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Sample records for leg strengthening exercise

  1. Home-Based Leg Strengthening Exercise Improves Function One Year After Hip Fracture: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Mangione, Kathleen K.; Craik, Rebecca L.; Palombaro, Kerstin M.; Tomlinson, Susan S.; Hofmann, Mary T.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Examine the effectiveness of a short term leg strengthening exercise program compared to attentional control on improving strength, walking abilities, and function one year after hip fracture. Design Randomized controlled pilot study. Setting Interventions occurred in patients’ homes. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (n=26) six months post hip fracture at baseline. Intervention Exercise and control participants received interventions by physical therapists twice weekly for 10 weeks. The exercise group received high intensity leg strengthening exercises. The control group received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and mental imagery. Measurements Isometric force production of lower extremity muscles; usual and fast gait speed, six minute walk (6-MW) distance, modified physical performance test (mPPT), and SF-36 physical function. Results The primary endpoint was at one year post fracture. Isometric force production (p<.01), usual and fast gait speed (p=.02 & .03, respectively), 6-MW (p<.01), and mPPT (p<.01) improved at one year post fracture with exercise. Effect sizes were 0.79 for strength, 0.81 for mPPT scores, 0.56 for gait speed, 0.49 for 6-MW, and 0.30 for SF-36 scores. More patients in the exercise group made meaningful changes in gait speed and 6-MW distance than control patients (χ2: p=.004). Conclusion A 10-week home-based progressive resistance exercise program was sufficient to achieve moderate to large effects on physical performance and quality of life and may offer an alternative intervention mode for hip fracture patients who are unable to leave home at 6 months after the fracture. The effects were maintained at 3 months after completion of the training program. PMID:20929467

  2. Muscle oxygen saturation heterogeneity among leg muscles during ramp exercise.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Murase, Norio; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether O(2) saturation in several leg muscles changes as exercise intensity increases. Twelve healthy young males performed 20 W/min ramp bicycle exercise until exhaustion. Pulmonary O(2) uptake (VO(2)) was monitored continuously during the experiments to determine peak oxygen uptake. Muscle O(2) saturation (SmO(2)) was also monitored continuously at the belly of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. Although the VL muscle mainly contributes during cycling exercise, deoxygenation was enhanced not only in the VL muscle but also in the other thigh muscles and lower leg muscles with increased exercise intensity. Furthermore, SmO(2) response during ramp cycling exercise differed considerably between leg muscles.

  3. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  4. Intermittent exercise alters endurance in an eight-legged ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, R B; Full, R J

    1992-05-01

    Most animals move intermittently, yet many proposed performance limitations of terrestrial locomotion are based on steady-state measurements and assumptions. We examined the effect of work-rest transitions by exercising the ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata (28.1 +/- 8.1 g), intermittently on a treadmill at 0.30 m/s, a supramaximal speed [i.e., greater than the speed that elicits the maximal rate of oxygen consumption (VO2)]. Duration of the exercise and pause periods, ratio of exercise to pause, and speed during the exercise period were varied to determine the effect on performance. Crabs fatigued after 7.5 min of continuous running, a distance capacity (i.e., total distance traveled before fatigue) of 135 m. When the task was done intermittently with 2-min exercise and 2-min pause periods, the crabs fatigued after 87 min (a total distance of 787 m), representing an 5.8-fold increase in distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same absolute speed (0.30 m/s) and a 2.2-fold increase in distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same average speed (0.15 m/s). Pause periods less than 30 s did not result in greater distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same average speed. Longer (3-5 min) and shorter exercise periods (less than or equal to 30 s) decreased distance capacity. Leg muscle lactate increased 10-fold to 15 mumol/g leg during intermittent exercise. However, significant amounts of lactate were cleared from the leg during the brief pause periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Respiratory and leg muscles perceived exertion during exercise at altitude.

    PubMed

    Aliverti, A; Kayser, B; Lo Mauro, A; Quaranta, M; Pompilio, P; Dellacà, R L; Ora, J; Biasco, L; Cavalleri, L; Pomidori, L; Cogo, A; Pellegrino, R; Miserocchi, G

    2011-07-31

    We compared the rate of perceived exertion for respiratory (RPE,resp) and leg (RPE,legs) muscles, using a 10-point Borg scale, to their specific power outputs in 10 healthy male subjects during incremental cycle exercise at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA, 4559 m). Respiratory power output was calculated from breath-by-breath esophageal pressure and chest wall volume changes. At HA ventilation was increased at any leg power output by ∼ 54%. However, for any given ventilation, breathing pattern was unchanged in terms of tidal volume, respiratory rate and operational volumes of the different chest wall compartments. RPE,resp scaled uniquely with total respiratory power output, irrespectively of SL or HA, while RPE,legs for any leg power output was exacerbated at HA. With increasing respective power outputs, the rate of change of RPE,resp exponentially decreased, while that of RPE,legs increased. We conclude that RPE,resp uniquely relates to respiratory power output, while RPE,legs varies depending on muscle metabolic conditions.

  6. Nonuniform changes in MRI measurements of the thigh muscles after two hamstring strengthening exercises.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Garrues, Mirian A; Cronin, John B; Contreras, Bret; Los Arcos, Asier; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Maffulli, Nicola; Idoate, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    Although many different hamstring strengthening exercises exist, the effect on site specific activation of these exercises on different muscles of the leg is unclear. This study investigated the effects of the eccentric leg curl (LC) and lunge (L) exercises on the biceps femoris long head (BFl), biceps femoris short head (BFs), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), and adductor magnus (AM). Each leg of 11 male professional soccer players was randomly assigned to an LC or L exercise protocol (3 sets of 6 repetitions). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the subjects' thighs were performed before and 48 hours after the intervention. Fifteen axial scans of the thigh interspaced by a distance of 1/15 right femur length (Lf) were obtained. The fMRI data were analyzed for signal intensity changes. No significant changes were observed in absolute short tau inversion recovery values for the SM and BFs. Significant changes for the ST (∼21-45%) from sections 4 to 10, AM (∼2-13%) at section 4, and BFl (∼ -3 vs. 8%) at section 7 were noted. LC exercises load all the regions of the ST muscle. The L exercises load the proximal regions of the BFl and AM. These findings may have relevance when designing protocols for prevention and rehabilitation of hamstring injuries. PMID:23443215

  7. Strengthening the Gluteus Medius Using Various Bodyweight and Resistance Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Tufano, James J.; Golas, Artur; Petr, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT THE GLUTEUS MEDIUS (Gmed) IS AN IMPORTANT MUSCLE AND, IF WEAK, CAN CAUSE KNEE, HIP, OR LOWER-BACK PATHOLOGIES. THIS ARTICLE REVIEWS METHODS OF Gmed STRENGTH ASSESSMENT, PROVIDES EXERCISES THAT TARGET THE Gmed BASED ON ELECTROMYOGRAPHY, PRESENTS HOW TO IMPLEMENT Gmed STRENGTHENING IN HEAVY RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS, AND EXPLAINS THE IMPORTANCE OF INCLUDING THESE EXERCISES IN THESE PROGRAMS. PMID:27340373

  8. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature.

    PubMed

    Reinking, Mark F

    2007-08-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as "shin splints" has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities - medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology - which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention.

  9. Chronic Exercise-Induced Leg Pain in Active People.

    PubMed

    Schon, L C; Baxter, D E; Clanton, T O; Sammarco, G J

    1992-01-01

    In brief "Shin splints" is a catchall term for any kind persistent exercise-related lower leg pain with no obvious cause. Such pain can originate from a number of conditions, such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, vascular pathology, nerve entrapment, and others. A methodical work-up designed to detect problems in all anatomic structures from bone to skin will narrow the possibilities and lay the basis for appropriate treatment.

  10. Blood metabolites during prolonged exercise in swimming and leg cycling.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J M

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the influence of two modes of exercise (swimming and leg cycling) on the blood concentrations of metabolic substrates and metabolites during a 45-min exercise period. Eight college students (mean age = 21.6 +/- 1.2 year) exercised at 70% of VO2 max, in water using the front crawl on one occasion, and on a cycle ergometer using the legs on another. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, and 45 min and analyzed for free fatty acids, glycerol, glucose, pyruvate, and lactate concentrations. Mean oxygen uptakes (2.23 vs 2.12 l . min-1) and heart rates (152 vs 150 b . min-1) for cycling and swimming respectively were not significantly different. Lactate and pyruvate were significantly (p less than 0.01) higher during swimming as compared to cycling. Free fatty acids, glycerol, and glucose were not significantly different between the two modes of exercise (p greater than 0.05). Assuming venous blood concentrations provide some indication of metabolic events, these data are compatible with a tendency to a higher relative carbohydrate oxidation rate during swimming as compared to cycling during prolonged exercise at the same relative work intensities.

  11. A new isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise using EMG-biofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Sarman, Hakan; Baran, Tuncay; Memisoglu, Kaya; Binbir, Ismail; Savas, Yilmaz; Isik, Cengiz; Boyraz, Ismail; Koc, Bunyamin

    2014-01-01

    A new isometric contraction quadriceps-strengthening exercise was developed to restore the quadriceps strength lost after knee surgery more rapidly. This study evaluated the results of this new method. Patients were taught to perform the isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise in the unaffected knee in the supine position, and then they performed it in the affected knee. First, patients were taught the classical isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise, and then they were taught our new alternative method: “pull the patella superiorly tightly and hold the leg in the same position for 10 seconds”. Afterward, the quadriceps contraction was evaluated using a non-invasive Myomed 932 EMG-biofeedback device (Enraf-Nonius, The Netherlands) with gel-containing 48 mm electrodes (Türklab, The Turkey) placed on both knees. The isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise performed using our new method had stronger contraction than the classical method (P < 0.01). The new method involving pulling the patella superiorly appears to be a better choice, which can be applied easily, leading to better patient compliance and greater quadriceps force after arthroscopic and other knee surgeries. PMID:25356122

  12. Effect of hand-arm exercise on venous blood constituents during leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, N.; Silver, J. E.; Greenawalt, S.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.

    1985-01-01

    Contributions by ancillary hand and arm actions to the changes in blood constituents effected by leg exercises on cycle ergometer were assessed. Static or dynamic hand-arm exercises were added to the leg exercise (50 percent VO2 peak)-only control regimens for the subjects (19-27 yr old men) in the two experimental groups. Antecubital venous blood was analyzed at times 0, 15, and 30 min (T0, T15, and T30) for serum Na(+), K(+), osmolality, albumin, total CA(2+), and glucose; blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, and lactic acid; and change in plasma volume. Only glucose and lactate values were affected by additional arm exercise. Glucose decreased 4 percent at T15 and T30 after static exercise, and by 2 percent at T15 (with no change at T30) after dynamic arm exercise. Conversely, lactic acid increased by 20 percent at T30 after static exercise, and by 14 percent by T15 and 6 percent at T30 after dynamic arm exercise. It is concluded that additional arm movements, performed usually when gripping the handle-bar on the cycle ergometer, could introduce significant errors in measured venous concentrations of glucose and lactate in the leg-exercised subjects.

  13. Strengthening physical self-perceptions through exercise.

    PubMed

    Caruso, C M; Gill, D L

    1992-12-01

    Two studies examined the effects of physical activity/exercise on physical self-perceptions, self-efficacy, body satisfaction, fitness and relationships among these variables. In study 1, 34 female undergraduates participated in a 10-week exercise/activity program. Participants were selected from existing classes forming a weight training, aerobic exercise and activity control group. Results revealed changes in physical self-perceptions, strength, and body composition over the 10-weeks. Improvements in physical self-perceptions and fitness occurred independent of exercise/activity group. Groups differed in the perceived importance attached to physical self-perceptions. Correlations among the measures revealed relationships among physical self-perceptions, body satisfaction, global self-esteem, and fitness. In study 2, we hypothesized that weight training would have a greater effect on physical self-perceptions and body image perceptions than physical education activity classes. Thirty-seven males and 28 females were selected from existing classes forming a weight training and activity group. Results revealed no significant changes in physical self-perceptions, body image, or global self-esteem over the 10-week program, while strength and physical self-efficacy improved. Correlations among measures from both studies offer preliminary support for Sonstroem and Morgan's model for the examination of self-esteem in exercise settings. PMID:1293426

  14. Central and peripheral hemodynamics in exercising humans: leg vs arm exercise.

    PubMed

    Calbet, J A L; González-Alonso, J; Helge, J W; Søndergaard, H; Munch-Andersen, T; Saltin, B; Boushel, R

    2015-12-01

    In humans, arm exercise is known to elicit larger increases in arterial blood pressure (BP) than leg exercise. However, the precise regulation of regional vascular conductances (VC) for the distribution of cardiac output with exercise intensity remains unknown. Hemodynamic responses were assessed during incremental upright arm cranking (AC) and leg pedalling (LP) to exhaustion (Wmax) in nine males. Systemic VC, peak cardiac output (Qpeak) (indocyanine green) and stroke volume (SV) were 18%, 23%, and 20% lower during AC than LP. The mean BP, the rate-pressure product and the associated myocardial oxygen demand were 22%, 12%, and 14% higher, respectively, during maximal AC than LP. Trunk VC was reduced to similar values at Wmax. At Wmax, muscle mass-normalized VC and fractional O2 extraction were lower in the arm than the leg muscles. However, this was compensated for during AC by raising perfusion pressure to increase O2 delivery, allowing a similar peak VO2 per kg of muscle mass in both extremities. In summary, despite a lower Qpeak during arm cranking the cardiovascular strain is much higher than during leg pedalling. The adjustments of regional conductances during incremental exercise to exhaustion depend mostly on the relative intensity of exercise and are limb-specific.

  15. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of strengthening exercise for early dementia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yerokhin, Vadim; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Hogan, Michael J; Dunnam, Mina; Huber, Daniel; Osborne, Sandra; Shulan, Mollie

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates a positive effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in older adults. Unfortunately, aerobic exercise is often contraindicated for older adults due to cardiovascular and functional limitations. Low-intensity strengthening exercise may offer a practical alternative, but the neuropsychological benefits and potential neurophysiological mechanisms are less well understood. The current study evaluated the effects of a 10-week strengthening exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and EEG in a sample of 13 older adults with early dementia, and 9 normative controls. Results revealed beneficial effects of strengthening exercise on verbal memory coupled with frontal beta and delta power asymmetries and N200 amplitude asymmetry. Results point to increased cognitive efficiency following 10 weeks of strengthening exercise. The findings suggest it is feasible to conduct a strengthening intervention with early dementia patients, and to gather neuropsychological and neurophysiological data to evaluate outcomes. Strengthening exercise may serve as a useful alternative to aerobic exercise.

  16. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Percent Body Fat Determined by Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…

  17. Bed rest attenuates sympathetic and pressor responses to isometric exercise in antigravity leg muscles in humans.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Atsunori; Michikami, Daisaku; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Hayano, Junichiro; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Mano, Tadaaki

    2004-05-01

    Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied muscles remain unknown. We hypothesized that bed rest would augment sympathetic responses to isometric exercise using antigravity leg muscles in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers were subjected to 14-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Before and after bed rest, they performed isometric exercises using leg (plantar flexion) and forearm (handgrip) muscles, followed by 2-min postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) that continues to stimulate the muscle metaboreflex. These exercises were sustained to fatigue. We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the contralateral resting leg by microneurography. In both pre- and post-bed-rest exercise tests, exercise intensities were set at 30 and 70% of the maximum voluntary force measured before bed rest. Bed rest attenuated the increase in MSNA in response to fatiguing plantar flexion by approximately 70% at both exercise intensities (both P < 0.05 vs. before bed rest) and reduced the maximal voluntary force of plantar flexion by 15%. In contrast, bed rest did not alter the increase in MSNA response to fatiguing handgrip and had no effects on the maximal voluntary force of handgrip. Although PEMI sustained MSNA activation before bed rest in all trials, bed rest entirely eliminated the PEMI-induced increase in MSNA in leg exercises but partially attenuated it in forearm exercises. These results do not support our hypothesis but indicate that bed rest causes a reduction in isometric exercise-induced sympathetic activation in (probably atrophied) antigravity leg muscles.

  18. Exercise testing of leg amputees and the result of prosthetic training.

    PubMed

    van Alsté, J A; Cruts, H E; Huisman, K; de Vries, J

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients undergoing rehabilitation following leg amputation were examined to determine cardiac status, which included clinical examination and a graded exercise ECG test, using an arm ergometer. Results were compared to final walking ability. It was found that the cardiac status of these patients was generally poor and that the exercise ECG results did co-relate to walking ability. PMID:4066177

  19. Decreased muscle oxygenation and increased arterial blood flow in the non-exercising limb during leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Shimomura, Kousuke; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p < 0.01) compared to the baseline. The (NONEX)V(O)(2mus) at each work rate was not significantly increased. In contrast, (NONEX)FBF was significantly increased at 120 W (p < 0.05) and 160 W (p < 0.01) compared to the baseline. These results suggest that the O(2) supply to the non-exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise.

  20. Exercise promotes IL-6 release from legs in older men with minor response to unilateral immobilization.

    PubMed

    Reihmane, Dace; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas; Wulff Helge, Jørn; Dela, Flemming

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a major contributor to low-grade systemic inflammation. Most of the studies characterizing interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release from exercising legs have been done in young, healthy men, but studies on inactivity in older people are lacking. The impact of 14 days of one-leg immobilization (IM) on IL-6 and TNF-α release during exercise in comparison to the contralateral control (CON) leg was investigated. Fifteen healthy men (age 68.1 ± 1.1 year (mean ± SEM); BMI 27.0 ± 0.4 kg·m(2); VO2max 33.3 ± 1.6 ml·kg(‒1)·min(‒1)) performed 45 min of two-leg dynamic knee extensor exercise at 19.5 ± 0.9 W. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples from the CON and the IM legs were collected every 15 min during exercise, and thigh blood flow was measured with ultrasound Doppler. Arterial plasma IL-6 concentration increased with exercise (rest vs. 45 min, main effect p < .05). IL-6 release increased with exercise (rest vs. 30 min, main effect p < .05). Furthermore, IL-6 release was borderline (main effect, p = .085, effect size 0.28) higher in the IM leg compared to the CON leg (288 (95% CI: 213-373) vs. 220 (95% CI: 152-299) pg·min(‒1), respectively). There was no release of TNF-α in either leg and arterial concentrations remained unchanged during exercise (p > .05). In conclusion, exercise induces more pronounced IL-6 secretion in healthy older men. Two weeks of unilateral immobilization on the other hand had only a minor influence on IL-6 release. Neither immobilization nor exercise had an effect on TNF-α release across the working legs in older men. PMID:27686402

  1. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Garten, Ryan S; Ives, Stephen J; Conklin, Jamie D; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A H; Bledsoe, Amber D; Morgan, David E; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively), leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population.

  2. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Matthew J.; Trinity, Joel D.; Garten, Ryan S.; Ives, Stephen J.; Conklin, Jamie D.; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Bledsoe, Amber D.; Morgan, David E.; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R.; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D. Walter

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively), leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population. PMID:26188020

  3. Voluntary Movement Frequencies in Submaximal One- and Two-Legged Knee Extension Exercise and Pedaling.

    PubMed

    Stang, Julie; Wiig, Håvard; Hermansen, Marte; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of behavior and control of human voluntary rhythmic stereotyped leg movements is useful in work to improve performance, function, and rehabilitation of exercising, healthy, and injured humans. The present study aimed at adding to the existing understanding within this field. To pursue the aim, correlations between freely chosen movement frequencies in relatively simple, single-joint, one- and two-legged knee extension exercise were investigated. The same was done for more complex, multiple-joint, one- and two-legged pedaling. These particular activities were chosen because they could be considered related to some extent, as they shared a key aspect of knee extension, and because they at the same time were different. The activities were performed at submaximal intensities, by healthy individuals (n = 16, thereof eight women; 23.4 ± 2.7 years; 1.70 ± 0.11 m; 68.6 ± 11.2 kg). High and fair correlations (R-values of 0.99 and 0.75) occurred between frequencies generated with the dominant leg and the nondominant leg during knee extension exercise and pedaling, respectively. Fair to high correlations (R-values between 0.71 and 0.95) occurred between frequencies performed with each of the two legs in an activity, and the two-legged frequency performed in the same type of activity. In general, the correlations were higher for knee extension exercise than for pedaling. Correlations between knee extension and pedaling frequencies were of modest occurrence. The correlations between movement frequencies generated separately by each of the legs might be interpreted to support the following working hypothesis, which was based on existing literature. It is likely that involved central pattern generators (CPGs) of the two legs share a common frequency generator or that separate frequency generators of each leg are attuned via interneuronal connections. Further, activity type appeared to be relevant. Thus, the apparent common rhythmogenesis for the two legs appeared

  4. Voluntary Movement Frequencies in Submaximal One- and Two-Legged Knee Extension Exercise and Pedaling

    PubMed Central

    Stang, Julie; Wiig, Håvard; Hermansen, Marte; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of behavior and control of human voluntary rhythmic stereotyped leg movements is useful in work to improve performance, function, and rehabilitation of exercising, healthy, and injured humans. The present study aimed at adding to the existing understanding within this field. To pursue the aim, correlations between freely chosen movement frequencies in relatively simple, single-joint, one- and two-legged knee extension exercise were investigated. The same was done for more complex, multiple-joint, one- and two-legged pedaling. These particular activities were chosen because they could be considered related to some extent, as they shared a key aspect of knee extension, and because they at the same time were different. The activities were performed at submaximal intensities, by healthy individuals (n = 16, thereof eight women; 23.4 ± 2.7 years; 1.70 ± 0.11 m; 68.6 ± 11.2 kg). High and fair correlations (R-values of 0.99 and 0.75) occurred between frequencies generated with the dominant leg and the nondominant leg during knee extension exercise and pedaling, respectively. Fair to high correlations (R-values between 0.71 and 0.95) occurred between frequencies performed with each of the two legs in an activity, and the two-legged frequency performed in the same type of activity. In general, the correlations were higher for knee extension exercise than for pedaling. Correlations between knee extension and pedaling frequencies were of modest occurrence. The correlations between movement frequencies generated separately by each of the legs might be interpreted to support the following working hypothesis, which was based on existing literature. It is likely that involved central pattern generators (CPGs) of the two legs share a common frequency generator or that separate frequency generators of each leg are attuned via interneuronal connections. Further, activity type appeared to be relevant. Thus, the apparent common rhythmogenesis for the two legs appeared

  5. Effects of ATP-induced leg vasodilation on VO2 peak and leg O2 extraction during maximal exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Calbet, J A L; Lundby, C; Sander, M; Robach, P; Saltin, B; Boushel, R

    2006-08-01

    During maximal whole body exercise VO2 peak is limited by O2 delivery. In turn, it is though that blood flow at near-maximal exercise must be restrained by the sympathetic nervous system to maintain mean arterial pressure. To determine whether enhancing vasodilation across the leg results in higher O2 delivery and leg VO2 during near-maximal and maximal exercise in humans, seven men performed two maximal incremental exercise tests on the cycle ergometer. In random order, one test was performed with and one without (control exercise) infusion of ATP (8 mg in 1 ml of isotonic saline solution) into the right femoral artery at a rate of 80 microg.kg body mass-1.min-1. During near-maximal exercise (92% of VO2 peak), the infusion of ATP increased leg vascular conductance (+43%, P<0.05), leg blood flow (+20%, 1.7 l/min, P<0.05), and leg O2 delivery (+20%, 0.3 l/min, P<0.05). No effects were observed on leg or systemic VO2. Leg O2 fractional extraction was decreased from 85+/-3 (control) to 78+/-4% (ATP) in the infused leg (P<0.05), while it remained unchanged in the left leg (84+/-2 and 83+/-2%; control and ATP; n=3). ATP infusion at maximal exercise increased leg vascular conductance by 17% (P<0.05), while leg blood flow tended to be elevated by 0.8 l/min (P=0.08). However, neither systemic nor leg peak VO2 values where enhanced due to a reduction of O2 extraction from 84+/-4 to 76+/-4%, in the control and ATP conditions, respectively (P<0.05). In summary, the VO2 of the skeletal muscles of the lower extremities is not enhanced by limb vasodilation at near-maximal or maximal exercise in humans. The fact that ATP infusion resulted in a reduction of O2 extraction across the exercising leg suggests a vasodilating effect of ATP on less-active muscle fibers and other noncontracting tissues and that under normal conditions these regions are under high vasoconstrictor influence to ensure the most efficient flow distribution of the available cardiac output to the most active

  6. Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

  7. Pulmonary and leg VO2 during submaximal exercise: implications for muscular efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, D. C.; Gaesser, G. A.; Hogan, M. C.; Knight, D. R.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    Insights into muscle energetics during exercise (e.g., muscular efficiency) are often inferred from measurements of pulmonary gas exchange. This procedure presupposes that changes of pulmonary O2 (VO2) associated with increases of external work reflect accurately the increased muscle VO2. The present investigation addressed this issue directly by making simultaneous determinations of pulmonary and leg VO2 over a range of work rates calculated to elicit 20-90% of maximum VO2 on the basis of prior incremental (25 or 30 W/min) cycle ergometry. VO2 for both legs was calculated as the product of twice one-leg blood flow (constant-infusion thermodilution) and arteriovenous O2 content difference across the leg. Measurements were made 3-5 min after each work rate imposition to avoid incorporation of the VO2 slow component above the lactate threshold. For all 17 subjects, the slope of pulmonary VO2 (9.9 +/- 0.2 ml O2.W-1.min-1) was not different (P greater than 0.05) from that for leg VO2 (9.2 +/- 0.6 ml O2.W-1.min-1). Estimation of "delta" efficiency (i.e., delta work accomplished divided by delta energy expended, calculated from slope of VO2 vs. work rate and a caloric equivalent for O2 of 4.985 cal/ml) using pulmonary VO2 measurements (29.1 +/- 0.6%) was likewise not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from that made using leg VO2 measurements (33.7 +/- 2.4%). These data suggest that the net VO2 cost of metabolic "support" processes outside the exercising legs changes little over a relatively broad range of exercise intensities. Thus, under the conditions of this investigation, changes of VO2 measured from expired gas reflected closely those occurring within the exercising legs.

  8. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stefan P; González-Alonso, José; Nielsen, Jens-Jung; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva

    2009-12-01

    ATP has been proposed to play multiple roles in local skeletal muscle blood flow regulation by inducing vasodilation and modulating sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we evaluated the effects of arterial ATP infusion and exercise on leg muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and NE concentrations were measured during 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0.42 +/- 0.04 and 2.26 +/- 0.52 micromol/min; mean +/- SE) and 2) one-leg knee-extensor exercise (18 +/- 0 and 37 +/- 2 W) in 10 healthy men. Arterial ATP infusion and exercise increased leg blood flow (LBF) in the experimental leg from approximately 0.3 l/min at baseline to 4.2 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.5 l/min, respectively, whereas it was reduced or unchanged in the control leg. During arterial ATP infusion, muscle interstitial ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine concentrations remained unchanged in both legs, but muscle interstitial NE increased from approximately 5.9 nmol/l at baseline to 8.3 +/- 1.2 and 8.7 +/- 0.7 nmol/l in the experimental and control leg, respectively (P < 0.05), in parallel to a reduction in arterial pressure (P < 0.05). During exercise, however, interstitial ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine concentrations increased in the contracting muscle (P < 0.05), but not in inactive muscle, whereas interstitial NE concentrations increased similarly in both active and inactive muscles. These results suggest that the vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of intraluminal ATP are mainly mediated via endothelial purinergic receptors. Intraluminal ATP and muscle contractions appear to modulate sympathetic nerve activity by inhibiting the effect of NE rather than blunting its local concentration. PMID:19797688

  9. The Effect of Stretching Exercises on Severity of Restless Legs Syndrome in Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Aliasgharpour, Mansooreh; Abbasi, Zahra; Pedram Razi, Shadan; Kazemnezhad, Anoshiravan

    2016-01-01

    Background The restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder that is very common in patients on hemodialysis. Due to pharmacological treatments which have their own side effects, nowadays, studies have turned to non-pharmacological treatments. Objectives The present study aims to assess the effect of stretching exercises on the severity of restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis. Patients and Methods This clinical trial study was conducted on 33 patients who had been identified using diagnostic criteria from the hemodialysis ward of Hasheminejad Hospital in Tehran. Participants were randomly divided into the intervention group (n = 17) and control group (n = 16). Stretching exercises were performed on legs during the dialysis for half an hour, three times a week for 8 weeks in intervention group. Data were collected by using the international restless legs syndrome study group scale. Results The results showed that the majority of participants were suffering from moderate restless legs syndrome. The symptom severity of this syndrome meaningfully changed eight weeks after intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions The results highlighted the significance of training and performing the stretching exercises during dialysis for the purpose of improving restless legs syndrome symptoms and the quality of care of hemodialysis patients. PMID:27625757

  10. Leg extensor muscle strength, postural stability, and fear of falling after a 2-month home exercise program in women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rätsepsoo, Monika; Gapeyeva, Helena; Sokk, Jelena; Ereline, Jaan; Haviko, Tiit; Pääsuke, Mati

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to compare the leg extensor muscle strength, the postural stability, and the fear of falling in the women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) before and after a 2-month home exercise program (HEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS. In total, 17 women aged 46-72 years with late-stage knee joint OA scheduled for total knee arthroplasty participated in this study before and after the 2-month HEP with strengthening, stretching, balance, and step exercises. The isometric peak torque (PT) of the leg extensors and postural stability characteristics when standing on a firm or a foam surface for 30 seconds were recorded. The fear of falling and the pain intensity (VAS) were estimated. RESULTS. A significant increase in the PT and the PT-to-body weight (PT-to-BW) ratio of the involved leg as well as the bilateral PT and the PT-to-BW ratio was found after the 2-month HEP compared with the data before the HEP (P<0.05). The PT and the PT-to-BW ratio of the involved leg were significantly lower compared with the uninvolved leg before the HEP (P<0.05). The center of the pressure sway length (foam surface) decreased significantly after the HEP (P<0.05). Significant correlations were found between the PT of the involved leg and the bilateral PT and the fear of falling and between the PT of the involved leg and the postural sway (foam surface) before the HEP. CONCLUSIONS. After the 2-month HEP, the leg extensor muscle strength increased and the postural sway length on a foam surface decreased. The results indicate that the increased leg extensor muscle strength improves postural stability and diminishes the fear of falling in women with late-stage knee joint OA.

  11. Exercise and quality of life: strengthening the connections.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Eileen

    2009-02-01

    Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed.

  12. Immediate Effects of Smoking on Cardiorespiratory Responses During Dynamic Exercise: Arm Vs. Leg Ergometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Liang; Tang, Jing-Shia; Li, Ping-Chia; Chou, Pi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the immediate effects of smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic arm and leg exercises. Methods:This randomized crossover study recruited 14 college students. Each participant underwent two sets of arm-cranking (AC) and leg-cycling (LC) exercise tests. The testing sequences of the control trial (participants refrained from smoking for 8 h before testing) and the experimental trial (participants smoked two cigarettes immediately before testing) were randomly chosen. We observed immediate changes in pulmonary function and heart rate variability after smoking and before the exercise test. The participants then underwent graded exercise tests of their arms and legs until reaching exhaustion. We compared the peak work achieved and time to exhaustion during the exercise tests with various cardiorespiratory indices [i.e., heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation (VE)]. The differences between the smoking and control trials were calculated using paired t-tests. For the exercise test periods, VO2, heart rate, and VE values were calculated at every 10% increment of the maximal effort time. The main effects of the time and trial, as well as their trial-by-time (4 × 10) interaction effects on the outcome measures, were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA with trend analysis. Results: 5 min after smoking, the participants exhibited reduced forced vital capacities and forced expiratory volumes in the first second (P < 0.05), in addition to elevated resting heart rates (P < 0.001). The high-frequency, low-frequency, and the total power of the heart rate variability were also reduced (P < 0.05) at rest. For the exercise test periods, smoking reduced the time to exhaustion (P = 0.005) and the ventilatory threshold (P < 0.05) in the LC tests, whereas no significant effects were observed in the AC tests. A trend analysis revealed a significant trial-by-time interaction effect for heart rate, VO2, and VE during the graded

  13. Shin-splints: common exercise-related syndromes affecting the lower leg.

    PubMed

    Williamson, B L; Arthur, C H C

    2014-01-01

    Lower leg pain is a common complaint of athletically active individuals, often limiting physical activities. As such, the group of lower leg conditions related to athletic pursuits and physical exercise confer considerable operational implications for the military. Whilst acute injuries to the lower limb are commonly encountered and are clearly of significance, this article focuses instead on chronic conditions related to physical activity. These include insults to bone such as stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome, and those related to the soft tissues such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome. In this article we will examine the presentation and management of these conditions.

  14. Single-leg hop testing following fatiguing exercise: reliability and biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, J; Thomeé, R; Lindén, C; Folkesson, M; Tranberg, R; Karlsson, J

    2006-04-01

    A fatiguing exercise protocol was combined with single-leg hop testing to improve the possibilities of evaluating the effects of training or rehabilitation interventions. In the first test-retest experiment, 11 healthy male subjects performed two trials of single-leg hops under three different test conditions: non-fatigued and following fatiguing exercise, which consisted of unilateral weight machine knee extensions at 80% and 50%, respectively, of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) strength. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.75 to 0.98 for different hop test conditions, indicating that all tests were reliable. For the second experiment, eight healthy male subjects performed the fatiguing exercise protocol to investigate how fatigue influences lower-extremity joint kinematics and kinetics during single-leg hops. Hip, knee and ankle joint angles, moments and powers, as well as ground-reaction forces were recorded with a six-camera, motion-capture system and a force platform. Recovery of hop performance following the fatiguing exercise was also measured. During the take-off for the single-leg hops, hip and knee flexion angles, generated powers for the knee and ankle joints, and ground-reaction forces decreased for the fatigued hop conditions compared with the non-fatigued condition (P<0.05). Compared with landing during the non-fatigued condition, hip moments and ground-reaction forces were lower for the fatigued hop conditions (P<0.05). The negative joint power was two to three times greater for the knee than for the hip and five to 10 times greater for the knee than for the ankle during landing for all test conditions (P<0.05). Most measured variables had recovered three minutes post-exercise. It is concluded that the fatiguing exercise protocol combined with single-leg hop testing was a reliable method for investigating functional performance under fatigued test conditions. Further, subjects utilized an adapted hop strategy, which employed less hip and

  15. Acute ventilatory responses to hypoxia during voluntary and electrically induced leg exercise in man.

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, J J; Robbins, P A

    1994-01-01

    1. The acute ventilatory response to a brief period of hypoxia (AHVR) was measured in six subjects (a) at rest, (b) during electrically induced leg exercise (EEL), (c) during voluntary leg exercise at an external work rate matched to electrical exercise (EV1) and (d) during voluntary leg exercise at an internal work rate (i.e. metabolic rate) matched to electrical exercise (EV2). The end-tidal PO2 during hypoxia was 50 mmHg and the end-tidal PCO2 was held constant at 1-2 mmHg above resting values throughout each of these four protocols. 2. EEL was produced by surface electrode stimulation of the quadriceps muscles so as to cause the legs to extend at the knee and lift a set of weights via a pulley system. During EV1, each subject lifted the same weight through the same height and at the same frequency as during his EEL protocol. During EV2, the weight, the height through which it was lifted and the frequency of voluntary contractions were altered to produce a similar O2 consumption and CO2 production as during EEL. 3. In each subject, end-tidal PCO2 values showed no change between the four protocols, and in three subjects in whom they were measured, arterial PCO2 values were also similar between the protocols. Venous lactate levels did not increase after EEL or EV2. 4. The AHVR during EEL (14.1 +/- 1.42 l min-1; mean +/- S.E.M) was significantly increased (Student's paired t test) compared with rest (7.55 +/- 1.10 l min-1; P < 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8071883

  16. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners

    PubMed Central

    Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Bredella, Miriam A.; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. Materials and methods An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. Results At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8±3.9 from 30.4±3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3±8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6±4.7 from 6.5±3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06±0.14 from 7.17±0.07) from resting levels. Conclusion The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles. PMID:21271342

  17. An electromyographic analysis of the Ab-Slide exercise, abdominal crunch, supine double leg thrust, and side bridge in healthy young adults: implications for rehabilitation professionals.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Guck, Benjamin R; Hebrink, Ryan C; Rugotzke, John D; Madson, Timothy J; Hollman, John H

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercial abdominal machine (Ab-Slide) and three common abdominal strengthening exercises (abdominal crunch, supine double leg thrust, and side bridge) on activating abdominal and minimizing extraneous (nonabdominal) musculature-namely, the rectus femoris muscle. We recruited 10 males and 12 females whose mean (+/- SD) percent body fat was 10.7 +/- 4 and 20.7% +/- 3.2%, respectively. Electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded using surface electrodes for the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus femoris. We recorded peak EMG activity for each muscle during each of the four exercises and normalized the EMG values by maximum muscle contractions (% MVIC). A two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance assessed differences in normalized EMG activity among the different exercise variations (p < 0.05). Post hoc analyses were performed using the Bonferroni-adjusted alpha to assess between-exercise pair comparisons (p < 0.002). Gender did not affect performance; hence, data were collapsed across gender. We found a muscle x exercise interaction (F9,189 = 5.2, p < 0.001). Post hoc analyses revealed six pairwise differences. The Ab-Slide elicited the greatest EMG activity for the abdominal muscles and the least for the rectus femoris. The supine double leg thrust could be a problem for patients with low-back pathology due to high rectus femoris muscle activity. PMID:18978615

  18. Human thermal responses during leg-only exercise in cold water.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, F S; Tipton, M J

    1987-01-01

    1. Exercise during immersion in cold water has been reported by several authors to accelerate the rate of fall of core temperature when compared with rates seen during static immersion. The nature of the exercise performed, however, has always been whole-body in nature. 2. In the present investigation fifteen subjects performed leg exercise throughout a 40 min head-out immersion in water at 15 degrees C. The responses obtained were compared with those seen when the subjects performed an identical static immersion. 3. Aural and rectal temperatures were found to fall by greater amounts during static immersion. 4. It is concluded that 'the type of exercise performed' should be included in the list of factors which affect core temperature during cold water immersion. PMID:3443951

  19. Exercise Strengthens Central Nervous System Modulation of Pain in Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Laura D.; Stegner, Aaron J.; Schwabacher, Isaac J.; Koltyn, Kelli F.; Cook, Dane B.

    2016-01-01

    To begin to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of exercise for chronic pain, we assessed the influence of exercise on brain responses to pain in fibromyalgia (FM). Complete data were collected for nine female FM patients and nine pain-free controls (CO) who underwent two functional neuroimaging scans, following exercise (EX) and following quiet rest (QR). Brain responses and pain ratings to noxious heat stimuli were compared within and between groups. For pain ratings, there was a significant (p < 0.05) Condition by Run interaction characterized by moderately lower pain ratings post EX compared to QR (d = 0.39–0.41) for FM but similar to ratings in CO (d = 0.10–0.26), thereby demonstrating that exercise decreased pain sensitivity in FM patients to a level that was analogous to pain-free controls. Brain responses demonstrated a significant within-group difference in FM patients, characterized by less brain activity bilaterally in the anterior insula following QR as compared to EX. There was also a significant Group by Condition interaction with FM patients showing less activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex following QR as compared to post-EX and CO following both conditions. These results suggest that exercise appeared to stimulate brain regions involved in descending pain inhibition in FM patients, decreasing their sensitivity to pain. Thus, exercise may benefit patients with FM via improving the functional capacity of the pain modulatory system. PMID:26927193

  20. Effects of caffeine on blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm blood flow during dynamic leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Daniels, J W; Molé, P A; Shaffrath, J D; Stebbins, C L

    1998-07-01

    This study examined the acute effects of caffeine on the cardiovascular system during dynamic leg exercise. Ten trained, caffeine-naive cyclists (7 women and 3 men) were studied at rest and during bicycle ergometry before and after the ingestion of 6 mg/kg caffeine or 6 mg/kg fructose (placebo) with 250 ml of water. After consumption of caffeine or placebo, subjects either rested for 100 min (rest protocol) or rested for 45 min followed by 55 min of cycle ergometry at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption (exercise protocol). Measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP), forearm blood flow (FBF), heart rate, skin temperature, and rectal temperature and calculation of forearm vascular conductance (FVC) were made at baseline and at 20-min intervals. Plasma ANG II was measured at baseline and at 60 min postingestion in the two exercise protocols. Before exercise, caffeine increased both systolic blood pressure (17%) and MAP (11%) without affecting FBF or FVC. During dynamic exercise, caffeine attenuated the increase in FBF (53%) and FVC (50%) and accentuated exercise-induced increases in ANG II (44%). Systolic blood pressure and MAP were also higher during exercise plus caffeine; however, these increases were secondary to the effects of caffeine on resting blood pressure. No significant differences were observed in heart rate, skin temperature, or rectal temperature. These findings indicate that caffeine can alter the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise in a manner that may modify regional blood flow and conductance. PMID:9655769

  1. Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

  2. Haemodynamic responses to dehydration in the resting and exercising human leg.

    PubMed

    Pearson, James; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Stöhr, Eric J; Low, David A; Barker, Horace; Ali, Leena; González-Alonso, José

    2013-06-01

    Dehydration and hyperthermia reduces leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output ([Formula: see text]) and arterial pressure during whole-body exercise. It is unknown whether the reductions in blood flow are associated with dehydration-induced alterations in arterial blood oxygen content (C aO2) and O2-dependent signalling. This study investigated the impact of dehydration and concomitant alterations in C aO2 upon LBF and [Formula: see text]. Haemodynamics, arterial and femoral venous blood parameters and plasma [ATP] were measured at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise in 7 males in four conditions: (1) control, (2) mild dehydration, (3) moderate dehydration, and (4) rehydration. Relative to control, C aO2 and LBF increased with dehydration at rest and during exercise (C aO2: from 199 ± 1 to 208 ± 2, and 202 ± 2 to 210 ± 2 ml L(-1) and LBF: from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 0.77 ± 0.09, and 1.64 ± 0.09 to 1.88 ± 0.1 L min(-1), respectively). Similarly, [Formula: see text] was unchanged or increased with dehydration at rest and during exercise, whereas arterial and leg perfusion pressures declined. Following rehydration, C aO2 declined (to 193 ± 2 mL L(-1)) but LBF remained elevated. Alterations in LBF were unrelated to C aO2 (r (2) = 0.13-0.27, P = 0.48-0.64) and plasma [ATP]. These findings suggest dehydration and concomitant alterations in C aO2 do not compromise LBF despite reductions in plasma [ATP]. While an additive or synergistic effect cannot be excluded, reductions in LBF during exercise with dehydration may not necessarily be associated with alterations in C aO2 and/or intravascular [ATP].

  3. The effects of gluteus muscle strengthening exercise and lumbar stabilization exercise on lumbar muscle strength and balance in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ui-Cheol; Sim, Jae-Heon; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise to strengthen the muscles of the hip together with lumbar segmental stabilization exercise on the lumbar disability index, lumbar muscle strength, and balance. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly and equally assigned 40 participants who provided written consent to participate in this study to a lumbar segmental stabilization exercise plus exercise to strengthen the muscles of the gluteus group (SMG + LES group) and a lumbar segmental stabilization exercise group. [Results] Each evaluation item showed a statistically significant effect. [Conclusion] Clinical application of exercise in this study showed that lumbar segmental stabilization exercise plus exercise to strengthen the muscles of the gluteus resulted in a greater decrease in low back pain disability index and increase in lumbar muscle strength and balance ability than lumbar segmental stabilization exercise in chronic low back pain patients receiving the exercise treatments during the same period.

  4. The effects of gluteus muscle strengthening exercise and lumbar stabilization exercise on lumbar muscle strength and balance in chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ui-Cheol; Sim, Jae-Heon; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise to strengthen the muscles of the hip together with lumbar segmental stabilization exercise on the lumbar disability index, lumbar muscle strength, and balance. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly and equally assigned 40 participants who provided written consent to participate in this study to a lumbar segmental stabilization exercise plus exercise to strengthen the muscles of the gluteus group (SMG + LES group) and a lumbar segmental stabilization exercise group. [Results] Each evaluation item showed a statistically significant effect. [Conclusion] Clinical application of exercise in this study showed that lumbar segmental stabilization exercise plus exercise to strengthen the muscles of the gluteus resulted in a greater decrease in low back pain disability index and increase in lumbar muscle strength and balance ability than lumbar segmental stabilization exercise in chronic low back pain patients receiving the exercise treatments during the same period. PMID:26834359

  5. Blood ammonia and lactate as markers of muscle metabolites during leg press exercise.

    PubMed

    Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Navarro-Amézqueta, Ion; Calbet, Jose A L; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; Cusso, Roser; Guerrero, Mario; Granados, Cristina; González-Izal, Miriam; Ibáñez, Javier; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-10-01

    To examine whether blood lactate and ammonia concentrations can be used to estimate the functional state of the muscle contractile machinery with regard to muscle lactate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels during leg press exercise. Thirteen men (age, 34 ± 5 years; 1 repetition maximum leg press strength 199 ± 33 kg) performed either 5 sets of 10 repetitions to failure (5×10RF), or 10 sets of 5 repetitions not to failure (10×5RNF) with the same initial load (10RM) and interset rests (2 minutes) on 2 separate sessions in random order. Capillary blood samples were obtained before and during exercise and recovery. Six subjects underwent vastus lateralis muscle biopsies at rest, before the first set and after the final exercise set. The 5×10RF resulted in a significant and marked decrease in power output (37%), muscle ATP content (24%), and high levels of muscle lactate (25.0 ± 8.1 mmol·kg wet weight), blood lactate (10.3 ± 2.6 mmol·L), and blood ammonia (91.6 ± 40.5 μmol·L). During 10×5RNF no or minimal changes were observed. Significant correlations were found between: (a) blood ammonia and muscle ATP (r = -0.75), (b) changes in peak power output and blood ammonia (r = -0.87) and blood lactate (r = -0.84), and (c) blood and muscle lactate (r = 0.90). Blood lactate and ammonia concentrations can be used as extracellular markers for muscle lactate and ATP contents, respectively. The decline in mechanical power output can be used to indirectly estimate blood ammonia and lactate during leg press exercise.

  6. Conceptual framework for strengthening exercises to prevent hamstring strains.

    PubMed

    Guex, Kenny; Millet, Grégoire P

    2013-12-01

    High-speed running accounts for the majority of hamstring strains in many sports. The terminal swing phase is believed to be the most hazardous as the hamstrings are undergoing an active lengthening contraction in a long muscle length position. Prevention-based strength training mainly focuses on eccentric exercises. However, it appears crucial to integrate other parameters than the contraction type. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present a conceptual framework based on six key parameters (contraction type, load, range of motion, angular velocity, uni-/bilateral exercises, kinetic chain) for the hamstring's strength exercise for strain prevention. Based on the biomechanical parameters of sprinting, it is proposed to use high-load eccentric contractions. The movement should be performed at a slow to moderate angular velocity and focused at the knee joint, while the hip is kept in a large flexion position in order to reach a greater elongation stress of the hamstrings than in the terminal swing phase. In this way, we believe that, during sprinting, athletes would be better trained to brake the knee extension effectively in the whole range of motion without overstretch of the hamstrings. Finally, based on its functional application, unilateral open kinetic chain should be preferred. PMID:24062275

  7. Conceptual framework for strengthening exercises to prevent hamstring strains.

    PubMed

    Guex, Kenny; Millet, Grégoire P

    2013-12-01

    High-speed running accounts for the majority of hamstring strains in many sports. The terminal swing phase is believed to be the most hazardous as the hamstrings are undergoing an active lengthening contraction in a long muscle length position. Prevention-based strength training mainly focuses on eccentric exercises. However, it appears crucial to integrate other parameters than the contraction type. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present a conceptual framework based on six key parameters (contraction type, load, range of motion, angular velocity, uni-/bilateral exercises, kinetic chain) for the hamstring's strength exercise for strain prevention. Based on the biomechanical parameters of sprinting, it is proposed to use high-load eccentric contractions. The movement should be performed at a slow to moderate angular velocity and focused at the knee joint, while the hip is kept in a large flexion position in order to reach a greater elongation stress of the hamstrings than in the terminal swing phase. In this way, we believe that, during sprinting, athletes would be better trained to brake the knee extension effectively in the whole range of motion without overstretch of the hamstrings. Finally, based on its functional application, unilateral open kinetic chain should be preferred.

  8. Effectiveness and safety of strengthening, aerobic, and coordination exercises for patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Heike A; Roos, Ewa M

    2003-03-01

    Exercise has generated interest as an important nonpharmacological treatment for symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. Effect sizes in exercise interventions are small to moderate for pain and functional improvements and are similar to those observed for improvement in pain for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). However, in contrast to NSAIDS, exercise interventions are safe and improve function through a direct effect on muscle strength and function. Both aerobic and strengthening exercises seem to be equally effective in regard to pain and function in patients with OA. In obese patients with OA, a combination of diet and exercise may be advantageous for optimal benefits in health-related quality-of-life and physical function. This article will focus on recent (September 2001-August 2002) randomized controlled trials with exercise as an intervention in patients with OA.

  9. Aging affects spatial distribution of leg muscle oxygen saturation during ramp cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Osada, Takuya; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2013-01-01

    We compared muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) responses in several leg muscles and within a single muscle during ramp cycling exercise between elderly men (n = 8; age, 65 ± 3 years; ELD) and young men (n = 10; age, 23 ± 3 years; YNG). SmO2 was monitored at the distal site of the vastus lateralis (VLd), proximal site of the vastus lateralis (VLp), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and tibialis anterior (TA) by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. During submaximal exercise, significantly lower SmO2 at a given absolute work rate was observed in VLd, RF, BF, GL, and TA but not in VLp, VM, and GM in ELD than in YNG. In contrast, at all measurement sites, SmO2 at peak exercise was not significantly different between groups. These results indicate that the effects of aging on SmO2 responses are heterogeneous between leg muscles and also within a single muscle. The lower SmO2 in older men may have been caused by reduced muscle blood flow or altered blood flow distribution.

  10. Effect of the single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise on sacroiliac joint pain with knee pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise on sacroiliac joint pain with knee pain. [Subjects and Methods] A 39-year-old female had severe pain in the right medial buttock and right anterior knee. This study assessed the anterior pelvic tilt angle and pain provocation tests before and after single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise for 4 weeks. [Results] Following the course of exercise, the anterior pelvic tilt angles were increased, and the visual analog scale pain scores for both the right buttock and right knee were 2/10. [Conclusion] Single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise may be effective for treating SI joint pain with knee pain in females. PMID:27799721

  11. The effects of surface condition on abdominal muscle activity during single-legged hold exercise.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung-min; Oh, Jae-seop; Jeon, In-cheol; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-02-01

    To treat low-back pain, various spinal stability exercises are commonly used to improve trunk muscle function and strength. Because human movement for normal daily activity occurs in multi-dimensions, the importance of exercise in multi-dimensions or on unstable surfaces has been emphasized. Recently, a motorized rotating platform (MRP) for facilitating multi-dimensions dynamic movement was introduced for clinical use. However, the abdominal muscle activity with this device has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the abdominal muscle activity (rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles) during an active single-leg-hold (SLH) exercise on a floor (stable surface), foam roll, and motorized rotating platform (MRP). Thirteen healthy male subjects participated in this study. Using electromyography, the abdominal muscle activity was measured while the subjects performed SLH exercises on floor (stable surface), foam roll, and MRP. There were significant differences in the abdominal muscle activities among conditions (P<.05), except for left EO (P>.05) (Fig. 2). After the Bonferroni correction, however, no significant differences among conditions remained, except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor and foam roll conditions (padj<0.017). The findings suggest that performing the SLH exercises on a foam roll and MRP is more effective increased activities of both side of RA and IO, and Rt. EO compared to floor condition. However, there were no significant differences in abdominal muscles activity in the multiple comparison between conditions (mean difference were smaller than the standard deviation in the abdominal muscle activities) (padj>0.017), except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor (stable surface) and foam roll (padj<0.017) (effect size: 0.79/0.62 (non-supporting/supporting leg) for foam-roll versus floor).

  12. Twins Bed Rest Project: LBNP/Exercise Minimizes Changes in Lean Leg Mass, Strength and Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.

  13. Reproducible voluntary muscle performance during constant work rate dynamic leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Fulco, C S; Rock, P B; Muza, S R; Lammi, E; Cymerman, A; Lewis, S F

    2000-02-01

    During constant intensity treadmill or cycle exercise, progressive muscle fatigue is not readily quantified and endurance time is poorly reproducible. However, integration of dynamic knee extension (DKE) exercise with serial measurement of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of knee extensor muscles permits close tracking of leg fatigue. We studied reproducibility of four performance indices: MVC force of rested muscle (MVC(rest)) rate of MVC force fall, time to exhaustion, and percentage of MVC(rest) (%MVC(rest)) at exhaustion in 11 healthy women (22+/-1 yrs) during identical constant work rate 1-leg DKE (1 Hz) on 2 separate days at sea level (30 m). Means+/-SD for the two test days, and the correlations (r), standard estimate errors and coefficients of variation (CV%) between days were, respectively: a) MVC(rest)(N), 524+/-99 vs 517+/-111, 0.91, 43.0, 4.9%; b) MVC force fall (N x min(-1)), -10.77+/-9.3 vs -11.79+/-12.1, 0.94, 3.6, 26.5 %; c) Time to exhaustion (min), 22.6+/-12 vs 23.9+/-14, 0.98, 2.7, 7.5 %; and d) %MVC(rest) at exhaustion, 65+/-13 vs 62+/-14, 0.85, 7.8, 5.6%. There were no statistically significant mean differences between the two test days for any of the performance measures. To demonstrate the potential benefits of evaluating multiple effects of an experimental intervention, nine of the women were again tested within 24hr of arriving at 4,300 m altitude using the identical force, velocity, power output, and energy requirement during constant work rate dynamic leg exercise. Low variability of each performance index enhanced the ability to describe the effects of acute altitude exposure on voluntary muscle function.

  14. Active-Arm Passive-Leg Exercise Improves Cardiovascular Function in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Currie, Katharine D; Gee, Cameron; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Borisoff, Jaimie

    2015-11-01

    In a 43-yr-old male subject with a chronic T3 AIS A spinal cord injury, the acute cardiorespiratory responses to active upper-extremity exercise alone and combined active-arm passive-leg exercise (AAPLE) were investigated, along with the cardiorespiratory, cardiac, vascular, and body composition responses to a 6-wk AAPLE interval training intervention. AAPLE elicited superior acute maximal cardiorespiratory responses compared with upper-extremity exercise alone. In response to a 6-wk interval training regimen, AAPLE caused a 25% increase in peak oxygen uptake, a 10% increase in resting stroke volume, and a 4-fold increase in brachial artery blood flow. Conversely, there were no changes in femoral arterial function, body composition, or bone mineral density in response to training. As a potential clinical intervention, AAPLE may be advantageous over other forms of currently available exercise, owing to the minimal setup time and cost involved and the nonreliance on specialized equipment that is required for other exercise modalities.

  15. Acute Exercise-Induced Compartment Syndrome of the Leg- Don’t Miss It

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Sumanta; Marhual, Jogesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Acute exercise induced compartment syndrome of leg is a very rare and very oftenly missed entity which leads to delay in its management. We are presenting such case in which diagnosis was established two days after the onset of symptoms. Urgent decompressive fasciotomy was done. After 3 months of follow up, patient has got full functional recovery of his affected limb. This case highlights the importance of keeping high index of clinical suspicion to diagnose the problem and manage promptly. We have reviewed the English literature and found only about 40 cases since 1945. PMID:27042521

  16. Dose-dependent effect of caffeine on reducing leg muscle pain during cycling exercise is unrelated to systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Motl, Robert W; Broglio, Steven P; Ely, Matthew R

    2004-06-01

    This double-blind, within-subjects experiment examined the effects of ingesting two doses of caffeine on perceptions of leg muscle pain and blood pressure during moderate intensity cycling exercise. Low caffeine consuming college-aged males (N=12) ingested one of two doses of caffeine (5 or 10 mg.kg(-1) body weight) or placebo and 1 h later completed 30 min of moderate intensity cycling exercise (60% VO2peak). The order of drug administration was counter-balanced. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately before and 1 h after drug administration. Perceptions of leg muscle pain as well as work rate, blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded during exercise. Caffeine increased resting systolic pressure in a dose-dependent fashion but these blood pressure effects were not maintained during exercise. Caffeine had a significant linear effect on leg muscle pain ratings [F(2,22)=14.06; P < 0.0001; eta2=0.56 ]. The mean (+/-SD) pain intensity scores during exercise after ingesting 10 mg.kg(-1) body weight caffeine, 5 mg.kg(-1) body weight caffeine, and placebo were 2.1+/-1.4, 2.6+/-1.5, and 3.5+/-1.7, respectively. The results support the conclusion that caffeine ingestion has a dose-response effect on reducing leg muscle pain during exercise and that these effects do not depend on caffeine-induced increases in systolic blood pressure during exercise.

  17. Cardiac output and leg and arm blood flow during incremental exercise to exhaustion on the cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Calbet, Jose A L; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Helge, Jörn W; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch-Andersen, Thor; Boushel, Robert; Saltin, Bengt

    2007-09-01

    To determine central and peripheral hemodynamic responses to upright leg cycling exercise, nine physically active men underwent measurements of arterial blood pressure and gases, as well as femoral and subclavian vein blood flows and gases during incremental exercise to exhaustion (Wmax). Cardiac output (CO) and leg blood flow (BF) increased in parallel with exercise intensity. In contrast, arm BF remained at 0.8 l/min during submaximal exercise, increasing to 1.2 +/- 0.2 l/min at maximal exercise (P < 0.05) when arm O(2) extraction reached 73 +/- 3%. The leg received a greater percentage of the CO with exercise intensity, reaching a value close to 70% at 64% of Wmax, which was maintained until exhaustion. The percentage of CO perfusing the trunk decreased with exercise intensity to 21% at Wmax, i.e., to approximately 5.5 l/min. For a given local Vo(2), leg vascular conductance (VC) was five- to sixfold higher than arm VC, despite marked hemoglobin deoxygenation in the subclavian vein. At peak exercise, arm VC was not significantly different than at rest. Leg Vo(2) represented approximately 84% of the whole body Vo(2) at intensities ranging from 38 to 100% of Wmax. Arm Vo(2) contributed between 7 and 10% to the whole body Vo(2). From 20 to 100% of Wmax, the trunk Vo(2) (including the gluteus muscles) represented between 14 and 15% of the whole body Vo(2). In summary, vasoconstrictor signals efficiently oppose the vasodilatory metabolites in the arms, suggesting that during whole body exercise in the upright position blood flow is differentially regulated in the upper and lower extremities.

  18. Effect of moderate altitude on peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise in young males.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Kazuo; Du, Na; Kato, Yoshihiro; Miyamoto, Kei; Masuda, Takahiro; Shimizu, Katsuji; Matsuoka, Toshio

    2004-09-01

    Training at moderate altitude (~1800m) is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL). The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr) performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL). They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb) in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws) and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (%) from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001) lower at 1800AL (60.4 ± 6.2 %) than at near SL (74.4 ± 7.6 %). SpO2 during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001) lower at 1800AL (92.0 ± 1.7 %) than at near SL (96.7 ± 1.2 %). Differences (SL - 1800AL) in Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660). These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore, that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles. Key PointsThe change in muscle oxygenation during the parallel squat at 1800 altitude and near sea level was investigated using near infrared

  19. Hip Muscle Activity During 3 Side-Lying Hip-Strengthening Exercises in Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, Joseph M.; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E.; Cobb, Stephen C.; Huddleston, Wendy E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity overuse injuries are associated with gluteus medius (GMed) weakness. Understanding the activation of muscles about the hip during strengthening exercises is important for rehabilitation. Objective: To compare the electromyographic activity produced by the gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fascia latae (TFL), anterior hip flexors (AHF), and gluteus maximus (GMax) during 3 hip-strengthening exercises: hip abduction (ABD), hip abduction with external rotation (ABD-ER), and clamshell (CLAM) exercises. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty healthy runners (9 men, 11 women; age = 25.45 ± 5.80 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.07 m, mass = 64.43 ± 7.75 kg) participated. Intervention(s): A weight equal to 5% body mass was affixed to the ankle for the ABD and ABD-ER exercises, and an equivalent load was affixed for the CLAM exercise. A pressure biofeedback unit was placed beneath the trunk to provide positional feedback. Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyography (root mean square normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction) was recorded over the GMed, TFL, AHF, and GMax. Results: Three 1-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated differences for muscle activity among the ABD (F3,57 = 25.903, P<.001), ABD-ER (F3,57 = 10.458, P<.001), and CLAM (F3,57 = 4.640, P=.006) exercises. For the ABD exercise, the GMed (70.1 ± 29.9%), TFL (54.3 ± 19.1%), and AHF (28.2 ± 21.5%) differed in muscle activity. The GMax (25.3 ± 24.6%) was less active than the GMed and TFL but was not different from the AHF. For the ABD-ER exercise, the TFL (70.9 ± 17.2%) was more active than the AHF (54.3 ± 24.8%), GMed (53.03 ± 28.4%), and GMax (31.7 ± 24.1 %). For the CLAM exercise, the AHF (54.2 ± 25.2%) was more active than the TFL (34.4 ± 20.1%) and GMed (32.6 ± 16.9%) but was not different from the GMax (34.2 ± 24.8%). Conclusions: The ABD exercise is preferred if targeted activation of the

  20. Pituitary-adrenal responses to arm versus leg exercise in untrained man.

    PubMed

    Maresh, Carl M; Sökmen, Bülent; Kraemer, William J; Hoffman, Jay R; Watson, Greig; Judelson, Daniel A; Gabaree-Boulant, Catherine L; Deschenes, Michael R; Vanheest, Jaci L; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine pituitary-adrenal (PA) hormone responses [beta-endorphin (beta-END), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol] to arm exercise (AE) and leg exercise (LE) at 60 and 80% of the muscle-group specific VO2 peak. Eight healthy untrained men (AE VO2 peak=32.4+/-3.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1), LE VO2 peak=46.9+/-5.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) performed two sub-maximal AE and LE tests in random order. Plasma beta-END, ACTH and cortisol were not different (P>0.05) between AE and LE at either exercise intensity; the 60% testing elicited no changes from pre-exercise (PRE) values. For 80% testing, plasma beta-END, ACTH and cortisol were consistently, but not significantly, greater during LE than AE. In general, plasma beta-END and ACTH were higher (P<0.05) during 80% exercise, than PRE, for both AE and LE. Plasma cortisol was elevated (P<0.05) above PRE during 80% LE, and following 80% for both AE and LE. Plasma ACTH was higher (P<0.05) during 80% LE and AE versus 60% LE and AE, respectively. Plasma beta-END and cortisol were significantly higher during and immediately after 80% LE than 60% LE. Thus, plasma beta-END, ACTH and cortisol responses were similar for AE and LE at the two relative exercise intensities, with the intensity threshold occurring somewhere between 60 and 80% of VO2 peak. It appears that the smaller muscle mass associated with AE was sufficient to stimulate these PA axis hormones in a manner similar to LE, despite the higher metabolic stress (i.e., plasma La-) associated with LE. PMID:16685546

  1. Effects of leg strength and bicycle ergometry exercise on cardiovascular deconditioning after 30-day head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Yusheng; Sun, Hongyi; Zhao, Dongming; Wang, Yue; Wu, Ping; Ni, Chengzhi

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the intermittent leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could attenuate cardiovascular deconditioning induced by prolonged -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR). Fifteen male subjects were randomly allocated into group A ( n=5, 30 days HDBR without exercise), group B ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with leg muscular strength exercise) and group C ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with bicycle ergometry exercise). The orthostatic tolerance (OT) was determined by +75°/20 min head-up tilt (HUT) test and the submaximal exercise capacity was determined by bicycle ergometry before and after HDBR. The results were as follows: (1) Compared with that before HDBR, OT time decreased dramatically by 57.6% ( p<0.001) after HDBR in group A, while it decreased by 36.4% ( p=0.084) in group B and by 34.7% ( p=0.062) in group C. (2) Compared with that before HDBR, the submaximal exercise time decreased significantly by 17.7% ( p<0.05) and 21.1% ( p<0.05) in groups A and B, respectively, after HDBR. However, it had no change (+1.3%, p>0.77) in group C. (3) compared with that before HDBR, the changes of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were slightly improved in group B and C, while deteriorated in group A during orthostatic test and exercise test after HDBR. The results indicate that leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could partially attenuate the cardiovascular deconditioning induced by 30 d HDBR, and the latter exercise training could fully provide the protection for the loss of exercise capacity.

  2. Reliability of a Novel High Intensity One Leg Dynamic Exercise Protocol to Measure Muscle Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Lepers, Romuald; Marcora, Samuele M.

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE) protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output) three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60), 100 (MVC100) and 140 (MVC140) deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s), 20 s (P20) and 40 s (P40) post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS) for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001). MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05) and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05). High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion. PMID:27706196

  3. Effect of a muscle strengthening exercise program for pelvic control on gait function of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening exercises for the hip extensors on the gait performance and stability of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were fifteen stroke patients (ten males, five females). The experimental subjects performed a hip extensor strengthening exercise (HESE) program for a total of four weeks. [Results] The experimental subjects showed significant improvements after the HESE program. Especially, walking speed and the affected side stance phase time significantly increased after the HESE program. Furthermore, the affected side stride length and symmetry index in the stance phase significantly increased after HESE program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the HESE program may, in part, help to improve gait performance ability and stabilize physical disability after stroke. PMID:25931698

  4. Effect of a muscle strengthening exercise program for pelvic control on gait function of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening exercises for the hip extensors on the gait performance and stability of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were fifteen stroke patients (ten males, five females). The experimental subjects performed a hip extensor strengthening exercise (HESE) program for a total of four weeks. [Results] The experimental subjects showed significant improvements after the HESE program. Especially, walking speed and the affected side stance phase time significantly increased after the HESE program. Furthermore, the affected side stride length and symmetry index in the stance phase significantly increased after HESE program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the HESE program may, in part, help to improve gait performance ability and stabilize physical disability after stroke. PMID:25931698

  5. Design of a knee and leg muscle exerciser for paraplegics using a shape memory alloy rotary joint actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoping; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a design of an active knee and leg muscle exerciser using a shape memory alloy (SMA) rotary joint actuator. This active exerciser is designed for a paraplegic to exercise his or her knee and leg muscles. The exerciser is composed of a lower extremity orthosis or a knee brace, an SMA rotary joint actuator, and an electronic control unit. The lower extremity orthosis and knee brace are commercially available. The analysis model of the SMA rotary joint actuator is introduced and the design formulas are derived. A quasi-static analysis of the SMA rotary joint actuator is assumed in this design. The actuating component of the SMA rotary joint actuator is a bundle of lengthy SMA wires which are wrapped on several wrapping pulleys. A constant force spring is incorporated in this actuator to provide the SMA wires with a bias force to maintain a recoverable initial position of the actuator. A prototype of the active knee and leg muscle exerciser is designed, and an electronic control unit in the prototype provides users with a means of adjusting forward rotation speed and cycle time of the exerciser.

  6. Follistatin-like 3 is a mediator of exercise-driven bone formation and strengthening.

    PubMed

    Nam, J; Perera, P; Gordon, R; Jeong, Y H; Blazek, A D; Kim, D G; Tee, B C; Sun, Z; Eubank, T D; Zhao, Y; Lablebecioglu, B; Liu, S; Litsky, A; Weisleder, N L; Lee, B S; Butterfield, T; Schneyer, A L; Agarwal, S

    2015-09-01

    Exercise is vital for maintaining bone strength and architecture. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), a member of follistatin family, is a mechanosensitive protein upregulated in response to exercise and is involved in regulating musculoskeletal health. Here, we investigated the potential role of FSTL3 in exercise-driven bone remodeling. Exercise-dependent regulation of bone structure and functions was compared in mice with global Fstl3 gene deletion (Fstl3-/-) and their age-matched Fstl3+/+ littermates. Mice were exercised by low-intensity treadmill walking. The mechanical properties and mineralization were determined by μCT, three-point bending test and sequential incorporation of calcein and alizarin complexone. ELISA, Western-blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the regulation of FSTL3 and associated molecules in the serum specimens and tissues. Daily exercise significantly increased circulating FSTL3 levels in mice, rats and humans. Compared to age-matched littermates, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited significantly lower fracture tolerance, having greater stiffness, but lower strain at fracture and yield energy. Furthermore, increased levels of circulating FSTL3 in young mice paralleled greater strain at fracture compared to the lower levels of FSTL3 in older mice. More significantly, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited loss of mechanosensitivity and irresponsiveness to exercise-dependent bone formation as compared to their Fstl3+/+ littermates. In addition, FSTL3 gene deletion resulted in loss of exercise-dependent sclerostin regulation in osteocytes and osteoblasts, as compared to Fstl3+/+ osteocytes and osteoblasts, in vivo and in vitro. The data identify FSTL3 as a critical mediator of exercise-dependent bone formation and strengthening and point to its potential role in bone health and in musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:25937185

  7. Follistatin-like 3 is a mediator of exercise-driven bone formation and strengthening

    PubMed Central

    Nam, J; Perera, P; Gordon, R; Jeong, Y; Blazek, AD; Kim, DG; Tee, BC; Sun, Z; Eubank, TD; Zhao, Y; Lablebecioglu, B; Liu, S; Litsky, A; Weisleder, NL; Lee, BS; Butterfield, T; Schneyer, AL; Agarwal, S

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is vital for maintaining bone strength and architecture. Follistatin like 3 (FSTL3), a member of Follistatin family, is a mechanosensitive protein upregulated in response to exercise and is involved in regulating musculoskeletal health, we investigated the potential role of FSTL3 in exercise-driven bone remodeling. Exercise-dependent regulation of bone structure and functions was compared in mice with global Fstl3 gene deletion (Fstl3−/−) and their age-matched Fstl3+/+ littermates. Mice were exercised by low-intensity treadmill walking. The mechanical properties and mineralization were determined by μCT, three-point bending test and sequential incorporation of calcein and alizarin complexone. ELISA, Western-blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the regulation of FSTL3 and associated molecules in the serum specimens and tissues. Daily exercise significantly increased circulating FSTL3 levels in mice, rats and humans. Compared to age-matched littermates, Fstl3−/− mice exhibited significantly lower fracture tolerance, having greater stiffness, but lower strain at fracture and yield energy. Furthermore, increased levels of circulating FSTL3 in young mice paralleled greater strain at fracture compared to the lower levels of FSTL3 in older mice. More significantly, Fstl3−/− mice exhibited loss of mechanosensitivity and irresponsiveness to exercise-dependent bone formation as compared to their Fstl3+/+ littermates. In addition, FSTL3 gene deletion resulted in loss of exercise-dependent sclerostin regulation in osteocytes and osteoblasts, as compared to Fstl3+/+ osteocytes and osteoblasts, in vivo and in vitro. The data identifies FSTL3 as a critical mediator of exercise-dependent bone formation and strengthening and point to its potential role in bone health and in musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:25937185

  8. Comparison of bilateral and unilateral contractions between swimmers and nonathletes during leg press and hand grip exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Monica; Losier, Danielle; Chester, Victoria L; Kuruganti, Usha

    2014-11-01

    The bilateral limb deficit (BLD) is defined as the reduction in force production during bilateral compared with summed unilateral contractions of homologous muscles. The underlying mechanism for the BLD has been elusive to determine. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of the BLD during maximal isometric leg press and handgrip exercises in female swimmers (n = 9, mean age = 20.1 ± 1.3 years) and nonathletes (n = 9, mean age = 21.7 ± 1.3 years) to gain further insight into this phenomenon. Force and electromyography (EMG) measures were collected from participants under bilateral and unilateral conditions for handgrip and leg press exercises. Bilateral limb ratios (BLR) were calculated for swimmers (BLRS) and nonathletes (BLRNA). A deficit was found for swimmers and nonathletes in leg force (BLRS = 79.84% ± 13.09% and BLRNA = 81.44% ± 19.23%) and leg EMG (BLRS = 88.45% ± 15.41% and BLRNA = 94.66% ± 13.62%); however, no BLD was seen in hand force (BLRS = 98.30% ± 11.21% and BLRNA = 95.91% ± 11.04%) and hand EMG (BLRS = 102.42% ± 11.20% and BLRNA = 103.30% ± 16.50%). Furthermore, no significant differences were found between groups for leg force, leg EMG, hand force, and hand EMG. In conclusion, a BLD was detected for both groups during bilateral isometric leg press. This suggests that while the BLD may be affected by neural influences, there may other factors involved such as postural stability requirements to perform the exercise.

  9. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise ... The main symptoms of PAD are pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or ... or thighs. These symptoms most often appear during walking or ...

  10. Using squat testing to predict training loads for the deadlift, lunge, step-up, and leg extension exercises.

    PubMed

    Ebben, William P; Feldmann, Christina R; Dayne, Andrea; Mitsche, Diana; Chmielewski, Lauren M; Alexander, Paul; Knetgzer, Kenneth J

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a linear relationship between the squat and a variety of quadriceps resistance training exercises for the purpose of creating prediction equations for the determination of quadriceps exercise loads based on the squat load. Six-repetition maximums (RMs) of the squat, as well as four common resistance training exercises that activate the quadriceps including the deadlift, lunge, step-up, and leg extension, were determined for each subject. Subjects included 21 college students. Data were evaluated using linear regression analysis to predict quadriceps exercise loads from 6RM squat data and were cross-validated with the prediction of sum of squares statistic. Analysis of the data revealed that the squat is a significant predictor of loads for the dead lift (R2 = 0.81, standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 12.50 kg), lunge (R2 = 0.62, SEE = 12.57 kg), step-up (R2 = 0.71, SEE = 9.58 kg), and leg extension (R2=0.67, SEE = 10.26 kg) exercises. Based on the analysis of the data, the following 6RM prediction equations were devised for each exercise: (a) deadlift load = squat load (0.83) + 14.92 kg, (b) lunge load = squat load (0.52) + 14.82 kg, (c) step-up load = squat load (0.50) + 3.32 kg, and (d) leg extension load = squat load (0.48) + 9.58 kg. Results from testing core exercises such as the squat can provide useful data for the assignment of loads for other exercises. PMID:18978614

  11. Femoral Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Blood Flow Restricted Leg Press Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, M. E.; Hackney, K.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Low load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (LBFR) causes muscle hypertrophy that may be stimulated by the local ischemic environment created by the cuff pressure. However, local blood flow (BF) during such exercise is not well understood. PURPOSE: To characterize femoral artery BF and cardiac output (CO) during leg press exercise (LP) performed at a high load (HL) and low load (LL) with different levels of cuff pressure. METHODS: Eleven subjects (men/women 4/7, age 31.4+/-12.8 y, weight 68.9+/-13.2 kg, mean+/-SD) performed 3 sets of supine left LP to fatigue with 90 s of rest in 4 conditions: HL (%1-RM/cuff pressure: 80%/0); LL (20%/0); LBFR(sub DBP) (20%/1.3 x diastolic blood pressure, BP); LBFR(sub SBP) (20%/1.3 x supine systolic BP). The cuff remained inflated throughout the LBFR exercise sessions. Artery diameter, velocity time integral (VTI), and stroke volume (SV) were measured using Doppler ultrasound at rest and immediately after each set of exercise. Heart rate (HR) was monitored using a 3-lead ECG. BF was calculated as VTI x vessel cross-sectional area. CO was calculated as HR x SV. The data obtained after each set of exercise were averaged and used for analyses. Multi-level modeling was used to determine the effect of exercise condition on dependent variables. Statistical significance was set a priori at p< 0.05. RESULTS: Artery diameter did not change from baseline. BF increased (p<0.05) after exercise in each condition except LBFR(sub SBP) in the order of HL (12.73+/-1.42 cm3,mean+/-SE) > LL (9.92+/-0.82 cm3) > LBFR(sub dBP)(6.47+/-0.79 cm3) > LBFR(sub SBP) (3.51+/-0.59 cm3). Blunted exercise induced increases occurred in HR, SV, and CO after LBFR compared to HL and LL. HR increased 45% after HL and LL and 28% after LBFR (p<0.05), but SV increased (p<0.05) only after HL. Consequently, the increase (p<0.05) in CO was greater in HL and LL (approximately 3 L/min) than in LBFR (approximately 1 L/min). CONCLUSION: BF during LBFR(sub SBP) was 1/3 of

  12. The effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercise programs accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients’ balance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Kyou Sik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients’ balance ability. [Methods] For six weeks beginning in April 2015, 22 stroke patients receiving physical therapy at K Hospital located in Gyeonggi-do were divided into a functional electrical stimulation (FES), ankle proprioceptive exercise and ankle joint muscle strengthening exercise group (FPS group) of 11 patients and an FES and stretching exercise group (FS group) of 11 patients. The stimulation and exercises were conducted for 30 min per day, five days per week for six weeks. Balance ability was measured using a BioRescue and the Berg balance scale, functional reach test, and the timed up-and-go test were also used as clinical evaluation indices. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between before the exercises and at three and six weeks after beginning the exercises within each group, and the amounts of change between the two groups were compared. [Results] In the comparison within each group, both groups showed significant differences between before and after the experiment in all the tests and comparison between the groups showed that greater improvement was seen in all values in the FPS group. [Conclusion] In the present study, implementing FES and stretching exercises plus ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises was more effective at improving stroke patients balance ability than implementing only FES and stretching exercises. PMID:26504337

  13. The effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercise programs accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients' balance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Kyou Sik

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients' balance ability. [Methods] For six weeks beginning in April 2015, 22 stroke patients receiving physical therapy at K Hospital located in Gyeonggi-do were divided into a functional electrical stimulation (FES), ankle proprioceptive exercise and ankle joint muscle strengthening exercise group (FPS group) of 11 patients and an FES and stretching exercise group (FS group) of 11 patients. The stimulation and exercises were conducted for 30 min per day, five days per week for six weeks. Balance ability was measured using a BioRescue and the Berg balance scale, functional reach test, and the timed up-and-go test were also used as clinical evaluation indices. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between before the exercises and at three and six weeks after beginning the exercises within each group, and the amounts of change between the two groups were compared. [Results] In the comparison within each group, both groups showed significant differences between before and after the experiment in all the tests and comparison between the groups showed that greater improvement was seen in all values in the FPS group. [Conclusion] In the present study, implementing FES and stretching exercises plus ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises was more effective at improving stroke patients balance ability than implementing only FES and stretching exercises.

  14. Effects of graded exercise-induced dehydration and rehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative stress across the resting and exercising human leg.

    PubMed

    Laitano, Orlando; Kalsi, Kameljit Kaur; Pearson, James; Lotlikar, Makra; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; González-Alonso, José

    2012-05-01

    Exercise in the heat enhances oxidative stress markers in the human circulation, but the contribution of active skeletal muscle and the influence of hydration status remain unknown. To address this question, we measured leg exchange of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and isoprostanes in seven males at rest and during submaximal one-legged knee extensor exercise in the following four conditions: (1) control euhydration (0% reduction in body mass), (2) mild-dehydration (2%), (3) moderate-dehydration (3.5%), (4) rehydration (0%). In all resting and control exercise conditions, a net GSH uptake was observed across the leg. In contrast, a significant leg release of GSH into the circulation (-354 ± 221 μmol/min, P < 0.05) was observed during exercise with moderate-dehydration, which was still present following full rehydration (-206 ± 122 μmol/min, P < 0.05). During exercise, mild and moderate-dehydration decreased both femoral venous erythrocyte SOD activity (195 ± 6 vs. 180 ± 5 U/L, P < 0.05) and plasma isoprostanes (30 ± 1.1 vs. 25.9 ± 1.3 pg/L, P < 0.05), but during rehydration these were not different from control. In conclusion, these findings suggest that active skeletal muscles release GSH into the circulation under moderate dehydration and subsequent rehydration, possibly to enhance the antioxidant defense.

  15. Effect of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 d of 6-deg head-down bed rest, plasma and red cell volumes, body density, and water balance were measured in 19 men confined to bed rest (BR). One group had no exercise training (NOE), another near-maximal variable-intensity isotonic exercise (ITE) for 60 min/d, and the third near-maximal intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) for 60 min/d. Mean energy costs for the NOE, IKE, and ITE regimens were determined. Body densities within groups and mean urine volumes between groups were unchanged during BR. Changes in red cell volume followed changes in plasma volume. There was close coupling between resting plasma volume and plasma protein and osmotic content. It is argued that the ITE training protocol is better than the IKE protocol for maintaining plasma volume during prolonged exposure to BR.

  16. Treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure protects leg lean tissue mass and extensor strength and endurance during bed rest.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Suzanne M; Lee, Stuart M C; Feiveson, Alan H; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Leg muscle mass and strength are decreased during reduced activity and non-weight-bearing conditions such as bed rest (BR) and spaceflight. Supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPEX) provides full-body weight loading during BR and may prevent muscle deconditioning. We hypothesized that a 40-min interval exercise protocol performed against LBNPEX 6 days week(-1) would attenuate losses in leg lean mass (LLM), strength, and endurance during 6° head-down tilt BR, with similar benefits for men and women. Fifteen pairs of healthy monozygous twins (8 male and 7 female pairs) completed 30 days of BR with one sibling of each twin pair assigned randomly as the non-exercise control (CON) and the other twin as the exercise subject (EX). Before and after BR, LLM and isokinetic leg strength and endurance were measured. Mean knee and ankle extensor and flexor strength and endurance and LLM decreased from pre- to post-BR in the male CON subjects (P < 0.01), but knee extensor strength and endurance, ankle extensor strength, and LLM were maintained in the male EX subjects. In contrast, no pre- to post-BR changes were significant in the female subjects, either CON or EX, likely due to their lower pre-BR values. Importantly, the LBNPEX countermeasure prevents or attenuates declines in LLM as well as extensor leg strength and endurance. Individuals who are stronger, have higher levels of muscular endurance, and/or have greater LLM are likely to experience greater losses during BR than those who are less fit. PMID:27495299

  17. The Impact of Back Squat and Leg-Press Exercises on Maximal Strength and Speed-Strength Parameters.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph; Szilvas, Elena; Keiner, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Strength training-induced increases in speed strength seem indisputable. For trainers and athletes, the most efficient exercise selection in the phase of preparation is of interest. Therefore, this study determined how the selection of training exercise influences the development of speed strength and maximal strength during an 8-week training intervention. Seventy-eight students participated in this study (39 in the training group and 39 as controls). Both groups were divided into 2 subgroups. The first training group (squat training group [SQ]) completed an 8-week strength training protocol using the parallel squat. The second training group (leg-press training group [LP]) used the same training protocol using the leg press (45° leg press). The control group was divided in 2 subgroups as controls for the SQ or the LP. Two-factorial analyses of variance were performed using a repeated measures model for all group comparisons and comparisons between pretest and posttest results. The SQ exhibited a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in jump performance in squat jump (SJ, 12.4%) and countermovement jump (CMJ, 12.0%). Whereas, the changes in the LP did not reach statistical significance and amounted to improvements in SJ of 3.5% and CMJ 0.5%. The differences between groups were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). There are also indications that the squat exercise is more effective to increase drop jump performance. Therefore, the squat exercise increased the performance in SJ, CMJ, and reactive strength index more effectively compared with the leg-press in a short-term intervention. Consequently, if the strength training aims at improving jump performance, the squat should be preferred because of the better transfer effects. PMID:26439782

  18. Treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure protects leg lean tissue mass and extensor strength and endurance during bed rest.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Suzanne M; Lee, Stuart M C; Feiveson, Alan H; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Leg muscle mass and strength are decreased during reduced activity and non-weight-bearing conditions such as bed rest (BR) and spaceflight. Supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPEX) provides full-body weight loading during BR and may prevent muscle deconditioning. We hypothesized that a 40-min interval exercise protocol performed against LBNPEX 6 days week(-1) would attenuate losses in leg lean mass (LLM), strength, and endurance during 6° head-down tilt BR, with similar benefits for men and women. Fifteen pairs of healthy monozygous twins (8 male and 7 female pairs) completed 30 days of BR with one sibling of each twin pair assigned randomly as the non-exercise control (CON) and the other twin as the exercise subject (EX). Before and after BR, LLM and isokinetic leg strength and endurance were measured. Mean knee and ankle extensor and flexor strength and endurance and LLM decreased from pre- to post-BR in the male CON subjects (P < 0.01), but knee extensor strength and endurance, ankle extensor strength, and LLM were maintained in the male EX subjects. In contrast, no pre- to post-BR changes were significant in the female subjects, either CON or EX, likely due to their lower pre-BR values. Importantly, the LBNPEX countermeasure prevents or attenuates declines in LLM as well as extensor leg strength and endurance. Individuals who are stronger, have higher levels of muscular endurance, and/or have greater LLM are likely to experience greater losses during BR than those who are less fit.

  19. A new silver robot platform for the elderly and the handicapped: Spiderbot TM-posture balancing and muscle strengthening exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, Aslam; Farahani, Hossein S.; Jeong, Seung-Gweon; Kim, Hyunho; Ryu, Jeha

    2005-12-01

    By using a new type of silver robot called SpiderBot TM, posture balancing and muscle strengthening exercises were presented. Unlike mobile robots on a floor, SpiderBot TM is conceptualized to generate full mobility in a room and to have higher payload while generating six degrees-of-freedom for assisting daily lives of the elderly and the handicapped. A preliminary prototype of SpiderBot TM has been constructed by using incompletely restrained wire mechanism and simple control algorithms were implemented for two types of exercises for elderly people's health improvement. One is a posture balancing exercise that prevents from falling to any directions. And the other is muscle strengthening exercise that uses the SpiderBot TM as a weight lifting mechanism. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed new silver robot platform is used for such exercises.

  20. Comparisons of muscle oxygenation changes between arm and leg muscles during incremental rowing exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Wang, Bangde; Gong, Hui; Xu, Guodong; Nioka, Shoko; Chance, Britton

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose is to compare the changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps brachii (BB) muscles simultaneously using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during incremental rowing exercise in eight rowers. Based on the BB and VL muscle oxygenation patterns, two points are used to characterize the muscle oxygenation kinetics in both the arm and the leg muscles. The first point is the breaking point (Bp), which refers to an accelerated fall in muscle oxygenation that correlates with the gas exchange threshold (GET). The second point is the leveling-off point (Lo), which suggests the upper limit of O2 extraction. The GET occurred at 63.3+/-2.4% of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2 max). The Bp appeared at 45.0+/-3.8% and 55.6+/-2.4% V˙O2 max in the BB and VL, respectively. The Lo appeared at 63.6+/-4.1% and 86.6+/-1.0% V˙O2 max in these two muscles, respectively. Both the Bp and the Lo occurred earlier in BB compared with VL. These results suggest that arm muscles have lower oxidative capacity than leg muscles during rowing exercise. The rowers with higher exercise performances showed heavier workloads, as evaluated by Bp and Lo. The monitoring of muscle oxygenation by NIRS in arm and leg muscles during rowing could be a useful guide for evaluation and training.

  1. Effectiveness of Strengthening Exercises for the Elderly with Low Back Pain to Improve Symptoms and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Nor Azizah; Zahari, Zarina; Justine, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of strengthening exercises for older people with low back pain (LBP). Methods. This study is a systematic review of experimental study which evaluated the evidence regarding exercises for older people with LBP by using EBSCO Academic Search Premier, EBSCO EconLit, Science Direct, PUBMED, and PEDro from 2006 to 2016. Search strategy for each database was conducted by using keywords such as "low back pain", "older people", and "strengthening exercise". Boolean operators were used to combine keywords and manual exclusion was conducted to verify studies which met the inclusion criteria. The articles reviewed were evaluated and critically appraised by using PEDro scale and SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. Results. Three articles were found regarding strengthening exercise for older people with LBP whereas one study was conducted on multicomponent exercise. The mean, standard deviation, and variance of the PEDro score of all the studies were 5.67, 2.33, and 1.528, respectively. Overall, the qualities of all studies reviewed were fair. Two articles showed significant results when compared to control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Strengthening exercise is a beneficial treatment for older people with LBP in reducing pain intensity, disability, and improved functional performances.

  2. Effectiveness of Strengthening Exercises for the Elderly with Low Back Pain to Improve Symptoms and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Nor Azizah; Zahari, Zarina; Justine, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of strengthening exercises for older people with low back pain (LBP). Methods. This study is a systematic review of experimental study which evaluated the evidence regarding exercises for older people with LBP by using EBSCO Academic Search Premier, EBSCO EconLit, Science Direct, PUBMED, and PEDro from 2006 to 2016. Search strategy for each database was conducted by using keywords such as "low back pain", "older people", and "strengthening exercise". Boolean operators were used to combine keywords and manual exclusion was conducted to verify studies which met the inclusion criteria. The articles reviewed were evaluated and critically appraised by using PEDro scale and SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. Results. Three articles were found regarding strengthening exercise for older people with LBP whereas one study was conducted on multicomponent exercise. The mean, standard deviation, and variance of the PEDro score of all the studies were 5.67, 2.33, and 1.528, respectively. Overall, the qualities of all studies reviewed were fair. Two articles showed significant results when compared to control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Strengthening exercise is a beneficial treatment for older people with LBP in reducing pain intensity, disability, and improved functional performances. PMID:27293970

  3. MRI-Based Regional Muscle Use during Hamstring Strengthening Exercises in Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6-71±11%), and ST (60±1-69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8-16±5%) and ST (15±7-17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4-7±5%), ST (8±3-11±2%), SM (6±4-10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6-8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5-7±5%) and ST (7±3-12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies. PMID:27583444

  4. MRI-Based Regional Muscle Use during Hamstring Strengthening Exercises in Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6-71±11%), and ST (60±1-69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8-16±5%) and ST (15±7-17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4-7±5%), ST (8±3-11±2%), SM (6±4-10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6-8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5-7±5%) and ST (7±3-12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies.

  5. MRI-Based Regional Muscle Use during Hamstring Strengthening Exercises in Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6–71±11%), and ST (60±1–69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8–16±5%) and ST (15±7–17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4–7±5%), ST (8±3–11±2%), SM (6±4–10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6–8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5–7±5%) and ST (7±3–12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies. PMID:27583444

  6. Leg muscle volume during 30-day 6-degree head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Lee, P. L.; Ellis, S.; Selzer, R. H.; Ortendahl, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to compare the effect of two modes of lower-extremity exercise training on the mass (volume) of posterior leg group (PLG) muscles (soleus, flexor hallucis longus, tibialis posterior, lateral and medial gastrocnemius, and flexor digitorum longus) on 19 men (ages 32-42 years) subjected to intense dynamic-isotonic (ITE, cycle ergometer, number of subjects (N) = 7), isokinetic (IKE, torque egrometer, N = 7), and no exercise (NOE, N = 5) training for 60 min/day during head-down bed rest (HDBR). Total volume of the PLG muscles decreased (p less than 0.05) similarly: ITE = 4.3 +/- SE 1.6%, IKE = 7.7 +/- 1.6%, and NOE = 6.3 +/- 0.8%; combined volume (N = 19) loss was 6.1 +/- 0.9%. Ranges of volume changes were 2.6% to -9.0% (ITE), -2.1% to -14.9% (IKE), and -3.4% to -8/1% (NOE). Correlation coefficients (r) of muscle volume versus thickness measured with ultrasonography were: ITE r + 0.79 (p less than 0.05), IKE r = 0.27 (not significant (NS)), and NOE r = 0.63 (NS). Leg-muscle volume and thickness were highly correlated (r = 0.79) when plasma volume was maintained during HDBR with ITE. Thus, neither intensive lower extremity ITE nor IKE training influence the normal non-exercised posterior leg muscle atrophy during HDBR. The relationship of muscle volume and thickness may depend on the mode of exercise training associated with the maintenance of plasma volume.

  7. Effectiveness of Strengthening Exercises for the Elderly with Low Back Pain to Improve Symptoms and Functions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ishak, Nor Azizah; Zahari, Zarina; Justine, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of strengthening exercises for older people with low back pain (LBP). Methods. This study is a systematic review of experimental study which evaluated the evidence regarding exercises for older people with LBP by using EBSCO Academic Search Premier, EBSCO EconLit, Science Direct, PUBMED, and PEDro from 2006 to 2016. Search strategy for each database was conducted by using keywords such as “low back pain”, “older people”, and “strengthening exercise”. Boolean operators were used to combine keywords and manual exclusion was conducted to verify studies which met the inclusion criteria. The articles reviewed were evaluated and critically appraised by using PEDro scale and SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. Results. Three articles were found regarding strengthening exercise for older people with LBP whereas one study was conducted on multicomponent exercise. The mean, standard deviation, and variance of the PEDro score of all the studies were 5.67, 2.33, and 1.528, respectively. Overall, the qualities of all studies reviewed were fair. Two articles showed significant results when compared to control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Strengthening exercise is a beneficial treatment for older people with LBP in reducing pain intensity, disability, and improved functional performances. PMID:27293970

  8. Treating Back-Related Leg Pain with Spinal Manipulation and Home Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... aged 21 years or older, with subacute or chronic BRLP lasting at least 4 weeks. Patients could not be receiving ongoing treatment of leg or low back pain by other health care providers; have evidence of ...

  9. Two Distinct Responses of Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Pressure to Leg-Raise Exercise in Euvolemic Patients with Exertional Dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jeung-Hun; Park, Whan-Cheol; Kim, Soon-Gil; Shin, Jinho; Lim, Young-Hyo; Lee, Yonggu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Few studies have invasively assessed diastolic functional reserve and serial changes in left ventricular hemodynamics in euvolemic patients with exertional dyspnea. In this study, sequential changes in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) to leg-raise exercise were measured invasively in patients with early heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) to determine the association between these serial changes and echocardiographic results or clinical features. Subjects and Methods During their hospital stay, 181 patients with early HFpEF underwent left cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography, and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Leg-raise exercise was performed in two stages: during cardiac catheterization and again during TTE. Results Compared with the initial values, all the invasively measured LVEDP values increased significantly during the leg-raise exercise, whereas the septal e/e' ratio remained unchanged. Active leg-raise led to increased LVEDP, which caused dyspnea. The severity of symptoms correlated with the level and extent of changes in LVEDP. At the end of active leg-raise, LVEDP decreased in 40 patients (22.1%), who were younger and had significantly lower e/e' ratios. On multivariate analysis to predict the response of LVEDP to active leg-raise, age and the septal e/e' ratio remained significant predictors. Conclusion Despite having similar LVEDP values at rest, patients may respond to exercise with different LVEDP levels and clinical manifestations, depending on their diastolic capacity. The leg-raise exercise in early HFpEF can elucidate individual diastolic profiles, and the LVEDP response to the leg-raise test may serve as a useful criterion in stratifying patients with early HFpEF with respect to functional reserve. PMID:27275172

  10. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Vogiatzis, Ioannis

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to approximately 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow.

  11. Intra-dialytic electrostimulation of leg extensors may improve exercise tolerance and quality of life in hemodialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Dobsak, Petr; Homolka, Pavel; Svojanovsky, Jan; Reichertova, Anna; Soucek, Miroslav; Novakova, Marie; Dusek, Ladislav; Vasku, Jaromir; Eicher, Jean-Christophe; Siegelova, Jarmila

    2012-01-01

    Hemodialyzed (HD) patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit lower fitness as a consequence of chronic uremic changes that trigger various structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities in skeletal muscles. The aim of this randomized study was to compare the effect of rehabilitation (RHB) training on a bicycle ergometer and electromyostimulation (EMS) of leg extensors in HD patients with ESRD. Thirty-two HD patients (18 men/14 women; mean age 61.1 ± 8.8 years) were randomized into three groups: (i) exercise training (ET; n = 11) on bicycle ergometer 2 × 20 min; (ii) EMS (n = 11) where stimulation (10 Hz) of leg extensors was applied for 60 min; and (iii) controls (CON; n = 10) without exercise. Exercising was performed between the 2nd and the 3rd hour of HD, three times a week, 20 weeks in total. Ergometric test was performed in order to evaluate peak workload (W(peak)), 6-min corridor walking test (CWT) to evaluate the distance walked, and dynamometry of leg extensors to assess muscle power (F(max)). Urea clearance was monitored and expressed as standard parameters: spKt/V, spKt/V equilibrated (spKt/V-e), and the urea removal ratio (URR). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the questionnaire SF-36. A significant increase of F(max) (P = 0.040 in group ET; P = 0.032 in group EMS), of 6-min CWT (P < 0.001 in ET group; P = 0.042 in EMS group), and of W(peak) (P = 0.041 in ET group) was observed. In both exercising groups, significant increase of spKt/V, spKt/V-e, and URR was found as compared with initial values (P < 0.05). In both exercising groups, highly significant changes in summarized mental functions were found (P = 0.001); in summarized physical components, significant improvement was observed in the ET group (P = 0.006). Intradialytic RHB showed comparable positive effects on functional parameters, urea clearance, and QoL. Intradialytic EMS might represent wide therapeutic possibility in the near future.

  12. The Comparative Effects of Sports Massage, Active Recovery, and Rest in Promoting Blood Lactate Clearance After Supramaximal Leg Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Nancy A.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Robertson, Robert J.; Lephart, Scott M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the comparative effect of sports massage, active recovery, and rest on promoting blood lactate clearance after maximal anaerobic (supramaximal) leg exercise. Design and Setting: A counterbalanced experimental design with repeated measures was used. The repeated measures were the three treatment conditions. The order of the conditions was determined by random assignment to a counterbalanced test sequence. All data were collected in the Human Energy Research Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh. Subjects: Ten male competitive cyclists volunteered for this investigation. Measurements: Serial venous blood samples were drawn and analyzed for blood lactate concentration for each test condition. Results: There were significant main effects for both absolute and relative values of blood lactate concentration between the three treatment groups and across time within groups. Conclusions: After supramaximal leg exercise, active recovery produced significant decreases in both absolute and relative measures of blood lactate concentration when compared with the sports massage and rest conditions. No significant difference was found between sports massage and rest for either absolute or relative changes in blood lactate concentration. PMID:16558481

  13. The effects of gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises for four weeks on navicular drop and lower extremity muscle activity during gait with flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of abductor hallucis and gluteus maximus strengthening exercises on pronated feet. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was conducted with 18 adults without no history of surgery on the foot or ankle. One group performed both gluteus maximus strengthening exercises and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises, while the other group performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] The group that performed both gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises showed smaller values in the height of navicular drop than the group that performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises. The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus and the vastus medialis increased during heel-strike in the group that added gluteus maximus exercises, and the muscle activity of the abductor hallucis significantly increased in both groups. [Conclusion] Given the results of the present study, it can be suggested that strengthening the gluteus maximus while also performing exercises to correct the pronated foot is an effective method for achieving normal gait. PMID:27134383

  14. Cardiorespiratory deconditioning with static and dynamic leg exercise during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, R. W.; Convertino, V. A.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study designed to compare the effects of heavy static and dynamic exercise training during 14 days of bed rest on the cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise performed by seven healthy men aged 19-22 yr. The parameters measured were submaximal and maximal oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, heart rate, and plasma volume. The results indicate that exercise alone during bed rest reduces but does not eliminate the reduction in maximal oxygen uptake. An additional positive hydrostatic effect is therefore necessary to restore maximal oxygen uptake to ambulatory control levels. The greater protective effect of static exercise on maximal oxygen uptake is probably due to a greater hydrostatic component from the isometric muscular contraction. Neither the static nor the dynamic exercise training regimes are found to minimize the changes in all the variables studied, thereby suggesting a combination of static and dynamic exercises.

  15. Testing the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention for adults with venous leg ulcers: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise and adequate self-management capacity may be important strategies in the management of venous leg ulcers. However, it remains unclear if exercise improves the healing rates of venous leg ulcers and if a self-management exercise program based on self-efficacy theory is well adhered to. Method/design This is a randomised controlled in adults with venous leg ulcers to determine the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention. Participants with venous leg ulcers are recruited from 3 clinical sites in Australia. After collection of baseline data, participants are randomised to either an intervention group or control group. The control group receive usual care, as recommended by evidence based guidelines. The intervention group receive an individualised program of calf muscle exercises and walking. The twelve week exercise program integrates multiple elements, including up to six telephone delivered behavioural coaching and goal setting sessions, supported by written materials, a pedometer and two follow-up booster calls if required. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weekly steps and lower limb exercises. The control group are supported by a generic information sheet that the intervention group also receive encouraging lower limb exercises, a pedometer for self-management and phone calls at the same time points as the intervention group. The primary outcome is the healing rates of venous leg ulcers which are assessed at fortnightly clinic appointments. Secondary outcomes, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks: functional ability (range of ankle motion and Tinetti gait and balance score), quality of life and self-management scores. Discussion This study seeks to address a significant gap in current wound management practice by providing evidence for the effectiveness of a home-based exercise program for adults with venous leg ulcers. Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies that can

  16. Infusion of ATP increases leg oxygen delivery but not oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense knee-extensor exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Christensen, Peter M; Mortensen, Stefan P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined whether an increase in leg blood flow and oxygen delivery at the onset of intense exercise would speed the rate of rise in leg oxygen uptake. Nine healthy men (25 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) performed one-leg knee-extensor exercise (62 ± 3 W, 86 ± 3% of incremental test peak power) for 4 min during a control setting (CON) and with infusion of ATP into the femoral artery in order to increase blood flow before and during exercise. In the presence of ATP, femoral arterial blood flow and O2 delivery were higher (P < 0.001) at the onset of exercise and throughout exercise (femoral arterial blood flow after 10 s, 5.1 ± 0.5 versus 2.7 ± 0.3 l min(-1); after 45 s, 6.0 ± 0.5 versus 4.1 ± 0.4 l min(-1); after 90 s, 6.6 ± 0.6 versus 4.5 ± 0.4 l min(-1); and after 240 s, 7.0 ± 0.6 versus 5.1 ± 0.3 l min(-1) in ATP and CON conditions, respectively). Leg oxygen uptake was not different in ATP and CON conditions during the first 20 s of exercise but was lower (P < 0.05) in the ATP compared with CON conditions after 30 s and until the end of exercise (30 s, 436 ± 42 versus 549 ± 45 ml min(-1); and 240 s, 705 ± 31 versus 814 ± 59 ml min(-1) in ATP and CON, respectively). Lactate release was lower after 60, 120 and 180 s of exercise with ATP infusion. These results suggest that O2 delivery is not limiting the rise in skeletal muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise. PMID:25085840

  17. Load dependence of changes in forearm and peripheral vascular resistance after acute leg exercise in man.

    PubMed Central

    Piepoli, M; Isea, J E; Pannarale, G; Adamopoulos, S; Sleight, P; Coats, A J

    1994-01-01

    1. It is known that acute exercise is often followed by a reduction in arterial blood pressure. Little is known about the time course of the recovery of the blood pressure or the influence of the intensity of the exercise on this response. Controversy exists, in particular, concerning the changes in peripheral resistance that occur during this period. 2. Eight normal volunteers performed, in random order on separate days, voluntary upright bicycle exercise of three different intensities (maximal, moderate and minimal load) and, on another day, a control period of sitting on a bicycle. They were monitored for 60 min after each test. 3. Diastolic pressure fell after maximal exercise at 5 min (-15.45 mmHg) and 60 min (-9.45 mmHg), compared with the control day. Systolic and mean pressure also fell (non-significantly) after 45 min; heart rate was significantly elevated for the whole hour of recovery (at 60 min, +7.23 beats min-1). No changes in post-exercise blood pressure and heart rate were observed on the days of moderate and minimal exercises. 4. An increase in cardiac index was observed after maximal exercise compared with control (at 60 min, 2.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.2 l min-1 m-2). This was entirely accounted for by the persistent increase in heart rate, with no significant alteration in stroke volume after exercise on any day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7965851

  18. Gait, Balance, Leg Strength, and Sprint Speed After Bedrest with LBNP Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boda, Wanda L.; Watenbaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Fortney, S. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Lee, S. M. C.; William, J. M.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity and bedrest (BR) result in similar physiological decrements such as loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and balance. Previous studies analyzing exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have found that gait is similar in LBNP on a vertical treadmill and overground exercise on a horizontal treadmill. Since treadmill exercise is known to increase muscular strength and endurance, we tested the hypothesis that LBNP exercise on a vertical treadmill would prevent or attenuate many of the physical decrements which occur during bedrest. Based on our positive results from diverse tests of post-BR function, we believe that exercise within LBNP is worth pursuing as a countermeasure for reducing the physical deterioration that occurs during bedrest and microgravity.

  19. Associative conditioning with leg cycling and inspiratory resistance enhances the early exercise ventilatory response in humans.

    PubMed

    Turner, Duncan; Stewart, Jamie D

    2004-12-01

    Repeated trials of hypercapnic exercise [deltaPET CO2 = 7 (1) mmHg] augment the increase in inspired minute ventilation and tidal volume (V(T)) in the early phase of subsequent trials of unencumbered exercise alone. The increase in V(T) in the first 20 s of exercise was correlated to the increase in V(T) evoked during hypercapnic exercise trials, suggesting that the evoked increase in V(T) during conditioning may be a factor in mediating associative conditioning. To test this hypothesis, inspiratory resistive loading (IRL) was employed to evoke an increase in V(T) [deltaV(T) = 0.4 (0.1) I(BTPS)] during conditioning exercise trials [IRL + EX; deltaP(ET)CO2 = 2 (l) mmHg]. IRL + EX associative conditioning elicited a significant augmentation of the early minute ventilation (+46%) and V(T) (+100%) responses to subsequent unencumbered exercise. The latter was correlated to the evoked increase in V(T) during associative conditioning with IRL + EX. The results support the hypothesis that an evoked increase in V(T) during associative conditioning could be a factor in eliciting long-term modulation of minute ventilation in subsequent unencumbered exercise. The results further indicated that the modulation of ventilation early in exercise is not due to sensitisation to repeated trials of either IRL or exercise alone. Associative conditioning may shape the ventilatory response to exercise through a process of motor learning. Data are presented as mean (SEM) unless otherwise stated.

  20. Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain. PMID:25642098

  1. Effect of grip strength and grip strengthening exercises on instantaneous bat velocity of collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Shawn S; Lyons, Brian C; Mayo, Jerry J

    2004-05-01

    Bat velocity is considered to be an important factor for successful hitting. The relationship between grip strength and bat velocity has not been conclusively established. The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship of grip strength to bat velocity and to ascertain whether the performance of resistance training exercises designed to specifically target the forearms and grip would significantly alter bat velocity. The subjects for this study were 23 male members (mean +/- SD, age = 19.7 +/- 1.3 years, height = 182.5 +/- 5.9 cm, weight = 85.4 +/- 15.5 kg, experience = 14.4 +/- 1.7 years) of a varsity baseball team at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II school. The Jamar hand dynamometer was used to test grip strength, and the SETPRO Rookie was used to measure instantaneous bat velocity at the point of contact with the ball. Subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. For 6 weeks, both groups participated in their usual baseball practice sessions, but the experimental group also performed extra forearm and grip strengthening exercises, whereas the control group did not. Pretest and posttest correlations between grip strength and bat velocity revealed no significant relationship between grip strength and bat velocity (pretest r = 0.054, p = 0.807; posttest r = 0.315, p = 0.145). A dependent t-test performed on all subjects revealed that a significant (p = 0.001) increase in bat velocity did occur over the course of the study. A covariate analysis, employing pretest bat velocity as the covariate, revealed no significant difference (p = 0.795) in posttest bat velocity scores between the experimental and control groups. Thus, increases in bat velocity occurred, but the differences were similar for both the experimental and control groups. The findings of this study suggest that grip strength and bat velocity are not significantly related, and that the allocation of time and energy for added training

  2. Effect of grip strength and grip strengthening exercises on instantaneous bat velocity of collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Shawn S; Lyons, Brian C; Mayo, Jerry J

    2004-05-01

    Bat velocity is considered to be an important factor for successful hitting. The relationship between grip strength and bat velocity has not been conclusively established. The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship of grip strength to bat velocity and to ascertain whether the performance of resistance training exercises designed to specifically target the forearms and grip would significantly alter bat velocity. The subjects for this study were 23 male members (mean +/- SD, age = 19.7 +/- 1.3 years, height = 182.5 +/- 5.9 cm, weight = 85.4 +/- 15.5 kg, experience = 14.4 +/- 1.7 years) of a varsity baseball team at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II school. The Jamar hand dynamometer was used to test grip strength, and the SETPRO Rookie was used to measure instantaneous bat velocity at the point of contact with the ball. Subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. For 6 weeks, both groups participated in their usual baseball practice sessions, but the experimental group also performed extra forearm and grip strengthening exercises, whereas the control group did not. Pretest and posttest correlations between grip strength and bat velocity revealed no significant relationship between grip strength and bat velocity (pretest r = 0.054, p = 0.807; posttest r = 0.315, p = 0.145). A dependent t-test performed on all subjects revealed that a significant (p = 0.001) increase in bat velocity did occur over the course of the study. A covariate analysis, employing pretest bat velocity as the covariate, revealed no significant difference (p = 0.795) in posttest bat velocity scores between the experimental and control groups. Thus, increases in bat velocity occurred, but the differences were similar for both the experimental and control groups. The findings of this study suggest that grip strength and bat velocity are not significantly related, and that the allocation of time and energy for added training

  3. Forearm blood flow during body temperature transients produced by leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects exercised for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 30, 50, and 70% of maximal aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 C and vapor pressures of less than 18 torr. Exercise was used to vary internal temperature during an experiment, and different ambient temperatures were used to vary skin temperatures independently of internal temperature. Forearm skin temperature was fixed at about 36.5 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at eight skin sites. Forearm blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. Data are well accounted for by a linear equation independent of exercise intensity, although some subjects showed an equivocal vasodilator effect of exercise.

  4. Study of Hyperkyphosis, Exercise and Function (SHEAF) Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Multimodal Spine-Strengthening Exercise in Older Adults With Hyperkyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Vittinghoff, Eric; Kado, Deborah M.; Schafer, Anne L.; Wong, Shirley S.; Gladin, Amy; Lane, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperkyphosis negatively affects health status, physical mobility, and quality of life, but there is no standard protocol for treating people with hyperkyphosis. Treatment options include targeted exercise. Objectives This single-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) will determine the efficacy of a targeted multimodal spine-strengthening exercise program, compared with no exercise intervention, among community-dwelling men and women aged ≥60 years. Design The RCT is a parallel-group design, with 1:1 randomization to exercise and attentional control groups. Setting The study will be conducted at one primary site (one academic medical center partnered with one local community medical center). Participants One hundred men and women, aged ≥60 years, with thoracic kyphosis ≥40 degrees will be randomized. Intervention The targeted multimodal spine-strengthening exercise intervention includes exercise and postural training delivered by a physical therapist in a group of 10 participants, 3 times a week for 6 months. Controls receive monthly health education meetings in a group of 10 participants and monthly calls from the study coordinator to monitor physical activity and any adverse events. Measurements The primary outcome is change in Cobb angle of kyphosis measured from lateral spine radiographs at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes include change in physical function (assessed with the modified Physical Performance Test, Timed “Up & Go” Test, timed loaded standing, 4-m walk, and Six-Minute Walk Test) and health-related quality of life (assessed with the modified Scoliosis Research Society instrument [SRS-30] self-image domain and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System [PROMIS] global health and physical function indexes). Additional secondary outcomes include pain, physical activity level, spinal flexion and extension muscle strength, paraspinal extensor muscle density, and adverse events. Limitations Blinding of the

  5. Perspectives for patients. Knee pain: safely strengthening your thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Quadriceps are the muscles on the front of your thigh that help you straighten your knee. When these muscles are not strong, you may feel pain under your kneecap. Quadriceps can be strengthened by performing squats and leg extensions. However, when you do not perform these exercises properly, you may also feel knee pain. Understanding the load and stress under the kneecap when you execute squats and leg extensions can help you perform these exercises better and with less pain while you strengthen your quadriceps. A study published in the May 2014 issue of JOSPT provides information intended to help physical therapists and their patients use these exercises to strengthen thigh muscles while minimizing the load under the kneecap.

  6. Human Physiological Responses to Cycle Ergometer Leg Exercise During +Gz Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, J. L.; Stad, N. J.; Barnes, P. R.; Leftheriotis, G. P. N.; Arndt, N. F.; Simonson, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Spaceflight and bed-rest deconditioning decrease maximal oxygen uptake (aerobic power), strength, endurance capacity, and orthostatic tolerance. In addition to extensive use of muscular exercise conditioning as a countermeasure for the reduction in aerobic power (VO(sub 2max)), stimuli from some form of +Gz acceleration conditioning may be necessary to attenuate the orthostatic intolerance component of this deconditioning. Hypothesis: There will be no significant difference in the physiological responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  7. Strengthening exercises to improve hand strength and functionality in rheumatoid arthritis with hand deformities: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cima, Stephanie Robinson; Barone, Adriana; Porto, Jaqueline Mello; de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory and chronic disease of joints, which may result in irreversible deformities. To evaluate the effects of an exercise programme aimed at improving the hand strength in individuals with hand deformities resulting from RA and to analyse the impact these exercises have on functionality. Twenty women with RA hand deformities participated in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups as follows: Group 1 (n = 13) had women participating in the exercise programme aimed at improving handgrip (HS) and pinch strengths (PS) as well as the motor coordination of the hand; Group 2 (n = 7) had women with RA who received no treatment for their hands (control). The treatment programme for hands consisted of 20 sessions, twice a week and at-home exercises. Both groups were submitted to Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and evaluation of HS and PS by means of dynamometry. Re-evaluations were performed after 10 and 20 sessions in Group 1 and after 2 months in Group 2. After 20 sessions of physiotherapy, Group 1 had a significant gain in HS and PS (p < 0.05) in addition to the improvement of functionality as assessed by HAQ (p = 0.016). For Group 2, no difference was found between the variables analysed (p > 0.05). The strengthening exercises for individuals with RA hand deformity are beneficial to improve handgrip and pinch strengths as well as functionality.

  8. Physical Exercise in Aging: Nine Weeks of Leg Press or Electrical Stimulation Training in 70 Years Old Sedentary Elderly People.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Sandra; Mosole, Simone; Löfler, Stefan; Fruhmann, Hannah; Burggraf, Samantha; Cvečka, Ján; Hamar, Dušan; Sedliak, Milan; Tirptakova, Veronica; Šarabon, Nejc; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut

    2015-08-24

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, reducing force generation and mobility in the elderlies. Contributing factors include a severe decrease in both myofiber size and number as well as a decrease in the number of motor neurons innervating muscle fibers (mainly of fast type) which is sometimes accompanied by reinnervation of surviving slow type motor neurons (motor unit remodeling). Reduced mobility and functional limitations characterizing aging can promote a more sedentary lifestyle for older individuals, leading to a vicious circle further worsening muscle performance and the patients' quality of life, predisposing them to an increased risk of disability, and mortality. Several longitudinal studies have shown that regular exercise may extend life expectancy and reduce morbidity in aging people. Based on these findings, the Interreg IVa project aimed to recruit sedentary seniors with a normal life style and to train them for 9 weeks with either leg press (LP) exercise or electrical stimulation (ES). Before and at the end of both training periods, all the subjects were submitted to mobility functional tests and muscle biopsies from the Vastus Lateralis muscles of both legs. No signs of muscle damage and/or of inflammation were observed in muscle biopsies after the training. Functional tests showed that both LP and ES induced improvements of force and mobility of the trained subjects. Morphometrical and immunofluorescent analyses performed on muscle biopsies showed that ES significantly increased the size of fast type muscle fibers (p<0.001), together with a significant increase in the number of Pax7 and NCAM positive satellite cells (p<0.005). A significant decrease of slow type fiber diameter was observed in both ES and LP trained subjects (p<0.001). Altogether these results demonstrate the effectiveness of physical exercise either voluntary (LP) or passive (ES) to improve the functional performances of aging muscles. Here ES is

  9. Physical Exercise in Aging: Nine Weeks of Leg Press or Electrical Stimulation Training in 70 Years Old Sedentary Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Mosole, Simone; Löfler, Stefan; Fruhmann, Hannah; Burggraf, Samantha; Cvečka, Ján; Hamar, Dušan; Sedliak, Milan; Tirptakova, Veronica; Šarabon, Nejc; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, reducing force generation and mobility in the elderlies. Contributing factors include a severe decrease in both myofiber size and number as well as a decrease in the number of motor neurons innervating muscle fibers (mainly of fast type) which is sometimes accompanied by reinnervation of surviving slow type motor neurons (motor unit remodeling). Reduced mobility and functional limitations characterizing aging can promote a more sedentary lifestyle for older individuals, leading to a vicious circle further worsening muscle performance and the patients’ quality of life, predisposing them to an increased risk of disability, and mortality. Several longitudinal studies have shown that regular exercise may extend life expectancy and reduce morbidity in aging people. Based on these findings, the Interreg IVa project aimed to recruit sedentary seniors with a normal life style and to train them for 9 weeks with either leg press (LP) exercise or electrical stimulation (ES). Before and at the end of both training periods, all the subjects were submitted to mobility functional tests and muscle biopsies from the Vastus Lateralis muscles of both legs. No signs of muscle damage and/or of inflammation were observed in muscle biopsies after the training. Functional tests showed that both LP and ES induced improvements of force and mobility of the trained subjects. Morphometrical and immunofluorescent analyses performed on muscle biopsies showed that ES significantly increased the size of fast type muscle fibers (p<0.001), together with a significant increase in the number of Pax7 and NCAM positive satellite cells (p<0.005). A significant decrease of slow type fiber diameter was observed in both ES and LP trained subjects (p<0.001). Altogether these results demonstrate the effectiveness of physical exercise either voluntary (LP) or passive (ES) to improve the functional performances of aging muscles. Here ES is

  10. Acute changes in muscle activation and leg extension performance after different running exercises in elite long distance runners.

    PubMed

    Vuorimaa, Timo; Virlander, Rami; Kurkilahti, Pasi; Vasankari, Tommi; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated acute changes in muscle activation and muscular power performance after three different running exercises in elite long-distance runners. Twenty-two nationally and internationally ranked long-distance runners performed first an incremental treadmill running test until exhaustion (MR) and then 40 min continuous (TR) and intermittent (2 min run/2 min rest) (IR) running exercises at an intensity of 80 and 100% of the velocity associated with VO(2max), respectively. Muscle activation and muscular power performance tests (counter-movement jumps, CMJ, and a set of ten maximal half squats from the static starting position with an extra load of 35% of the subjects, one repetition maximum) were performed before and immediately after the runs. The average mechanical power (P) of the half squats was calculated and the root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) from the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles was recorded simultaneously during the half squat performances. The results showed an acute exercise-induced increase in P (ANOVA time effect, P = 0.000) together with a reduction in EMGrms of the knee extensor muscles (ANOVA time effect, P = 0.000). However, mechanical P expressed as a relative change within the set decreased after MR. In TR the improvement in P correlated positively with the maximal running performance of the runners (P < 0.05), while in IR it correlated negatively (P < 0.05). Jumping performance was significantly enhanced after each run (P < 0.001, for all) and the improvement correlated negatively with the maximal sprinting speed and maximal jumping height of the runners (P < 0.01, for all). It is concluded that in elite long distance runners an intensive prolonged running exercise reduces the surface EMG of the knee extensor muscles, and may lead to a different coordination strategy in leg extension exercises performed into the vertical direction. After continuous type of running the power

  11. Central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to electrically induced and voluntary leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltin, B.; Strange, S.; Bangsbo, J.; Kim, C. K.; Duvoisin, M.; Hargens, A.; Gollnick, P. D.

    1990-01-01

    With long missions in space countermeasures have to be used to secure safe operations in space and a safe return to Earth. Exercises of various forms have been used, but the question has arisen whether electrically induced contractions of muscle especially sensitive to weightlessness and crucial for man's performance would aid in maintaining their optimal function. The physiological responses both to short term and prolonged dynamic exercise performed either voluntarily or induced by electrical stimulation were considered. The local and systemic circulatory responses were similar for the voluntary and electrically induced contractions. The metabolic response was slightly more pronounced with electrical stimulation. This could be a reflection of not only slow twitch (type 1) but also fast twitch (type 2) fibers being recruited when the contractions were induced electrically. Intramuscular pressure recordings indicated that the dominant fraction of the muscle group was engaged regardless of mode of activation. Some 70 percent of the short term peak voluntary exercise capacity could be attained with electrical stimulation. Thus, electrically induced contractions of specific muscle groups should indeed be considered as an efficient countermeasure.

  12. Hemodynamic responses to heat stress in the resting and exercising human leg: insight into the effect of temperature on skeletal muscle blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, James; Low, David A.; Stöhr, Eric; Kalsi, Kameljit; Ali, Leena; Barker, Horace

    2011-01-01

    Heat stress increases limb blood flow and cardiac output (Q̇) in humans, presumably in sole response to an augmented thermoregulatory demand of the skin circulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that local hyperthermia also increases skeletal muscle blood flow at rest and during exercise. Hemodynamics, blood and tissue oxygenation, and muscle, skin, and core temperatures were measured at rest and during exercise in 11 males across four conditions of progressive whole body heat stress and at rest during isolated leg heat stress. During whole body heat stress, leg blood flow (LBF), Q̇, and leg (LVC) and systemic vascular conductance increased gradually with elevations in muscle temperature both at rest and during exercise (r2 = 0.86–0.99; P < 0.05). Enhanced LBF and LVC were accompanied by reductions in leg arteriovenous oxygen (a-vO2) difference and increases in deep femoral venous O2 content and quadriceps tissue oxygenation, reflecting elevations in muscle and skin perfusion. The increase in LVC occurred despite an augmented plasma norepinephrine (P < 0.05) and was associated with elevations in muscle temperature (r2 = 0.85; P = 0.001) and arterial plasma ATP (r2 = 0.87; P < 0.001). Isolated leg heat stress accounted for one-half of the increase in LBF with severe whole body heat stress. Our findings suggest that local hyperthermia also induces vasodilatation of the skeletal muscle microvasculature, thereby contributing to heat stress and exercise hyperemia. The increased limb muscle vasodilatation in these conditions of elevated muscle sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity is closely related to the rise in arterial plasma ATP and local tissue temperature. PMID:21178127

  13. Risk Factors for Self-Reported Exercise-Related Leg Pain in High School Cross-Country Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Austin, Tricia M.; Hayes, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Prevention of exercise-related leg pain (ERLP) has not been successful because ERLP risk factors are not well known. Objective: To determine the percentage of high school cross-country (XC) athletes who reported a history of ERLP in their running careers, to identify the percentage of athletes who reported an occurrence of ERLP during 1 XC season, and to investigate the association of selected factors (age, high school year, years of high school running, sex, ERLP history, body mass index [BMI], foot type, and training distance) and the occurrence of ERLP. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Six local high schools. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred twenty-five high school XC athletes (62 females, 63 males). Main Outcome Measure(s): All athletes completed an initial ERLP questionnaire, and foot type was visually assessed. After the season, athletes were asked to complete a Web-based questionnaire regarding the seasonal occurrence of ERLP. Statistical analyses of differences (t tests) and associations (χ2, relative risk) were conducted. Results: A total of 103 of the 125 athletes (82.4%) reported a history of ERLP, with 81 athletes reporting ERLP occurrence within the month preceding completion of the initial questionnaire. Bilateral medial leg pain was the most common ERLP presentation. More than half of the athletes (58.4%) with an ERLP history reported that the pain had interfered with XC participation. Ninety-three athletes responded to the postseason questionnaire, and 45 (48.0%) reported ERLP seasonal occurrence. Most athletes (97.8%) who experienced the seasonal occurrence of ERLP had a history of ERLP. No associations were noted between ERLP history or seasonal occurrence and age, high school year, years of high school running, sex, BMI, foot type, or training distance. Conclusions: Both a history of ERLP and the seasonal occurrence of ERLP were common among these XC athletes. The only risk factor identified for ERLP season

  14. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    PubMed

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  15. Leg pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - leg; Aches - leg; Cramps - leg ... Leg pain can be due to a muscle cramp (also called a charley horse ). Common causes of ... a long time An injury can also cause leg pain from: A torn or overstretched muscle ( strain ) ...

  16. Prescribing strengthening exercises for my patients: which equipment should I select?

    PubMed Central

    Piccininni, JJ

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines various devices used in strength building exercise programs. These include free weights, pulley machines, variable resistance weight machines, isokinetic units and elastic tubing and banding. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed and examined from the view point of the health care provider and the suitability of each type of device for prescribed progressive resistance exercise programs for patients. In addition to such practical aspects such as cost and maintenance, biomechanical factors, types of contraction elicited, ease of patient instruction and proprioception benefits are also compared in order to assist the clinician in selecting the most appropriate equipment for each individual patient.

  17. Effect of training on central factors in fatigue following two- and one-leg static exercise in man.

    PubMed

    Rube, N; Secher, N H

    1991-01-01

    Leg strength and fatigue developed during 150 repeated two- and one-leg isometric maximal voluntary contractions were determined before and after a 5-week one- (n = 6) or two- (n = 7) leg training programme including a control group of five subjects. Two- and one-leg training increased two- and one-leg strength by 59 (range 8-107) and 36% (-1-69) respectively (P less than 0.01) with no significant difference between the two groups. Two-leg training decreased (P less than 0.05) fatigue only during two-leg maximal voluntary contractions (from 20 [11-26] to 13% [6-27]); and one-leg training fatigue only during one-leg maximal voluntary contractions (from 20 [15-23] to 11% [9-24]) despite the fact that both legs were trained. Surface electromyographic activity decreased during both repeated two- and one-leg maximal voluntary contractions (P less than 0.01) but a reduction in electromyographic decay was seen (P less than 0.05) during two-leg maximal voluntary contractions after two-leg training. Training increased fast-twitch b fibre size (P less than 0.01), and glycogen depletion was seen in fast-twitch (a and b) fibres, but the relative fast-twitch b area did not increase significantly. No training effects were seen in the control group. The results show that an approximately 47% increase in muscle strength may take place without a significant change in the relative percentage of muscle fibre types or in the average muscle fibre size. Furthermore, the specificity of the training response to fatigue developed during repeated two- and one-leg maximal voluntary contractions suggests a change in the nervous influence on the motor units. PMID:2053449

  18. Effects of strengthening and stretching exercise programmes on kinematics and kinetics of running in older adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Reginaldo K; Stefanyshyn, Darren J; Stirling, Lisa; Ferber, Reed

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening and stretching exercises on running kinematics and kinetics in older runners. One hundred and five runners (55-75 years) were randomly assigned to either a strengthening (n = 36), flexibility (n = 34) or control (n = 35) group. Running kinematics and kinetics were obtained using an eight-camera system and an instrumented treadmill before and after the eight-week exercise protocol. Measures of strength and flexibility were also obtained using a dynamometer and inclinometer/goniometer. A time effect was observed for the excursion angles of the ankle sagittal (P = 0.004, d = 0.17) and thorax/pelvis transverse (P < 0.001, d = 0.20) plane. Similarly, a time effect was observed for knee transverse plane impulse (P = 0.013, d = 0.26) and ground reaction force propulsion (P = 0.042, d = -0.15). A time effect for hip adduction (P = 0.006, d = 0.69), ankle dorsiflexion (P = 0.002, d = 0.47) and hip internal rotation (P = 0.048, d = 0.30) flexibility, and hip extensor (P = 0.001, d = -0.48) and ankle plantar flexor (P = 0.01, d = 0.39) strength were also observed. However, these changes were irrespective of exercise group. The results of the present study indicate that an eight-week stretching or strengthening protocol, compared to controls, was not effective in altering age-related running biomechanics despite changes in ankle and trunk kinematics, knee kinetics and ground reaction forces along with alterations in muscle strength and flexibility were observed over time. PMID:26805699

  19. Mean individual muscle activities and ratios of total muscle activities in a selective muscle strengthening experiment: the effects of lower limb muscle activity based on mediolateral slope angles during a one-leg stance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for research on selective muscle strengthening by identifying mean muscle activities and calculating muscle ratios for use in developing strengthening methods. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one healthy volunteers were included in this study. Muscle activity was measured during a one-leg stance under 6 conditions of slope angle: 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The data used in the analysis were root mean square and % total muscle activity values. [Results] There were significant differences in the root mean square of the gluteus medius, the hamstring, and the medial gastrocnemius muscles. There were significant differences in % total muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius. [Conclusion] Future studies aimed at developing selective muscle strengthening methods are likely to yield more effective results by using muscle activity ratios based on electromyography data. PMID:27799690

  20. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg. PMID:27512281

  1. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg. PMID:27512281

  2. Venogram - leg

    MedlinePlus

    Phlebogram - leg; Venography - leg ... into a vein in the foot of the leg being looked at, so that an intravenous (IV) ... vein. A tourniquet may be placed on your leg so the dye flows into the deeper veins. ...

  3. Restless Legs

    MedlinePlus

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) causes a powerful urge to move your legs. Your legs become uncomfortable when you are lying down or ... crawling, tingling, or burning sensation. Moving makes your legs feel better, but not for long. RLS can ...

  4. Muscle strategies for leg extensions on a "Reformer" apparatus.

    PubMed

    Cantergi, Débora; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Jinha, Azim; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Herzog, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Considering the kinematics of leg extensions performed on a Reformer apparatus, one would expect high activation of hip and knee extensor muscle groups. However, because of the bi-articular nature of some lower limb muscles, and the possibility to vary the direction of force application on the Reformer bar, muscles can be coordinated theoretically in a variety of ways and still achieve the desired outcome. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the knee and hip moments during leg extensions performed on the Reformer apparatus and to estimate the forces in individual muscles crossing these joints using static optimization. Fifteen subjects performed leg extensions exercises on the Reformer apparatus using an individually chosen resistance. To our big surprise, we found that subjects performed the exercise using two conceptually different strategies (i) the first group used simultaneous hip and knee extension moments, (ii) while the second group used simultaneous hip flexion and knee extension moments to perform the exercise. These different strategies were achieved by changing the direction of the resultant force applied by the subject's feet on the Reformer bar. While leg extensions on the Reformer apparatus have been thought to strengthen the hip and knee extensors muscles, our results demonstrate that patients can perform the exercise in a different and unexpected way. In order to control the hip and knee moments and achieve the desired outcome of the exercise, the direction of force application on the Reformer bar must be controlled carefully. PMID:25262161

  5. Differential Responses of Post-Exercise Recovery of Leg Blood Flow and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in HFpEF versus HFrEF

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard B.; Pagano, Joseph J.; Mathewson, Kory W.; Paterson, Ian; Dyck, Jason R.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Haykowsky, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to compare leg blood flow, oxygen extraction and oxygen uptake (VO2) after constant load sub-maximal unilateral knee extension (ULKE) exercise in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to those with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Previously, it has been shown that prolonged whole body VO2 recovery kinetics are directly related to disease severity and all-cause mortality in HFrEF patients. To date, no study has simultaneously measured muscle-specific blood flow and oxygen extraction post exercise recovery kinetics in HFrEF or HFpEF patients; therefore it is unknown if muscle VO2 recovery kinetics, and more specifically, the recovery kinetics of blood flow and oxygen extraction at the level of the muscle, differ between HF phenotypes. Ten older (68±10yrs) HFrEF (n = 5) and HFpEF (n = 5) patients performed sub-maximal (85% of maximal weight lifted during an incremental test) ULKE exercise for 4 minutes. Femoral venous blood flow and venous O2 saturation were measured continuously from the onset of end-exercise, using a novel MRI method, to determine off-kinetics (mean response times, MRT) for leg VO2 and its determinants. HFpEF and HFrEF patients had similar end-exercise leg blood flow (1.1±0.6 vs. 1.2±0.6 L/min, p>0.05), venous saturation (42±12 vs. 41±11%, p>0.05) and VO2 (0.13±0.08 vs. 0.11±0.05 L/min, p>0.05); however HFrEF had significantly delayed recovery MRT for flow (292±135sec. vs 105±63sec., p = 0.004) and VO2 (95±37sec. vs. 47±15sec., p = 0.005) compared to HFpEF. Impaired muscle VO2 recovery kinetics following ULKE exercise differentiated HFrEF from HFpEF patients and suggests distinct underlying pathology and potential therapeutic approaches in these populations. PMID:27701422

  6. Inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins, but not endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors, reduces blood flow and aerobic energy turnover in the exercising human leg.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stefan P; González-Alonso, José; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva

    2007-06-01

    Prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) are substances that have been proposed to be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during physical activity. We measured haemodynamics, plasma ATP at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (19 +/- 1 W) in nine healthy subjects with and without intra-arterial infusion of indomethacin (Indo; 621 +/- 17 microg min(-1)), Indo + N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (double blockade) and Indo + L-NMMA + tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (triple blockade). Double and triple blockade lowered leg blood flow (LBF) at rest (P<0.05), while it remained unchanged with Indo. During exercise, LBF and vascular conductance were 2.54 +/- 0.10 l min(-1) and 25 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively, in control and they were lower with double (33 +/- 3 and 36 +/- 4%, respectively) and triple (26 +/- 4 and 28 +/- 3%, respectively) blockade (P<0.05), while there was no difference with Indo. The lower LBF and vascular conductance with double and triple blockade occurred in parallel with a lower O(2) delivery, cardiac output, heart rate and plasma [noradrenaline] (P<0.05), while blood pressure remained unchanged and O(2) extraction and femoral venous plasma [ATP] increased. Despite the increased O(2) extraction, leg was 13 and 17% (triple and double blockade, respectively) lower than control in parallel to a lower femoral venous temperature and lactate release (P<0.05). These results suggest that NO and prostaglandins play important roles in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during moderate intensity exercise and that EDHFs do not compensate for the impaired formation of NO and prostaglandins. Moreover, inhibition of NO and prostaglandin formation is associated with a lower aerobic energy turnover and increased concentration of vasoactive ATP in plasma. PMID:17347273

  7. Application of a Web-Enabled Leg Training System for the Objective Monitoring and Quantitative Analysis of Exercise-Induced Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Dedova, Irina V

    2016-01-01

    Background Sustained cardiac rehabilitation is the key intervention in the prevention and treatment of many human diseases. However, implementation of exercise programs can be challenging because of early fatigability in patients with chronic diseases, overweight individuals, and aged people. Current methods of fatigability assessment are based on subjective self-reporting such as rating of perceived exertion or require specialized laboratory conditions and sophisticated equipment. A practical approach allowing objective measurement of exercise-induced fatigue would be useful for the optimization of sustained delivery of cardiac rehabilitation to improve patient outcomes. Objectives The objective of this study is to develop and validate an innovative approach, allowing for the objective assessment of exercise-induced fatigue using the Web-enabled leg rehabilitation system. Methods MedExercise training devices were equipped with wireless temperature sensors in order to monitor their usage by temperature rise in the resistance unit (Δt°). Since Δt° correlated with the intensity and duration of exercise, this parameter was used to characterize participants’ leg work output (LWO). Personal smart devices such as laptop computers with wireless gateways and relevant software were used for monitoring of self-control training. Connection of smart devices to the Internet and cloud-based software allowed remote monitoring of LWO in participants training at home. Heart rates (HRs) were measured by fingertip pulse oximeters simultaneously with Δt° in 7 healthy volunteers. Results Exercise-induced fatigue manifested as the decline of LWO and/or rising HR, which could be observed in real-time. Conversely, training at the steady-state LWO and HR for the entire duration of exercise bout was considered as fatigue-free. The amounts of recommended daily physical activity were expressed as the individual Δt° values reached during 30-minute fatigue-free exercise of moderate

  8. A Pilot Study of the Head Extension Swallowing Exercise: New Method for Strengthening Swallowing-Related Muscle Activity.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong-Chi

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the effect of a new head extension swallowing exercise (HESE) on submental muscle activity and tongue strength in healthy volunteers. Fifteen young adults (10 females and 5 males) were instructed to extend their head backwards as much as possible, and while watching the ceiling, swallowed their saliva every 10 s for a duration of 20 min. Twenty-four treatments were performed over 8 weeks. The outcome variables evaluated at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks of training, and 12-week follow-up included mean and peak submental muscle activation amplitudes during normal and effortful swallowing measured via surface electromyography, and anterior and posterior isometric tongue pressures were measured with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Results indicated that the muscle activation amplitudes during effortful swallowing increased significantly at 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline (p < 0.025). However, the increases in amplitudes during normal swallowing were minor (nonsignificant) after 8 weeks compared to baseline. The isometric pressures of the tongue tip and the posterior part of the oral tongue were significantly higher at 8 weeks compared to baseline (p < 0.025). Thus, the 8-week HESE protocol significantly improved suprahyoid muscle activity during effortful swallowing as well as the isometric tongue pressures. The HESE appears effective in exercising and strengthening the suprahyoid muscles and tongue muscles in healthy participants. Although encouraging, these results need to be replicated in clinical trials for testing the therapeutic effects of the HESE in older adults and patients with dysphagia who present with decreased hyolaryngeal elevation.

  9. Muscle activity in the lower limbs during push-down movement with a new active-exercise apparatus for the leg

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kenta; Kamada, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Aikawa, Shizu; Irie, Shun; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Sakane, Masataka; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lower-limb deep vein thrombosis is a complication of orthopedic surgery. A leg-exercise apparatus named “LEX” was developed as a novel active-exercise apparatus for deep vein thrombosis prevention. Muscle activity was evaluated to assess the effectiveness of exercise with LEX in the prevention. [Subjects] Eight healthy volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] Muscle activities were determined through electromyography during exercise with LEX [LEX (+)] and during active ankle movements [LEX (−)]. The end points were peak % maximum voluntary contraction and % integrated electromyogram of rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus. [Results] LEX (+) resulted in higher average values in all muscles except the tibialis anterior. Significant differences were noted in the peak of the biceps femoris and gastrocnemius and in the integrated electromyogram of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius, and soleus. The LEX (+)/LEX (−) ratio of the peak was 2.2 for the biceps femoris and 2.0 for the gastrocnemius . The integrated electromyogram was 1.8 for the gastrocnemius, 1.5 for the rectus femoris, 1.4 for the vastus lateralis, and 1.2 for the soleus. [Conclusion] Higher muscle activity was observed with LEX (+). LEX might be a good tool for increasing lower-limb blood flow and deep vein thrombosis prevention. PMID:27134410

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOTONIC PLANTAR FLEXOR ENDURANCE, NAVICULAR DROP, AND EXERCISE-RELATED LEG PAIN IN A COHORT OF COLLEGIATE CROSS-COUNTRY RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle plantar flexor endurance (PFE), foot pronation as measured by navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain (ERLP). Background: Exercise-related leg pain is a common occurrence in competitive and recreational runners. The identification of factors contributing to the development of ERLP may help guide methods for the prevention and management of overuse injuries. Methods: Seventy-seven (44 males, 33 females) competitive runners from five collegiate cross-country (XC) teams consented to participate in the study. Isotonic ankle PFE and foot pronation were measured using the standing heel-rise and navicular drop (ND) tests, respectively. Demographic information, anthropometric measurements, and ERLP history were also recorded. Subjects were then prospectively tracked for occurrence of ERLP during the 2009 intercollegiate cross-country season. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle joint PFE and ND and the occurrence of ERLP. Results: While no significant differences were identified for isotonic ankle PFE between groups of collegiate XC runners with and without ERLP, runners with a ND >10 mm were almost 7 times (OR=6.6, 95% CI=1.2–38.0) more likely to incur medial ERLP than runners with ND <10 mm. Runners with a history of ERLP in the month previous to the start of the XC season were 12 times (OR=12.3, 95% CI=3.1–48.9) more likely to develop an in-season occurrence of ERLP. Conclusion: While PFE did not appear to be a risk factor in the development of ERLP in this group of collegiate XC runners, those with a ND greater than 10 mm may be at greater odds of incurring medial ERLP. Level of Evidence: 2b. PMID:22666641

  11. Athletes' leg pains.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Puranen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888

  12. Effect of voluntary hyperventilation with supplemental CO2 on pulmonary O2 uptake and leg blood flow kinetics during moderate-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lisa M K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Paterson, Donald H; Kowalchuk, John M

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary O2 uptake (V(O₂p)) and leg blood flow (LBF) kinetics were examined at the onset of moderate-intensity exercise, during hyperventilation with and without associated hypocapnic alkalosis. Seven male subjects (25 ± 6 years old; mean ± SD) performed alternate-leg knee-extension exercise from baseline to moderate-intensity exercise (80% of estimated lactate threshold) and completed four to six repetitions for each of the following three conditions: (i) control [CON; end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (P(ET, CO₂)) ~40 mmHg], i.e. normal breathing with normal inspired CO2 (0.03%); (ii) hypocapnia (HYPO; P(ET, CO₂) ~20 mmHg), i.e. sustained hyperventilation with normal inspired CO2 (0.03%); and (iii) normocapnia (NORMO; P(ET, CO₂) ~40 mmHg), i.e. sustained hyperventilation with elevated inspired CO2 (~5%). The V(O₂p) was measured breath by breath using mass spectrometry and a volume turbine. Femoral artery mean blood velocity was measured by Doppler ultrasound, and LBF was calculated from femoral artery diameter and mean blood velocity. Phase 2 V(O₂p) kinetics (τV(O₂p)) was different (P < 0.05) amongst all three conditions (CON, 19 ± 7 s; HYPO, 43 ± 17 s; and NORMO, 30 ± 8 s), while LBF kinetics (τLBF) was slower (P < 0.05) in HYPO (31 ± 9 s) compared with both CON (19 ± 3 s) and NORMO (20 ± 6 s). Similar to previous findings, HYPO was associated with slower V(O₂p) and LBF kinetics compared with CON. In the present study, preventing the fall in end-tidal P(CO₂) (NORMO) restored LBF kinetics, but not V(O₂p) kinetics, which remained 'slowed' relative to CON. These data suggest that the hyperventilation manoeuvre itself (i.e. independent of induced hypocapnic alkalosis) may contribute to the slower V(O₂p) kinetics observed during HYPO. PMID:23975901

  13. Ultrasound measurement of the size of the anterior tibial muscle group: the effect of exercise and leg dominance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge of normal muscle characteristics is crucial in planning rehabilitation programmes for injured athletes. There is a high incidence of ankle and anterior tibial symptoms in football players, however little is known about the effect of limb dominance on the anterior tibial muscle group (ATMG). The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of limb dominance and sports-specific activity on ATMG thickness in Gaelic footballers and non-football playing controls using ultrasound measurements, and to compare results from transverse and longitudinal scans. Methods Bilateral ultrasound scans were taken to assess the ATMG size in 10 Gaelic footballers and 10 sedentary controls (age range 18-25 yrs), using a previously published protocol. Both transverse and longitudinal images were taken. Muscle thickness measurements were carried out blind to group and side of dominance, using the Image-J programme. Results Muscle thickness on the dominant leg was significantly greater than the non-dominant leg in the footballers with a mean difference of 7.3%, while there was no significant dominance effect in the controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the measurements from transverse or longitudinal scans. Conclusions A significant dominance effect exists in ATMG size in this group of Gaelic footballers, likely attributable to the kicking action involved in the sport. This should be taken into account when rehabilitating footballers with anterior tibial pathology. Ultrasound is a reliable tool to measure ATMG thickness, and measurement may be taken in transverse or longitudinal section. PMID:21914209

  14. Handgrip and general muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bedrest with isometric and isotonic leg exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.

  15. Augmented low-Dye tape alters foot mobility and neuromotor control of gait in individuals with and without exercise related leg pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Augmented low-Dye (ALD) tape is frequently used in the management of lower limb musculoskeletal pain and injury, yet our knowledge of its effect is incomplete, especially in regard to its neuromotor effects. Methods We measured electromyographic (EMG) activity of twelve lower limb muscles, three-dimensional kinematics of the ankle, knee, hip and pelvis, foot posture and foot mobility to determine the physiological effect of ALD tape. Fourteen females with exercise related leg pain and 14 matched asymptomatic females walked on a treadmill under three conditions: pre-tape, tape and post-tape. A series of repeated measure analysis of variance procedures were performed to investigate differences in EMG, kinematic, foot posture and mobility measurements. Results Application of ALD tape produced reductions in recruitment of tibialis anterior (7.3%) and tibialis posterior (6.9%). Large reductions in midfoot mobility (0.45 to 0.63 cm) and increases in arch height (0.58 cm), as well as moderate changes in ankle motion in the sagittal (2.0 to 5.3°) and transverse planes (4.0 to 4.3°) were observed. Reduced muscle activation (<3.0%) and increased motion (<1.7°) was observed at more proximal segments (knee, hip, pelvis) but were of smaller magnitude than at the foot and ankle. Changes in foot posture, foot mobility, ankle kinematics and leg muscle activity did not persist following the removal of ALD tape, but at more proximal segments small changes (<2.2°, <5.4% maximum) continued to be observed following the removal of tape. There were no differences between groups. Conclusions This study provides evidence that ALD tape influences muscle recruitment, movement patterns, foot posture and foot mobility. These effects occur in individuals with and without pain, and are dissipated up the kinetic chain. ALD tape should be considered in the management of individuals where increased arch height, reduced foot mobility, reduced ankle abduction and plantar flexion or

  16. Effect of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 days of 6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma and red cell volumes, body density, and water balance were measured in 19 men (32-42 yr) confined to bed rest (BR). One group (n = 5) had no exercise training (NOE), another near-maximal variable-intensity isotonic exercise for 60 min/day (ITE; n = 7), and the third near-maximal intermittent isokinetic exercise for 60 min/day (IKE; n = 7). Caloric intake was 2,678-2,840 kcal/day; mean body weight (n = 19) decreased by 0.58 +/- 0.35 (SE) kg during BR due to a negative fluid balance (diuresis) on day 1. Mean energy costs for the NOE, and IKE, and ITE regimens were 83 (3.6 +/- 0.2 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), 214 (8.9 +/- 0.5 ml.min-1.kg-1), and 446 kcal/h (18.8 +/- 1.6 ml.min-1.kg-1), respectively. Body densities within groups and mean urine volumes (1,752-1,846 ml/day) between groups were unchanged during BR. Resting changes in plasma volume (ml/kg) after BR were -1.5 +/- 2.3% (NS) in ITE, -14.7 +/- 2.8% (P less than 0.05) in NOE, and -16.8 +/- 2.9% (P less than 0.05) in IKE, and mean water balances during BR were +295, -106, and +169 ml/24 h, respectively. Changes in red cell volume followed changes in plasma volume. The significant chronic decreases in plasma volume in the IKE and NOE groups and its maintenance in the ITE group could not be accounted for by water balance or by responses of the plasma osmotic, protein, vasopressin, or aldosterone concentrations or plasma renin activity. There was close coupling between resting plasma volume and plasma protein and osmotic content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  18. Influence of Affective Stimuli on Leg Power Output and Associated Neuromuscular Parameters during Repeated High Intensity Cycling Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Hamdi; Rouis, Majdi; Coudrat, Laure; Gélat, Thierry; Noakes, Timothy David; Driss, Tarak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of emotional eliciting pictures on neuromuscular performance during repetitive supramaximal cycling exercises (RSE). In a randomized order, twelve male participants were asked to perform five 6-s cycle sprints (interspaced by 24 s of recovery) on a cycle ergometer in front of neutral, pleasant or unpleasant pictures. During each RSE, mean power output (MPO) and electromyographic activity [root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF)] of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles were analyzed. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of MPO to RMS. Higher RMS (232.17 ± 1.17 vs. 201.90 ± 0.47 μV) and MF (68.56 ± 1.78 vs. 64.18 ± 2.17 Hz) were obtained in pleasant compared to unpleasant conditions (p < 0.05). This emotional effect persisted from the first to the last sprint. Higher MPO was obtained in pleasant than in unpleasant conditions (690.65 ± 38.23 vs. 656.73 ± 35.95 W, p < 0.05). However, this emotional effect on MPO was observed only for the two first sprints. NME decreased from the third sprint (p < 0.05), which indicated the occurrence of peripheral fatigue after the two first sprints. These results suggested that, compared with unpleasant pictures, pleasant ones increased the neuromuscular performance during RSE. Moreover, the disappearance of the beneficial effect of pleasant emotion on mechanical output from the third sprint appears to be due to peripheral fatigue. PMID:26305334

  19. Leg Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercises: Lying (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Active Leg Range of Motion Exercises: Sitting (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Active Leg Range of Motion Exercises: ...

  20. The Effects of High Intensity Exercise on Overall Leg Strength of Non-Sickel-Cell-Trait and Sickle-Cell-Trait Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Hill, Jr.; Evans, Mel

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was any significant difference in overall leg strength gains in individuals with sickle-cell-trait as compared to non-sickle-cell-trait individuals, as measured by the leg dynamometer. Twenty black male first-year college students were used in this study. The subjects were divided into a control…

  1. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... on film. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the leg can be created by adding the slices together. ...

  2. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples. PMID:22739821

  3. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples.

  4. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  5. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  6. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training.

    PubMed

    Ray, C A

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training. PMID:10233121

  7. Digital Astronaut Project Biomechanical Models: Biomechanical Modeling of Squat, Single-Leg Squat and Heel Raise Exercises on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and to enhance countermeasure development. The DAP Musculoskeletal Modeling effort is developing computational models to inform exercise countermeasure development and to predict physical performance capabilities after a length of time in space. For example, integrated exercise device-biomechanical models can determine localized loading, which will be used as input to muscle and bone adaptation models to estimate the effectiveness of the exercise countermeasure. In addition, simulations of mission tasks can be used to estimate the astronaut's ability to perform the task after exposure to microgravity and after using various exercise countermeasures. The software package OpenSim (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA) (Ref. 1) is being used to create the DAP biomechanical models and its built-in muscle model is the starting point for the DAP muscle model. During Exploration missions, such as those to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Therefore, the crew must have access to exercise countermeasures that can maintain their musculoskeletal and aerobic health. Exploration vehicles may have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities, even more so than the International Space Station (ISS). The exercise devices flown on Exploration missions must be designed to provide sufficient load during the performance of various resistance and aerobic/anaerobic exercises while meeting potential additional requirements of limited mass, volume and power. Given that it is not practical to manufacture and test (ground, analog and/or flight) all candidate devices, nor is it always possible to obtain data such as localized muscle and bone loading empirically, computational modeling can estimate the localized loading during various exercise modalities performed on

  8. Effect of evidence-based trunk stability exercises on the thickness of the trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hoe-Song; Lee, Yeon-Seop; Jin, Sun-Ae

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of four spine stability exercises on the thickness of the internal and external oblique abdominal muscles, the transverses abdominis, and the multifidus muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy adults were enrolled and randomly allocated to four groups. Ten participants performed bridge exercises (BE) while lying on their back; 10 others performed the same exercises with their right legs up (BERL); another 10 performed the same exercises on their side (SBE); and the remaining 10 performed them in a quadruped position with left arm and right leg lifts (QLARL). The participants performed the exercises three times a week for five weeks. The thicknesses of the muscles before and after the interventions were measured using ultrasound. [Results] The results show that the normal bridge exercise significantly thickened the TrA; BERL, the LM; QLARL, the IO; and SBE, the EO and the IO. [Conclusion] All four spine stability exercises were effective. The normal bridge exercise and BERL selectively strengthened the local muscles at the early stage of the treatment. We consider SBE and QLARL should be used in the later stages of treatments because they strengthen both the local and global muscles. PMID:25729194

  9. An Australian survey of in-patient protocols for quadriceps exercises following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shaw, T; McEvoy, M; McClelland, J

    2002-12-01

    Current practices regarding in-patient strengthening exercise prescription following anterior cruclate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are scarcely addressed in the literature and remain unreported for Australian hospitals. An observational, questionnaire-based study was used to Investigate in-patient quadriceps strengthening practices in Australian hospitals after ACL reconstruction. Questionnaires were returned by 248 hospitals (76% response rate) and of these 88 hospitals reported performing ACL reconstructions. These hospitals were surveyed to determine the types of quadriceps strengthening exercises prescribed during the in-patient period. Information was sought regarding routine management strengthening practices. A variety of quadriceps exercises such as static quadriceps contractions (SQC), straight leg raises (SLR) and inner range quadriceps (IRQ) were frequently prescribed, although no standard practice currently exists. Static quadriceps exercises were prescribed by 91% of hospitals surveyed, IRQ exercises were used by 30%, and 49% reported using SLR exercises. Current literature tends to support the performance of SQC and SLR exercises during the early postoperative period following ACL reconstruction. Conversely, current clinical practice is incongruent with regard to the scientific recommendations for IRQ performance.

  10. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your legs are made up of bones, blood vessels, muscles, and other connective tissue. They are important for motion ... falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint ...

  11. Arm vs. Combined Leg and Arm Exercise: Blood Pressure Responses and Ratings of Perceived Exertion at the Same Indirectly Determined Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Sablone, Andrea; Civino, Paola; D’Angelo, Emanuele; Gallina, Sabina; Ripari, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Pre-participation screening is very important for prescribing and practising exercise safely. The aim of this study was to investigate both ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood pressure responses in two different types of exercises with matching duration and indirectly determined working heart rate (HR). Participants were 23 male students, who were generally healthy but sedentary. The time course of their RPE and blood pressure during a 50- minute work-out session on an arm crank ergometer and a cross trainer were compared. RM-ANOVA showed both a higher RPE (p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.001) response to the arm exercise that were shown significantly correlated (r = 0.883; p = 0.008). Linear regression analysis (p = 0.001) confirmed the ability to predict the time course of DBP by knowing the RPE on the arm crank ergometer. Even if people use the recommended relative intensity, the HR method is not always safe for health without pre-participation screening because exercise characteristics can negatively influence physiological responses. The HR method could be substituted by the RPE method. Key points Arm Crank Ergometer elicits a higher diastolic blood pressure response respect to Cross Trainer when people exercise at the same heart rate. Arm Crank Ergometer elicits a higher ratings of perceived exertion respect to Cross trainer when people exercise at the same heart rate. Indirect determined working heart rate is not always safe even if the theoretical intensity is that recommended for health. Rating of perceived exertion method should be used instead of heart rate method to avoid the dangerous physiological responses observed. PMID:24150004

  12. Upper Body Exercise: 'Jarming' Instead of Jogging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cindy Christian

    1986-01-01

    The virtues of "armchair exercise" and "jarming" (jogging with the arms) are being extolled far and wide. The relative merits of arm and leg exercise are discussed. People who could benefit from arm exercise are described. (MT)

  13. Muscle dynamics differences between legs in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Eamonn P; Harrison, Andrew J

    2007-02-01

    Differences in muscle dynamics between the preferred and nonpreferred jumping legs of subjects in maximal, explosive exercise were examined. Eight subjects performed nonfatiguing bouts of single-legged drop jumps and rebound jumps on a force sledge apparatus. Measures of flight time, reactive strength index, peak vertical force, and vertical leg-spring stiffness were obtained for 3 drop jumps and 3 rebound jumps on both legs. Subjects utilized a stiffer leg spring and a more explosive jumping action in the nonpreferred leg when performing a cyclical rebound jumping task in comparison to a single drop jump task (observed through differences in vertical leg-spring stiffness, peak vertical force, and reactive strength index, p < 0.05). The preferred leg performed equally well in both tasks. Between-leg analysis showed no differences in dependent variables between the preferred and the nonpreferred leg in the rebound jumping protocol. However, the drop jump protocol showed significant performance differences, with flight time and reactive strength index greater in the preferred leg than the nonpreferred leg (p < 0.05). We hypothesize that, throughout the lifespan, both legs are equally trained in cyclical rebound jumping tasks through running. However, because a preferred leg must be selected when performing any one-off, single-legged jump, imbalances in this specific task develop over time with consistent selection of a preferred jumping leg. The data demonstrate that the rebound jump protocol is representative of the symmetrical mechanics of forward running and that leg-spring stiffness is modulated depending on the demands of the specific task involved. Strength and conditioning practitioners should give careful consideration to appropriate jump protocol selection and should exercise caution when comparing laboratory results to data gathered in field testing. PMID:17313262

  14. Leg lengthening.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, S A; Bennet, G C; Evans, G A; Stirling, J

    1993-04-01

    The combined experience of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow and the Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry in lengthening 52 lower limb segments with the Orthofix device is reviewed. Forty-eight segments were lengthened by callotasis, 24 in patients with achondroplasia. Attempted lengthening with chondrodiatasis was performed in 4 patients with leg length discrepancy. With callotasis, planned lengthening was achieved in 43/48 (90%) of segments. There was a small number of significant complications. Angulation or buckling of the new bone was the commonest major complication, and was seen in 10% of segments. Pin tract infection was the predominant minor complication. Premature union was noted commonly in the femurs of achondroplastics, but could usually be overcome with manipulation under anaesthesia. We confirm that callotasis achieves its objectives with fewer complications and operations than the commonly used Wagner method which it should supersede. By contrast, we had major complications in all cases with chondrodiatasis and have abandoned this method. PMID:8478826

  15. Leg lengthening.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, S A; Bennet, G C; Evans, G A; Stirling, J

    1993-04-01

    The combined experience of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow and the Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry in lengthening 52 lower limb segments with the Orthofix device is reviewed. Forty-eight segments were lengthened by callotasis, 24 in patients with achondroplasia. Attempted lengthening with chondrodiatasis was performed in 4 patients with leg length discrepancy. With callotasis, planned lengthening was achieved in 43/48 (90%) of segments. There was a small number of significant complications. Angulation or buckling of the new bone was the commonest major complication, and was seen in 10% of segments. Pin tract infection was the predominant minor complication. Premature union was noted commonly in the femurs of achondroplastics, but could usually be overcome with manipulation under anaesthesia. We confirm that callotasis achieves its objectives with fewer complications and operations than the commonly used Wagner method which it should supersede. By contrast, we had major complications in all cases with chondrodiatasis and have abandoned this method.

  16. Whole-body vibration attenuates the increase in leg arterial stiffness and aortic systolic blood pressure during post-exercise muscle ischemia.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arturo; Gil, Ryan; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A

    2011-07-01

    Exercise with whole-body vibration (WBV) decreases brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness. To examine the effect of WBV on arterial responses, 12 young men underwent three experimental trials: (1) no-exercise control (CON), (2) static squat with WBV, and (3) static squat without WBV (no-WBV). Bilateral baPWV and femoral-ankle PWV (faPWV), carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV), augmentation index (AIx), first (P1) and second (P2) systolic peaks, aortic systolic blood pressure (aSBP), and heart rate (HR) were assessed at rest, during 4-min post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) on the left thigh, and 4-min recovery. During PEMI, right faPWV increased (P < 0.05) after no-WBV and did not change after CON and WBV. Right baPWV, P2, and aSBP increased (P < 0.05) after both exercise trials, but the increase was lower (P < 0.05) after WBV than no-WBV. The increases in cfPWV (P < 0.05), AIx (P < 0.05), P1 (P < 0.01), and HR (P < 0.05) were similar in both trials during PEMI. During recovery, right faPWV and baPWV remained similar than rest after WBV and CON, but remained elevated (P < 0.05) after no-WBV. Aortic SBP, P1, and P2 remained elevated (P < 0.05) in both exercise trials during recovery, but the levels were lower (P < 0.05) than PEMI. Left faPWV and baPWV were reduced (P < 0.05) from rest in the three trials. CfPWV, AIx, and HR returned to resting levels in both exercises. WBV prevents the increases in faPWV and attenuates the increase in baPWV and aSBP induced by post-static squat muscle ischemia due to an attenuated P2 response.

  17. Isometric exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...

  18. Self-regulatory skills usage strengthens the relations of self-efficacy for improved eating, exercise, and weight in the severely obese: toward an explanatory model.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J

    2011-07-01

    Lack of success with behavioral weight-management treatments indicates a need for a better understanding of modifiable psychological correlates. Adults with class 2 and 3 obesity (N = 183; Mean(BMI) = 42.0 kg/m(2)) volunteered for a 26-week nutrition and exercise treatment, based on social cognitive theory, that focused on self-efficacy and self-regulation applied to increasing cardiovascular exercise and fruit and vegetable consumption. Improved self-efficacy for controlled eating significantly predicted increased fruit and vegetable consumption (R(2) = .15). Improved self-efficacy for exercise significantly predicted increased exercise (R(2) = .46). When changes in self-regulatory skill usage were stepped into the 2 previous equations, the variances accounted for significantly increased. Increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and exercise significantly predicted weight loss (R(2) = .38). Findings suggest that behavioral theory should guide research on weight-loss treatment, and a focus on self-efficacy and self-regulatory skills applied to specific nutrition and exercise behaviors is warranted.

  19. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF GLUTEUS MEDIUS AND GLUTEUS MAXIMUS DURING REHABILITATION EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Boren, Kristen; Conrey, Cara; Le Coguic, Jennifer; Voight, Michael; Robinson, T. Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Previous research studies by Bolga, Ayotte, and Distefano have examined the level of muscle recruitment of the gluteal muscles for various clinical exercises; however, there has been no cross comparison among the top exercises from each study. The purpose of this study is to compare top exercises from these studies as well as several other commonly performed clinical exercises to determine which exercises recruit the gluteal muscles, specifically the gluteus medius and maximus, most effectively. Methods: Twenty-six healthy subjects participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on gluteus medius and maximus to measure muscle activity during 18 exercises. Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVIC) was established for each muscle group in order to express each exercise as a percentage of MVIC and allow standardized comparison across subjects. EMG data were analyzed using a root-mean-square algorithm and smoothed with a 50 millisecond time reference. Rank ordering of the exercises was performed utilizing the average percent MVIC peak activity for each exercise. Results: Twenty-four subjects satisfied all eligibility criteria and consented to participate in the research study. Five of the exercises produced greater than 70%MVIC of the gluteus medius muscle. In rank order from highest EMG value to lowest, these exercises were: side plank abduction with dominant leg on bottom (103%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on top (89%MVIC), single limb squat (82%MVIC), clamshell (hip clam) progression 4 (77%MVIC), and font plank with hip extension (75%MVIC). Five of the exercises recruited gluteus maximus with values greater than 70%MVIC. In rank order from highest EMG value to lowest, these exercises were: front plank with hip extension (106%MVIC), gluteal squeeze (81%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on top (73%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on bottom (71%MVIC), and single limb squat (71%MVIC). Four of

  20. Selective contribution of each hamstring muscle to anterior cruciate ligament protection and tibiofemoral joint stability in leg-extension exercise: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2013-09-01

    A biomechanical model was developed to simulate the selective effect of the co-contraction force provided by each hamstring muscle on the shear and compressive tibiofemoral joint reaction forces, during open kinetic-chain knee-extension exercises. This model accounts for instantaneous values of knee flexion angle [Formula: see text], angular velocity and acceleration, and for changes in magnitude, orientation, and application point of external resistance. The tibiofemoral shear force (TFSF) largely determines the tensile force on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Biceps femoris is the most effective hamstring muscle in decreasing the ACL-loading TFSF developed by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. In this range, the semimembranosus generates the dominant tibiofemoral compressive force, which enhances joint stability, opposes anterior/posterior tibial translations, and protects cruciate ligaments. The semitendinosus force provides the greatest decreasing gradient of ACL-loading TFSF for [Formula: see text], and the greatest increasing gradient of tibiofemoral compressive force for [Formula: see text]. However, semitendinosus efficacy is strongly limited by its small physiological section. Hamstring muscles behave as a unique muscle in enhancing the PCL-loading TFSF produced by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. The levels of hamstrings co-activation that suppress the ACL-loading TFSF considerably shift when the knee angular acceleration is changed while maintaining the same level of knee extensor torque by a concurrent adjustment in the magnitude of external resistance. The knowledge of the specific role and the optimal activation level of each hamstring muscle in ACL protection and tibiofemoral stability are fundamental for planning safe and effective rehabilitative knee-extension exercises.

  1. Selective contribution of each hamstring muscle to anterior cruciate ligament protection and tibiofemoral joint stability in leg-extension exercise: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2013-09-01

    A biomechanical model was developed to simulate the selective effect of the co-contraction force provided by each hamstring muscle on the shear and compressive tibiofemoral joint reaction forces, during open kinetic-chain knee-extension exercises. This model accounts for instantaneous values of knee flexion angle [Formula: see text], angular velocity and acceleration, and for changes in magnitude, orientation, and application point of external resistance. The tibiofemoral shear force (TFSF) largely determines the tensile force on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Biceps femoris is the most effective hamstring muscle in decreasing the ACL-loading TFSF developed by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. In this range, the semimembranosus generates the dominant tibiofemoral compressive force, which enhances joint stability, opposes anterior/posterior tibial translations, and protects cruciate ligaments. The semitendinosus force provides the greatest decreasing gradient of ACL-loading TFSF for [Formula: see text], and the greatest increasing gradient of tibiofemoral compressive force for [Formula: see text]. However, semitendinosus efficacy is strongly limited by its small physiological section. Hamstring muscles behave as a unique muscle in enhancing the PCL-loading TFSF produced by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. The levels of hamstrings co-activation that suppress the ACL-loading TFSF considerably shift when the knee angular acceleration is changed while maintaining the same level of knee extensor torque by a concurrent adjustment in the magnitude of external resistance. The knowledge of the specific role and the optimal activation level of each hamstring muscle in ACL protection and tibiofemoral stability are fundamental for planning safe and effective rehabilitative knee-extension exercises. PMID:23670482

  2. Development and delivery of an exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis: strengthening and stretching for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand (SARAH) trial.

    PubMed

    Heine, P J; Williams, M A; Williamson, E; Bridle, C; Adams, J; O'Brien, A; Evans, D; Lamb, S E

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a hand exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as part of a large multi-centred randomised controlled trial in a U.K. National Health Service (NHS) setting. Participants are eligible if diagnosed with RA according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, have a history of disease activity, functional deficit or impairment in the hand and/or wrist, and have been on a stable medication regime for at least 3 months. The intervention development was informed by the current evidence base, published guidelines, clinician and expert opinion, and a pilot study. The exercise programme targets known, potentially modifiable physical impairments of the hand with 5 exercise sessions and a home exercise component over a 12 week period. The intervention will be provided to 240 participants along with usual care. A further 240 will receive usual care only as part of the control arm. Specific details of the treatments delivered are described. [ISRCTN no: 89936343].

  3. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  4. Closed kinetic chain alone compared to combined open and closed kinetic chain exercises for quadriceps strengthening after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with respect to return to sports: a prospective matched follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, C; Werner, S; Eriksson, E

    2000-01-01

    Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has focused over the past decade on closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises due to presumably less strain on the graft than with isokinetic open kinetic chain exercises (OKC); however, recent reports suggest that there are only minor differences in ACL strain values between some CKC and OKC exercises. We studied anterior knee laxity, thigh muscle torque, and return to preinjury sports level in 44 patients with unilateral ACL; group 1 carried out quadriceps strengthening only with CKC while group 2 trained with CKC plus OKC exercises starting from week 6 after surgery. Anterior knee laxity was determined with a KT-1000 arthrometer; isokinetic concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring muscle torque were studied with a Kin-Com dynamometer before and 6 months after surgery. At an average of 31 months after surgery the patients answered a questionnaire regarding their current knee function and physical activity/sports to determine the extent and timing of their recovery. No significant differences in anterior knee laxity were noted between the groups 6 months postsurgery. Patients in group 2 increased their quadriceps torque significantly more than those in group 1, but no differences were found in hamstring torque between the groups. A significantly higher number of patients in group 2 (n = 12) than in group 1 (n = 5) returned to sports at the same level as before the injury (P < 0.05). Patients from group 2 who returned to sports at the same level did so 2 months earlier than those in group 1. Thus the addition of OKC quadriceps training after ACL reconstruction results in a significantly better improvement in quadriceps torque without reducing knee joint stability at 6 months and also leads to a significantly higher number of athletes returning to their previous activity earlier and at the same level as before injury.

  5. Joint Kinetics and Kinematics During Common Lower Limb Rehabilitation Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Paul; Jones, Paul Anthony; Smith, Laura Constance; Herrington, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Context  Unilateral body-weight exercises are commonly used to strengthen the lower limbs during rehabilitation after injury, but data comparing the loading of the limbs during these tasks are limited. Objective  To compare joint kinetics and kinematics during 3 commonly used rehabilitation exercises. Design  Descriptive laboratory study. Setting  Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 9 men (age = 22.1 ± 1.3 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.08 m, mass = 80.1 ± 12.2 kg) participated. Intervention(s)  Participants performed the single-legged squat, forward lunge, and reverse lunge with kinetic data captured via 2 force plates and 3-dimensional kinematic data collected using a motion-capture system. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Peak ground reaction forces, maximum joint angles, and peak sagittal-joint moments. Results  We observed greater eccentric and concentric peak vertical ground reaction forces during the single-legged squat than during both lunge variations (P ≤ .001). Both lunge variations demonstrated greater knee and hip angles than did the single-legged squat (P < .001), but we observed no differences between lunges (P > .05). Greater dorsiflexion occurred during the single-legged squat than during both lunge variations (P < .05), but we noted no differences between lunge variations (P = .70). Hip-joint moments were greater during the forward lunge than during the reverse lunge (P = .003) and the single-legged squat (P = .011). Knee-joint moments were greater in the single-legged squat than in the reverse lunge (P < .001) but not greater in the single-legged squat than in the forward lunge (P = .41). Ankle-joint moments were greater during the single-legged squat than during the forward lunge (P = .002) and reverse lunge (P < .001). Conclusions  Appropriate loading progressions for the hip should begin with the single-legged squat and progress to the reverse lunge and then the forward lunge. In contrast, loading progressions for

  6. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on exercise parameters in the treatment of patellofemoral pain: what works?

    PubMed Central

    Harvie, Daniel; O’Leary, Timothy; Kumar, Saravana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose There is research evidence which supports the effectiveness of exercise in reducing pain and increasing function in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. However, what is unclear are the parameters underpinning this intervention. This has led to uncertainty when operationalizing exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome in clinical practice. The aim of this review was to evaluate the parameters of exercise programs reported in primary research, to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for exercise prescription for patellofemoral pain. Methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was undertaken. Only trials that identified exercise to be effective in treating patellofemoral pain were included. Appropriate databases and reference lists were searched using established keywords. Data relating to common exercise parameters such as the type of exercise, length, and frequency of intervention, intensity, repetitions, sets, and specific technique were extracted, along with details of co-interventions that may have been used. Results A total of ten randomized controlled trials were included in this review and from these trials 14 interventions arms were evaluated. All 14 interventions focused on active exercises, all but two of which also included a passive stretching component. The current body of evidence demonstrates positive results with exercise interventions such as knee extension, squats, stationary cycling, static quadriceps, active straight leg raise, leg press, and step-up and down exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A progressive regime of daily exercises of two to four sets of ten or more repetitions over an intervention period of 6 weeks or more, combined with exercises to address flexibility of the lower limb musculature was commonly used. Conclusion Currently, the primary research on this topic supports the use of closed kinetic chain, strengthening exercises for musculature of

  7. Eccentric Strengthening for Chronic Lateral Epicondylosis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Dennis Y.; Schultz, Brian J.; Schaal, Bob; Graham, Scott T.; Kim, Byung Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective treatments for chronic lateral epicondylosis have not been studied adequately. Eccentric overload exercises have been used with success for other chronic tendinopathy, mainly Achilles and patellar. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare a wrist extensor eccentric strengthening exercise program with a wrist extensor stretching/modality program for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylosis. The authors hypothesized that the eccentric strengthening program would produce more favorable results than a stretching/modality program. Study Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Methods: Twenty-eight adults with lateral epicondylosis of greater than 4 weeks’ duration were randomized to an eccentric strengthening group or a stretching group. Exercises were taught by a physical therapist, and participants performed most of the exercises on their own at home. Pain scores with visual analog scale from 0 to 100 were obtained at baseline and then at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks after the start of the exercise program. Results: Both groups improved their pain scores from baseline to the 4-week time point, followed by nonsignificant further decreases in pain scores thereafter. No statistically significant differences were found between the eccentric strengthening group and stretching groups at any follow-up time point. Conclusions: Despite previous reports documenting favorable results with eccentric exercises for other tendinopathy, the authors were unable to show any statistical advantage to eccentric exercises for lateral epicondylosis during these periods compared with local modalities and stretching exercises. PMID:23016049

  8. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength

  9. Wearable sensor-based rehabilitation exercise assessment for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Hui; Chen, Po-Chao; Liu, Kai-Chun; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Since the knee joint bears the full weight load of the human body and the highest pressure loads while providing flexible movement, it is the body part most vulnerable and susceptible to osteoarthritis. In exercise therapy, the early rehabilitation stages last for approximately six weeks, during which the patient works with the physical therapist several times each week. The patient is afterwards given instructions for continuing rehabilitation exercise by him/herself at home. This study develops a rehabilitation exercise assessment mechanism using three wearable sensors mounted on the chest, thigh and shank of the working leg in order to enable the patients with knee osteoarthritis to manage their own rehabilitation progress. In this work, time-domain, frequency-domain features and angle information of the motion sensor signals are used to classify the exercise type and identify whether their postures are proper or not. Three types of rehabilitation exercise commonly prescribed to knee osteoarthritis patients are: Short-Arc Exercise, Straight Leg Raise, and Quadriceps Strengthening Mini-squats. After ten subjects performed the three kinds of rehabilitation activities, three validation techniques including 10-fold cross-validation, within subject cross validation, and leave-one-subject cross validation are utilized to confirm the proposed mechanism. The overall recognition accuracy for exercise type classification is 97.29% and for exercise posture identification it is 88.26%. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed mechanism which can help patients perform rehabilitation movements and progress effectively. Moreover, the proposed mechanism is able to detect multiple errors at once, fulfilling the requirements for rehabilitation assessment. PMID:25686308

  10. Wearable Sensor-Based Rehabilitation Exercise Assessment for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun-Hui; Chen, Po-Chao; Liu, Kai-Chun; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Since the knee joint bears the full weight load of the human body and the highest pressure loads while providing flexible movement, it is the body part most vulnerable and susceptible to osteoarthritis. In exercise therapy, the early rehabilitation stages last for approximately six weeks, during which the patient works with the physical therapist several times each week. The patient is afterwards given instructions for continuing rehabilitation exercise by him/herself at home. This study develops a rehabilitation exercise assessment mechanism using three wearable sensors mounted on the chest, thigh and shank of the working leg in order to enable the patients with knee osteoarthritis to manage their own rehabilitation progress. In this work, time-domain, frequency-domain features and angle information of the motion sensor signals are used to classify the exercise type and identify whether their postures are proper or not. Three types of rehabilitation exercise commonly prescribed to knee osteoarthritis patients are: Short-Arc Exercise, Straight Leg Raise, and Quadriceps Strengthening Mini-squats. After ten subjects performed the three kinds of rehabilitation activities, three validation techniques including 10-fold cross-validation, within subject cross validation, and leave-one-subject cross validation are utilized to confirm the proposed mechanism. The overall recognition accuracy for exercise type classification is 97.29% and for exercise posture identification it is 88.26%. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed mechanism which can help patients perform rehabilitation movements and progress effectively. Moreover, the proposed mechanism is able to detect multiple errors at once, fulfilling the requirements for rehabilitation assessment. PMID:25686308

  11. Leg muscle activation and distance setting of the leg cycle ergometer for use by the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Chill; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Young-Ik

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] This study verified the leg muscle activities of elderly subjects performing leg cycle ergometer exercise. [Subjects] Forty-one elderly persons were the subjects of this study. [Methods] For the three distances corresponding to knee flexion angles of 15, 45, and 70, the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius were measured while the subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer. [Results] The rectus femoris and biceps femoris showed statistically significant increases as the distance between the cycle ergometer and the body increased, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle activation showed a statistically significant increase as the distance from the body to the cycle ergometer decreased. [Conclusion] When the elderly have limb muscle weakness, leg cycle ergometer distances should be adjusted.

  12. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  13. The swollen leg.

    PubMed

    Young, J R

    1977-01-01

    Systemic causes of leg edema include idiopathic cyclic edema, heart failure, cirrhosis, nephrosis and other hypoproteinemic states. Lymphedema may be primary, or secondary to neoplasm, lymphangitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis and, rarely (in the U.S.), filariasis. Thrombophlebitis and chronic venous insufficiency are not uncommon causes. Finally, infection, ischemia, lipedema, vascular anomalies, tumors and trauma can be responsible for the swollen leg.

  14. Contraction-Only Exercise Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.

    1992-01-01

    Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).

  15. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Painless swelling may affect both legs and may include the calves or ... of gravity makes the swelling most noticeable in the lower ...

  16. Cortical Spectral Activity and Connectivity during Active and Viewed Arm and Leg Movement

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Julia E.; Huang, Helen J.; Snyder, Kristine L.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG) could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: (1) both arms and legs, (2) just legs, and (3) just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and supplementary motor

  17. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    PubMed Central

    Bertisch, Suzanne M.; Muresan, Cristen; Schoerning, Laura; Winkelman, John W.; Taylor, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate specific alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control. Methods: Patients with moderate-severe restless legs syndrome (n = 20, 80% female) and controls (n = 20) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease were enrolled. We assessed cardiovagal baroreflex gain via the modified Oxford technique, sympathetically mediated vascular responses to isometric exercise to fatigue, bradycardiac response to Valsalva maneuver, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during paced breathing. Standard electrocardiography, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiration, and popliteal blood flow velocity were recorded continuously. Results: Resting blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups. However, baroreflex gain averaged 14.3 ± 1.4 msec/mm Hg in restless legs syndrome and was lower than in controls (22.6 ± 3.5 msec/mm Hg, P = 0.04). Hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise were similar between groups, though participants with restless legs syndrome had lower leg blood flow (P < 0.001), with greater leg vascular resistance (P < 0.0001), before and during isometric exercise. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva ratios were similar between groups. Neither baroreflex gain nor vascular resistance was correlated with sleep duration, sleep quality, or symptom duration. Conclusion: Patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate compromised cardiovagal control, specific to the arterial baroreflex, with greater peripheral vascular resistance, potentially due to heightened sympathetic outflow. These autonomic alterations may directly relate to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in restless legs syndrome. Citation: Bertisch SM, Muresan C, Schoerning L, Winkelman JW, Taylor JA. Impact of restless legs syndrome on cardiovascular autonomic control. SLEEP 2016;39(3):565–571. PMID:26564128

  18. Restless legs syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they sleep. This condition is called periodic limb movement disorder. All of these symptoms make it hard to ... treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults-an update for 2012: practice parameters ...

  19. Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Restless Legs Syndrome ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  20. Actuator device for artificial leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An actuator device is described for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes a first articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly carried by the prosthesis whereby energy from the movement of the natural leg is transferred by a compressible fluid from the first hip joint assembly to the second hip joint assembly for moving the artificial leg.

  1. Relationship between body and leg VO2 during maximal cycle ergometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, D. R.; Poole, D. C.; Schaffartzik, W.; Guy, H. J.; Prediletto, R.; Hogan, M. C.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    It is not known whether the asymptotic behavior of whole body O2 consumption (VO2) at maximal work rates (WR) is explained by similar behavior of VO2 in the exercising legs. To resolve this question, simultaneous measurements of body and leg VO2 were made at submaximal and maximal levels of effort breathing normoxic and hypoxic gases in seven trained male cyclists (maximal VO2, 64.7 +/- 2.7 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), each of whom demonstrated a reproducible VO2-WR asymptote during fatiguing incremental cycle ergometry. Left leg blood flow was measured by constant-infusion thermodilution, and total leg VO2 was calculated as the product of twice leg flow and radial arterial-femoral venous O2 concentration difference. The VO2-WR relationships determined at submaximal WR's were extrapolated to maximal WR as a basis for assessing the body and leg VO2 responses. The differences between measured and extrapolated maximal VO2 were 235 +/- 45 (body) and 203 +/- 70 (leg) ml O2/min (not significantly different). Plateauing of leg VO2 was associated with, and explained by, plateauing of both leg blood flow and O2 extraction and hence of leg VO2. We conclude that the asymptotic behavior of whole body VO2 at maximal WRs is a direct reflection of the VO2 profile at the exercising legs.

  2. Dynamic inter-limb resistance exercise device for long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwandt, Douglas F.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    Essential for fitness on Earth, resistive exercise is even more important for astronauts, who must maintain muscle and bone strength in the absence of gravity. To meet this need, designers and scientists at NASA Ames Research Center, Life Science Division, have worked to develop more effective exercise devices for long-duration exposure to microgravity. One of these concepts is the Inter-Limb Resistance Device which allows the subject to exercise one limb directly against another, strengthening muscle groups in the arms, legs, and back. It features a modular harness with an inelastic cable and instrumented pulley. Forces similar to other high resistance exercise equipment are generated. Sensors in the pulley measure force and velocity for performance feedback display and data acquisition. This free-floating apparatus avoids vibration of sensitive experiments on board spacecraft. Compact with low mass, this hardware is also well suited for a 'safe haven' from radiation on board Space Station Freedom, and may prove useful in confined environments on Earth, such as Antarctic stations, submarines, and other underwater habitats. Potential spin-offs of this technology include products for personal strengthening and cardiovascular conditioning, rehabilitation of hospital patients, fitness exercise for the disabled, and retraining after sports injuries.

  3. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  4. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise.

  5. 20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH CROSSED BRACE BLOCK, GROUND WIRES AND GUIDE WIRE. - Hat Point Fire Lookout Tower, Forest Service Road #4340, 24 miles from Imnaha, Imnaha, Wallowa County, OR

  6. Effects of strength vs aerobic exercise on pain severity in adults with fibromyalgia: a randomized equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Qu, Wenchun; Townsend, Cynthia O; Judd, Jeffrey W

    2012-04-01

    Strength training and aerobic exercise have beneficial effects on pain in adults with fibromyalgia. However, the equivalence of strengthening and aerobic exercise has not been reported. The primary aim of this randomized equivalence trial involving patients with fibromyalgia admitted to an interdisciplinary pain treatment program was to test the hypothesis that strengthening (n=36) and aerobic (n=36) exercise have equivalent effects (95% confidence interval within an equivalence margin ± 8) on pain, as measured by the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Secondary aims included determining the effects of strengthening and aerobic exercise on peak Vo(2) uptake, leg strength, and pressure pain thresholds. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the mean (± standard deviation) pain severity scores for the strength and aerobic groups at study completion were 34.4 ± 11.5 and 37.6 ± 11.9, respectively. The group difference was -3.2 (95% confidence interval, -8.7 to 2.3), which was within the equivalence margin of Δ8. Significant improvements in pain severity (P<.001), peak Vo(2) (P<.001), strength (P<.001), and pain thresholds (P<.001) were observed from baseline to week 3 in the intent-to-treat analysis; however, patients in the aerobic group (mean change 2.0 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min) experienced greater gains (P<.013) in peak Vo(2) compared to the strength group (mean change 0.4 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min). Knowledge of the equivalence and physiological effects of exercise have important clinical implications that could allow practitioners to target exercise recommendations on the basis of comorbid medical conditions or patient preference for a particular type of exercise. This study found that strength and aerobic exercise had equivalent effects on reducing pain severity among patients with fibromyalgia.

  7. Motion of the center of mass in children with spastic hemiplegia: balance, energy transfer, and work performed by the affected leg vs. the unaffected leg.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing; Pierce, Rosemary; Do, K Patrick; Aiona, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry between limbs in people with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HEMI) adversely affects limb coordination and energy generation and consumption. This study compared how the affected leg and the unaffected leg of children with HEMI would differ based on which leg trails. Full-body gait analysis data and force-plate data were analyzed for 31 children (11.9 ± 3.8 years) with HEMI and 23 children (11.1 ± 3.1 years) with typical development (TD). Results showed that peak posterior center of mass-center of pressure (COM-COP) inclination angles of HEMI were smaller than TD when the affected leg trailed but not when the unaffected leg trailed. HEMI showed greater peak medial COM-COP inclination angles and wider step width than TD, no matter which leg trailed. More importantly, when the affected leg of HEMI trailed, it did not perform enough positive work during double support to propel COM motion. Consequently, the unaffected leg had to perform additional positive work during the early portion of single support, which costs more energy. When the unaffected leg trailed, the affected leg performed more negative work during double support; therefore, more positive work was still needed during early single support, but energy efficiency was closer to that of TD. Energy recovery factor was lower when the affected leg trailed than when the unaffected leg trailed; both were lower than TD. These findings suggest that the trailing leg plays a significant role in propelling COM motion during double support, and the 'unaffected' side of HEMI may not be completely unaffected. It is important to strengthen both legs.

  8. HIP MUSCLE ACTIVATION AND KNEE FRONTAL PLANE MOTION DURING WEIGHT BEARING THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Lubahn, Amanda J.; Tyson, Tiffany L.; Merkitch, Kenneth W.; Reutemann, Paul; Chestnut, John Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Hip abduction strengthening exercises may be critical in the prevention and rehabilitation of both overuse and traumatic injuries where knee frontal plane alignment is considered to be important. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the muscular activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius during the double-leg squat (DLS), single-leg squat (SLS), or front step-up (FSU), and the same exercises when an added load was used to pull the knee medially. Methods: Eighteen healthy females (ages 18-26) performed six exercises: DLS, DLS with load, FSU, FSU with load, SLS, and SLS with load. Integrated and peak surface electromyography of gluteus maximus and gluteus medius of the dominant leg were recorded and normalized. Motion analysis was used to measure knee abduction angle during each exercise. Results: SLS had the highest integrated and peak activation for both muscles, regardless of load. Adding load, only increased DLS integrated gluteus maximus activation (p=0.019). Load did not increase integrated gluteus medius or peak gluteus maximus activation. Adding load decreased SLS peak gluteus medius activation (p=0.003). Adding load increased peak knee abduction angle during DLS (p=0.013), FSU (p=0.000), and SLS (p=0.011). Conclusions: Overall, the SLS was most effective exercise for activating the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. Applied knee load does not appear to increase muscle activation during SLS and FSU. DLS with an applied load may be more beneficial in activating the gluteus maximus. Overall, the use of applied loads appears to promote poorer musculoskeletal alignment in terms of peak knee valgus angle. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:21713231

  9. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  10. [Leg ulcer: conservative treatment].

    PubMed

    Fradique, Caldeira; Pupo, Alexandra; Quaresma, Luísa; Palma-Rosa, Ana; Fernandes, Mário; Silva, Gualdino; Almeida, Heitor; Diogo, Cláudia; Pinho, Ana Catarina

    2011-01-01

    During 16 years 202 patients with leg ulcer have been studied prospectively. Whenever possible, cure has been obtained in ambulatory, which was the main objective. Surgery was preferentially made after the cure of the ulcer. From the 202 patients, 166 have made a prolonged follow-up. Cure in ambulatory has been obtained in 91% of the patients. We stress the importance of the direct control of all the treatment by the responsible doctor.

  11. The Utility of a High-intensity Exercise Protocol to Prospectively Assess ACL Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, F M; García-Pinillos, F; Raja Azidin, R M F; Vanrenterghem, J; Robinson, M A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the utility of a 5-min high-intensity exercise protocol (SAFT(5)) to include in prospective cohort studies investigating ACL injury risk. 15 active females were tested on 2 occasions during which their non-dominant leg was analysed before SAFT(5) (PRE), immediately after (POST0), 15 min after (POST15), and 30 min after (POST30). On the first occasion, testing included 5 maximum isokinetic contractions for eccentric and concentric hamstring and concentric quadriceps and on the second occasion, 3 trials of 2 landing tasks (i. e., single-leg hop and drop vertical jump) were conducted. Results showed a reduced eccentric hamstring peak torque at POST0, POST15 and POST30 (p<0.05) and a reduced functional HQ ratio (Hecc/Qcon) at POST15 and POST30 (p<0.05). Additionally, a more extended knee angle at POST30 (p<0.05) and increased knee internal rotation angle at POST0 and POST15 (p<0.05) were found in a single-leg hop. SAFT(5) altered landing strategies associated with increased ACL injury risk and similar to observations from match simulations. Our findings therefore support the utility of a high-intensity exercise protocol such as SAFT(5) to strengthen injury screening tests and to include in prospective cohort studies where time constraints apply. PMID:26509378

  12. Stable walking with asymmetric legs.

    PubMed

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-12-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  13. Effect of leg press training on patellar realignment in patients with patellofemoral pain

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hsien-Te; Song, Chen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leg press and leg press with hip adduction exercise training on patellar alignment and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP). [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen patients participated in this study. Eight weeks of leg press or leg press with hip adduction training, including progressive lower-limb weight-training and stretching, was given. Patellar alignment (tilt and displacement) and pain measurements were conducted before and after leg press or leg press with hip adduction training. Patellar tilt angle and the bisect offset index were measured on axial computed tomography scans of the fully extended knee position with the quadriceps relaxed and contracted. Pain was assessed by using a 10-cm visual analog scale. [Results] No differences were found in patellar tilt and displacement with the quadriceps either relaxed or contracted after leg press and leg press with hip adduction. However, significant pain reduction was evident in both leg press and leg press with hip adduction. [Conclusion] The results indicated that patellar realignment does not appear to mediate pain alleviation. Furthermore, hip adduction in addition to leg press training had no additive beneficial effect on patellar realignment or pain reduction. PMID:26834371

  14. Articulating Support for Horizontal Resistive Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundo, Daniel; Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason; Loehr, James A.

    2005-01-01

    A versatile mechanical device provides support for a user engaged in any of a variety of resistive exercises in a substantially horizontal orientation. The unique features and versatility of the device promise to be useful in bedrest studies, rehabilitation, and specialized strength training. The device affords a capability for selectively loading and unloading of portions of the user s body through its support mechanisms, so that specific parts of the body can be trained with little or no effect on other parts that may be disabled or in the process of recovery from injury. Thus, the device is ideal for rehabilitation exercise programs prescribed by physicians and physical therapists. The capability for selective loading and support also offers potential benefits to strength and conditioning trainers and athletes who wish to selectively strengthen selected parts. The principal innovative aspect of the device is that it supports the subject s weight while enabling the subject, lying substantially horizontally, to perform an exercise that closely approximates a full standing squat. The device includes mechanisms that support the subject in such a way that the hips are free to translate both horizontally and vertically and are free to rotate about the line connecting the hips. At the same time, the shoulders are free to translate horizontally while the upper back is free to rotate about the line connecting the shoulders. Among the mechanisms for hip motion and support is a counterbalance that offsets the weight of the subject as the subject s pelvis translates horizontally and vertically and rotates the pelvis about the line connecting the hips. The counterbalance is connected to a pelvic support system that allows these pelvic movements. The subject is also supported at the shoulder by a mechanism that can tilt to provide continuous support of the upper back while allowing the rotation required for arching the back as the pelvis is displaced. The shoulder support

  15. Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles during stabilization exercises using a gym ball.

    PubMed

    Mori, A

    2004-01-01

    Trunk stabilization is very important for the injured lower back. The use of a gym ball, the surface of which is labile, is becoming more popular for strengthening the trunk muscles and challenging the motor control system in trunk stabilization exercises. However, little is known about the activity of the trunk muscles during such exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trunk muscles during seven stabilization exercises using a gym ball. Eleven healthy men (19.9 +/- 1.8 years old) without low back pain volunteered to participate in the study. Bipolar surface electrodes were attached to the right side of the upper and lower rectus abdominis, the obliquus externus abdominis and the upper and lower back extensor muscles. EMG signals were recorded during seven types of stabilization exercises using a gym ball and normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (% MVC). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on % MVC from each task for each of the five trunk muscle sites (p < 0.05). Push-up exercise, supporting with both hands on the gym ball and toes on the floor in prone position, resulted in the highest activity of all abdominal muscles, and an exercise of the lifting the gym ball up, holding it actively between both legs with both knees flexed in supine position resulted in the lowest. Lifting up of the pelvis in a bridged position exercise, supporting the head with the gym ball and with the feet on the floor in supine position, resulted in higher muscle activity of the back extensor muscles than another exercise. It is very important for physical therapists to make clear the purpose of the trunk stabilization exercises, because different kinds of exercises with the gym ball demand various levels of muscular activity and use of various parts of the trunk muscles.

  16. Does running strengthen bone?

    PubMed

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Achiou, Zahra; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a living tissue needing mechanical stress to maintain strength. Traditional endurance exercises offer only modest effects on bone. Walking and running produce low impact but lead to bone fatigue. This article is specifically addressed to therapists and explains the mechanisms involved for the effects of exercise on bone. Intermittent exercise limits bone fatigue, and downhill exercises increase ground impact forces and involve eccentric muscle contractions, which are particularly osteogenic. PMID:26562001

  17. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  18. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  19. Effects of leg dominance on performance of ballet turns (pirouettes) by experienced and novice dancers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Turns (pirouettes) are an important movement in ballet and may be affected by "lateral bias". This study investigated physiological differences exhibited by experienced and novice dancers, respectively, when performing pirouette with dominant and non-dominant leg supports, respectively. Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed turns on dominant or non-dominant legs. The maximum ankle plantarflexion, knee extension and hip extension were measured during the single-leg support phase. The inclination angle of rotation axis is the angle between instantaneous rotation axis and global vertical axis in the early single-leg support phase. Both groups exhibited a greater hip extension, knee extension, and ankle plantarflexion when performing a turn on the non-dominant leg. For experienced dancers, the inclination angle of rotation axis during the pre-swing phase was generally smaller for dominant leg support than non-dominant leg. However, no significant difference was found in inclination angle of rotation axis of novice dancers. For experienced dancers, an improved performance is obtained when using the dominant leg for support. By contrast, for novice dancers, the performance is independent of choice of support leg. The significant lateral bias in experienced dancers indicates the possible influence of training. That is, repetitive rehearsal on the preferred leg strengthens the impact of side dominance in experienced dancers. PMID:23879613

  20. Low-Volume Intense Exercise Elicits Post-exercise Hypotension and Subsequent Hypervolemia, Irrespective of Which Limbs Are Exercised

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Matthew J.; Lucas, Samuel J. E.; Francois, Monique E.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Parr, Evelyn B.; Thomas, Kate N.; Cotter, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Exercise reduces arterial and central venous blood pressures during recovery, which contributes to its valuable anti-hypertensive effects and to facilitating hypervolemia. Repeated sprint exercise potently improves metabolic function, but its cardiovascular effects (esp. hematological) are less well-characterized, as are effects of exercising upper versus lower limbs. The purposes of this study were to identify the acute (<24 h) profiles of arterial blood pressure and blood volume for (i) sprint intervals versus endurance exercise, and (ii) sprint intervals using arms versus legs. Methods: Twelve untrained males completed three cycling exercise trials; 50-min endurance (legs), and 5*30-s intervals using legs or arms, in randomized and counterbalanced sequence, at a standardized time of day with at least 8 days between trials. Arterial pressure, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit were measured before, during and across 22 h after exercise, the first 3 h of which were seated rest. Results: The post-exercise hypotensive response was larger after leg intervals than endurance (AUC: 7540 ± 3853 vs. 3897 ± 2757 mm Hg·min, p = 0.049, 95% CI: 20 to 6764), whereas exercising different limbs elicited similar hypotension (arms: 6420 ± 3947 mm Hg·min, p = 0.48, CI: −1261 to 3896). In contrast, arterial pressure at 22 h was reduced after endurance but not after leg intervals (−8 ± 8 vs. 0 ± 7 mm Hg, p = 0.04, CI: 7 ± 7) or reliably after arm intervals (−4 ± 8 mm Hg, p = 0.18 vs. leg intervals). Regardless, plasma volume expansion at 22 h was similar between leg intervals and endurance (both +5 ± 5%; CI: −5 to 5%) and between leg and arm intervals (arms: +5 ± 7%, CI: −8 to 5%). Conclusions: These results emphasize the relative importance of central and/or systemic factors in post-exercise hypotension, and indicate that markedly diverse exercise profiles can induce substantive hypotension and subsequent hypervolemia. At least for endurance

  1. Tension leg platform system

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.B.

    1983-12-20

    A tension leg platform system for use in drilling wellbores into the floor of an offshore body of water. Includes in the system is a buoyancy control vessel having a plurality of pull down cables attached thereto which extend to the ocean floor. A plurality of spaced apart anchors disposed at the ocean floor are positioned to receive the lower ends of the respective pull down cables. A submergible hull slidably engages the respective hold down cables such that the hull can be controllably lowered to the ocean floor whereby a canopy carried on the hull will cover an uncontrollably flowing well to conduct the effluent to the water's surface.

  2. Exertional Leg Pain.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2016-02-01

    Exertional leg pain is a common condition seen in runners and the general population. Given the broad differential diagnosis of this complaint, this article focuses on the incidence, anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of common causes that include medial tibial stress syndrome, tibial bone stress injury, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, arterial endofibrosis, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, and entrapment of the common peroneal, superficial peroneal, and saphenous nerves. Successful diagnosis of these conditions hinges on performing a thorough history and physical examination followed by proper diagnostic testing and appropriate management. PMID:26616179

  3. Responsiveness to exercise training in juvenile dermatomyositis: a twin case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) often present strong exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. However, the role of exercise training in this disease has not been investigated. Purpose this longitudinal case study reports on the effects of exercise training on a 7-year-old patient with JDM and on her unaffected monozygotic twin sister, who served as a control. Methods Both the patient who was diagnosed with JDM as well as her healthy twin underwent a 16-week exercise training program comprising aerobic and strengthening exercises. We assessed one repetition-maximum (1-RM) leg-press and bench-press strength, balance, mobility and muscle function, blood markers of inflammation and muscle enzymes, aerobic conditioning, and disease activity scores. As a result, the healthy child had an overall greater absolute strength, muscle function and aerobic conditioning compared to her JDM twin pair at baseline and after the trial. However, the twins presented comparable relative improvements in 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, VO2peak, and time-to-exhaustion. The healthy child had greater relative increments in low-back strength and handgrip, whereas the child with JDM presented a higher relative increase in ventilatory anaerobic threshold parameters and functional tests. Quality of life, inflammation, muscle damage and disease activity scores remained unchanged. Results and Conclusion this was the first report to describe the training response of a patient with non-active JDM following an exercise training regimen. The child with JDM exhibited improved strength, muscle function and aerobic conditioning without presenting an exacerbation of the disease. PMID:21106107

  4. Post-exercise alcohol ingestion exacerbates eccentric-exercise induced losses in performance.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

    2010-03-01

    The effect of acute alcohol intake on muscular performance in both the exercising and non-exercising legs in the days following strenuous eccentric exercise was investigated to ascertain whether an interaction between post-exercise alcohol use and muscle damage causes an increase in damage-related weakness. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed either a beverage containing 1 g of ethanol per kg bodyweight ethanol (as vodka and orange juice; ALC) or a non-alcoholic beverage (OJ). At least 2 weeks later they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed the other beverage. Measurement of peak and average peak isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced by the quadriceps of both exercising and non-exercising legs was made before and 36 and 60 h post-exercise. Greatest decreases in exercising leg performance were observed at 36 h with losses of 28.7, 31.9 and 25.9% occurring for OJ average peak isometric, concentric, and eccentric torques, respectively. However, average peak torque loss was significantly greater in ALC with the same performance measures decreasing by 40.9, 42.8 and 44.8% (all p < 0.05). Performance of the non-exercising leg did not change significantly under either treatment. Therefore, consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol after damaging exercise magnifies the loss of force associated with strenuous eccentric exercise. This weakness appears to be due to an interaction between muscle damage and alcohol rather than the systemic effects of acute alcohol consumption. PMID:20012446

  5. Relationship between mean body temperature calculated by two- or three-compartment models and active cutaneous vasodilation in humans: a comparison between cool and warm environments during leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Demachi, Koichi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Tsuneoka, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the three-compartment model of mean body temperature (Tb3) calculated from the esophageal temperature (Tes), temperature in deep tissue of exercising muscle (Tdt), and mean skin temperature (Tsk) has the potential to provide a better match with the thermoregulatory responses than the two-component model of mean body temperature (Tb2) calculated from Tes and Tsk. Seven male subjects performed 40 min of a prolonged cycling exercise at 30% maximal oxygen uptake at 21°C or 31°C (50% relative humidity). Throughout the experiment, Tsk, Tb2, Tb3, and Tdt were significantly (P < 0.01) lower at 21°C than at 31°C temperature conditions, while Tes was similar under both conditions. During exercise, an increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (skin blood flow / mean arterial pressure) over the chest (%CVCc) was observed at both 21°C and 31°C, while no increase was observed at the forearm at 21°C. Furthermore, the Tb3 and Tdt threshold for the onset of the increase in %CVCc was similar, but the Tes and Tb2 threshold differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the conditions tested. These results suggest that active cutaneous vasodilation at the chest is related more closely to Tb3 or Tdt than that measured by Tes or Tb2 calculated by Tes and Tsk during exercise at both 21°C and 31°C.

  6. The effects of performing a one-legged bridge with hip abduction and use of a sling on trunk and lower extremity muscle activation in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyuju; Bak, Jongwoo; Cho, Minkwon; Chung, Yijung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the changes in the muscle activities of the trunk and lower limbs of healthy adults during a one-legged bridge exercise using a sling, and with the addition of hip abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven healthy individuals participated in this study (14 males and 13 females). The participants were instructed to perform the bridge exercises under five different conditions. Trunk and lower limb muscle activation of the erector spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) was measured using surface electromyography. Data analysis was performed using the mean scores of three trials performed under each condition. [Results] There was a significant increase in bilateral EO and contralateral GM with the one-legged bridge compared with the one-legged bridge with sling exercise. Muscle activation of the ipsilateral GM and BF was significantly less during the one-legged bridge exercise compared to the one-legged bridge with sling exercise, and was significantly greater during the one-legged bridge with hip abduction compared to the one-legged bridge exercise. The muscle activation of the contralateral GM and BF was significantly greater with the one-legged bridge with hip abduction compared to the general bridge exercise. [Conclusion] With the one-legged bridge with hip abduction, the ipsilateral EO, GM and BF muscle activities were significantly greater than those of the one-legged bridge exercise. The muscle activation of all trunk and contralateral lower extremity muscles increased with the bridge with sling exercises compared with general bridge exercises. PMID:27799708

  7. [Restless-legs syndrome].

    PubMed

    Karroum, E; Konofal, E; Arnulf, I

    2008-01-01

    Restless-legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movements and is exacerbated or occurs at night and in the evening. RLS sufferers represent 2 to 3% of the general population in Western countries. Supportive criteria include a family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. The RLS phenotypes include an early onset form, usually idiopathic with a familial history and a late onset form, usually secondary to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, an atypical RLS phenotype without PLM and l-DOPA resistant has been characterized. RLS can occur in childhood and should be distinguished from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, growing pains and sleep complaints in childhood. RLS should be included in the diagnosis of all patients consulting for sleep complaints or discomfort in the lower limbs. It should be differentiated from akathisia, that is, an urge to move the whole body without uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test can detect PLM. Furthermore, an l-DOPA challenge has recently been validated to support the diagnosis of RLS. RLS may cause severe-sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In most cases, RLS is idiopathic. It may also be secondary to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drugs, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. The small-fiber neuropathy can mimic RLS or even trigger it. RLS is associated with many neurological and sleep disorders including Parkinson's disease, but does not predispose to these diseases. The pathophysiology of RLS includes an altered brain

  8. Exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer.

    PubMed

    Cetinus, E; Uzel, M; Bilgiç, E; Karaoguz, A; Herdem, M

    2004-04-01

    Recurrent pain in the lower leg caused by exercise is a common problem in athletes. The main causes are exercise induced compartment syndrome, periostitis of the tibia, stress fracture, venous diseases, obliterative arterial diseases, and shin splints. Exercise induced compartment syndrome is the least common. A recurrent tightening or tense sensation and aching in anatomically defined compartments is pathognomonic. The symptoms are caused by abnormally high pressure in compartments of the leg during and after exercise. In this report, a case of exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer is described.

  9. Using squat repetition maximum testing to determine hamstring resistance training exercise loads.

    PubMed

    Ebben, William P; Long, Nicholas J; Pawlowski, Zach D; Chmielewski, Lauren M; Clewien, Rustin W; Jensen, Randall L

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a linear relationship between the squat and a variety of hamstring resistance training exercises, and whether this relationship differs on the basis of sex. This study also sought to create prediction equations for the determination of hamstring exercise load based on the squat load. Repetition maximums of the squat, as well as 4 common hamstring resistance training exercises including the seated leg curl, stiff leg dead lift, single leg dead lift, and good morning exercise, were determined for each subject. Subjects included 21 men and 13 women collegiate athletes. Data were evaluated using linear regression analysis to predict hamstring exercise loads from 6 repetition maximum squat data. Results of the analysis of all subjects indicated that squat load was a significant predictor of loads for each of the hamstring exercises. However, separate analysis of women revealed that squat load was not a significant predictor of loads for any of the hamstring exercises. Analysis of the men revealed that squat was a significant predictor of load for the seated leg curl (R = 0.58, p < 0.001), stiff leg dead lift (R = 0.82, p < 0.001), single leg stiff leg dead lift (R = 0.80, p < 0.001), and good morning (R = 0.79, p < 0.001) exercises. On the basis of the analysis of the men, the following prediction equations were devised for each exercise: (1) seated leg curl load = squat load (0.186) + 10.935 kg, (2) stiff leg deadlift load = squat load (1.133) - 86.331 kg, (3) single leg stiff leg deadlift load = squat load (0.443) - 3.425 kg, and (4) good morning load = squat load (0.961) - 105.505 kg. Thus, results from testing core exercises such as the squat can provide useful data for the assignment of loads for assistance exercises. PMID:20072071

  10. Therapeutic exercise for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Semble, E L; Loeser, R F; Wise, C M

    1990-08-01

    Therapeutic exercise in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis may be useful in improving aerobic capacity, strengthening muscles, improving endurance and increasing flexibility. This article reviews the major studies of exercise in these conditions and summarizes the authors recommendations regarding the use of therapeutic exercise in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis osteoarthritis.

  11. Home-Based Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... do when I don't have access to physical therapy? While VEDA does not recommend doing vestibular exercises ... already existing ringing Fluid discharge from your ears Pain and ... try a general low-impact and balance-strengthening fitness program. The more ...

  12. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs

    PubMed Central

    Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W.; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch‐Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non‐exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non‐exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature‐ and metabolism‐sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (T B), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher T B and limb V˙O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to T B (r 2 = 0.91; P < 0.05), plasma ATP (r 2 = 0.94; P < 0.05) and limb V˙O2 (r 2 = 0.99; P < 0.05). During incremental leg exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in T B and limb V˙O2, whereas ABF, arm T B and V˙O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V˙O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral T B and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery T B and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central

  13. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the affected compartment at the same time, distance, or intensity of exercise. CECS is a clinical diagnosis; however, it is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing. Fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity. Athletes who have a release of the anterior and lateral compartments have a high success rate. PMID:21063498

  14. Changes in Activation of Abdominal Muscles at Selected Angles During Trunk Exercise by Using Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Dong; Bae, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Jong-Gil; Han, Nami; Eom, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of activation of the abdominal muscles depending on exercise angles and whether the activation of rectus abdominis differs according to the location, during curl up and leg raise exercises, by measuring the thickness ratio of abdominal muscles using ultrasonography. Methods We examined 30 normal adults without musculoskeletal problems. Muscle thickness was measured in the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), obliquus externus (EO), obliquus internus (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA), at pre-determined angles (30°, 60°, 90°) and additionally at the resting angle (0°). Muscle thickness ratio was calculated by dividing the resting (0°) thickness for each angle, and was used as reflection of muscle activity. Results The muscle thickness ratio was significantly different depending on the angles in URA and LRA. For curl up-URA p=0 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°>90°), p=0.44 (30°<90°) and LRA p=0.01 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°>90°), p=0.44 (30°>90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-and for leg raise-URA p=0 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°<90°), p=0 (30°<90°) and LRA p=0.01 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°<90°), p=0 (30°<90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-exercises, but not in the lateral abdominal muscles (EO, IO, and TrA). Also, there was no significant difference in the muscle thickness ratio of URA and LRA during both exercises. In the aspect of muscle activity, there was significant difference in the activation of RA muscle by selected angles, but not according to location during both exercises. Conclusion According to this study, exercise angle is thought to be an important contributing factor for strengthening of RA muscle; however, both the exercises are thought to have no property of strengthening RA muscle selectively based on the location. PMID:26798609

  15. Leg discomfort: beyond the joints.

    PubMed

    Berger, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Although simple characterization of discomfort as cramps, heaviness, shooting pains, and so forth can be misleading, history and examination are key to accurate diagnosis. Absence of both dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses strongly suggests peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and the presence of either pulse makes PAD less likely. Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are a common cause of lower extremity myalgias. Restless legs syndrome causes nocturnal discomfort but must be distinguished from confounding“mimics." Neurologic causes of leg symptoms include lumbar spinal stenosis, radiculopathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, and entrapment neuropathy. Many common causes of leg discomfort can be managed conservatively.

  16. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  17. Restless leg syndrome in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Grover, Aarti; Clark-Bilodeau, Courtney; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn M

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome, more recently renamed Willis-Ekbom disease, is a condition that disrupts sleep and occurs more frequently in the pregnant population. We present a 39-year-old woman with restless legs syndrome in the third trimester and discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology and therapeutic options in the pregnant population while highlighting the challenges posed by the lack of safety data of approved drugs. PMID:27512466

  18. Restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miletić, Vladimir; Relja, Maja

    2011-12-01

    Being of the most frequent causes of insomnia, which in the end leads to chronic fatigue, inadequate performance of daily activities, and serious disruption of quality of living, restless legs syndrome (RLS) is nowadays not only a serious medical problem but a socio-economical one as well. Prevalence of the disorder in general population is estimated at 5 to 15%. Family history is positive in over 50% of idiopathic RLS patients which points to genetic basis of the disorder. The characteristics of the secondary or acquired form of RLS are symptoms that start later in life as well as a rapid progression of the disease. On the other hand, idiopathic RLS more often starts at a younger age and the prognoses are better. Over twenty disorders and conditions are brought in connection with secondary RLS. Although the cause of primary RLS is still unknown, there is a strong connection between central metabolism of iron as well as dopamine levels and RLS manifestation. A differential diagnosis of RLS includes a wide specter of motor and sensory disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the history of disease. To correctly diagnose idiopathic RLS one must first eliminate secondary causes of RLS and then also exclude any disorders with clinical features that mimic those of RLS. It has been estimated that some 20 to 25% of patients need pharmacological therapy. Best initial therapy is the application of nonergot dopamine agonists. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and opioides can be given to patients who are refractory to dopaminergic therapy, those suffering from RLS with emphasized painful sensory component and those with RLS connected with insomnia.

  19. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    PubMed Central

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  20. Osteoporosis in Aging: Protect Your Bones with Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods you eat—including milk and milk products, dark green leafy vegetables like kale and collard greens— ... to your bed to guide you in the dark. Exercises to improve balance: Stand on one leg ...

  1. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders. PMID:26504610

  2. The effects of stimulating lower leg muscles on the mechanical work and metabolic response in functional electrically stimulated pedaling.

    PubMed

    Hakansson, Nils A; Hull, M L

    2010-10-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) pedaling with the muscles of the upper leg has been shown to provide benefit to spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals. FES pedaling with electrical stimulation timing patterns that minimize the stress-time integral of activated muscles has been shown to increase the work individuals can perform during the exercise compared to existing FES stimulation timing patterns. Activation of the lower leg muscles could further enhance the benefit of FES pedaling by increasing the metabolic response to the exercise. For SCI individuals, the objectives of this study were to experimentally determine whether FES pedaling with the upper and lower leg muscles would affect the work generated and increase the physiological responses compared to pedaling with the upper leg muscles alone. Work, rate of oxygen consumption ·VO₂, and blood lactate data were measured from nine SCI subjects (injury level T4-T12) as they pedaled using upper leg and upper and lower leg muscle groups on repeated trials. The subjects performed 6% more work with the upper and lower legs than with the upper legs alone, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.2433). The average rate of oxygen consumption associated with the upper leg muscles (441 ±231 mL/min) was not significantly different from the corresponding average for the upper and lower legs (473 ±213 mL/min) (p = 0.1176). The blood lactate concentration associated with the upper leg muscles (5.9 ±2.3 mmoles/L) was significantly lower than the corresponding average for the upper and lower legs (6.8 ±2.3 mmoles/L) (p = 0.0049). The results indicate that electrical stimulation timing patterns that incorporate the lower leg muscles do increase the blood lactate concentrations. However, there was not enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis that stimulating the lower leg muscles affected the work accomplished or increased the rate of oxygen consumption. In conclusion, incorporating the lower leg muscles

  3. Strengthening Resilience in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guild, Diane; Espiner, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Rolling with Resilience (RwR) provides a springboard for developing strategies that build strengths and supports to foster developmental assets in children and youth (Benson, Scales, & Roehlkepartain, 2011). In Circle of Courage terms, resilience is strengthened by opportunities for Belonging, Mastery, Independence, and Generosity (Brendtro,…

  4. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  5. as the Strengthening Precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qi; Xu, Wei; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2014-12-01

    Generally, Laves phase and M23C6 are regarded as undesirable phases in creep-resistant steels due to their very high-coarsening rates and the resulting depletion of beneficial alloying elements from the matrix. In this study, a computational alloy design approach is presented to develop martensitic steels strengthened by Laves phase and/or M23C6, for which the coarsening rates are tailored such that they are at least one order of magnitude lower than those in existing alloys. Their volume fractions are optimized by tuning the chemical composition in parallel. The composition domain covering 10 alloying elements at realistic levels is searched by a genetic algorithm to explore the full potential of simultaneous maximization of the volume fraction and minimization of the precipitates coarsening rate. The calculations show that Co and W can drastically reduce the coarsening rate of Laves and M23C6 and yield high-volume fractions of precipitates. Mo on the other hand was shown to have a minimal effect on coarsening. The strengthening effects of Laves phase and M23C6 in the newly designed alloys are compared to existing counterparts, showing substantially higher precipitation-strengthening contributions especially after a long service time. New alloys were designed in which both Laves phase and M23C6 precipitates act as strengthening precipitates. Successfully combining MX and M23C6 was found to be impossible.

  6. Rehabilitation of the Overhead Throwing Athlete: There Is More to It Than Just External Rotation/Internal Rotation Strengthening.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Arrigo, Christopher A; Hooks, Todd R; Andrews, James R

    2016-03-01

    The repetitive nature of throwing manifests characteristic adaptive changes to the shoulder, scapulothoracic, and hip/pelvis complexes that result in a set of unique physical traits in the overhead throwing athlete. An effective rehabilitation program is dependent upon an accurate evaluation and differential diagnosis to determine the causative factors for the athlete's pathologic features. The treatment program should be individualized with specific strengthening and flexibility exercises to achieve the dynamic stability that is required for overhead function. In this article we describe the characteristics of the throwing shoulder, along with a multiphased rehabilitation program that allows for the restoration of strength, mobility, endurance, and power and is aimed toward a return to unrestricted sporting activity. We also describe exercises that link the upper and lower extremities because of the importance of core control and leg strength in the development of power during the act of throwing. Additionally, proper throwing mechanics, utilization of pitch counts, appropriate rest, and proper off-season conditioning will help decrease overall injury risk in the overhead throwing athlete.

  7. Rehabilitation of the Overhead Throwing Athlete: There Is More to It Than Just External Rotation/Internal Rotation Strengthening.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Arrigo, Christopher A; Hooks, Todd R; Andrews, James R

    2016-03-01

    The repetitive nature of throwing manifests characteristic adaptive changes to the shoulder, scapulothoracic, and hip/pelvis complexes that result in a set of unique physical traits in the overhead throwing athlete. An effective rehabilitation program is dependent upon an accurate evaluation and differential diagnosis to determine the causative factors for the athlete's pathologic features. The treatment program should be individualized with specific strengthening and flexibility exercises to achieve the dynamic stability that is required for overhead function. In this article we describe the characteristics of the throwing shoulder, along with a multiphased rehabilitation program that allows for the restoration of strength, mobility, endurance, and power and is aimed toward a return to unrestricted sporting activity. We also describe exercises that link the upper and lower extremities because of the importance of core control and leg strength in the development of power during the act of throwing. Additionally, proper throwing mechanics, utilization of pitch counts, appropriate rest, and proper off-season conditioning will help decrease overall injury risk in the overhead throwing athlete. PMID:26972270

  8. Supine exercise during lower body negative pressure effectively simulates upright exercise in normal gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Exercise within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber in supine posture was compared with similar exercise against Earth's gravity (without LBNP) in upright posture in nine healthy male volunteers. We measured footward force with a force plate, pressure in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the leg with transducer-tipped catheters, calf volume by strain gauge plethysmography, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during two conditions: 1) exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber during 100-mmHg LBNP (exercise-LBNP) and 2) exercise in upright posture against Earth's gravity without LBNP (exercise-1 G). Subjects exercised their ankle joints (dorsi- and plantarflexions) for 5 min during exercise-LBNP and for 5 min during exercise-1 G. Mean footward force produced during exercise-LBNP (743 +/- 37 N) was similar to that produced during exercise-1 G (701 +/- 24 N). Peak contraction pressure in the antigravity soleus muscle during exercise-LBNP (115 +/- 10 mmHg) was also similar to that during exercise-1 G (103 +/- 13 mmHg). Calf volume increased significantly by 3.3 +/- 0.5% during exercise-LBNP compared with baseline values. Calf volume did not increase significantly during exercise-1 G. Heart rate was significantly higher during exercise-LBNP (99 +/- 5 beats/min) than during exercise-1 G (81 +/- 3 beats/min). These results indicate that exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber can produce similar musculoskeletal stress in the legs and greater systemic cardiovascular stress than exercise in the upright posture against Earth's gravity.

  9. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  10. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  11. Computational Models of Exercise on the Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newby, Nate; Caldwell, Erin; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Peters,Brian; Fincke, Renita; DeWitt, John; Poutz-Snyder, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Muscle and bone loss remain a concern for crew returning from space flight. The advanced resistance exercise device (ARED) is used for on-orbit resistance exercise to help mitigate these losses. However, characterization of how the ARED loads the body in microgravity has yet to be determined. Computational models allow us to analyze ARED exercise in both 1G and 0G environments. To this end, biomechanical models of the squat, single-leg squat, and deadlift exercise on the ARED have been developed to further investigate bone and muscle forces resulting from the exercises.

  12. Effects of trunk-hip strengthening on standing in children with spastic diplegia: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems. PMID:26157214

  13. Effects of trunk-hip strengthening on standing in children with spastic diplegia: a comparative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems. PMID:26157214

  14. Lower leg and foot injuries in tennis and other racquet sports.

    PubMed

    Zecher, S B; Leach, R E

    1995-01-01

    Injuries to the lower extremity are common in racquet sports. These can be either acute or chronic. Although acute injuries usually respond to treatment, chronic injuries are often less amenable to treatment. The occurrence of both kinds of injuries, however, can often be prevented by proper training techniques including stretching and strengthening exercises. These exercises are also important components of a proper rehabilitation program.

  15. Radiation of anginal pain to the legs.

    PubMed

    Kolettis, M T; Kalogeropoulos, C K; Tzannetis, G C; Vitakis, S K; Xaplanteris, P P; Novas, I A

    1986-02-01

    Pain radiated from the chest to one or both legs (17 cases), or from the legs to the chest (two cases) in 19 patients with angina or acute myocardial infarction. The leg pain was assumed to be related to the angina pectoris when both were of a similar character and occurred together, when the leg pain occurred at rest, and when there were normal peripheral pulses in the leg. Pain was felt in the left leg by 10 patients, the right leg by two patients, and in both legs by seven. Three patients experienced pain in the thigh(s), six in the shin(s), and 10 had pain in both. In six patients the pain extended down to the inner two to four toes. The pain was always felt in front of the legs. This distribution accords with the suggestion that some sensory cardiac nerve fibres occur in the lumbar sympathetic ganglia and that pain is projected into the corresponding dermatomes.

  16. [Martorell Hypertensive Ischaemic Leg Ulcer].

    PubMed

    Nobbe, S; Hafner, J

    2015-10-01

    Martorell hypertensive ischaemic leg ulcer (HYTILU) represents an important differential diagnosis of painful leg ulcerations. Stenotic subcutaneous arteriolosclerosis in patients with long-standing arterial hypertension finally leads to skin infarction. The typical histological changes are very similar in Martorell HYTILU and calciphylaxis. This raises the hypothesis that the two entities may have a common pathogenesis. Martorell HYTILU presents as an extremely painful ulcer that is regularly located at the laterodorsal lower leg or at the Achilles tendon. Because of its inflammatory and violaceous wound edges and its tendency to progression, clinicians unaware of the diagnosis Martorell HYTILU might misdiagnose pyoderma gangrenosum or necrotising cutaneous vasculitis start an immunosuppressive treatment and avoid surgical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Instead, necrosectomy and split skin grafting are the treatment of choice for Martorell HYTILU.

  17. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  18. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  19. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  20. Strengthening family systems.

    PubMed

    Starn, J

    1993-01-01

    The childbearing year is a psychosocial transition that involves changes in roles and status for each member of the family. This change is perhaps most significant in the transition that occurs with the birth of the first child. Thus, childbirth education can be looked upon as an opportunity to strengthen family systems through anticipatory guidance and skill building that family members may use throughout the life cycle.

  1. Lifelong physical activity preserves functional sympatholysis and purinergic signalling in the ageing human leg.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, S P; Nyberg, M; Winding, K; Saltin, B

    2012-12-01

    Ageing is associated with an impaired ability to modulate sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity (functional sympatholysis) and a reduced exercise hyperaemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a physically active lifestyle can offset the impaired functional sympatholysis and exercise hyperaemia in the leg and whether ATP signalling is altered by ageing and physical activity. Leg haemodynamics, interstitial [ATP] and P2Y(2) receptor content was determined in eight young (23 ± 1 years), eight lifelong sedentary elderly (66 ± 2 years) and eight lifelong active elderly (62 ± 2 years) men at rest and during one-legged knee extensions (12 W and 45% maximal workload (WL(max))) and arterial infusion of ACh and ATP with and without tyramine. The vasodilatory response to ACh was lowest in the sedentary elderly, higher in active elderly (P < 0.05) and highest in the young men (P < 0.05), whereas ATP-induced vasodilatation was lower in the sedentary elderly (P < 0.05). During exercise (12 W), leg blood flow, vascular conductance and VO2 was lower and leg lactate release higher in the sedentary elderly compared to the young (P < 0.05), whereas there was no difference between the active elderly and young. Interstitial [ATP] during exercise and P2Y(2) receptor content were higher in the active elderly compared to the sedentary elderly (P < 0.05). Tyramine infusion lowered resting vascular conductance in all groups, but only in the sedentary elderly during exercise (P < 0.05). Tyramine did not alter the vasodilator response to ATP infusion in any of the three groups. Plasma [noradrenaline] increased more during tyramine infusion in both elderly groups compared to young (P < 0.05). A lifelong physically active lifestyle can maintain an intact functional sympatholysis during exercise and vasodilator response to ATP despite a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide function. A physically active lifestyle increases interstitial ATP levels and skeletal muscle P2Y(2

  2. Lifelong physical activity preserves functional sympatholysis and purinergic signalling in the ageing human leg

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, S P; Nyberg, M; Winding, K; Saltin, B

    2012-01-01

    Ageing is associated with an impaired ability to modulate sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity (functional sympatholysis) and a reduced exercise hyperaemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a physically active lifestyle can offset the impaired functional sympatholysis and exercise hyperaemia in the leg and whether ATP signalling is altered by ageing and physical activity. Leg haemodynamics, interstitial [ATP] and P2Y2 receptor content was determined in eight young (23 ± 1 years), eight lifelong sedentary elderly (66 ± 2 years) and eight lifelong active elderly (62 ± 2 years) men at rest and during one-legged knee extensions (12 W and 45% maximal workload (WLmax)) and arterial infusion of ACh and ATP with and without tyramine. The vasodilatory response to ACh was lowest in the sedentary elderly, higher in active elderly (P < 0.05) and highest in the young men (P < 0.05), whereas ATP-induced vasodilatation was lower in the sedentary elderly (P < 0.05). During exercise (12 W), leg blood flow, vascular conductance and was lower and leg lactate release higher in the sedentary elderly compared to the young (P < 0.05), whereas there was no difference between the active elderly and young. Interstitial [ATP] during exercise and P2Y2 receptor content were higher in the active elderly compared to the sedentary elderly (P < 0.05). Tyramine infusion lowered resting vascular conductance in all groups, but only in the sedentary elderly during exercise (P < 0.05). Tyramine did not alter the vasodilator response to ATP infusion in any of the three groups. Plasma [noradrenaline] increased more during tyramine infusion in both elderly groups compared to young (P < 0.05). A lifelong physically active lifestyle can maintain an intact functional sympatholysis during exercise and vasodilator response to ATP despite a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide function. A physically active lifestyle increases interstitial ATP levels and skeletal muscle P2Y2 receptor

  3. Cruciate ligament loading during common knee rehabilitation exercises.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Macleod, Toran D; Wilk, Kevin E; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-09-01

    Cruciate ligament injuries are common and may lead to dysfunction if not rehabilitated. Understanding how to progress anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament loading, early after injury or reconstruction, helps clinicians prescribe rehabilitation exercises in a safe manner to enhance recovery. Commonly prescribed therapeutic exercises include both weight-bearing exercise and non-weight-bearing exercise. This review was written to summarize and provide an update on the available literature on cruciate ligament loading during commonly used therapeutic exercises. In general, weight-bearing exercise produces smaller loads on the anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament compared with non-weight-bearing exercise. The anterior cruciate ligament is loaded less at higher knee angles (i.e. 50-100 degrees). Squatting and lunging with a more forward trunk tilt and moving the resistance pad proximally on the leg during the seated knee extension unloads the anterior cruciate ligament. The posterior cruciate ligament is less loaded at lower knee angles (i.e. 0-50 degrees), and may be progressed from level ground walking to a one-leg squat, lunges, wall squat, leg press, and the two-leg squat (from smallest to greatest). Exercise type and technique variation affect cruciate ligament loading, such that the clinician may prescribe therapeutic exercises to progress ligament loading safely, while ensuring optimal recovery of the musculoskeletal system.

  4. Cruciate ligament loading during common knee rehabilitation exercises.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Macleod, Toran D; Wilk, Kevin E; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-09-01

    Cruciate ligament injuries are common and may lead to dysfunction if not rehabilitated. Understanding how to progress anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament loading, early after injury or reconstruction, helps clinicians prescribe rehabilitation exercises in a safe manner to enhance recovery. Commonly prescribed therapeutic exercises include both weight-bearing exercise and non-weight-bearing exercise. This review was written to summarize and provide an update on the available literature on cruciate ligament loading during commonly used therapeutic exercises. In general, weight-bearing exercise produces smaller loads on the anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament compared with non-weight-bearing exercise. The anterior cruciate ligament is loaded less at higher knee angles (i.e. 50-100 degrees). Squatting and lunging with a more forward trunk tilt and moving the resistance pad proximally on the leg during the seated knee extension unloads the anterior cruciate ligament. The posterior cruciate ligament is less loaded at lower knee angles (i.e. 0-50 degrees), and may be progressed from level ground walking to a one-leg squat, lunges, wall squat, leg press, and the two-leg squat (from smallest to greatest). Exercise type and technique variation affect cruciate ligament loading, such that the clinician may prescribe therapeutic exercises to progress ligament loading safely, while ensuring optimal recovery of the musculoskeletal system. PMID:23025167

  5. Resistance exercise training and the orthostatic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, J. P.; Bamman, M. M.; Yelle, J. M.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Rowe, R. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Lee, S. M.; Spector, E. R.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been suggested to increase blood volume, increase the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response (BARO), and decrease leg compliance, all factors that are expected to improve orthostatic tolerance. To further test these hypotheses, cardiovascular responses to standing and to pre-syncopal limited lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were measured in two groups of sedentary men before and after a 12-week period of either exercise (n = 10) or no exercise (control, n = 9). Resistance exercise training consisted of nine isotonic exercises, four sets of each, 3 days per week, stressing all major muscle groups. After exercise training, leg muscle volumes increased (P < 0.05) by 4-14%, lean body mass increased (P = 0.00) by 2.0 (0.5) kg, leg compliance and BARO were not significantly altered, and the maximal LBNP tolerated without pre-syncope was not significantly different. Supine resting heart rate was reduced (P = 0.03) without attenuating the heart rate or blood pressure responses during the stand test or LBNP. Also, blood volume (125I and 51Cr) and red cell mass were increased (P < 0.02) by 2.8% and 3.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that intense resistance exercise increases blood volume but does not consistently improve orthostatic tolerance.

  6. Mechanical design and driving mechanism of an isokinetic functional electrical stimulation-based leg stepping trainer.

    PubMed

    Hamzaid, N A; Fornusek, C; Ruys, A; Davis, G M

    2007-12-01

    The mechanical design of a constant velocity (isokinetic) leg stepping trainer driven by functional electrical stimulation-evoked muscle contractions was the focus of this paper. The system was conceived for training the leg muscles of neurologically-impaired patients. A commercially available slider crank mechanism for elliptical stepping exercise was adapted to a motorized isokinetic driving mechanism. The exercise system permits constant-velocity pedalling at cadences of 1-60 rev x min(-1). The variable-velocity feature allows low pedalling forces for individuals with very weak leg muscles, yet provides resistance to higher pedalling effort in stronger patients. In the future, the system will be integrated with a computer-controlled neuromuscular stimulator and a feedback control unit to monitor training responses of spinal cord-injured, stroke and head injury patients.

  7. Mechanical design and driving mechanism of an isokinetic functional electrical stimulation-based leg stepping trainer.

    PubMed

    Hamzaid, N A; Fornusek, C; Ruys, A; Davis, G M

    2007-12-01

    The mechanical design of a constant velocity (isokinetic) leg stepping trainer driven by functional electrical stimulation-evoked muscle contractions was the focus of this paper. The system was conceived for training the leg muscles of neurologically-impaired patients. A commercially available slider crank mechanism for elliptical stepping exercise was adapted to a motorized isokinetic driving mechanism. The exercise system permits constant-velocity pedalling at cadences of 1-60 rev x min(-1). The variable-velocity feature allows low pedalling forces for individuals with very weak leg muscles, yet provides resistance to higher pedalling effort in stronger patients. In the future, the system will be integrated with a computer-controlled neuromuscular stimulator and a feedback control unit to monitor training responses of spinal cord-injured, stroke and head injury patients. PMID:18274073

  8. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  9. FAQs on leg ulcer care.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irene; King, Brenda; Knight, Susan; Keynes, Milton

    In a webchat on leg ulcer management issues, hosted by Nursing Times, participants raised three key areas of care: the role of healthcare assistants in compression bandaging; reporting and investigating damage caused by compression therapy; and recommendations for dressings to be used under compression. This article discusses each of these in turn.

  10. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  11. The one-leg standing radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis was evaluated using the joint space width and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic classification. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean medial joint space width found in the one-leg and in the both-legs standing view were measured at 1.8 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7). 33%, 47.4% and 23.1% of the knees diagnosed with a KL grade of I, II and III in the both-legs standing views were changed to KL grade II, III and IV in the one-leg standing views, respectively. No changes for KL IV osteoarthritis diagnoses have been found between both- and one-leg standing views. Conclusions One-leg standing radiographs better represent joint space width than both-legs standing radiographs. 32% of both-legs standing radiographs have changed the KL grading to a more severe grade than that in the one-leg standing radiographs. Cite this article: P. Pinsornsak, K. Naratrikun, S. Kanitnate, T. Sangkomkamhang. The one-leg standing radiograph: An improved technique to evaluate the severity of knee osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:436–441. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0049.R1. PMID:27683299

  12. Economy class syndrome: rheology, fluid balance, and lower leg edema during a simulated 12-hour long distance flight.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, H; Vanselow, B; Schulte-Huermann, D; Mülmann, M V; Bergau, L

    1994-10-01

    In order to study pathological changes that might lead to deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in long-distance air travel passengers, 12 healthy volunteers were investigated during 4 simulated 12-h flights (day and night). The influence of repeated leg exercise was compared with constant sitting. Plasma viscosity, hematocrit, albumin, fluid balance, and lower leg swelling were measured. Rheological studies showed only circadian rhythm alterations. An average of 1150 ml fluid was retained, which correlated with an increase in body weight. The lower leg volume increase was significant, but not pathological. Periodic leg exercising showed no measurable preventive effects. These changes in healthy human volunteers are within physiological variations and are not sufficient to provide a definitive cause of venous thrombosis in healthy passengers. They do, however, suggest alterations produced by long-distance air travel that could intensify the risk of developing deep venous thrombosis in passengers with predisposing risk factors.

  13. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  14. Exercise for Well or Community Living Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John P.

    This set of instructions is designed for use by instructors in aerobic dance, although the instructions can also be used by individuals for an exercise program. Descriptions are given of specific exercises for the head and neck, shoulders, arms, legs, and chest and trunk. Routines for a complete aerobic dance session (warm-up, aerobic, and…

  15. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Differentiated and Undifferentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Cycle and Treadmill Exercise in Recreationally Active and Trained Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolgar, Melinda R.; Baker, Carol E.; Goss, Fredric. L.; Nagle, Elizabeth; Robertson, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1) and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1). Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT) on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest, as well as oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate were recorded each minute. Individual regression analyses were used to identify RPE-Overall,-Legs, and -Chest at 40, 60, 80% VO2max/peak. Separate two factor (site (3) x intensity (3)) ANOVAs with repeated measures on site and intensity were computed for each training status. Furthermore, RPE responses were also examined with a one factor (site (3)) within subject ANOVA with repeated measure on site at the ventilatory breakpoint. For both the recreationally active and trained groups no significant differences were observed for RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest during treadmill exercise. However, for cycling exercise results indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater at all exercise intensities than RPE-Overall and RPE-Chest for trained subjects while for recreationally active subjects RPE-Legs was only significantly higher at the highest exercise intensity. Responses at the ventilatory breakpoint during cycle exercise indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater than RPE-Chest and RPE-Overall for trained subjects but not for recreationally active subjects. Signal dominance was not observed at an intensity equivalent to the ventilatory breakpoint during treadmill exercise in either of the groups. In recreationally active and trained females signal dominance was demonstrated only during cycling exercise, but not during treadmill exercise. Signal integration could not be demonstrated during cycling and

  16. Determinants of exercise and aerobic fitness in outpatients with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, G B; Kasal, S; Smith, K V; Hassanein, R; DeViney, S

    1994-01-01

    Factors that influenced exercise behaviors and aerobic fitness were identified in 100 outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Data included perceived health status, benefits of and barriers to exercise, and impact of arthritis on health; demographic and biologic characteristics; and past exercise behavior. Exercise measures included range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, 7-day activity recall, and the exercise subscale of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. An aerobic fitness level was obtained on each subject by bicycle ergometer testing. The theoretical model predicted 20% of the variance in composite exercise scores but none of the variance in aerobic fitness levels. Perceived benefits of exercise was a significant predictor of exercise participation. Subjects with less formal education, longer duration of arthritis, and higher impact of arthritis scores perceived fewer benefits of exercise, while subjects who reported exercising in their youth perceived more benefits of exercise.

  17. Influence of eccentric actions on the metabolic cost of resistance exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Golden, Catherine L.; Tesch, Per A.; Harris, Robert T.; Buchanan, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The contributions of concentric (con) and eccentric (ecc) muscle actions are evaluated with respect to increasing the metabolic cost of resistance exercise. Male subjects perform leg exercise with either con and ecc actions or only con actions while the net energy cost of the exercise is measured by oxygen consumption data. In both groups, the con actions require 290 J/kg body weight of total work, with an energy cost of 0.003 cal/J. The energy costs for the con/ecc actions of the second group is increased by 14 percent. The metabolic cost of leg exercise is concluded to be primarily generated by the con leg actions, and ecc leg actions increase the resistance with only a slight increase in required energy. The findings are significant for practical applications that emphasize the conservation of energy expenditure during exercise in spacecraft environments.

  18. Bacteriology of chronic leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lookingbill, D P; Miller, S H; Knowles, R C

    1978-12-01

    The quantitative bacteriology of 13 chronic leg ulcers was sequentially assessed by both swab and biopsy culture techniques, and the effect of either a 10% benzoyl peroxide lotion or placebo lotion was evaluated. There was good correlation between the swab and biopsy culture techniques in 12 of the 17 instances where simultaneous swabs and biopsies were done. Though the benzoyl peroxide did not favorably affect the bacterial flora, ulcer healing did appear to correlate with quantitative bacterial counts. THREE of five ulcers containing fewer than 10(5) organisms per gram of tissue or per centimeter of ulcer surface area healed, while none of eight ulcers containing more than 10(5) organisms healed. Quantitative bacteriological measurements can serve as useful tools in evaluating healing of leg ulcers.

  19. Treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition characterized by an urge to move the legs, accompanied by uncomfortable or unpleasant sensations. Symptoms predominantly occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Recent European epidemiological studies reported an overall prevalence of RLS up to 10%, with a female preponderance. The prevalence rates reported in south-eastern Europe are lower, as are those in Asiatic populations. Although the aetiopathogenesis of RLS is still unknown, the rapid and dramatic improvement of RLS with dopaminergic compounds suggests a dopaminergic system dysfunction as the basic mechanism. Extensive data are available for l-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists, especially for pramipexole and ropinirole. Pharmacological treatment should be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life. Treatment on demand is a clinical need in RLS cases that present intermittent symptoms. PMID:20123560

  20. Targinact for restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS)--also known as Willis-Ekbom disease--is a neurological condition characterised by an overwhelming urge to move the legs, occurring during rest or inactivity, especially at night. Symptoms are highly variable in frequency and severity, and can affect sleep and quality of life. First-line management includes addressing precipitating or aggravating factors and providing explanation, reassurance and advice on self-help strategies. Drug therapy (e.g. a dopamine agonist) is used for patients with more severe symptoms. In December 2014, the marketing authorisation for a modified-release preparation containing oxycodone and naloxone (Targinact-Napp Pharmaceuticals) was expanded to include use in the treatment of severe to very severe RLS after failure of dopaminergic therapy.(10)Here we review the management of adults with RLS, including the place of oxycodone/naloxone. PMID:27079737

  1. The Influence of Plantar Short Foot Muscle Exercises on Foot Posture and Fundamental Movement Patterns in Long-Distance Runners, a Non-Randomized, Non-Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sulowska, Iwona; Oleksy, Łukasz; Mika, Anna; Bylina, Dorota; Sołtan, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two kinds of plantar short foot muscles exercise on foot posture and fundamental movement patterns in long-distance runners. Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with 6-week follow-up. Methods Twenty five long-distance runners aged 22–35 years. They were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n = 13) subjects performed the exercise “Vele’s Forward Lean” and “Reverse Tandem Gait” and in Group 2 (n = 12) the “Short Foot Exercise.” The runners performed the exercises daily for 6 weeks. The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6) and The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) tests were performed twice: at baseline and after 6 weeks of the exercise. Results A significant improvement was observed in FPI -6 (talar head palpation in Group 1, and inversion/eversion of the calcaneus in Group 2). Also in Group 1 a significant improvement was noted in FMS tests: deep squat, active straight leg raise and in total score. Conclusions Short foot muscles strengthening exercises have beneficial effect on functional movement patterns and on foot posture, therefore they should be included as a part of daily training program of runners. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615001200572 PMID:27336689

  2. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wahbi, Abdullah M; Elmoukaied, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. PMID:27022305

  3. Resistance Exercise in Pregnancy and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ruben; Perales, Maria

    2016-09-01

    As the health benefits of exercise are increasingly recognized, the traditional advice to rest during pregnancy has changed toward a more healthy and active pregnancy, therefore different forms of exercise have been integrated into the life of the pregnant woman. Although the benefits of using a combination of resistance and aerobic exercises are not yet determined, studies about resistance and strengthen training programs are few although no adverse outcomes were reported. PMID:27388962

  4. The Efficacy of Exercise Programs for Parkinson's Disease: Tai Chi versus Combined Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Sang-Myung; Chae, Bo-Kyung; Sung, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Geon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Exercise is recommended for every patient with Parkinson's disease (PD). The effectiveness of two different forms of exercise for PD, Tai Chi and combined stretching-strengthening exercise, was compared. Methods Patients with mild-to-moderate PD were recruited to join either the combined stretching-strengthening exercise group (n=7), the Tai Chi group (n=9), or the control (nonintervention) group (n=7). Exercise was performed three times a week over a period of 8 weeks. The Tai Chi exercise was led by certified instructors based on a Tai-Chi-for-arthritis program. The combined stretching-strengthening exercise comprised folk dancing, stepping, and elastic-band exercises. The subjects' functional fitness, parkinsonian symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and depression were evaluated. Results Both exercise groups yielded better results in their overall functional fitness after the intervention. However, no improvement with exercise was found for parkinsonian symptoms, as evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. With respect to the domains of QoL, the combined stretching-strengthening exercise group fared better in the social domain of QoL, and the Tai Chi group fared better in the emotional domain, while QoL and depression worsened in the control group. The postintervention QoL was improved relative to the control condition only for the Tai Chi group. Although the exercise interventions did not have any effect on depression, the control group was associated with a significant deterioration. Conclusions Exercise improved the functional fitness and QoL of PD patients, with Tai Chi yielding better results in QoL and favorable results in functional fitness. These findings suggest that Tai Chi could be a good exercise strategy for patients with PD. PMID:24285965

  5. Urine-drainage leg bags: an overview.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary

    This article looks at leg bags from the perspective of the clinical guidance available, published research, review papers, the diverse nature of products available, and their use with catheters, sheaths or urinals. The part that leg bags play in catheter-associated urinary tract infection control is addressed. Other aspects of catheter safety are discussed, including the avoidance of catheter traction. Variations in leg-bag structure including bag size, inlet tubing, tap, connector and backing, along with the reasons for selecting a particular leg bag are considered, along with the choice of either leg-bag straps or sleeves. The article concludes that, as a result of the variation of leg bags available, patients may require assistance and support from health professionals in finding the right leg bag for them.

  6. Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, S.; Berry, P; Cohen, M.; Danelis, J.; Deroshia, C.; Greenleaf, J.; Harris, B.; Keil, L.; Bernauer, E.; Bond, M.; Ellis, S.; Lee, P.; Selzer, R.; Wade, C.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiment to investigate effects of isotonic and isokinetic leg exercises in counteracting effects of bed rest upon physical and mental conditions of subjects. Data taken on capacity for work, endurance and strength, tolerance to sitting up, equilibrium, posture, gait, atrophy, mineralization and density of bones, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid and electrolyte balances, intermediary metabolism of muscles, mood, and performance.

  7. Self-generating oscillating pressure exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An exercise device, especially suitable for zero gravity workouts, has a collapsible chamber which generates negative pressure on the lower portion of a body situated therein. The negative pressure is generated by virtue of leg, hand and shoulder interaction which contracts and expands the chamber about the person and by virtue of air flow regulation by valve action.

  8. Static one-legged balance in soccer players during use of a lifted leg.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shigeki; Demura, Shinichi; Nagasawa, Yoshinori

    2010-08-01

    The goal was to describe static one-legged balance during use of a lifted leg and to compare balance between the dominant and nondominant legs of soccer players. Participants were 17 male soccer players and 17 untrained male students (control). Balance ability was evaluated with four sway measures: sway velocity, anterior-posterior sway, medial-lateral sway, and high-frequency sway. Soccer players had smaller magnitude mean anterior-posterior and medial-lateral sway than untrained students. Although mean sway velocity and anterior-posterior sway were higher with the dominant leg than in the nondominant leg of the control group, there was no significant difference on any sway factor between the two legs of the soccer group. In conclusion, the soccer players were observed to have superior static one-legged balance during use of a lifted leg, and there is no difference in balance for the two legs in the soccer group.

  9. Characterization of running with compliant curved legs.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae-Yun; Clark, Jonathan E

    2015-07-07

    Running with compliant curved legs involves the progression of the center of pressure, the changes of both the leg's stiffness and effective rest length, and the shift of the location of the maximum stress point along the leg. These phenomena are product of the geometric and material properties of these legs, and the rolling motion produced during stance. We examine these aspects with several reduced-order dynamical models to relate the leg's design parameters (such as normalized foot radius, leg's effective stiffness, location of the maximum stress point and leg shape) to running performance (such as robustness and efficiency). By using these models, we show that running with compliant curved legs can be more efficient, robust with fast recovery behavior from perturbations than running with compliant straight legs. Moreover, the running performance can be further improved by tuning these design parameters in the context of running with rolling. The results shown in this work may serve as potential guidance for future compliant curved leg designs that may further improve the running performance.

  10. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise ECG; ECG - exercise treadmill; EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill; CAD - treadmill; Coronary artery disease - treadmill; Chest pain - treadmill; Angina - treadmill; ...

  11. Chronic leg pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Burrus, M Tyrrell; Werner, Brian C; Starman, Jim S; Gwathmey, F Winston; Carson, Eric W; Wilder, Robert P; Diduch, David R

    2015-06-01

    Chronic leg pain is commonly treated by orthopaedic surgeons who take care of athletes. The sources are varied and include the more commonly encountered medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, nerve entrapment, Achilles tightness, deep vein thrombosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Owing to overlapping physical examination findings, an assortment of imaging and other diagnostic modalities are employed to distinguish among the diagnoses to guide the appropriate management. Although most of these chronic problems are treated nonsurgically, some patients require operative intervention. For each condition listed above, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management option, and outcomes are discussed in turn. PMID:25157051

  12. Multisystemic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Pretibial Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Baunacke, Anja; Hansel, Gesina

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Up to 30% of patients develop cutaneous manifestations, either specific or nonspecific. Ulcerating sarcoidosis leading to leg ulcers is a rare observation that may lead to confusions with other, more common types of chronic leg ulcers. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with pretibial leg ulcers. Other etiology could be excluded. Histology revealed nonspecific findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of nonspecific leg ulcers in sarcoidosis was confirmed. Treatment consisted of oral prednisolone and good ulcer care. Complete healing was achieved within 6 months. Sarcoidosis is a rare cause of leg ulcers and usually sarcoid granulomas can be found. Our patient illustrates that even in the absence of sarcoid granulomas, leg ulcers can be due to sarcoidosis. PMID:27272316

  13. The effects of a unilateral gluteal activation protocol on single leg drop jump performance.

    PubMed

    Healy, Robin; Harrison, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Warm-up protocols are commonly used to acutely enhance the performance of dynamic activities. This study examined the acute effect of low-load gluteal exercises on the biomechanics of single-leg drop jumps. Eight men and seven women (18-22 years old) performed 10 single-leg drop jumps on three separate days. The gluteal exercises were performed within the warm-up on day 2. Contact time, flight time, peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF), rate of force development, vertical leg-spring stiffness, and reactive strength index were determined. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences on all variables across days. Significant differences were found for contact time, peak GRF, and flight time between days 1 and 2 and for flight time between days 1 and 3 (p < or = 0.05) with no significant difference in any variables between days 2 and 3. This suggested that the improvements in day 2 were due to practice effects rather than the gluteal activation exercises. In addition, a typical error analysis was used to determine individual responses to the gluteal exercises. The results using this analysis showed no discernible response pattern of enhancement or fatigue for any participant. PMID:24968509

  14. Muscle adaptation to exercise: New Saltin's paradigms.

    PubMed

    Booth, F W

    2015-12-01

    The title assigned for my lecture at the Saltin Symposium was "Muscle adaptation to exercise: new paradigms." The title's topic made me remember that some of Saltin's paradigms for his development of a novel exercise model were either originated by him or modified by him from existing information. Therefore, I deemed it would be instructive for future generations to consider one facet of his 54-year career--human exercise models. I arbitrarily selected to share five examples of new paradigm models initiated by Saltin. They are: bed rest; arms vs legs; one leg vs the other leg; myokine communication from skeletal muscle to other organs/tissues; and 42-day cross-country skiing expedition. I arbitrarily selected the above as examples of novel approaches that he used to the study humans during maximal endurance exercise. Noteworthy though is that Saltin's lifetime demeanor, itself, is a model for other scientists. In final analysis, the world is richer due to his passion to study humans to advance medical science by uncovering mechanisms as to how the human body is constructed to perform endurance types of exercise at maximal intensities and durations.

  15. The Legs Problem--For All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an example of a versatile multi-solution problem that can be used right across the primary years. The basic problem is: "Noah saw 16 legs go past him into the Ark. How many creatures did he see?" Any even number can be used, although, 2 legs allows only one answer and with 16 legs there are already 14 different solutions, so…

  16. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  17. Leg automaticity is stronger than arm automaticity during simultaneous arm and leg cycling.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Masanori; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Endoh, Takashi; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that human locomotion is quadrupedal in nature. An automatic rhythm-generating system is thought to play a crucial role in controlling arm and leg movements. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate differences between intrinsic arm and leg automaticity by investigating cadence variability during simultaneous arm and leg (AL) cycling. Participants performed AL cycling with visual feedback of arm or leg cadence. Participants were asked to focus their attention to match the predetermined cadence; this affects the automaticity of the rhythm-generating system. Leg cadence variability was only mildly affected when the participants intended to precisely adjust either their arm or leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. In contrast, arm cadence variability significantly increased when the participants adjusted their leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the automaticities of arm and leg cycling and that the latter is stronger than the former during AL cycling.

  18. Effects of exercise continued until anaerobic threshold on balance performance in male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Erkmen, Nurtekin; Suveren, Sibel; Göktepe, Ahmet Salim

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of exercise continued until the anaerobic threshold on balance performance in basketball players. Twelve male basketball players (age = 20.92 ± 2.81 years, body height = 192.72 ± 7.61 cm, body mass = 88.09 ± 8.41 kg, training experience = 7.17 ± 3.10 years) volunteered to participate in this study. A Kinesthetic Ability Trainer (KAT 2000 stabilometer) was used to measure the balance performance. Balance tests consisted of static tests on dominant, nondominant and double leg stance. The Bruce Protocol was performed by means of a treadmill. The exercise protocol was terminated when the subject passed the anaerobic threshold. After the exercise protocol, balance measurements were immediately repeated. Statistical differences between pre and post-exercise for dominant, nondominant and double leg stance were determined by the paired samples t-test according to the results of the test of normality. The post-exercise balance score on the dominant leg was significantly higher than pre-exercise (t = -2.758, p < 0.05). No differences existed between pre- and post-exercise in the balance scores of the nondominant leg after the exercise protocol (t = 0.428, p > 0.05). A significant difference was found between pre and post-exercise balance scores in the double leg stance (t = -2.354, p < 0.05). The main finding of this study was that an incremental exercise continued until the anaerobic threshold decreased balance performance on the dominant leg in basketball players, but did not alter it in the nondominant leg.

  19. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... of power to help them cope with low self-esteem. Although compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany ... a downward spiral of negative thinking and low self-esteem. continue Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad ...

  20. Analog Exercise Hardware to Implement a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Background: In order to evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a space flight analog prior to validation on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is sponsoring a multi-investigator bedrest campaign that utilizes a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistive and aerobic exercise protocols. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware and how they are used to support current bedrest studies at NASA's Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, TX. Discussion: To implement candidate exercise countermeasure studies during extended bed rest studies the following analog hardware are being utilized: Stand alone Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulator (sZLS) -- a custom built device by NASA, the sZLS allows bedrest subjects to remain supine as they run on a vertically-oriented treadmill (0-15 miles/hour). The treadmill includes a pneumatic subject loading device to provide variable body loading (0-100%) and a harness to keep the subject in contact with the motorized treadmill to provide a ground reaction force at their feet that is quantified by a Kistler Force Plate. Supine Cycle Ergometer -- a commercially available supine cycle ergometer (Lode, Groningen, Netherlands) is used for all cycle ergometer sessions. The ergometer has adjustable shoulder supports and handgrips to help stabilize the subject during exercise. Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) -- a custom built device by Quantum Fitness Corp (Stafford, TX), the HSD allows for squat exercises to be performed while lying in a supine position. The HSD can provide 0 to 600 pounds of force in selectable 5 lb increments, and allows hip translation in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Prone Leg Curl -- a commercially available prone leg curl machine (Cybex International Inc., Medway, MA) is used to complete leg curl exercises. Horizontal Leg Press -- a commercially available horizontal leg press (Quantum Fitness Corporation) is

  1. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  2. VO2 Max in Variable Type Exercise Among Well-Trained Upper Body Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Douglas R.; Mullin, John P.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of well-trained upper body athletes was compared to that of untrained individuals in four types of exercise: arm cranking, legs only cycling, graded treadmill running, and combined arm cranking and leg cycling. Results of the study showed that well-trained upper body athletes attained a significantly higher…

  3. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (p<0.001) and a smaller change in stance phase leg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (p<0.020), greater hip (p<0.001) and knee flexion (p=0.048) at the time of initial foot contact, and greater peak stance phase hip, knee, and ankle flexion (p<0.05). Our results reveal that subjects run in a more crouched posture and with higher leg stiffness to accommodate an added load.

  4. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (p<0.001) and a smaller change in stance phase leg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (p<0.020), greater hip (p<0.001) and knee flexion (p=0.048) at the time of initial foot contact, and greater peak stance phase hip, knee, and ankle flexion (p<0.05). Our results reveal that subjects run in a more crouched posture and with higher leg stiffness to accommodate an added load. PMID:25728581

  5. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…

  6. Acute Compartment Syndrome After Gastrocnemius Rupture (Tennis Leg) in a Nonathlete Without Trauma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Jun, Huang; Muliang, Ding; Deye, Song; Jiangdong, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a serious emergency that warrants urgent decompression, and tennis leg (i.e., rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius) is a known clinical condition that is usually treated symptomatically, with good results overall. In rare cases, acute compartment syndrome is associated with tennis leg after severe direct muscle trauma or severe exercise in athletes or physically active individuals. We present an unusual case of acute compartment syndrome secondary to tennis leg after the patient, a nonathlete, had disembarked from a truck without any trauma. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for atraumatic compartment syndrome, and timely surgical fasciotomy must be undertaken to avoid complications resulting from delayed diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Caffeine Attenuates Decreases in Leg Power Without Increased Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Beatriz G; Morales, Anderson P; Sampaio-Jorge, Felipe; Barth, Thiago; de Oliveira, Marcio B C; Coelho, Gabriela M D O; Leite, Tiago C

    2016-08-01

    Ribeiro, BG, Morales, AP, Sampaio-Jorge, F, Barth, T, de Oliveira, MBC, Coelho, GMdO, and Leite, TC. Caffeine attenuates decreases in leg power without increased muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2354-2360, 2016-Caffeine ingestion has been shown to be an effective ergogenic aid in several sports. Caffeine administration may increase exercise capacity, which could lead to a greater degree of muscle damage after exercise. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Six male handball athletes ingested placebo (PLA) or caffeine (CAF) (6 mg·kg body mass) capsules on 2 different occasions. Sixty minutes after ingestion of the capsules, serum CAF levels were evaluated. Thereafter, all participants performed a protocol of vertical jumps (VJs). The protocol consisted of 4 sets of 30 seconds of continuous VJs with 60 seconds of recovery between sets. Blood lactate (LAC) and creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined before and after the protocol. We found significant differences in serum CAF levels between PLA (0.09 ± 0.18 µg·ml) vs. CAF (6.59 ± 4.44 µg·ml) (p < 0.001). Caffeine elicited a 5.23% (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in the leg power compared with PLA. The CAF trial displayed higher LAC (p ≤ 0.05) compared with PLA (6.26 ± 2.01 vs. 4.39 ± 2.42 mmol·L, respectively) after protocol of VJs, whereas no difference in CK was observed between trials (p > 0.05). These results indicate that immediate ingestion of CAF (6 mg·kg body weight) can reduce the level of muscle fatigue and preserve leg power during the test, possibly resulting in increase in LAC. There was no increase in muscle damage, which indicates that immediate administration of (6 mg·kg body weight) CAF is safe. Thus, nutritional interventions with CAF could help athletes withstand a greater physiological overload during high-intensity training sessions. The results of this study would be applicable to sports and activities that require repetitive leg power. PMID

  8. The Influence of an Unstable Surface on Trunk and Lower Extremity Muscle Activities during Variable Bridging Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-hyun; Kim, Young; Chung, Yijung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an unstable surface on trunk and lower extremity muscle activities during various types of bridging exercises. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female adults voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] All subjects were asked to perform 3 different bridging exercises (bridging exercise, single leg lift bridging exercise, single leg cross bridging exercise) with and without an unstable surface. The trunk and lower extremity muscle activities were measured by using surface electromyography during bridging exercise. [Results] During the bridging exercise (BE), single leg lift bridging exercise (LBE), and single leg cross bridging exercise (CBE), the muscle activities of the external oblique muscle (EO), erector spinae (ES), and biceps femoris (BF) were significantly higher on an unstable surface than on a stable surface. The muscle activities of the EO on both sides, contralateral BF, and ipsilateral ES were significantly higher during LBE than during BE and CBE. [Conclusion] Use of an unstable surface increases muscle activity of the trunk and lower extremities, and single leg lift bridging exercise increases the muscle activity of the EO on both sides, ipsilateral ES, and contralateral BF. PMID:24764625

  9. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation.

  10. Metabolic Cost of Stride Rate, Resistance, and Combined Use of Arms and Legs on the Elliptical Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Constance M.; Feito, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    We measured the effects of stride rate, resistance, and combined arm-leg use on energy expenditure during elliptical trainer exercise and assessed the accuracy of the manufacturer's energy expenditure calculations. Twenty-six men and women (M age = 29 years, SD = 8; M body weight = 73.0 kg, SD = 15.2) participated. Twenty-two participants…

  11. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  12. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  13. Fatigue is specific to working muscles: no cross-over with single-leg cycling in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Steven J; Amann, Markus; McDaniel, John; Martin, David T; Martin, James C

    2013-02-01

    Fatigue induced via a maximal isometric contraction of a single limb muscle group can evoke a "cross-over" of fatigue that reduces voluntary muscle activation and maximum isometric force in the rested contralateral homologous muscle group. We asked whether a cross-over of fatigue also occurs when fatigue is induced via high-intensity endurance exercise involving a substantial muscle mass. Specifically, we used high-intensity single-leg cycling to induce fatigue and evaluated associated effects on maximum cycling power (P (max)) in the fatigued ipsilateral leg (FAT(leg)) as well as the rested contralateral leg (REST(leg)). On separate days, 12 trained cyclists performed right leg P (max) trials before and again 30 s, 3, 5, and 10 min after a cycling time trial (TT, 10 min) performed either with their right or left leg. Fatigue was estimated by comparing exercise-induced changes in P (max) and maximum handgrip isometric force (F (max)). Mean power produced during the right and left leg TTs did not differ (203 ± 8 vs. 199 ± 8 W). Compared to pre-TT, FAT(leg) P (max) was reduced by 22 ± 3 % at 30 s post-TT and remained reduced by 9 ± 2 % at 5 min post-TT (both P < 0.05). Despite considerable power loss in the FAT(leg), post-TT REST(leg) P (max) (596-603 W) did not differ from pre-TT values (596 ± 35 W). There were no alterations in handgrip F (max) (529-547 N). Our data suggest that any potential cross-over of fatigue, if present at all, was not sufficient to measurably compromise REST(leg) P (max) in trained cyclists. These results along with the lack of changes in handgrip F (max) indicate that impairments in maximal voluntary neuromuscular function were specific to working muscles.

  14. Sustained postexercise vasodilatation and histamine receptor activation following small muscle-mass exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Halliwill, John R

    2013-01-01

    A sustained postexercise vasodilatation, which is histamine receptor mediated, has been observed following single bouts of whole-body exercise, but the mechanisms that regulate activation of histamine receptors following exercise are undefined. Exploration of vasodilatation after small muscle-mass dynamic or resistance exercise could provide novel insight into the pathways responsible for histamine receptor activation. We hypothesized that there would be a vasodilatation of the previously exercised limb following small muscle-mass dynamic and resistance exercise, which would be mediated by histamine receptors. We studied men and women before and after single-leg dynamic (n = 9) or resistance knee-extension exercise (n = 12) on control and blockade days (combined oral H(1) and H(2) receptor antagonism with fexofenadine and ranitidine). We measured arterial blood pressure (automated brachial oscillometry) and femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound). Dynamic exercise elevated leg vascular conductance in the active leg by 27.2 ± 8.4% at 60 min postexercise (P < 0.05 versus pre-exercise), but did not alter conductance in the rested leg (change, 4.6 ± 3.5%; P = 0.8 versus pre-exercise). The rise in conductance was abolished on the blockade day (change, 3.7 ± 5.1%; P = 0.8 versus pre-exercise, P = 0.2 versus control). Resistance exercise did not produce a sustained vasodilatation (change, -4.3 ± 4.7% at 60 min postexercise; P = 0.7 versus pre-exercise). These data indicate that histamine receptors are activated following dynamic, but not resistance, exercise. Furthermore, these data suggest that local factors associated with aerobic exercise, and not systemic factors or factors associated with high muscle force, are responsible for activation of histamine receptors in the previously exercised muscle.

  15. Iron for restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Trotti, Lynn M; Bhadriraju, Srinivas; Becker, Lorne A

    2014-01-01

    Background Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic syndrome and is associated with iron deficiency in many patients. It is unclear whether iron therapy is effective treatment for RLS. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of iron supplementation (oral or intravenous) for patients with RLS. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Jan 1995 to April 2011); EMBASE (Jan 1995 to April 2011); PsycINFO (Jan 1995 to April 2011); and CINAHL (Jan 1995 to April 2011). Corresponding authors of included trials and additional members of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group were contacted to locate additional published or unpublished trials. Selection criteria Controlled trials comparing any formulation of iron with placebo, other medications, or no treatment in adults diagnosed with RLS according to expert clinical interview or explicit diagnostic criteria. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data and at least two authors assessed trial quality. We contacted trial authors for missing data. Main results Six studies (192 total subjects) were identified and included in this analysis. The quality of trials was variable. Our primary outcome was restlessness or uncomfortable leg sensations, which was quantified using the IRLS severity scale in four trials and another RLS symptom scale in a fifth trial. Combining data from the four trials using the IRLS severity scale, there was no clear benefit from iron therapy (mean difference in IRLS severity scores of -3.79, 95% CI: -7.68 to 0.10, p = 0.06). However, the fifth trial did find iron therapy to be beneficial (median decrease of 3 points in the iron group and no change in the placebo group on a 10 point scale of RLS symptoms, p = 0.01). Quality of life was improved in the iron group relative to placebo in some studies but not others. Changes in periodic limb movements were not different between groups

  16. Expansion Compression Contacts for Thermoelectric Legs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed alternative to previous approaches to making hot-shoe contacts to the legs of thermoelectric devices, one relies on differential thermal expansion to increase contact pressures for the purpose of reducing the electrical resistances of contacts as temperatures increase. The proposed approach is particularly applicable to thermoelectric devices containing p-type (positive-charge-carrier) legs made of a Zintl compound (specifically, Yb14MnSb11) and n-type (negative charge-carrier) legs made of SiGe. This combination of thermoelectric materials has been selected for further development, primarily on the basis of projected thermoelectric performance. However, it is problematic to integrate, into a practical thermoelectric device, legs made of these materials along with a metal or semiconductor hot shoe that is required to be in thermal and electrical contact with the legs. This is partly because of the thermal-expansion mismatch of these materials: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SiGe is 4.5 x 10(exp -6) C (exp -1), while the CTE of Yb14MnSb11 is 20 x 10(exp -6) C(exp -1). Simply joining a Yb14MnSb11 and a SiGe leg to a common hot shoe could be expected to result in significant thermal stresses in either or both legs during operation. Heretofore, such thermal stresses have been regarded as disadvantageous. In the proposed approach, stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch would be turned to advantage.

  17. Summer Science Can Strengthen Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Ava F.; Smith, Ruby

    1989-01-01

    Described are 22 activities which can be done by students outside of school. Topics include the seashore, shadows, restaurants, water, amusement parks, factories, museums, camping, weather, animals, photography, plants, food, and exercise. (CW)

  18. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne

    2006-07-19

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

  19. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Karvat, Jhenifer; Peretti, Ana Luiza; Vieira, Lizyana; Higuchi, Guilherme Hideaki; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG-no injury), exercise group (EG-no injury with physical exercise), lesion group (LG-injury, but without exercise), and treated group (LEG-injury and physical exercise). LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p = 0.012) and larger than LG and LEG (p < 0.001). Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons. PMID:27594795

  20. Leg stiffness: comparison between unilateral and bilateral hopping tasks.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Torsten; Sterzing, Thorsten; Wulf, Mathias; Horstmann, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Leg stiffness is a predictor of athletic performance and injury and typically evaluated during bilateral hopping. The contribution of each limb to bilateral leg stiffness, however, is not well understood. This study investigated leg stiffness during unilateral and bilateral hopping to address the following research questions: (1) does the magnitude and variability of leg stiffness differ between dominant and non-dominant legs? (2) Does unilateral leg stiffness differ from bilateral leg stiffness? and (3) Is bilateral leg stiffness determined by unilateral leg stiffness? Thirty-two physically active males performed repeated hopping tests on a force platform for each of the three conditions: bilateral hopping, unilateral hopping on the dominant leg, and unilateral hopping on the non-dominant leg. Leg stiffness was estimated as the ratio of the peak vertical force and the maximum displacement using a simple 1-D mass-spring model. Neither the magnitude nor variability of leg stiffness differed between dominant and non-dominant limbs. Unilateral leg stiffness was 24% lower than bilateral stiffness and showed less variability between consecutive hops and subjects. Unilateral leg stiffness explained 76% of the variance in bilateral leg stiffness. We conclude that leg stiffness estimates during unilateral hopping are preferable for intervention studies because of their low variability. PMID:24290613

  1. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... health issues or medication. This may include: Low iron levels This can cause problems with brain cell ... you have restless legs syndrome caused by low iron, talk with your physician and do not attempt ...

  2. Support Leg Loading in Punt Kicking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermond, John; Konz, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Maximum distance in football punt kicking is associated with a maximum force transfer to the ball rather than a maximum force transfer through the ground via the support leg. For maximum distance, tred lightly. (Author)

  3. Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

  4. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  5. Rotational joint assembly for the prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.; Jones, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A rotational joint assembly for a prosthetic leg has been devised, which enables an artificial foot to rotate slightly when a person is walking, running or turning. The prosthetic leg includes upper and lower tubular members with the rotational joint assembly interposed between them. The assembly includes a restrainer mechanism which consists of a pivotably mounted paddle element. This device applies limiting force to control the rotation of the foot and also restores torque to return the foot back to its initial position.

  6. Laser leg vein treatment: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victor; Domankevitz, Yacov

    2003-12-01

    Laser treatment of leg veins has been associated with a number of disadvantages, but the introduction of new devices has increased the role of lasers in the treatment of leg veins. This paper reviews the role of laser devices applied from the surface in the treatment of reticular and spider veins. Success is determined by the proper selection of wavelength, fluence, pulse duration, spot size, and number and frequency of treatments. PMID:14741827

  7. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Kazufumi; Ozeki, Satoru; Sugimoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C. PMID:27293297

  8. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  9. Bilateral leg edema in an older woman.

    PubMed

    Thaler, H W; Pienaar, S; Wirnsberger, G; Roller-Wirnsberger, R E

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral leg edema is a frequent symptom in older people and an important concern in geriatric medicine. Further evaluation is frequently not performed and simple therapy with diuretics is prescribed. Particularly in older patients, long-term use of diuretics can lead to severe electrolyte imbalances, volume depletion, and falls. In this case report we want to focus the physicians' attention on the necessity to determine the cause and show a correspondingly effective treatment for bilateral leg edema in older people. A thorough approach is required to recognize diseases and to avoid adverse drug events as geriatric patients often show an atypical presentation or minor symptoms. The cause of swollen legs is often multifactorial; therefore, the patient's individual history and an appropriate physical examination are important. Depending on the clinical symptoms, evaluation including basic laboratory tests, urinalysis, chest radiography, and echocardiogram may be indicated. The most probable cause of bilateral edema in older patients is chronic venous insufficiency. Heart failure is also a common cause. Other systemic causes such as renal disease or liver disease are much rarer. Antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory drugs can frequently cause leg edema, but the incidence of drug-induced leg swelling is unknown. With the help of this special case we tried to develop an approach to the diagnosis of symmetric leg edema in older patients, a problem frequently neglected in geriatric medicine.

  10. Influence of priming exercise on muscle deoxy[Hb + Mb] during ramp cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Boone, Jan; Bouckaert, Jacques; Barstow, Thomas J; Bourgois, Jan

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain better insight into the mechanisms underpinning the sigmoid pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] during incremental exercise by assessing the changes in the profile following prior high-intensity exercise. Ten physically active students performed two incremental ramp (25 W min(-1)) exercises (AL and LL, respectively) preceded on one occasion by incremental arm (10 W min(-1)) and on another occasion by incremental leg exercise (25 W min(-1)), which served as the reference test (RT). Deoxy[Hb + Mb] was measured by means of near-infrared spectroscopy and surface EMG was recorded at the Vastus Lateralis throughout the exercises. Deoxy[Hb + Mb], integrated EMG and Median Power Frequency (MdPF) were expressed as a function of work rate (W) and compared between the exercises. During RT and AL deoxy[Hb + Mb] followed a sigmoid increase as a function of work rate. However, during LL deoxy[Hb + Mb] increased immediately from the onset of the ramp exercise and thus no longer followed a sigmoid pattern. This different pattern in deoxy[Hb + Mb] was accompanied by a steeper slope of the iEMG/W-relationship below the GET (LL: 0.89 ± 0.11% W(-1); RT: 0.74 ± 0.08% W(-1); AL: 0.72 ± 0.10% W(-1)) and a more pronounced decrease in MdPF in LL (17.2 ± 4.5%) compared to RT (5.0 ± 2.1%) and AL (3.9 ± 3.2%). It was observed that the sigmoid pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] was disturbed when the ramp exercise was preceded by priming leg exercise. Since the differences in deoxy[Hb + Mb] were accompanied by differences in EMG it can be suggested that muscle fibre recruitment is an important underlying mechanism for the pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] during ramp exercise.

  11. Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular

  12. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Ebben, William P; Fauth, McKenzie L; Garceau, Luke R; Petushek, Erich J

    2011-12-01

    Ebben, WP, Fauth, ML, Garceau, LR, and Petushek, EJ. Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3288-3298, 2011-Quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is necessary to understand the characteristics of these exercises and the proper progression of this mode of exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises. This study also sought to assess gender differences in these variables. Twenty-six men and 23 women with previous experience in performing plyometric training served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including line hops, 15.24-cm cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps (CMJs), loaded CMJs equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum squat, depth jumps normalized to the subject's jump height (JH), and single leg jumps. All plyometric exercises were assessed with a force platform. Outcome variables associated with the takeoff, airborne, and landing phase of each plyometric exercise were evaluated. These variables included the peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF) during takeoff, the time to takeoff, flight time, JH, peak power, landing rate of force development, and peak vertical GRF during landing. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type and all outcome variables (p ≤ 0.05) and for the interaction between gender and peak vertical GRF during takeoff (p ≤ 0.05). Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the outcome variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings can be used to guide the progression of plyometric training by incorporating exercises of increasing intensity over the course of a program. PMID:22080319

  13. Effects of exercise pressor reflex activation on carotid baroreflex function during exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Raven, P. B.; Secher, N. H.

    2001-01-01

    1. This investigation was designed to determine the contribution of the exercise pressor reflex to the resetting of the carotid baroreflex during exercise. 2. Ten subjects performed 3.5 min of static one-legged exercise (20 % maximal voluntary contraction) and 7 min dynamic cycling (20 % maximal oxygen uptake) under two conditions: control (no intervention) and with the application of medical anti-shock (MAS) trousers inflated to 100 mmHg (to activate the exercise pressor reflex). Carotid baroreflex function was determined at rest and during exercise using a rapid neck pressure/neck suction technique. 3. During exercise, the application of MAS trousers (MAS condition) increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma noradrenaline concentration (dynamic exercise only) and perceived exertion (dynamic exercise only) when compared to control (P < 0.05). No effect of the MAS condition was evident at rest. The MAS condition had no effect on heart rate (HR), plasma lactate and adrenaline concentrations or oxygen uptake at rest and during exercise. The carotid baroreflex stimulus-response curve was reset upward on the response arm and rightward to a higher operating pressure by control exercise without alterations in gain. Activation of the exercise pressor reflex by MAS trousers further reset carotid baroreflex control of MAP, as indicated by the upward and rightward relocation of the curve. However, carotid baroreflex control of HR was only shifted rightward to higher operating pressures by MAS trousers. The sensitivity of the carotid baroreflex was unaltered by exercise pressor reflex activation. 4. These findings suggest that during dynamic and static exercise the exercise pressor reflex is capable of actively resetting carotid baroreflex control of mean arterial pressure; however, it would appear only to modulate carotid baroreflex control of heart rate.

  14. Solute strengthening at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2<τ /{τy0}≤slant 0.5 and then transitions to a power-law form at even lower stresses τ /{τy0}<0.03 . Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and {τy0} remains as the reference energy and stress scales over the entire range of stresses. The model is applied to literature data on solution strengthening in Cu alloys and captures the experimental results quantitatively and qualitatively. Most importantly, the model accurately captures the transition in strength from the low-temperature to intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  15. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    Age and exercise ... to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you have never exercised, ... things you enjoy and stay independent as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also ...

  16. Two weeks of muscle immobilization impairs functional sympatholysis but increases exercise hyperemia and the vasodilatory responsiveness to infused ATP.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, S P; Mørkeberg, J; Thaning, P; Hellsten, Y; Saltin, B

    2012-05-15

    During exercise, contracting muscles can override sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity (functional sympatholysis). ATP and adenosine have been proposed to play a role in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation. However, little is known about the role of muscle training status on functional sympatholysis and ATP- and adenosine-induced vasodilation. Eight male subjects (22 ± 2 yr, Vo(2max): 49 ± 2 ml O(2)·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were studied before and after 5 wk of one-legged knee-extensor training (3-4 times/wk) and 2 wk of immobilization of the other leg. Leg hemodynamics were measured at rest, during exercise (24 ± 4 watts), and during arterial ATP (0.94 ± 0.03 μmol/min) and adenosine (5.61 ± 0.03 μmol/min) infusion with and without coinfusion of tyramine (11.11 μmol/min). During exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was lower in the trained leg (2.5 ± 0.1 l/min) compared with the control leg (2.6 ± 0.2 l/min; P < 0.05), and it was higher in the immobilized leg (2.9 ± 0.2 l/min; P < 0.05). Tyramine infusion lowers LBF similarly at rest, but, when tyramine was infused during exercise, LBF was blunted in the immobilized leg (2.5 ± 0.2 l/min; P < 0.05), whereas it was unchanged in the control and trained leg. Mean arterial pressure was lower during exercise with the trained leg compared with the immobilized leg (P < 0.05), and leg vascular conductance was similar. During ATP infusion, the LBF response was higher after immobilization (3.9 ± 0.3 and 4.5 ± 0.6 l/min in the control and immobilized leg, respectively; P < 0.05), whereas it did not change after training. When tyramine was coinfused with ATP, LBF was reduced in the immobilized leg (P < 0.05) but remained similar in the control and trained leg. Training increased skeletal muscle P2Y2 receptor content (P < 0.05), whereas it did not change with immobilization. These results suggest that muscle inactivity impairs functional sympatholysis and that the magnitude of hyperemia and blood pressure response to exercise

  17. Muscle functional MRI analysis of trunk muscle recruitment during extension exercises in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, E M D; Van Oosterwijck, J O; Vleeming, A; Vanderstraeten, G G; Danneels, L A

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the activity levels of the thoracic and lumbar extensor muscles during different extension exercise modalities in healthy individuals. Therefore, 14 subjects performed four different types of extension exercises in prone position: dynamic trunk extension, dynamic-static trunk extension, dynamic leg extension, and dynamic-static leg extension. Pre- and post-exercise muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from the latissimus dorsi, the thoracic and lumbar parts of the longissimus, iliocostalis, and multifidus were performed. Differences in water relaxation values (T2-relaxation) before and after exercise were calculated (T2-shift) as a measure of muscle activity and compared between extension modalities. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed higher lumbar extensor activity during trunk extension compared with leg extension (T2-shift of 5.01 ms and 3.55 ms, respectively) and during the dynamic-static exercise performance compared with the dynamic exercise performance (T2-shift of 4.77 ms and 3.55 ms, respectively). No significant differences in the thoracic extensor activity between the exercises could be demonstrated. During all extension exercises, the latissimus dorsi was the least activated compared with the paraspinal muscles. While all extension exercises are equivalent effective to train the thoracic muscles, trunk extension exercises performed in a dynamic-static way are the most appropriate to enhance lumbar muscle strength.

  18. Exercise-Associated Collapse in Endurance Events: A Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classification system devised for exercise-associated collapse in endurance events based on casualties observed at six Twin Cities Marathons. Major diagnostic criteria are body temperature and mental status. Management protocol includes fluid and fuel replacement, temperature correction, and leg cramp treatment. (Author/SM)

  19. Effects of muscular strength, exercise order, and acute whole-body vibration exposure on bat swing speed.

    PubMed

    Reyes, G F Cisco; Dickin, D Clark; Dolny, Dennis G; Crusat, Nolan J K

    2010-12-01

    The purposes for this study were to investigate effects of acute whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure and exercise order on bat speed and to examine relationship between muscular strength and bat speed. All participants were recreationally trained men (n = 16; 22 ± 2 years; 181.4 ± 7.4 cm; 84.7 ± 9 kg), with previous baseball experience and were tested for 1 repetitive maximum (1RM) strength in squat and bench press. Subjects then participated in 4 randomized sessions on separate days, each consisting of 3 sets of 5 bat swings. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements related to bat swing) with or without WBV exposure were performed after sets 1 and 2. Trials were as follows: no-exercise Control (CTRL), upper body followed by lower body exercises without WBV (Arm-Leg NOVIB), upper body followed by lower body exercises with WBV (Arm-Leg VIB), and lower body followed by upper body exercises with WBV (Leg-Arm VIB). Bat speed was recorded during each swing and averaged across sets. Statistical analyses were performed to assess differences across sets and trials. Linear regressions analyzed relationship between strength and bat speed. A significant relationship existed between bat speed and lower body strength (r = 0.406, p = 0.008) but not for upper body strength. The exercise order of Arm-Leg VIB significantly increased bat speed by 2.6% (p = 0.02). Performing identical order of exercises without vibration (Arm-Leg NOVIB) significantly decreased bat speed by 2% (p = 0.039). It was concluded that adding vibration exposure to total-body exercises can provide acute enhancements in bat speed. Additionally, leg strength was shown to influence bat speed suggesting that increasing leg strength may enhance bat speed. PMID:21088545

  20. Effects of muscular strength, exercise order, and acute whole-body vibration exposure on bat swing speed.

    PubMed

    Reyes, G F Cisco; Dickin, D Clark; Dolny, Dennis G; Crusat, Nolan J K

    2010-12-01

    The purposes for this study were to investigate effects of acute whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure and exercise order on bat speed and to examine relationship between muscular strength and bat speed. All participants were recreationally trained men (n = 16; 22 ± 2 years; 181.4 ± 7.4 cm; 84.7 ± 9 kg), with previous baseball experience and were tested for 1 repetitive maximum (1RM) strength in squat and bench press. Subjects then participated in 4 randomized sessions on separate days, each consisting of 3 sets of 5 bat swings. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements related to bat swing) with or without WBV exposure were performed after sets 1 and 2. Trials were as follows: no-exercise Control (CTRL), upper body followed by lower body exercises without WBV (Arm-Leg NOVIB), upper body followed by lower body exercises with WBV (Arm-Leg VIB), and lower body followed by upper body exercises with WBV (Leg-Arm VIB). Bat speed was recorded during each swing and averaged across sets. Statistical analyses were performed to assess differences across sets and trials. Linear regressions analyzed relationship between strength and bat speed. A significant relationship existed between bat speed and lower body strength (r = 0.406, p = 0.008) but not for upper body strength. The exercise order of Arm-Leg VIB significantly increased bat speed by 2.6% (p = 0.02). Performing identical order of exercises without vibration (Arm-Leg NOVIB) significantly decreased bat speed by 2% (p = 0.039). It was concluded that adding vibration exposure to total-body exercises can provide acute enhancements in bat speed. Additionally, leg strength was shown to influence bat speed suggesting that increasing leg strength may enhance bat speed.

  1. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. Many teens who play sports have higher self-esteem than their less active pals, and exercise can ... may have a distorted body image and low self-esteem. They may see themselves as overweight or out ...

  2. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs. Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, hiking, running, aerobic dance, biking, rowing, swimming, and cross-country ... Brisk walking can burn as many calories as running, but it is less likely to cause injuries ...

  3. Leg extension is an important predictor of paretic leg propulsion in hemiparetic walking.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Carrie L; Cheng, Jing; Kautz, Steven A; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-10-01

    Forward propulsion is a central task of walking that depends on the generation of appropriate anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (AP GRFs). The AP impulse (i.e., time integral of the AP GRF) generated by the paretic leg relative to the non-paretic leg is a quantitative measure of the paretic leg's contribution to forward propulsion and is variable across hemiparetic subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of propulsion generation in hemiparetic walking by identifying the biomechanical predictors of AP impulses. Three-dimensional kinematics and GRFs were recorded from 51 hemiparetic and 21 age-matched control subjects walking at similar speeds on an instrumented treadmill. Hierarchical regression models were generated for each leg to predict the AP impulse from independent biomechanical variables. Leg extension was a significant predictor and positively related to the propulsive impulse in the paretic, non-paretic and control legs. Secondarily, the hip flexor moment impulse was negatively related to the propulsive impulse. Also, the relationship of paretic and non-paretic ankle moments with the propulsive impulse depended on the paretic step ratio, suggesting the plantar flexor contribution to the propulsive impulse depends on leg angle. These results suggest that increasing paretic leg extension will increase propulsion. Increasing paretic plantar flexor output and decreasing paretic hip flexor output could also increase paretic leg propulsion. While increased pre-swing hip flexor output has been suggested to compensate for decreased plantar flexor output, such output may further impair propulsion by the paretic leg if it occurs too soon in the gait cycle.

  4. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383

  5. Clinical application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation induced cardiovascular exercise.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Crowe, Louis; Coughlan, Garrett; Minogue, Conor

    2011-01-01

    We need to find novel ways of increasing exercise participation, particularly in those populations who find it difficult to participate in voluntary exercise. In recent years researchers have started to investigate the potential for using electrical stimulation to artificially stimulate a pattern of muscle activity that would induce a physiological response consistent with cardiovascular exercise. Work to date has indicated that this is best achieved by using a stimulation protocol that results in rapid rhythmical isometric contractions of the large leg muscle groups at sub tetanic frequencies. Studies completed by our group indicate that this technique can serve as a viable alternative to voluntary cardiovascular exercise. Apart from being able to induce a cardiovascular exercise effect in patient populations (e.g. heart failure, COPD, spinal cord injury, obesity), this approach may also have value in promotion of exercise activity in a microgravity environment. PMID:22255036

  6. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  7. How can we strengthen the quadriceps femoris in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Defne; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Callaghan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose: the aim of this article was to review the clinical approach of quadriceps strengthening programmes. Methods: a literature search was carried out from 1980 up to September 2011. Eligible studies were those that: (1) evaluated the patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (not healthy or asymptomatic subjects) (2) examined the effect of kinetic chain exercises (3) examined the effect of weight-bearing exercises (4) compared the effect of the combined exercises programme in the treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Results and conclusion: patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome may tolerate a closed kinetic chain exercises programme better than open kinetic chain. Weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing quadriceps exercises can significantly improve subjective and clinical outcomes in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Combining treatments as an initial approach to treating patellofemoral pain but developing individualized more functional, global treatments are essential. PMID:23738270

  8. Near-Infrared Monitoring of Model Chronic Compartment Syndrome In Exercising Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Breit, G. A.; Gross, J. H.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Chance, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) is characterized by muscle ischemia, usually in the anterior oompartment of the leg, caused by high intramuscular pressure during exercise. Dual-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an optical technique that allows noninvasive tracking of variations in muscle tissue oxygenation (Chance et al., 1988). We hypothesized that with a model CCS, muscle tissue oxygenation will show a greater decline during exercise and a slower recovery post-exercise than under normal conditions.

  9. Conductivity of Doped Two-Leg Ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eugene H.

    2001-02-12

    Recently, conductivity measurements were performed on the hole-doped two-leg ladder material Sr{sub 14-x} Ca{sub x}Cu {sub 24}O{sub 41} . In this work, we calculate the conductivity for doped two-leg ladders using a model of hole pairs forming a strongly correlated liquid. Quantum interference effects are handled using renormalization group methods. We find that our model can account for the low-energy features of the experiments. However, at higher energies there are deviations from the predictions of this model. Using the results of our calculations as well as results on the ground state of doped two-leg ladders, we suggest a scenario to explain the experimental results.

  10. Probabilistic Mechanical Reliability Prediction of Thermoelectric Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2009-05-01

    The probability of failure, Pf, for various square-arrayed thermoelectric device designs using bismuth telluride, lead telluride, or skutterudite thermoelectric materials were estimated. Only volume- or bulk-based Pf analysis was considered in this study. The effects of the choice of the thermoelectric material, the size of the leg array, the height of the thermoelectric legs, and the boundary conditions on the Pf of thermoelectric devices were investigated. Yielding of the solder contacts and mounting layer was taken into account. The modeling results showed that the use of longer legs, using skutterudites, allowing the thermoelectric device to freely deform while under a thermal gradient, and using smaller arrays promoted higher probabilities of survival.

  11. Dimensional synthesis of a leg mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, F.; Lovasz, E.-Ch; Pop, C.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    An eight bar leg mechanism dimensional synthesis is presented. The mathematical model regarding the synthesis is described and the results obtained after computation are verified with help of 2D mechanism simulation in Matlab. This mechanism, inspired from proposed solution of Theo Jansen, is integrated into the structure of a 2 DOF quadruped robot. With help of the kinematic synthesis method described, it is tried to determine new dimensions for the mechanism, based on a set of initial conditions. These are established by taking into account the movement of the end point of the leg mechanism, which enters in contact with the ground, during walking. An optimization process based on the results obtained can be conducted further in order to find a better solution for the leg mechanism.

  12. Analog Exercise Hardware to Implement a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Sinka, Joe; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a spaceflight analog setting before validation on the International Space Station, NASA’s Human Research Program is sponsoring a multi-investigator bed rest campaign that uses a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistance and aerobic exercise protocols. These devices include the stand alone zero-gravity locomotion simulator, horizontal squat device, Lode commercial supine cycle ergometer, Cybex commercial prone leg curl machine, and Quantum Fitness commercial horizontal leg press. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware that are used to support current bed rest studies at NASA’s Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, Texas, USA.

  13. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Karvat, Jhenifer; Peretti, Ana Luiza; Vieira, Lizyana; Higuchi, Guilherme Hideaki; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury), exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise), lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise), and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise). LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p = 0.012) and larger than LG and LEG (p < 0.001). Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons.

  14. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Karvat, Jhenifer; Peretti, Ana Luiza; Vieira, Lizyana; Higuchi, Guilherme Hideaki; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury), exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise), lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise), and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise). LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p = 0.012) and larger than LG and LEG (p < 0.001). Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons. PMID:27594795

  15. [Contact eczema in patients with leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Degreef, H; Dooms-Goossens, A; Gladys, K

    1986-01-01

    Patients with leg ulcers or varicose eczema suffer much more often from contact eczema due to the local application of pharmaceutical preparations than patients suffering from other dermatological problems (even those of eczematous origin). This contact allergy may concern not only the active ingredient but also the excipient, the preservative, or even the perfume. In all cases of leg ulcers, of varicose eczema, but also of badly healed ulcers, epicutaneous tests should be carried out with all the components of the pharmaceutical preparations concerned. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry really must perfect non-allergenic preparations.

  16. The Molecular Genetics of Restless Legs Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rye, David B

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor trait defined by symptoms that interfere with sleep onset and maintenance in a clinically meaningful way. Nonvolitional myoclonus while awake and asleep is a sign of the disorder and an informative endophenotype. The genetic contributions to RLS/periodic leg movements are substantial, are among the most robust defined to date for a common disease, and account for much of the variance in disease expressivity. The disorder is polygenic, as revealed by recent genome-wide association studies. Experimental studies are revealing mechanistic details of how these common variants might influence RLS expressivity.

  17. Meta-analysis of the effect of strengthening interventions in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the evidence that strengthening interventions can improve muscle strength and activity in individuals with cerebral palsy. The search focused on studies that employed strength training for children with cerebral palsy for which six electronic databases were used to extract literature published from 2001 to 2012. The key terms used in these searches were combined strength training, strengthening, weight training, weight lifting, resistance, and cerebral palsy. The quality of each study was assessed using the PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) scale. Thirteen randomized controlled trial studies were selected and divided into categories according to program type, mode, and outcome measures. The overall effect sizes of each study and types of strengthening were large. Strengthening exercise improved muscle strength to a greater degree, when practiced 3 times per week in 40-50 min sessions than in other categories of session length, and greater improvement was observed in younger children than in older. The effect size of the activities and variables related to gait, except for gait endurance, were medium to large. The effect size of individual muscles was large, but the effect sizes for ankle plantar flexor, hip abductor/adductor, and extensor were insignificant. Strengthening interventions are useful for increasing muscle strength in individuals with cerebral palsy, specifically in youth and children, and optimal exercise consisted of 40- to 50-min sessions performed 3 times per week. Although strengthening interventions may improve activities, including gait, more studies that are rigorous are needed to determine the contributions to gross motor function.

  18. Meta-analysis of the effect of strengthening interventions in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the evidence that strengthening interventions can improve muscle strength and activity in individuals with cerebral palsy. The search focused on studies that employed strength training for children with cerebral palsy for which six electronic databases were used to extract literature published from 2001 to 2012. The key terms used in these searches were combined strength training, strengthening, weight training, weight lifting, resistance, and cerebral palsy. The quality of each study was assessed using the PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) scale. Thirteen randomized controlled trial studies were selected and divided into categories according to program type, mode, and outcome measures. The overall effect sizes of each study and types of strengthening were large. Strengthening exercise improved muscle strength to a greater degree, when practiced 3 times per week in 40-50 min sessions than in other categories of session length, and greater improvement was observed in younger children than in older. The effect size of the activities and variables related to gait, except for gait endurance, were medium to large. The effect size of individual muscles was large, but the effect sizes for ankle plantar flexor, hip abductor/adductor, and extensor were insignificant. Strengthening interventions are useful for increasing muscle strength in individuals with cerebral palsy, specifically in youth and children, and optimal exercise consisted of 40- to 50-min sessions performed 3 times per week. Although strengthening interventions may improve activities, including gait, more studies that are rigorous are needed to determine the contributions to gross motor function. PMID:24291625

  19. Virtual reality aided training of combined arm and leg movements of children with CP.

    PubMed

    Riener, Robert; Dislaki, Evangelia; Keller, Urs; Koenig, Alexander; Van Hedel, Hubertus; Nagle, Aniket

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) occurs in over 2 out of 1000 live births and can impair motor control and cognition. Our goal was to create a robotic rehabilitation environment that mimics real-life situations by allowing simultaneous exercise of upper and lower limbs. We chose to use the Lokomat as a gait robot and added a novel removable arm robot, called PASCAL (pediatric arm support robot for combined arm and leg training), that was integrated into the Lokomat environment. We also added a virtual reality (VR) environment that enables the subject to perform motivating game-like scenarios incorporating combined arm and leg movements. In this paper we summarize the design of PASCAL and present the novel virtual environment including first experimental results. The next step will be to test whether a combined application of the virtual environment and the two simultaneously working robots is feasible in healthy participants, and finally to clinically evaluate the entire system on children with CP. PMID:23400183

  20. Respiratory-Related Leg Movements and Their Relationship with Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Manconi, Mauro; Zavalko, Irina; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Colamartino, Elisabetta; Pons, Marco; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe the time structure of leg movements (LM) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, in order to advance understanding of their clinical significance. Location: Sleep Research Centre, Oasi Institute (IRCCS), Troina, Italy. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Eighty-four patients (16 females, 68 males, mean age 55.1 y, range 29-74 y). Methods: Respiratory-related leg movements (RRLM) and those unrelated to respiratory events (NRLM) were examined within diagnostic polysomnograms alone and together for their distributions within the sleep period and for their periodicity. Measurements and Results: Patients with OSA and RRLM exhibited more periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS), particularly in NREM sleep. A gradual decrease in number of NRLM across the sleep period was observed in patients with RRLM. This pattern was less clear for RRLM. Frequency histograms of intermovement intervals of all LMs in patients with RRLM showed a prominent first peak at 4 sec, and a second peak at approximately 24 sec coincident with that of PLMS occurring in the absence of OSA. A third peak of lowest amplitude was the broadest with a maximum at approximately 42 sec. In patients lacking RRLM, NRLM were evident with a single peak at 2-4 sec. A stepwise linear regression analysis showed that, after controlling for a diagnosis of restless legs syndrome and apnea-hypopnea index, PLMS remained significantly associated with RRLM. Conclusion: The time structure of leg movements occurring in conjunction with respiratory events exhibit features of periodic leg movements in sleep occurring alone, only with a different and longer period. This brings into question the validity, both biologic and clinical, of scoring conventions with their a priori exclusion from consideration as periodic leg movements in sleep. Citation: Manconi M; Zavalko I; Bassetti CL; Colamartino E; Pons M; Ferri R. Respiratory-related leg movements and their relationship with periodic leg movements

  1. Core temperature response to immersed bicycle ergometer exercise at water temperatures of 21 degrees, 25 degrees, and 29 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Israel, D J; Heydon, K M; Edlich, R F; Pozos, R S; Wittmers, L E

    1989-01-01

    A bicycle ergometer modified for aquatic exercise was used to determine the effects of immersion on core temperature during submaximal exercise at different water temperatures. An exercise intensity (60% of maximal oxygen consumption) and duration (30 minutes) considered appropriate for cardiovascular conditioning were used. These data will be useful in cardiovascular and leg-strengthening hydrotherapy programs. Rectal temperature, skin temperature, and a rating of thermal comfort were studied in five normal men (14.8% +/- 5.6% fat) during headout immersion at water temperatures of 21.1 degrees, 25.3 degrees, and 29.4 degrees C and exercise in air of 21.1 degrees C. Subjects were immersed for 30 minutes during static and exercise (63% +/- 0.6% maximal oxygen consumption) conditions. Data were collected every 5 minutes and analyzed by repeated measured analysis of variance. At water temperatures, rectal temperature fell from control during static immersion (p less than or equal to 0.05) and was lower than control at the end of the 30-minute recovery period (p less than or equal to 0.05). During exercise there was no change in rectal temperature at water temperatures of 21.1 degrees and 25.3 degrees C; however, rectal temperature rose at water temperatures of 29.4 degrees (p less than or equal to 0.05) and air 21.1 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05). At the end of recovery rectal temperature was lower than control at water temperatures 21.1 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05) and greater than control at water temperatures 29.4 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05). There was no change from control in rectal temperatures at water temperatures 25.3 degrees C and air at 21.1 degrees C. These results indicate that immersion in 25.3 degrees and 21.1 degrees C water effectively attenuates the rise in rectal temperature during exercise at 63% of maximal oxygen consumption, whereas immersion in 29.4 degrees C water does not. In addition, both skin and rectal

  2. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced. PMID:25857178

  3. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced.

  4. 27 CFR 24.153 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In any instance where the penal sum of the bond on file becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum or give a... limiting the amount of either bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds will show...

  5. 27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of... surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to cover the entire liability. Strengthening... penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date of execution and the effective date....

  6. 27 CFR 19.246 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In all cases when the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new... amount of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  7. Glass strengthening and patterning methods

    DOEpatents

    Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E

    2015-01-27

    High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.

  8. Burnishing Techniques Strengthen Hip Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1990s, Lambda Research Inc., of Cincinnati, Ohio, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn Research Center to demonstrate low plasticity burnishing (LPB) on metal engine components. By producing a thermally stable deep layer of compressive residual stress, LPB significantly strengthened turbine alloys. After Lambda patented the process, the Federal Aviation Administration accepted LPB for repair and alteration of commercial aircraft components, the U.S. Department of Energy found LPB suitable for treating nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain. Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration confirmed LPB to completely eliminate the occurrence of fretting fatigue failures in modular hip implants.

  9. Inflight Exercise Regimen for the 2-Hour Prebreathe Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Philip P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Woodruff, Kristin K.; Schneider, Susan M.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A 10 min aerobic prebreathe exercise up to 75% V-O2(sub max) on a dual-cycle ergometer, included in the 2-hour prebreathe protocol, has been shown to dramatically reduce the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) at altitude. In-flight only leg ergometry will be available. A balanced exercise was developed using surgical tubing with the ergometer on-orbit. We hypothesize that a 75% V02max workload, individually prescribed, would be achieved using a target heart rate to regulate the intensity of the arm exercise. VO2, heart rate (HR) / ECG, V-CO2 /V-O2, V(sub E), and V(sub T), and rate of perceived exertion (Borg scale) were measured in eleven healthy subjects who passed a US Air Force Class III Physical examination. A V-O2 peak test was performed to assess the sub-maximal exercise prescription. Two series of sub-maximal tests were performed: (1) leg ergometer/hand ergometer and (2) leg ergometer/surgical tubes. We found no significant differences (P > 0.05) in comparing the means for V-O2 and HR between the predicted and measured values during the final 4 minute-stage at "75% V-O2 workload" or between the two types of sub-maximal tests. The prescribed prebreathe sub-maximal exercise performed with flight certified surgical tubes was achieved using the target HR.

  10. Chronic Lower Leg Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078

  11. Mechanics of six-legged runners.

    PubMed

    Full, R J; Tu, M S

    1990-01-01

    Six-legged pedestrians, cockroaches, use a running gait during locomotion. The gait was defined by measuring ground reaction forces and mechanical energy fluctuations of the center of mass in Blaberus discoidalis (Serville) as they travelled over a miniature force platform. These six-legged animals produce horizontal and vertical ground-reaction patterns of force similar to those found in two-, four- and eight-legged runners. Lateral forces were less than half the vertical force fluctuations. At speeds between 0.08 and 0.66 ms-1, horizontal kinetic and gravitational potential energy changes were in phase. This pattern of energy fluctuation characterizes the bouncing gaits used by other animals that run. Blaberus discoidalis attained a maximum sustainable stride frequency of 13 Hz at 0.35 ms-1, the same speed and frequency predicted for a mammal of the same mass. Despite differences in body form, the mass-specific energy used to move the center of mass a given distance (0.9 J kg-1m-1) was the same for cockroaches, ghost crabs, mammals, and birds. Similarities in force production, stride frequency and mechanical energy production during locomotion suggest that there may be common design constraints in terrestrial locomotion which scale with body mass and are relatively independent of body form, leg number and skeletal type.

  12. A large vascular leiomyoma of the leg.

    PubMed

    Cigna, E; Maruccia, M; Malzone, G; Malpassini, F; Soda, G; Drudi, F M

    2012-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman with a subcutaneous, large vascular leiomyoma of the leg is presented. The patient had a painful, slow-growing, right medial malleolus mass. Clinical symptoms, US images and histopathologic features are reported. Vascular leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of painful, lower extremity subcutaneous masses also in lesions of larger dimensions.

  13. Stress fractures of the foot and leg.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S A; Saltzman, C L; Albright, J P

    1993-04-01

    Stress fractures are overuse injuries of bone. Basketball players are particularly prone to develop the notoriously "troublesome" stress fractures of the foot and leg. This article reviews the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of stress fractures, with specific emphasis on the care of the basketball athlete.

  14. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  15. Chronic endurance exercise training offsets the age-related attenuation in contraction-induced rapid vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Casey, Darren P

    2016-06-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated contraction-induced rapid onset vasodilation (ROV). We sought to examine whether chronic exercise training would improve ROV in older adults. Additionally, we examined whether a relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and ROV exists in young and older adults. Chronically exercise-trained older adults (n = 16; 66 ± 2 yr, mean ± SE) performed single muscle contractions in the forearm and leg at various intensities. Brachial and femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Vascular conductance (VC) was calculated as the quotient of blood flow (ml/min) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). These data were compared with our previously published work from an identical protocol in 16 older untrained (66 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) and 14 young (23 ± 1 yr) adults. Peak (ΔVCpeak) and total vasodilator (VCtotal) responses were greater in trained compared with untrained older adults across leg exercise intensities (P < 0.05). There were no differences in responses between trained older and young adults in the arm or leg at any exercise intensity (P > 0.05). Comparison of ΔVCpeak in a subset of subjects at an absolute workload in the leg revealed that trained older adults exhibited augmented responses relative to untrained older adults. Exercise capacity (V̇o2 peak) was associated with ΔVCpeak and VCtotal across arm (r = 0.59-0.64) and leg exercise intensities (r = 0.55-0.68, P < 0.05) in older adults. Our data demonstrate that 1) chronic exercise training improves ROV in the arm and leg of trained older adults, such that age-related differences in ROV are abolished, and 2) VO2peak is associated with ΔVCpeak responses in both limbs of older adults. PMID:27032899

  16. Leg stiffness measures depend on computational method.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Eriksson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Leg stiffness is often computed from ground reaction force (GRF) registrations of vertical hops to estimate the force-resisting capacity of the lower-extremity during ground contact, with leg stiffness values incorporated in a spring-mass model to describe human motion. Individual biomechanical characteristics, including leg stiffness, were investigated in 40 healthy males. Our aim is to report and discuss the use of 13 different computational methods for evaluating leg stiffness from a double-legged repetitive hopping task, using only GRF registrations. Four approximations for the velocity integration constant were combined with three mathematical expressions, giving 12 methods for computing stiffness using double integrations. One frequency-based method that considered ground contact times was also trialled. The 13 methods thus defined were used to compute stiffness in four extreme cases, which were the stiffest, and most compliant, consistent and variable subjects. All methods provided different stiffness measures for a given individual, but the between-method variations in stiffness were consistent across the four atypical subjects. The frequency-based method apparently overestimated the actual stiffness values, whereas double integrations' measures were more consistent. In double integrations, the choice of the integration constant and mathematical expression considerably affected stiffness values, as variations during hopping were more or less emphasized. Stating a zero centre of mass position at take-off gave more consistent results, and taking a weighted-average of the force or displacement curve was more forgiving to variations in performance. In any case, stiffness values should always be accompanied by a detailed description of their evaluation methods, as our results demonstrated that computational methods affect calculated stiffness. PMID:24188972

  17. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  18. 11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  19. Evidence for determining the exercise prescription in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gaught, Amber M; Carneiro, Kevin A

    2013-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease that affects more than one-third of older adults (age > 65 years), most often involving the hip and knee. Osteoarthritis causes pain and limits mobility, thereby reducing patient quality of life. Conservative, nonsurgical, nonpharmacologic treatment strategies include weight reduction, orthotics, physical therapy modalities, acupuncture, massage, and exercise. The breadth of the current literature on OA can make determining the appropriate exercise prescription challenging. Aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, Tai chi, and aquatic exercise can all alleviate pain and improve function in patients with OA. The choice of the specific type and mode of delivery of the exercise should be individualized and should consider the patient's preferences. Ongoing monitoring and supervision by a health care professional are essential for patients to participate in and benefit from exercise.

  20. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  1. Exercise and Posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Shop Exercise & Posture About Spondylitis / Exercise & Posture Overview For The ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ...

  2. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  3. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Divisions Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  4. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  5. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot. PMID:27134364

  6. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  7. Pilot study of the impact of sporting compression garments on composition and volume of normal and lymphedema legs.

    PubMed

    Sierakowski, K; Piller, N

    2014-12-01

    Once clinically manifested as a swollen limb, lymphedema can be difficult to manage. Our focus thus must shift from reactive treatment to proactive management and prevention. On the basis of strong evidence in the literature, lymphedema specialists now encourage exercise as it can improve lymphatic drainage through muscle pump action. However, exercise may increase the lymph load on the vulnerable limb. We aimed to examine whether low level sporting compression is a reasonable recommendation for those with early stage lymphedema by measuring whether sporting compression (SC) tights decrease limb extracellular fluid as measured by Bio-impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) and Perometry in legs following exercise in both healthy controls and those with early stage lymphedema. A group of normal subjects (n=10) and a group of Stage 1 (ISL) lymphedema patients (n=9) were enrolled. Efforts were made to match participants in each group. For those with unilateral lymphedema, the non-affected leg was used as a control. All were measured using BIS, Perometry and Indurometry before and after exercise both with and without sporting compression clothing. The exercise regime was standardized and involved treadmill walking at increasing rates within each person's activity limitation. SC tights were shown to significantly decrease the fluid build up caused by exercise in lymphedema-affected limbs as measured with BIS (p=0.0302). Perometry measurements showed that SC caused a significant decrease in limb volume post exercise of the whole cohort (p=0.0081) and of the control Group B (p=0.0348). Our findings support the notion that SC may provide a socially acceptable and effective means of lymphedema control during exercise for early lymphedema management. PMID:25915979

  8. Effects of transdermal estrogen on collagen turnover at rest and in response to exercise in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pingel, J; Langberg, H; Skovgård, D; Koskinen, S; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J; Kjær, M; Hansen, M

    2012-10-01

    Menopause is associated with loss of collagen content in the skin and tendon as well as accumulation of noncontractile tissue in skeletal muscle. The relative role of hormones and physical activity on these changes is not known. Accordingly, in a randomized, controlled, crossover study we investigated effects of transdermal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on type I collagen synthesis in tendon and skeletal muscle in 11 postmenopausal women. Patches with estrogen (Evorel) were placed on the skin above the patellar tendons and compared with no patch (control period). On day 2 all subjects performed one-legged exercise, and thereafter the exercised leg (EX leg) was compared with the nonexercised leg (Rest leg). Microdialysis catheters were placed in front of the patellar tendons and in the vastus lateralis muscle of both legs at days 3 and 5. The collected dialysate was analyzed for procollagen type I NH(2)-terminal propeptide (PINP), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Neither loading (Rest leg vs. EX leg) nor treatment (control vs. ERT) influenced peritendinous PINP, whereas combined exercise and ERT enhanced muscle PINP after 72 h (interaction between loading and treatment P = 0.008). In neither skeletal muscle nor peritendinous fluid were IGF-I and IL-6 influenced by treatment or exercise. In conclusion, ERT was associated with enhanced synthesis of type I collagen in the skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. In perspective, this indicates that the availability of estrogen in postmenopausal women is important for repair of muscle damage or remodeling of the connective tissue within the skeletal muscle after exercise.

  9. Muscle stimulation waveform timing patterns for upper and lower leg muscle groups to increase muscular endurance in functional electrical stimulation pedaling using a forward dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Hakansson, Nils A; Hull, M L

    2009-09-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of pedaling provides a means by which individuals with spinal cord injury can obtain cardiorespiratory exercise. However, the early onset of muscle fatigue is a limiting factor in the cardiorespiratory exercise obtained while pedaling an FES ergometer. One objective of this study was to determine muscle excitation timing patterns to increase muscle endurance in FES pedaling for three upper leg muscle groups and to compare these timing patterns to those used in a commercially available FES ergometer. The second objective was to determine excitation timing patterns for a lower leg muscle group in conjunction with the three upper leg muscle groups. The final objective was to determine the mechanical energy contributions of each of the muscle groups to drive the crank. To fulfill these objectives, we developed a forward dynamic simulation of FES pedaling to determine electrical stimulation on and off times that minimize the muscle stress-time integral of the stimulated muscles. The computed electrical stimulation on and off times differed from those utilized by a commercially available FES ergometer and resulted in 17% and 11% decrease in the muscle stress-time integral for the three upper leg muscle groups and four upper and lower leg muscle groups, respectively. Also, the duration of muscle activation by the hamstrings increased by 5% over a crank cycle for the computed stimulation on and off times, and the mechanical energy generated by the hamstrings increased by 20%. The lower leg muscle group did not generate sufficient mechanical energy to reduce the energy contributions of the upper leg muscle groups. The computed stimulation on and off times could prolong FES pedaling, and thereby provide improved cardiorespiratory and muscle training outcomes for individuals with spinal cord injury. Including the lower leg muscle group in FES pedaling could increase cardiorespiratory demand while not affecting the endurance of the

  10. Muscle stimulation waveform timing patterns for upper and lower leg muscle groups to increase muscular endurance in functional electrical stimulation pedaling using a forward dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Hakansson, Nils A; Hull, M L

    2009-09-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of pedaling provides a means by which individuals with spinal cord injury can obtain cardiorespiratory exercise. However, the early onset of muscle fatigue is a limiting factor in the cardiorespiratory exercise obtained while pedaling an FES ergometer. One objective of this study was to determine muscle excitation timing patterns to increase muscle endurance in FES pedaling for three upper leg muscle groups and to compare these timing patterns to those used in a commercially available FES ergometer. The second objective was to determine excitation timing patterns for a lower leg muscle group in conjunction with the three upper leg muscle groups. The final objective was to determine the mechanical energy contributions of each of the muscle groups to drive the crank. To fulfill these objectives, we developed a forward dynamic simulation of FES pedaling to determine electrical stimulation on and off times that minimize the muscle stress-time integral of the stimulated muscles. The computed electrical stimulation on and off times differed from those utilized by a commercially available FES ergometer and resulted in 17% and 11% decrease in the muscle stress-time integral for the three upper leg muscle groups and four upper and lower leg muscle groups, respectively. Also, the duration of muscle activation by the hamstrings increased by 5% over a crank cycle for the computed stimulation on and off times, and the mechanical energy generated by the hamstrings increased by 20%. The lower leg muscle group did not generate sufficient mechanical energy to reduce the energy contributions of the upper leg muscle groups. The computed stimulation on and off times could prolong FES pedaling, and thereby provide improved cardiorespiratory and muscle training outcomes for individuals with spinal cord injury. Including the lower leg muscle group in FES pedaling could increase cardiorespiratory demand while not affecting the endurance of the

  11. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity.

  12. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity. PMID:26377556

  13. Lateral lower leg perforator flaps: an anatomical study to localize and classify lateral lower leg perforators.

    PubMed

    Hupkens, Pieter; Schijns, Wendy; Van Abeelen, Marjolijn; Kooloos, Jan G M; Slater, Nicholas J; Ulrich, Dietmar J O

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing use of lateral lower leg perforator flaps, comprehensive anatomical data are still lacking. The aim of this article was to comprehensively document the pattern of usable lateral lower leg perforators. Systematic mapping of 16 cadaver leg perforators in a well-defined area was performed to elucidate location, course, length, diameter, and origin. Overall, 197 perforators were found in 16 lateral lower legs. The mean number of perforators per leg with a diameter ≥ 0.3 mm was 13.4 ± 3.6. Most perforators were found in the distal third (39.0%), followed by the middle third (32.0%), and proximal third (29.0%). A musculocutaneous course was found in 26.9% of the perforators, whereas 73.1% revealed a septocutaneous course. Most septocutaneous perforators (50.0%) were found in the distal third and most musculocutaneous perforators (58.5%) in the proximal third (P < 0.001). The majority of perforators originated from the anterior tibial artery (53.0%), followed by the peroneal artery (41.6%), and the popliteal artery (5.1%). Popliteal artery perforators (1.64 mm) were significantly larger than anterior tibial artery (0.91 mm) and peroneal artery perforators (1.02 mm; P < 0.001). These results may facilitate tissue transfer around the lateral lower leg.

  14. Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, J.L.

    1984-06-15

    It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders.

  15. Budget Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clowes, Darrel A.

    Following a discussion of the factors to be considered in constructing feasible college budgets, an exercise in budget development is presented involving a hypothetical community college with 2,500 full-time equivalent (FTE) students, 500 in developmental education, 750 each in transfer and technical programs, and 500 undecided. Exercise…

  16. [Exercise addiction].

    PubMed

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  17. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  18. Exercise testing and training in patients with peripheral vascular disease and lower extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Priebe, M; Davidoff, G; Lampman, R M

    1991-05-01

    Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a high risk of coronary artery disease. The risk is even greater when the peripheral vascular disease leads to lower extremity amputation. Exercise testing using lower extremity exercise has been the "gold standard" for screening for coronary artery disease, but many patients with peripheral vascular disease and those with amputations have difficulty doing this type of exercise. Arm exercise ergometry has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative for the detection of coronary artery disease in patients who cannot do leg exercise. This test has also been used to determine safe exercise levels and may be able to predict the ultimate level of prosthetic use in amputees. Exercise training with arm ergometry also improves cardiovascular efficiency and upper body strength in poorly conditioned patients. Studies are needed to appreciate fully the role of exercise testing and training in the recovery of these patients after amputation. PMID:1866958

  19. Structured exercise in older adults with limited functional ability.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Mariane M; Topp, Robert; McNevin, Nancy; Morgan, Amy L; Boardley, Debra J

    2007-06-01

    The authors of this study examined the effects of a 16-week exercise program designed to increase aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and muscular endurance in older adults who reported and exhibited limited functional ability. Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise (n=39) or a control (n=34) group. Dependent variables tested included measures of fitness (aerobic exercise capacity and isokinetic strength testing of the legs and arms) and measures of functional capacity (time to and off the floor, stair test, chair stand, and bicep curl). At the end of the program, there were significant differences between the exercise and control groups in arm strength, chair stand, and biceps curl. The results of this study indicate functionally limited older adults who maintain a structured exercise program for 16 weeks exhibit increased functional ability.

  20. Exercise thermoregulation in men after 6 hours of immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Spaul, W. A.; Kravik, S. E.; Wong, N.; Elder, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with thermoregulation at rest and during exercise after water-immersion deconditioning, giving particular attention to the effects of fluid shifts and negative water balance on sweat rate and rectal temperature. Six healthy males 20-35 years old were used in the experiments. Rectal and mean skin temperature, skin heat conductance, heart rate, and total body sweat rate were measured during 70 min of supine leg exercise at 50 percent of peak O2 uptake. The data were taken after a 6-h control period in air and after immersion to the neck in water (34.5 C) for 6 h after overnight food and fluid restriction. Attention is given to end exercise heart rates and data during exercise. The obtained results suggest that, compared with control responses, the equilibrium level of core temperature during submaximal exercise is regulated at a higher level after immersion.

  1. Hamstring exercises for track and field athletes: injury and exercise biomechanics, and possible implications for exercise selection and primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Pehlivanidis, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Valle, Xavier; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring strain injuries are the most prevalent muscle injuries in track and field (TF). These injuries often cause prolonged symptoms and a high risk of re-injury. Strengthening of the hamstring muscles has been recommended for injury prevention. The authors review the possible role of eccentric training in TF hamstring injury prevention and introduce exercise classification criteria to guide clinicians in designing strengthening programmes adapted to TF. The principles exposed may serve as a foundation for future development and application of new eccentric programmes to decrease the high incidence of this type of injury in other sports.

  2. Work capacity during 30 days of bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Trowbridge, T. S.; Wade, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a study to determine whether or not short-term variable intensity isotonic and intermittent high-intensity isokinetic short-duration leg exercise is effective for the maintenance of peak O2 (VO2) uptake and muscular strength and endurance, respectively, during 30 days of -6 deg head-down bed rest deconditioning. The results show no significant changes in leg peak torque, leg mean total work, arm total peak torque, or arm mean total work for members of the isotonic, isokinetic, and controls groups. Changes are observed, however, in peak VO2 levels. The results suggest that near-peak variabile intensity, isotonic leg excercise maintains peak VO2 during 30 days of bed rest, while peak intermittent, isokinetic leg excercise protocol does not.

  3. The effects of trunk stability exercise and a combined exercise program on pain, flexibility, and static balance in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, Gak; Lee, Chae-Woo; Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Hyeon-Su

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of trunk stability exercise and combined exercise program on pain, flexibility, and static balance in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty persons diagnosed with chronic low back pain were divided into a trunk stability exercise group and a combined exercise group and then conducted exercise for six weeks. [Results] VAS and sway lengths decreased significantly in both groups. A comparison of sway lengths after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the trunk stability exercise group had a bigger decrease than the combined exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that trunk stability exercise would have bigger effect than combined exercise on the daily activities of chronic low back pain patients as it strengthens deep abdominal muscles and improves flexibility and balancing ability.

  4. Intensive exercise training suppresses testosterone during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Stanford, K. I.; Stein, T. P.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    Spaceflight and prolonged bed rest (BR) alter plasma hormone levels inconsistently. This may be due, in part, to prescription of heavy exercise as a countermeasure for ameliorating the adverse effects of disuse. The initial project was to assess exercise programs to maintain aerobic performance and leg strength during BR. The present study evaluates the effect of BR and the performance of the prescribed exercise countermeasures on plasma steroid levels. In a 30-day BR study of male subjects, the efficacy of isotonic (ITE, n = 7) or isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training was evaluated in contrast to no exercise (n = 5). These exercise countermeasures protected aerobic performance and leg strength successfully. BR alone (no-exercise group) did not change steroidogenesis, as assessed by the plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, aldosterone, and free (FT) and total testosterone (TT). In the exercise groups, both FT and TT were decreased (P < 0.05): FT during IKE from 24 +/- 1.7 to 18 +/- 2.0 pg/ml and during ITE from 21 +/- 1.5 to 18 +/- 1 pg/ml, and TT during IKE from 748 +/- 68 to 534 +/- 46 ng/dl and during ITE from 565 +/- 36 to 496 +/- 38 ng/dl. The effect of intensive exercise countermeasures on plasma testosterone was not associated with indexes of overtraining. The reduction in plasma testosterone associated with both the IKE and ITE countermeasures during BR supports our hypothesis that intensive exercise countermeasures may, in part, contribute to changes in plasma steroid concentrations during spaceflight.

  5. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  6. Haemodynamic responses to exercise, ATP infusion and thigh compression in humans: insight into the role of muscle mechanisms on cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, José; Mortensen, Stefan P; Jeppesen, Tina D; Ali, Leena; Barker, Horace; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Secher, Niels H; Dawson, Ellen A; Dufour, Stéphane P

    2008-01-01

    The muscle pump and muscle vasodilatory mechanims are thought to play important roles in increasing and maintaining muscle perfusion and cardiac output during exercise, but their actual contributions remain uncertain. To evaluate the role of the skeletal muscle pump and vasodilatation on cardiovascular function during exercise, we determined leg and systemic haemodynamic responses in healthy men during (1) incremental one-legged knee-extensor exercise, (2) step-wise femoral artery ATP infusion at rest, (3) passive exercise (n = 10), (4) femoral vein or artery ATP infusion (n = 6), and (5) cyclic thigh compressions at rest and during passive and voluntary exercise (n = 7). Incremental exercise resulted in progressive increases in leg blood flow (ΔLBF 7.4 ± 0.7 l min−1), cardiac output ( 8.7 ± 0.7 l min−1), mean arterial pressure (ΔMAP 51 ± 5 mmHg), and leg and systemic oxygen delivery and . Arterial ATP infusion resulted in similar increases in , LBF, and systemic and leg oxygen delivery, but central venous pressure and muscle metabolism remained unchanged and MAP was reduced. In contrast, femoral vein ATP infusion did not alter LBF, or MAP. Passive exercise also increased blood flow (ΔLBF 0.7 ± 0.1 l min−1), yet the increase in muscle and systemic perfusion, unrelated to elevations in aerobic metabolism, accounted only for ∼5% of peak exercise hyperaemia. Likewise, thigh compressions alone or in combination with passive exercise increased blood flow (ΔLBF 0.5–0.7 l min−1) without altering , MAP or . These findings suggest that the skeletal muscle pump is not obligatory for sustaining venous return, central venous pressure, stroke volume and or maintaining muscle blood flow during one-legged exercise in humans. Further, its contribution to muscle and systemic peak exercise hyperaemia appears to be minimal in comparison to the effects of muscle vasodilatation. PMID:18339690

  7. Adaptive Force Regulation of Muscle Strengthening Rehabilitation Device With Magnetorheological Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home. PMID:16562632

  8. Adaptive force regulation of muscle strengthening rehabilitation device with magnetorheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

    2006-03-01

    In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home. PMID:16562632

  9. Chronic leg ulcers in Werner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yeong, E K; Yang, C C

    2004-01-01

    We report two siblings suffered from Werner's syndrome, which is a rare premature aging disorder caused by genetic mutations. They developed premature aging during adolescence with loss and graying of hair, short stature, baldness, atrophic skin, thin extremities, flat feet, 'bird' face and cataracts. Multiple chronic ulcers were noted over the feet in both patients. Healing was prolonged because of atrophic subcutaneous tissue, poor perfusion, impaired fibroblast activity and the loss of normal foot architecture. Treatment of the ulcers was challenging, as flap options were limited over the lower third of the leg and skin grafting was not easy as there was a lack of healthy granulations. However, we have successfully closed the ulcers with Integra artificial skin and ultra-thin split thickness skin grafting with the scalp as donor site. The main purpose of this paper is to alert physicians to this syndrome when treatments are being planned for patients with chronic leg ulcers.

  10. Effect of regular exercise on health and disease.

    PubMed

    Karacabey, Kursat

    2005-10-01

    It is known for a long time that exercise increases physical adequacy, has beneficial effects on the general health condition as well as a playing preventing role against various disease states. To decrease the risk of disease and maintain good health, the natural defense system of the organism needs to be strengthened. It is thought that in addition to increasing the body's resistance to disease through the strengthening of the immune system, decreases the convalescence time, increases work efficiency and improves the sportive performance of the individual all which would contribute positively to the national economy. The positive effects of regular exercising of aerobic nature such as strengthening of the immune system, protection against diseases as well as its positive effects on quality of life will help to emphasize the importance of physical exercise and improve the general view of sports by society. PMID:16264392

  11. Restrictions in systemic and locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion, oxygen supply and during high-intensity whole-body exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2008-01-01

    Perfusion to exercising skeletal muscle is regulated to match O2 delivery to the O2 demand, but this regulation might be compromised during or approaching maximal whole-body exercise as muscle blood flow for a given work rate is blunted. Whether muscle perfusion is restricted when there is an extreme metabolic stimulus to vasodilate during supramaximal exercise remains unknown. To examine the regulatory limits of systemic and muscle perfusion in exercising humans, we measured systemic and leg haemodynamics, O2 transport, and , and estimated non-locomotor tissue perfusion during constant load supramaximal cycling (498 ± 16 W; 110% of peak power; mean ± s.e.m.) in addition to both incremental cycling and knee-extensor exercise to exhaustion in 13 trained males. During supramaximal cycling, cardiac output (), leg blood flow (LBF), and systemic and leg O2 delivery and reached peak values after 60–90 s and thereafter levelled off at values similar to or ∼6% (P < 0.05) below maximal cycling, while upper body blood flow remained unchanged (∼5.5 l min−1). In contrast, and LBF increased linearly until exhaustion during one-legged knee-extensor exercise accompanying increases in non-locomotor tissue blood flow to ∼12 l min−1. At exhaustion during cycling compared to knee-extensor exercise, , LBF, leg vascular conductance, leg O2 delivery and leg for a given power were reduced by 32–47% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion is restricted during maximal and supramaximal whole–body exercise in association with a plateau in and limb vascular conductance. These observations suggest that limits of cardiac function and muscle vasoconstriction underlie the inability of the circulatory system to meet the increasing metabolic demand of skeletal muscles and other tissues during whole-body exercise. PMID:18372307

  12. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    2014-12-16

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  13. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  14. Auger Tension Leg Platform cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, A.D.; Smith, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion control design for the exterior submerged and buried steel surfaces of the 2,850 ft (869 m) water depth Auger Tension Leg Platform structure is described. Each major type of structural component has its own combination of coating and cathodic protection (CP) systems designed for a 35-year lifetime. Results of early in-service CP surveys of the tendons and guidebases are presented, showing the successful achievement of CP against seawater corrosion.

  15. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer’s Walk Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stastny, Petr; Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana; Pietraszewski, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q) is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB) weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years) performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer’s walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM). Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus medius (Gmed) on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ≥ 0.5, HQ < 0.5, HAB/H ≥ 1, HAB/H < 1, HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 and HAB/Q < 0.5. One way ANOVA showed that Gmed activity was significantly greater in the group with HAB/H < 1 (42 ± 14 %MVIC) as compared to HAB/H ≥ 1 (26 ± 10 %MVIC) and HAB/Q < 0.5 (47 ± 19 %MVIC) compared to HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 (26 ± 12 %MVIC). The individuals with HAB/H < 1 were found to have greater activation of their Gmed during the Farmer’s walk exercise. Individuals with HAB/Q < 0.5 had greater activation of the Gmed. Gmed strength ratios predict the muscle involvement when a moderate amount of the external load is used. The Farmer’s walk is recommended as an exercise which can strengthen the gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5. PMID:25964819

  16. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  17. Legged-locomotion on inclined granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieser, Jennifer; Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    Animals traverse a wide variety of complex environments, including situations in which the ground beneath them can yield (e.g. dry granular media in desert dunes). Locomotion strategies that are effective on level granular media can fail when traversing a granular slope. Taking inspiration from successful legged-locomotors in sandy, uneven settings, we explore the ability of a small (15 cm long, 100 g), six-c-shaped legged robot to run uphill in a bed of 1-mm-diameter poppy seeds, using an alternating tripod gait. Our fully automated experiments reveal that locomotor performance can depend sensitively on both environmental parameters such as the inclination angle and volume fraction of the substrate, and robot morphology and control parameters like leg shape, step frequency, and the friction between the feet of the robot and the substrate. We assess performance by measuring the average speed of the robot, and we find that the robot tends to perform better at higher step frequency and lower inclination angles, and that average speed decreases more rapidly with increasing angle for higher step frequency.

  18. Exercise for falls prevention in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen R.; Close, Jacqueline C.T.; Heritier, Stephane; Heller, Gillian Z.; Howard, Kirsten; Allen, Natalie E.; Latt, Mark D.; Murray, Susan M.; O'Rourke, Sandra D.; Paul, Serene S.; Song, Jooeun; Fung, Victor S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether falls can be prevented with minimally supervised exercise targeting potentially remediable fall risk factors, i.e., poor balance, reduced leg muscle strength, and freezing of gait, in people with Parkinson disease. Methods: Two hundred thirty-one people with Parkinson disease were randomized into exercise or usual-care control groups. Exercises were practiced for 40 to 60 minutes, 3 times weekly for 6 months. Primary outcomes were fall rates and proportion of fallers during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes were physical (balance, mobility, freezing of gait, habitual physical activity), psychological (fear of falling, affect), and quality-of-life measures. Results: There was no significant difference between groups in the rate of falls (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–1.17, p = 0.18) or proportion of fallers (p = 0.45). Preplanned subgroup analysis revealed a significant interaction for disease severity (p < 0.001). In the lower disease severity subgroup, there were fewer falls in the exercise group compared with controls (IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.15–0.62, p < 0.001), while in the higher disease severity subgroup, there was a trend toward more falls in the exercise group (IRR = 1.61, 95% CI 0.86–3.03, p = 0.13). Postintervention, the exercise group scored significantly (p < 0.05) better than controls on the Short Physical Performance Battery, sit-to-stand, fear of falling, affect, and quality of life, after adjusting for baseline performance. Conclusions: An exercise program targeting balance, leg strength, and freezing of gait did not reduce falls but improved physical and psychological health. Falls were reduced in people with milder disease but not in those with more severe Parkinson disease. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with Parkinson disease, a minimally supervised exercise program does not reduce fall risk. This study lacked

  19. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Approach to venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Leg ulcerations are a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% in the adult population. Venous leg ulcers are primarily treated in outpatient settings and often are managed by dermatologists. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers combined with available evidence-based data will provide an update on this topic. A systematized approach and the judicious use of expensive advanced therapeutics are critical. Specialized arterial and venous studies are most commonly noninvasive. The ankle brachial pressure index can be performed with a handheld Doppler unit at the bedside by most clinicians. The vascular laboratory results and duplex Doppler findings are used to identify segmental defects and potential operative candidates. Studies of the venous system can also predict a subset of patients who may benefit from surgery. Successful leg ulcer management requires an interdisciplinary team to make the correct diagnosis, assess the vascular supply, and identify other modifiable factors to optimize healing. The aim of this continuing medical education article is to provide an update on the management of venous leg ulcers. Part I is focused on the approach to venous ulcer diagnostic testing.

  20. Restless legs syndrome in a primary contact setting: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Stupar, Maja

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the diagnostic features of a patient who presented to a chiropractor with restless legs syndrome (RLS), a common but often under-diagnosed condition. Clinical Features A 42-year-old male patient presented with twitching and deep pressure in the legs bilaterally; described also as an uncomfortable urge to move the legs that followed a circadian rhythm occurring in the evening. The symptoms were initiated after periods of rest and they were relieved by movement. Physical examination was non-contributory which is common in RLS except in secondary forms of the condition. Discussion The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown but several treatments have been studied. Non-pharmacologic treatment options include education on improving sleep hygiene, decreasing alcohol and caffeine intake, moderate exercise and supplements. Pharmacological treatment options are available, with L-dopa being the most effective. Conclusion The symptoms of RLS were 65% resolved in the case presented in one month. Awareness and proper diagnosis by all primary contact practitioners is necessary for effective management of RLS. PMID:18516284

  1. View of treadmill-like exercise device developed for Skylab 4 crewmen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A close-up view of a treadmill-like exercise device developed for maintaining the leg and back muscles of the Skylab 4 crewmen. The treadmill device consists of a Teflon-coated aluminum plate or sheet bolted to the floor of the Skylab Orbital Workshop. The astronaut will wear the bicycle ergometer harness while exercising. Bungee cords attached to the floor and to the harness will supply the downward pressure or force for the back and leg muscles. The astronaut's feet will slide over the Teflon-coated plate as he 'marches in place.'

  2. View of treadmill-like exercise device developed for Skylab 4 crewmen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A close-up view of the foot of Scientist-Astronaut William E. Thonton as he demonstrates the use of a treadmill-like exercise device developed for maintaining the leg and back muscles of the Skylab 4 crewmen. The treadmill device consists of a Teflon-coated aluminum plate or sheet bolted to the floor of the Skylab Orbital Workshop. The astronaut will wear the bicycle ergometer harness while exercising. Bungee cords attached to the floor and to the harness will supply the downward pressure or force for the back and leg muscles. The astronaut's feet will slide over the Teflon-coated plate as he 'marches in place.'

  3. Naturally occurring muscle pain during exercise: assessment and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Cook, D B; O'Connor, P J; Eubanks, S A; Smith, J C; Lee, M

    1997-08-01

    The objectives were: (i) to present a method for assessing muscle pain during exercise, (ii) to provide reliability and validity data in support of the measurement tool, (iii) to test whether leg muscle pain threshold during exercise was related to a commonly used measure of pain threshold pain during test, (iv) to examine the relationship between pain and exertion ratings, (v) to test whether leg muscle pain is related to performance, and (vi) to test whether a large dose of aspirin would delay leg muscle pain threshold and/or reduce pain ratings during exercise. In study 1, seven females and seven males completed three 1-min cycling bouts at three different randomly ordered power outputs. Pain was assessed using a 10-point pain scale. High intraclass correlations (R from 0.88 to 0.98) indicated that pain intensity could be rated reliably using the scale. In study 2, 11 college-aged males (age 21.3 +/- 1.3 yr) performed a ramped (24 W.min-1) maximal cycle ergometry test. A button was depressed when leg muscle pain threshold was reached. Pain threshold occurred near 50% of maximal capacity: 50.3 (+/- 12.9% Wmax), 48.6 (+/- 14.8% VO2max), and 55.8 (+/- 12.9% RPEmax). Pain intensity ratings obtained following pain threshold were positively accelerating function of the relative exercise intensity. Volitional exhaustion was associated with pain ratings of 8.2 (+/- 2.5), a value most closely associated with the verbal anchor "very strong pain." In study 3, participants completed the same maximal exercise test as in study 2 as well as leg cycling at 60 rpm for 8 s at four randomly ordered power outputs (100, 150, 200, and 250 W) on a separate day. Pain and RPE ratings were significantly lower during the 8-s bouts compared to those obtained at the same power outputs during the maximal cycle test. The results suggest that noxious metabolites of muscle contraction play a role in leg muscle pain during exercise. In study 4, moderately active male subjects (N = 19) completed

  4. Carotid Baroreflex Function During Prolonged Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    Astronauts are often required to work (exercise) at moderate to high intensities for extended periods while performing extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Although the physiologic responses associated with prolonged exercise have been documented, the mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation under these conditions have not yet been fully elucidated. An understanding of this issue is pertinent to the ability of humans to perform work in microgravity and complies with the emphasis of NASA's Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program. Prolonged exercise at a constant workload is know to result in a progressive decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) concomitant with a decrease in stroke volume and a compensatory increase in heart rate. The continuous decrease in MAP during the exercise, which is related to the thermoregulatory redistribution of circulating blood volume to the cutaneous circulation, raises the question as to whether there is a loss of baroreflex regulation of arterial blood pressure. We propose that with prolongation of the exercise to 60 minutes, progressive increases on central command reflect a progressive upward resetting of the carotid baroreflex (CBR) such that the operating point of the CBR is shifted to a pressure below the threshold of the reflex rendering it ineffectual in correcting the downward drift in MAP. In order to test this hypothesis, experiments have been designed to uncouple the global hemodynamic response to prolonged exercise from the central command mediated response via: (1) continuous maintenance of cardiac filling volume by intravenous infusion of a dextran solution; and (2) whole body surface cooling to counteract thermoregulatory cutaneous vasodialation. As the type of work (exercise) performed by astronauts is inherently arm and upper body dependent, we will also examine the physiologic responses to prolonged leg cycling and arm ergometry exercise in the supine positions with and without level lower body negative

  5. [Nonpharmacological and nonsurgical therapies for osteoarthritis: orthosis, exercises].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Katherine; Eloumri, Amine; Rannou, Francois; Poiraudeau, Serge

    2010-11-01

    Unloading valgus knee braces may be more effective than knee sleeves, to improve pain and disability for medial knee osteoarthritis, but have more adverse effects. A lateral-wedge insole could reduce pain in medial knee osteoarthritis. Cushioning insoles and footwear with shock absorbance could be proposed for hip osteoarthritis by authors' recommendations. Nocturnal splints for base-of-thumb osteoarthritis are recommended to reduce pain and disability. Aerobic, strengthening, range-of-motion and proprioceptive exercise are recommended to decrease pain and improve function and quality of life in knee and hip osteoarthritis. Strengthening and range-of-motion exercise is recommended for hand osteoarthritis.

  6. Individual Muscle use in Hamstring Exercises by Soccer Players Assessed using Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, R; Tesch, P A; Linnehan, R M; Kreider, R B; Di Salvo, V; Suarez-Arrones, L; Alomar, X; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Rodas, G

    2016-06-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare individual muscle use in exercises aimed at preventing hamstring injuries. Thirty-six professional soccer players were randomized into 4 groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg curl, Russian belt or conic-pulley exercise. MRIs were performed before and immediately after a bout of 4 sets of 8 repetitions. Pre-post exercise differences in contrast shift (T2) were analyzed for the long (BFLh) and short head (BFSh) of biceps femoris, semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and gracilis (GR) muscles. Flywheel leg curl increased (P<0.001) T2 of GR (95%), ST (65%), BFSh (51%) and BFLh (14%). After the Nordic hamstring, GR (39%), ST (16%) and BFSh (14%) showed increased T2 (P<0.001). Russian belt and conic-pulley exercise produced subtle (P<0.02) T2 increases of ST (9 and 6%, respectively) and BFLh (7 and 6%, respectively). Russian belt increased T2 of SM (7%). Among exercises examined, flywheel leg curl showed the most substantial hamstring and GR muscle use. However, no single exercise executed was able to increase T2 of all hamstring and synergist muscles analyzed. It is therefore suggested that multiple exercises must be carried out to bring in, and fully activate all knee flexors and hip extensors. PMID:27116347

  7. Orthostasis: exercise and exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.

  8. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Connor, James R; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Patton, Stephanie M; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest. Data from a variety of sources provide a compelling argument that the amount of iron in the brain is lower in individuals with restless legs syndrome compared with neurologically normal individuals. Moreover, a significant percentage of patients with restless legs syndrome are responsive to intravenous iron therapy. The mechanism underlying the decreased iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome brains is unknown. We hypothesize that the source of the brain iron deficit is at the blood-brain interface. Thus we analysed the expression of iron management proteins in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and the brain microvasculature in post-mortem tissues. The choroid plexus, obtained at autopsy, from 18 neurologically normal controls and 14 individuals who had primary restless legs syndrome was subjected to histochemical staining for iron and immunostaining for iron management proteins. Iron and heavy chain ferritin staining was reduced in the epithelial cells of choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Divalent metal transporter, ferroportin, transferrin and its receptor were upregulated in the choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Microvessels were isolated from the motor cortex of 11 restless legs syndrome and 14 control brains obtained at autopsy and quantitative immunoblot analyses was performed. Expression of heavy chain ferritin, transferrin and its receptor in the microvessels from restless legs syndrome was significantly decreased compared with the controls but divalent metal protein 1, ferroportin, prohepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and light-chain ferritin remained unchanged. The presence of an iron regulatory protein was demonstrated in the brain microvasculature and the activity of this protein is decreased in restless legs syndrome; a finding similar to our earlier report in neuromelanin cells from the substantia nigra

  9. Impact of an exercise program on adherence and fitness indicators.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Roger; Gilleland, Diana

    2016-05-01

    Adherence to exercise is one of the most problematic health behaviors. This pilot study describes the impact of an exercise program on adherence to exercise and fitness indicators for overweight and obese adults enrolled in an insurance reimbursed exercise plan. Chart reviews were conducted retrospectively in a convenience sample of 77 subjects from a human performance lab (HPL) at a large southern university. Charts from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed for health history, fitness indicators (fitness level, weight, BMI, hip/waist ratio, % body fat, BP, HR, cholesterol), and adherence (number of exercise sessions/month). Exercise supervision was operationalized in two phases over 12 months: Phase I (3 months supervised exercise) and Phase II (9 months unsupervised exercise). Fifty-eight participants completed Phase I, and 8 completed Phase II. Six-nine percent of those completing Phase I visited the gym at least 8 times/month with significant (α=.05) improvement in all fitness indicators. Those visiting <8 times/month had improvement in fitness level, weight, BMI, and % body fat. Twenty-four subjects continued into Phase II, with only eight completing Phase II. Of those eight, only one subject visited the HPL at least 8 times/month. Health history data including co-morbidities, symptoms, habits, perceived tension, job stress, and fitness level were not associated with adherence. Symptoms of swollen, stiff, painful joints, and swollen ankles and legs were associated with decreased adherence to exercise. Supervised exercise was positively related to adherence and improved fitness indicators. Adults with joint symptoms may require more support. Based on these pilot data, designing a study with a larger sample and the inclusion of barriers and facilitators for adherence to self-directed exercise would allow additional analysis. Innovative interventions are needed that mimic the supervised environment, shifting responsibility for the exercise plan from the supervisor to

  10. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. Methods In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Results Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all p<0.01). A score based on the relation HRR (bpm)+7.3×METs−10.5×ST depression (0=no; 1=yes) prognosticated 5-year cardiovascular mortality with a C-statistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77–0.79 before and 0.82–0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64–0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Conclusions Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise. PMID:26835142

  11. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode. PMID:26501683

  12. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode.

  13. An analytical model of the knee for estimation of internal forces during exercise.

    PubMed

    Zheng, N; Fleisig, G S; Escamilla, R F; Barrentine, S W

    1998-10-01

    An analytical model of the knee joint was developed to estimate the forces at the knee during exercise. Muscle forces were estimated based upon electromyographic activities during exercise and during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), muscle fiber length at contraction and the maximum force produced by an unit PCSA under MVIC. Tibiofemoral compressive force and cruciate ligaments' tension were determined by using resultant force and torque at the knee, muscle forces, and orientations and moment arms of the muscles and ligaments. An optimization program was used to minimize the errors caused by the estimation of the muscle forces. The model was used in a ten-subject study of open kinetic chain exercise (seated knee extension) and closed kinetic chain exercises (leg press and squat). Results calculated with this model were compared to those from a previous study which did not consider muscle length and optimization. Peak tibiofemoral compressive forces were 3134 +/- 1040 N during squat, 3155 +/- 755 N during leg press and 3285 +/- 1927 N during knee extension. Peak posterior cruciate ligament tensions were 1868 +/- 878 N during squat, 1866 +/- 383 N during leg press and 959 +/- 300 N for seated knee extension. No significant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tension was found during leg press and squat. Peak ACL tension was 142 +/- 257 N during seated knee extension. It is demonstrated that the current model provided better estimation of knee forces during exercises, by preventing significant overestimates of tibiofemoral compressive forces and cruciate ligament tensions.

  14. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  15. On the biomimetic design of agile-robot legs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  16. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  17. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  18. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  19. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  20. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to... of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  1. 27 CFR 17.107 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 17.107 Section 17.107 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and in effect becomes insufficient, the principal may give a strengthening bond in a sufficient...

  2. Caffeine ingestion does not alter carbohydrate or fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Terry E; Helge, Jorn W; MacLean, David A; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effect of ingesting caffeine (6 mg kg−1) on muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during steady-state exercise in humans. Young male subjects (n = 10) performed 1 h of exercise (70 % maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2,max)) on two occasions (after ingestion of placebo and caffeine) and leg metabolism was quantified by the combination of direct Fick measures and muscle biopsies. Following caffeine ingestion serum fatty acid and glycerol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest, suggesting enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis. In addition circulating adrenaline concentration was increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest following caffeine ingestion and this, as well as leg noradrenaline spillover, was elevated (P ≤ 0.05) above placebo values during exercise. Caffeine resulted in a modest increase (P ≤ 0.05) in leg vascular resistance, but no difference was found in leg blood flow. Arterial lactate and glucose concentrations were increased (P ≤ 0.05) by caffeine, while the rise in plasma potassium was dampened (P ≤ 0.05). There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio or in leg glucose uptake, net muscle glycogenolysis, leg lactate release or muscle lactate, or glucose 6-phosphate concentration. Similarly there were no differences between treatments in leg fatty acid uptake, glycerol release or muscle acetyl CoA concentration. These findings indicate that caffeine ingestion stimulated the sympathetic nervous system but did not alter the carbohydrate or fat metabolism in the monitored leg. Other tissues must have been involved in the changes in circulating potassium, fatty acids, glucose and lactate. PMID:11118510

  3. Strengthening mechanisms of tungsten powder reinforced uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Krawizcki, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    Tungsten powder reinforced uranium composites exhibit a three-fold increase in yield strength due to precipitation hardening. The tungsten-rich interphase precipitates form at the moving beta to alpha phase boundary during slow cooling. Further increases in yield strength, attained with increasing tungsten content, are due to composite strengthening. The composite strengthening is verified by increasing elastic modulus with increasing tungsten content. Age hardening behavior is observed, with strengthening occurring at aging temperatures low, in the alpha phase. Temperatures higher in alpha give initial strengthening followed by rapid overaging. Beta phase aging temperatures result in a very soft structure with interphase precipitates observable optically. Wrought material exhibits significant strain hardening as well as composite strengthening due to elongation of the tungsten particles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Electromyographic activity of trunk and hip muscles during stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Vleeming, Andry; Bouche, Katie G.; Mahieu, Nele N.; Vanderstraeten, Guy G.; Danneels, Lieven A.

    2006-01-01

    Stabilization exercises are intended to optimize function of the muscles that are believed to govern trunk stability. Debate exists whether certain muscles are more important than others in optimally performing these exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to perform three frequently prescribed stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling. The electromyographic activity of different trunk and hip muscles was evaluated. Average amplitudes obtained during the exercises were normalized to the amplitude in maximal voluntary contraction (% MVIC). During all three exercises, the highest relative muscle activity levels (> 20% MVIC) were consistently found in the ipsilateral lumbar multifidus and gluteus maximus. During both the single leg extension (exercise 1) and the leg and arm extension exercise (exercise 2) the contralateral internal oblique and ipsilateral external oblique reached high levels (> 20%MVIC). During exercise 2 there were also high relative activity levels of the ipsilateral lumbar part and the contralateral thoracic part of the iliocostalis lumborum and the contralateral lumbar multifidus. During the leg and arm extension exercise with contralateral hip flexion (exercise 3) there were high relative muscle activity levels of all back muscles, except for the latissimus dorsi muscle. The lowest relative muscle activity levels (< 10% MVIC) were found in the rectus abdominis and the ipsilateral internal oblique during all exercises, and in the contralateral gluteus maximus during exercises 1 and 2. The results of this study show that in exercises in four-point kneeling performed by healthy subjects, hip and trunk muscles seem to work together in a harmonious way. This shows that when relative activity of muscles is measured, both “global and local” muscles function together in order to stabilize the spine. PMID:16896840

  5. Effects of unilateral leg muscle fatigue on balance control in perturbed and unperturbed gait in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Toebes, Marcel J P; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Dekker, Joost; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed effects of unilateral leg muscle fatigue (ULMF) on balance control in gait during the stance and swing phases of the fatigued leg in healthy elderly, to test the assumption that leg muscle strength limits balance control during the stance-phase. Ten subjects (aged 63.4, SD 5.5 years) walked on a treadmill in 4 conditions: unperturbed unfatigued, unperturbed fatigued, perturbed unfatigued, and perturbed fatigued. The perturbations were lateral trunk pulls just before contralateral heel contact. ULMF was evoked by unilateral squat exercise until task failure. Isometric knee extension strength was measured to verify the presence of muscle fatigue. Between-stride standard deviations and Lyapunov exponents of trunk kinematics were used as indicators of balance control. Required perturbation force and the deviation of trunk kinematics from unperturbed gait were used to assess perturbation responses. Knee extension strength decreased considerably (17.3% SD 8.6%) as a result ULMF. ULMF did not affect steady-state gait balance. Less force was required to perturb subjects when the fatigued leg was in the stance-phase compared to the swing-phase. Subjects showed a faster return to the unperturbed gait pattern in the fatigued than in the unfatigued condition, after perturbations in swing and stance of the fatigued leg. The results of this study are not in line with the hypothesized effects of leg muscle fatigue on balance in gait. The healthy elderly subjects were able to cope with substantial ULMF during steady-state gait and demonstrated faster balance recovery after laterally directed mechanical perturbations in the fatigued than in the unfatigued condition.

  6. Reliability of lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics during different paces of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill using a motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; An, Xiangde; Li, Yong; Onoda, Ko; Li, Desheng; Huang, Qiuchen; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the changes in lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics, and reliability of measurement during different paces of barefoot racewalking on treadmill. [Subjects] Eleven junior racewalking men participated in this study. [Methods] To identify changes in lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics, during different paces of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill, a wireless motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) was used. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1, 2) were used to estimate reliability. [Results] There were significant differences in the lower leg proximal end and forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotations at a pace of 9 km/h compared with those at a pace of 5 km/h pace. The intra-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.82 and 0.89 to 0.87 and 0.93 for lower leg proximal end inversion/eversion rotation and medial/lateral rotation, and from 0.92 and 0.84 to 0.93 and 0.91 for forefoot inversion/eversion rotation and medial/lateral rotation. [Conclusion] We conclude that the lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill are influenced by different paces and that assessment of lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics by means of the wireless motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) is adequately reliable. This information may be useful for determining exercise prescriptions. PMID:27190445

  7. Leg ulcer in lepromatous leprosy - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; dos Santos, Talita Suzany Siqueira; Lopes, Ramon Rodrigues de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is a widespread infectious and contagious disease. Clinicians and specialists view leprosy broadly as a systemic infection, since, in its manifestations, it mimics many conditions, such as rheumatic, vascular, ENT, neurological and dermatological diseases. There are few studies that characterize the factors associated with ulcers in leprosy. These injuries should be prevented and treated promptly to avoid serious problems like secondary infections, sepsis, carcinomatous degeneration and amputations. We describe a patient with ulcers on his legs, involving late diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy.

  8. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption

  9. Structural response analysis of tension leg platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Oka, N.; Ozaki, M.

    1984-03-01

    A linear response analysis method of the Tension Leg Platform (TLP) subjected to regular waves is proposed. In this analysis method, flexibility of the superstructure can be taken into account in the equations of motion; response motions, tension variations of tendons and structural member forces are solved simultaneously. The applicability of this method is confirmed by comparison with the test results on two kinds of small-scale TLP models. The structural responses obtained from these calculations and their effects on tension variation of tendons are studied. Finally, several kinds of structural response characteristics are conclusively discussed.

  10. An exercise programme for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stasinopoulos, D; Stasinopoulou, K; Johnson, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Home exercise programmes and exercise programmes carried out in a clinical setting are commonly advocated for the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET), a very common lesion of the arm with a well-defined clinical presentation. The aim of this study is to describe the use and effects of strengthening and stretching exercise programmes in the treatment of LET. Eccentric exercises: Slow progressive eccentric exercises for LET should be performed with the elbow in extension, forearm in pronation, and wrist in extended position (as high as possible). However, it is unclear how the injured tendon, which is loaded eccentrically, returns to the starting position without experiencing concentric loading and how the "slowness" of eccentric exercises should be defined. Nor has the treatment regimen of the eccentric exercises of a supervised exercise programme been defined. Stretching exercises: Static stretching is defined as passively stretching a given muscle-tendon unit by slowly placing and maintaining it in a maximal position of stretch. We recommend the position should be held for 30–45 s, three times before and three times after eccentric exercises during each treatment session with a 30 s rest interval between each procedure. The treatment region of static stretching exercises when a supervised exercise programme is performed is unknown. Discussion: A well designed trial is needed to study the effectiveness of a supervised exercise programme for LET consisting of eccentric and static stretching exercises. The issues relating to the supervised exercise programme should be defined so that therapists can replicate the programme. PMID:16306504

  11. Learn to love exercise

    MedlinePlus

    Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...

  12. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  13. Diet and Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested in covering the latest ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

  14. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  15. Bonds that strengthen under force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Viola

    2006-03-01

    While the adhesive strength of most receptor-ligand interactions is exponentially reduced if strained, some receptor-ligand complexes exist that strengthen under force which is the hallmark of catch bonds. Although the existence of catch bonds was theoretically predicted, the first experimental demonstrations of their existence were given only recently, i.e. for the bacterial adhesin FimH that is located at the tip of type I fimbriae of E. coli and for p-selectin. In a major collaborative effort, we studied the structural origin by which the FimH-mannose bond is switched by force to a high binding state. Mutational studies were thereby combined with steered molecular dynamic simulations to decipher how force might affect protein conformation. Force-activation of FimH leads to a complex `stick-and-roll' bacterial adhesion behavior in which E. coli preferentially rolls over mannosylated surfaces at low shear but increasingly sticks firmly as the shear is increased. Interesting similarities are further seen if comparing the structural mechanisms by which liganded FimH and liganded integrins are switched to a high binding state. This comparison was made possible by docking fibronectin's 10^th type III module (fnIII10) to αVβ3 integrin. αVβ3 can switch from the ``closed'' αVβ3 integrin headpiece to the ``open'' conformation by opening the hinge angle between the βA domain and the hybrid domain of the β-integrin. The ``open'' state has been implicated by many experimental laboratories to correspond to the activated state of integrins. W. E. Thomas, E. Trintchina, M. Forero, V. Vogel, E. Sokurenko, Bacterial adhesion to target cells enhanced by shear-force, Cell, 109 (2002) 913. W. E. Thomas, L. M. Nilsson, M. Forero, E. V. Sokurenko, V. Vogel, Shear-dependent `stick-and-roll' adhesion of type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli, Molecular Microbiology 53 (2004) 1545. W. Thomas, M. Forero, O. Yakovenko, L. Nilsson, P. Vicini, E. Sokurenko, V. Vogel, Catch Bond Model

  16. Symmetry Analysis of Thermoelectric Energy Converters with Inhomogeneous Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzhuev, M. A.

    2010-09-01

    Symmetry analysis has been applied to thermoelectric energy converters [thermoelectric generators (TEG), coolers (TEC), and heaters (TEH)] with inhomogeneous legs. The features of the crystallographic symmetry of thermoelectric materials and the symmetry of legs, thermocouples, and modules are studied. The effect of symmetry on the figure of merit Z of thermoelectric energy converters is considered. A general rule for proper placement of legs in thermoelectric converters is developed. A modified tetratomic classification for thermoelectric energy converters with inhomogeneous legs (TEGa, TEGb, TEC, and TEH) is proposed. An increase in Z for thermoelectric energy converters with inhomogeneous legs is due to the bulk thermoelectric effect. An increase in Z gives the reduction of irreversible processes in the modules (Joule heating and thermal conductivity), accompanying breaking of the symmetry of the legs. It is found that violations of the symmetry requirements can lead to significant energy losses in converters.

  17. Movement velocity as a measure of exercise intensity in three lower limb exercises.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Filipe; Fernandes, Juvenal; Lewis, Martin; Gonzaléz-Badillo, Juan José; Jimenéz-Reyes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between movement velocity and relative load in three lower limbs exercises commonly used to develop strength: leg press, full squat and half squat. The percentage of one repetition maximum (%1RM) has typically been used as the main parameter to control resistance training; however, more recent research has proposed movement velocity as an alternative. Fifteen participants performed a load progression with a range of loads until they reached their 1RM. Maximum instantaneous velocity (Vmax) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) of the knee extension phase of each exercise were assessed. For all exercises, a strong relationship between Vmax and the %1RM was found: leg press (r(2)adj = 0.96; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0244, -0.0258], P < 0.0001), full squat (r(2)adj = 0.94; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0144, -0.0139], P < 0.0001) and half squat (r(2)adj = 0.97; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0135, -0.00143], P < 0.0001); for MPV, leg press (r(2)adj = 0.96; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0169, -0.0175], P < 0.0001, full squat (r(2)adj = 0.95; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0136, -0.0128], P < 0.0001) and half squat (r(2)adj = 0.96; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0116, 0.0124], P < 0.0001). The 1RM was attained with a MPV and Vmax of 0.21 ± 0.06 m s(-1) and 0.63 ± 0.15 m s(-1), 0.29 ± 0.05 m s(-1) and 0.89 ± 0.17 m s(-1), 0.33 ± 0.05 m s(-1) and 0.95 ± 0.13 m s(-1) for leg press, full squat and half squat, respectively. Results indicate that it is possible to determine an exercise-specific %1RM by measuring movement velocity for that exercise. PMID:26395837

  18. Movement velocity as a measure of exercise intensity in three lower limb exercises.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Filipe; Fernandes, Juvenal; Lewis, Martin; Gonzaléz-Badillo, Juan José; Jimenéz-Reyes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between movement velocity and relative load in three lower limbs exercises commonly used to develop strength: leg press, full squat and half squat. The percentage of one repetition maximum (%1RM) has typically been used as the main parameter to control resistance training; however, more recent research has proposed movement velocity as an alternative. Fifteen participants performed a load progression with a range of loads until they reached their 1RM. Maximum instantaneous velocity (Vmax) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) of the knee extension phase of each exercise were assessed. For all exercises, a strong relationship between Vmax and the %1RM was found: leg press (r(2)adj = 0.96; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0244, -0.0258], P < 0.0001), full squat (r(2)adj = 0.94; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0144, -0.0139], P < 0.0001) and half squat (r(2)adj = 0.97; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0135, -0.00143], P < 0.0001); for MPV, leg press (r(2)adj = 0.96; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0169, -0.0175], P < 0.0001, full squat (r(2)adj = 0.95; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0136, -0.0128], P < 0.0001) and half squat (r(2)adj = 0.96; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0116, 0.0124], P < 0.0001). The 1RM was attained with a MPV and Vmax of 0.21 ± 0.06 m s(-1) and 0.63 ± 0.15 m s(-1), 0.29 ± 0.05 m s(-1) and 0.89 ± 0.17 m s(-1), 0.33 ± 0.05 m s(-1) and 0.95 ± 0.13 m s(-1) for leg press, full squat and half squat, respectively. Results indicate that it is possible to determine an exercise-specific %1RM by measuring movement velocity for that exercise.

  19. Gross mechanical efficiency of the combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer: a comparison with the bicycle ergometer and handbike.

    PubMed

    Simmelink, Elisabeth K; Borgesius, Emilie C; Hettinga, Florentina J; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-03-01

    The combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer is assumed to be a relevant testing and training instrument in the rehabilitation of patients with a lower limb amputation. The efficiency and submaximal strain have not been established and thus cannot be compared with alternative common modes of exercise. A total of 22 healthy able-bodied men (n=10) and women (n=12) were enrolled in four discontinuous submaximal graded exercise tests. Each test consisted of seven bouts of 3 min exercise ranging from 20 to 45 W and was performed on, respectively, the Cruiser ergometer, a bicycle ergometer, a handbike, and again the Cruiser ergometer. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured and rate of perceived exertion was determined. Gross mechanical efficiency (GE) was determined from power output and submaximal steady-state energy cost. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (P<0.05) was used to evaluate the effects of exercise mode, exercise intensity, and sex. No differences in GE and cardiorespiratory strain were found between both Cruiser tests (GE 45 W: men 13.0%, women 15%) and the bicycle test (GE 45 W: men 13.2%, women 14.6%). GEs of handbiking (45 W: men 11.2%, women 12.2%) were lower compared with the Cruiser and bicycle test results, whereas cardiorespiratory strain in handbiking was consistently higher. Apart from a lower rate of perceived exertion at the second Cruiser test, no differences were found between the repeated Cruiser tests. It can be concluded that GE and cardiorespiratory strain in submaximal Cruiser exercise are comparable with leg cycling, the repeatability was good, and no obvious learning effects were observed. The results of this study form a base for further research in patients with a lower limb amputation.

  20. Control of leg-powered paraplegic cycling using stimulation of the lumbo-sacral anterior spinal nerve roots.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Tim A; de N Donaldson, Nick; Hatcher, Neil A C; Swain, Ian D; Wood, Duncan E

    2002-09-01

    We investigated leg-powered cycling in a recumbent tricycle for a paraplegic using functional electrical stimulation (FES) with the lumbo-sacral anterior root stimulator implant (LARSI). A female complete T9 paraplegic had a stimulator for the anterior L2 to S2 spinal roots (bilaterally) implanted in 1994. She was provided with equipment for daily FES cycling exercise at home. The cycling controller applies a pattern of stimulation in each of 16 crank angle phases. A 7-bit shaft encoder measures the crank angle with adequate precision. Each pattern was originally chosen to give the greatest propulsive force in that position when there was no motion. However, dynamically, some reduction in co-contraction is needed; also the patterns are applied with a preset advance time. Maximal power is obtained with an advance of 250 ms, which compensates for muscle response delay and accommodates changes in cadence (from about 25 to 85 rpm). With this system, she has cycled 1.2 km at a time on gently undulating road. We found that spinal root stimulation gives sufficient control over the muscles in the legs to produce a fluid cycling gait. We propose that root stimulation for leg cycling exercise may be a practicable and valuable function for paraplegics following spinal cord injury.

  1. Control of leg-powered paraplegic cycling using stimulation of the lumbo-sacral anterior spinal nerve roots.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Tim A; de N Donaldson, Nick; Hatcher, Neil A C; Swain, Ian D; Wood, Duncan E

    2002-09-01

    We investigated leg-powered cycling in a recumbent tricycle for a paraplegic using functional electrical stimulation (FES) with the lumbo-sacral anterior root stimulator implant (LARSI). A female complete T9 paraplegic had a stimulator for the anterior L2 to S2 spinal roots (bilaterally) implanted in 1994. She was provided with equipment for daily FES cycling exercise at home. The cycling controller applies a pattern of stimulation in each of 16 crank angle phases. A 7-bit shaft encoder measures the crank angle with adequate precision. Each pattern was originally chosen to give the greatest propulsive force in that position when there was no motion. However, dynamically, some reduction in co-contraction is needed; also the patterns are applied with a preset advance time. Maximal power is obtained with an advance of 250 ms, which compensates for muscle response delay and accommodates changes in cadence (from about 25 to 85 rpm). With this system, she has cycled 1.2 km at a time on gently undulating road. We found that spinal root stimulation gives sufficient control over the muscles in the legs to produce a fluid cycling gait. We propose that root stimulation for leg cycling exercise may be a practicable and valuable function for paraplegics following spinal cord injury. PMID:12503780

  2. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  3. Leg length discrepancy following irradiation for childhood tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Butler, M.S.; D'Angio, G.J.; Rate, W.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Leg length inequality developed in 12 of 67 children who were treated with radiation therapy to the kidney, abdomen, pelvis, or lower extremities. All these children survived childhood cancer to the age of skeletal maturity. Of the 12 with anisomelia, seven were symptomatic. There were significant relationships between the development of leg length inequality and the total dose of radiation to the pelvic area, asymmetric irradiation to the pelvis, and high-dose irradiation to the leg.

  4. Leg ulcers: a new symptom of Blau syndrome?

    PubMed

    Dhondt, Veerle; Hofman, Sarah; Dahan, Karin; Beele, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    Blau syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition, typically defined by granulomatous polyarthritis, uveitis and skin eruption. Biopsy specimens demonstrate non-caseating granulomas in all lesions. We present a case of Blau syndrome associated with large recalcitrant leg ulcers. Biopsies taken in the leg ulcers of our patient systematically showed granulomas. Although leg ulcers have not previously been described as a part of Blau syndrome, we assume that the ulcerations in this case form part of Blau syndrome.

  5. Exercise-induced compartment syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Klodell, C T; Pokorny, R; Carrillo, E H; Heniford, B T

    1996-06-01

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis is a frequent event occurring after severe forms of exercise. This is usually a short-lived, uncomplicated phenomenon that is seldom of any clinical significance. The rare progression of this muscle injury to compartment syndrome is, however, a limb- and life-threatening condition that typically presents in the anterior compartment of the lower leg. A case is reported of a young man who participated in physical activity well beyond his normal level of exertion and subsequently developed bilateral lower extremity compartment syndrome requiring surgical decompression. To our knowledge, this is the only description of this complication occurring in a multicompartment, bilateral distribution. The combination of the rarity and morbidity of this condition, as well as the multitude of very common benign injuries that present in the same manner as the problem discussed, make this insult especially dangerous.

  6. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries. PMID:25007200

  7. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  8. Perception of imposed leg length inequality in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Seamus; Kernohan, George; Fitzpatrick, Claire; Hill, Janet; Beverland, David

    2010-01-01

    Lower limb length differences of up to 10mm exist in 60% - 95% of the population.There are usually no symptoms or functional effects. Following Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA), satisfactory clinical results can be spoiled by dissatisfaction due to a change in leg length. Although the change in leg length may be modest in comparison to the normal variation, the patient may perceive this as a leg length discrepancy. To study the average threshold for perception, artificial leg length discrepancies of 5 mm to 25 mm were created in 30 young healthy adults using calibrated wooden blocks. Responses were recorded and analysed using a chi-squared test for independence and an independent measures t-test. Awareness of leg length discrepancy was related to the magnitude of the discrepancy (X2 (15)= 156.6, p<0.05 on the right side, and X2 (15)= 178.725 p<0.05 on the left side). It was shown that no subject reported a 5mm increase in leg length to be uncomfortable while all subjects were aware of leg length discrepancies of 20 mm and 25 mm. When there was a discrepancy of 10 mm in either lower limb, 29 out of 30 subjects (96.7%) thought there was a difference in leg length. Consequently it is suggested that during total hip arthroplasty the surgeon should aim for a leg length discrepancy of less than 10 mm. PMID:21157756

  9. Towards active capsular endoscopy: preliminary results on a legged platform.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Stefanini, Cesare; Orlandi, Giovanni; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the problem of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract for endoscopic capsules. Authors analyze the problem of locomotion in unstructured, flexible and tubular environments and explain the reasons leading to the selection of a legged system. They present a theoretical simulation of legged capsule locomotion, which is used to define the optimal parameters for capsule design and gait selection. Finally, a legged capsule--about 3 cm3 in volume--is presented; it consists of 4 back legs whose actuation is achieved thanks to a miniaturized DC brushless motor. In vitro tests demonstrate good performance in terms of achievable speed (92 mm/min).

  10. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P < 0.05) MAFbx mRNA by 30 and 50% in the resting and exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P < 0.05) in the exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P < 0.05) only in the placebo condition. Phosphorylation of p70(S6k) increased to a larger extent (∼2-fold; P < 0.05) in the early recovery period with BCAA supplementation, whereas the expression of genes regulating mTOR activity was not influenced by BCAA. Muscle levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were reduced (13-17%) throughout recovery (P < 0.05) in the placebo condition and to a greater extent (32-43%; P < 0.05) following BCAA supplementation in both resting and exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  11. Range of motion and leg rotation affect electromyography activation levels of the superficial quadriceps muscles during leg extension.

    PubMed

    Signorile, Joseph F; Lew, Karen M; Stoutenberg, Mark; Pluchino, Alessandra; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2014-09-01

    Leg extension (LE) is commonly used to strengthen the quadriceps muscles during training and rehabilitation. This study examined the effects of limb position (POS) and range of motion (ROM) on quadriceps electromyography (EMG) during 8 repetitions (REP) of LE. Twenty-four participants performed 8 LE REP at their 8 repetition maximum with lower limbs medially rotated (TI), laterally rotated (TO), and neutral (NEU). Each REP EMG was averaged over the first, middle, and final 0.524 rad ROM. For vastus medialis oblique (VMO), a REP × ROM interaction was detected (p < 0.02). The middle 0.524 rad produced significantly higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 6-8 and the final 0.524 rad produced higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 (p ≤ 0.05). For rectus femoris (RF), EMG activity increased across REP with TO generating the greatest activity (p < 0.001). For vastus lateralis (VL), EMG increased across REP (p < 0.001) with NEU and TO EMG increasing linearly throughout ROM and TI activity greatest during the middle 0.524 rad. We conclude that to target the VMO, the optimal ROM is the final 1.047 rad regardless of POS, while maximum EMG for the RF is generated using TO regardless of ROM. In contrast, the VL is maximally activated using TI over the first 1.047 rad ROM or in NEU over the final 0.524 rad ROM.

  12. Range of motion and leg rotation affect EMG activation levels of the superficial quadriceps muscles during leg extension.

    PubMed

    Signorile, Joseph F; Lew, Karen; Stoutenberg, Mark; Pluchino, Alessandra; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2014-06-30

    The leg extension (LE) is commonly used to strengthen the quadriceps muscles during training and rehabilitation. This study examined the effects of limb position (POS) and range of motion (ROM) on quadriceps electromyography (EMG) during 8 repetitions (REP) of LE. Twenty-four participants performed eight LE REP at their 8-repetition maximum with lower limbs medially rotated (TI), laterally rotated (TO), and neutral (NEU). Each REP EMG was averaged over the first, middle, and final 0.524 rad ROM. For vastus medialis oblique (VMO), a REP x ROM interaction was detected (p<0.02). The middle 0.524 rad produced significantly higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 6-8 and the final 0.524 rad produced higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 (p<0.05). For rectus femoris (RF), EMG activity increased across REP with TO generating the greatest activity (p<0.001). For vastus lateralis (VL), EMG increased across REP (p<0.001) with NEU and TO EMG increasing linearly throughout ROM, and TI activity greatest during the middle 0.524 rad. We conclude that to target the VMO the optimal ROM is the final 1.047 rad regardless of POS, while maximum EMG for the RF is generated using TO regardless of ROM. In contrast, the VL is maximally activated using TI over the first 1.047 rad ROM or in NEU over the final 0.524 rad ROM.

  13. A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

  14. Local temperature-sensitive mechanisms are important mediators of limb tissue hyperemia in the heat-stressed human at rest and during small muscle mass exercise.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Scott T; Trangmar, Steven J; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Banker, Devendar S; Lotlikar, Makrand D; Ali, Leena; González-Alonso, José

    2015-07-15

    Limb tissue and systemic blood flow increases with heat stress, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that heat stress-induced increases in limb tissue perfusion are primarily mediated by local temperature-sensitive mechanisms. Leg and systemic temperatures and hemodynamics were measured at rest and during incremental single-legged knee extensor exercise in 15 males exposed to 1 h of either systemic passive heat-stress with simultaneous cooling of a single leg (n = 8) or isolated leg heating or cooling (n = 7). Systemic heat stress increased core, skin and heated leg blood temperatures (Tb), cardiac output, and heated leg blood flow (LBF; 0.6 ± 0.1 l/min; P < 0.05). In the cooled leg, however, LBF remained unchanged throughout (P > 0.05). Increased heated leg deep tissue blood flow was closely related to Tb (R(2) = 0.50; P < 0.01), which is partly attributed to increases in tissue V̇O2 (R(2) = 0.55; P < 0.01) accompanying elevations in total leg glucose uptake (P < 0.05). During isolated limb heating and cooling, LBFs were equivalent to those found during systemic heat stress (P > 0.05), despite unchanged systemic temperatures and hemodynamics. During incremental exercise, heated LBF was consistently maintained ∼ 0.6 l/min higher than that in the cooled leg (P < 0.01), with LBF and vascular conductance in both legs showing a strong correlation with their respective local Tb (R(2) = 0.85 and 0.95, P < 0.05). We conclude that local temperature-sensitive mechanisms are important mediators in limb tissue perfusion regulation both at rest and during small-muscle mass exercise in hyperthermic humans.

  15. Local temperature-sensitive mechanisms are important mediators of limb tissue hyperemia in the heat-stressed human at rest and during small muscle mass exercise

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa, Scott T.; Trangmar, Steven J.; Kalsi, Kameljit K.; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Banker, Devendar S.; Lotlikar, Makrand D.; Ali, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Limb tissue and systemic blood flow increases with heat stress, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that heat stress-induced increases in limb tissue perfusion are primarily mediated by local temperature-sensitive mechanisms. Leg and systemic temperatures and hemodynamics were measured at rest and during incremental single-legged knee extensor exercise in 15 males exposed to 1 h of either systemic passive heat-stress with simultaneous cooling of a single leg (n = 8) or isolated leg heating or cooling (n = 7). Systemic heat stress increased core, skin and heated leg blood temperatures (Tb), cardiac output, and heated leg blood flow (LBF; 0.6 ± 0.1 l/min; P < 0.05). In the cooled leg, however, LBF remained unchanged throughout (P > 0.05). Increased heated leg deep tissue blood flow was closely related to Tb (R2 = 0.50; P < 0.01), which is partly attributed to increases in tissue V̇O2 (R2 = 0.55; P < 0.01) accompanying elevations in total leg glucose uptake (P < 0.05). During isolated limb heating and cooling, LBFs were equivalent to those found during systemic heat stress (P > 0.05), despite unchanged systemic temperatures and hemodynamics. During incremental exercise, heated LBF was consistently maintained ∼0.6 l/min higher than that in the cooled leg (P < 0.01), with LBF and vascular conductance in both legs showing a strong correlation with their respective local Tb (R2 = 0.85 and 0.95, P < 0.05). We conclude that local temperature-sensitive mechanisms are important mediators in limb tissue perfusion regulation both at rest and during small-muscle mass exercise in hyperthermic humans. PMID:25934093

  16. Changes in plasma volume and baroreflex function following resistance exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.

  17. Intensity-level assessment of lower body plyometric exercises based on mechanical output of lower limb joints.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, Norihide; Okada, Junichi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the intensity of lower extremity plyometric exercises by determining joint mechanical output. Ten men (age, 27.3 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.6 ± 5.4 cm; weight, 69.4 ± 6.0 kg; 1-repetition maximum [1RM] load in back squat 118.5 ± 12.0 kg) performed the following seven plyometric exercises: two-foot ankle hop, repeated squat jump, double-leg hop, depth jumps from 30 and 60 cm, and single-leg and double-leg tuck jumps. Mechanical output variables (torque, angular impulse, power, and work) at the lower limb joints were determined using inverse-dynamics analysis. For all measured variables, ANOVA revealed significant main effects of exercise type for all joints (P < 0.05) along with significant interactions between joint and exercise (P < 0.01), indicating that the influence of exercise type on mechanical output varied among joints. Paired comparisons revealed that there were marked differences in mechanical output at the ankle and hip joints; most of the variables at the ankle joint were greatest for two-foot ankle hop and tuck jumps, while most hip joint variables were greatest for repeated squat jump or double-leg hop. The present results indicate the necessity for determining mechanical output for each joint when evaluating the intensity of plyometric exercises.

  18. Development of an exercise testing protocol for patients with a lower limb amputation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vestering, Myrthe M; Schoppen, Tanneke; Dekker, Rienk; Wempe, Johan; Geertzen, Jan H B

    2005-09-01

    Due to a decrease in physical activity, lower limb amputees experience a decline in physical fitness. This causes problems in walking with a prosthesis because energy expenditure in walking with a prosthesis is much higher than in walking with two sound legs. Exercise training may therefore increase the functional walking ability of these patients. To generate a safe and effective aerobic training program, exercise testing of amputees is recommended. The objectives of this study were to develop a maximal exercise testing protocol for lower limb amputees and to compare two different testing methods: combined arm-leg ergometry and arm ergometry. The protocols were tested in five amputee patients. Combined ergometry elicited a higher oxygen uptake and heart rate than arm ergometry. Electrocardiography during combined ergometry was easier to read. Combined ergometry was judged most comfortable by the amputees. The exercise testing protocol was useful in lower limb amputees to determine their maximal aerobic capacity and their main exercise limitation. Future exercise training programs may be based on this testing protocol. Combined arm-leg ergometry is appropriate for unilateral amputees without significant claudication of the remaining leg. Continuous arm ergometry is suitable for unilateral amputees with significant claudication of the remaining limb or bilateral amputees. PMID:16046917

  19. Intensity-level assessment of lower body plyometric exercises based on mechanical output of lower limb joints.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, Norihide; Okada, Junichi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the intensity of lower extremity plyometric exercises by determining joint mechanical output. Ten men (age, 27.3 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.6 ± 5.4 cm; weight, 69.4 ± 6.0 kg; 1-repetition maximum [1RM] load in back squat 118.5 ± 12.0 kg) performed the following seven plyometric exercises: two-foot ankle hop, repeated squat jump, double-leg hop, depth jumps from 30 and 60 cm, and single-leg and double-leg tuck jumps. Mechanical output variables (torque, angular impulse, power, and work) at the lower limb joints were determined using inverse-dynamics analysis. For all measured variables, ANOVA revealed significant main effects of exercise type for all joints (P < 0.05) along with significant interactions between joint and exercise (P < 0.01), indicating that the influence of exercise type on mechanical output varied among joints. Paired comparisons revealed that there were marked differences in mechanical output at the ankle and hip joints; most of the variables at the ankle joint were greatest for two-foot ankle hop and tuck jumps, while most hip joint variables were greatest for repeated squat jump or double-leg hop. The present results indicate the necessity for determining mechanical output for each joint when evaluating the intensity of plyometric exercises. PMID:23327555

  20. Posterior muscle chain activity during various extension exercises: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Back extension exercises are often used in the rehabilitation of low back pain. However, at present it is not clear how the posterior muscles are recruited during different types of extension exercises. Therefore, the present study will evaluate the myoelectric activity of thoracic, lumbar and hip extensor muscles during different extension exercises in healthy persons. Based on these physiological observations we will make recommendations regarding the use of extensions exercises in clinical practice. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects performed four standardized extension exercises (dynamic trunk extension, dynamic-static trunk extension, dynamic leg extension, dynamic-static leg extension) in randomized order at an intensity of 60% of 1-RM (one repetition maximum). Surface EMG signals of Latissimus dorsi (LD), Longissimus thoracis pars thoracic (LTT) and lumborum (LTL), Iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracic (ILT) and lumborum (ILL), lumbar Multifidus (LM) and Gluteus Maximus (GM) were measured during the various exercises. Subsequently, EMG root mean square values were calculated and compared between trunk and leg extension exercises, as well as between a dynamic and dynamic-static performance using mixed model analysis. During the dynamic exercises a 2 second concentric contraction was followed by a 2 second eccentric contraction, whereas in the dynamic-static performance, a 5 second isometric interval was added in between the concentric and eccentric contraction phase. Results In general, the muscles of the posterior chain were recruited on a higher level during trunk extension (mean ± SD, 56.6 ± 30.8%MVC) compared to leg extension (47.4 ± 30.3%MVC) (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences were found in mean muscle activity between dynamic and dynamic-static performances (p = 0.053). The thoracic muscles (LTT and ILT) were recruited more during trunk extension (64.9 ± 27.1%MVC) than during leg extension (54.2 ± 22.1%MVC) (p = 0.045) without

  1. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear

  2. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint

  3. The Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase (LegS2) Contributes to the Restriction of Legionella pneumophila in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abu Khweek, Arwa; Kanneganti, Apurva; C. Guttridge D, Denis; Amer, Amal O.

    2016-01-01

    L. pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, a human illness characterized by severe pneumonia. In contrast to those derived from humans, macrophages derived from most mouse strains restrict L. pneumophila replication. The restriction of L. pneumophila replication has been shown to require bacterial flagellin, a component of the type IV secretion system as well as the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) Nlrc4/ Ipaf. These events lead to caspase-1 activation which, in turn, activates caspase-7. Following caspase-7 activation, the phagosome-containing L. pneumophila fuses with the lysosome, resulting in the restriction of L. pneumophila growth. The LegS2 effector is injected by the type IV secretion system and functions as a sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase. It is homologous to the eukaryotic sphingosine lyase (SPL), an enzyme required in the terminal steps of sphingolipid metabolism. Herein, we show that mice Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMDMs) and human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (hMDMs) are more permissive to L. pneumophila legS2 mutants than wild-type (WT) strains. This permissiveness to L. pneumophila legS2 is neither attributed to abolished caspase-1, caspase-7 or caspase-3 activation, nor due to the impairment of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Instead, an infection with the legS2 mutant resulted in the reduction of some inflammatory cytokines and their corresponding mRNA; this effect is mediated by the inhibition of the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Moreover, BMDMs infected with L. pneumophila legS2 mutant showed elongated mitochondria that resembles mitochondrial fusion. Therefore, the absence of LegS2 effector is associated with reduced NF-κB activation and atypical morphology of mitochondria. PMID:26741365

  4. Exercise countermeasures for spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a physiological basis for the use of exercise as a weightlessness countermeasure, outline special considerations for the development of exercise countermeasures, review and evaluate exercise used during space flight, and provide new approaches and concepts for the implementation of novel exercise countermeasures for future space flight. The discussion of the physiological basis for countermeasures examines maximal oxygen uptake, blood volume, metabolic responses to work, muscle function, bone loss, and orthostatic instability. The discussion of considerations for exercise prescriptions during space flight includes operational considerations, type of exercise, fitness considerations, age and gender, and psychological considerations. The discussion of exercise currently used in space flight examines cycle ergometry, the treadmill, strength training devices, electrical stimulation, and the Penguin suit worn by Russian crews. New approaches to exercise countermeasures include twin bicycles, dynamic resistance exercisers, maximal exercise effects, grasim (gravity simulators), and the relationship between exercise and LBNP. PMID:11541470

  5. A review of the clinical evidence for exercise in osteoarthritis of the hip and knee.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease with the hip and knee being commonly affected lower limb sites. Osteoarthritis causes pain, stiffness, swelling, joint instability and muscle weakness, all of which can lead to impaired physical function and reduced quality of life. This review of evidence provides recommendations for exercise prescription in those with hip or knee OA. A narrative review was performed. Conservative non-pharmacological strategies, particularly exercise, are recommended by all clinical guidelines for the management of OA and meta-analyses support these exercise recommendations. Aerobic, strengthening, aquatic and Tai chi exercise are beneficial for improving pain and function in people with OA with benefits seen across the range of disease severities. The optimal exercise dosage is yet to be determined and an individualized approach to exercise prescription is required based on an assessment of impairments, patient preference, co-morbidities and accessibility. Maximising adherence is a key element dictating success of exercise therapy. This can be enhanced by the use of supervised exercise sessions (possibly in class format) in the initial exercise period followed by home exercises. Bringing patients back for intermittent consultations with the exercise practitioner, or attendance at "refresher" group exercise classes may also assist long-term adherence and improved patient outcomes. Few studies have evaluated the effects of exercise on structural disease progression and there is currently no evidence to show that exercise can be disease modifying. Exercise plays an important role in managing symptoms in those with hip and knee OA.

  6. Altered postural responses persist following physical therapy of general versus specific trunk exercises in people with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Lomond, Karen V.; Henry, Sharon M.; Hitt, Juvena R.; DeSarno, Michael J.; Bunn, Janice Y.

    2014-01-01

    Interventions that target trunk muscle impairments in people with LBP have been promoted; however, the treatment effects on muscle activation impairments during postural tasks remain unclear. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects trunk stabilization vs. general strength and conditioning exercises on the automatic postural response in persons with chronic low back pain (LBP). Fifty-eight subjects with chronic, recurrent LBP (n = 58) (i.e., longer than six months) were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two, 10-week physical therapy programs: stabilization (n = 29,) or strength and conditioning (n = 29). Pain and function were measured at 11 weeks and 6 months post-treatment initiation. To quantify postural following support surface perturbations, surface electrodes recorded EMG of trunk and leg muscles and force plates recorded forces under the feet, to calculate the center of pressure. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in pain and function out to 6 months. There were also changes in muscle activation patterns immediately post-treatment, but not at 6 months. However, changes in COP responses were treatment specific. Following treatment, the stabilization group demonstrated later onset of COP displacement, while the onset of COP displacement in the strengthening group was significantly earlier following treatment. Despite two different treatments, clinical improvements and muscle activation patterns were similar for both groups, indicating that the stabilization treatment protocol does not preferentially improve treatment outcomes or inter-muscle postural coordination patterns for persons with LBP. PMID:24853255

  7. The Accumulative Effect of Concentric-Biased and Eccentric-Biased Exercise on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses to Subsequent Low-Intensity Exercise: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, James Peter; Myers, Stephen; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the accumulative effect of concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular responses to low-intensity exercise performed hours later. Fourteen young men cycled at low-intensity (~60 rpm at 50% maximal oxygen uptake) for 10 min before, and 12 h after: concentric-biased, single-leg cycling exercise (CON) (performed ~19:30 h) and eccentric-biased, double-leg knee extension exercise (ECC) (~06:30 h the following morning). Respiratory measures were sampled breath-by-breath, with oxidation values derived from stoichiometry equations. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was assessed before and after CON and ECC. Cardiorespiratory responses during low-intensity cycling were unchanged by accumulative CON and ECC. The RER was lower during low-intensity exercise 12 h after CON and ECC (0.88 ± 0.08), when compared to baseline (0.92 ± 0.09; p = 0.02). Fat oxidation increased from baseline (0.24 ± 0.2 g·min−1) to 12 h after CON and ECC (0.39 ± 0.2 g·min−1; p = 0.01). Carbohydrate oxidation decreased from baseline (1.59 ± 0.4 g·min−1) to 12 h after CON and ECC (1.36 ± 0.4 g·min−1; p = 0.03). These were accompanied by knee extensor force loss (right leg: −11.6%, p < 0.001; left leg: −10.6%, p = 0.02) and muscle soreness (right leg: 2.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.0001; left leg: 2.3 ± 1.2, p < 0.01). Subsequent concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise led to increased fat oxidation and decreased carbohydrate oxidation, without impairing cardiorespiration, during low-intensity cycling. An accumulation of fatiguing and damaging exercise increases fat utilisation during low intensity exercise performed as little as 12 h later. PMID:26839613

  8. The Accumulative Effect of Concentric-Biased and Eccentric-Biased Exercise on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses to Subsequent Low-Intensity Exercise: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Gavin, James Peter; Myers, Stephen; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

    2015-12-22

    The study investigated the accumulative effect of concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular responses to low-intensity exercise performed hours later. Fourteen young men cycled at low-intensity (~60 rpm at 50% maximal oxygen uptake) for 10 min before, and 12 h after: concentric-biased, single-leg cycling exercise (CON) (performed ~19:30 h) and eccentric-biased, double-leg knee extension exercise (ECC) (~06:30 h the following morning). Respiratory measures were sampled breath-by-breath, with oxidation values derived from stoichiometry equations. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was assessed before and after CON and ECC. Cardiorespiratory responses during low-intensity cycling were unchanged by accumulative CON and ECC. The RER was lower during low-intensity exercise 12 h after CON and ECC (0.88 ± 0.08), when compared to baseline (0.92 ± 0.09; p = 0.02). Fat oxidation increased from baseline (0.24 ± 0.2 g·min(-1)) to 12 h after CON and ECC (0.39 ± 0.2 g·min(-1); p = 0.01). Carbohydrate oxidation decreased from baseline (1.59 ± 0.4 g·min(-1)) to 12 h after CON and ECC (1.36 ± 0.4 g·min(-1); p = 0.03). These were accompanied by knee extensor force loss (right leg: -11.6%, p < 0.001; left leg: -10.6%, p = 0.02) and muscle soreness (right leg: 2.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.0001; left leg: 2.3 ± 1.2, p < 0.01). Subsequent concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise led to increased fat oxidation and decreased carbohydrate oxidation, without impairing cardiorespiration, during low-intensity cycling. An accumulation of fatiguing and damaging exercise increases fat utilisation during low intensity exercise performed as little as 12 h later.

  9. Exercise and bone mineral density in mature female athletes.

    PubMed

    Dook, J E; James, C; Henderson, N K; Price, R I

    1997-03-01

    An understanding of the relationship between weight-bearing activity and bone mineral density (BMD) is important in devising strategies to maximize and maintain skeletal strength in the female population, particularly those entering menopause. Three contrasting groups (N = 20) of mature female athletes (42-50 yr) with long-term (> 20 yr) histories of significant training and performance in their chosen sport were studied cross-sectionally. The groups were: (i) high impact sport (netball/basketball; HIGH), (ii) medium impact sport (running/field hockey; MED) and (iii) a nonimpact sport (swimming; NON) and (iv) a nonsport control group (CON; N = 20). Whole body and regional BMD and body composition (fat and lean mass) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Isometric strength of dominant arm flexors and leg extensors was measured by a strain tensiometer. With an alpha level of significance of 0.05, HIGH showed significantly greater whole body and regional leg BMD than NON or CON. MED registered higher values than CON for whole body and regional leg BMD. Only HIGH had significantly greater leg strength than CON. Regional arm BMD was significantly greater in all exercising groups compared with CON, but no significant difference in arm strength was found between any groups. The athletic groups all had significantly lower body fat and higher height-corrected lean mass than CON. Height-corrected lean mass, height and leg extensor strength, but not calcium intake, arm flexor strength or body fat, were significant predictors of whole body and regional arm and leg BMD. Using the significant predictors as covariates, the impact groups (HIGH/MED) had significantly higher whole body BMD than CON. HIGH also had significantly higher whole body BMD than NON and both impact groups were greater than NON in regional leg BMD. Results suggest that females who participate regularly in the premenopausal years in high impact physical activity tend to have higher BMD than

  10. Lower Extremity Strength and Active Range of Motion in College Baseball Pitchers: A Comparison between Stance Leg and Kick Leg.

    PubMed

    Tippett, S R

    1986-01-01

    The role of the lower extremities and torso is vital in the pitching mechanism. However, a review of the literature reveals information primarily dealing with the upper extremity's role in throwing. This pilot study was conducted to: 1) determine selected lower extremity strength and range of motion measurements in sixteen college baseball pitchers, and 2) compare measurements in the stance leg to the kick leg. When preseason profiling is not possible, clinical norms for those treating college pitchers can be valuable in proper rehabilitation of the lower extremity. Also, by determining trends in lower extremity strength and motion when comparing kick (plant) leg to stance (drive) leg, a better understanding of lower extremity kinematics in the pitching act can be appreciated. Statistically significant differences were found in the active range of motion in plantarflexion, hip internal rotation, and hip extension of the stance leg, as well as hip flexion of the kick leg. lsokinetic evaluations at slow and fast speeds revealed significant differences in the strength of ankle dorsiflexors and hip flexors at slow speeds of the kick leg. Strength of the hamstrings on the kick leg was significant at fast speeds as was strength of the hip external rotators on the stance leg. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(1):10-14.

  11. Do early quadriceps exercises affect the outcome of ACL reconstruction? A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Triston; Williams, Marie T; Chipchase, Lucy S

    2005-01-01

    A prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of quadriceps exercises following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A treatment group (Quadriceps exercise group) performed straight leg raises and isometric quadriceps contractions throughout the first two postoperative weeks, and a second group (No quadriceps exercise group) did not. A battery of outcome measures assessed subjects postoperatively at day one, two weeks, and one, three and six months. A total of 103 patients (Quadriceps exercise n = 48, No quadriceps exercise n = 55) commenced the study with 91 subjects available at final follow up (Quadriceps exercise n = 47, No quadriceps exercise n = 44). Performance of quadriceps exercises significantly improved a number of knee flexion and extension range of motion measurements (p = 0.01 to 0.04). No significant differences were found between the two groups at any postoperative period for quadriceps lag (p = 0.36), functional hop testing (p = 0.49 to 0.51), isokinetic quadriceps strength (p = 0.70 to 0.72), the majority of numerical analogue scores (p = 0.1 to 0.94) and Cincinnati scores (p = 0.10 to 0.84). Subjects performing quadriceps exercises reported significantly higher pain scores with exercise on the first postoperative day (p = 0.02). At six months postoperatively, the Quadriceps exercise subjects reported significantly more favourable Cincinnati scores for symptoms (p = 0.005) and problems with sport (p = 0.05). While average knee laxity was not significantly different between treatment groups over time (p = 0.27 to 0.94), quadriceps exercise performance was associated with a significantly lower incidence of abnormal knee laxity. Isometric quadriceps exercises and straight leg raises can be safely prescribed during the first two postoperative weeks and confer advantages for faster recovery of knee range of motion and stability. It remains to be proven whether the magnitude of differences between groups is

  12. Strengthening Concurrent Enrollment through NACEP Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Kent; McLemore, Yvette; Lowe, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how implementing the National Alliance of Concurrent Enrollment Partnerships' 17 accreditation standards strengthens a concurrent enrollment program, enhances secondary-postsecondary relations, and benefits students, their families, and secondary and postsecondary institutions.

  13. Strengthening mechanisms of tungsten powder reinforced uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.K.; Hill, M.A.; Rollett, A.D.; Dunn, P.S.; Mortensen, A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA )

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten powder reinforced uranium exhibits a three-fold increase in yield strength due to precipitation hardening. The tungsten-rich interphase precipitates form at moving phase boundaries during slow cooling. Further increases in yield strength, attained with increasing tungsten content, are due to composite strengthening; this is verified by increasing elastic modulus with increasing tungsten content. Age hardening behavior is observed, with strengthening occurring at aging temperatures low in the alpha phase. Aging higher in alpha gives initial strengthening followed by rapid overaging. Beta phase aging results in a very soft structure with precipitates visible optically. Wrought material exhibits significant strain hardening as well as composite strengthening due to elongation of the tungsten particles. 7 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories When you learn something new, the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping ...

  15. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 hours later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  16. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  17. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise.

  18. Caffeine does not alter RPE or pain perception during intense exercise in active women.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Roupoli, Lindsay R; Valdivieso, Britten R

    2012-10-01

    Attenuated perceptions of exertion and leg pain are typically reported during exercise with caffeine ingestion, yet these responses are relatively unexplored in women. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain perception during a simulated time trial. Ten active women (age=22.1±1.9yr) completed an 8.2km "all out" time trial on each of 3days separated by at least 48h. Initially, a practice trial was completed, and participants refrained from products containing caffeine and lower-body exercise for 24h prior to subsequent trials. During exercise, heart rate (HR), RPE, and leg pain were recorded. Using a double-blind, randomized crossover design, participants ingested anhydrous caffeine and glucose (each 6mg/kg bw+each 6mg/kg bw glucose) or placebo (each 6mg/kg bw of glucose) 1h pre-exercise. Despite not altering (P>0.05) RPE, HR, or leg pain, caffeine improved (P<0.05) cycling performance (17.7±1.0min versus 18.2±1.1min) and power output (121.6±17.5W versus 114.9±17.9W) versus placebo. Caffeine's ergogenic effects may be independent of changes in RPE or leg pain in active women performing a simulated time trial.

  19. Tibial translation and muscle activation during rehabilitation exercises 5 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tagesson, S; Oberg, B; Kvist, J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different rehabilitation exercises with respect to dynamic anterior tibial translation and muscle activation 5 weeks after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Another aim was to compare the ACL-reconstructed knee with the ACL-injured and the uninjured knees for differences in anterior tibial translation and muscle activation during the exercises. Sagittal tibial translation and muscle activation were measured during the Lachman test (static translation) and during seven rehabilitation exercises (dynamic translation) in 19 patients. Results obtained 5 weeks after ACL reconstruction were compared with those obtained before the ACL reconstruction (ACL-deficient and uninjured knee). After ACL reconstruction the seated knee extension produced more anterior tibial translation than the straight leg raise and standing on one leg. The ACL reconstruction reduced the static and the dynamic tibial translation and the tibial translations measured in ACL-reconstructed knees were similar to those measured in uninjured knees. After ACL reconstruction, the patients used a joint stiffening strategy that used more hamstring activation and reduced the dynamic tibial translation. Although all exercises tested are suitable for rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction, to protect the graft from excessive strain, the straight leg raise and squat on one leg are preferable for quadriceps training in the early phase of rehabilitation.

  20. Parallel Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mozafar; Borboni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the capability of a 6-DoF parallel robot to perform various rehabilitation exercises. The foot trajectories of twenty healthy participants have been measured by a Vicon system during the performing of four different exercises. Based on the kinematics and dynamics of a parallel robot, a MATLAB program was developed in order to calculate the length of the actuators, the actuators' forces, workspace, and singularity locus of the robot during the performing of the exercises. The calculated length of the actuators and the actuators' forces were used by motion analysis in SolidWorks in order to simulate different foot trajectories by the CAD model of the robot. A physical parallel robot prototype was built in order to simulate and execute the foot trajectories of the participants. Kinect camera was used to track the motion of the leg's model placed on the robot. The results demonstrate the robot's capability to perform a full range of various rehabilitation exercises. PMID:27799727

  1. Exercise Is Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  2. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  3. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added. PMID:9676324

  4. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added.

  5. Concrete hulls for tension-leg platforms

    SciTech Connect

    De Oliveira, J.G. ); Fjeld, S. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes the main features of a concrete-hull tension-leg-platform (TLP) concept developed for the Heidrun field in the Haltenbanken area of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The hydrodynamic response and the methods adopted to optimize the hull dimensions, as well as the mooring system and hull mechanical outfitting, are discussed first. Then construction methods are briefly described. Inspection, maintenance, and repair are also addressed. Finally, the advantages of the concrete-hull TLP concept are summarized, including the concrete hull's adaptability to a large range of design requirements, low cost, and short construction time. This paper shows that the concrete-hull TLP is a very cost-efficient solution for the development of deepwater fields.

  6. A case of bacillary angiomatosis presenting as leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Karakaş, M; Baba, M; Homan, S; Akman, A; Acar, M A; Memişoğlu, H R; Gümürdülü, D

    2003-01-01

    We report a 32-year-old immunocompetent man who had multiple leg ulcers caused by bacillary angiomatosis without a history of direct contact with cats. Bacillary angiomatosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in cases of unknown aetiology.

  7. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  8. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use.

  9. Leg length discrepancy in scoliotic patients.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    The aetiological aspects as well as postural attitude implications represent an open question in scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is often recognised in scoliotic patients, but surprisingly still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge corrections in order to compensate pelvis tilt. In fact, literature reports conflicting results on the efficacy of LLD equalization also given the argued uncertainty of LLD clinical assessment and limitations related to X-ray measurements. Moreover concern is about anatomic and functional LLD and associated estimation of the pelvic torsion. In such a topic, a significant helpful tool has been demonstrated to be 3D kinematic optoelectronic measurements and other useful data obtained from force platforms and/or baropodographic systems. 135 (94.4%) out of 143 Scoliotic patients sample (av. age 16.4±10.2 Y range 4-66 Y), have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 143 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=10.2±5.2mm associated to a mean main scoliotic curve μ=16.4°±9.4° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=7.5±5.5mm and mean Global offset μ=10.1±7.1mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered postural parameters, after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The present investigation confirm results of a previous study demonstrating the efficacy of under-foot wedge use in leg asymmetry correction, posture re-balancing and spine deformities reduction, pointing out the significant contribution of the 3D opto-electronic measurement approach in the critical process of assessing the correct under-foot wedge size, therapy planning and monitoring.

  10. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Salman, Saleh Mohammad Yaser

    2011-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD) is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years) on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG). Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease. PMID:21422649

  11. Vitamin D sufficiency associates with an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines after intense exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Martins, Thomas B; Hill, Harry R; Kjeldsberg, Carl R; Dixon, Brian M; Schneider, Erik D; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Weaver, Lindell K

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of vitamin D status (insufficient vs. sufficient) on circulating cytokines and skeletal muscle strength after muscular injury. To induce muscular injury, one randomly selected leg (SSC) performed exercise consisting of repetitive eccentric-concentric contractions. The other leg served as the control. An averaged serum 25(OH)D concentration from two blood samples collected before exercise and on separate occasions was used to establish vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL, n=6) and sufficiency (>30ng/mL, n=7) in young, adult males. Serum cytokine concentrations, single-leg peak isometric force, and single-leg peak power output were measured before and during the days following the exercise protocol. The serum IL-10 and IL-13 responses to muscular injury were significantly (both p<0.05) increased in the vitamin D sufficient group. The immediate and persistent (days) peak isometric force (p<0.05) and peak power output (p<0.05) deficits in the SSC leg after the exercise protocol were not ameliorated with vitamin D sufficiency. We conclude that vitamin D sufficiency increases the anti-inflammatory cytokine response to muscular injury. PMID:24388225

  12. Influence of drop-landing exercises on bone geometry and biomechanical properties in prepubertal girls: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Greene, David A; Wiebe, Peter N; Naughton, Geraldine A

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a 28-week school-based exercise trial of single-leg drop-landing exercise with 42 girls (Tanner stage 1, 6-10 years old) randomly assigned to control (C), low-drop (LD), or high-drop (HD) exercise groups. The LD and HD groups performed single-leg drop-landings (three sessions/week and 50 landings/session) from 14 and 28 cm, respectively, using the nondominant leg. Single-leg peak ground-reaction impact forces in a subsample ranged between 2.5 and 4.4 times body weight. Dependent variables were bone geometry and biomechanical properties using magnetic resonance imaging. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among groups at baseline for age, stature, lean tissue mass (DXA--Lunar 3.6-DPX), leisure-time physical activity, average daily calcium intake, or measures of knee extensor or flexor torque. A series of ANOVA and ANCOVA tests showed no within- or between-group differences from baseline to posttraining. Group comparisons assessing magnitude of change in side-to-side differences in geometry (area cm(2)) and cross-sectional moment of inertia (cm(4)) at proximal, mid, and distal sites revealed negligible effect sizes. Our findings suggest that strictly controlled unimodal, unidirectional single-leg drop-landing exercises involving low to moderate peak ground-reaction impact forces do not influence geometrical or biomechanical measures in the developing prepubertal female skeleton. PMID:19458887

  13. Responses to underwater exercise in scuba divers differing in trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Raglin, J S; O'Connor, P J; Carlson, N; Morgan, W P

    1996-06-01

    Fifteen male scuba divers performed underwater leg ergometer exercise in an effort to determine if trait anxiety was related to their physiologic or perceptual responses. Psychologic assessment completed before exercise testing revealed that the sample exhibited positive psychologic profiles. However, five individuals possessed trait anxiety scores above the published mean (M = 46.0). Their responses to exercise were compared with the five participants with the lowest trait anxiety scores (M = 30.6). The exercise task was 20 min of steady-state underwater leg ergometer exercise. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilatory volume, breathing frequency, and heart rate were assessed at rest and every 5 min during exercise. Perception of effort and breathing discomfort were also determined during exercise. Each of the physiologic and perceptual variables increased (P < 0.05) with exercise. The only group main effect (P < 0.05) occurred for respiration rate. The high trait anxious group took 7.4 fewer breaths per minute (13.1 vs. 20.5) compared with low trait anxious group. These results have implications regarding the use of intervention strategies in persons at potential risk of experiencing panic while scuba diving.

  14. [Diabetes mellitus and exercise].

    PubMed

    Yoh, Kousei

    2006-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important life-style related diseases. As for the type 2 diabetes mellitus in particular, lack of exercise has a large influence on the onset and disease progress. We can improve glucose tolerance by exercising. Exercise is the most important fundamental treatment in diabetes mellitus. Continuation and safety become important to let exercise therapy succeed. It is important with a diabetic that a lot of patients without exercise habit should start to gain exercise habit. When we expect an exercise effect, we should take consideration of intensity and volume in exercise for performing. We should consider each contraindication matter even if we put it to have many complications with a diabetic when we perform exercise therapy. A case-by-case exercise treatment in diabetic patient is required.

  15. EMGs Analysis of Lumbar, Pelvic and Leg Muscles in Leg Length Discrepancy Adolescents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo-Barroso, Fernando; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Caudillo-Cisneros, Cipriana

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate differences in surface electromyography (EMGs) activity of lumbar, pelvic and leg muscles in adolescents with and without LLD. EMGs activity records were taken during rest and maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC). Peak to peak amplitude (PPA), mean rectified voltage (MRV) and root mean square (RMS), were analyzed. Statistical differences between short and large sides of LLD adolescents, were found (p<0.05). Higher values occurred in shorter limb muscles. No significative differences were found between left and right legs of the control subjects. When EMGs values were compared between short and large sides of LLD subjects with ipsilateral sides of controls, selective, statistically different EMGs values were exhibited. It is suggested that adaptative behavior to secondary biomechanical and/or neural changes occurred, even when none clinical symptoms were reported. The observations were remarked by the absence of EMGs differences between right and left sides of control subjects.

  16. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

  17. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of the Effect of Leg Dominance on Muscle Oxygen Saturation During Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Paunescu, Lelia Adelina; Pereira, Chelsea; Smith, Charles P.; Soller, Babs R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of leg dominance on the symmetry of the biomechanics during cyclin