imaginal tibia show sharp intrapodomere bends copying the angle in the larval femoro-tibial joint. The site of bending shifts distad during the molt. This is possible if the imaginal leg is pliable. The same problem of leg squeezing is also common in hemimetabolous insects as well as in other arthropods, whereas holometabolous insects overcome problems of a tight confinement either by using leg pliability in other ways but not squeezing (cyclorrhaphan flies, mosquitoes) or by pulling hardened legs out without change of their pupal zigzag configuration (moths, ants, honey bees). The pupal legs are not intended to grasp any external substrate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Lei; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 3 gustatory receptors (GRs) and 4 odorant receptors (ORs). Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests. PMID:26930056

  8. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Chan, K.M.; Sayles, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    Leg 5 samples fall into two categories with respect to interstitial water composition: 1) rapidly deposited terrigenous or appreciably terrigenous deposits, such as in Hole 35 (western Escanaba trough, off Cape Mendocino, California); and, 2) slowly deposited pelagic clays and biogenic muds and oozes. Interstitial waters in the former show modest to slight variations in chloride and sodium, but drastic changes in non-conservative ions such as magnesium and sulfate. The pelagic deposits show only relatively minor changes in both conservative and non-conservative pore fluid constituents. As was pointed out in earlier Leg Reports, it is believed that much of the variation in chloride in pore fluids within individual holes is attributable to the manipulation of samples on board ship and in the laboratory. On the other hand, the scatter in sodium is due in part to analytical error (on the order of 2 to 3 per cent, in terms of a standard deviation), and it probably accounts for most of the discrepancies in total anion and cation balance. All constituents reported here, with the exception of bulk water content, were analyzed on water samples which were sealed in plastic tubes aboard ship and were subsequently opened and divided into weighed aliquots in the laboratory. Analytical methods follow the atomic absorption, wet chemical and emission spectrochemical techniques briefly summarized in previous reports, e.g. Manheim et al., 1969, and Chan and Manheim, 1970. The authors acknowledge assistance from W. Sunda, D. Kerr, C. Lawson and H. Richards, and thank D. Spencer, P. Brewer and E. Degens for allowing the use of equipment and laboratory facilities.

  9. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  10. Examination of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory Discrepancy Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ashley M.; Brestan, Elizabeth V.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) "discrepancy hypothesis", which asserts that a discrepancy in score elevations on the ECBI Intensity and Problem Scales is related to problematic parenting styles. The Intensity Scale measures the frequency of child disruptive behavior, and the Problem Scale measures parent…

  11. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting Receptive-Expressive Vocabulary Discrepancies in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Jena; Yoder, Paul; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda R

    2018-05-15

    Correlates of receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies may provide insights into why language development in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deviates from typical language development and ultimately improve intervention outcomes. We indexed receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies of 65 initially preverbal children with ASD (20-48 months) to a comparison sample from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Wordbank (Frank, Braginsky, Yurovsky, & Marchman, 2017) to quantify typicality. We then tested whether attention toward a speaker and oral motor performance predict typicality of the discrepancy 8 months later. Attention toward a speaker correlated positively with receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Imitative and nonimitative oral motor performance were not significant predictors of vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Secondary analyses indicated that midpoint receptive vocabulary size mediated the association between initial attention toward a speaker and end point receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Findings support the hypothesis that variation in attention toward a speaker might partially explain receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy magnitude in children with ASD. Results are consistent with an input-processing deficit explanation of language impairment in this clinical population. Future studies should test whether attention toward a speaker is malleable and causally related to receptive-expressive discrepancies in children with ASD.

  13. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... flow, which can injure nerves and other tissues. Causes PAD is caused by "hardening of the arteries." ... small arteries Coronary artery disease Impotence Open sores (ischemic ulcers on the lower legs) Tissue death (gangrene) ...

  14. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-01-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  15. Informant discrepancy defines discrete, clinically useful autism spectrum disorder subgroups.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; De Los Reyes, Andres; Drabick, Deborah A G; Gerber, Alan H; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2017-07-01

    Discrepancy between informants (parents and teachers) in severity ratings of core symptoms commonly arise when assessing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Whether such discrepancy yields unique information about the ASD phenotype and its clinical correlates has not been examined. We examined whether degree of discrepancy between parent and teacher ASD symptom ratings defines discrete, clinically meaningful subgroups of youth with ASD using an efficient, cost-effective procedure. Children with ASD (N = 283; 82% boys; M age  = 10.5 years) were drawn from a specialty ASD clinic. Parents and teachers provided ratings of the three core DSM-IV-TR domains of ASD symptoms (communication, social, and perseverative behavior) with the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R (CASI-4R). External validators included child psychotropic medication status, frequency of ASD-relevant school-based services, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2). Four distinct subgroups emerged that ranged from large between-informant discrepancy (informant-specific) to relative lack of discrepancy (i.e. informant agreement; cross-situational): Moderate Parent/Low Teacher or Low Parent/Moderate Teacher Severity (Discrepancy), and Moderate or High Symptom Severity (Agreement). Subgroups were highly distinct (mean probability of group assignment = 94%). Relative to Discrepancy subgroups, Agreement subgroups were more likely to receive psychotropic medication, school-based special education services, and an ADOS-2 diagnosis. These differential associations would not have been identified based solely on CASI-4R scores from one informant. The degree of parent-teacher discrepancy about ASD symptom severity appears to provide more clinically useful information than reliance on a specific symptom domain or informant, and thus yields an innovative, cost-effective approach to assessing functional impairment. This conclusion stands in contrast to existing symptom clustering approaches in

  16. The Effects of Leg Kick on Swimming Speed and Arm-Stroke Efficiency in the Front Crawl.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Ricardo Peterson; de Souza Castro, Flávio Antônio; Figueiredo, Pedro; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Zamparo, Paola

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the effects of swimming pace on the relative contribution of leg kick to swimming speed and to compare arm-stroke efficiency (ηF) assessed when swimming with the arms only (SAO) and while swimming front crawl (FCS) using individual and fixed adjustments to arm-stroke and leg-kick contribution to forward speed. Twenty-nine master swimmers (21 men, 8 women) performed SAO and FCS at 6 self-selected speeds from very slow to maximal. The average swimming speed (v), stroke frequency (SF), and stroke length (SL) were assessed in the central 10 m of the swimming pool. Then, a 2nd-order polynomial regression was used to obtain values of v at paired SF. The percentage difference in v between FCS and SAO, for each paired SF, was used to calculate the relative contributions of the arm stroke (AC) and leg kick (LC) to FCS. Then ηF was calculated using the indirect "paddle-wheel" approach in 3 different ways: using general, individual, and no adjustments to AC. The LC increased with SF (and speed) from -1% ± 4% to 11% ± 1% (P < .05). At the lower FCS speeds, ηF calculated using general adjustments was lower than ηF calculated using individual adjustments (P < .05), but differences disappear at the fastest speeds. Finally, ηF calculated using individual adjustments to LC in the FCS condition did not differ with ηF assessed in the SAO condition at all the investigated speeds. The relative contributions of the arm stroke and leg kick should be individually estimated to reduce errors when calculating arm-stroke efficiency at different speeds and in different swimmers.

  17. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WAIS-IV Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors provide internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtest and Index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities ranged from 0.55 to 0.88 for subtest discrepancy scores and 0.80 to 0.91 for Index discrepancy…

  18. Quadrupedal gaits in hexapod animals - inter-leg coordination in free-walking adult stick insects.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Martyna; Godlewska, Elzbieta; Schmidt, Joachim; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia

    2012-12-15

    The analysis of inter-leg coordination in insect walking is generally a study of six-legged locomotion. For decades, the stick insect Carausius morosus has been instrumental for unravelling the rules and mechanisms that control leg coordination in hexapeds. We analysed inter-leg coordination in C. morosus that freely walked on straight paths on plane surfaces with different slopes. Consecutive 1.7 s sections were assigned inter-leg coordination patterns (which we call gaits) based on footfall patterns. Regular gaits, i.e. wave, tetrapod or tripod gaits, occurred in different proportions depending on surface slopes. Tetrapod gaits were observed most frequently, wave gaits only occurred on 90 deg inclining slopes and tripod gaits occurred most often on 15 deg declining slopes, i.e. in 40% of the sections. Depending on the slope, 36-66% of the sections were assigned irregular gaits. Irregular gaits were mostly due to multiple stepping by the front legs, which is perhaps probing behaviour, not phase coupled to the middle legs' cycles. In irregular gaits, middle leg and hindleg coordination was regular, related to quadrupedal walk and wave gaits. Apparently, front legs uncouple from and couple to the walking system without compromising middle leg and hindleg coordination. In front leg amputees, the remaining legs were strictly coordinated. In hindleg and middle leg amputees, the front legs continued multiple stepping. The coordination of middle leg amputees was maladapted, with front legs and hindlegs performing multiple steps or ipsilateral legs being in simultaneous swing. Thus, afferent information from middle legs might be necessary for a regular hindleg stepping pattern.

  19. Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence☆

    PubMed Central

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Berke, Danielle S.; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2018-01-01

    Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine discrepancy stress, a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men’s historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men. PMID:29593368

  20. Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2014-10-01

    Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine discrepancy stress , a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men's historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men.

  1. Medication discrepancies across multiple care transitions: A retrospective longitudinal cohort study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonaudo, Marco; Martorana, Maria; Dimonte, Valerio; D'Alfonso, Alessandra; Fornero, Giulio; Politano, Gianfranco; Gianino, Maria Michela

    2018-01-01

    Medication discrepancies are defined as unexplained differences among regimens across different sites of care. The problem of medication discrepancies that occur during the entire care pathway from hospital admission to a local care setting discharge (namely all types of settings dedicated to formal care other than hospitals) has received little attention in the medical literature. The present study aims to (1) determine the prevalence of medication discrepancies that occur during the entire care pathway from hospital admission to local care setting discharge, (2) describe the discrepancy and medication type, and (3) identify potential risk factors for experiencing medication discrepancies in patient care transitions. Evidence from an integrated health care system, such as the Italian one, may explain results from other studies in different healthcare systems. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study of patients admitted from July 2015 to July 2016 to the Giovanni Bosco Hospital serving Turin, Italy and its surrounding territory was performed. Discrepancies were recorded at the following four care transitions: T1: Hospital admission; T2: Hospital discharge; T3: Admission into local care settings; T4: Discharge from local care settings. All evaluations were based on documented regimens and were performed by a team (doctor, nurse and pharmacists). Of 366 included patients, 25.68% had at least one discrepancy. The most frequent type of discrepancy was from medication omission (N = 74; 71.15%). Only discharge from a long-stay care setting (T4) was significantly associated with the onset of discrepancies (p = 0.045). When considering a lack of adequate documentation, not as missing data but as a discrepancy, 43.72% of patients had at least one discrepancy. This study suggests that an integrated health care system, such as Italian system, may influence the prevalence of discrepancies, thus highlighting the need for structured multidisciplinary and, if possible

  2. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position 28°10′10.29...

  3. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position 28°10′10.29...

  4. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position 28°10′10.29...

  5. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position 28°10′10.29...

  6. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position 28°10′10.29...

  7. Discrepant Perspectives On Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Elizabeth M.; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R.; Jones, Vanya C.; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2015-01-01

    Parents influence urban youths’ violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this paper were to: (1) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (2) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (3) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes towards violence, parental communication, and parents’ messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n= 92; i.e., mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n=9) and their early adolescents (mean age=13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management. PMID:25535252

  8. Design of Force Sensor Leg for a Rocket Thrust Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woten, Douglas; McGehee, Tripp; Wright, Anne

    2005-03-01

    A hybrid rocket is composed of a solid fuel and a separate liquid or gaseous oxidizer. These rockets may be throttled like liquid rockets, are safer than solid rockets, and are much less complex than liquid rockets. However, hybrid rockets produce thrust oscillations that are not practical for large scale use. A lab scale hybrid rocket at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) Hybrid Rocket Facility is used to develop sensors to measure physical properties of hybrid rockets. Research is currently being conducted to design a six degree of freedom force sensor to measure the thrust and torque in all three spacial dimensions. The detector design uses six force sensor legs. Each leg utilizes strain gauges and a Wheatstone bridge to produce a voltage propotional to the force on the leg. The leg was designed using the CAD software ProEngineer and ProMechanica. Computer models of the strains on the single leg will be presented. A prototype leg was built and was tested in an INSTRON and results will be presented.

  9. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    PubMed

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  10. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Percent Body Fat Determined by Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…

  11. Anthropometry in Klinefelter syndrome--multifactorial influences due to CAG length, testosterone treatment and possibly intrauterine hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Chang, Simon; Skakkebæk, Anne; Trolle, Christian; Bojesen, Anders; Hertz, Jens Michael; Cohen, Arieh; Hougaard, David Michael; Wallentin, Mikkel; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Østergaard, John Rosendahl; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2015-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome, 47, XXY (KS), is underdiagnosed partly due to few clinical signs complicating identification of affected individuals. Certain phenotypic traits are common in KS. However, not all aspects of the KS phenotype are well described. To describe anthropometry and body composition in KS and relate findings to biochemistry and X-chromosome related genetic markers. Seventy three KS males referred to our clinic and 73 age-matched controls underwent comprehensive measurements of anthropometry and body composition in a cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Furthermore, genetic analysis for parental origin of the supernumerary X-chromosome, skewed X-chromosome inactivation and androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat length was done. Anthropometry and body composition in KS and the effect of genotype hereon. KS males were taller (absolute difference: 5.1 cm, P < .001) with longer legs (5.7 cm, P < .001) compared with controls. Furthermore, 2D:4D was increased in KS males (relative effect size: Cohen's d = 0.40), reflecting reduced fetal testosterone exposure. Also, bi-iliac width (0.41), waist (0.52), and hip circumference (0.47) (P < .02 for all), as well as total fat mass (0.74), abdominal fat mass (0.67), and total body fat percentage (0.84) was increased in KS males (P < .001 for all), while bitesticular volume was reduced (4.6). AR CAG repeat length was comparable in KS and controls, and among KS CAG correlated to arm length (P = .04), arm span (P = .01), and leg length (P = .04). Effects of parental origin of the supernumerary X-chromosome and skewed X-chromosome inactivation were negligible. Anthropometry and body composition in KS is specific and dysmorphic and affected by AR CAG repeat length and decreased exposure to testosterone already during fetal life.

  12. The discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes in predicting disinhibited eating.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Forman, Evan M; Meiran, Nachshon; Herbert, James D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L

    2014-01-01

    Disinhibited eating (i.e., the tendency to overeat, despite intentions not to do so, in the presence of palatable foods or other cues such as emotional stress) is strongly linked with obesity and appears to be associated with both implicit (automatic) and explicit (deliberative) food attitudes. Prior research suggests that a large discrepancy between implicit and explicit food attitudes may contribute to greater levels of disinhibited eating; however this theory has not been directly tested. The current study examined whether the discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes towards chocolate could predict both lab-based and self-reported disinhibited eating of chocolate. Results revealed that, whereas neither implicit nor explicit attitudes alone predicted disinhibited eating, absolute attitude discrepancy positively predicted chocolate consumption. Impulsivity moderated this effect, such that discrepancy was less predictive of disinhibited eating for those who exhibited lower levels of impulsivity. The results align with the meta-cognitive model to indicate that attitude discrepancy may be involved in overeating. © 2013.

  13. Biometric analysis of the clinical crown and the width/length ratio in the maxillary anterior region.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Varo, Ana; Arroyo-Cruz, Gema; Martínez-de-Fuentes, Rafael; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    Restorative dentistry often involves correcting tooth size discrepancies. Therefore, dental biometrics should play an important role in the planning of an esthetic restoration. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical crown width, length, and width/length ratio of maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines in an adult population. The study also aimed to determine whether a correlation exists between natural tooth dimensions and the optimal tooth dimension guidelines suggested for planning esthetic restorations. Stone casts were poured from irreversible hydrocolloid impressions of 412 healthy adult participants. These casts were used to measure the maximum mesiodistal width and maximum crown-root length of the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines with a digital precision caliper (0.01 mm). The width/length ratio was calculated for each tooth, and 40 casts were selected to test the reliability of the measuring method. The mean age of the participants in the sample was 33.94 years; 60.7% were women and 39.3% were men. The mean width value was 8.71 mm for central incisors, 6.75 mm for lateral incisors, and 7.81 mm for canines. The mean length was 10.23 mm for central incisors, 8.59 mm for lateral incisors, and 9.93 mm for canines. The average width/length ratio was 85% for central incisors and 79% for lateral incisors and canines. The data obtained from the population studied are similar to those from previous research studies with similar methodology. However, great discrepancies in the absolute values were found when compared with other studies of ideal tooth dimension guidelines on the personal preferences and the esthetic perception of dentists. The perception of what is considered natural seems to differ from what is considered esthetically perfect. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy absorption of impacts during running at various stride lengths.

    PubMed

    Derrick, T R; Hamill, J; Caldwell, G E

    1998-01-01

    The foot-ground impact experienced during running produces a shock wave that is transmitted through the human skeletal system. This shock wave is attenuated by deformation of the ground/shoe as well as deformation of biological tissues in the body. The goal of this study was to investigate the locus of energy absorption during the impact phase of the running cycle. Running speed (3.83 m x s[-1]) was kept constant across five stride length conditions: preferred stride length (PSL), +10% of PSL, -10% of PSL, +20% of PSL, and -20% of PSL. Transfer functions were generated from accelerometers attached to the leg and head of ten male runners. A rigid body model was used to estimate the net energy absorbed at the hip, knee, and ankle joints. There was an increasing degree of shock attenuation as stride length increased. The energy absorbed during the impact portion of the running cycle also increased with stride length. Muscles that cross the knee joint showed the greatest adjustment in response to increased shock. It was postulated that the increased perpendicular distance from the line of action of the resultant ground reaction force to the knee joint center played a role in this increased energy absorption.

  15. Leg lengthening - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as Legg-Perthes disease Previous injuries or bone fractures that may stimulate excessive bone growth Abnormal spinal ... in the bone to be lengthened; usually the lower leg bone (tibia) or upper ... small steps, usually over the course of several months.

  16. Leg ulceration as a long-term complication of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Natalie; Rodgers, Anthony; Birchall, Nicholas; Norton, Robyn; MacMahon, Stephen

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the role of deep vein thrombosis as a cause of leg ulcers. A population-based, case-control study was conducted in Central and North Auckland, New Zealand. Cases comprised 241 people aged 40 to 99 years and on the electoral roll, with current leg ulcers (all types). Cases were identified by means of notification from health professionals and by self-referral. Controls were 224 people in the same age group, without leg ulcers, who were selected from the electoral roll by using a stratified random sampling process. The occurrence of leg ulceration as a consequence of exposure to deep vein thrombosis or being at high risk of deep vein thrombosis (that is, people with a family history of deep vein thrombosis, and/or a history of leg fracture and/or hip, leg, or foot surgery). After adjustment for age, sex, and other potential confounding factors, people who had a diagnosed thromboembolism were at almost three times higher risk of having a leg ulcer (odds ratio, 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.47 to 6.08). In addition, people who had been at high risk of a venous thrombosis but were not diagnosed with this condition (eg, people with a history of major leg surgery) were also at increased risk of ulceration (odds ratio, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.49-3.42). Overall, 56% (95% CI, 33% - 71%) of leg ulcers were attributed to being at high risk of deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis and factors that place people at high risk of deep vein thrombosis are an important cause of leg ulcers in older people. This finding strengthens the rationale for the routine and long-term use of thromboprophylaxis, particularly in high-risk patients.

  17. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  18. Discrepant Perspectives on Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    PubMed

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Jones, Vanya C; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-03-01

    Parents influence urban youths' violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this article are to (a) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (b) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (c) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes toward violence, parental communication, and parents' messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n = 92; that is, mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n = 9) and their early adolescents (mean age = 13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased, the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Is increased residual shank length a competitive advantage for elite transtibial amputee long jumpers?

    PubMed

    Nolan, Lee; Patritti, Benjamin L; Stana, Laura; Tweedy, Sean M

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which residual shank length affects long jump performance of elite athletes with a unilateral transtibial amputation. Sixteen elite, male, long jumpers with a transtibial amputation were videoed while competing in major championships (World Championships 1998, 2002 and Paralympic Games, 2004). The approach, take-off, and landing of each athlete's best jump was digitized to determine residual and intact shank lengths, jump distance, and horizontal and vertical velocity of center of mass at touchdown. Residual shank length ranged from 15 cm to 38 cm. There were weak, nonsignificant relationships between residual shank length and (a) distance jumped (r = 0.30), (b) horizontal velocity (r = 0.31), and vertical velocity (r = 0.05). Based on these results, residual shank length is not an important determinant of long jump performance, and it is therefore appropriate that all long jumpers with transtibial amputation compete in the same class. The relationship between residual shank length and key performance variables was stronger among athletes that jumped off their prosthetic leg (N = 5), and although this result must be interpreted cautiously, it indicates the need for further research.

  20. Characterizing rapid-onset vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the human leg

    PubMed Central

    Credeur, Daniel P.; Holwerda, Seth W.; Restaino, Robert M.; King, Phillip M.; Crutcher, Kiera L.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Padilla, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Rapid-onset vasodilation (ROV) following single muscle contractions has been examined in the forearm of humans, but has not yet been characterized in the leg. Given known vascular differences between the arm and leg, we sought to characterize ROV following single muscle contractions in the leg. Sixteen healthy men performed random ordered single contractions at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using isometric knee extension made with the leg above and below heart level, and these were compared with single isometric contractions of the forearm (handgrip). Single thigh cuff compressions (300 mmHg) were utilized to estimate the mechanical contribution to leg ROV. Continuous blood flow was determined by duplex-Doppler ultrasound and blood pressure via finger photoplethysmography (Finometer). Single isometric knee extensor contractions produced intensity-dependent increases in peak leg vascular conductance that were significantly greater than the forearm in both the above- and below-heart level positions (e.g., above heart level: leg 20% MVC, +138 ± 28% vs. arm 20% MVC, +89 ± 17%; P < 0.05). Thigh cuff compressions also produced a significant hyperemic response, but these were brief and smaller in magnitude compared with single isometric contractions in the leg. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of a rapid and robust vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the leg that is largely independent of mechanical factors, thus establishing the leg as a viable model to study ROV in humans. PMID:25539935

  1. Rembrandt's 'Beggar with a wooden leg' and other comparable prints.

    PubMed

    ten Kate, J J; Jennekens, F G I; Vos-Niël, J M E

    2009-02-01

    Rembrandt's etching of a beggar with a wooden leg is notable because the two lower limbs of the presumed beggar are present and not deformed. Using the facilities of four specialised Dutch art institutes, we carried out a systematic investigation to find other etchings and engravings of subjects with artificial legs supporting non-amputated limbs, from the period 1500 to 1700 AD. We discovered 28 prints produced by at least 18 artists. Several offered clues to a disorder of a knee, the lower leg or the foot. All individuals were adult males, suggesting the probability of traumatic lesions. We conclude that in this period artificial legs were not only used in the case of absence of part of a lower limb, but also for other reasons, notably disorders of the knee, lower leg or foot. They may also have been used to attract compassion.

  2. Towards active capsular endoscopy: preliminary results on a legged platform.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Stefanini, Cesare; Orlandi, Giovanni; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the problem of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract for endoscopic capsules. Authors analyze the problem of locomotion in unstructured, flexible and tubular environments and explain the reasons leading to the selection of a legged system. They present a theoretical simulation of legged capsule locomotion, which is used to define the optimal parameters for capsule design and gait selection. Finally, a legged capsule--about 3 cm3 in volume--is presented; it consists of 4 back legs whose actuation is achieved thanks to a miniaturized DC brushless motor. In vitro tests demonstrate good performance in terms of achievable speed (92 mm/min).

  3. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men

    PubMed Central

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2018-01-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=−1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society. PMID:26303670

  4. Interdependence of torque, joint angle, angular velocity and muscle action during human multi-joint leg extension.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel; Herzog, Walter; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2014-08-01

    Force and torque production of human muscles depends upon their lengths and contraction velocity. However, these factors are widely assumed to be independent of each other and the few studies that dealt with interactions of torque, angle and angular velocity are based on isolated single-joint movements. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine force/torque-angle and force/torque-angular velocity properties for multi-joint leg extensions. Human leg extension was investigated (n = 18) on a motor-driven leg press dynamometer while measuring external reaction forces at the feet. Extensor torque in the knee joint was calculated using inverse dynamics. Isometric contractions were performed at eight joint angle configurations of the lower limb corresponding to increments of 10° at the knee from 30 to 100° of knee flexion. Concentric and eccentric contractions were performed over the same range of motion at mean angular velocities of the knee from 30 to 240° s(-1). For contractions of increasing velocity, optimum knee angle shifted from 52 ± 7 to 64 ± 4° knee flexion. Furthermore, the curvature of the concentric force/torque-angular velocity relations varied with joint angles and maximum angular velocities increased from 866 ± 79 to 1,238 ± 132° s(-1) for 90-50° knee flexion. Normalised eccentric forces/torques ranged from 0.85 ± 0.12 to 1.32 ± 0.16 of their isometric reference, only showing significant increases above isometric and an effect of angular velocity for joint angles greater than optimum knee angle. The findings reveal that force/torque production during multi-joint leg extension depends on the combined effects of angle and angular velocity. This finding should be accounted for in modelling and optimisation of human movement.

  5. Running in the real world: adjusting leg stiffness for different surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, D. P.; Louie, M.; Farley, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    A running animal coordinates the actions of many muscles, tendons, and ligaments in its leg so that the overall leg behaves like a single mechanical spring during ground contact. Experimental observations have revealed that an animal's leg stiffness is independent of both speed and gravity level, suggesting that it is dictated by inherent musculoskeletal properties. However, if leg stiffness was invariant, the biomechanics of running (e.g. peak ground reaction force and ground contact time) would change when an animal encountered different surfaces in the natural world. We found that human runners adjust their leg stiffness to accommodate changes in surface stiffness, allowing them to maintain similar running mechanics on different surfaces. These results provide important insight into mechanics and control of animal locomotion and suggest that incorporating an adjustable leg stiffness in the design of hopping and running robots is important if they are to match the agility and speed of animals on varied terrain.

  6. [Physical treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Dissemond, J

    2010-05-01

    An increasing numbers of physical treatment options are available for chronic leg ulcer. In this review article, compression therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, negative pressure therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrostimulation therapy, electromagnetic therapy, photodynamic therapy, water-filtered infrared-A-radiation and hydrotherapy are discussed in terms of their practical applications and the underlying evidence. With the exception of compression therapy for most of these treatments, good scientific data are not available. However this is a widespread problem in the treatment of chronic wounds. Nevertheless, several of the described methods such as negative pressure therapy represent one of the gold standards in practical treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. Although the use of physical treatment modalities may improve healing in patients with chronic leg ulcers, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes are essential for long-lasting success.

  7. Comparison of clinical causes of death with autopsy diagnosis using discrepency classification.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Khalil; Alamgir, Wasim

    2006-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of patients care. An observational study. Departments of Pathology and Medicine, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian, a tertiary care hospital, from January 2001 to December 2003. The clinical and necropsy findings of all the cases, who died in hospital and had undergone autopsy examination at CMH, Kharian, from January 2001 to December 2003, were retrieved from record of clinical case sheet data and autopsy record of the hospital. The two were analyzed and compared according to the discrepancy classification. The exclusion and inclusion criteria, the international classification of disease (ICD) to code deaths, the global burden of disease (GBD) system to classify and group diseases, and the Goldman discrepancy classification to compare clinical and autopsy diagnosis and classify the discrepancies, were used as described. The death rate varied from 0.94% to 1.29% and autopsy rate from 4.69% to 10.10% annually between January 2001 and December 2003. The number of cases classified according to GBD system was 3 (5%) in Group 1, 26 (43.33 %) in Group 2 and 31 (51.66 %) in Group 3. The discrepancy classes included 9 (15 %) class I major discrepancies and 3 (5 %) class II major discrepancies. Non-discrepant diagnosis was seen in 37 cases (61.66 %) and 11 cases (18.32 %) were non-classifiable. This study showed the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of the diagnosis and management of the disease by showing only a minority of cases with discrepant diagnosis of the cause of death.

  8. Determination of muscle mass changes in legs from K-40 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.; Rieksts, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The K-40 content of the upper legs was periodically measured in several subjects whose injured legs had been in a cast for 6 weeks or more. As the subjects began using the leg again, the K-40 content increased as the muscle tissue was replaced. A 25% increase in K-40 content in 6 months is typical for a normal leg use and recovery. This is equivalent to an original muscle mass loss of 20%. By measuring specific body regions, such as arms or legs, with a high-efficiency detector system, muscle mass changes which exceed a few percent can be measured. These methods could be used in space flight and bedrest studies, and in studying nutritional deficiencies due to disease or diet.

  9. The Clinical Impact of Resident-attending Discrepancies in On-call Radiology Reporting: A Retrospective Assessment.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Sebastian R; Smith, Christopher; Oweis, Yaseen; Mawad, Kareem; Raptis, Constantine; Mellnick, Vincent

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the clinical impact of resident-attending discrepancies at a tertiary referral academic radiology residency program by assessing rates of intervention, discrepancy confirmation, recall rate, and management change rate; furthermore, a discrepancy categorization system will be assessed. Retrospective review of the records was performed for n = 1482 discrepancies that occurred in the 17-month study period to assess the clinical impact of discrepancies. Discrepancies were grouped according to a previously published classification system. Management changes were recorded and grouped by severity. The recall rate was estimated for discharged patients. Any confirmatory testing was reviewed to evaluate the accuracy of the discrepant report. Categorical variables were compared to the chi-square test. The 1482 discrepancies led to management change in 661 cases (44.6%). The most common management change was follow-up imaging. Procedural interventions including surgery occurred in 50 cases (3.3%). The recall rate was 2.6%. Management changes were more severe with computed tomography examinations, inpatients, and when the discrepancy was in the chest and abdomen subspecialty. Also, management changes correlated with the discrepancy category assigned by the attending at the time of review. Resident-attending discrepancies do cause management changes in 44.6% of discrepancies (0.62% overall); the most frequent change is follow-up imaging. The discrepancy categorization assigned by the attending correlated with the severity of management change. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The crossed leg sign indicates a favorable outcome after severe stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rémi, J.; Pfefferkorn, T.; Owens, R.L.; Schankin, C.; Dehning, S.; Birnbaum, T.; Bender, A.; Klein, M.; Adamec, J.; Pfister, H.-W.; Straube, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether crossed legs are a prognostic marker in patients with severe stroke. Methods: In this controlled prospective observational study, we observed patients with severe stroke who crossed their legs during their hospital stay and matched them with randomly selected severe stroke patients who did not cross their legs. The patients were evaluated upon admission, on the day of leg crossing, upon discharge, and at 1 year after discharge. The Glasgow Coma Scale, the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and the Barthel Index (BI) were obtained. Results: Patients who crossed their legs (n = 34) and matched controls (n = 34) did not differ in any scale upon admission. At the time of discharge, the GCS did not differ, but the NIHSS was better in crossed legs patients (6.5 vs 10.6; p = 0.0026), as was the mRS (3.4 vs 5.1, p < 0.001), and the BI (34.0 vs 21.1; p = 0.0073). At 1-year follow-up, mRS (2.9 vs 5.1, p < 0.001) and the BI (71.3 vs 49.2; p = 0.045) were also better in the crossed leg group. The mortality between the groups differed grossly; only 1 patient died in the crossing group compared to 18 in the noncrossing group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Leg crossing is an easily obtained clinical sign and is independent of additional technical examinations. Leg crossing within the first 15 days after severe stroke indicates a favorable outcome which includes less neurologic deficits, better independence in daily life, and lower rates of death. PMID:21987641

  11. Soy undecapeptide induces Drosophila hind leg grooming via dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Karim, M Rezaul; Yanagawa, Aya; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2018-05-15

    β-Conglycinin α subunit (323-333) [βCGα(323-333)] is an exogenous neuromodulating undecapeptide found from enzymatic digest of β-conglycinin, a soy major storage protein by mice behavior tests. We investigated effect of βCGα(323-333) on Drosophila behavior. Oral administration of βCGα(323-333) in Drosophila increased hind leg grooming, which may act through specific sets of neurons. It was reported that dopamine receptor (DopR) meditates hind leg grooming, and we tested involvement of DopR in βCGα(323-333)-induced hind leg grooming by using DopR knockout flies. In the wild type but not in the DopR-knockout flies, βCGα(323-333) increased hind leg grooming. These results suggest that βCGα(323-333) induces hind leg grooming via activating the DopR. This is the first report showing that exogenously administered peptide changes fly behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The medication reconciliation process and classification of discrepancies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Almanasreh, Enas; Moles, Rebekah; Chen, Timothy F

    2016-09-01

    Medication reconciliation is a part of the medication management process and facilitates improved patient safety during care transitions. The aims of the study were to evaluate how medication reconciliation has been conducted and how medication discrepancies have been classified. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), and Web of Science (WOS), in accordance with the PRISMA statement up to April 2016. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they evaluated the types of medication discrepancy found through the medication reconciliation process and contained a classification system for discrepancies. Data were extracted by one author based on a predefined table, and 10% of included studies were verified by two authors. Ninety-five studies met the inclusion criteria. Approximately one-third of included studies (n = 35, 36.8%) utilized a 'gold' standard medication list. The majority of studies (n = 57, 60%) used an empirical classification system and the number of classification terms ranged from 2 to 50 terms. Whilst we identified three taxonomies, only eight studies utilized these tools to categorize discrepancies, and 11.6% of included studies used different patient safety related terms rather than discrepancy to describe the disagreement between the medication lists. We suggest that clear and consistent information on prevalence, types, causes and contributory factors of medication discrepancy are required to develop suitable strategies to reduce the risk of adverse consequences on patient safety. Therefore, to obtain that information, we need a well-designed taxonomy to be able to accurately measure, report and classify medication discrepancies in clinical practice. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Leg injuries and wound repair among cosmetid harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores).

    PubMed

    Townsend, Victor R; Schaus, Maynard H; Zvonareva, Tatyana; Illinik, Jeffrey J; Evans, John T

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of leg injuries in harvestmen have focused on the fitness consequences for individuals that use autospasy (voluntary detachment of the leg) as a secondary defense mechanism. Leg damage among non-autotomizing species of laniatorean harvestmen has not been investigated. Under laboratory conditions, we damaged femur IV of Cynorta marginalis and observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the changes in these wounds over ten days. We also used SEM to examine leg damage from individuals of three species of cosmetid harvestmen that were collected in the field. On the basis of changes in the external surface of the hemolymph coagulum, we classified these wounds as fresh (coagulum forming), recent (coagulum with smooth surface), older (coagulum is scale-like with visible cell fragments), and fully healed (scale replaced by new cuticle growth on the terminal stump). Our observations indicate that wound healing in harvestmen occurs in a manner comparable to that of other chelicerates. Leg injuries exhibited interspecific variation with respect to the overall frequency of leg wounds and the specific legs that were most commonly damaged. In addition, we measured walking and climbing speeds of adult C. marginalis and found that individuals with fresh injuries (lab-induced) to femur IV walked at speeds significantly slower than uninjured adults or individuals collected from the field that had fully healed wounds to a single leg. J. Morphol. 278:73-88, 2017. ©© 2016 Wiley Periodicals,Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT...

  16. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT...

  17. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT...

  18. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT...

  19. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT...

  20. Vibration-related extrusion of capillary blood from the calf musculature depends upon directions of vibration of the leg and of the gravity vector.

    PubMed

    Çakar, Halil Ibrahim; Doğan, Serfiraz; Kara, Sadık; Rittweger, Jörn; Rawer, Rainer; Zange, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of vibration of the whole lower leg on the content and the oxygenation of hemoglobin in the unloaded relaxed lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Vibration was applied orthogonal to and in parallel with leg axis to examine whether the extrusion of blood depends on an alignment of main vessel direction, axis of vibration and gravity. The blood volume in the muscles was altered by horizontal and 30° upright body posture. Fifteen male subjects were exposed to 4 sets of experiments with both vibration directions and both tilt angles applied in permutated order. The absence of voluntary muscular activity and the potential occurrence of compound action potentials by stretch reflexes were monitored using electromyography. Total hemoglobin and tissue saturation index were measured with near infrared spectroscopy. Changes of lower leg circumference were measured with strain gauge system placed around the calf. Vibration caused decrease in tHb and increase in TSI indicating extrusion of predominantly venous blood from the muscle. In 30° tilted position, muscles contained more blood at baseline and vibration ejected more blood from the muscle compared with horizontal posture (p < 0.01). At 30° tilting deeper drop in tHb and steeper increase in TSI (p < 0.01) were observed when vibration was applied in parallel with the length axis of muscle. It is concluded that the vibration extrudes more blood in 30° head up posture and the vibration applied in parallel with the length axis of the muscle is more effective than orthogonal vibration.

  1. Evaluation of different captive bolt lengths and breed influence upon post-stun hind limb and forelimb activity in fed cattle at a commercial slaughter facility.

    PubMed

    Martin, Miriam S; Kline, Helen C; Wagner, Dana R; Alexander, Lacey R; Edwards-Callaway, Lily N; Grandin, Temple

    2018-05-03

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of captive bolt length and breed type on post-stun leg activity in cattle. A total of 2850 Holstein (HOL) and non-Holstein British/Continental bred (NHOL) steers and heifers were observed post-stunning at a large commercial slaughter facility. A pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt stunner was used with three different bolt lengths: CON, 15.24 cm; MED, 16.51 cm; and LON, 17.78 cm. Hind limb kicking, forelimb activity, take away belt stops, carcass swing and number of knife sticks during exsanguination were recorded for each animal from video recording. Hind limb and forelimb kicks observed ranged from 0 to 25 and 0 to 8, respectively. Analysis of post-stun hind limb and forelimb activity indicated that increasing pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt length does not decrease post-stun leg activity. There was a higher percentage of cattle experiencing take away belt stops and carcass swing in HOL as compared with NHOL. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Roll type conducting polymer legs for rigid-flexible thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Teahoon; Lim, Hanwhuy; Hwang, Jong Un; Na, Jongbeom; Lee, Hyunki; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2017-07-01

    A roll-type conducting polymer film was explored as a flexible organic p-type thermoelectric leg using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with tosylate. The PEDOT films were prepared through solution casting polymerization and rolled up for a roll-type leg. Due to the high flexibility, the roll-type PEDOT leg enabled easy contact to both top and bottom electrodes. Simulation on the dynamic heat transfer and convective cooling for a vertically roosted rod- and roll-type PEDOT leg showed that the temperature difference (ΔT) between the hot and cold sides of the leg was much higher in the roll than that of the rod. The PEDOT legs were integrated with n-type Bi2Te3 blocks, to give a 36-couple rigid-flexible thermoelectric generator (RF-TEG). The maximum output voltage from the 36-couple RF-TEG under a ΔT of 7.9 K was determined as 36.7 mV along with a high output power of 115 nW. A wearable RF-TEG was prepared upon the combination of the 36-couple RF-TEG with an arm warmer, to afford an output voltage of 10.6 mV, which was generated constantly and steadily from human wrist heat.

  3. Dynamic traversal of large gaps by insects and legged robots reveals a template.

    PubMed

    Gart, Sean W; Yan, Changxin; Othayoth, Ratan; Ren, Zhiyi; Li, Chen

    2018-02-02

    It is well known that animals can use neural and sensory feedback via vision, tactile sensing, and echolocation to negotiate obstacles. Similarly, most robots use deliberate or reactive planning to avoid obstacles, which relies on prior knowledge or high-fidelity sensing of the environment. However, during dynamic locomotion in complex, novel, 3D terrains, such as a forest floor and building rubble, sensing and planning suffer bandwidth limitation and large noise and are sometimes even impossible. Here, we study rapid locomotion over a large gap-a simple, ubiquitous obstacle-to begin to discover the general principles of the dynamic traversal of large 3D obstacles. We challenged the discoid cockroach and an open-loop six-legged robot to traverse a large gap of varying length. Both the animal and the robot could dynamically traverse a gap as large as one body length by bridging the gap with its head, but traversal probability decreased with gap length. Based on these observations, we developed a template that accurately captured body dynamics and quantitatively predicted traversal performance. Our template revealed that a high approach speed, initial body pitch, and initial body pitch angular velocity facilitated dynamic traversal, and successfully predicted a new strategy for using body pitch control that increased the robot's maximal traversal gap length by 50%. Our study established the first template of dynamic locomotion beyond planar surfaces, and is an important step in expanding terradynamics into complex 3D terrains.

  4. Personality characteristics and cognitive appraisals associated with self-discrepancy after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Beadle, Elizabeth Jane; Ownsworth, Tamara; Fleming, Jennifer; Shum, David H K

    2018-05-09

    Although changes to self-identity or self-discrepancy are common after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the influence of personality characteristics and cognitive appraisals on self-discrepancy. Participants were 51 adults (74% male) with severe TBI (M age = 36.22 years; SD = 12.65) who were on average 34 months (SD = 40.29) post-injury. They completed self-report measures of personality style (optimism and defensiveness), cognitive appraisals (threat appraisals, rumination and reflection and perceived coping resources), and self-discrepancy (Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale - III). Correlation analyses identified that higher levels of optimism, defensiveness and perceived coping resources were significantly associated with more positive self-discrepancy (r = .29-.47, p < .05), whereas higher threat appraisals and rumination were significantly related to more negative self-discrepancy (r = -.50-.57, p < .001). After controlling for personality characteristics, cognitive appraisals significantly accounted for self-discrepancy (R 2 change = .15). Moreover, rumination significantly mediated the relationship between optimism and self-discrepancy. In summary, cognitive appraisals were found to be related to self-discrepancy, independent of personality characteristics. Rumination in particular may be an important target of psychological intervention for individuals experiencing negative self-discrepancy.

  5. High day-to-day reliability in lower leg volume measured by water displacement.

    PubMed

    Pasley, Jeffrey D; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2008-07-01

    The day-to-day reliability of lower leg volume is poorly documented. This investigation determined the day-to-day reliability of lower leg volume (soleus and gastrocnemius) measured using water displacement. Thirty young adults (15 men and 15 women) had their right lower leg volume measured by water displacement on five separate occasions. The participants performed normal activities of daily living and were measured at the same time of day after being seated for 30 min. The results revealed a high day-to-day reliability for lower leg volume. The mean percentage change in lower leg volume across days compared to day 1 ranged between 0 and 0.37%. The mean within subjects coefficient of variation in lower leg volume was 0.72% and the coefficient of variation for the entire sample across days ranged from 5.66 to 6.32%. A two way mixed model intraclass correlation (30 subjects x 5 days) showed that the lower leg volume measurement was highly reliable (ICC = 0.972). Foot and total lower leg volumes showed similarly high reliability. Water displacement offers a cost effective and reliable solution for the measurement of lower leg edema across days.

  6. Leg symptoms associated with sacroiliac joint disorder and related pain.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi; Kurosawa, Daisuke; Noguchi, Kyoko

    2017-06-01

    The symptoms of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are usually detected in the buttock and groin, and occasionally referred to the thigh and leg. However, lumbar disorders also cause symptoms in these same body regions. The presence of a characteristic, symptomatic pattern in the legs would be useful for diagnosing SIJ disorders. This study aimed to identify specific leg symptoms in patients with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament and determine the rate of occurrence of these symptoms. The source population consisted of 365 consecutive patients from February 2005 to December 2007. One hundred patients were diagnosed with SIJ pain by a periarticular SIJ injection (42 males and 58 females, average age 46 years, age range, 18-75 years). A leg symptom map was made by subtracting the symptoms after a periarticular SIJ injection from the initial symptoms, and evaluating the rate of each individual symptom by area. Ninety-four patients reported pain at or around the posterior-superior iliac spine (PSIS). Leg symptoms comprised pain and a numbness/tingling sensation; ≥60% of the patients had these symptoms. Pain was mainly detected in the back, buttock, groin, and thigh areas, while numbness/tingling was mainly detected in the lateral to posterior thigh and back of the calf. Leg symptoms associated with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament include both pain and numbness, which do not usually correspond to the dermatome. These leg symptoms in addition to pain around the PSIS may indicate SIJ disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The second leg home advantage: evidence from European football cup competitions.

    PubMed

    Page, Lionel; Page, Katie

    2007-12-01

    The home advantage is a widely acknowledged sporting phenomenon, especially in association football. Here, we examine the second leg home advantage, an effect that is discussed in the public domain but which has received very little scientific attention. The second leg home advantage effect occurs when on average teams are more likely to win a two-stage knock-out competition when they play at home in the second leg. That is, both teams have a home advantage but this advantage is significantly greater for the team that plays at home second. Examining data from three different European Cup football competitions spanning 51 years, we show that the second leg home advantage is a real phenomenon. The second leg home team has more than a 50% probability to qualify for the next round in the competition even after controlling for extra time and team ability as possible alternative explanations. The second leg home advantage appears, however, to have decreased significantly over the past decade. Possible reasons for its existence and subsequent decline are presented.

  8. Lawsuits After Primary and Revision Total Hip Arthroplasties: A Malpractice Claims Analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Diana C; Grelsamer, Ronald P; Bronson, Michael J; Moucha, Calin S

    2017-10-01

    As the prevalence of total hip arthroplasty (THA) expands, so too will complications and patient dissatisfaction. The goal of this study was to identify the common etiologies of malpractice suits and costs of claims after primary and revision THAs. Analysis of 115 malpractice claims filed for alleged neglectful primary and revision THA surgeries by orthopedic surgeons insured by a large New York state malpractice carrier between 1983 and 2011. The incidence of malpractice claims filed for negligent THA procedures is only 0.15% per year in our population. In primary cases, nerve injury ("foot drop") was the most frequent allegation with 27 claims. Negligent surgery causing dislocation was alleged in 18 and leg length discrepancy in 14. Medical complications were also reported, including 3 thromboembolic events and 6 deaths. In revision cases, dislocation and infection were the most common source of suits. The average indemnity payment was $386,153 and the largest single settlement was $4.1 million for an arterial injury resulting in amputation after a primary hip replacement. The average litigation cost to the insurer was $61,833. Nerve injury, dislocation, and leg length discrepancy are the most common reason for malpractice after primary THA. Orthopedic surgeons should continue to focus on minimizing the occurrence of these complications while adequately incorporating details about the risks and limitations of surgery into their preoperative education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. VenUS I: a randomised controlled trial of two types of bandage for treating venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, C; Nelson, E A; Cullum, N A; Torgerson, D J

    2004-07-01

    To compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of two different compression bandages for the healing of venous leg ulcers. A pragmatic, randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation. Community, district nurse-led services; community leg ulcer clinics; hospital leg ulcer clinics with community outreach. A range of urban and rural settings in England and Scotland. Patients with a venous leg ulcer of at least 1-week's duration, at least 1 cm in length or width and an ankle:brachial pressure index of at least 0.8. The four-layer bandage (4LB) (which is multilayer elastic compression) compared with the short-stretch bandage (SSB) (multilayer, inelastic compression). The primary end-point was complete healing of all the ulcers on the trial leg. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of patients healed at 12 and 24 weeks, rate of recurrence, costs of leg ulcer treatment and quality of life. Between April 1999 and December 2000 the trial recruited 387 people aged from 23 to 97 years at trial entry. The majority of patients in this trial (82%; 316/387) had a reference ulcer of area

  10. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Locomotor-Like Leg Movements Evoked by Rhythmic Arm Movements in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; MacLellan, Michael J.; Cappellini, Germana; Poppele, Richard E.; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG) activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs. PMID:24608249

  12. National dosimetric audit network finds discrepancies in AAA lung inhomogeneity corrections.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Leon; Lehmann, Joerg; Lye, Jessica; Kenny, John; Kron, Tomas; Alves, Andrew; Cole, Andrew; Zifodya, Jackson; Williams, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    This work presents the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service's (ACDS) findings of an investigation of systematic discrepancies between treatment planning system (TPS) calculated and measured audit doses. Specifically, a comparison between the Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) and other common dose-calculation algorithms in regions downstream (≥2cm) from low-density material in anthropomorphic and slab phantom geometries is presented. Two measurement setups involving rectilinear slab-phantoms (ACDS Level II audit) and anthropomorphic geometries (ACDS Level III audit) were used in conjunction with ion chamber (planar 2D array and Farmer-type) measurements. Measured doses were compared to calculated doses for a variety of cases, with and without the presence of inhomogeneities and beam-modifiers in 71 audits. Results demonstrate a systematic AAA underdose with an average discrepancy of 2.9 ± 1.2% when the AAA algorithm is implemented in regions distal from lung-tissue interfaces, when lateral beams are used with anthropomorphic phantoms. This systemic discrepancy was found for all Level III audits of facilities using the AAA algorithm. This discrepancy is not seen when identical measurements are compared for other common dose-calculation algorithms (average discrepancy -0.4 ± 1.7%), including the Acuros XB algorithm also available with the Eclipse TPS. For slab phantom geometries (Level II audits), with similar measurement points downstream from inhomogeneities this discrepancy is also not seen. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.

  14. Effect of Ankle Positioning During Hamstring Stretches for Improving Straight Leg Hip Flexion Motion.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G; Benjamin, Peter J; Selkow, Noelle M

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effects of stretching the hamstrings with the ankle in either a plantar-flexed (PF) or dorsiflexed (DF) position for improving straight leg hip flexion range of motion (ROM) over a 4-week period. Randomized, single-blinded, pretest, posttest design. Athletic training facility. Each limb of 34 asymptomatic individuals (15 males, 19 females) was randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups. Twenty-four limbs received hamstring stretches with the ankle in DF, 24 limbs received hamstring stretches with the ankle in PF, and 20 limbs received no stretch (control). Ankle position (PF, DF) during hamstring stretching. We measured pretest and posttest passive straight leg hip flexion ROM with the test ankle in a neutral position. For the intervention groups, the test limb was passively stretched with the ankle held in end range DF or PF for their respective group. Each stretch was held for 30 seconds for a total of 3 applications. Two treatment sessions were completed per week for a total of 4 weeks. The control limbs received no stretching during the 4-week period. We conducted 1-way analyses of covariance to determine significant changes in ROM between groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between treatment groups (P = 0.90), but a significant difference was found for both the PF (P = 0.04) and DF (P = 0.01) groups when compared with the control group. Our findings indicate that both stretching the hamstrings in either PF or DF improve straight leg hip ROM compared with a control group. The results of this study should be considered by clinicians when determining the optimal stretching techniques aimed at increasing hamstring length.

  15. Measurement error: Implications for diagnosis and discrepancy models of developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Sue M; Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G

    2005-08-01

    The diagnosis of developmental dyslexia (DD) is reliant on a discrepancy between intellectual functioning and reading achievement. Discrepancy-based formulae have frequently been employed to establish the significance of the difference between 'intelligence' and 'actual' reading achievement. These formulae, however, often fail to take into consideration test reliability and the error associated with a single test score. This paper provides an illustration of the potential effects that test reliability and measurement error can have on the diagnosis of dyslexia, with particular reference to discrepancy models. The roles of reliability and standard error of measurement (SEM) in classic test theory are also briefly reviewed. This is followed by illustrations of how SEM and test reliability can aid with the interpretation of a simple discrepancy-based formula of DD. It is proposed that a lack of consideration of test theory in the use of discrepancy-based models of DD can lead to misdiagnosis (both false positives and false negatives). Further, misdiagnosis in research samples affects reproducibility and generalizability of findings. This in turn, may explain current inconsistencies in research on the perceptual, sensory, and motor correlates of dyslexia.

  16. Design of Ski Boots for Alpine Ski Racing Based on Leg Frame of the Skier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Soichiro; Hayashi, Sueyoshi

    A ski boot is important to make progress in ski turning technique as an interface between a skier and a ski. Especially in alpine ski races, suitability of design of the boots for racers becomes more important to achieve accurate and quick lean of the leg in ski turns. This study is aimed at building a new design concept of a ski boot that can improve the results of alpine ski races. In this paper, new design of an upper shell of a ski boot that was adjusted to the features of the frame of alpine ski racers was experimentally examined. As a result, it was demonstrated that a front and a rear part of the upper shell of a ski boot should be separately adjusted to the length of a shank of each player for well-balanced quick lean of the leg in the ski turn. Finally, the effect of new design of an upper shell was examined in giant slalom and slalom tests by Japanese alpine ski racers of the first rank. Consequently, the results showed that lean angle during turns was increased and finish time was shortened when the skiers wore the newly designed boots.

  17. Rotational joint assembly for the prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.; Jones, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A rotational joint assembly for a prosthetic leg has been devised, which enables an artificial foot to rotate slightly when a person is walking, running or turning. The prosthetic leg includes upper and lower tubular members with the rotational joint assembly interposed between them. The assembly includes a restrainer mechanism which consists of a pivotably mounted paddle element. This device applies limiting force to control the rotation of the foot and also restores torque to return the foot back to its initial position.

  18. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Sayles, F.L.

    1971-01-01

    Sediments from Leg 6 sites, west of the Hawaiian Islands, consisted primarily of various combinations of deep-sea biogenic oozes, volcanic ash, and its breakdown products. Pore fluids from most of the sites were similar in composition to present day ocean water, and in some sties almost identical. However, interstitial fluids from Site 53 (Philippine Sea) showed changes in ionic composition which were beyond those previously considered attributable to diagenetic influence. These samples show the beginnings of metamorphism by dramatic increases in calcium concentrations and corresponding decreases in alkali concentrations. Analytical methods were similar to those outlined in previous Leg Reports. However, obvious contamination of aliquots for sodium determination in the laboratory made it necessary to determine all sodium values by difference between anion and cation balances. These values are, if anything, more accurate than direct determinations which have been discussed in earlier legs. However, the authors will continue to analyze sodium directly, and in the future they may be able to improve the precision of the determinations to the point where small losses and gains of sodium in the pore fluids may be established accurately. Agreement between colorimetric and spectrometric determinations of silicon has improved, but there are still occasional marked differences for which the writers have no explanation. T. Takahashi has allowed the authors to compare total Carbon Dioxide (CO2) measurements from his laboratory with their alkalinity determinations: both sets of data were obtained from fluids from the same squeezings of sediments and should give similar values at the indicated pH levels. Some disturbingly large discrepancies in the two sets of data are evident. The authors do not think that their back-titration alkalinity technique alone is responsible for the differences. However, they have not evaluated the possible influence of the heat-sealed polyethylene

  19. Reconstruction with distraction osteogenesis for juxta-articular nonunions with bone loss.

    PubMed

    Kabata, Tamon; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sakurakichi, Keisuke; Yamashiro, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Koji; Tomita, Kasuro

    2005-06-01

    Nonunions of a juxta-articular lesion with bone loss, which represent a challenging therapeutic problem, were treated using external fixation and distraction osteogenesis. Seven juxta-articular nonunions (five septic and two aseptic) were treated. The location of the nonunion was the distal femur in four patients, the proximal tibia in one patient, and the distal tibia in two patients. All of them were located within 5 cm from the affected joints. Preoperative limb shortening was present in six cases, averaging 2.9 cm (range, 1-7 cm). The reconstructive procedure consisted of refreshment of the nonunion site, deformity correction, stabilization by external fixation, and lengthening to eliminate leg length discrepancy or to fill the defect. Shortening-distraction was applied to six patients and bone transport to one patient for reconstruction. Intramedullary nailing to reduce the duration of external fixation was simultaneously performed in two cases. All the patients had at least 1 year of follow-up evaluation. Osseous union without angular deformity or leg length discrepancy greater than 1 cm was achieved in all patients. The mean amount of lengthening was 5.8 cm (range, 2.2-10.0 cm). The mean external fixation period was 219 days (range, 98-317 days), and the mean external fixation index was 34.4 days/cm (range, 24.5-47.6 days/cm). All patients reported excellent pain reduction. There were no recurrences of infection in five patients with prior history of osteomyelitis. The functional results were categorized as excellent in two, good in three, and fair in two. Despite the length of postoperative external fixation, distraction osteogenesis can be a valuable alternative for the treatment of juxta-articular nonunions.

  20. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... Section 761.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type of...

  1. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... Section 761.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type of...

  2. CT angiography - arms and legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007675.htm CT angiography - arms and legs To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. CT angiography combines a CT scan with the injection ...

  3. Radiologic discrepancies in children with special healthcare needs in a pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Festekjian, Ara; Kwan, Karen Y; Chang, Todd P; Lai, Hollie; Fahit, Margil; Liberman, Danica B

    2017-12-21

    After-hours radiologic interpretation by nonradiology attendings or resident radiologists introduces the risk of discrepancies. Clinical outcomes following radiologic discrepancies among pediatric emergency department (ED) patients are poorly described. In particular, children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN), have more opportunities for discrepancies and potential consequences than non- CSHCN. Our objective was to determine the rates and types of radiologic discrepancies, and to compare CSHCN to non-CSHCN. From July 2014 to February 2015, all children who underwent a diagnostic imaging study at a free-standing children's ED were included. Data collected included radiologic studies - type and location - and clinical details - chief complaint and CSHCN type. Differences between preliminary reads and final pediatric radiology attending reads were defined as discrepancies, and categorized by clinical significance. Descriptive statistics, z-tests, and chi-square were used. Over 8months, 8310 visits (7462 unique patients) had radiologic studies (2620 CSHCN, 5690 non-CSHCN). A total of 198 (2.4%) radiologic discrepancies [56 (28.3%) CSHCN, 142 (71.7%) non-CSHCN] were found. Chief complaints for CSCHN were more often within the cardiac, pulmonary and neurologic systems (p<0.001 for each), whereas non-CSHCN presented with more trauma (p<0.001). The rates of discrepancies (CSHCN 2.1%, non- CSHCN 2.5%, p=0.3) and severity of clinical consequences (p=0.6) were not significantly different between CSHCN and non-CSHCN. Though the frequency and type of radiologic studies performed between CSHCN and non-CSHCN were different, we found no significant difference in the rate of radiologic discrepancies or the rate of clinically significant radiologic discrepancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Restless Legs Syndrome : A Threat to the quality of life].

    PubMed

    Castaño-Cárcamo, Mauricio; Escobar-Cordoba, Franklin; Rey de Castro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a disorder associated with the imperative need to move the legs, starting at different times of day and it gets worse at night, relieved by activity, affecting the quality of life and sleep who sufferers it. Despite being a common disorder at any age, in adults with a prevalence of up to 10%, is not diagnosed by doctors and first level specialists that is why diagnostic and therapeutic interventions get delayed contributing to the perpetuation of symptoms and worsening quality of life. Since its diagnosis is purely clinical, getting familiar with this disorder is essential to ensure proper focus and thus rule out other diseases commonly confused with this one. Restless legs syndrome has a multi-factorial etiology that ranges from a genetic and hereditary, which are called primary restless legs syndrome, to its association with multiple pathologies, known as secondary restless legs syndrome. As for its management, drug therapy and non-drug therapy is aimed at symptom control, as its cure is not possible, although occasionally the condition can refer to later repeat in months or years.

  5. Haemoglobin saturation during incremental arm and leg exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Powers, S. K.; Dodd, S.; Woodyard, J.; Beadle, R. E.; Church, G.

    1984-01-01

    There are few reports concerning the alterations in the percent of haemoglobin saturated with oxygen (%SO2) during non-steady state incremental exercise. Further, no data exist to describe the %SO2 changes during arm exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was made to assess the dynamic changes in %SO2 during incremental arm and leg work. Nine trained subjects (7 males and 2 females) performed incremental arm and leg exercise to exhaustion on an arm crank ergometer and a cycle ergometer, respectively. Ventilation and gas exchange measurements were obtained minute by minute via open circuit spirometry and changes in %SO2 were recorded via an ear oximeter. No significant difference (p greater than 0.05) existed between arm and leg work in end-tidal oxygen (PETO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), or %SO2 when compared as a function of percent VO2 max. These results provide evidence that arterial O2 desaturation occurs in a similar fashion in both incremental arm and leg work with the greatest changes in %SO2 occurring at work rates greater than 70% VO2 max. PMID:6435715

  6. A Social Domain Approach to Informant Discrepancies in Parental Solicitation and Family Rules.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Aaron; Babskie, Elizabeth; Olson, Rebecca; Romm, Katelyn

    2016-10-01

    An extensive body of research has explored the effects of parental monitoring on adolescent outcomes, but studies consistently find substantial discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of different monitoring behaviors. Little research has examined whether parents and adolescents are more or less discrepant when reporting on parents' rules or solicitation for different adolescent problem and health risk behaviors and few studies have explored potential explanatory variables to explicate individual variability in parent-adolescent discrepant reporting. To address this gap in the literature, the current study examined discrepancies in mother-adolescent reports of family rules and solicitation across five distinct adolescent behaviors: personal behaviors and four different risk behaviors (alcohol-related, cyber, over- and under-eating). Participants were 143 mother-adolescent dyads (Adolescent M age  = 14.42, SD = 1.73, range = 12-18, 81 % white, 60 % female). Mean-level discrepancies between maternal and adolescent reports significantly differed by category of adolescent behavior and also varied as a function of reported parental monitoring behavior (rules vs. solicitation). Discrepancies in mother-adolescent reports of behavior-specific rules and solicitation were positively associated with discrepancies in mother and adolescent judgments of the harmfulness of the activities. The results demonstrate that discrepancies in mother-adolescent reports of family process differ by category of adolescent behavior and may be undergirded by differences in mother and adolescent informational assumptions about the potential harm involved with different activities.

  7. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Secomb, Josh L.; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R.L.; Lundgren, Lina E.; Tran, Tai T.; Sheppard, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ), and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23) and female (n = 7) surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg) undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In addition, eccentric leg stiffness was calculated from variables of the CMJ and IMTP. Moderate to very large relationships (r = 0.46-0.73) were identified between the thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles, and VL pennation angle and; peak force (PF) in the CMJ, SJ and IMTP. Additionally, moderate to large relationships (r = 0.37-0.59) were found between eccentric leg stiffness and; VL and LG thickness, VL pennation angle, and LG fascicle length, with a large relationship (r = 0.59) also present with IMTP PF. These results suggest that greater thickness of the VL and LG were related to improved maximal dynamic and isometric strength, likely due to increased hypertrophy of the extensor muscles. Furthermore, this increased thickness was related to greater eccentric leg stiffness, as the associated enhanced lower-body strength likely allowed for greater neuromuscular activation, and hence less compliance, during a stretch-shortening cycle. Key points Greater thickness of the VL and LG muscles were significantly related to an enhanced ability to express higher levels of isometric and dynamic strength, and explosiveness in adolescent athletes. Isometric strength underpinned performance in the CMJ and SJ in these athletes. Greater lower-body isometric strength was significantly related to eccentric leg stiffness, which is potentially the result of greater neuromuscular activation in the muscle-tendon unit. PMID

  8. Method for six-legged robot stepping on obstacles by indirect force estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yilin; Gao, Feng; Pan, Yang; Chai, Xun

    2016-07-01

    Adaptive gaits for legged robots often requires force sensors installed on foot-tips, however impact, temperature or humidity can affect or even damage those sensors. Efforts have been made to realize indirect force estimation on the legged robots using leg structures based on planar mechanisms. Robot Octopus III is a six-legged robot using spatial parallel mechanism(UP-2UPS) legs. This paper proposed a novel method to realize indirect force estimation on walking robot based on a spatial parallel mechanism. The direct kinematics model and the inverse kinematics model are established. The force Jacobian matrix is derived based on the kinematics model. Thus, the indirect force estimation model is established. Then, the relation between the output torques of the three motors installed on one leg to the external force exerted on the foot tip is described. Furthermore, an adaptive tripod static gait is designed. The robot alters its leg trajectory to step on obstacles by using the proposed adaptive gait. Both the indirect force estimation model and the adaptive gait are implemented and optimized in a real time control system. An experiment is carried out to validate the indirect force estimation model. The adaptive gait is tested in another experiment. Experiment results show that the robot can successfully step on a 0.2 m-high obstacle. This paper proposes a novel method to overcome obstacles for the six-legged robot using spatial parallel mechanism legs and to avoid installing the electric force sensors in harsh environment of the robot's foot tips.

  9. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present. PMID:27213008

  10. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography.

    PubMed

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present.

  11. Determinants and consequences of discrepancies in menstrual and ultrasonographic gestational age estimates.

    PubMed

    Morin, Isabelle; Morin, Lucie; Zhang, Xun; Platt, Robert W; Blondel, Béatrice; Bréart, Gérard; Usher, Robert; Kramer, Michael S

    2005-02-01

    To assess the association between maternal and fetal characteristics and discrepancy between last normal menstrual period and early (<20 weeks) ultrasound-based gestational age and the association between discrepancies and pregnancy outcomes. Hospital-based cohort study. Montreal, Canada. A total of 46,514 women with both menstrual- and early ultrasound-based gestational age estimates. Positive (last normal menstrual period > early ultrasound, i.e. menstrual-based gestational age is higher than early ultrasound-based gestational age, so that the expected date of delivery is earlier with the menstrual-based gestational age) discrepancies > or =+7 days, mean birthweight, low birthweight, stillbirth and in-hospital neonatal death. Multiparous mothers and those with diabetes, small stature or high pre-pregnancy body mass index were more likely to have positive discrepancies. The proportion of women with discrepancies > or =+7 days was significantly higher among chromosomally malformed and female fetuses. The mean birthweight declined with increasingly positive differences. The risk of low birthweight was significantly higher for positive differences. Associations with fetal growth measures were more plausible with early ultrasound estimates. Although most discrepancies between last normal menstrual period- and early ultrasound-based gestational age are attributable to errors in menstrual dating, our results suggest that some positive differences reflect early growth restriction.

  12. Loss of legs: is it or not a handicap for an orb-weaving spider?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquet, Alain; Anotaux, Mylène; Leborgne, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Leg loss is a common phenomenon in spiders, and according to the species 5% to 40% of the adults can present at least one missing leg. There is no possibility of regeneration after adult moult and the animal must manage with its missing appendages until its death. With the loss of one or more legs, female orb-weaving spiders can be penalized twice: firstly, because the legs are necessary for web construction and secondly, the legs are essential for the control of the prey after its interception by the web. During development, spiders may be also penalized because regeneration has energetic costs that take away resources for survival, growth and reproduction. All these consequences should influence negatively the development of the spider and thus its fitness. We investigated the impact of leg loss in the orb-weaving spider, Zygiella x-notata by studying its frequency in a natural population and web building and prey capture behaviours in laboratory. In field populations, 9.5% to 13%, of the adult females presented the loss of one or more legs; the majority of individuals had lost only one leg (in 48% of cases, a first one). Leg loss seems to affect all the adult spiders, as there is no difference of mass between intact spiders and those with missing leg. Data obtained with laboratory-reared spiders, showed that the loss of legs due to the moult is rare (less than 1%). Considering changes in web design, spiders with missing legs decreased their silk investment, increased the distance between spiral turns but did not change the capture surface of the web. Under our laboratory experimental conditions, spiders with one or two lost legs did not present any difference in prey capture efficiency. In laboratory conditions, spiders with lost leg(s) did not show any difference in egg sac production or in longevity (adult lifespan) compared to intact spiders.

  13. Reconciling extreme branch length differences: decoupling time and rate through the evolutionary history of filmy ferns.

    PubMed

    Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2006-06-01

    The rate of molecular evolution is not constant across the Tree of Life. Characterizing rate discrepancies and evaluating the relative roles of time and rate along branches through the past are both critical to a full understanding of evolutionary history. In this study, we explore the interactions of time and rate in filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae), a lineage with extreme branch length differences between the two major clades. We test for the presence of significant rate discrepancies within and between these clades, and we separate time and rate across the filmy fern phylogeny to simultaneously yield an evolutionary time scale of filmy fern diversification and reconstructions of ancestral rates of molecular evolution. Our results indicate that the branch length disparity observed between the major lineages of filmy ferns is indeed due to a significant difference in molecular evolutionary rate. The estimation of divergence times reveals that the timing of crown group diversification was not concurrent for the two lineages, and the reconstruction of ancestral rates of molecular evolution points to a substantial rate deceleration in one of the clades. Further analysis suggests that this may be due to a genome-wide deceleration in the rate of nucleotide substitution.

  14. Leg orientation as a clinical sign for pusher syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Leif; Broetz, Doris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2006-01-01

    Background Effective control of (upright) body posture requires a proper representation of body orientation. Stroke patients with pusher syndrome were shown to suffer from severely disturbed perception of own body orientation. They experience their body as oriented 'upright' when actually tilted by nearly 20° to the ipsilesional side. Thus, it can be expected that postural control mechanisms are impaired accordingly in these patients. Our aim was to investigate pusher patients' spontaneous postural responses of the non-paretic leg and of the head during passive body tilt. Methods A sideways tilting motion was applied to the trunk of the subject in the roll plane. Stroke patients with pusher syndrome were compared to stroke patients not showing pushing behaviour, patients with acute unilateral vestibular loss, and non brain damaged subjects. Results Compared to all groups without pushing behaviour, the non-paretic leg of the pusher patients showed a constant ipsiversive tilt across the whole tilt range for an amount which was observed in the non-pusher subjects when they were tilted for about 15° into the ipsiversive direction. Conclusion The observation that patients with acute unilateral vestibular loss showed no alterations of leg posture indicates that disturbed vestibular afferences alone are not responsible for the disordered leg responses seen in pusher patients. Our results may suggest that in pusher patients a representation of body orientation is disturbed that drives both conscious perception of body orientation and spontaneous postural adjustment of the non-paretic leg in the roll plane. The investigation of the pusher patients' leg-to-trunk orientation thus could serve as an additional bedside tool to detect pusher syndrome in acute stroke patients. PMID:16928280

  15. Genetic analysis of feet and leg conformation traits in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Vargas, G; Neves, H H R; Cardoso, V; Munari, D P; Carvalheiro, R

    2017-06-01

    Feet and leg conformation scores are important traits in beef cattle because they encompass a wide range of locomotion disorders that can lead to productive and reproductive losses. Thus, the study of feet and legs in beef cattle is essential for evaluating possible responses to selection focusing on minimizing economic losses caused by the occurrence of feet and leg problems. The aim of this study was to estimate variance components for feet and leg conformation traits in Nelore cattle. The data set contained records of approximately 300,000 animals that were born between 2000 and 2013. These animals belonged to the commercial beef cattle breeding program of the CRV Lagoa (). Feet and legs were evaluated by assigning visual scores at 2 different time points: feet and leg evaluated as a binary trait (FL1), measured at yearling (about 550 d of age) to identify whether (or not) an animal has feet and leg defects, and feet and leg score (FL2), ranging from 1 (less desirable) to 5 (more desirable) was assigned to the top 20% of animals according to the selection index adopted by the beef cattle breeding program, which was measured 2 to 5 mo after the yearling evaluation. The FL1 and FL2 traits were analyzed together with yearling weight (YW). The (co)variance components and breeding values were estimated by Bayesian inference using 2-trait animal models. The posterior means (standard errors) of the heritabilities for FL1, FL2, and YW were 0.18 (0.04), 0.39 (0.07), and 0.47 (0.01), respectively. The results indicate that the incidence of feet and leg problems in this population might be reduced by selection. The genetic correlation between FL1 and FL2 (-0.47) was moderate and negative as expected because the classification score that holds up each trait has opposite numerical values. The genetic trends estimated for FL1 and FL2 (-0.042 and 0.021 genetic standard deviations per year, respectively) were favorable and they indicate that the independent culling strategy for

  16. Analysis of F-16 radar discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riche, K. A.

    1982-12-01

    One hundred and eight aircraft were randomly selected from three USAF F-16 bases and examined. These aircraft included 63 single-seat F-16As and 45 two-seat F-16Bs and encompassed 8,525 sorties and 748 radar system write-ups. Programs supported by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were run on the data. Of the 748 discrepancies, over one-third of them occurred within three sorties of each other and half within six sorties. Sixteen percent of all aircraft which had a discrepancy within three sorties had another write-up within the next three sorties. Designated repeat/recurring write-ups represented one-third of all the instances in which the write-up separation interval was three sorties or less. This is an indication that maintenance is unable to correct equipment failures as they occur, most likely because the false alarm rate is too high and maintenance is unable to duplicate the error conditions on the ground for correct error diagnosis.

  17. [Fractures of the lower leg in professional skiers].

    PubMed

    Mückley, T; Kruis, C; Schütz, T; Brucker, P; Bühren, V

    2004-03-01

    Fractures of the lower leg due to skiing accidents remain an important concern. Few studies have focussed on the special demands of professional athletes who sustain these injuries. We present our experience with three cases of lower leg fractures in competitive professional downhill skiers and discuss management and treatment concepts. We performed limited reamed compression nailing in all the patients presented because it offers the advantages of high mechanical stability and optimized fragment apposition. Plate osteosynthesis of the fibula is not required in most typical fractures. All patients resumed ski training. Two of them returned to World Cup. Only one achieved her pre-injury World Cup level of performance and success. In conclusion, a successful return for professional skiers with lower leg fractures is feasible using an optimized treatment strategy.

  18. Experiments in balance with a 2D one-legged hopping machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raibert, M. H.; Brown, H. B., Jr.

    1984-03-01

    The ability to balance is important to the mobility obtained by legged creatures found in nature, and may someday lead to versatile legged vehicles. In order to study the role of balance in legged locomotion and to develop appropriate control strategies, a 2D hopping machine was constructed for experimentation. The machine has one leg on which it hops and runs, making balance a prime consideration. Control of the machine's locomotion was decomposed into three separate parts: a vertical height control part, a horizontal velocity part, and an angular attitude control part. Experiments showed that the three part control scheme, while very simple to implement, was powerful enough to permit the machine to hop in place, to run at a desired rate, to translate from place to place, and to leap over obstacles. Results from modeling and computer simulation of a similar one-legged device are described by Raibert (1983).

  19. 11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  20. Cerebellar Tests Differentiate between Groups of Poor Readers with and without IQ Discrepancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Angela J.; Nicolson, Roderick I.; Maclagan, Fiona

    2001-01-01

    Tests of phonological, speed, motor and cerebellar tasks were given to 36 students with learning disabilities, 29 of whom were classified as non-discrepant (IQ<90) and 7 as discrepant, (IQ at least 90 and dyslexic). On the cerebellar tests of postural stability and muscle tone, the non-discrepant group performed significantly better than the…

  1. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    PubMed Central

    Demšar, Ivan; Duhovnik, Jože; Lešnik, Blaž; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW), various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA) and Range of Motion (RoM) in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1°) was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8°) and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°). In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2°) was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°). The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing. Key points The RoM in the ski boot on the side of the prosthetic leg was smaller than the RoM of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the ankle joint of prosthetic leg was comparable to that of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the prosthetic knee joint was greater than the RoM in the knee joint of the

  2. Ankle Joint Angle and Lower Leg Musculotendinous Unit Responses to Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Akehi, Kazuma; Long, Blaine C; Warren, Aric J; Goad, Carla L

    2016-09-01

    Akehi, K, Long, BC, Warren, AJ, and Goad, CL. Ankle joint angle and lower leg musculotendinous unit responses to cryotherapy. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2482-2492, 2016-The use of cold application has been debated for its influence on joint range of motion (ROM) and stiffness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 30-minute ice bag application to the plantarflexor muscles or ankle influences passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM and lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Thirty-five recreationally active college-aged individuals with no history of lower leg injury 6 months before data collection volunteered. On each testing day, we measured maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM (°) and plantarflexor torque (N·m) on an isokinetic dynamometer to calculate the passive plantarflexor MTS (N·m per degree) at 4 joint angles before, during, and after a treatment. Surface electromyography amplitudes (μV), and skin surface and ambient air temperature (°C) were also measured. Subjects received an ice bag to the posterior lower leg, ankle joint, or nothing for 30 minutes in different days. Ice bag application to the lower leg and ankle did not influence passive ROM (F(12,396) = 0.67, p = 0.78). Passive torque increased after ice bag application to the lower leg (F(12,396) = 2.21, p = 0.011). Passive MTS at the initial joint angle increased after ice bag application to the lower leg (F(12,396) = 2.14, p = 0.014) but not at the other joint angles (p > 0.05). Surface electromyography amplitudes for gastrocnemius and soleus muscles increased after ice application to the lower leg (F(2,66) = 5.61, p = 0.006; F(12,396) = 3.60, p < 0.001). Ice bag application to the lower leg and ankle joint does not alter passive dorsiflexion ROM but increases passive ankle plantarflexor torque in addition to passive ankle plantarflexor MTS at the initial joint angle.

  3. Design of a Single Motor Based Leg Structure with the Consideration of Inherent Mechanical Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha Manzoor, Muhammad; Sohail, Umer; Noor-e-Mustafa; Nizami, Muhammad Hamza Asif; Ayaz, Yasar

    2017-07-01

    The fundamental aspect of designing a legged robot is constructing a leg design that is robust and presents a simple control problem. In this paper, we have successfully designed a robotic leg based on a unique four bar mechanism with only one motor per leg. The leg design parameters used in our platform are extracted from design principles used in biological systems, multiple iterations and previous research findings. These principles guide a robotic leg to have minimal mechanical passive impedance, low leg mass and inertia, a suitable foot trajectory utilizing a practical balance between leg kinematics and robot usage, and the resultant inherent mechanical stability. The designed platform also exhibits the key feature of self-locking. Theoretical tools and software iterations were used to derive these practical features and yield an intuitive sense of the required leg design parameters.

  4. Increase in Leg Stiffness Reduces Joint Work During Backpack Carriage Running at Slow Velocities.

    PubMed

    Liew, Bernard; Netto, Kevin; Morris, Susan

    2017-10-01

    Optimal tuning of leg stiffness has been associated with better running economy. Running with a load is energetically expensive, which could have a significant impact on athletic performance where backpack carriage is involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of load magnitude and velocity on leg stiffness. We also explored the relationship between leg stiffness and running joint work. Thirty-one healthy participants ran overground at 3 velocities (3.0, 4.0, 5.0 m·s -1 ), whilst carrying 3 load magnitudes (0%, 10%, 20% weight). Leg stiffness was derived using the direct kinetic-kinematic method. Joint work data was previously reported in a separate study. Linear models were used to establish relationships between leg stiffness and load magnitude, velocity, and joint work. Our results found that leg stiffness did not increase with load magnitude. Increased leg stiffness was associated with reduced total joint work at 3.0 m·s -1 , but not at faster velocities. The association between leg stiffness and joint work at slower velocities could be due to an optimal covariation between skeletal and muscular components of leg stiffness, and limb attack angle. When running at a relatively comfortable velocity, greater leg stiffness may reflect a more energy efficient running pattern.

  5. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.817 Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform (Morpeth...

  6. Endogenous pro-thrombotic biomarkers from the arm and leg may not have the same value.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, Christopher R; Kalodiki, Evi; Geroulakos, George; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed

    2016-05-01

    Assessments of endogenous pro-thrombotic biomarkers are performed invariably on arm blood. However, the commonest site for thrombosis is in the leg. A leg blood sample may reflect local pro-thrombotic processes more accurately than systemic arm blood. The aim was to determine whether pro-thrombotic biomarkers from standard venous arm samples differed significantly from leg samples. Concurrent blood samples were taken from an ankle/lower calf varicose vein and an ante-cubital vein in 24 patients awaiting laser treatment as well as age approximated and sex matched healthy controls without venous disease. The following assays were performed: thrombin-antithrombin (ng/ml), antithrombin (%) activity, microparticles (nM), fibrinogen (mg/dl), prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2) (pM) and P-selectin (ng/ml). Expressed as median (inter-quartile range). Significant arm/leg differences were observed in thrombin-antithrombin, antithrombin, prothrombin fragment 1.2 and P-selectin. The legs of patients had significantly reduced antithrombin activity and P-selectin concentrations compared to their arms (leg: 101 (90-108) versus arm: 112 (99-126), P = 0.001 and leg: 42 (26-52) versus 45 (27-52), P = 0.044, respectively). Control leg samples had significantly increased thrombin-antithrombin and P-selectin compared to control arm samples (leg: 2.1 (0.9-3.2) versus arm: 0.8 (0.5-1.7), P = 0.015 and leg: 36 (24-50) versus arm: 30 (23-41), P = 0.007, respectively). However, the control legs had significantly reduced F1.2 (leg: 265 (230-333) versus arm: 299 (236-361), P = 0.028). No significant arm/leg differences were detected in the microparticle or fibrinogen levels. These findings indicate that venous arm blood is significantly different from venous leg blood in four out of six biomarkers studied. Recognition of local venous leg sampling as a site for investigation may unravel why the leg has a greater predisposition to thrombosis and lead the way towards an arm/leg

  7. Sensorimotor state of the contralateral leg affects ipsilateral muscle coordination of pedaling.

    PubMed

    Ting, L H; Raasch, C C; Brown, D A; Kautz, S A; Zajac, F E

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if independent central pattern generating elements controlling the legs in bipedal and unipedal locomotion is a viable theory for locomotor propulsion in humans. Coordinative coupling of the limbs could then be accomplished through mechanical interactions and ipsilateral feedback control rather than through central interlimb neural pathways. Pedaling was chosen as the locomotor task to study because interlimb mechanics can be significantly altered, as pedaling can be executed with the use of either one leg or two legs (cf. walking) and because the load on the limb can be well-controlled. Subjects pedaled a modified bicycle ergometer in a two-legged (bilateral) and a one-legged (unilateral) pedaling condition. The loading on the leg during unilateral pedaling was designed to be identical to the loading experienced by the leg during bilateral pedaling. This loading was achieved by having a trained human "motor" pedal along with the subject and exert on the opposite crank the torque that the subject's contralateral leg generated in bilateral pedaling. The human "motor" was successful at reproducing each subject's one-leg crank torque. The shape of the motor's torque trajectory was similar to that of subjects, and the amount of work done during extension and flexion was not significantly different. Thus the same muscle coordination pattern would allow subjects to pedal successfully in both the bilateral and unilateral conditions, and the afferent signals from the pedaling leg could be the same for both conditions. Although the overall work done by each leg did not change, an 86% decrease in retarding (negative) crank torque during limb flexion was measured in all 11 subjects during the unilateral condition. This corresponded to an increase in integrated electromyography of tibialis anterior (70%), rectus femoris (43%), and biceps femoris (59%) during flexion. Even given visual torque feedback in the unilateral condition

  8. Overnight shift work: factors contributing to diagnostic discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Tarek N; Loehfelm, Thomas; Khosa, Faisal; Rohatgi, Saurabh; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the study are to identify factors contributing to preliminary interpretive discrepancies on overnight radiology resident shifts and apply this data in the context of known literature to draw parallels to attending overnight shift work schedules. Residents in one university-based training program provided preliminary interpretations of 18,488 overnight (11 pm–8 am) studies at a level 1 trauma center between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. As part of their normal workflow and feedback, attendings scored the reports as major discrepancy, minor discrepancy, agree, and agree--good job. We retrospectively obtained the preliminary interpretation scores for each study. Total relative value units (RVUs) per shift were calculated as an indicator of overnight workload. The dataset was supplemented with information on trainee level, number of consecutive nights on night float, hour, modality, and per-shift RVU. The data were analyzed with proportional logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. There were 233 major discrepancies (1.26 %). Trainee level (senior vs. junior residents; 1.08 vs. 1.38 %; p < 0.05) and modality were significantly associated with performance. Increased workload affected more junior residents' performance, with R3 residents performing significantly worse on busier nights. Hour of the night was not significantly associated with performance, but there was a trend toward best performance at 2 am, with subsequent decreased accuracy throughout the remaining shift hours. Improved performance occurred after the first six night float shifts, presumably as residents acclimated to a night schedule. As overnight shift work schedules increase in popularity for residents and attendings, focused attention to factors impacting interpretative accuracy is warranted.

  9. [Contact eczema in patients with leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Degreef, H; Dooms-Goossens, A; Gladys, K

    1986-01-01

    Patients with leg ulcers or varicose eczema suffer much more often from contact eczema due to the local application of pharmaceutical preparations than patients suffering from other dermatological problems (even those of eczematous origin). This contact allergy may concern not only the active ingredient but also the excipient, the preservative, or even the perfume. In all cases of leg ulcers, of varicose eczema, but also of badly healed ulcers, epicutaneous tests should be carried out with all the components of the pharmaceutical preparations concerned. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry really must perfect non-allergenic preparations.

  10. Reporter Discrepancies Among Parents, Adolescents, and Peers: Adolescent Attachment and Informant Depressive Symptoms as Explanatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude; Dykas, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of informant discrepancies about child and adolescent functioning is an important concern for clinicians, developmental psychologists, and others who must consider ways of handling discrepant reports of information, but reasons for discrepancies in reports have been poorly understood. Adolescent attachment and informant depressive symptoms were examined as two explanations for absolute and directional discrepancies about adolescent symptoms, relationships, and social behavior in a sample of 189 eleventh-grade students (mean age = 16.5 years). Adolescent attachment predicted absolute discrepancies, with greater attachment coherence associated with fewer discrepancies in reports of adolescent depressive symptoms, parent-adolescent conflict, and adolescent externalizing behavior. Parents’ but not adolescents’ depressive symptoms sometimes predicted absolute discrepancies. Mothers’ depressive symptoms and adolescent attachment predicted the direction of discrepancies for mother-peer reports only. PMID:21410916

  11. Ultrasonography of Skin Changes in Legs with Chronic Venous Disease.

    PubMed

    Caggiati, A

    2016-10-01

    In daily practice, ultrasonography (US) is used only to designate the location and pattern of venous lesions. Skin US is not performed between routine venous investigations. Skin morphology is evaluated by the same probes used for routine Duplex evaluation of superficial veins. US findings from evident skin lesions are comparatively evaluated with those from the surrounding apparently normal skin and from the contralateral leg. Inflammation and dermal edema can be found in the apparently normal skin of C2 legs. Swollen legs show thickening of the subcutaneous layer as a result of diffuse soaking or anechoic cavities, with or without dermal edema. Chronic hypodermitis is characterized by inflammatory edema in initial phases, and by liposclerosis in advanced cases. Recrudescence of inflammation provokes focal rarefactions of the subcutaneous layer, possibly related to ulcer opening. In legs with venous disorders, sonography refines clinical evaluation of the skin and may reveal changes not highlighted by inspection. Some of these changes could require further investigation because they have not yet been explained or described. Skin sonography should improve knowledge of the natural history of skin changes, as well as contribute to a better grading of venous diseases severity In particular, US evidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous changes in C2 legs should be considered to stratify the treatment in C2 legs, by identifying those in which varicose veins are not simply a cosmetic problem. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is arch form influenced by sagittal molar relationship or Bolton tooth-size discrepancy?

    PubMed

    Aldrees, Abdullah M; Al-Shujaa, Abdulmajeed M; Alqahtani, Mohammad A; Aljhani, Ali S

    2015-06-26

    Orthodontic patients show high prevalence of tooth-size discrepancy. This study investigates the possible association between arch form, clinically significant tooth-size discrepancy, and sagittal molar relationship. Pretreatment orthodontic casts of 230 Saudi patients were classified into one of three arch form types (tapered, ovoid, and square) using digitally scanned images of the mandibular arches. Bolton ratio was calculated, sagittal molar relationship was defined according to Angle classification, and correlations were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, and t-tests. No single arch form was significantly more common than the others. Furthermore, no association was observed between the presence of significant Bolton discrepancy and the sagittal molar relationship or arch form. Overall Bolton discrepancy is significantly more prevalent in males. Arch form in a Saudi patient group is independent of gender, sagittal molar relationship, and Bolton discrepancy.

  13. Directionally compliant legs influence the intrinsic pitch behaviour of a trotting quadruped

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David V; Meek, Sanford G

    2005-01-01

    Limb design is well conserved among quadrupeds, notably, the knees point forward (i.e. cranial inclination of femora) and the elbows point back (i.e. caudal inclination of humeri). This study was undertaken to examine the effects of joint orientation on individual leg forces and centre of mass dynamics. Steady-speed trotting was simulated in two quadrupedal models. Model I had the knee and elbow orientation of a quadruped and model II had a reversed leg configuration in which knees point back and elbows point forward. The model's legs showed directional compliance determined by the orientation of the knee/elbow. In both models, forward pointing knees/elbows produced a propulsive force bias, while rearward pointing knees/elbows produced a braking force bias. Hence, model I showed the same pattern of hind-leg propulsion and fore-leg braking observed in trotting animals. Simulations revealed minimal pitch oscillations during steady-speed trotting of model I, but substantially greater and more irregular pitch oscillations of model II. The reduced pitch oscillation of model I was a result of fore-leg and hind-leg forces that reduced pitching moments during early and late stance, respectively. This passive mechanism for reducing pitch oscillations was an emergent property of directionally compliant legs with the fore–hind configuration of model I. Such intrinsic stability resulting from mechanical design can simplify control tasks and lead to more robust running machines. PMID:15817430

  14. [A method to avoid lengthening lower limbs after total hip arthroplasty in patients with congenital short femoral neck].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Shang, Xifu; He, Rui; Hu, Fei; Ge, Chang

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the method to avoid lengthening lower limbs after total hip arthroplasty in patients with congenital short femoral neck. The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively from 38 patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty between April 2005 and December 2010. There were 26 males and 12 females, aged 45-78 years (mean, 62.3 years). Among these cases, there were 11 cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, 17 cases of hip osteoarthritis, and 10 cases of femoral neck fracture. Before operation, 29 cases had leg length discrepancy; and the shortened length of the legs was 10-24 mm with an average of 14.5 mm by clinical measurement, and was 11-25 mm with an average of 14.7 mm by X-ray film measurement. The Harris score before operation was 44.0 +/- 3.6. At 1 day after operation, 3 cases had legs lengthening by clinical and X-ray film measurement; limb length difference less than 10 mm was regarded as equal limb length in the other 35 patients (92.1%). All incisions healed by first intention, and no complication of infection or lower limb deep venous thrombosis occurred. In 3 patients who had legs lengthening, 1 patient had abnormal gait and slight limping after increasing heel pad because the lower limb was lengthened by 16 mm, and 2 patients had slight limping. The other patients could walk normally and achieved pain relief of hip. Thirty-six patients were followed up 12-68 months (mean, 43.8 months). The Harris score was 86.7 +/- 2.3 after 6 months, showing significant difference (t = 3.260, P = 0.031) when compared with that before operation. The X-ray films showed no prosthetic loosening or subsidence. For patients with congenital short femoral neck during total hip arthroplasty, the surgeons should pay attention to osteotomy plane determination, limb length measurement, and use of the prosthesis with collar to avoid the lengthening lower limbs.

  15. Mother-son discrepant reporting on parenting practices: The contribution of temperament and depression.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Robert D

    2017-06-01

    Despite low to moderate convergent correlations, assessment of youth typically relies on multiple informants for information across a range of psychosocial domains including parenting practices. Although parent-youth informant discrepancies have been found to predict adverse youth outcomes, few studies have examined contributing factors to the explanation of informant disagreements on parenting practices. The current study represents the first investigation to concurrently examine the role of mother and son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression as pathways to informant discrepancies on parenting practices. Within a community sample of 174 mother-son dyads, results suggest that whereas mother's self-reported temperament evidenced no direct effects on discrepancies, the association between the product term of mother's negative and positive temperament and discrepancies on positive parenting was fully mediated by mother's depression (a mediated moderation). In contrast, son's self-reported temperament evidenced both direct and indirect effects, partially mediated by depression, on rating discrepancies for positive parenting. All told, both son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression contributed to the explanation of discrepant reporting on parenting practices; only mother's self-reported depression, but not temperament, uniquely contributed. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and youth's report in the investigation of informant discrepancies on parenting practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Monocoque structure for the SKITTER three-legged walker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansek, Robert N.; Booth, Andrew J.; Daneman, Steven A.; Dresser, James A.; Haney, Todd G.; Johnson, Gregory R.; Lindzen, Eric C.; Montgomery, Robert C.; Warren, Andrew L.

    1988-06-01

    The SKITTER 2 design is a monocoque version of the proposed lunar three-legged walker. By the definition of monocoque, the body and legs are a shell with no internal ribbing or supports added for absorbing stresses. The purpose of the monocoque is to encase the elements used for power transmission, power supply, and control of the motion. The material for the structure is a vinyl ester resin, Derakane 8084. This material is easily formable and locally obtainable. The body consists of a hexagonally shaped cylinder with truncated hexagonal pyramids on the top and botton. The legs are eight inch diameter cylinders. The legs are comprised of a tibia section and a femur section. The SKITTER 2 is powered by six actuators which provide linear forces that are transformed into rotary torques by a series of chains and sprockets. The joints connect the femur to the body and the tibia to the femur. Surrounding the joints are flexible rubber hoses that fully encase the chains and sprockets. The SKITTER 2 is capable of walking upside down, righting itself after being overturned, and has the ability to perform in many environments. Applications for this walker include lunar transport or drilling, undersea exploration, and operation in severe surroundings such as arctic temperatures or high radiation.

  17. Monocoque structure for the SKITTER three-legged walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansek, Robert N.; Booth, Andrew J.; Daneman, Steven A.; Dresser, James A.; Haney, Todd G.; Johnson, Gregory R.; Lindzen, Eric C.; Montgomery, Robert C.; Warren, Andrew L.

    1988-01-01

    The SKITTER 2 design is a monocoque version of the proposed lunar three-legged walker. By the definition of monocoque, the body and legs are a shell with no internal ribbing or supports added for absorbing stresses. The purpose of the monocoque is to encase the elements used for power transmission, power supply, and control of the motion. The material for the structure is a vinyl ester resin, Derakane 8084. This material is easily formable and locally obtainable. The body consists of a hexagonally shaped cylinder with truncated hexagonal pyramids on the top and botton. The legs are eight inch diameter cylinders. The legs are comprised of a tibia section and a femur section. The SKITTER 2 is powered by six actuators which provide linear forces that are transformed into rotary torques by a series of chains and sprockets. The joints connect the femur to the body and the tibia to the femur. Surrounding the joints are flexible rubber hoses that fully encase the chains and sprockets. The SKITTER 2 is capable of walking upside down, righting itself after being overturned, and has the ability to perform in many environments. Applications for this walker include lunar transport or drilling, undersea exploration, and operation in severe surroundings such as arctic temperatures or high radiation.

  18. Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Rebecca M D; Aflaifel, Nasreen; Bamigboye, Anthony A

    2015-10-19

    Pregnancy is presumed to be a major contributory factor in the increased incidence of varicose veins in women, which can in turn lead to venous insufficiency and leg oedema. The most common symptom of varicose veins and oedema is the substantial pain experienced, as well as night cramps, numbness, tingling, the legs may feel heavy, achy, and possibly be unsightly. Treatments for varicose veins are usually divided into three main groups: surgery, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. Treatments of leg oedema comprise mostly symptom reduction rather than cure and use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. To assess any form of intervention used to relieve the symptoms associated with varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials of treatments for varicose veins or leg oedema, or both, in pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included seven trials (involving 326 women). The trials were largely unclear for selection bias and high risk for performance and detection bias.Two studies were placebo-controlled trials. The first one compared a phlebotonic (rutoside) with placebo for the reduction in symptoms of varicose veins; the second study evaluated the efficacy of troxerutin in comparison to placebo among 30 pregnant women in their second trimester with symptomatic vulvar varicosities and venous insufficiency in their lower extremities. Data from this study were not in useable format, so were not included in the analysis. Two trials compared either compression stockings with resting in left lateral position or reflexology with rest for 15 minutes for the reduction of leg oedema. One trial compared standing water immersion for 20 minutes with sitting upright in a chair with legs elevated for 20

  19. College Students' Affective Distress: The Role of Expectation Discrepancies and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The discrepancy between college students' performance and parents' expectations may be related to college students' affective distress. Further, the role that parent-college student communication reciprocity may play in the context of these discrepancies has not been examined. As a result, this study examined parent-college student expectation…

  20. Maximum step length: relationships to age and knee and hip extensor capacities.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Brian W; Ashton-Miller, James A; Alexander, Neil B

    2007-07-01

    Maximum Step Length may be used to identify older adults at increased risk for falls. Since leg muscle weakness is a risk factor for falls, we tested the hypotheses that maximum knee and hip extension speed, strength, and power capacities would significantly correlate with Maximum Step Length and also that the "step out and back" Maximum Step Length [Medell, J.L., Alexander, N.B., 2000. A clinical measure of maximal and rapid stepping in older women. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 55, M429-M433.] would also correlate with the Maximum Step Length of its two sub-tasks: stepping "out only" and stepping "back only". These sub-tasks will be referred to as versions of Maximum Step Length. Unimpaired younger (N=11, age=24[3]years) and older (N=10, age=73[5]years) women performed the above three versions of Maximum Step Length. Knee and hip extension speed, strength, and power capacities were determined on a separate day and regressed on Maximum Step Length and age group. Version and practice effects were quantified and subjective impressions of test difficulty recorded. Hypotheses were tested using linear regressions, analysis of variance, and Fisher's exact test. Maximum Step Length explained 6-22% additional variance in knee and hip extension speed, strength, and power capacities after controlling for age group. Within- and between-block and test-retest correlation values were high (>0.9) for all test versions. Shorter Maximum Step Lengths are associated with reduced knee and hip extension speed, strength, and power capacities after controlling for age. A single out-and-back step of maximal length is a feasible, rapid screening measure that may provide insight into underlying functional impairment, regardless of age.

  1. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  2. Variability of single-leg versus double-leg stance radiographs in the varus knee.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew; Rich, Valerie; Bain, Elizabeth; Sterett, William I

    2009-07-01

    We evaluated measured radiographic parameter variability between single-leg stance (SLS) and double-leg stance (DLS) radiographs in patients with varus knee malalignment, indicated for high tibial osteotomy. Fifty-three consecutive knees (mean, 49 years; range, 18-79 years) were evaluated for varus thrust. SLS and DLS radiographs were obtained. A single blinded observer measured mechanical axis angles and weight-bearing line (WBL) deviation using a goniometer. Mechanical axis angles averaged 9.1 degrees (DLS) and 11.3 degrees (SLS). SLS radiographs averaged 9% greater WBL medialization than did DLS. Medial opening averaged 16.4 mm (DLS) and 18.8 mm (SLS). DLS and SLS radiographs showed no significant differences in patients without varus thrust. Patients with varus thrust demonstrated differences in mechanical axis angles (DLS, 9.4 degrees; SLS, 12.2 degrees), WBL deviation (12.1% less), medialization (DLS), and medial opening necessary for correction (DLS, 16.6 mm; SLS, 20.3 mm). In varus thrust, SLS radiographs more closely replicate dynamic knee malalignment, possibly providing more accurate measurements of angular deformity.

  3. In vitro analysis of the marginal adaptation and discrepancy of stainless steel crowns

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Riaan; Medhat, Rasha; Mohamed, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The purpose of the study was to assess the marginal adaptation and discrepancy of SSC’s. Differences in adaptation and discrepancy between the four surfaces (mesial, lingual, distal, and buccal) were evaluated. Methods: The placement of stainless steel crowns were completed on a phantom head in accordance with the clinical technique. The ideal tooth preparation was made and this ‘master tooth’ duplicated to achieve a sample size of 15. The stainless steel crowns were placed, trimmed, and cemented as per the clinical technique. The cemented stainless crowns were analyzed under 100× stereomicroscope magnification. The marginal adaptation and discrepancy of each specimen was measured every 2 µm. Results: All the specimens showed marginal adaptation and discrepancy. The lingual margin had a significantly better adaptation (p < .0001) over the other surfaces. The buccal surface was the only surface that had an appropriate supra-CEJ level with a significance of p < .0001. Conclusion: The marginal discrepancies occur during the trimming procedure and assessment of the gingival approximation of the SSC margin. The inspection of stainless steel crown adaptation and discrepancy is an essential clinical step. PMID:29536024

  4. Self-esteem discrepancies and identity-expressive consumption: Evidence from Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Burak

    2018-02-01

    Prior research established that simultaneously holding discrepant explicit (deliberate, controlled) and implicit (automatic, uncontrolled) self-esteem gives rise to self-enhancing behaviours. Given that individuals tend to enhance their self-concepts with brands that are associated with positive identities, this study examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was related to the extent to which individuals developed connections with brands that are associated with their in-groups. Findings from an adolescent sample (ages 16-18) indicated that adolescents with larger discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem were more likely to construct their self-concepts using in-group-linked brands. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Common Leg Injuries of Long-Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Robert A.; Plakke, Michael; Silvis, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Context Long-distance running (greater than 3000 m) is often recommended to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Running injury rates increase significantly when weekly mileage extends beyond 40 miles cumulatively. With the development of running analysis and other diagnostic tests, injuries to the leg secondary to bone, musculotendinous, and vascular causes can be diagnosed and successfully managed. Evidence Acquisition Searches used the terms running, injuries, lower extremity, leg, medial tibial stress syndrome, compartment syndrome, stress fractures, popliteal artery entrapment, gastrocnemius soleus tears, and Achilles tendinopathy. Sources included Medline, Google Scholar, and Ovid from 1970 through January 2012. Results Tibial stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome can sometimes be prevented and/or treated by correcting biomechanical abnormalities. Exertional compartment syndrome and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are caused by anatomic abnormalities and are difficult to treat without surgical correction. Conclusion Leg pain due to bone, musculotendinous, and vascular causes is common among long-distance runners. Knowledge of the underlying biomechanical and/or anatomic abnormality is necessary to successfully treat these conditions. PMID:24179587

  6. Energy absorption as a predictor of leg impedance in highly trained females.

    PubMed

    Kulas, Anthony S; Schmitz, Randy J; Schultz, Sandra J; Watson, Mary Allen; Perrin, David H

    2006-08-01

    Although leg spring stiffness represents active muscular recruitment of the lower extremity during dynamic tasks such as hopping and running, the joint-specific characteristics comprising the damping portion of this measure, leg impedance, are uncertain. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the relationship between leg impedance and energy absorption at the ankle, knee, and hip during early (impact) and late (stabilization) phases of landing. Twenty highly trained female dancers (age = 20.3 +/- 1.4 years, height = 163.7 +/- 6.0 cm, mass = 62.1 +/- 8.1 kg) were instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Subjects performed three sets of double-leg landings from under preferred, stiff, and soft landing conditions. A stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that ankle and knee energy absorption at impact, and knee and hip energy absorption during the stabilization phases of landing explained 75.5% of the variance in leg impedance. The primary predictor of leg impedance was knee energy absorption during the stabilization phase, independently accounting for 55% of the variance. Future validation studies applying this regression model to other groups of individuals are warranted.

  7. Discrepancies Confer Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Simon B.; Mackinnon, Sean P.; Macneil, Matthew A.; Fitzpatrick, Skye

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit…

  8. The Effect of Behavioral Commitment and Ability Discrepancy on Attitudinal Persistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DasGupta, Bikram; Liang, Ann

    1988-01-01

    Manipulated behavioral commitment and negative task discrepancy to observe effects on attitudinal persistence on feminist issues and perceived threat of trivia test score. Results indicated that non-active feminists (N=20) perceived greater threat from discrepant test score than did active feminists (N=20) and showed greater agreement to feminist…

  9. Effect of Transducer Orientation on Errors in Ultrasound Image-Based Measurements of Human Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle Fascicle Length and Pennation

    PubMed Central

    Gandevia, Simon C.; Herbert, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is often used to measure muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles in human muscles in vivo. Theoretically the most accurate measurements are made when the transducer is oriented so that the image plane aligns with muscle fascicles and, for measurements of pennation, when the image plane also intersects the aponeuroses perpendicularly. However this orientation is difficult to achieve and usually there is some degree of misalignment. Here, we used simulated ultrasound images based on three-dimensional models of the human medial gastrocnemius, derived from magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images, to describe the relationship between transducer orientation and measurement errors. With the transducer oriented perpendicular to the surface of the leg, the error in measurement of fascicle lengths was about 0.4 mm per degree of misalignment of the ultrasound image with the muscle fascicles. If the transducer is then tipped by 20°, the error increases to 1.1 mm per degree of misalignment. For a given degree of misalignment of muscle fascicles with the image plane, the smallest absolute error in fascicle length measurements occurs when the transducer is held perpendicular to the surface of the leg. Misalignment of the transducer with the fascicles may cause fascicle length measurements to be underestimated or overestimated. Contrary to widely held beliefs, it is shown that pennation angles are always overestimated if the image is not perpendicular to the aponeurosis, even when the image is perfectly aligned with the fascicles. An analytical explanation is provided for this finding. PMID:27294280

  10. Effect of Transducer Orientation on Errors in Ultrasound Image-Based Measurements of Human Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle Fascicle Length and Pennation.

    PubMed

    Bolsterlee, Bart; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is often used to measure muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles in human muscles in vivo. Theoretically the most accurate measurements are made when the transducer is oriented so that the image plane aligns with muscle fascicles and, for measurements of pennation, when the image plane also intersects the aponeuroses perpendicularly. However this orientation is difficult to achieve and usually there is some degree of misalignment. Here, we used simulated ultrasound images based on three-dimensional models of the human medial gastrocnemius, derived from magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images, to describe the relationship between transducer orientation and measurement errors. With the transducer oriented perpendicular to the surface of the leg, the error in measurement of fascicle lengths was about 0.4 mm per degree of misalignment of the ultrasound image with the muscle fascicles. If the transducer is then tipped by 20°, the error increases to 1.1 mm per degree of misalignment. For a given degree of misalignment of muscle fascicles with the image plane, the smallest absolute error in fascicle length measurements occurs when the transducer is held perpendicular to the surface of the leg. Misalignment of the transducer with the fascicles may cause fascicle length measurements to be underestimated or overestimated. Contrary to widely held beliefs, it is shown that pennation angles are always overestimated if the image is not perpendicular to the aponeurosis, even when the image is perfectly aligned with the fascicles. An analytical explanation is provided for this finding.

  11. Discrepancies between cognition and decision making in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims There is increasing clinical and legal interest in discrepancies between decision-making ability and cognition in old age, a stage of life when decisions have major ramifications. We investigated the frequency and correlates of such discrepancies in non-demented older adults participating in a large community-based cohort study of aging, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Methods Participants [n = 689, mean age 81.8 (SD 7.6), mean education 15.2 (SD 3.1), 76.8 % female and 93.3 % white] completed a measure of financial and healthcare decision making (DM) and a battery of 19 neuropsychological tests from which a composite measure of global cognition (COG) was derived. Results Results indicated that 23.9 % of the sample showed a significant discrepancy between DM and COG abilities. Of these, 12.9 % showed DM < COG, while 11.0 % showed DM > COG. Logistic regression models showed older age, being non-white, greater temporal discounting, and greater risk aversion were associated with higher odds of being in the DM < COG group. Being male was associated with higher odds of being in the DM > COG group. Education, income, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity were not associated with a discrepancy. Only demographic associations (age, sex, and race) remained significant in a fully adjusted model with terms included for all factors. Conclusion These results support the consideration of decision making and cognition as potentially separate constructs. PMID:25995167

  12. Discrepancies between cognition and decision making in older adults.

    PubMed

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing clinical and legal interest in discrepancies between decision-making ability and cognition in old age, a stage of life when decisions have major ramifications. We investigated the frequency and correlates of such discrepancies in non-demented older adults participating in a large community-based cohort study of aging, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Participants [n = 689, mean age 81.8 (SD 7.6), mean education 15.2 (SD 3.1), 76.8 % female and 93.3 % white] completed a measure of financial and healthcare decision making (DM) and a battery of 19 neuropsychological tests from which a composite measure of global cognition (COG) was derived. Results indicated that 23.9 % of the sample showed a significant discrepancy between DM and COG abilities. Of these, 12.9 % showed DM < COG, while 11.0 % showed DM > COG. Logistic regression models showed older age, being non-white, greater temporal discounting, and greater risk aversion were associated with higher odds of being in the DM < COG group. Being male was associated with higher odds of being in the DM > COG group. Education, income, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity were not associated with a discrepancy. Only demographic associations (age, sex, and race) remained significant in a fully adjusted model with terms included for all factors. These results support the consideration of decision making and cognition as potentially separate constructs.

  13. Discrepancy Between ASTER- and MODIS- Derived Land Surface Temperatures: Terrain Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanbo; Noumi, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) are onboard the same satellite platform NASA TERRA. Both MODIS and ASTER offer routine retrieval of land surface temperatures (LSTs), and the ASTER- and MODIS-retrieved LST products have been used worldwide. Because a large fraction of the earth surface consists of mountainous areas, variations in elevation, terrain slope and aspect angles can cause biases in the retrieved LSTs. However, terrain-induced effects are generally neglected in most satellite retrievals, which may generate discrepancy between ASTER and MODIS LSTs. In this paper, we reported the terrain effects on the LST discrepancy with a case examination over a relief area at the Loess Plateau of China. Results showed that the terrain-induced effects were not major, but nevertheless important for the total LST discrepancy. A large local slope did not necessarily lead to a large LST discrepancy. The angle of emitted radiance was more important than the angle of local slope in generating the LST discrepancy. Specifically, the conventional terrain correction may be unsuitable for densely vegetated areas. The distribution of ASTER-to-MODIS emissivity suggested that the terrain correction was included in the generalized split window (GSW) based approach used to rectify MODIS LSTs. Further study should include the classification-induced uncertainty in emissivity for reliable use of satellite-retrieved LSTs over relief areas. PMID:22399955

  14. Rotational joint for prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. C.; Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Device is installed in standard 30 millimeter tubing used for lower leg prosthetics. Unit allows proper rotation (about 3 degrees) of foot relative to the hip, during normal walking or running. Limited rotational movement with restoring force results in a more natural gait.

  15. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  16. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Corletti, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  17. Experimental research on pedestrian lower leg impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.

  18. Reproducibility and day time bias correction of optoelectronic leg volumetry: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Engelberger, Rolf P; Blazek, Claudia; Amsler, Felix; Keo, Hong H; Baumann, Frédéric; Blättler, Werner; Baumgartner, Iris; Willenberg, Torsten

    2011-10-05

    Leg edema is a common manifestation of various underlying pathologies. Reliable measurement tools are required to quantify edema and monitor therapeutic interventions. Aim of the present work was to investigate the reproducibility of optoelectronic leg volumetry over 3 weeks' time period and to eliminate daytime related within-individual variability. Optoelectronic leg volumetry was performed in 63 hairdressers (mean age 45 ± 16 years, 85.7% female) in standing position twice within a minute for each leg and repeated after 3 weeks. Both lower leg (legBD) and whole limb (limbBF) volumetry were analysed. Reproducibility was expressed as analytical and within-individual coefficients of variance (CVA, CVW), and as intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). A total of 492 leg volume measurements were analysed. Both legBD and limbBF volumetry were highly reproducible with CVA of 0.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Within-individual reproducibility of legBD and limbBF volumetry over a three weeks' period was high (CVW 1.3% for both; ICC 0.99 for both). At both visits, the second measurement revealed a significantly higher volume compared to the first measurement with a mean increase of 7.3 ml ± 14.1 (0.33% ± 0.58%) for legBD and 30.1 ml ± 48.5 ml (0.52% ± 0.79%) for limbBF volume. A significant linear correlation between absolute and relative leg volume differences and the difference of exact day time of measurement between the two study visits was found (P < .001). A therefore determined time-correction formula permitted further improvement of CVW. Leg volume changes can be reliably assessed by optoelectronic leg volumetry at a single time point and over a 3 weeks' time period. However, volumetry results are biased by orthostatic and daytime-related volume changes. The bias for day-time related volume changes can be minimized by a time-correction formula.

  19. Toward Balance Recovery With Leg Prostheses Using Neuromuscular Model Control

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lower limb amputees are at high risk of falling as current prosthetic legs provide only limited functionality for recovering balance after unexpected disturbances. For instance, the most established control method used on powered leg prostheses tracks local joint impedance functions without taking the global function of the leg in balance recovery into account. Here we explore an alternative control policy for powered transfemoral prostheses that considers the global leg function and is based on a neuromuscular model of human locomotion. Methods We adapt this model to describe and simulate an amputee walking with a powered prosthesis using the proposed control, and evaluate the gait robustness when confronted with rough ground and swing leg disturbances. We then implement and partially evaluate the resulting controller on a leg prosthesis prototype worn by a non-amputee user. Results In simulation, the proposed prosthesis control leads to gaits that are more robust than those obtained by the impedance control method. The initial hardware experiments with the prosthesis prototype show that the proposed control reproduces normal walking patterns qualitatively and effectively responds to disturbances in early and late swing. However, the response to mid-swing disturbances neither replicates human responses nor averts falls. Conclusions The neuromuscular model control is a promising alternative to existing prosthesis controls, although further research will need to improve on the initial implementation and determine how well these results transfer to amputee gait. Significance This work provides a potential avenue for future development of control policies that help improve amputee balance recovery. PMID:26315935

  20. Self-discrepancies in work-related upper extremity pain: relation to emotions and flexible-goal adjustment.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Mariëlle E; Kindermans, Hanne P; Morley, Stephen J; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Verbunt, Jeanine; Vlaeyen, Johan W

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent pain not only has an impact on disability, but on the long term it may become a threat to one's sense of self. This paper presents a cross-sectional study of patients with work-related upper extremity pain and focuses on: (1) the role of self-discrepancies in this group, (2) the associations between self-discrepancies, pain, emotions and (3) the interaction between self-discrepancies and flexible-goal adjustment. Eighty-nine participants completed standardized self-report measures of pain intensity, pain duration, anxiety, depression and flexible-goal adjustment. A Selves Questionnaire was used to generate self-discrepancies. A series of hierarchical regression analyses showed relationships between actual-ought other, actual-ought self, actual-feared self-discrepancies and depression as well as a significant association between actual-ought other self-discrepancy and anxiety. Furthermore, significant interactions were found between actual-ought other self-discrepancies and flexibility, indicating that less flexible participants with large self-discrepancies score higher on depression. This study showed that self-discrepancies are related to negative emotions and that flexible-goal adjustment served as a moderator in this relationship. The view of self in pain and flexible-goal adjustment should be considered as important variables in the process of chronic pain. Copyright (c) 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in kinematics of single leg squatting between anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, J; Muneta, T; Ju, Y J; Sekiya, I

    2010-01-01

    Seventy to eighty percent of all anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are due to non-contact injury mechanisms. It has been reported that the majority of injuries due to single leg landing come from valgus positioning of the lower leg. Preventing valgus positioning during single leg landing is expected to help reduce the number of ACL injuries. We found that many ACL-deficient patients cannot perform stable single leg squatting. Therefore, we performed 3D motion analysis of the single-legged half squat for ACL-injured patients to evaluate its significance as a risk factor for ACL injuries. We evaluated the relative angles between the body, thigh, and lower leg using an electromagnetic device during single leg half squatting performed by 63 ACL-injured patients (32 males, 31 females) the day before ACL reconstruction and by 26 healthy control subjects with no knee problems. The uninjured leg of ACL-injured male subjects demonstrated significantly less external knee rotation than that of the dominant leg of the male control. The uninjured leg of ACL-injured female subjects demonstrated significantly more external hip rotation and knee flexion and less hip flexion than that of the dominant leg of the female control. Comparing injured and uninjured legs, the injured leg of male subjects demonstrated significantly less external knee and hip rotation, less knee flexion, and more knee varus than that of the uninjured leg of male subjects. The injured leg of female subjects demonstrated more knee varus than that of the uninjured leg of female subjects. Regarding gender differences, female subjects demonstrated significantly more external hip rotation and knee valgus than male subjects did in both the injured and uninjured legs (P < 0.05). The current kinematic study exhibited biomechanical characteristics of female ACL-injured subjects compared with that of control groups. Kinematic correction during single leg half squat would reduce ACL reinjury in female ACL

  2. Operation analysis of a Chebyshev-Pantograph leg mechanism for a single DOF biped robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Conghui; Ceccarelli, Marco; Takeda, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, operation analysis of a Chebyshev-Pantograph leg mechanism is presented for a single degree of freedom (DOF) biped robot. The proposed leg mechanism is composed of a Chebyshev four-bar linkage and a pantograph mechanism. In contrast to general fully actuated anthropomorphic leg mechanisms, the proposed leg mechanism has peculiar features like compactness, low-cost, and easy-operation. Kinematic equations of the proposed leg mechanism are formulated for a computer oriented simulation. Simulation results show the operation performance of the proposed leg mechanism with suitable characteristics. A parametric study has been carried out to evaluate the operation performance as function of design parameters. A prototype of a single DOF biped robot equipped with two proposed leg mechanisms has been built at LARM (Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics). Experimental test shows practical feasible walking ability of the prototype, as well as drawbacks are discussed for the mechanical design.

  3. Two-legged walking robot prescribed motion on a rough cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, Yury; Melkumova, Elena

    2018-05-01

    The motion of a walking robot with n legs, that ensure the desired motion of the robot body, is described using general dynamics theoretical framework. When each of the robot legs contacts the surface in a single foothold, the momentum and angular momentum theorems yield a system of six differential equations that form a complete description of the robot motion. In the case of two-leg robot (n = 2) the problem of the existence of the solution can be reduced to a system of algebraic inequalities. Using numerical analysis, the classification of footholds positions for different values of the friction coefficient is obtained.

  4. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  5. STRUCTURE OF PROMINENCE LEGS: PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N.; Schmieder, B.

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are stronglymore » absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s{sup −1} in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.« less

  6. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca II (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg II slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg II, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s-1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg II, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  7. Bioinspired legged-robot based on large deformation of flexible skeleton.

    PubMed

    Mayyas, Mohammad

    2014-11-11

    In this article we present STARbot, a bioinspired legged robot capable of multiple locomotion modalities by using large deformation of its skeleton. We construct STARbot by using origami-style folding of flexible laminates. The long-term goal is to provide a robotic platform with maximum mobility on multiple surfaces. This paper particularly studies the quasistatic model of STARbot's leg under different conditions. We describe the large elastic deformation of a leg under external force, payload, and friction by using a set of non-dimensional, nonlinear approximate equations. We developed a test mechanism that models the motion of a leg in STARbot. We augmented several foot shapes and then tested them on soft to rough grounds. Both simulation and experimental findings were in good agreement. We utilized the model to develop several scales of tri and quad STARbot. We demonstrated the capability of these robots to locomote by combining their leg deformations with their foot motions. The combination provided a design platform for an active suspension STARbot with controlled foot locomotion. This included the ability of STARbot to change size, run over obstacles, walk and slide. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss a cost effective manufacturing and production method for manufacturing STARbot.

  8. Cervical and Incisal Marginal Discrepancy in Ceramic Laminate Veneering Materials: A SEM Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Ganapathy, Dhanraj M; Jain, Ashish R

    2017-01-01

    Marginal discrepancy influenced by the choice of processing material used for the ceramic laminate veneers needs to be explored further for better clinical application. This study aimed to evaluate the amount of cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy associated with different ceramic laminate veneering materials. This was an experimental, single-blinded, in vitro trial. Ten central incisors were prepared for laminate veneers with 2 mm uniform reduction and heavy chamfer finish line. Ceramic laminate veneers fabricated over the prepared teeth using four different processing materials were categorized into four groups as Group I - aluminous porcelain veneers, Group II - lithium disilicate ceramic veneers, Group III - lithium disilicate-leucite-based veneers, Group IV - zirconia-based ceramic veneers. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy was measured using a scanning electron microscope. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) tests were used for statistical analysis. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy for four groups was Group I - 114.6 ± 4.3 μm, 132.5 ± 6.5 μm, Group II - 86.1 ± 6.3 μm, 105.4 ± 5.3 μm, Group III - 71.4 ± 4.4 μm, 91.3 ± 4.7 μm, and Group IV - 123.1 ± 4.1 μm, 142.0 ± 5.4 μm. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests observed a statistically significant difference between the four test specimens with regard to cervical marginal discrepancy. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy scored F = 243.408, P < 0.001 and F = 180.844, P < 0.001, respectively. This study concluded veneers fabricated using leucite reinforced lithium disilicate exhibited the least marginal discrepancy followed by lithium disilicate ceramic, aluminous porcelain, and zirconia-based ceramics. The marginal discrepancy was more in the incisal region than in the cervical region in all the groups.

  9. H:q ratios and bilateral leg strength in college field and court sports players.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Roy T H; Smith, Andrew W; Wong, Del P

    2012-06-01

    One of the key components in sports injury prevention is the identification of imbalances in leg muscle strength. However, different leg muscle characteristics may occur in large playing area (field) sports and small playing area (court) sports, which should be considered in regular injury prevention assessment. This study examined the isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and bilateral leg strength balance in 40 male college (age: 23.4 ± 2.5 yrs) team sport players (field sport = 23, soccer players; court sport = 17, volleyball and basketball players). Five repetitions of maximal knee concentric flexion and concentric extension were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at two speeds (slow: 60°·s(-1) and fast: 300°·s(-1)) with 3 minutes rest between tests. Both legs were measured in counterbalanced order with the dominant leg being determined as the leg used to kick a ball. The highest concentric peak torque values (Nm) of the hamstrings and quadriceps of each leg were analyzed after body mass normalization (Nm·kg(-1)). Court sport players showed significantly weaker dominant leg hamstrings muscles at both contraction speeds (P < 0.05). The H:Q ratio was significantly larger in field players in their dominant leg at 60°·s(-1) (P < 0.001), and their non-dominant leg at 300°·s(-1) (P < 0.001) respectively. Sport-specific leg muscle strength was evident in college players from field and court sports. These results suggest the need for different muscle strength training and rehabilitation protocols for college players according to the musculature requirements in their respective sports.

  10. The Interday Measurement Consistency of and Relationships Between Hamstring and Leg Musculo-articular Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Justin P; Schmitz, Randy J; Shultz, Sandra J

    2015-10-01

    Hamstring stiffness (K(HAM)) and leg stiffness (K(LEG)) are commonly examined relative to athletic performance and injury risk. Given these may be modifiable, it is important to understand day-to-day variations inherent in these measures before use in training studies. In addition, the extent to which K(HAM) and K(LEG) measure similar active stiffness characteristics has not been established. We investigated the interday measurement consistency of K(HAM) and K(LEG), and examined the extent to which K(LEG) predicted K(HAM) in 6 males and 9 females. K(HAM) was moderately consistent day-to-day (ICC(2,5) = .71; SEM = 76.3 N·m(-1)), and 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA) revealed a systematic bias with considerable absolute measurement error (95% LOA = 89.6 ± 224.8 N·m(-1)). Day-to-day differences in procedural factors explained 59.4% of the variance in day-to-day differences in K(HAM). Bilateral and unilateral K(LEG) was more consistent (ICC(2,3) range = .87-.94; SEM range = 1.0-2.91 kN·m(-1)) with lower absolute error (95% LOA bilateral= -2.0 ± 10.3; left leg = -0.36 ± 3.82; right leg = -1.05 ± 3.61 kN·m(-1)). K(LEG) explained 44% of the variance in K(HAM) (P < .01). Findings suggest that procedural factors must be carefully controlled to yield consistent and precise K(HAM) measures. The ease and consistency of K(LEG), and moderate correlation with K(HAM), may steer clinicians toward K(LEG) when measuring lower-extremity stiffness for screening studies and monitoring the effectiveness of training interventions over time.

  11. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandstätter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias

    2010-08-01

    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior.

  12. Relationships between maximal anaerobic power of the arms and legs and javelin performance.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, E; Chelly, M S; Tabka, Z; Shephard, R

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relationships between maximal anaerobic power, as measured by leg and arm force-velocity tests, estimates of local muscle volume and javelin performance. Ten trained national level male javelin throwers (mean age 19.6+/- 2 years) participated in this study. Maximal anaerobic power, maximal force and maximal velocity were measured during leg (Wmax-L) and arm (Wmax-A) force-velocity tests, performed on appropriately modified forms of Monark cycle ergometer. Estimates of leg and arm muscle volume were made using a standard anthropometric kit. Maximal force of the leg (Fmax-L) was significantly correlated with estimated leg muscle volume (r=0.71, P<0.05). Wmax-L and Wmax-A were both significantly correlated with javelin performance (r=0.76, P<0.01; r=0.71, P <0.05, respectively). Maximal velocity of the leg (Vmax-L) was also significantly correlated with throwing performance (r=0.83; P<0.001). Wmax of both legs and arms were significantly correlated with javelin performance, the closest correlation being for Wmax-L; this emphasizes the importance of the leg muscles in this sport. Fmax-L and Vmax-L were related to muscle volume and to javelin performance, respectively. Force-velocity testing may have value in regulating conditioning and rehabilitation in sports involving throwing.

  13. Evaluation of discrepancies between thermoluminescent dosimeter and direct-reading dosimeter results

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, K.R.

    1993-07-01

    Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responses of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and direct-reading dosimeters (DRDs) are not officially compared or the discrepancies investigated. However, both may soon be required due to the new US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual. In the past, unofficial comparisons of the two dosimeters have led to discrepancies of up to 200%. This work was conducted to determine the reasons behind such discrepancies. For tests conducted with the TLDs, the reported dose was most often lower than the delivered dose, while DRDs most often responded higher than the delivered dose. Trends weremore » identified in personnel DRD readings, and ft was concluded that more training and more control of the DRDs could improve their response. TLD responses have already begun to be improved; a new background subtraction method was implemented in April 1993, and a new dose algorithm is being considered. It was concluded that the DOE Radiological Control Manual requirements are reasonable for identifying discrepancies between dosimeter types, and more stringent administrative limits might even be considered.« less

  14. 33 CFR 147.821 - Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... safety zone. 147.821 Section 147.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.821 Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Brutus Tension Leg Platform (Brutus TLP), Green Canyon Block 158 (GC...

  15. 33 CFR 147.821 - Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... safety zone. 147.821 Section 147.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.821 Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Brutus Tension Leg Platform (Brutus TLP), Green Canyon Block 158 (GC...

  16. 33 CFR 147.821 - Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... safety zone. 147.821 Section 147.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.821 Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Brutus Tension Leg Platform (Brutus TLP), Green Canyon Block 158 (GC...

  17. 33 CFR 147.821 - Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... safety zone. 147.821 Section 147.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.821 Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Brutus Tension Leg Platform (Brutus TLP), Green Canyon Block 158 (GC...

  18. 33 CFR 147.821 - Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... safety zone. 147.821 Section 147.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.821 Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Brutus Tension Leg Platform (Brutus TLP), Green Canyon Block 158 (GC...

  19. Dynamic postural stability for double-leg drop landing.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wenxin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo; Zhao, Qinping

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic postural stability has been widely studied for single-leg landing, but seldom considered for double-leg landing. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic postural stability and the influence mechanism of muscle activities during double-leg drop landing. Eight recreationally active males and eight recreationally active females participated in this study and dropped individually from three heights (0.32 m, 0.52 m, and 0.72 m). Ground reaction force was recorded to calculate the time to stabilisation. Electromyographic activities were recorded for selected lower-extremity muscles. A multivariate analysis of variance was carried out and no significant influence was found in time to stabilisation between genders or limb laterals (P > 0.05). With increasing drop height, time to stabilisation decreased significantly in two horizontal directions and the lower-extremity muscle activities were enhanced. Vertical time to stabilisation was not significantly influenced by drop height. Dynamic postural stability improved by neuromuscular change more than that required due to the increase of drop height. Double-leg landing on level ground is a stable movement, and the body would often be injured before dynamic postural stability is impaired. It is understandable to protect tissues from mechanical injuries by the sacrifice of certain dynamic postural stability in the design of protective devices or athlete training.

  20. Loss of butt-end leg bands on male wild turkeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swanson, David A.; Reynolds, Michael; Boyd, Robert C.; Eriksen, Robert; Swift, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated loss of butt-end leg bands on male wild turkeys (Meleagris gallapavo) captured in New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (USA) during December–March, 2006–2008. We used aluminum rivet leg bands as permanent marks to estimate loss of regular aluminum, enameled aluminum, anodized aluminum, and stainless steel butt-end leg bands placed below the spur. We used band loss information from 887 turkeys recovered between 31 days and 570 days after release (x¯  =  202 days). Band loss was greater for turkeys banded as adults (>1 yr old) than juveniles and was greater for aluminum than stainless steel bands. We estimated band retention was 79–96%, depending on age at banding and type of band, for turkeys recovered 3 months after release. Band retention was <50% for all age classes and band types 15 months after banding. We concluded that use of butt-end leg bands on male wild turkeys is inappropriate for use in mark–recapture studies.

  1. A tracked robot with novel bio-inspired passive "legs".

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Jing, Xingjian

    2017-01-01

    For track-based robots, an important aspect is the suppression design, which determines the trafficability and comfort of the whole system. The trafficability limits the robot's working capability, and the riding comfort limits the robot's working effectiveness, especially with some sensitive instruments mounted on or operated. To these aims, a track-based robot equipped with a novel passive bio-inspired suspension is designed and studied systematically in this paper. Animal or insects have very special leg or limb structures which are good for motion control and adaptable to different environments. Inspired by this, a new track-based robot is designed with novel "legs" for connecting the loading wheels to the robot body. Each leg is designed with passive structures and can achieve very high loading capacity but low dynamic stiffness such that the robot can move on rough ground similar to a multi-leg animal or insect. Therefore, the trafficability and riding comfort can be significantly improved without losing loading capacity. The new track-based robot can be well applied to various engineering tasks for providing a stable moving platform of high mobility, better trafficability and excellent loading capacity.

  2. Effects of leg dominance on performance of ballet turns (pirouettes) by experienced and novice dancers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Turns (pirouettes) are an important movement in ballet and may be affected by "lateral bias". This study investigated physiological differences exhibited by experienced and novice dancers, respectively, when performing pirouette with dominant and non-dominant leg supports, respectively. Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed turns on dominant or non-dominant legs. The maximum ankle plantarflexion, knee extension and hip extension were measured during the single-leg support phase. The inclination angle of rotation axis is the angle between instantaneous rotation axis and global vertical axis in the early single-leg support phase. Both groups exhibited a greater hip extension, knee extension, and ankle plantarflexion when performing a turn on the non-dominant leg. For experienced dancers, the inclination angle of rotation axis during the pre-swing phase was generally smaller for dominant leg support than non-dominant leg. However, no significant difference was found in inclination angle of rotation axis of novice dancers. For experienced dancers, an improved performance is obtained when using the dominant leg for support. By contrast, for novice dancers, the performance is independent of choice of support leg. The significant lateral bias in experienced dancers indicates the possible influence of training. That is, repetitive rehearsal on the preferred leg strengthens the impact of side dominance in experienced dancers.

  3. Why a mosquito leg possesses superior load-bearing capacity on water: Experimentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiang-Qing; Liu, Jian-Lin; Wu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Mosquitoes possess the striking ability to walk on water because each of their legs has a huge water supporting force (WSF) that is 23 times their body weight. Aiming at a full understanding of the origins of this extremely large force, in this study, we concentrate on two aspects of it: the intrinsic properties of the leg surface and the active control of the initial stepping angle of the whole leg. Using a measurement system that we developed ourselves, the WSFs for the original leg samples are compared with those whose surface wax and microstructures have been removed and with those of a different stiffness. The results show that leg flexibility plays a dominant role over surface wax and microstructures on the leg surface in creating the supporting force. Moreover, we discuss the dependence relationship between the maximum WSF and the initial stepping angle, which indicates that the mosquito can regulate this angle to increase or decrease the WSF during landing or takeoff. These findings are helpful for uncovering the locomotion mechanism of aquatic insects and for providing inspiration for the design of microfluids, miniature boats, biomimetic robots, and microsensors.

  4. California Red-legged Frog - Stipulated Injunction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.

  5. Behavioral ecology of black-legged kittiwakes during chick rearing in a failing colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Bay D.; Hatch, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared with their Atlantic counterparts, Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) in North Pacific colonies are notably unproductive. A large colony on Middleton Island, Alaska, has in most years since 1981 seen complete breeding failure and the population has declined by half. We compared parent-offspring behaviors in this colony during two years that differed in overall breeding success. Potential indicators of food stress included parental attendance at the nest, foraging trip lengths, chick feeding and begging rates, and sibling aggression. Whereas chick feeding and begging rates were strongly correlated with overall breeding performance, patterns of time allocation by adults (nest attendance and foraging trips) were not. Contrasts between years and comparisons with data from other colonies in and outside Alaska point to food shortage as the likely cause of recurrent breeding failure on Middleton.

  6. Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

  7. Increased Leg Bone Mineral Density and Content During the Initial Years of College Sport.

    PubMed

    Scerpella, John J; Buehring, Bjoern; Hetzel, Scott J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2018-04-01

    Scerpella, JJ, Buehring, B, Hetzel, SJ, and Heiderscheit, BC. Increased leg bone mineral density and content during the initial years of college sport. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1123-1130, 2018-Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) data are useful parameters for evaluating how training practices promote bone health. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to longitudinally assess sport-specific growth in leg and total body BMD/BMC over the initial 2 years of collegiate training. Eighty-five Division 1 collegiate basketball, hockey, and soccer athletes (50 males and 35 females; age 19.0 [0.8] years) underwent annual DXA scans. Leg and total body BMD/BMC were compared within and across two 1-year intervals (periods 1 and 2) using repeated-measures analysis of variance, adjusting for age, sex, race, and sport. Leg BMD, leg BMC, and total body BMC all increased over period 1 (0.05 g·cm [p = 0.001], 0.07 kg [p = 0.002], and 0.19 kg [p < 0.001] respectively). Changes in period 2 compared with period 1 were smaller for leg BMD (p = 0.001), leg BMC (p < 0.001), leg fat mass (p = 0.028), and total BMC (p = 0.005). Leg lean mass increased more during period 2 than period 1 (p = 0.018). Sports participation was the only significant predictor of change in leg BMD. Significant increases in both leg BMD and BMC were demonstrated over both 2-year periods, with greater gains during period 1. These gains highlight the importance of attentive training procedures, capitalizing on attendant physical benefits of increased BMD/BMC. Additional research in young adults, evaluating bone mass acquisition, will optimize performance and decrease risk of bone stress injury among collegiate athletes.

  8. Asymmetry between the Dominant and Non-Dominant Legs in the Kinematics of the Lower Extremities during a Running Single Leg Jump in Collegiate Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takashi; Kameda, Mai; Kageyama, Masahiro; Kiba, Kazufusa; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the asymmetry between the dominant (DL) and non-dominant takeoff legs (NDL) in terms of lower limb behavior during running single leg jumps (RSJ) in collegiate male basketball players in relation to that of the jump height. Twenty-seven players performed maximal RSJ with a 6 m approach. Three-dimensional kinematics data during RSJ was collected using a 12 Raptor camera infrared motion analysis system (MAC 3D system) at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz. The symmetry index in the jump heights and the kinematics variables were calculated as {2 × (DL - NDL) / (DL + NDL)} × 100. The run-up velocity was similar between the two legs, but the jump height was significantly higher in the DL than in the NDL. During the takeoff phase, the joint angles of the ankle and knee were significantly larger in the DL than the NDL. In addition, the contact time for the DL was significantly shorter than that for the NDL. The symmetry index of the kinematics for the ankle joint was positively correlated with that of jump height, but that for the knee joint was not. The current results indicate that, for collegiate basketball players, the asymmetry in the height of a RSJ can be attributed to that in the joint kinematics of the ankle during the takeoff phase, which may be associated with the ability to effectively transmit run-up velocity to jump height. Key pointsAsymmetry of height during running single leg jump between two legs is due to the behavior of the ankle joint (i.e. stiffer the ankle joint and explosive bounding).The dominant leg can transmit run-up velocity into the vertical velocity at takeoff phase to jump high compared with the non-dominant leg.Basketball players who have a greater asymmetry of the RSJ at the collegiate level could be assessed as non-regulars judging by the magnitude of asymmetry.

  9. Volume measurement of the leg with the depth camera for quantitative evaluation of edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomitsu, Kaoru; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kamijo, Naohiro; Ogawa, Keiko; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2017-02-01

    Volume measurement of the leg is important in the evaluation of leg edema. Recently, method for measurement by using a depth camera is proposed. However, many depth cameras are expensive. Therefore, we propose a method using Microsoft Kinect. We obtain a point cloud of the leg by Kinect Fusion technique and calculate the volume. We measured the volume of leg for three healthy students during three days. In each measurement, the increase of volume was confirmed from morning to evening. It is known that the volume of leg is increased in doing office work. Our experimental results meet this expectation.

  10. Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Plyometric Training on Single and Double Leg Jumping Performance and Strength.

    PubMed

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Tsoukos, Athanasios; Kaloheri, Olga; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis; Brown, Lee E

    2017-04-18

    This study compared the effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on single and double-leg jumping performance, maximal strength and rate of force development (RFD). Fifteen moderately trained subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (U, n=7) or bilateral group (B, n=8). Both groups performed maximal effort plyometric leg exercises two times per week for 6 weeks. The B group performed all exercises with both legs, while the U group performed half the repetitions with each leg, so that total exercise volume was the same. Jumping performance was assessed by countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps (DJ), while maximal isometric leg press strength and RFD were measured before and after training for each leg separately and both legs together. CMJ improvement with both legs was not significantly different between U (12.1±7.2%) and B (11.0±5.5%) groups. However, the sum of right and left leg CMJ only improved in the U group (19.0±7.1%, p<0.001) and was unchanged in the B group (3.4±8.4%, p=0.80). Maximal isometric leg press force with both legs was increased similarly between groups (B: 20.1±6.5%, U: 19.9±6.2%). However, the sum of right and left leg maximal force increased more in U compared to B group (23.8±9.1% vs. 11.9±6.2%, p=0.009, respectively). Similarly, the sum of right and left leg RFD0-50 and RFD0-100 were improved only in the U group (34-36%, p<0.01). Unilateral plyometric training was more effective at increasing both single and double-leg jumping performance, isometric leg press maximal force and RFD when compared to bilateral training.

  11. Adolescent Psychological and Academic Adjustment as a Function of Discrepancies between Actual and Ideal Self-Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a…

  12. Adolescent psychological and academic adjustment as a function of discrepancies between actual and ideal self-perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Gail M; Hafen, Christopher A; Laursen, Brett

    2010-12-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a public school in Jamaica described their actual and ideal selves in several different domains--friendship, dating, schoolwork, family, sports, and religion/spirituality--using a Pie measure. Students also completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and academic achievement. Discrepancies favoring the ideal self and those favoring the actual self were linked to depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, and poor school grades in the domains of friendship, dating, and schoolwork. Effects were stronger among older adolescents than among younger adolescents. Theories of actual/ideal self-discrepancies have focused on problems arising when the ideal self overshadows the actual self; however, the present study finds that self-discrepancies, regardless of their direction, are a liability. Implications for self-discrepancy measurement, adolescent development, and clinical practice are discussed.

  13. An atlas-based multimodal registration method for 2D images with discrepancy structures.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenchao; Chen, Houjin; Peng, Yahui; Li, Yanfeng; Li, Jupeng

    2018-06-04

    An atlas-based multimodal registration method for 2-dimension images with discrepancy structures was proposed in this paper. Atlas was utilized for complementing the discrepancy structure information in multimodal medical images. The scheme includes three steps: floating image to atlas registration, atlas to reference image registration, and field-based deformation. To evaluate the performance, a frame model, a brain model, and clinical images were employed in registration experiments. We measured the registration performance by the squared sum of intensity differences. Results indicate that this method is robust and performs better than the direct registration for multimodal images with discrepancy structures. We conclude that the proposed method is suitable for multimodal images with discrepancy structures. Graphical Abstract An Atlas-based multimodal registration method schematic diagram.

  14. Influence of "J"-Curve Spring Stiffness on Running Speeds of Segmented Legs during High-Speed Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Runxiao; Zhao, Wentao; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Shunqi

    2016-01-01

    Both the linear leg spring model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness have been broadly used as template models to investigate bouncing gaits for legged robots with compliant legs. In addition to these two models, the other stiffness leg spring models developed using inspiration from biological characteristic have the potential to improve high-speed running capacity of spring-legged robots. In this paper, we investigate the effects of "J"-curve spring stiffness inspired by biological materials on running speeds of segmented legs during high-speed locomotion. Mathematical formulation of the relationship between the virtual leg force and the virtual leg compression is established. When the SLIP model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness and with "J"-curve spring stiffness have the same dimensionless reference stiffness, the two-segment leg model with "J"-curve spring stiffness reveals that (1) both the largest tolerated range of running speeds and the tolerated maximum running speed are found and (2) at fast running speed from 25 to 40/92 m s -1 both the tolerated range of landing angle and the stability region are the largest. It is suggested that the two-segment leg model with "J"-curve spring stiffness is more advantageous for high-speed running compared with the SLIP model and with constant spring stiffness.

  15. On the design of a DEA-based device to pot entially assist lower leg disorders: an analytical and FEM investigation accounting for nonlinearities of the leg and device deformations.

    PubMed

    Pourazadi, Shahram; Ahmadi, Sadegh; Menon, Carlo

    2015-11-05

    One of the recommended treatments for disorders associated with the lower extremity venous insufficiency is the application of external mechanical compression. Compression stockings and elastic bandages are widely used for the purpose of compression therapy and are usually designed to exert a specified value or range of compression on the leg. However, the leg deforms under external compression, which can lead to undesirable variations in the amount of compression applied by the compression bandages. In this paper, the use of an active compression bandage (ACB), whose compression can be regulated through an electrical signal, is investigated. The ACB is based on the use of dielectric elastomer actuators. This paper specifically investigates, via both analytical and non-linear numerical simulations, the potential pressure the ACB can apply when the compliancy of the human leg is taken into account. The work underpins the need to account for the compressibility of the leg when designing compression garments for lower extremity venous insufficiency. A mathematical model is used to simulate the volumetric change of a calf when compressed. Suitable parameters for this calf model are selected from the literature where the calf, from ankle to knee, is divided into six different regions. An analytical electromechanical model of the ACB, which considers its compliancy as a function of its pre-stretch and electricity applied, is used to predict the ACB's behavior. Based on these calf and ACB analytical models, a simulation is performed to investigate the interaction between the ACB and the human calf with and without an electrical stimulus applied to the ACB. This simulation is validated by non-linear analysis performed using a software based on the finite element method (FEM). In all simulations, the ACB's elastomer is stretched to a value in the range between 140 and 220 % of its initial length. Using data from the literature, the human calf model, which is examined in

  16. Pentoxifylline for treating venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jull, Andrew B; Arroll, Bruce; Parag, Varsha; Waters, Jill

    2012-12-12

    Healing of venous leg ulcers is improved by the use of compression bandaging but some venous ulcers remain unhealed, and some people are unsuitable for compression therapy. Pentoxifylline, a drug which helps blood flow, has been used to treat venous leg ulcers. To assess the effects of pentoxifylline (oxpentifylline or Trental 400) for treating venous leg ulcers, compared with a placebo or other therapies, in the presence or absence of compression therapy. For this fifth update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 20 July 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to July Week 2 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, July 19, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2012 Week 28); and EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to July 13 2012). Randomised trials comparing pentoxifylline with placebo or other therapy in the presence or absence of compression, in people with venous leg ulcers. One review author extracted and summarised details from eligible trials using a coding sheet. One other review author independently verified data extraction. No new trials were identified for this update. We included twelve trials involving 864 participants. The quality of trials was variable. Eleven trials compared pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment. Pentoxifylline is more effective than placebo in terms of complete ulcer healing or significant improvement (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.24). Pentoxifylline plus compression is more effective than placebo plus compression (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.13). Pentoxifylline in the absence of compression appears to be more effective than placebo or no treatment (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.49 to 3.39).More adverse effects were reported in people receiving pentoxifylline (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.22). Nearly three-quarters (72%) of the reported adverse effects were gastrointestinal. Pentoxifylline is an effective adjunct to compression

  17. Effects of combined high intensity arm and leg training on performance and cardio-respiratory measures.

    PubMed

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Born, Dennis-Peter; Michels, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined arm and leg high-intensity low-volume interval training (HIITarm+leg) on maximal oxygen uptake, myocardial measures (i.e. stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction), Tissue Oxygenation Index (TOI) of the vastus lateralis and triceps brachii, as well as power output in comparison to leg HIIT (HIITleg) only. The 20 healthy, male and female volunteers completed six sessions of either HIITleg on a cycle ergometer or HIITarm+leg on an arm and leg cycle ergometer. During pre- and post-testing, the volunteers completed a submaximal and incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Magnitude based interference revealed likely to very likely beneficial effects for HIITarm+leg compared to HIITleg in maximal oxygen uptake, cardiac measures as well peak power output. The TOI following HIITarm+leg demonstrated likely to very likely increased oxygenation in the triceps brachii or the vastus lateralis when compared to HIITleg. The results suggest that six sessions of HIITarm+leg may likely to very likely improve maximal oxygen uptake, some inotropy-related cardiac measures with improved tissue oxygenation of the triceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles resulting in greater leg peak power output.

  18. Minimally invasive locked plating of distal tibia fractures is safe and effective.

    PubMed

    Ronga, Mario; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-04-01

    Distal tibial fractures are difficult to manage. Limited soft tissue and poor vascularity impose limitations for traditional plating techniques that require large exposures. The nature of the limitations for traditional plating techniques is intrinsic to the large exposure required to approach distal tibia, a bone characterized by limited soft tissue coverage and poor vascularity. The locking plate (LP) is a new device for treatment of fractures. We assessed the bone union rate, deformity, leg-length discrepancy, ankle range of motion, return to preinjury activities, infection, and complication rate in 21 selected patients who underwent minimally invasive osteosynthesis of closed distal tibia fractures with an LP. According to the AO classification, there were 12 Type A, 5 Type B, and 4 Type C fractures. The minimum followup was 2 years (average, 2.8 years; range, 2-4 years). Two patients were lost to followup. Union was achieved in all but one patient by the 24th postoperative week. Four patients had angular deformity less than 7 degrees . No patient had a leg-length discrepancy more than 1.1 cm. Five patients had ankle range of motion less than 20 degrees compared with the contralateral side. Sixteen patients had not returned to their preinjury sporting or leisure activities. Three patients developed a delayed infection. We judge the LP a reasonable device for treating distal tibia fractures. The level of physical activities appears permanently reduced in most patients. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. How to determine leg dominance: The agreement between self-reported and observed performance in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meddeler, Bart M.; Hoogeboom, Thomas J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; van Cingel, Robert E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Context Since decades leg dominance is suggested to be important in rehabilitation and return to play in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, an ideal method to determine leg dominance in relation to task performance is still lacking. Objective To test the agreement between self-reported and observed leg dominance in bilateral mobilizing and unilateral stabilizing tasks, and to assess whether the dominant leg switches between bilateral mobilizing tasks and unilateral stabilizing tasks. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Forty-one healthy adults: 21 men aged 36 ± 17 years old and 20 women aged 36 ±15 years old. Measurement and analysis Participants self-reported leg dominance in the Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire-Revised (WFQ-R), and leg dominance was observed during performance of four bilateral mobilizing tasks and two unilateral stabilizing tasks. Descriptive statistics and crosstabs were used to report the percentages of agreement. Results The leg used to kick a ball had 100% agreement between the self-reported and observed dominant leg for both men and women. The dominant leg in kicking a ball and standing on one leg was the same in 66.7% of the men and 85.0% of the women. The agreement with jumping with one leg was lower: 47.6% for men and 70.0% for women. Conclusions It is appropriate to ask healthy adults: “If you would shoot a ball on a target, which leg would you use to shoot the ball?” to determine leg dominance in bilateral mobilizing tasks. However, a considerable number of the participants switched the dominant leg in a unilateral stabilizing task. PMID:29287067

  20. A newly identified calculation discrepancy of the Sunset semi-continuous carbon analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, G.; Cheng, Y.; He, K.; Duan, F.; Ma, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Sunset Semi-Continuous Carbon Analyzer (SCCA) is an instrument widely used for carbonaceous aerosol measurement. Despite previous validation work, here we identified a new type of SCCA calculation discrepancy caused by the default multi-point baseline correction method. When exceeding a certain threshold carbon load, multi-point correction could cause significant Total Carbon (TC) underestimation. This calculation discrepancy was characterized for both sucrose and ambient samples with three temperature protocols. For ambient samples, 22%, 36% and 12% TC was underestimated by the three protocols, respectively, with corresponding threshold being ~0, 20 and 25 μg C. For sucrose, however, such discrepancy was observed with only one of these protocols, indicating the need of more refractory SCCA calibration substance. The discrepancy was less significant for the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)-like protocol compared with the other two protocols based on IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments). Although the calculation discrepancy could be largely reduced by the single-point baseline correction method, the instrumental blanks of single-point method were higher. Proposed correction method was to use multi-point corrected data when below the determined threshold, while use single-point results when beyond that threshold. The effectiveness of this correction method was supported by correlation with optical data.

  1. Rotational effect of buoyancy in frontcrawl: Does it really cause the legs to sink?

    PubMed

    Yanai, T

    2001-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to quantify the rotational effect of buoyant force (buoyant torque) during the performance of front crawl and to reexamine the mechanics of horizontal alignment of the swimmers. Three-dimensional videography was used to measure the position and orientation of the body segments of 11 competitive swimmers performing front crawl stroke at a sub-maximum sprinting speed. The dimensions of each body segment were defined mathematically to match the body segment parameters (mass, density, and centroid position) reported in the literature. The buoyant force and torque were computed for every video-field (60fields/s), assuming that the water surface followed a sine curve along the length of the swimmer. The average buoyant torque over the stroke cycle (mean=22Nm) was directed to raise the legs and lower the head, primarily because the recovery arm and a part of the head were lifted out of the water and the center of buoyancy shifted toward the feet. This finding contradicts the prevailing speculation that buoyancy only causes the legs to sink throughout the stroke cycle. On the basis of a theoretical analysis of the results, it is postulated that the buoyant torque, and perhaps the forces generated by kicks, function to counteract the torque generated by the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hands, so as to maintain the horizontal alignment of the body in front crawl.

  2. A six-legged rover for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Krotkov, Eric; Bares, John

    1991-01-01

    To survive the rigors and isolation of planetary exploration, an autonomous rover must be competent, reliable, and efficient. This paper presents the Ambler, a six-legged robot featuring orthogonal legs and a novel circulating gait, which has been designed for traversal of rugged, unknown environments. An autonomous software system that integrates perception, planning, and real-time control has been developed to walk the Ambler through obstacle strewn terrain. The paper describes the information and control flow of the walking system, and how the design of the mechanism and software combine to achieve competent walking, reliable behavior in the face of unexpected failures, and efficient utilization of time and power.

  3. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  4. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  5. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  6. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  7. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  8. The Prevalence and Determinants of Controlled Substance Discrepancies in a Level I Trauma Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Chukwuma; Egwim, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthcare institutions are often faced with challenges and accreditation requirements for improving treatment quality, reducing waste, and avoiding diversion of drugs, particularly controlled substances. Many automated systems have replaced manual systems but may be fraught with challenges, especially when multiple users are involved. Objective To describe the characteristics of controlled substance discrepancies observed in a Level I trauma hospital for Medicare. Methods Discrepancy data were captured for each user involved in a transaction for a controlled substance at the Level I trauma hospital (in Ben Taub Hospital, Houston, TX), and the information was stored in a computerized database repository. Data for the 1-year study period (from January 1 through December 31, 2013) were collected for Medicare beneficiaries, using an Excel 2013 spreadsheet, and were analyzed according to basic discrepancy characteristics and descriptive statistics. Results During the 12-month study period, 114,000 controlled substance discrepancies were found for 100,000 Medicare patients at this Level I trauma hospital. Vending activities accounted for the majority (52.6%) of these discrepancies. Discrepancies were most likely to occur on Wednesdays, and the medications involved most frequently were combination drugs of hydrocodone and acetaminophen. Conclusion Approximately 1 (1.14) discrepancy involving a controlled substance occurred for each Medicare patient treated at the study facility. Healthcare institutions need to improve their efforts to ensure high-quality care and prevent diversion of drugs. PMID:27606038

  9. Asymmetric balance control between legs for quiet but not for perturbed stance.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Osvaldo; Coelho, Daniel Boari; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Interlateral performance asymmetry in upright balance control was evaluated in this investigation by comparing unipedal stance on the right versus the left leg. Participants were healthy young adults, hand-foot congruent preference for the right body side. Balance performance was evaluated in unperturbed quiet stance and in the recovery of balance stability following a mechanical perturbation induced by unexpected load release. Evaluation was made under availability of full sensory information, and under deprivation of vision combined with distortion of sensory inputs from the feet soles. Results from perturbed posture revealed that muscular response latency and postural sway were symmetric between the legs. Unipedal stance was more stable when the body was supported on the right as compared with the left leg. No interaction was found between leg and sensory condition. Our findings are interpreted as resulting from specialization of the sensorimotor system controlling the right leg for continuous low-magnitude postural adjustments, while corrections to large-scale stance sway are symmetrically controlled between body sides.

  10. Pulmonary and leg VO2 during submaximal exercise: implications for muscular efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, D. C.; Gaesser, G. A.; Hogan, M. C.; Knight, D. R.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    Insights into muscle energetics during exercise (e.g., muscular efficiency) are often inferred from measurements of pulmonary gas exchange. This procedure presupposes that changes of pulmonary O2 (VO2) associated with increases of external work reflect accurately the increased muscle VO2. The present investigation addressed this issue directly by making simultaneous determinations of pulmonary and leg VO2 over a range of work rates calculated to elicit 20-90% of maximum VO2 on the basis of prior incremental (25 or 30 W/min) cycle ergometry. VO2 for both legs was calculated as the product of twice one-leg blood flow (constant-infusion thermodilution) and arteriovenous O2 content difference across the leg. Measurements were made 3-5 min after each work rate imposition to avoid incorporation of the VO2 slow component above the lactate threshold. For all 17 subjects, the slope of pulmonary VO2 (9.9 +/- 0.2 ml O2.W-1.min-1) was not different (P greater than 0.05) from that for leg VO2 (9.2 +/- 0.6 ml O2.W-1.min-1). Estimation of "delta" efficiency (i.e., delta work accomplished divided by delta energy expended, calculated from slope of VO2 vs. work rate and a caloric equivalent for O2 of 4.985 cal/ml) using pulmonary VO2 measurements (29.1 +/- 0.6%) was likewise not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from that made using leg VO2 measurements (33.7 +/- 2.4%). These data suggest that the net VO2 cost of metabolic "support" processes outside the exercising legs changes little over a relatively broad range of exercise intensities. Thus, under the conditions of this investigation, changes of VO2 measured from expired gas reflected closely those occurring within the exercising legs.

  11. Medication discrepancy: a concordance problem between dialysis patients and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Magnus; Lindberg, Per; Wikström, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Extensive drug utilization, and non-concordance between the patient and the caregiver about prescriptions and actual medicine intake, are associated with the risk of non-adherence to medication as well as medication-related illness. To achieve reliable estimates of drug use, it is important to consider the patient's self-reported drug utilization as well as to consult his/her medical record. The present multicentre study was conducted with the aim of examining the self-reported drug consumption of dialysis patients and its congruence with medical records. Consumption of pharmaceutical agents was recorded by 204 patients undergoing haemo- or peritoneal dialysis at 10 Swedish clinics. Drug record discrepancies were identified by comparing the self-reported use of prescribed medicines with the subsequently obtained medication lists. The median drug intake was 11 prescribed medicines and by including on-demand drugs this increased to 12. Discrepancies between the self-reported use of prescribed drugs and the medical record were prevalent in 80.4% of cases, with a median of three discrepancies per patient. Dialysis patients have an extensive need for medication but there is an undesirable deviation between consumption and prescription. A single medication list, accessible for the patient and for all prescribers, is a possible solution to achieve concordance but other measures, such as analysis of the reasons for discrepancy and tailored measures, would also benefit concordant medicine-taking.

  12. Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…

  13. MRI correlates of alien leg-like phenomenon in corticobasal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hu, William T; Josephs, Keith A; Ahlskog, J Eric; Shin, Cheolsu; Boeve, Bradley F; Witte, Robert J

    2005-07-01

    We describe the clinical and neuroradiologic correlates in two patients with the clinical picture of CBD and alien leg phenomena. The MRI brain scan in both had unique focal abnormalities in the corresponding leg area of the homunculus that may be the substrate for the alien limb features. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Repeatability and Validity of the Combined Arm-Leg (Cruiser) Ergometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmelink, Elisabeth K.; Wempe, Johan B.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of physical fitness of lower limb amputees is difficult, as the commonly used ergometer tests have limitations. A combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer might be valuable. The aim of this study was to establ