Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae
[Purpose] In this study, a program was developed for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Microsoft Kinect. [Subjects and Methods] The program consists of three leg-strengthening exercises (knee flexion, hip flexion, and hip extension) and the one-leg standing test (OLST). The program recognizes the correct exercise posture by comparison with the range of motion of the hip and knee joints and provides a number of correct action examples to improve training. The program measures the duration of the OLST and presents this as the balance-age. The accuracy of the program was analyzed using the data of five male adults. [Results] In terms of the motion recognition accuracy, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.3% and 100%, respectively. For the balance assessment, the time measured using the existing method with a stopwatch had an absolute error of 0.37 sec. [Conclusion] The developed program can be used to enable users to conduct leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessments at home.
Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae
[Purpose] In this study, a program was developed for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Microsoft Kinect. [Subjects and Methods] The program consists of three leg-strengthening exercises (knee flexion, hip flexion, and hip extension) and the one-leg standing test (OLST). The program recognizes the correct exercise posture by comparison with the range of motion of the hip and knee joints and provides a number of correct action examples to improve training. The program measures the duration of the OLST and presents this as the balance-age. The accuracy of the program was analyzed using the data of five male adults. [Results] In terms of the motion recognition accuracy, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.3% and 100%, respectively. For the balance assessment, the time measured using the existing method with a stopwatch had an absolute error of 0.37 sec. [Conclusion] The developed program can be used to enable users to conduct leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessments at home. PMID:26957724
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L
The present study's aim was to evaluate muscle activity during leg exercises using elastic vs. isoinertial resistance at different exertion and loading levels, respectively. Twenty-four women and eighteen men aged 26-67 years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG. Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. The following results were obtained. Loading intensity affected EMG amplitude in the order: low
Williams, Gavin; Clark, Ross A; Hansson, Jessica; Paterson, Kade
Conventional methods for strength training in neurologic rehabilitation are not task specific for walking. Ballistic strength training was developed to improve the functional transfer of strength training; however, no research has investigated this in neurologic populations. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying ballistic principles to conventional leg strengthening exercises in individuals with mobility limitations as a result of neurologic injuries. Eleven individuals with neurologic injuries completed seated and reclined leg press using conventional and ballistic techniques. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare power measures (peak movement height and peak velocity) between exercises and conditions. Peak jump velocity and peak jump height were greater when using the ballistic jump technique rather than the conventional concentric technique (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that when compared with conventional strengthening exercises, the incorporation of ballistic principles was associated with increased peak height and peak velocities.
Kawanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawashima, Akira; Sashimoto, Issei; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Jun
The present study was conducted to determine the beneficial effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise in addition to muscle strengthening, balance, and walking exercises on the walking ability in the elderly. Sixty-seven elderly participants were divided into two groups; the WBV exercise plus routine exercises group (n=40) and the routine exercises alone group (n=27). WBV exercise was performed on a Galileo machine (Novotec, Pforzheim, Germany) at an intensity of 12-20 Hz, for a duration of 4 minutes, once every week. All the participants in both the groups were similarly instructed to undergo routine exercises such as balance and muscle strengthening training, and take walking exercise twice a week. The period of this study was 2 months to evaluate the acute effects of WBV exercise. The mean age of the participants was 72.0 years (range, 59-86 years). At baseline, there were significant negative correlations between age and the walking speed, step length, and maximum standing time on one leg. After the 2-month exercise program, the walking speed, step length, and the maximum standing time on one leg were significantly improved in the WBV exercise plus routine exercises group, while no significant changes in these parameters were observed in the routine exercises alone group. Thus, the present study showed the beneficial effect of WBV exercise in addition to muscle strengthening, balance, and walking exercises in improving the walking ability in the elderly. WBV exercise was safe and well tolerated in the elderly.
Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.
These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.
Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.
Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…
Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniques (stabilizing reversal and rhythmic stabilization), which were applied to facilitate trunk musculature. To examine balance ability, total displacement of the center of pressure was measured during balance tests. [Results] The total anterior–posterior center of pressure displacement was significantly reduced after applying rhythmic stabilization compared before exercise regardless of the balance test conditions. [Conclusion] The present results suggest that trunk stability exercise using rhythmic stabilization could effectively enhance balance ability under one-leg and double-leg conditions. PMID:27390392
Gomides, R S; Dias, R M R; Souza, D R; Costa, L A R; Ortega, K C; Mion, D; Tinucci, T; de Moraes Forjaz, C L
Blood pressure (BP) assessment during resistance exercise can be useful to avoid high BP, reducing cardiovascular risk, especially in hypertensive individuals. However, non-invasive accurate technique for this purpose is not available. The aim of this study was to compare finger photoplethysmographic (FPP) and intra-arterial BP values and responses during resistance exercise. Eight non-medicated hypertensive subjects (5 males, 30-60 years) were evaluated during pre-exercise resting period and during three sets of the knee extension exercise performed at 80% of 1RM until fatigue. BP was measured simultaneously by FPP and intra-arterial methods. Data are mean+/-SD. Systolic BP was significantly higher with FPP than with intra-arterial: at pre-exercise (157+/-13 vs. 152+/-10 mmHg; p<0.01) and the mean (202+/-29 vs. 198+/-26 mmHg; p<0.01), and the maximal (240+/-26 vs. 234+/-16 mmHg; p<0.05) values achieved during exercise. The increase in systolic BP during resistance exercise was similar between FPP and intra-arterial (+73+/-29 vs. +71+/-18 mmHg; p=0.59). Diastolic BP values and increases were lower with FPP. In conclusion, FPP provides similar values of BP increment during resistance exercise than intra-arterial method. However, it overestimates by 2.6+/-6.1% the maximal systolic BP achieved during this mode of exercise and underestimates by 8.8+/-5.8% the maximal diastolic BP.
Weinstein, R B; Full, R J
Most animals move intermittently, yet many proposed performance limitations of terrestrial locomotion are based on steady-state measurements and assumptions. We examined the effect of work-rest transitions by exercising the ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata (28.1 +/- 8.1 g), intermittently on a treadmill at 0.30 m/s, a supramaximal speed [i.e., greater than the speed that elicits the maximal rate of oxygen consumption (VO2)]. Duration of the exercise and pause periods, ratio of exercise to pause, and speed during the exercise period were varied to determine the effect on performance. Crabs fatigued after 7.5 min of continuous running, a distance capacity (i.e., total distance traveled before fatigue) of 135 m. When the task was done intermittently with 2-min exercise and 2-min pause periods, the crabs fatigued after 87 min (a total distance of 787 m), representing an 5.8-fold increase in distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same absolute speed (0.30 m/s) and a 2.2-fold increase in distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same average speed (0.15 m/s). Pause periods less than 30 s did not result in greater distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same average speed. Longer (3-5 min) and shorter exercise periods (less than or equal to 30 s) decreased distance capacity. Leg muscle lactate increased 10-fold to 15 mumol/g leg during intermittent exercise. However, significant amounts of lactate were cleared from the leg during the brief pause periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
... Read on to find out why. Core exercises train the muscles in your pelvis, lower back, hips ... manner that involves maintaining a stable trunk can train and strengthen several of your muscles, including your ...
Aliverti, A; Kayser, B; Lo Mauro, A; Quaranta, M; Pompilio, P; Dellacà, R L; Ora, J; Biasco, L; Cavalleri, L; Pomidori, L; Cogo, A; Pellegrino, R; Miserocchi, G
We compared the rate of perceived exertion for respiratory (RPE,resp) and leg (RPE,legs) muscles, using a 10-point Borg scale, to their specific power outputs in 10 healthy male subjects during incremental cycle exercise at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA, 4559 m). Respiratory power output was calculated from breath-by-breath esophageal pressure and chest wall volume changes. At HA ventilation was increased at any leg power output by ∼ 54%. However, for any given ventilation, breathing pattern was unchanged in terms of tidal volume, respiratory rate and operational volumes of the different chest wall compartments. RPE,resp scaled uniquely with total respiratory power output, irrespectively of SL or HA, while RPE,legs for any leg power output was exacerbated at HA. With increasing respective power outputs, the rate of change of RPE,resp exponentially decreased, while that of RPE,legs increased. We conclude that RPE,resp uniquely relates to respiratory power output, while RPE,legs varies depending on muscle metabolic conditions.
Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Augeri, Amanda L.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.
OBJECTIVES We sought to examine the effect of atorvastatin therapy on exercise leg blood flow in healthy middle-aged and older, men and women. BACKGROUND The vasodilatory response to exercise decreases in humans with aging and disease and this reduction may contribute to reduced exercise capacity. METHODS We used a double-blind, randomly assigned, placebo-controlled protocol to assess the effect of atorvastatin treatment on exercising leg hemodynamics. We measured femoral artery blood flow (FBF) using Doppler ultrasound and calculated femoral vascular conductance (FVC) from brachial mean arterial pressure (MAP) before and during single knee-extensor exercise in healthy adults (ages 40–71) before (PRE) and after (POST) 6 months of 80 mg atorvastatin (A: 14 men, 16 women) or placebo (P: 14 men, 22 women) treatment. FBF and FVC were normalized to exercise power output and estimated quadriceps muscle mass. RESULTS Atorvastatin reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 50%, but not in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Atorvastatin also increased exercise FBF from 44.2 ± 19.0 to 51.4 ± 22.0 mL/min/W/kg muscle whereas FBF in the placebo group was unchanged (40.1 ± 16.0 vs 39.5 ± 16.1) (p <0.01). FVC also increased with atorvastatin from 0.5 ± 0.2 to. 0.6 ± 0.2 mL/min/mmHg/W/kg muscle, but not in the placebo subjects (P: 0.4 ± 0.2 vs 0.4 ± 0.2) ( p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS High-dose atorvastatin augments exercising leg hyperemia. Statins may mitigate reductions in the exercise vasodilatory response in humans that are associated with aging and disease. PMID:22018642
Tufano, James J.; Golas, Artur; Petr, Miroslav
ABSTRACT THE GLUTEUS MEDIUS (Gmed) IS AN IMPORTANT MUSCLE AND, IF WEAK, CAN CAUSE KNEE, HIP, OR LOWER-BACK PATHOLOGIES. THIS ARTICLE REVIEWS METHODS OF Gmed STRENGTH ASSESSMENT, PROVIDES EXERCISES THAT TARGET THE Gmed BASED ON ELECTROMYOGRAPHY, PRESENTS HOW TO IMPLEMENT Gmed STRENGTHENING IN HEAVY RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS, AND EXPLAINS THE IMPORTANCE OF INCLUDING THESE EXERCISES IN THESE PROGRAMS. PMID:27340373
Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Sarman, Hakan; Baran, Tuncay; Memisoglu, Kaya; Binbir, Ismail; Savas, Yilmaz; Isik, Cengiz; Boyraz, Ismail; Koc, Bunyamin
A new isometric contraction quadriceps-strengthening exercise was developed to restore the quadriceps strength lost after knee surgery more rapidly. This study evaluated the results of this new method. Patients were taught to perform the isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise in the unaffected knee in the supine position, and then they performed it in the affected knee. First, patients were taught the classical isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise, and then they were taught our new alternative method: “pull the patella superiorly tightly and hold the leg in the same position for 10 seconds”. Afterward, the quadriceps contraction was evaluated using a non-invasive Myomed 932 EMG-biofeedback device (Enraf-Nonius, The Netherlands) with gel-containing 48 mm electrodes (Türklab, The Turkey) placed on both knees. The isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise performed using our new method had stronger contraction than the classical method (P < 0.01). The new method involving pulling the patella superiorly appears to be a better choice, which can be applied easily, leading to better patient compliance and greater quadriceps force after arthroscopic and other knee surgeries. PMID:25356122
Wong, N.; Silver, J. E.; Greenawalt, S.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.
Contributions by ancillary hand and arm actions to the changes in blood constituents effected by leg exercises on cycle ergometer were assessed. Static or dynamic hand-arm exercises were added to the leg exercise (50 percent VO2 peak)-only control regimens for the subjects (19-27 yr old men) in the two experimental groups. Antecubital venous blood was analyzed at times 0, 15, and 30 min (T0, T15, and T30) for serum Na(+), K(+), osmolality, albumin, total CA(2+), and glucose; blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, and lactic acid; and change in plasma volume. Only glucose and lactate values were affected by additional arm exercise. Glucose decreased 4 percent at T15 and T30 after static exercise, and by 2 percent at T15 (with no change at T30) after dynamic arm exercise. Conversely, lactic acid increased by 20 percent at T30 after static exercise, and by 14 percent by T15 and 6 percent at T30 after dynamic arm exercise. It is concluded that additional arm movements, performed usually when gripping the handle-bar on the cycle ergometer, could introduce significant errors in measured venous concentrations of glucose and lactate in the leg-exercised subjects.
Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Streckis, Vytautas; Mamkus, Gediminas; Drazdauskas, Adomas
Context: Whether muscle warming protects against exercise-induced muscle damage is unknown. Objective: To determine the effect of leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise on the time course of indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. Design: Crossover trial. Setting: Human kinetics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven healthy, untrained men (age = 21.5 ± 1.7 years). Intervention(s): Participants' legs were immersed in a water bath at 44 ± 1°C for 45 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Creatine kinase changes in the blood, muscle soreness, prolonged (within 72 hours) impairment in maximal voluntary contraction force and height of drop jump, and electrically evoked muscle force at low and high stimulation frequencies at short and long muscle lengths. Results: Leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise reduced most of the indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage, including creatine kinase activity in the blood, muscle soreness, maximal voluntary contraction force, and jump height. The values for maximal voluntary contraction force and jump height, however, were higher during prewarming than for the control condition at 48 hours after stretch-shortening exercise, but this difference was only minor at other time points. Muscle prewarming did not bring about any changes in the dynamics of low-frequency fatigue, registered at either short or long muscle length, within 72 hours of stretch-shortening exercise. Conclusions: Leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise reduced most of the indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. However, the clinical application of muscle prewarming may be limited, because decreasing muscle damage did not necessarily lead to improved voluntary performance. PMID:19030137
Calbet, J A L; González-Alonso, J; Helge, J W; Søndergaard, H; Munch-Andersen, T; Saltin, B; Boushel, R
In humans, arm exercise is known to elicit larger increases in arterial blood pressure (BP) than leg exercise. However, the precise regulation of regional vascular conductances (VC) for the distribution of cardiac output with exercise intensity remains unknown. Hemodynamic responses were assessed during incremental upright arm cranking (AC) and leg pedalling (LP) to exhaustion (Wmax) in nine males. Systemic VC, peak cardiac output (Qpeak) (indocyanine green) and stroke volume (SV) were 18%, 23%, and 20% lower during AC than LP. The mean BP, the rate-pressure product and the associated myocardial oxygen demand were 22%, 12%, and 14% higher, respectively, during maximal AC than LP. Trunk VC was reduced to similar values at Wmax. At Wmax, muscle mass-normalized VC and fractional O2 extraction were lower in the arm than the leg muscles. However, this was compensated for during AC by raising perfusion pressure to increase O2 delivery, allowing a similar peak VO2 per kg of muscle mass in both extremities. In summary, despite a lower Qpeak during arm cranking the cardiovascular strain is much higher than during leg pedalling. The adjustments of regional conductances during incremental exercise to exhaustion depend mostly on the relative intensity of exercise and are limb-specific.
Cannell, L; Taunton, J; Clement, D; Smith, C; Khan, K
Objectives—To compare the therapeutic effect of two different exercise protocols in athletes with jumper's knee. Methods—Randomised clinical trial comparing a 12 week programme of either drop squat exercises or leg extension/leg curl exercises. Measurement was performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures were pain (visual analogue scale 1–10) and return to sport. Secondary outcome measures included quadriceps and hamstring moment of force using a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/second. Differences in pain response between the drop squat and leg extension/curl treatment groups were assessed by 2 (group) x 3 (time) analysis of variance. Two by two contingency tables were used to test differences in rates of return to sport. Analysis of variance (2 (injured versus non-injured leg) x 2 (group) x 3 (time)) was also used to determine differences for secondary outcome measures. Results—Over the 12 week intervention, pain diminished by 2.3 points (36%) in the leg extension/curl group and 3.2 points (57%) in the squat group. There was a significant main effect of both exercise protocols on pain (p<0.01) with no interaction effect. Nine of 10 subjects in the drop squat group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks, but five of those subjects still had low level pain. Six of nine of the leg extension/curl group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks and four patients had low level pain. There was no significant difference between groups in numbers returning to sporting activity. There were no differences in the change in quadriceps or hamstring muscle moment of force between groups. Conclusions—Progressive drop squats and leg extension/curl exercises can reduce the pain of jumper's knee in a 12 week period and permit a high proportion of patients to return to sport. Not all patients, however, return to sport by that time. Key Words: knee; patellar tendon; tendinopathy; tendinosis; eccentric strengthening; strength training
Schick, Fritz; Steidle, Guenter
Echoplanar diffusion tensor imaging of musculature was performed using an adapted sequence with stimulated echo preparation and eddy current compensation. Reliable diffusion tensor data were obtained in short measuring time of 2 minutes. Image distortion problems due to eddy currents arising from long lasting diffusion sensitizing gradients could be overcome by insertion of additional gradient pulses in the TM interval of the stimulated echo preparation. In addition, a T II-weighted multi-contrast spin-echo sequence with seven echoes was applied for assessment of changes in T2 during exercise. The diffusion tensor and T2 in the musculature of the lower leg was investigated in 4 healthy subjects and maps of the trace and the three eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor, fractional anisotropy maps, and angle maps were calculated from examinations before and after 90 seconds of exhausting tiptoe exercises. For both fractional anisotropy and muscle fibre orientation obvious differences for the miscellaneous muscle groups could be observed, whereas the eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor were found rather homogenous in the whole calf musculature. All eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor of loaded muscles were significantly increased by 7-17% immediately after the exercise. Maximum increase (14-17%) was found in the smallest eigenvalue in gastrocnemius lateralis and soleus muscle.
Yerokhin, Vadim; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Hogan, Michael J; Dunnam, Mina; Huber, Daniel; Osborne, Sandra; Shulan, Mollie
Research demonstrates a positive effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in older adults. Unfortunately, aerobic exercise is often contraindicated for older adults due to cardiovascular and functional limitations. Low-intensity strengthening exercise may offer a practical alternative, but the neuropsychological benefits and potential neurophysiological mechanisms are less well understood. The current study evaluated the effects of a 10-week strengthening exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and EEG in a sample of 13 older adults with early dementia, and 9 normative controls. Results revealed beneficial effects of strengthening exercise on verbal memory coupled with frontal beta and delta power asymmetries and N200 amplitude asymmetry. Results point to increased cognitive efficiency following 10 weeks of strengthening exercise. The findings suggest it is feasible to conduct a strengthening intervention with early dementia patients, and to gather neuropsychological and neurophysiological data to evaluate outcomes. Strengthening exercise may serve as a useful alternative to aerobic exercise.
Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine; Døssing, Simon; Kjær, Andreas; Kjær, Michael
One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron emission tomography (PET) determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU) during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25 W for 35 min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest in the vastus intermedius (VI) and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL; VI vs VL, p < 0.05), whereas the coefficient of variation was highest in VL (VL vs VI, p < 0.05). Coefficient of variation between the mean values of the four quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles in the exercising leg was 35 ± 9%. Compared to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between individuals vary greatly during DKE, and suggests that muscle activity is not equal between quadriceps muscles in this exercise model. Furthermore, posterior thigh muscles and lower leg muscles are more active than hitherto thought even during this moderate exercise intensity. PMID:22046164
Bircan, Ciğdem; Karasel, Seide Alev; Akgün, Berrin; El, Ozlem; Alper, Serap
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic training with a muscle-strengthening program in patients with fibromyalgia. Thirty women with fibromyalgia were randomized to either an aerobic exercise (AE) program or a strengthening exercise (SE) program for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the intensity of fibromyalgia-related symptoms, tender point count, fitness (6-min walk distance), hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale, and short-form health survey (SF-36). There were significant improvements in both groups regarding pain, sleep, fatigue, tender point count, and fitness after treatment. HAD-depression scores improved significantly in both groups while no significant change occurred in HAD-anxiety scores. Bodily pain subscale of SF-36 and physical component summary improved significantly in the AE group, whereas seven subscales of SF-36, physical component summary, and mental component summary improved significantly in the SE group. When the groups were compared after treatment, there were no significant differences in pain, sleep, fatigue, tender point count, fitness, HAD scores, and SF-36 scores. AE and SE are similarly effective at improving symptoms, tender point count, fitness, depression, and quality of life in fibromyalgia.
Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.
Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…
Kamiya, Atsunori; Michikami, Daisaku; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Hayano, Junichiro; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Mano, Tadaaki
Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied muscles remain unknown. We hypothesized that bed rest would augment sympathetic responses to isometric exercise using antigravity leg muscles in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers were subjected to 14-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Before and after bed rest, they performed isometric exercises using leg (plantar flexion) and forearm (handgrip) muscles, followed by 2-min postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) that continues to stimulate the muscle metaboreflex. These exercises were sustained to fatigue. We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the contralateral resting leg by microneurography. In both pre- and post-bed-rest exercise tests, exercise intensities were set at 30 and 70% of the maximum voluntary force measured before bed rest. Bed rest attenuated the increase in MSNA in response to fatiguing plantar flexion by approximately 70% at both exercise intensities (both P < 0.05 vs. before bed rest) and reduced the maximal voluntary force of plantar flexion by 15%. In contrast, bed rest did not alter the increase in MSNA response to fatiguing handgrip and had no effects on the maximal voluntary force of handgrip. Although PEMI sustained MSNA activation before bed rest in all trials, bed rest entirely eliminated the PEMI-induced increase in MSNA in leg exercises but partially attenuated it in forearm exercises. These results do not support our hypothesis but indicate that bed rest causes a reduction in isometric exercise-induced sympathetic activation in (probably atrophied) antigravity leg muscles.
Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.
Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…
Reihmane, Dace; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas; Wulff Helge, Jørn; Dela, Flemming
Physical inactivity is a major contributor to low-grade systemic inflammation. Most of the studies characterizing interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release from exercising legs have been done in young, healthy men, but studies on inactivity in older people are lacking. The impact of 14 days of one-leg immobilization (IM) on IL-6 and TNF-α release during exercise in comparison to the contralateral control (CON) leg was investigated. Fifteen healthy men (age 68.1 ± 1.1 year (mean ± SEM); BMI 27.0 ± 0.4 kg·m(2); VO2max 33.3 ± 1.6 ml·kg(‒1)·min(‒1)) performed 45 min of two-leg dynamic knee extensor exercise at 19.5 ± 0.9 W. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples from the CON and the IM legs were collected every 15 min during exercise, and thigh blood flow was measured with ultrasound Doppler. Arterial plasma IL-6 concentration increased with exercise (rest vs. 45 min, main effect p < .05). IL-6 release increased with exercise (rest vs. 30 min, main effect p < .05). Furthermore, IL-6 release was borderline (main effect, p = .085, effect size 0.28) higher in the IM leg compared to the CON leg (288 (95% CI: 213-373) vs. 220 (95% CI: 152-299) pg·min(‒1), respectively). There was no release of TNF-α in either leg and arterial concentrations remained unchanged during exercise (p > .05). In conclusion, exercise induces more pronounced IL-6 secretion in healthy older men. Two weeks of unilateral immobilization on the other hand had only a minor influence on IL-6 release. Neither immobilization nor exercise had an effect on TNF-α release across the working legs in older men.
Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Garten, Ryan S; Ives, Stephen J; Conklin, Jamie D; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A H; Bledsoe, Amber D; Morgan, David E; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S
The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively), leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population.
Rossman, Matthew J.; Trinity, Joel D.; Garten, Ryan S.; Ives, Stephen J.; Conklin, Jamie D.; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Bledsoe, Amber D.; Morgan, David E.; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R.; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D. Walter
The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively), leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population. PMID:26188020
Stang, Julie; Wiig, Håvard; Hermansen, Marte; Hansen, Ernst Albin
Understanding of behavior and control of human voluntary rhythmic stereotyped leg movements is useful in work to improve performance, function, and rehabilitation of exercising, healthy, and injured humans. The present study aimed at adding to the existing understanding within this field. To pursue the aim, correlations between freely chosen movement frequencies in relatively simple, single-joint, one- and two-legged knee extension exercise were investigated. The same was done for more complex, multiple-joint, one- and two-legged pedaling. These particular activities were chosen because they could be considered related to some extent, as they shared a key aspect of knee extension, and because they at the same time were different. The activities were performed at submaximal intensities, by healthy individuals (n = 16, thereof eight women; 23.4 ± 2.7 years; 1.70 ± 0.11 m; 68.6 ± 11.2 kg). High and fair correlations (R-values of 0.99 and 0.75) occurred between frequencies generated with the dominant leg and the nondominant leg during knee extension exercise and pedaling, respectively. Fair to high correlations (R-values between 0.71 and 0.95) occurred between frequencies performed with each of the two legs in an activity, and the two-legged frequency performed in the same type of activity. In general, the correlations were higher for knee extension exercise than for pedaling. Correlations between knee extension and pedaling frequencies were of modest occurrence. The correlations between movement frequencies generated separately by each of the legs might be interpreted to support the following working hypothesis, which was based on existing literature. It is likely that involved central pattern generators (CPGs) of the two legs share a common frequency generator or that separate frequency generators of each leg are attuned via interneuronal connections. Further, activity type appeared to be relevant. Thus, the apparent common rhythmogenesis for the two legs appeared
Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed. PMID:19193547
Exercise improves quality of life (QOL) in people with cancer. Most oncology healthcare providers recognize the statement to be true because the research literature provides strong support for the physical and psychological benefits of exercise. Because the terms exercise, QOL, and people with cancer have different meanings, the contextual connections in which they are used are important to understanding the relationship between exercise and QOL in people with cancer. This article explores the links between exercise and QOL in people with cancer and examines issues that impact the development, implementation, and evaluation of exercise programs for people with cancer. Issues related to exercise goal development, exercise prescription, exercise testing, exercise adherence, and methods to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in relation to QOL are discussed.
Poole, D. C.; Gaesser, G. A.; Hogan, M. C.; Knight, D. R.; Wagner, P. D.
Insights into muscle energetics during exercise (e.g., muscular efficiency) are often inferred from measurements of pulmonary gas exchange. This procedure presupposes that changes of pulmonary O2 (VO2) associated with increases of external work reflect accurately the increased muscle VO2. The present investigation addressed this issue directly by making simultaneous determinations of pulmonary and leg VO2 over a range of work rates calculated to elicit 20-90% of maximum VO2 on the basis of prior incremental (25 or 30 W/min) cycle ergometry. VO2 for both legs was calculated as the product of twice one-leg blood flow (constant-infusion thermodilution) and arteriovenous O2 content difference across the leg. Measurements were made 3-5 min after each work rate imposition to avoid incorporation of the VO2 slow component above the lactate threshold. For all 17 subjects, the slope of pulmonary VO2 (9.9 +/- 0.2 ml O2.W-1.min-1) was not different (P greater than 0.05) from that for leg VO2 (9.2 +/- 0.6 ml O2.W-1.min-1). Estimation of "delta" efficiency (i.e., delta work accomplished divided by delta energy expended, calculated from slope of VO2 vs. work rate and a caloric equivalent for O2 of 4.985 cal/ml) using pulmonary VO2 measurements (29.1 +/- 0.6%) was likewise not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from that made using leg VO2 measurements (33.7 +/- 2.4%). These data suggest that the net VO2 cost of metabolic "support" processes outside the exercising legs changes little over a relatively broad range of exercise intensities. Thus, under the conditions of this investigation, changes of VO2 measured from expired gas reflected closely those occurring within the exercising legs.
Rätsepsoo, Monika; Gapeyeva, Helena; Sokk, Jelena; Ereline, Jaan; Haviko, Tiit; Pääsuke, Mati
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to compare the leg extensor muscle strength, the postural stability, and the fear of falling in the women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) before and after a 2-month home exercise program (HEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS. In total, 17 women aged 46-72 years with late-stage knee joint OA scheduled for total knee arthroplasty participated in this study before and after the 2-month HEP with strengthening, stretching, balance, and step exercises. The isometric peak torque (PT) of the leg extensors and postural stability characteristics when standing on a firm or a foam surface for 30 seconds were recorded. The fear of falling and the pain intensity (VAS) were estimated. RESULTS. A significant increase in the PT and the PT-to-body weight (PT-to-BW) ratio of the involved leg as well as the bilateral PT and the PT-to-BW ratio was found after the 2-month HEP compared with the data before the HEP (P<0.05). The PT and the PT-to-BW ratio of the involved leg were significantly lower compared with the uninvolved leg before the HEP (P<0.05). The center of the pressure sway length (foam surface) decreased significantly after the HEP (P<0.05). Significant correlations were found between the PT of the involved leg and the bilateral PT and the fear of falling and between the PT of the involved leg and the postural sway (foam surface) before the HEP. CONCLUSIONS. After the 2-month HEP, the leg extensor muscle strength increased and the postural sway length on a foam surface decreased. The results indicate that the increased leg extensor muscle strength improves postural stability and diminishes the fear of falling in women with late-stage knee joint OA.
Aliasgharpour, Mansooreh; Abbasi, Zahra; Pedram Razi, Shadan; Kazemnezhad, Anoshiravan
Background The restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder that is very common in patients on hemodialysis. Due to pharmacological treatments which have their own side effects, nowadays, studies have turned to non-pharmacological treatments. Objectives The present study aims to assess the effect of stretching exercises on the severity of restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis. Patients and Methods This clinical trial study was conducted on 33 patients who had been identified using diagnostic criteria from the hemodialysis ward of Hasheminejad Hospital in Tehran. Participants were randomly divided into the intervention group (n = 17) and control group (n = 16). Stretching exercises were performed on legs during the dialysis for half an hour, three times a week for 8 weeks in intervention group. Data were collected by using the international restless legs syndrome study group scale. Results The results showed that the majority of participants were suffering from moderate restless legs syndrome. The symptom severity of this syndrome meaningfully changed eight weeks after intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions The results highlighted the significance of training and performing the stretching exercises during dialysis for the purpose of improving restless legs syndrome symptoms and the quality of care of hemodialysis patients. PMID:27625757
Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Saito, Mitsuru; Koike, Teruhiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Ogoh, Shigehiko
Abstract Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is not increased during leg cycling at light and mild intensities, despite activation of central command and the exercise pressor reflex. We determined whether increasing central blood volume and loading the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors modulate sympathetic vasomotor outflow during leg cycling. To this end, we changed the pedaling frequency to enhance skeletal muscle pump. Subjects performed two leg cycle exercises at differential pedal rates of 60 and 80 rpm (60EX and 80EX trials) for two conditions (with and without MSNA measurement). In each trial, subjects completed leg cycling with a differential workload to maintain constant oxygen consumption (VO2). MSNA was recorded via microneurography at the right median nerve of the elbow. Without MSNA measurement, thoracic impedance, stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) were measured non‐invasively using impedance cardiography. Heart rate and VO2 during exercise did not differ between the 60EX and 80EX trials. Changes in thoracic impedance, SV, and CO during the 80EX trial were greater than during the 60EX trial. MSNA during the 60EX trial was unchanged compared with that at rest (25.8 ± 3.1 [rest] to 28.3 ± 3.4 [exercise] bursts/min), whereas a significant decrease in MSNA was observed during the 80EX trial (25.8 ± 2.8 [rest] to 19.7 ± 2.0 [exercise] bursts/min). These results suggest that a muscle pump‐induced increase in central blood volume, and thereby loading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, could inhibit sympathetic vasomotor outflow during mild dynamic leg exercise, despite activation of central command and the exercise pressor reflex. PMID:25347854
Castro, Renata R T; Pedrosa, Sabrina; Nóbrega, Antonio C L
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare respiratory responses, focusing on the time-domain variability of ventilatory components during progressive cardiopulmonary exercise tests performed on cycle or arm ergometers. METHODS: The cardiopulmonary exercise tests were conducted on twelve healthy volunteers on either a cycle ergometer or an arm ergometer following a ramp protocol. The time-domain variabilities (the standard deviations and root mean squares of the successive differences) of the minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate were calculated and normalized to the number of breaths. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the timing of breathing throughout the exercise when the cycle and arm ergometer measurements were compared. However, the arm exercise time-domain variabilities for the minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate were significantly greater than the equivalent values obtained during leg exercise. CONCLUSION: Although the type of exercise does not influence the timing of breathing when dynamic arm and leg exercises are compared, it does influence time-domain ventilatory variability of young, healthy individuals. The mechanisms that influence ventilatory variability during exercise remain to be studied. PMID:21876964
Sporer, Ben C; Foster, Glen E; Sheel, A William; McKenzie, Donald C
The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of entrainment of breathing (ENT) between cyclists (C; n=8) and non-cyclists (NC; n=8) during leg cycling (LC) and arm cycling (AC). No subjects were training regularly in upper body endurance exercise. Day 1 consisted of spirometry and a VO2max test on both an arm and leg ergometer in random order separated by at least 60 min. On Day 2, subjects performed both AC and LC exercise with each session consisting of 5 min of warm-up at 20% and three consecutive 6 min loads at 40%, 60%, and 80% of task specific peak power output (WL1, WL2, WL3, respectively). Sessions were separated by at least 45 min. The final 3 min of each load were analyzed for entrainment of pedal and breathing frequencies using integer and half-integer ratios. A total of six subjects were unable to complete at least one exercise session at WL3 and therefore this load was excluded from analysis. Mean % VO2max during exercise was not different between cyclists and controls with respect to intensity and mode (AC= approximately 50% and 70%; LC= approximately 55% and 75% at WL1 and WL2, respectively). A repeated measures ANOVA revealed no effect on incidence of entrainment (%ENT) by group, mode of exercise, or exercise intensity (p=0.12, 0.24, and 0.88, respectively). %ENT was highest in cyclists during leg exercise (cyclists: LC=32%; AC=19%; controls: LC=18%; AC=21%) however this difference was not significant (p=0.07). In all situations that would be considered unfamiliar for both groups %ENT was similar. These results suggest that during cycling exercise at intensities of 75% VO2max or less, regular training may result in higher %ENT and that ENT is not transferable to an unfamiliar mode of exercise using different muscle groups.
Chen, Chien-Liang; Tang, Jing-Shia; Li, Ping-Chia; Chou, Pi-Ling
Purpose: This study compared the immediate effects of smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic arm and leg exercises. Methods:This randomized crossover study recruited 14 college students. Each participant underwent two sets of arm-cranking (AC) and leg-cycling (LC) exercise tests. The testing sequences of the control trial (participants refrained from smoking for 8 h before testing) and the experimental trial (participants smoked two cigarettes immediately before testing) were randomly chosen. We observed immediate changes in pulmonary function and heart rate variability after smoking and before the exercise test. The participants then underwent graded exercise tests of their arms and legs until reaching exhaustion. We compared the peak work achieved and time to exhaustion during the exercise tests with various cardiorespiratory indices [i.e., heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation (VE)]. The differences between the smoking and control trials were calculated using paired t-tests. For the exercise test periods, VO2, heart rate, and VE values were calculated at every 10% increment of the maximal effort time. The main effects of the time and trial, as well as their trial-by-time (4 × 10) interaction effects on the outcome measures, were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA with trend analysis. Results: 5 min after smoking, the participants exhibited reduced forced vital capacities and forced expiratory volumes in the first second (P < 0.05), in addition to elevated resting heart rates (P < 0.001). The high-frequency, low-frequency, and the total power of the heart rate variability were also reduced (P < 0.05) at rest. For the exercise test periods, smoking reduced the time to exhaustion (P = 0.005) and the ventilatory threshold (P < 0.05) in the LC tests, whereas no significant effects were observed in the AC tests. A trend analysis revealed a significant trial-by-time interaction effect for heart rate, VO2, and VE during the graded
Demachi, K; Yoshida, T; Kume, M; Tsuneoka, H
To assess the effects of starting or stopping leg cooling on the thermoregulatory responses during exercise, 60 min of cycling exercise at 30% of maximal oxygen uptake was performed under 4 conditions using tube trouser perfused with water at 10 °C; no leg cooling (NC), starting of leg cooling after 30 min of exercise (delayed cooling, DC), continuous leg cooling (CC), and stopping of continuous leg cooling after 30 min of exercise (SC) at an environmental temperature of 28.5 °C. During exercise under the DC conditions, an instantaneous increase in the esophageal temperature (Tes), a suppression of the cutaneous vascular conductance at the forearm (%CVC), and a decrease in the mean skin temperature (Tsk) were observed after leg cooling. The total sweat loss (Δm sw,tot) was lower under the DC than the NC condition. In the SC study, however, the Tes remained constant, while the %CVC increased gradually after leg cooling was stopped, and the Δm sw,tot was greater than that under the CC condition. These results suggest that during exercise, rapid skin cooling of the leg may cause an increase in core temperature, while also enhancing thermal stress. However, stopping skin cooling did not significantly affect the core temperature long-term, because the skin blood flow and sweat rate subsequently increased.
Ray, Chester A; Wilson, Thad E
Measurement of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) during isometric exercise has been previously limited to handgrip. We hypothesized that isometric leg exercise due to the greater muscle mass of the leg would elicit greater SSNA responses than arm exercise because of presumably greater central command and muscle mechanoreceptor activation. To compare the effect of isometric arm and leg exercise on SSNA and cutaneous end-organ responses, 10 subjects performed 2 min of isometric knee extension (IKE) and handgrip (IHG) at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) in a normothermic environment. SSNA was recorded from the peroneal nerve. Cutaneous vascular conductance (laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial pressure) and electrodermal activity were measured within the field of cutaneous afferent discharge. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure significantly increased by 16 +/- 3 and 23 +/- 3 beats/min and by 22 +/- 2 and 27 +/- 3 mmHg from baseline during IHG and IKE, respectively. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure responses were significantly greater during IKE compared with IHG. SSNA increased significantly and comparably during IHG and IKE (52 +/- 20 and 50 +/- 13%, respectively). During PEMI, SSNA and heart rate returned to baseline, whereas mean arterial pressure remained significantly elevated (Delta12 +/- 2 and Delta13 +/- 2 mmHg from baseline for IHG and IKE, respectively). Neither cutaneous vascular conductance nor electrodermal activity was significantly altered by either exercise or PEMI. These results indicate that, despite cardiovascular differences in response to IHG and IKE, SSNA responses are similar at the same exercise intensity. Therefore, the findings suggest that relative effort and not muscle mass is the main determinant of exercise-induced SSNA responses in humans.
Ellingson, Laura D.; Stegner, Aaron J.; Schwabacher, Isaac J.; Koltyn, Kelli F.; Cook, Dane B.
To begin to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of exercise for chronic pain, we assessed the influence of exercise on brain responses to pain in fibromyalgia (FM). Complete data were collected for nine female FM patients and nine pain-free controls (CO) who underwent two functional neuroimaging scans, following exercise (EX) and following quiet rest (QR). Brain responses and pain ratings to noxious heat stimuli were compared within and between groups. For pain ratings, there was a significant (p < 0.05) Condition by Run interaction characterized by moderately lower pain ratings post EX compared to QR (d = 0.39–0.41) for FM but similar to ratings in CO (d = 0.10–0.26), thereby demonstrating that exercise decreased pain sensitivity in FM patients to a level that was analogous to pain-free controls. Brain responses demonstrated a significant within-group difference in FM patients, characterized by less brain activity bilaterally in the anterior insula following QR as compared to EX. There was also a significant Group by Condition interaction with FM patients showing less activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex following QR as compared to post-EX and CO following both conditions. These results suggest that exercise appeared to stimulate brain regions involved in descending pain inhibition in FM patients, decreasing their sensitivity to pain. Thus, exercise may benefit patients with FM via improving the functional capacity of the pain modulatory system. PMID:26927193
Augustsson, J; Thomeé, R; Lindén, C; Folkesson, M; Tranberg, R; Karlsson, J
A fatiguing exercise protocol was combined with single-leg hop testing to improve the possibilities of evaluating the effects of training or rehabilitation interventions. In the first test-retest experiment, 11 healthy male subjects performed two trials of single-leg hops under three different test conditions: non-fatigued and following fatiguing exercise, which consisted of unilateral weight machine knee extensions at 80% and 50%, respectively, of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) strength. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.75 to 0.98 for different hop test conditions, indicating that all tests were reliable. For the second experiment, eight healthy male subjects performed the fatiguing exercise protocol to investigate how fatigue influences lower-extremity joint kinematics and kinetics during single-leg hops. Hip, knee and ankle joint angles, moments and powers, as well as ground-reaction forces were recorded with a six-camera, motion-capture system and a force platform. Recovery of hop performance following the fatiguing exercise was also measured. During the take-off for the single-leg hops, hip and knee flexion angles, generated powers for the knee and ankle joints, and ground-reaction forces decreased for the fatigued hop conditions compared with the non-fatigued condition (P<0.05). Compared with landing during the non-fatigued condition, hip moments and ground-reaction forces were lower for the fatigued hop conditions (P<0.05). The negative joint power was two to three times greater for the knee than for the hip and five to 10 times greater for the knee than for the ankle during landing for all test conditions (P<0.05). Most measured variables had recovered three minutes post-exercise. It is concluded that the fatiguing exercise protocol combined with single-leg hop testing was a reliable method for investigating functional performance under fatigued test conditions. Further, subjects utilized an adapted hop strategy, which employed less hip and
Pandit, J J; Robbins, P A
1. The acute ventilatory response to a brief period of hypoxia (AHVR) was measured in six subjects (a) at rest, (b) during electrically induced leg exercise (EEL), (c) during voluntary leg exercise at an external work rate matched to electrical exercise (EV1) and (d) during voluntary leg exercise at an internal work rate (i.e. metabolic rate) matched to electrical exercise (EV2). The end-tidal PO2 during hypoxia was 50 mmHg and the end-tidal PCO2 was held constant at 1-2 mmHg above resting values throughout each of these four protocols. 2. EEL was produced by surface electrode stimulation of the quadriceps muscles so as to cause the legs to extend at the knee and lift a set of weights via a pulley system. During EV1, each subject lifted the same weight through the same height and at the same frequency as during his EEL protocol. During EV2, the weight, the height through which it was lifted and the frequency of voluntary contractions were altered to produce a similar O2 consumption and CO2 production as during EEL. 3. In each subject, end-tidal PCO2 values showed no change between the four protocols, and in three subjects in whom they were measured, arterial PCO2 values were also similar between the protocols. Venous lactate levels did not increase after EEL or EV2. 4. The AHVR during EEL (14.1 +/- 1.42 l min-1; mean +/- S.E.M) was significantly increased (Student's paired t test) compared with rest (7.55 +/- 1.10 l min-1; P < 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Bogdanis, Gregory C.; Maridaki, Maria
The effect of resistance exercise on blood lipids is not clear yet. The purpose of this study was to examine the cholesterol responses to a heavy resistance leg press exercise emphasizing on the eccentric movement 24 and 48 hours following exercise and to quantify the cardiorespiratory responses of the exercise bout in an attempt to clarify the exercise characteristics that may be responsible for the effects of heavy resistance exercise on blood lipids. Nine healthy, untrained male volunteers aged 27.2 ± 1.1 yrs (76.2 ± 2.5 kg, 1.79 ± 0.02 m) performed a session of heavy RE emphasizing on the eccentric movement consisting of eight sets of inclined leg presses at six repetition maximum with 3-min rest intervals. Venous blood samples were obtained at rest (control) and 24 and 48 hours following exercise. Average VO2 at rest was 4.0 ± 0.4 ml·min−1·kg−1, during exercise 19.6 ± 0.2 ml·min−1·kg−1 and during the 180 sec recovery period between sets 12.5 ± 0.2 ml·min−1·kg−1. RER values decreased with the progression of the exercise and were significantly lower during the last four sets compared with the first four sets of the exercise session. Resting heart rate was 67 ± 2 bpm, and maximum heart rate during exercise was 168 ± 1 bpm. Serum creatine kinase was significantly elevated on day 1 (1090 ± 272 U·L−1, p < 0.03) and peaked on day 2 (1230 ± 440 U·L−1 p < 0. 01). Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and calculated LDL cholesterol concentration did not change significantly following with exercise. This protocol of heavy resistance exercise has no effect on TC or cholesterol sub-fraction concentration 24 and 48 hours following exercise which may be due to the low energy expenditure of the exercise and/or to the gender of the participants. Key points Repeated sets of heavy resistance exercise significantly increase oxygen uptake both during exercise and the following recovery period. Even though exercise was of low volume (8 sets x 6
Golden, F S; Tipton, M J
1. Exercise during immersion in cold water has been reported by several authors to accelerate the rate of fall of core temperature when compared with rates seen during static immersion. The nature of the exercise performed, however, has always been whole-body in nature. 2. In the present investigation fifteen subjects performed leg exercise throughout a 40 min head-out immersion in water at 15 degrees C. The responses obtained were compared with those seen when the subjects performed an identical static immersion. 3. Aural and rectal temperatures were found to fall by greater amounts during static immersion. 4. It is concluded that 'the type of exercise performed' should be included in the list of factors which affect core temperature during cold water immersion. PMID:3443951
Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J
Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions.
deJong, Adam T; Bonzheim, Kimberly; Franklin, Barry A; Saltarelli, William
Marathon runners (MR) are among the most aerobically fit athletes in the world. Although aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) during arm exercise generally varies between 64% and 80% of leg VO(2)max (mean 70%) in healthy men, few data are available regarding the comparative arm fitness of MR. To clarify the relationship between arm and leg fitness in MR, we studied 10 national-class MR (mean + or - standard deviation age 30 + or - 4 years) whose best marathon times averaged < 2 hours and 40 minutes. Each MR underwent lower and upper body maximal exercise evaluations with measurement of cardiorespiratory variables using indirect calorimetry during treadmill testing (standard Bruce protocol) and arm-crank ergometry, respectively. Our subjects achieved VO(2)max levels equaling 75.8 + or - 7.1 mL/kg/min (5.2 + or - 0.6 L/min) during treadmill testing, which was significantly higher than the level of cardiorespiratory fitness achieved during maximal arm exercise (45.4 + or - 12.4 mL/kg/min [3.1 + or - 0.9 L/min]; P < 0.01). In addition, maximal heart rate (183.2 + or - 8.2 vs 163.7 + or - 10 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (201.8 + or - 10.1 vs 186.6 + or - 12.1 mm Hg) were significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) during maximal leg versus arm exercise. Relative arm fitness (arm VO(2)max/leg VO(2)max) was extremely variable (41%-76%), averaging 60% + or - 13%. Although MR are able to achieve significantly higher VO(2)max values during treadmill testing than those observed in the general population, their relative arm fitness appears to be slightly reduced. These findings add to and strongly support the specificity of measurement and training concept.
Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.
Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).
Jeong, Ui-Cheol; Sim, Jae-Heon; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Nam, Chan-Woo
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise to strengthen the muscles of the hip together with lumbar segmental stabilization exercise on the lumbar disability index, lumbar muscle strength, and balance. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly and equally assigned 40 participants who provided written consent to participate in this study to a lumbar segmental stabilization exercise plus exercise to strengthen the muscles of the gluteus group (SMG + LES group) and a lumbar segmental stabilization exercise group. [Results] Each evaluation item showed a statistically significant effect. [Conclusion] Clinical application of exercise in this study showed that lumbar segmental stabilization exercise plus exercise to strengthen the muscles of the gluteus resulted in a greater decrease in low back pain disability index and increase in lumbar muscle strength and balance ability than lumbar segmental stabilization exercise in chronic low back pain patients receiving the exercise treatments during the same period. PMID:26834359
Pearson, James; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Stöhr, Eric J; Low, David A; Barker, Horace; Ali, Leena; González-Alonso, José
Dehydration and hyperthermia reduces leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output ([Formula: see text]) and arterial pressure during whole-body exercise. It is unknown whether the reductions in blood flow are associated with dehydration-induced alterations in arterial blood oxygen content (C aO2) and O2-dependent signalling. This study investigated the impact of dehydration and concomitant alterations in C aO2 upon LBF and [Formula: see text]. Haemodynamics, arterial and femoral venous blood parameters and plasma [ATP] were measured at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise in 7 males in four conditions: (1) control, (2) mild dehydration, (3) moderate dehydration, and (4) rehydration. Relative to control, C aO2 and LBF increased with dehydration at rest and during exercise (C aO2: from 199 ± 1 to 208 ± 2, and 202 ± 2 to 210 ± 2 ml L(-1) and LBF: from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 0.77 ± 0.09, and 1.64 ± 0.09 to 1.88 ± 0.1 L min(-1), respectively). Similarly, [Formula: see text] was unchanged or increased with dehydration at rest and during exercise, whereas arterial and leg perfusion pressures declined. Following rehydration, C aO2 declined (to 193 ± 2 mL L(-1)) but LBF remained elevated. Alterations in LBF were unrelated to C aO2 (r (2) = 0.13-0.27, P = 0.48-0.64) and plasma [ATP]. These findings suggest dehydration and concomitant alterations in C aO2 do not compromise LBF despite reductions in plasma [ATP]. While an additive or synergistic effect cannot be excluded, reductions in LBF during exercise with dehydration may not necessarily be associated with alterations in C aO2 and/or intravascular [ATP].
Hody, S; Rogister, B; Leprince, P; Laglaine, T; Croisier, J-L
The aims of this study were first to compare the response of dominant and non-dominant legs to eccentric exercise and second, to examine whether there is an effect of exercise order on the magnitude of symptoms associated with intense eccentric protocols. Eighteen young men performed three sets of 30 maximal eccentric isokinetic (60° s(-1)) contractions of the knee extensors (range of motion, ROM: 0°-100°, 0 = full extension) using either dominant or non-dominant leg. They repeated a similar eccentric bout using the contralateral leg 6 weeks later. The sequence of leg's use was allocated to create equally balanced groups. Four indirect markers of muscle damage including subjective pain intensity, maximal isometric strength, muscle stiffness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before and 24 h after exercise. All markers changed significantly following the eccentric bout performed either by dominant or non-dominant legs, but no significant difference was observed between legs. Interestingly, the comparison between the first and second eccentric bouts revealed that muscle soreness (-42%, P<0.001), CK activity (-62%, P<0.05) and strength loss (-54%, P<0.01) were significantly lower after the second bout. This study suggests that leg dominance does not influence the magnitude of exercise-induced muscle damage and supports for the first time the existence of a contralateral protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the lower limbs.
Hayashi, Keiji; Honda, Yasushi; Ogawa, Takeshi; Wada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi
We investigated the effects of brief leg cooling after moderate exercise on the cardiorespiratory responses to subsequent exercise in the heat. Following 40 min of ergometer cycling [65% peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak))] at 35 degrees C (Ex. 1), seven male subjects [21.9 (1.1) years of age; 170.9 (1.9) cm height; 66.0 (2.0) kg body mass; 46.7 (2.0) ml kg(-1) min(-1) VO(2peak)] immersed their legs in 35 degrees C (control condition, CONT) or 20 degrees C (cooling condition, COOL) water for 5 min and then repeated the cycling (as before, but for 10 min) (Ex. 2). Just before Ex. 2, esophageal temperature ( T(es)) was lower in COOL than in CONT [36.9 (0.2) vs 37.5 (0.1) degrees C] ( P<0.01), as also were both mean skin temperature [33.9 (0.2) vs 35.2 (0.2) degrees C] ( P<0.01), and heart rate (HR) [93.2 (6.0) vs 102.7 (4.9) beats min(-1)] ( P<0.05). During Ex. 2, no differences between CONT and COOL were observed in oxygen uptake, arterial blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, or ratings of perceived exertion; however, T(es), skin temperature, and HR were lower in COOL than in CONT. Further, during the first 5 min of Ex. 2, minute ventilation was significantly lower in COOL than in CONT [50.3 (2.0) vs 53.4 (2.6) l min(-1)] ( P<0.01). These results suggest that brief leg cooling during the recovery period may be effective at reducing thermal and cardiorespiratory strain during subsequent exercise in the heat.
Sañudo, Borja; César-Castillo, Manuel; Tejero, Sergio; Cordero-Arriaza, Francisco J; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel; Figueroa, Arturo
This study aimed to determine the effects of vibration on leg blood flow after intense exercise and find out whether or not these effects can influence subsequent maximal exercise performance. Twenty-three participants performed an exercise test-to-exhaustion followed by a recovery period using six 1-minute sets of whole-body vibration (WBV; 25 Hz-4 mm) or a passive control (noWBV; 0 Hz-0 mm) in the seated position on separate days in random order. Blood flow was assessed at baseline and during each 1-minute interset rest periods post-WBV and noWBV. Thereafter, participants performed a cycle-ergometer test, and time to exhaustion and total distance covered (TDC) were recorded. During recovery, a similar trend was observed in both systolic and diastolic peak frequency dynamics in both conditions. The pulsatility index decreased (p < 0.01) from baseline during postbout 1 in both trials and during post-4 and post-5 in the WBV trial. Significant between-group differences were observed during post-4 (p ≤ 0.05) with greater decreases in pulsatility index after WBV compared with noWBV. Time to exhaustion and TDC were higher after WBV compared with noWBV. In conclusion, WBV decreased pulsatility index in the popliteal artery after maximal exercise and was effective to increase performance in a later exercise test-to-exhaustion.
Shahgholian, Nahid; Jazi, Shahrzad Khojandi; Karimian, Jahangir; Valiani, Mahboubeh
Background: Restless leg syndrome prevalence is high among the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Due to several side effects of medicational treatments, the patients prefer non-medicational methods. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of two methods of reflexology and stretching exercises on the severity of restless leg syndrome among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial that was done on 90 qualified patients undergoing hemodialysis in selected hospitals of Isfahan, who were diagnosed with restless leg syndrome through standard restless leg syndrome questionnaire. They were randomly assigned by random number table to three groups: Reflexology, stretching exercises, and control groups through random allocation. Foot reflexology and stretching exercises were conducted three times a week for 30–40 min within straight 4 weeks. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses [one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t-test, and least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test]. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean scores of restless leg syndrome severity between reflexology and stretching exercises groups, compared to control (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the two study groups (P < 0.001). Changes in the mean score of restless leg syndrome severity were significantly higher in reflexology and stretching exercises groups compared to the control group (P < 0.001), but it showed no significant difference between reflexology massage and stretching exercises groups. Conclusions: Our obtained results showed that reflexology and stretching exercises can reduce the severity of restless leg syndrome. These two methods of treatment are recommended to the patients. PMID:27186197
Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Osada, Takuya; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Katsumura, Toshihito
We compared muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) responses in several leg muscles and within a single muscle during ramp cycling exercise between elderly men (n = 8; age, 65 ± 3 years; ELD) and young men (n = 10; age, 23 ± 3 years; YNG). SmO2 was monitored at the distal site of the vastus lateralis (VLd), proximal site of the vastus lateralis (VLp), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and tibialis anterior (TA) by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. During submaximal exercise, significantly lower SmO2 at a given absolute work rate was observed in VLd, RF, BF, GL, and TA but not in VLp, VM, and GM in ELD than in YNG. In contrast, at all measurement sites, SmO2 at peak exercise was not significantly different between groups. These results indicate that the effects of aging on SmO2 responses are heterogeneous between leg muscles and also within a single muscle. The lower SmO2 in older men may have been caused by reduced muscle blood flow or altered blood flow distribution.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise on sacroiliac joint pain with knee pain. [Subjects and Methods] A 39-year-old female had severe pain in the right medial buttock and right anterior knee. This study assessed the anterior pelvic tilt angle and pain provocation tests before and after single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise for 4 weeks. [Results] Following the course of exercise, the anterior pelvic tilt angles were increased, and the visual analog scale pain scores for both the right buttock and right knee were 2/10. [Conclusion] Single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise may be effective for treating SI joint pain with knee pain in females. PMID:27799721
Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.
Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.
Christensen, Peter M; Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens
The present study examined whether a marked reduction in oxygen delivery, unlike findings in moderate-intensity exercise, would slow leg oxygen uptake (Vo2) kinetics during intense exercise (86 ± 3% of incremental test peak power). Seven healthy males (26 ± 1 years, means ± SE) performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise (60 ± 3 W) for 4 min in a control setting (CON) and with arterial infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine and indomethacin in the working leg to reduce blood flow by inhibiting formation of nitric oxide and prostanoids (double blockade; DB). In DB leg blood flow (LBF) and oxygen delivery during the first minute of exercise were 25-50% lower (P < 0.01) compared with CON (LBF after 10 s: 1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.3 l/min and 45 s: 2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4 l/min) and 15% lower (P < 0.05) after 2 min of exercise. Leg Vo2 in DB was attenuated (P < 0.05) during the first 2 min of exercise (10 s: 161 ± 26 vs. 288 ± 34 ml/min and 45 s: 459 ± 48 vs. 566 ± 81 ml/min) despite a higher (P < 0.01) oxygen extraction in DB. Net leg lactate release was the same in DB and CON. The present study shows that a marked reduction in oxygen delivery can limit the rise in Vo2 during the initial part of intense exercise. This is in contrast to previous observations during moderate-intensity exercise using the same DB procedure, which suggests that fast-twitch muscle fibers are more sensitive to a reduction in oxygen delivery than slow-twitch fibers.
McBeth, Joseph M.; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E.; Cobb, Stephen C.; Huddleston, Wendy E.
Context: Lower extremity overuse injuries are associated with gluteus medius (GMed) weakness. Understanding the activation of muscles about the hip during strengthening exercises is important for rehabilitation. Objective: To compare the electromyographic activity produced by the gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fascia latae (TFL), anterior hip flexors (AHF), and gluteus maximus (GMax) during 3 hip-strengthening exercises: hip abduction (ABD), hip abduction with external rotation (ABD-ER), and clamshell (CLAM) exercises. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty healthy runners (9 men, 11 women; age = 25.45 ± 5.80 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.07 m, mass = 64.43 ± 7.75 kg) participated. Intervention(s): A weight equal to 5% body mass was affixed to the ankle for the ABD and ABD-ER exercises, and an equivalent load was affixed for the CLAM exercise. A pressure biofeedback unit was placed beneath the trunk to provide positional feedback. Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyography (root mean square normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction) was recorded over the GMed, TFL, AHF, and GMax. Results: Three 1-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated differences for muscle activity among the ABD (F3,57 = 25.903, P<.001), ABD-ER (F3,57 = 10.458, P<.001), and CLAM (F3,57 = 4.640, P=.006) exercises. For the ABD exercise, the GMed (70.1 ± 29.9%), TFL (54.3 ± 19.1%), and AHF (28.2 ± 21.5%) differed in muscle activity. The GMax (25.3 ± 24.6%) was less active than the GMed and TFL but was not different from the AHF. For the ABD-ER exercise, the TFL (70.9 ± 17.2%) was more active than the AHF (54.3 ± 24.8%), GMed (53.03 ± 28.4%), and GMax (31.7 ± 24.1 %). For the CLAM exercise, the AHF (54.2 ± 25.2%) was more active than the TFL (34.4 ± 20.1%) and GMed (32.6 ± 16.9%) but was not different from the GMax (34.2 ± 24.8%). Conclusions: The ABD exercise is preferred if targeted activation of the
Huang, Shu-Chun; Wong, May-Kuen; Lin, Pyng-Jing; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan
Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT) reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) 2–12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3–5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR) during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653) with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92). Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR) during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678). When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71). Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary revascularization
Kim, Eunyoung; Lee, Hanyong
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of deep abdominal muscle strengthening exercises on respiratory function and lumbar stability. [Subjects] From among 120 male and female students, 22 whose thoraxes opened no more than 5 cm during inspiration and expiration and whose forced expiratory flow rates were around 300 m/L were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group of eleven, who performed deep abdominal muscle strengthening exercises, and a control group of eleven, who received no particular intervention. [Methods] The subjects were instructed to perform normal breathing in the hook-lying position. They were then directed to hold their breath for ten seconds at the end of inspiration. Ten repetitions of this breathing comprised a set of respiratory training, and a total of five sets were performed by the subjects. [Results] Deep abdominal muscle training was effective at enhancing respiratory function and lumbar stabilization. [Conclusion] The clinical application of deep abdominal muscle strengthening exercises along with lumbar stabilization exercises should be effective for lower back pain patients in need of lumbar stabilization.
Mortazavi, Mojgan; Vahdatpour, Babak; Ghasempour, Aida; Taheri, Diana; Shahidi, Shahrzad; Moeinzadeh, Firouzeh; Dolatkhah, Bahareh; Dolatkhah, Shahaboddin
Background. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is one of the prevalent complaints of patients with end stage renal diseases suffering chronic hemodialysis. Although there are some known pharmacological managements for this syndrome, the adverse effect of drugs causes a limitation for using them. In this randomized clinical trial we aimed to find a nonpharmacological way to improve signs of restless leg syndrome and patients' quality of life. Material and Methods. Twenty-six patients were included in the study and divided into 2 groups of control and exercise. The exercise group used aerobic exercise during their hemodialysis for 16 weeks. The quality of life and severity of restless leg syndrome were assessed at the first week of study and final week. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. The difference of means of RLS signs at the first week of study and final week was −5.5 ± 4.96 in exercise group and −0.53 ± 2.3 in control group. There was not any statistical difference between control group and exercise group in quality of life at the first week of study and final week. Conclusions. We suggest using aerobic exercise for improving signs of restless leg syndrome, but no evidence was found for its efficacy on patient's quality of life. PMID:24307876
Lee, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Ja; Kim, Chan-Kyu
[Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effect of pelvic stabilization exercise and 3D equipment exercise on adult women with Functional Leg-Length Discrepancy (FLLD). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female students in their 20’s having FLLD without Structural Leg Length Discrepancy were selected. Exercise was performed for 50 min per session, three times a week, for six weeks. The Pelvic stabilization exercise (PSE) group performed pelvic stabilization exercises for 50 minutes, and the 3D exercise (3DE) group performed 3D Air Balance exercise for 10 minutes after performing the pelvic stabilization exercise program for 40 minutes. [Results] The PSE group showed statistically significant differences in tape measure method (TMM) and maximum pressure between pre-test and post-test, and 3DE showed statistically significant differences in TMM, the difference in maximum pressure, the difference in average pressure, and the difference in support area. At the end of the 6-week intervention, TMM, difference in maximum pressure, difference in average pressure, and difference in support area showed significantly greater reduction in the 3DE group. [Conclusion] The results show that 3D stabilization exercise was more effective at improving the stabilization of the deep muscles surrounding the pelvis and left-right muscular balance. We consider that 3D exercise should be included in exercise programs for improving pelvic cavity and spinal stability in the future. PMID:25931758
Ward-Ritacco, Christie; Poudevigne, Melanie S.; O’Connor, Patrick J.
INTRODUCTION Physical inactivity likely contributes to fatigue and low energy during pregnancy but whether acute resistance exercise attenuates these symptoms is unknown. METHODS Twenty-six women performed six low-to-moderate intensity resistance exercises twice per week from weeks 23 to 35 of pregnancy and measurements were made before and after each workout using the Mental and Physical State Energy and Fatigue Scales. RESULTS Acute resistance exercise usually increased perceived physical and mental energy (92% to 96% of workouts, respectively). These increases did not differ significantly across the 24 exercise sessions for feelings of physical energy or mental energy, even after adjusting for variations in attendance (median = 22/24 workouts). Acute resistance exercise usually decreased perceived physical and mental fatigue (79% to 88% of workouts, respectively), and ANCOVA showed these decreases did not differ significantly across the 24 exercise sessions for feelings of physical fatigue or mental fatigue even after adjusting for variations in attendance. DISCUSSION The results suggest acute, low-to-moderate intensity muscle strengthening exercise during pregnancy is effective for transiently improving feelings of energy and fatigue. PMID:26984583
Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening exercises for the hip extensors on the gait performance and stability of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were fifteen stroke patients (ten males, five females). The experimental subjects performed a hip extensor strengthening exercise (HESE) program for a total of four weeks. [Results] The experimental subjects showed significant improvements after the HESE program. Especially, walking speed and the affected side stance phase time significantly increased after the HESE program. Furthermore, the affected side stride length and symmetry index in the stance phase significantly increased after HESE program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the HESE program may, in part, help to improve gait performance ability and stabilize physical disability after stroke. PMID:25931698
Wu, Bin; Liu, Yusheng; Sun, Hongyi; Zhao, Dongming; Wang, Yue; Wu, Ping; Ni, Chengzhi
The purpose of this study is to determine if the intermittent leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could attenuate cardiovascular deconditioning induced by prolonged -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR). Fifteen male subjects were randomly allocated into group A ( n=5, 30 days HDBR without exercise), group B ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with leg muscular strength exercise) and group C ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with bicycle ergometry exercise). The orthostatic tolerance (OT) was determined by +75°/20 min head-up tilt (HUT) test and the submaximal exercise capacity was determined by bicycle ergometry before and after HDBR. The results were as follows: (1) Compared with that before HDBR, OT time decreased dramatically by 57.6% ( p<0.001) after HDBR in group A, while it decreased by 36.4% ( p=0.084) in group B and by 34.7% ( p=0.062) in group C. (2) Compared with that before HDBR, the submaximal exercise time decreased significantly by 17.7% ( p<0.05) and 21.1% ( p<0.05) in groups A and B, respectively, after HDBR. However, it had no change (+1.3%, p>0.77) in group C. (3) compared with that before HDBR, the changes of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were slightly improved in group B and C, while deteriorated in group A during orthostatic test and exercise test after HDBR. The results indicate that leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could partially attenuate the cardiovascular deconditioning induced by 30 d HDBR, and the latter exercise training could fully provide the protection for the loss of exercise capacity.
Lepers, Romuald; Marcora, Samuele M.
We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE) protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output) three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60), 100 (MVC100) and 140 (MVC140) deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s), 20 s (P20) and 40 s (P40) post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS) for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001). MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05) and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05). High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion. PMID:27706196
L. Andreacci, Joseph; B. Dixon, Curt; Ledezma, Christina; L. Goss, Fredric
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF) estimated by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) in children. Fifty-nine children (29 girls; 30 boys) mean age 9.0 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. LBIA measured %BF values were obtained immediately before and within five minutes after completing an intermittent exercise protocol consisting of three 8-minute sub-maximal exercise bouts (2.74 km·hr-1, 0% grade; 4.03 km·hr-1, 0% grade; and 5.47 km·hr-1, 0% grade) each separated by a 5-min seated rest period. The three exercise bouts corresponded to 56%, 61% and 71% of maximal heart rate. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed for fat mass, fat free mass, total body water, and body weight, post-exercise in both groups. Significant reductions (p < 0.001) in %BF were observed post-exercise in the female (23.1 ± 9.9 vs. 21.8 ± 9. 9 %) and male (23.3 ± 10.5 vs. 21.8 ± 10.2 %) children when compared to pre-exercise values. However, for the majority of the subjects (females = 86%; males = 73%) the decrease in %BF post- exercise was less than 2.0 %BF. These data indicate that sub-maximal intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on %BF estimates when the assessment is performed immediately post-exercise. Key Points LBIA measures of body weight, percent body fat, fat mass, fat free mass and total body water were significantly lower after the intermittent sub-maximal exercise. The reductions in percent body fat for girls (1.4%) and boys (1.5%) compare favorably to previous investigations. Intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on LBIA percent body fat estimates PMID:24353460
L Andreacci, Joseph; B Dixon, Curt; Ledezma, Christina; L Goss, Fredric
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF) estimated by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) in children. Fifty-nine children (29 girls; 30 boys) mean age 9.0 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. LBIA measured %BF values were obtained immediately before and within five minutes after completing an intermittent exercise protocol consisting of three 8-minute sub-maximal exercise bouts (2.74 km·hr(-1), 0% grade; 4.03 km·hr(-1), 0% grade; and 5.47 km·hr(-1), 0% grade) each separated by a 5-min seated rest period. The three exercise bouts corresponded to 56%, 61% and 71% of maximal heart rate. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed for fat mass, fat free mass, total body water, and body weight, post-exercise in both groups. Significant reductions (p < 0.001) in %BF were observed post-exercise in the female (23.1 ± 9.9 vs. 21.8 ± 9. 9 %) and male (23.3 ± 10.5 vs. 21.8 ± 10.2 %) children when compared to pre-exercise values. However, for the majority of the subjects (females = 86%; males = 73%) the decrease in %BF post- exercise was less than 2.0 %BF. These data indicate that sub-maximal intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on %BF estimates when the assessment is performed immediately post-exercise. Key PointsLBIA measures of body weight, percent body fat, fat mass, fat free mass and total body water were significantly lower after the intermittent sub-maximal exercise.The reductions in percent body fat for girls (1.4%) and boys (1.5%) compare favorably to previous investigations.Intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on LBIA percent body fat estimates.
Nam, J; Perera, P; Gordon, R; Jeong, Y H; Blazek, A D; Kim, D G; Tee, B C; Sun, Z; Eubank, T D; Zhao, Y; Lablebecioglu, B; Liu, S; Litsky, A; Weisleder, N L; Lee, B S; Butterfield, T; Schneyer, A L; Agarwal, S
Exercise is vital for maintaining bone strength and architecture. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), a member of follistatin family, is a mechanosensitive protein upregulated in response to exercise and is involved in regulating musculoskeletal health. Here, we investigated the potential role of FSTL3 in exercise-driven bone remodeling. Exercise-dependent regulation of bone structure and functions was compared in mice with global Fstl3 gene deletion (Fstl3-/-) and their age-matched Fstl3+/+ littermates. Mice were exercised by low-intensity treadmill walking. The mechanical properties and mineralization were determined by μCT, three-point bending test and sequential incorporation of calcein and alizarin complexone. ELISA, Western-blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the regulation of FSTL3 and associated molecules in the serum specimens and tissues. Daily exercise significantly increased circulating FSTL3 levels in mice, rats and humans. Compared to age-matched littermates, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited significantly lower fracture tolerance, having greater stiffness, but lower strain at fracture and yield energy. Furthermore, increased levels of circulating FSTL3 in young mice paralleled greater strain at fracture compared to the lower levels of FSTL3 in older mice. More significantly, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited loss of mechanosensitivity and irresponsiveness to exercise-dependent bone formation as compared to their Fstl3+/+ littermates. In addition, FSTL3 gene deletion resulted in loss of exercise-dependent sclerostin regulation in osteocytes and osteoblasts, as compared to Fstl3+/+ osteocytes and osteoblasts, in vivo and in vitro. The data identify FSTL3 as a critical mediator of exercise-dependent bone formation and strengthening and point to its potential role in bone health and in musculoskeletal diseases.
Nam, J; Perera, P; Gordon, R; Jeong, Y; Blazek, AD; Kim, DG; Tee, BC; Sun, Z; Eubank, TD; Zhao, Y; Lablebecioglu, B; Liu, S; Litsky, A; Weisleder, NL; Lee, BS; Butterfield, T; Schneyer, AL; Agarwal, S
Exercise is vital for maintaining bone strength and architecture. Follistatin like 3 (FSTL3), a member of Follistatin family, is a mechanosensitive protein upregulated in response to exercise and is involved in regulating musculoskeletal health, we investigated the potential role of FSTL3 in exercise-driven bone remodeling. Exercise-dependent regulation of bone structure and functions was compared in mice with global Fstl3 gene deletion (Fstl3−/−) and their age-matched Fstl3+/+ littermates. Mice were exercised by low-intensity treadmill walking. The mechanical properties and mineralization were determined by μCT, three-point bending test and sequential incorporation of calcein and alizarin complexone. ELISA, Western-blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the regulation of FSTL3 and associated molecules in the serum specimens and tissues. Daily exercise significantly increased circulating FSTL3 levels in mice, rats and humans. Compared to age-matched littermates, Fstl3−/− mice exhibited significantly lower fracture tolerance, having greater stiffness, but lower strain at fracture and yield energy. Furthermore, increased levels of circulating FSTL3 in young mice paralleled greater strain at fracture compared to the lower levels of FSTL3 in older mice. More significantly, Fstl3−/− mice exhibited loss of mechanosensitivity and irresponsiveness to exercise-dependent bone formation as compared to their Fstl3+/+ littermates. In addition, FSTL3 gene deletion resulted in loss of exercise-dependent sclerostin regulation in osteocytes and osteoblasts, as compared to Fstl3+/+ osteocytes and osteoblasts, in vivo and in vitro. The data identifies FSTL3 as a critical mediator of exercise-dependent bone formation and strengthening and point to its potential role in bone health and in musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:25937185
Wang, Guoping; Shahinpoor, Mohsen
This paper presents a design of an active knee and leg muscle exerciser using a shape memory alloy (SMA) rotary joint actuator. This active exerciser is designed for a paraplegic to exercise his or her knee and leg muscles. The exerciser is composed of a lower extremity orthosis or a knee brace, an SMA rotary joint actuator, and an electronic control unit. The lower extremity orthosis and knee brace are commercially available. The analysis model of the SMA rotary joint actuator is introduced and the design formulas are derived. A quasi-static analysis of the SMA rotary joint actuator is assumed in this design. The actuating component of the SMA rotary joint actuator is a bundle of lengthy SMA wires which are wrapped on several wrapping pulleys. A constant force spring is incorporated in this actuator to provide the SMA wires with a bias force to maintain a recoverable initial position of the actuator. A prototype of the active knee and leg muscle exerciser is designed, and an electronic control unit in the prototype provides users with a means of adjusting forward rotation speed and cycle time of the exerciser.
Pain Yvonne Brandt, AFGSC/SGP; Linda Currier, 374 MDG; Timothy Plante, 15 AMDS/SGPT; Christine Schubert Kabban, AFIT/ENC; Anthony Tvaryanas...Randomized Controlled Trial of Core Strengthening Exercises in U.S. Air Force Helicopter Crewmembers with Low Back Pain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...88ABW-2014-6033, 22 Dec 2014 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine if 5 core strengthening exercises would decrease pain severity
Beutler, Anthony I.; Cooper, Leslie W.; Kirkendall, Don T.; Garrett, William E.
Objective: Many knee rehabilitation studies have examined open and closed kinetic chain exercises. However, most studies focus on 2-legged, closed chain exercise. The purpose of our study was to characterize 1-legged, closed chain exercise in young, healthy subjects. Subjects: Eighteen normal subjects (11 men, 7 women; age, 24.6 ± 1.6 years) performed unsupported, 1-legged squats and step-ups to approximately tibial height. Measurements: Knee angle data and surface electromyographic activity from the thigh muscles were recorded. Results: The maximum angle of knee flexion was 111 ± 23° for squats and 101 ± 16° for step-ups. The peak quadriceps activation was 201 ± 66% maximum voluntary isometric contraction, occurring at an angle of 96 ± 16° for squats. Peak quadriceps activation was 207 ± 50% maximum voluntary isometric contraction and occurred at 83 ± 12° for step-ups. Conclusions: The high and sustained levels of quadriceps activation indicate that 1-legged squats and step-ups would be effective in muscle rehabilitation. As functional, closed chain activities, they may also be protective of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. Because these exercises involve no weights or training equipment, they may prove more cost effective than traditional modes of rehabilitation. PMID:12937438
... legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise ... The main symptoms of PAD are pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or ... or thighs. These symptoms most often appear during walking or ...
Everett, M. E.; Hackney, K.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.
Low load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (LBFR) causes muscle hypertrophy that may be stimulated by the local ischemic environment created by the cuff pressure. However, local blood flow (BF) during such exercise is not well understood. PURPOSE: To characterize femoral artery BF and cardiac output (CO) during leg press exercise (LP) performed at a high load (HL) and low load (LL) with different levels of cuff pressure. METHODS: Eleven subjects (men/women 4/7, age 31.4+/-12.8 y, weight 68.9+/-13.2 kg, mean+/-SD) performed 3 sets of supine left LP to fatigue with 90 s of rest in 4 conditions: HL (%1-RM/cuff pressure: 80%/0); LL (20%/0); LBFR(sub DBP) (20%/1.3 x diastolic blood pressure, BP); LBFR(sub SBP) (20%/1.3 x supine systolic BP). The cuff remained inflated throughout the LBFR exercise sessions. Artery diameter, velocity time integral (VTI), and stroke volume (SV) were measured using Doppler ultrasound at rest and immediately after each set of exercise. Heart rate (HR) was monitored using a 3-lead ECG. BF was calculated as VTI x vessel cross-sectional area. CO was calculated as HR x SV. The data obtained after each set of exercise were averaged and used for analyses. Multi-level modeling was used to determine the effect of exercise condition on dependent variables. Statistical significance was set a priori at p< 0.05. RESULTS: Artery diameter did not change from baseline. BF increased (p<0.05) after exercise in each condition except LBFR(sub SBP) in the order of HL (12.73+/-1.42 cm3,mean+/-SE) > LL (9.92+/-0.82 cm3) > LBFR(sub dBP)(6.47+/-0.79 cm3) > LBFR(sub SBP) (3.51+/-0.59 cm3). Blunted exercise induced increases occurred in HR, SV, and CO after LBFR compared to HL and LL. HR increased 45% after HL and LL and 28% after LBFR (p<0.05), but SV increased (p<0.05) only after HL. Consequently, the increase (p<0.05) in CO was greater in HL and LL (approximately 3 L/min) than in LBFR (approximately 1 L/min). CONCLUSION: BF during LBFR(sub SBP) was 1/3 of
Fennell, Jeremy; Mochizuki, George; Ismail, Farooq; Boulias, Chris
Purpose: We investigated the best position for shoulder retractor strengthening exercise to maximize middle trapezius activity and minimize rhomboid major activity. Although both trapezius and rhomboids are scapular retractors, rhomboids also act as downward rotators of the scapula, which can worsen subacromial impingement. Methods: Twelve healthy participants (age 30 [SD 6] y) with no history of shoulder pain were recruited for this study, which used fine-wire electromyography to examine maximal muscle activation of the middle trapezius and rhomboid major muscle fibres in four different positions: with the shoulder in 90° abduction with elbow completely extended and (1) shoulder internal rotation, (2) shoulder neutral rotation, (3) shoulder external rotation, and (4) rowing (shoulder neutral rotation and elbow flexed 90°). The ratio of trapezius to rhomboid muscles was compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results: Muscle activation ratio during shoulder retraction exercise was significantly lower by 22% (i.e., rhomboid was more active than middle trapezius) when performed with the shoulder in rowing position (elbow flexed) than with the shoulder in external rotation (elbow extended) position (p=0.031). All four positions produced coactivation of trapezius and rhomboids. Discussion: Rowing position may not be the best position for shoulder retractor strengthening in patients with impingement syndrome. The preferable position for maximizing middle trapezius activity and minimizing rhomboid activity may be shoulder external rotation with elbow extended. PMID:27504044
Yamaguchi, Taichi; Ishii, Kojiro; Yamanaka, Masanori; Yasuda, Kazunori
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the acute effect of dynamic stretching exercise on muscular performance during concentric dynamic constant external resistance (DCER, formally called isotonic) muscle actions under various loads. Concentric DCER leg extension power outputs were measured in 12 healthy male students after 2 types of pretreatment. The pretreatments were: (a) dynamic stretching treatment including 2 types of dynamic stretching exercises of leg extensors and the other 2 types of dynamic stretching exercises simulating the leg extension motion (2 sets of 15 times each with 30-second rest periods between sets; total duration: about 8 minutes), and (b) nonstretching treatment by resting for 8 minutes in a sitting position. Loads during measurement of the power output were set to 5, 30, and 60% of the maximum voluntary contractile (MVC) torque with isometric leg extension in each subject. The power output after the dynamic stretching treatment was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that after the nonstretching treatment under each load (5% MVC: 468.4 +/- 102.6 W vs. 430.1 +/- 73.0 W; 30% MVC: 520.4 +/- 108.5 W vs. 491.0 +/- 93.0 W; 60% MVC: 487.1 +/- 100.6 W vs. 450.8 +/- 83.7 W). The present study demonstrated that dynamic stretching routines, such as dynamic stretching exercise of target muscle groups and dynamic stretching exercise simulating the actual motion pattern, significantly improve power output with concentric DCER muscle actions under various loads. These results suggested that dynamic stretching routines in warm-up protocols enhance power performance because common power activities are carried out by DCER muscle actions under various loads.
Pervez, Aslam; Farahani, Hossein S.; Jeong, Seung-Gweon; Kim, Hyunho; Ryu, Jeha
By using a new type of silver robot called SpiderBot TM, posture balancing and muscle strengthening exercises were presented. Unlike mobile robots on a floor, SpiderBot TM is conceptualized to generate full mobility in a room and to have higher payload while generating six degrees-of-freedom for assisting daily lives of the elderly and the handicapped. A preliminary prototype of SpiderBot TM has been constructed by using incompletely restrained wire mechanism and simple control algorithms were implemented for two types of exercises for elderly people's health improvement. One is a posture balancing exercise that prevents from falling to any directions. And the other is muscle strengthening exercise that uses the SpiderBot TM as a weight lifting mechanism. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed new silver robot platform is used for such exercises.
Kraaijenga, S A C; van der Molen, L; Stuiver, M M; Teertstra, H J; Hilgers, F J M; van den Brekel, M W M
Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients may develop dysphagia due to muscle atrophy and fibrosis following chemoradiotherapy. Strengthening of the swallowing muscles through therapeutic exercise is potentially effective for improving swallowing function. We hypothesize that a customized Swallow Exercise Aid (SEA), developed for isometric and isokinetic strengthening exercises (against resistance), can help to functionally strengthen the suprahyoid musculature, which in turn can improve swallowing function. An effectiveness/feasibility study was carried out with ten senior healthy volunteers, who performed exercises 3 times per day for 6 weeks. Exercises included chin tuck against resistance (CTAR), jaw opening against resistance (JOAR), and effortful swallow exercises with the SEA. Multidimensional assessment consisted of measurements of maximum chin tuck and jaw opening strength, maximum tongue strength/endurance, suprahyoid muscle volume, hyoid bone displacement, swallowing transport times, occurrence of laryngeal penetration/aspiration and/or contrast residue, maximum mouth opening, feasibility/compliance (questionnaires), and subjective swallowing complaints (SWAL-QOL). After 6-weeks exercise, mean chin tuck strength, jaw opening strength, anterior tongue strength, suprahyoid muscle volume, and maximum mouth opening significantly increased (p < .05). Feasibility and compliance (median 86 %, range 48-100 %) of the SEA exercises were good. This prospective effectiveness/feasibility study on the effects of CTAR/JOAR isometric and isokinetic strengthening exercises on swallowing musculature and function shows that senior healthy subjects are able to significantly increase swallowing muscle strength and volume after a 6-week training period. These positive results warrant further investigation of effectiveness and feasibility of these SEA exercises in HNC patients with dysphagia.
Ishak, Nor Azizah; Zahari, Zarina; Justine, Maria
Objective. To determine the effect of strengthening exercises for older people with low back pain (LBP). Methods. This study is a systematic review of experimental study which evaluated the evidence regarding exercises for older people with LBP by using EBSCO Academic Search Premier, EBSCO EconLit, Science Direct, PUBMED, and PEDro from 2006 to 2016. Search strategy for each database was conducted by using keywords such as "low back pain", "older people", and "strengthening exercise". Boolean operators were used to combine keywords and manual exclusion was conducted to verify studies which met the inclusion criteria. The articles reviewed were evaluated and critically appraised by using PEDro scale and SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. Results. Three articles were found regarding strengthening exercise for older people with LBP whereas one study was conducted on multicomponent exercise. The mean, standard deviation, and variance of the PEDro score of all the studies were 5.67, 2.33, and 1.528, respectively. Overall, the qualities of all studies reviewed were fair. Two articles showed significant results when compared to control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Strengthening exercise is a beneficial treatment for older people with LBP in reducing pain intensity, disability, and improved functional performances.
Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.
In order to investigate the effects of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 d of 6-deg head-down bed rest, plasma and red cell volumes, body density, and water balance were measured in 19 men confined to bed rest (BR). One group had no exercise training (NOE), another near-maximal variable-intensity isotonic exercise (ITE) for 60 min/d, and the third near-maximal intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) for 60 min/d. Mean energy costs for the NOE, IKE, and ITE regimens were determined. Body densities within groups and mean urine volumes between groups were unchanged during BR. Changes in red cell volume followed changes in plasma volume. There was close coupling between resting plasma volume and plasma protein and osmotic content. It is argued that the ITE training protocol is better than the IKE protocol for maintaining plasma volume during prolonged exposure to BR.
Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph; Szilvas, Elena; Keiner, Michael
Strength training-induced increases in speed strength seem indisputable. For trainers and athletes, the most efficient exercise selection in the phase of preparation is of interest. Therefore, this study determined how the selection of training exercise influences the development of speed strength and maximal strength during an 8-week training intervention. Seventy-eight students participated in this study (39 in the training group and 39 as controls). Both groups were divided into 2 subgroups. The first training group (squat training group [SQ]) completed an 8-week strength training protocol using the parallel squat. The second training group (leg-press training group [LP]) used the same training protocol using the leg press (45° leg press). The control group was divided in 2 subgroups as controls for the SQ or the LP. Two-factorial analyses of variance were performed using a repeated measures model for all group comparisons and comparisons between pretest and posttest results. The SQ exhibited a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in jump performance in squat jump (SJ, 12.4%) and countermovement jump (CMJ, 12.0%). Whereas, the changes in the LP did not reach statistical significance and amounted to improvements in SJ of 3.5% and CMJ 0.5%. The differences between groups were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). There are also indications that the squat exercise is more effective to increase drop jump performance. Therefore, the squat exercise increased the performance in SJ, CMJ, and reactive strength index more effectively compared with the leg-press in a short-term intervention. Consequently, if the strength training aims at improving jump performance, the squat should be preferred because of the better transfer effects.
Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter
The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6-71±11%), and ST (60±1-69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8-16±5%) and ST (15±7-17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4-7±5%), ST (8±3-11±2%), SM (6±4-10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6-8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5-7±5%) and ST (7±3-12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies.
Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter
The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6–71±11%), and ST (60±1–69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8–16±5%) and ST (15±7–17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4–7±5%), ST (8±3–11±2%), SM (6±4–10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6–8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5–7±5%) and ST (7±3–12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies. PMID:27583444
Greenleaf, J. E.; Lee, P. L.; Ellis, S.; Selzer, R. H.; Ortendahl, D. A.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to compare the effect of two modes of lower-extremity exercise training on the mass (volume) of posterior leg group (PLG) muscles (soleus, flexor hallucis longus, tibialis posterior, lateral and medial gastrocnemius, and flexor digitorum longus) on 19 men (ages 32-42 years) subjected to intense dynamic-isotonic (ITE, cycle ergometer, number of subjects (N) = 7), isokinetic (IKE, torque egrometer, N = 7), and no exercise (NOE, N = 5) training for 60 min/day during head-down bed rest (HDBR). Total volume of the PLG muscles decreased (p less than 0.05) similarly: ITE = 4.3 +/- SE 1.6%, IKE = 7.7 +/- 1.6%, and NOE = 6.3 +/- 0.8%; combined volume (N = 19) loss was 6.1 +/- 0.9%. Ranges of volume changes were 2.6% to -9.0% (ITE), -2.1% to -14.9% (IKE), and -3.4% to -8/1% (NOE). Correlation coefficients (r) of muscle volume versus thickness measured with ultrasonography were: ITE r + 0.79 (p less than 0.05), IKE r = 0.27 (not significant (NS)), and NOE r = 0.63 (NS). Leg-muscle volume and thickness were highly correlated (r = 0.79) when plasma volume was maintained during HDBR with ITE. Thus, neither intensive lower extremity ITE nor IKE training influence the normal non-exercised posterior leg muscle atrophy during HDBR. The relationship of muscle volume and thickness may depend on the mode of exercise training associated with the maintenance of plasma volume.
Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Alberti, Gloria; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca
This study assessed the use of microswitch-aided programs to help three non-ambulatory adults with multiple disabilities exercise foot-leg responses. Those responses served to activate a largely neglected part of the participants' body, with possibly positive physical implications (e.g., for blood circulation, swelling, and muscle strength). Intervention focused on the left and right foot-leg response, separately. Eventually, sessions with one response were alternated with sessions with the other response. Responses were monitored via microswitches and followed by 8s of preferred stimulation (e.g., music and vibrotactile stimulation), which was automatically delivered. The results showed that all three participants had high levels of foot-leg responses during the intervention phases and a 3-week post-intervention check. The participants also displayed expressions of positive involvement during those study periods (i.e., engaged in behaviors, such as music-related head movements, smiles, or touching the vibratory devices) that could be interpreted as forms of interest/pleasure and happiness. These results are in line with previous findings in this area and can be taken as an important confirmation of the strength and dependability of the approach in motivating non-ambulatory persons with multiple disabilities to engage in foot-leg movements. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Bukowski, Elaine L; Conway, Allison; Glentz, Laura A; Kurland, Kristy; Galantino, Mary Lou
This case series describes the impact of various forms of exercise on symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. A group of 15 women and men performed one of the following: traditional stretching and strengthening exercises, Iyengar yoga, or no structured group exercise. Low back and hamstring flexibility and quadriceps strength and function were monitored before and after the program. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) was used to assess subjective change after the six-week intervention period. A global assessment questionnaire was also completed by each participant and each instructor at the exit sessions to measure perceived changes in improvements since the initiation of the intervention. This study found functional changes and improvement in quality of life in traditional exercise and a yoga based approach that should encourage further comprehensive and carefully designed studies of yoga in osteoarthritis.
Background Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1) on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Methods Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20) and Rg1 (N = 20) groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats. Results Exhaustive exercise significantly (p<0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation of control group, as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The increased oxidative stress after exercise was also confirmed by decreased reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) in control rats. However, these changes were completely eliminated in Rg1 group. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Rg1 in non-exercise rats, while no significant change after exercise. Nevertheless, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased after exercise in Rg1 group. Conclusions This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22607394
Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Vogiatzis, Ioannis
We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to approximately 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow.
Dobsak, Petr; Homolka, Pavel; Svojanovsky, Jan; Reichertova, Anna; Soucek, Miroslav; Novakova, Marie; Dusek, Ladislav; Vasku, Jaromir; Eicher, Jean-Christophe; Siegelova, Jarmila
Hemodialyzed (HD) patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit lower fitness as a consequence of chronic uremic changes that trigger various structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities in skeletal muscles. The aim of this randomized study was to compare the effect of rehabilitation (RHB) training on a bicycle ergometer and electromyostimulation (EMS) of leg extensors in HD patients with ESRD. Thirty-two HD patients (18 men/14 women; mean age 61.1 ± 8.8 years) were randomized into three groups: (i) exercise training (ET; n = 11) on bicycle ergometer 2 × 20 min; (ii) EMS (n = 11) where stimulation (10 Hz) of leg extensors was applied for 60 min; and (iii) controls (CON; n = 10) without exercise. Exercising was performed between the 2nd and the 3rd hour of HD, three times a week, 20 weeks in total. Ergometric test was performed in order to evaluate peak workload (W(peak)), 6-min corridor walking test (CWT) to evaluate the distance walked, and dynamometry of leg extensors to assess muscle power (F(max)). Urea clearance was monitored and expressed as standard parameters: spKt/V, spKt/V equilibrated (spKt/V-e), and the urea removal ratio (URR). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the questionnaire SF-36. A significant increase of F(max) (P = 0.040 in group ET; P = 0.032 in group EMS), of 6-min CWT (P < 0.001 in ET group; P = 0.042 in EMS group), and of W(peak) (P = 0.041 in ET group) was observed. In both exercising groups, significant increase of spKt/V, spKt/V-e, and URR was found as compared with initial values (P < 0.05). In both exercising groups, highly significant changes in summarized mental functions were found (P = 0.001); in summarized physical components, significant improvement was observed in the ET group (P = 0.006). Intradialytic RHB showed comparable positive effects on functional parameters, urea clearance, and QoL. Intradialytic EMS might represent wide therapeutic possibility in the near future.
Martin, Nancy A.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Robertson, Robert J.; Lephart, Scott M.
Objective: To determine the comparative effect of sports massage, active recovery, and rest on promoting blood lactate clearance after maximal anaerobic (supramaximal) leg exercise. Design and Setting: A counterbalanced experimental design with repeated measures was used. The repeated measures were the three treatment conditions. The order of the conditions was determined by random assignment to a counterbalanced test sequence. All data were collected in the Human Energy Research Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh. Subjects: Ten male competitive cyclists volunteered for this investigation. Measurements: Serial venous blood samples were drawn and analyzed for blood lactate concentration for each test condition. Results: There were significant main effects for both absolute and relative values of blood lactate concentration between the three treatment groups and across time within groups. Conclusions: After supramaximal leg exercise, active recovery produced significant decreases in both absolute and relative measures of blood lactate concentration when compared with the sports massage and rest conditions. No significant difference was found between sports massage and rest for either absolute or relative changes in blood lactate concentration. PMID:16558481
[Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain.
Elmer, S; Hahn, S; McAllister, P; Leong, C; Martin, J
Previous authors have reported that chronic eccentric cycling facilitates greater changes in multi-joint leg function (hopping frequency, maximum jumping height) compared with concentric cycling. Our purpose was to evaluate changes in leg spring stiffness and maximum power following eccentric and concentric cycling training. Twelve individuals performed either eccentric (n=6) or concentric (n=6) cycling for 7 weeks (3 sessions/week) while training duration progressively increased. Participants performed trials of submaximal hopping, maximal counter movement jumps, and maximal concentric cycling to evaluate leg spring stiffness, maximum jumping power, and maximum concentric cycling power respectively, before and 1 week following training. Total work during training did not differ between eccentric and concentric cycling (126 ± 15-728 ± 91 kJ vs 125 ± 10-787 ± 76 kJ). Following training, eccentric cycling exhibited greater changes in k(leg) and jumping P(max) compared with CON(cyc) (10 ± 3% vs -2 ± 4% and 7 ± 2% vs -2 ± 3%, respectively, P=0.05). Alterations in CON(cyc) P(max) did not differ between ECC(cyc) (1035 ± 142 vs 1030 ± 133 W) and CON(cyc) (1072 ± 98 vs 1081 ± 85 W). These data demonstrate that eccentric cycling is an effective method for improving leg spring stiffness and maximum power during multi-joint tasks that include stretch-shortening cycles. Improvements in leg spring stiffness and maximum power would be beneficial for both aging and athletic populations.
Hughes, Shawn S; Lyons, Brian C; Mayo, Jerry J
Bat velocity is considered to be an important factor for successful hitting. The relationship between grip strength and bat velocity has not been conclusively established. The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship of grip strength to bat velocity and to ascertain whether the performance of resistance training exercises designed to specifically target the forearms and grip would significantly alter bat velocity. The subjects for this study were 23 male members (mean +/- SD, age = 19.7 +/- 1.3 years, height = 182.5 +/- 5.9 cm, weight = 85.4 +/- 15.5 kg, experience = 14.4 +/- 1.7 years) of a varsity baseball team at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II school. The Jamar hand dynamometer was used to test grip strength, and the SETPRO Rookie was used to measure instantaneous bat velocity at the point of contact with the ball. Subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. For 6 weeks, both groups participated in their usual baseball practice sessions, but the experimental group also performed extra forearm and grip strengthening exercises, whereas the control group did not. Pretest and posttest correlations between grip strength and bat velocity revealed no significant relationship between grip strength and bat velocity (pretest r = 0.054, p = 0.807; posttest r = 0.315, p = 0.145). A dependent t-test performed on all subjects revealed that a significant (p = 0.001) increase in bat velocity did occur over the course of the study. A covariate analysis, employing pretest bat velocity as the covariate, revealed no significant difference (p = 0.795) in posttest bat velocity scores between the experimental and control groups. Thus, increases in bat velocity occurred, but the differences were similar for both the experimental and control groups. The findings of this study suggest that grip strength and bat velocity are not significantly related, and that the allocation of time and energy for added training
Stremel, R. W.; Convertino, V. A.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.
Results are presented for an experimental study designed to compare the effects of heavy static and dynamic exercise training during 14 days of bed rest on the cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise performed by seven healthy men aged 19-22 yr. The parameters measured were submaximal and maximal oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, heart rate, and plasma volume. The results indicate that exercise alone during bed rest reduces but does not eliminate the reduction in maximal oxygen uptake. An additional positive hydrostatic effect is therefore necessary to restore maximal oxygen uptake to ambulatory control levels. The greater protective effect of static exercise on maximal oxygen uptake is probably due to a greater hydrostatic component from the isometric muscular contraction. Neither the static nor the dynamic exercise training regimes are found to minimize the changes in all the variables studied, thereby suggesting a combination of static and dynamic exercises.
Background Exercise and adequate self-management capacity may be important strategies in the management of venous leg ulcers. However, it remains unclear if exercise improves the healing rates of venous leg ulcers and if a self-management exercise program based on self-efficacy theory is well adhered to. Method/design This is a randomised controlled in adults with venous leg ulcers to determine the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention. Participants with venous leg ulcers are recruited from 3 clinical sites in Australia. After collection of baseline data, participants are randomised to either an intervention group or control group. The control group receive usual care, as recommended by evidence based guidelines. The intervention group receive an individualised program of calf muscle exercises and walking. The twelve week exercise program integrates multiple elements, including up to six telephone delivered behavioural coaching and goal setting sessions, supported by written materials, a pedometer and two follow-up booster calls if required. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weekly steps and lower limb exercises. The control group are supported by a generic information sheet that the intervention group also receive encouraging lower limb exercises, a pedometer for self-management and phone calls at the same time points as the intervention group. The primary outcome is the healing rates of venous leg ulcers which are assessed at fortnightly clinic appointments. Secondary outcomes, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks: functional ability (range of ankle motion and Tinetti gait and balance score), quality of life and self-management scores. Discussion This study seeks to address a significant gap in current wound management practice by providing evidence for the effectiveness of a home-based exercise program for adults with venous leg ulcers. Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies that can
Nyberg, Michael; Christensen, Peter M; Mortensen, Stefan P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens
The present study examined whether an increase in leg blood flow and oxygen delivery at the onset of intense exercise would speed the rate of rise in leg oxygen uptake. Nine healthy men (25 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) performed one-leg knee-extensor exercise (62 ± 3 W, 86 ± 3% of incremental test peak power) for 4 min during a control setting (CON) and with infusion of ATP into the femoral artery in order to increase blood flow before and during exercise. In the presence of ATP, femoral arterial blood flow and O2 delivery were higher (P < 0.001) at the onset of exercise and throughout exercise (femoral arterial blood flow after 10 s, 5.1 ± 0.5 versus 2.7 ± 0.3 l min(-1); after 45 s, 6.0 ± 0.5 versus 4.1 ± 0.4 l min(-1); after 90 s, 6.6 ± 0.6 versus 4.5 ± 0.4 l min(-1); and after 240 s, 7.0 ± 0.6 versus 5.1 ± 0.3 l min(-1) in ATP and CON conditions, respectively). Leg oxygen uptake was not different in ATP and CON conditions during the first 20 s of exercise but was lower (P < 0.05) in the ATP compared with CON conditions after 30 s and until the end of exercise (30 s, 436 ± 42 versus 549 ± 45 ml min(-1); and 240 s, 705 ± 31 versus 814 ± 59 ml min(-1) in ATP and CON, respectively). Lactate release was lower after 60, 120 and 180 s of exercise with ATP infusion. These results suggest that O2 delivery is not limiting the rise in skeletal muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise.
Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Vansteenkiste, Maarten
Goals are central to exercise motivation, although not all goals (e.g., health vs. appearance goals) are equally psychologically or behaviorally adaptive. Within goal content theory (Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010), goals are adaptive to the extent to which they satisfy psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. However, little is known about what exercisers pursuing different goals are feeling, doing, thinking, and paying attention to that may help to explain the association between goal contents and need satisfaction. Using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis, we explored experiences of exercise among 11 adult exercisers who reported pursuing either predominantly intrinsic or extrinsic goals. Four themes emerged: (a) observation of others and resulting emotions, (b) goal expectations and time perspective, (c) markers of progress and (d) reactions to (lack of) goal achievement. Intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuers reported divergent experiences within these four domains. The findings illuminate potential mechanisms by which different goals may influence psychological and behavioral outcomes in the exercise context.
Boda, Wanda L.; Watenbaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Fortney, S. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Lee, S. M. C.; William, J. M.; Hargens, Alan R.
Microgravity and bedrest (BR) result in similar physiological decrements such as loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and balance. Previous studies analyzing exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have found that gait is similar in LBNP on a vertical treadmill and overground exercise on a horizontal treadmill. Since treadmill exercise is known to increase muscular strength and endurance, we tested the hypothesis that LBNP exercise on a vertical treadmill would prevent or attenuate many of the physical decrements which occur during bedrest. Based on our positive results from diverse tests of post-BR function, we believe that exercise within LBNP is worth pursuing as a countermeasure for reducing the physical deterioration that occurs during bedrest and microgravity.
Vittinghoff, Eric; Kado, Deborah M.; Schafer, Anne L.; Wong, Shirley S.; Gladin, Amy; Lane, Nancy E.
Background Hyperkyphosis negatively affects health status, physical mobility, and quality of life, but there is no standard protocol for treating people with hyperkyphosis. Treatment options include targeted exercise. Objectives This single-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) will determine the efficacy of a targeted multimodal spine-strengthening exercise program, compared with no exercise intervention, among community-dwelling men and women aged ≥60 years. Design The RCT is a parallel-group design, with 1:1 randomization to exercise and attentional control groups. Setting The study will be conducted at one primary site (one academic medical center partnered with one local community medical center). Participants One hundred men and women, aged ≥60 years, with thoracic kyphosis ≥40 degrees will be randomized. Intervention The targeted multimodal spine-strengthening exercise intervention includes exercise and postural training delivered by a physical therapist in a group of 10 participants, 3 times a week for 6 months. Controls receive monthly health education meetings in a group of 10 participants and monthly calls from the study coordinator to monitor physical activity and any adverse events. Measurements The primary outcome is change in Cobb angle of kyphosis measured from lateral spine radiographs at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes include change in physical function (assessed with the modified Physical Performance Test, Timed “Up & Go” Test, timed loaded standing, 4-m walk, and Six-Minute Walk Test) and health-related quality of life (assessed with the modified Scoliosis Research Society instrument [SRS-30] self-image domain and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System [PROMIS] global health and physical function indexes). Additional secondary outcomes include pain, physical activity level, spinal flexion and extension muscle strength, paraspinal extensor muscle density, and adverse events. Limitations Blinding of the
Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.
Subjects exercised for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 30, 50, and 70% of maximal aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 C and vapor pressures of less than 18 torr. Exercise was used to vary internal temperature during an experiment, and different ambient temperatures were used to vary skin temperatures independently of internal temperature. Forearm skin temperature was fixed at about 36.5 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at eight skin sites. Forearm blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. Data are well accounted for by a linear equation independent of exercise intensity, although some subjects showed an equivocal vasodilator effect of exercise.
Filho, José C Jambassi; Gobbi, Lilian T B; Gurjão, André L D; Gonçalves, Raquel; Prado, Alexandre K G; Gobbi, Sebastião
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different rest intervals (RI) between sets on number of repetitions, sustainability of repetitions, and total volume during a leg press exercise. Seventeen resistance-trained older women (68.0 ± 5.9 years, 71. 2 ± 11.7 kg, 1.58 ± 0.07 m) participated in the study. All participants performed three sets to voluntary exhaustion, with loads that corresponded to 15 maximum repetitions, in two experimental sessions (that ranged from 48 to 72 hours apart). In each session, one of two RI (one-minute: RI-1 and three minute: RI-3) was tested, employing a randomized and counterbalanced design. For both RI, significant reductions (p < 0.05) were observed in the number of repetitions and sustainability of repetitions, from the first to the second and third sets. Differences (p < 0.05) between the RI also were observed in the two final sets. The total volume for the RI-3 session was statistically higher (29.4%, p < 0.05) as compared to the RI-1 session. The length of the RI between sets influenced the number of repetitions, sustainability of repetitions, and total volume. The longer RI should be used, therefore, when the goal of training is to increase the total volume. Key pointsThis study examined the influence of rest intervals, between sets, on muscle performance during leg press exercise, in trained older women.When multiple sets were performed to voluntary exhaustion, neither short and long rest interval (1 and 3 minutes, respectively) promoted the sustainability of repetitions in subsequent sets.A longer rest interval seems to be necessary for a higher number of repetitions in subsequent sets, and with increase in time of tension and total volume.
Chou, J. L.; Stad, N. J.; Barnes, P. R.; Leftheriotis, G. P. N.; Arndt, N. F.; Simonson, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.
Spaceflight and bed-rest deconditioning decrease maximal oxygen uptake (aerobic power), strength, endurance capacity, and orthostatic tolerance. In addition to extensive use of muscular exercise conditioning as a countermeasure for the reduction in aerobic power (VO(sub 2max)), stimuli from some form of +Gz acceleration conditioning may be necessary to attenuate the orthostatic intolerance component of this deconditioning. Hypothesis: There will be no significant difference in the physiological responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.
Zampieri, Sandra; Mosole, Simone; Löfler, Stefan; Fruhmann, Hannah; Burggraf, Samantha; Cvečka, Ján; Hamar, Dušan; Sedliak, Milan; Tirptakova, Veronica; Šarabon, Nejc; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, reducing force generation and mobility in the elderlies. Contributing factors include a severe decrease in both myofiber size and number as well as a decrease in the number of motor neurons innervating muscle fibers (mainly of fast type) which is sometimes accompanied by reinnervation of surviving slow type motor neurons (motor unit remodeling). Reduced mobility and functional limitations characterizing aging can promote a more sedentary lifestyle for older individuals, leading to a vicious circle further worsening muscle performance and the patients' quality of life, predisposing them to an increased risk of disability, and mortality. Several longitudinal studies have shown that regular exercise may extend life expectancy and reduce morbidity in aging people. Based on these findings, the Interreg IVa project aimed to recruit sedentary seniors with a normal life style and to train them for 9 weeks with either leg press (LP) exercise or electrical stimulation (ES). Before and at the end of both training periods, all the subjects were submitted to mobility functional tests and muscle biopsies from the Vastus Lateralis muscles of both legs. No signs of muscle damage and/or of inflammation were observed in muscle biopsies after the training. Functional tests showed that both LP and ES induced improvements of force and mobility of the trained subjects. Morphometrical and immunofluorescent analyses performed on muscle biopsies showed that ES significantly increased the size of fast type muscle fibers (p<0.001), together with a significant increase in the number of Pax7 and NCAM positive satellite cells (p<0.005). A significant decrease of slow type fiber diameter was observed in both ES and LP trained subjects (p<0.001). Altogether these results demonstrate the effectiveness of physical exercise either voluntary (LP) or passive (ES) to improve the functional performances of aging muscles. Here ES is
Mosole, Simone; Löfler, Stefan; Fruhmann, Hannah; Burggraf, Samantha; Cvečka, Ján; Hamar, Dušan; Sedliak, Milan; Tirptakova, Veronica; Šarabon, Nejc; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, reducing force generation and mobility in the elderlies. Contributing factors include a severe decrease in both myofiber size and number as well as a decrease in the number of motor neurons innervating muscle fibers (mainly of fast type) which is sometimes accompanied by reinnervation of surviving slow type motor neurons (motor unit remodeling). Reduced mobility and functional limitations characterizing aging can promote a more sedentary lifestyle for older individuals, leading to a vicious circle further worsening muscle performance and the patients’ quality of life, predisposing them to an increased risk of disability, and mortality. Several longitudinal studies have shown that regular exercise may extend life expectancy and reduce morbidity in aging people. Based on these findings, the Interreg IVa project aimed to recruit sedentary seniors with a normal life style and to train them for 9 weeks with either leg press (LP) exercise or electrical stimulation (ES). Before and at the end of both training periods, all the subjects were submitted to mobility functional tests and muscle biopsies from the Vastus Lateralis muscles of both legs. No signs of muscle damage and/or of inflammation were observed in muscle biopsies after the training. Functional tests showed that both LP and ES induced improvements of force and mobility of the trained subjects. Morphometrical and immunofluorescent analyses performed on muscle biopsies showed that ES significantly increased the size of fast type muscle fibers (p<0.001), together with a significant increase in the number of Pax7 and NCAM positive satellite cells (p<0.005). A significant decrease of slow type fiber diameter was observed in both ES and LP trained subjects (p<0.001). Altogether these results demonstrate the effectiveness of physical exercise either voluntary (LP) or passive (ES) to improve the functional performances of aging muscles. Here ES is
Sarabadani Tafreshi, Amirehsan; Riener, Robert; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena
Introduction: Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE) that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES) to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization (i.e., head-up tilt) depends on the verticalization angle, and FES strengthens the PE influence. To test our hypotheses, we investigated the PE effects on the cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP) at different angles of verticalization in a healthy population. Methods: Ten healthy subjects on a robot-assisted tilt table underwent four different study protocols while HR, sBP, and dBP were measured: (1) head-up tilt to 60° and 71° without PE; (2) PE at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (3) PE while constant FES intensity was applied to the leg muscles, at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (4) PE with variation of the applied FES intensity at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt. Linear mixed models were used to model changes in HR, sBP, and dBP responses. Results: The models show that: (1) head-up tilt alone resulted in statistically significant increases in HR and dBP, but no change in sBP. (2) PE during head-up tilt resulted in statistically significant changes in HR, sBP, and dBP, but not at each angle and not always in the same direction (i.e., increase or decrease of cardiovascular parameters). Neither adding (3) FES at constant intensity to PE nor (4) variation of FES intensity during PE had any statistically significant effects on the cardiovascular parameters. Conclusion: The effect of PE on the cardiovascular system during
Gill, T; Wilkinson, A; Edwards, E; Grimmer, K
This study examined the order effect of a hamstring muscle stretch and resisted hamstring exercises on straight leg raise range of movement (SLR-ROM), in a group of twenty females aged 20-34 years. The stretch was applied either immediately before or Immediately after a resisted hamstring exercise. Exercise significantly decreased SLR-ROM (p < 0.05) and stretching significantly increased SLR-ROM (p < 0.05). The overall change in SLR-ROM for the two groups showed that a significant increase in SLR-ROM was detected (at a low force level) in Group 1 subjects who performed exercise and then stretched. A non-significant increase in SLR-ROM was detected by the higher force level in Group 1 subjects. In contrast, Group 2 subjects (stretch then exercise) showed a non-significant reduction in SLR-ROM at both levels of force.
Saltin, B.; Strange, S.; Bangsbo, J.; Kim, C. K.; Duvoisin, M.; Hargens, A.; Gollnick, P. D.
With long missions in space countermeasures have to be used to secure safe operations in space and a safe return to Earth. Exercises of various forms have been used, but the question has arisen whether electrically induced contractions of muscle especially sensitive to weightlessness and crucial for man's performance would aid in maintaining their optimal function. The physiological responses both to short term and prolonged dynamic exercise performed either voluntarily or induced by electrical stimulation were considered. The local and systemic circulatory responses were similar for the voluntary and electrically induced contractions. The metabolic response was slightly more pronounced with electrical stimulation. This could be a reflection of not only slow twitch (type 1) but also fast twitch (type 2) fibers being recruited when the contractions were induced electrically. Intramuscular pressure recordings indicated that the dominant fraction of the muscle group was engaged regardless of mode of activation. Some 70 percent of the short term peak voluntary exercise capacity could be attained with electrical stimulation. Thus, electrically induced contractions of specific muscle groups should indeed be considered as an efficient countermeasure.
Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A
Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.
Chin, Lisa M. K.; Heigenhauser, George J. F.; Paterson, Donald H.
The effect of hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis (Hypo) on the adjustment of pulmonary O2 uptake (V̇o2p) and leg femoral conduit artery (“bulk”) blood flow (LBF) during moderate-intensity exercise (Mod) was examined in eight young male adults. Subjects completed four to six repetitions of alternate-leg knee-extension exercise during normal breathing [Con; end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2) ∼40 mmHg] and sustained hyperventilation (Hypo; PetCO2 ∼20 mmHg). Increases in work rate were made instantaneously from baseline (3 W) to Mod (80% estimated lactate threshold). V̇o2p was measured breath by breath by mass spectrometry and volume turbine, and LBF (calculated from mean femoral artery blood velocity and femoral artery diameter) was measured simultaneously by Doppler ultrasound. Concentration changes of deoxy (Δ[HHb])-, oxy (Δ[O2Hb])-, and total hemoglobin-myoglobin (Δ[HbTot]) of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The kinetics of V̇o2p, LBF, and Δ[HHb] were modeled using a monoexponential equation by nonlinear regression. The time constants for the phase 2 V̇o2p (Hypo, 49 ± 26 s; Con, 28 ± 8 s) and LBF (Hypo, 46 ± 16 s; Con, 23 ± 6 s) were greater (P < 0.05) in Hypo compared with Con. However, the mean response time for the overall Δ[HHb] response was not different between conditions (Hypo, 23 ± 5 s; Con, 24 ± 3 s), whereas the Δ[HHb] amplitude was greater (P < 0.05) in Hypo (8.05 ± 7.47 a.u.) compared with Con (6.69 ± 6.31 a.u.). Combined, these results suggest that hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis is associated with slower convective (i.e., slowed femoral artery and microvascular blood flow) and diffusive (i.e., greater fractional O2 extraction for a given ΔV̇o2p) O2 delivery, which may contribute to the hyperventilation-induced slowing of V̇o2p (and muscle O2 utilization) kinetics. PMID:20339012
Yates, J W; Gladden, L B; Cresanta, M K
The isometric endurance of the elbow flexors was determined in a control condition and subsequent to a maximal effort exercise bout on a cycle ergometer in seven subjects. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), peak rate of tension development (+dP/dt), peak rate of tension relaxation (-dP/dt), one-half contraction time, and one-half relaxation time were also measured. Each subject was tested on four occasions: two control and two experimental sessions. During the control sessions each subject held 40% of MVC to exhaustion, whereas the experimental session included a 1-min maximal effort exercise bout on a cycle ergometer 6 min prior to the isometric endurance task. Arterialized blood samples were drawn and analyzed for lactate, pH, PCO2, and PO2. Plasma bicarbonate was calculated from the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Subsequent to the cycle ergometer bout, blood lactate concentration rose from 0.8 to 11 mM, pH decreased from 7.43 to 7.20, PCO2 decreased from 40 to 32 Torr, and plasma bicarbonate decreased from 26 to 12 mM. When compared with the control values, no significant changes were evident for any muscle contractile properties following the cycle ergometer bout. However, isometric endurance was significantly reduced from 115.0 +/- 7.2 to 86.3 +/- 7.3 s.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
This paper examines various devices used in strength building exercise programs. These include free weights, pulley machines, variable resistance weight machines, isokinetic units and elastic tubing and banding. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed and examined from the view point of the health care provider and the suitability of each type of device for prescribed progressive resistance exercise programs for patients. In addition to such practical aspects such as cost and maintenance, biomechanical factors, types of contraction elicited, ease of patient instruction and proprioception benefits are also compared in order to assist the clinician in selecting the most appropriate equipment for each individual patient.
Nyberg, Michael; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup, Camilla M; Andersen, Caroline B; Hansen, Karen M B E; Hergel, Ida-Marie F; Valbak-Andersen, Nicholai; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Stallknecht, Bente; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva
Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1) years of age were included. Before training, leg blood flow, O2 delivery, O2 uptake, and lactate release during knee-extensor exercise were similar in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) leg blood flow, O2 delivery, O2 uptake, lactate release, blood pressure and heart rate during the same absolute workloads in the postmenopausal women. These effects were not detected in the premenopausal women. Quadriceps muscle protein contents of mitochondrial complex II, III, and IV, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX.1), COX-2, and oestrogen related receptor α (ERRα) were increased (P < 0.05) with training in the postmenopausal women whereas only the levels of mitochondrial complex V, eNOS, and COX-2 were increased (P < 0.05) in the premenopausal women. These findings demonstrate that vascular and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic high intensity exercise training are more pronounced in recent post- compared to premenopausal women, possibly as an effect of enhanced ERRα signalling. Also, the hyperaemic response to acute exercise appears to be preserved in the early postmenopausal phase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Purpose] The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of individual strengthening exercises for the anterior pelvic tilt muscles on back pain, pelvic tilt angle, and lumbar ROM of a low back pain (LBP) patient with flat back. [Subject] A 37 year-old male, who complained of LBP pain at L3-5 levels with flat back, participated. [Methods] He performed the individual strengthening exercises for anterior pelvic tilt muscles (erector spinae,iliopsoas, rectus femoris). [Results] Pelvic tilt angles of the right and left sides were recovered to normal ranges. His lumbar ROMs increased, and low back pain decreased. [Conclusion] We suggest that individual resistance exercises are a necessary approach for effective and fast strengthening of pelvic anterior tilt muscles in LBP with flat back.
Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Seong-A
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a muscle strengthening exercise program using an elastic band on changes in the physical abilities and quality of life of the rural elderly. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 46 elderly people (8 males, 38 females) aged 65 or older, who lived in a rural area and managed their daily lives independently. [Methods] The study’s exercise program was conducted 16 times for 80 minutes each session over an eight-week period. This program consisted of several exercises to strengthen muscular endurance and improve balance ability based on exercises using Thera-bands. The physical abilities of the subjects were divided into muscular endurance, upper-extremity flexibility, balance, and low-extremity agility. Each ability was measured to compare the effects of the exercise program. In addition, the Korean version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire was used to examine changes in the subjects’ quality of life. [Results] The subjects showed improvements in muscular endurance, balance, and low-extremity agility. They also exhibited an overall statistically significant improvement in quality of life scores after the exercise program. In terms of the main items, changes were observed in the areas of psychological relations, social relations, and environment. [Conclusion] The community-centered muscle strengthening exercise program using the elastic band was found to improve muscular endurance, balance, agility, and quality of life of rural elderly subjects. PMID:26311926
Fukuchi, Reginaldo K; Stefanyshyn, Darren J; Stirling, Lisa; Ferber, Reed
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening and stretching exercises on running kinematics and kinetics in older runners. One hundred and five runners (55-75 years) were randomly assigned to either a strengthening (n = 36), flexibility (n = 34) or control (n = 35) group. Running kinematics and kinetics were obtained using an eight-camera system and an instrumented treadmill before and after the eight-week exercise protocol. Measures of strength and flexibility were also obtained using a dynamometer and inclinometer/goniometer. A time effect was observed for the excursion angles of the ankle sagittal (P = 0.004, d = 0.17) and thorax/pelvis transverse (P < 0.001, d = 0.20) plane. Similarly, a time effect was observed for knee transverse plane impulse (P = 0.013, d = 0.26) and ground reaction force propulsion (P = 0.042, d = -0.15). A time effect for hip adduction (P = 0.006, d = 0.69), ankle dorsiflexion (P = 0.002, d = 0.47) and hip internal rotation (P = 0.048, d = 0.30) flexibility, and hip extensor (P = 0.001, d = -0.48) and ankle plantar flexor (P = 0.01, d = 0.39) strength were also observed. However, these changes were irrespective of exercise group. The results of the present study indicate that an eight-week stretching or strengthening protocol, compared to controls, was not effective in altering age-related running biomechanics despite changes in ankle and trunk kinematics, knee kinetics and ground reaction forces along with alterations in muscle strength and flexibility were observed over time.
Nedelec, Bernadette; Parry, Ingrid; Acharya, Hernish; Benavides, Lynne; Bills, Sara; Bucher, Janelle L; Cheal, Joanne; Chouinard, Annick; Crump, Donna; Duch, Sarah; Godleski, Matthew; Guenther, Jennifer; Knox, Catherine; LaBonte, Eric; Lorello, David; Lucio, J Xavier; Macdonald, Lori E; Kemp-Offenberg, Jennifer; Osborne, Candice; Pontius, Kara; Yelvington, Miranda; de Oliveira, Ana; Kloda, Lorie A
The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the available clinical evidence for the prescription of strength training and cardiovascular endurance exercise programs for pediatric and adult burn survivors so that practice guidelines could be proposed. This review provides evidence-based recommendations specifically for rehabilitation professionals who are responsible for burn survivor rehabilitation. Summary recommendations were made after the literature was retrieved by systematic review, was critically appraised by multiple authors and the level of evidence determined in accordance with the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria. Although gaps in the literature persist and should be addressed in future research projects, currently, strong research evidence supports the prescription of strength training and aerobic conditioning exercise programs for both adult and pediatric burn survivors when in the presence of strength limitations and/or decreased cardiovascular endurance after evaluation.
Mean individual muscle activities and ratios of total muscle activities in a selective muscle strengthening experiment: the effects of lower limb muscle activity based on mediolateral slope angles during a one-leg stance
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for research on selective muscle strengthening by identifying mean muscle activities and calculating muscle ratios for use in developing strengthening methods. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one healthy volunteers were included in this study. Muscle activity was measured during a one-leg stance under 6 conditions of slope angle: 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The data used in the analysis were root mean square and % total muscle activity values. [Results] There were significant differences in the root mean square of the gluteus medius, the hamstring, and the medial gastrocnemius muscles. There were significant differences in % total muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius. [Conclusion] Future studies aimed at developing selective muscle strengthening methods are likely to yield more effective results by using muscle activity ratios based on electromyography data. PMID:27799690
Piering, A W; Janowski, A P; Wehrenberg, W B; Moore, M T; Snyder, A C
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four specific sit-up exercises on muscular activity of the rectus abdominis. Pairs of surface electrodes were placed unilaterally on four quadrants of the rectus abdominis, delimited by tendinous inscriptions, in four male subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were taken while the subjects performed four different abdominal exercises. Each abdominal exercise was hypothesized to have a specific effect on one of the four quadrants of the rectus abdominis. The four exercises analyzed were: 1) long lying crunch, 2) bent knee crunch, 3) leg raise, and 4) vertical leg crunch. Analysis of the standardized EMG recordings demonstrated no significant differences in the mean muscle activity between the four different quadrants, in the mean muscle activity between the four different exercises, and in interactions between the exercises and the quadrants of the rectus abdominis. We conclude that none of the four abdominal exercises studied are specific for strengthening individual muscle quadrants of the rectus abdominis.
Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk
[Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg.
Thompson, Richard B.; Pagano, Joseph J.; Mathewson, Kory W.; Paterson, Ian; Dyck, Jason R.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Haykowsky, Mark J.
The goals of the current study were to compare leg blood flow, oxygen extraction and oxygen uptake (VO2) after constant load sub-maximal unilateral knee extension (ULKE) exercise in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to those with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Previously, it has been shown that prolonged whole body VO2 recovery kinetics are directly related to disease severity and all-cause mortality in HFrEF patients. To date, no study has simultaneously measured muscle-specific blood flow and oxygen extraction post exercise recovery kinetics in HFrEF or HFpEF patients; therefore it is unknown if muscle VO2 recovery kinetics, and more specifically, the recovery kinetics of blood flow and oxygen extraction at the level of the muscle, differ between HF phenotypes. Ten older (68±10yrs) HFrEF (n = 5) and HFpEF (n = 5) patients performed sub-maximal (85% of maximal weight lifted during an incremental test) ULKE exercise for 4 minutes. Femoral venous blood flow and venous O2 saturation were measured continuously from the onset of end-exercise, using a novel MRI method, to determine off-kinetics (mean response times, MRT) for leg VO2 and its determinants. HFpEF and HFrEF patients had similar end-exercise leg blood flow (1.1±0.6 vs. 1.2±0.6 L/min, p>0.05), venous saturation (42±12 vs. 41±11%, p>0.05) and VO2 (0.13±0.08 vs. 0.11±0.05 L/min, p>0.05); however HFrEF had significantly delayed recovery MRT for flow (292±135sec. vs 105±63sec., p = 0.004) and VO2 (95±37sec. vs. 47±15sec., p = 0.005) compared to HFpEF. Impaired muscle VO2 recovery kinetics following ULKE exercise differentiated HFrEF from HFpEF patients and suggests distinct underlying pathology and potential therapeutic approaches in these populations. PMID:27701422
Thompson, Richard B; Pagano, Joseph J; Mathewson, Kory W; Paterson, Ian; Dyck, Jason R; Kitzman, Dalane W; Haykowsky, Mark J
The goals of the current study were to compare leg blood flow, oxygen extraction and oxygen uptake (VO2) after constant load sub-maximal unilateral knee extension (ULKE) exercise in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to those with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Previously, it has been shown that prolonged whole body VO2 recovery kinetics are directly related to disease severity and all-cause mortality in HFrEF patients. To date, no study has simultaneously measured muscle-specific blood flow and oxygen extraction post exercise recovery kinetics in HFrEF or HFpEF patients; therefore it is unknown if muscle VO2 recovery kinetics, and more specifically, the recovery kinetics of blood flow and oxygen extraction at the level of the muscle, differ between HF phenotypes. Ten older (68±10yrs) HFrEF (n = 5) and HFpEF (n = 5) patients performed sub-maximal (85% of maximal weight lifted during an incremental test) ULKE exercise for 4 minutes. Femoral venous blood flow and venous O2 saturation were measured continuously from the onset of end-exercise, using a novel MRI method, to determine off-kinetics (mean response times, MRT) for leg VO2 and its determinants. HFpEF and HFrEF patients had similar end-exercise leg blood flow (1.1±0.6 vs. 1.2±0.6 L/min, p>0.05), venous saturation (42±12 vs. 41±11%, p>0.05) and VO2 (0.13±0.08 vs. 0.11±0.05 L/min, p>0.05); however HFrEF had significantly delayed recovery MRT for flow (292±135sec. vs 105±63sec., p = 0.004) and VO2 (95±37sec. vs. 47±15sec., p = 0.005) compared to HFpEF. Impaired muscle VO2 recovery kinetics following ULKE exercise differentiated HFrEF from HFpEF patients and suggests distinct underlying pathology and potential therapeutic approaches in these populations.
Mortensen, Stefan P; González-Alonso, José; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva
Prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) are substances that have been proposed to be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during physical activity. We measured haemodynamics, plasma ATP at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (19 +/- 1 W) in nine healthy subjects with and without intra-arterial infusion of indomethacin (Indo; 621 +/- 17 microg min(-1)), Indo + N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (double blockade) and Indo + L-NMMA + tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (triple blockade). Double and triple blockade lowered leg blood flow (LBF) at rest (P<0.05), while it remained unchanged with Indo. During exercise, LBF and vascular conductance were 2.54 +/- 0.10 l min(-1) and 25 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively, in control and they were lower with double (33 +/- 3 and 36 +/- 4%, respectively) and triple (26 +/- 4 and 28 +/- 3%, respectively) blockade (P<0.05), while there was no difference with Indo. The lower LBF and vascular conductance with double and triple blockade occurred in parallel with a lower O(2) delivery, cardiac output, heart rate and plasma [noradrenaline] (P<0.05), while blood pressure remained unchanged and O(2) extraction and femoral venous plasma [ATP] increased. Despite the increased O(2) extraction, leg was 13 and 17% (triple and double blockade, respectively) lower than control in parallel to a lower femoral venous temperature and lactate release (P<0.05). These results suggest that NO and prostaglandins play important roles in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during moderate intensity exercise and that EDHFs do not compensate for the impaired formation of NO and prostaglandins. Moreover, inhibition of NO and prostaglandin formation is associated with a lower aerobic energy turnover and increased concentration of vasoactive ATP in plasma.
Yamane, Motoi; Teruya, Hiroyasu; Nakano, Masataka; Ogai, Ryuji; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Kosaka, Mitsuo
The influence of regular post-exercise cold application to exercised muscles trained by ergometer cycling (leg muscles) or handgrip exercise using a weight-loaded handgrip ergometer (forearm flexor muscles) was studied in human volunteers. Muscle loads were applied during exercise programs three to four times a week for 4-6 weeks. Besides measuring parameters characterizing muscle performance, femoral and brachial artery diameters were determined ultrasonographically. Training effects were identified by comparing pre- and post-training parameters in matched groups separately for the trained limbs cooled after exercise by cold-water immersion and the corresponding trained limbs kept at room temperature. Significant training effects were three times more frequent in the control than in the cold group, including increases in artery diameters in the control but not in the cold group. It is concluded that training-induced molecular and humoral adjustments, including muscle hyperthermia, are physiological, transient and essential for training effects (myofiber regeneration, muscle hypertrophy and improved blood supply). Cooling generally attenuates these temperature-dependent processes and, in particular, hyperthermia-induced HSP formation. This seems disadvantageous for training, in contrast to the beneficial combination of rest, ice, compression and elevation in the treatment of macroscopic musculo-tendinous damage.
Dedova, Irina V
Background Sustained cardiac rehabilitation is the key intervention in the prevention and treatment of many human diseases. However, implementation of exercise programs can be challenging because of early fatigability in patients with chronic diseases, overweight individuals, and aged people. Current methods of fatigability assessment are based on subjective self-reporting such as rating of perceived exertion or require specialized laboratory conditions and sophisticated equipment. A practical approach allowing objective measurement of exercise-induced fatigue would be useful for the optimization of sustained delivery of cardiac rehabilitation to improve patient outcomes. Objectives The objective of this study is to develop and validate an innovative approach, allowing for the objective assessment of exercise-induced fatigue using the Web-enabled leg rehabilitation system. Methods MedExercise training devices were equipped with wireless temperature sensors in order to monitor their usage by temperature rise in the resistance unit (Δt°). Since Δt° correlated with the intensity and duration of exercise, this parameter was used to characterize participants’ leg work output (LWO). Personal smart devices such as laptop computers with wireless gateways and relevant software were used for monitoring of self-control training. Connection of smart devices to the Internet and cloud-based software allowed remote monitoring of LWO in participants training at home. Heart rates (HRs) were measured by fingertip pulse oximeters simultaneously with Δt° in 7 healthy volunteers. Results Exercise-induced fatigue manifested as the decline of LWO and/or rising HR, which could be observed in real-time. Conversely, training at the steady-state LWO and HR for the entire duration of exercise bout was considered as fatigue-free. The amounts of recommended daily physical activity were expressed as the individual Δt° values reached during 30-minute fatigue-free exercise of moderate
Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Carrascosa, Cláudia; Oliveira, Cristino Carneiro; Barroco, Adriano C; Berton, Danilo C; Vilaça, Debora; Lira-Filho, Edgar B; Ribeiro, Dirceu; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Neder, J Alberto
Blood flow requirements of the respiratory muscles (RM) increase markedly during exercise in chronic heart failure (CHF). We reasoned that if the RM could subtract a fraction of the limited cardiac output (QT) from the peripheral muscles, RM unloading would improve locomotor muscle perfusion. Nine patients with CHF (left ventricle ejection fraction = 26 +/- 7%) undertook constant-work rate tests (70-80% peak) receiving proportional assisted ventilation (PAV) or sham ventilation. Relative changes (Delta%) in deoxy-hemoglobyn, oxi-Hb ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation index, and total Hb ([HbTOT], an index of local blood volume) in the vastus lateralis were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. In addition, QT was monitored by impedance cardiography and arterial O2 saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2). There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance (Tlim) with PAV. Blood lactate, leg effort/Tlim and dyspnea/Tlim were lower with PAV compared with sham ventilation (P < 0.05). There were no significant effects of RM unloading on systemic O2 delivery as QT and SpO2 at submaximal exercise and at Tlim did not differ between PAV and sham ventilation (P > 0.05). Unloaded breathing, however, was related to enhanced leg muscle oxygenation and local blood volume compared with sham, i.e., higher Delta[O2Hb]% and Delta[HbTOT]%, respectively (P < 0.05). We conclude that RM unloading had beneficial effects on the oxygenation status and blood volume of the exercising muscles at similar systemic O2 delivery in patients with advanced CHF. These data suggest that blood flow was redistributed from respiratory to locomotor muscles during unloaded breathing.
Jansson, E; Kaijser, L
Previously we have demonstrated a lower rate of carbohydrate utilization in skeletal muscle after a fat than after a carbohydrate rich diet both at rest and during exercise. To test the hypothesis of citrate as a regulator of glycolysis (1) arterial-femoral venous (a-fv) differences for oxygen, citrate, pyruvate and lactate and (2) muscle citrate and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) were determined at rest and after 5 and 25 min of submaximal bicycle exercise. Citrate release and muscle citrate concentration were higher after fat than after carbohydrate diet at rest and 5 min exercise, but did not differ between diets at 25 min exercise. Lactate release and muscle lactate concentration were lower after fat diet at 5 and 25 min exercise. Pyruvate release at 5 min exercise was higher after fat diet. The G-6-P concentration was higher at rest, insignificantly higher after 5 min exercise and lower at 25 min exercise after the fat diet. The findings support the notion that at rest and 5 min exercise fat diet induced inhibition of glycolysis might be mediated through increased intramuscular citrate acting on phosphofructokinase. In addition, the greater pyruvate release at 5 min exercise after fat diet in spite of a smaller lactate release, indicates a decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and/or NADH to NAD ratio after fat diet. The inhibition of glycolysis at 25 min exercise after fat diet on the other hand does not seem to be citrate mediated.
Watanabe, Saya; Aizawa, Junya; Shimoda, Manabu; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atushi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi
[Purpose] Fatigue may be an important contributing factor to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled lower limb fatigue, induced by a short-term, high-intensity exercise protocol, on the profile of the ground reaction force during landings from single-leg anterior drop-jumps. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy males, 18 to 24 years old, performed single-leg anterior drop-jumps, from a 20 cm height, under two conditions, ‘fatigue’ and ‘non-fatigue’. Short-term fatigue was induced by high-intensity interval cycling on an ergometer. Effects of fatigue on peak vertical ground reaction force, time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate were evaluated by paired t-test. [Results] Fatigue shortened the time-to-peak duration of the vertical ground reaction force by 10% (non-fatigue, 44.0 ± 16.8 ms; fatigue, 39.6 ± 15.8 ms). Fatigue also yielded a 3.6% lowering in peak vertical ground reaction force and 9.4% increase in loading rate, although these effects were not significant. [Conclusion] The effects of fatigue in reducing time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force during single-leg anterior drop-jumps may increase the risk for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in males. PMID:28174454
Watanabe, Saya; Aizawa, Junya; Shimoda, Manabu; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atushi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi
[Purpose] Fatigue may be an important contributing factor to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of controlled lower limb fatigue, induced by a short-term, high-intensity exercise protocol, on the profile of the ground reaction force during landings from single-leg anterior drop-jumps. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy males, 18 to 24 years old, performed single-leg anterior drop-jumps, from a 20 cm height, under two conditions, 'fatigue' and 'non-fatigue'. Short-term fatigue was induced by high-intensity interval cycling on an ergometer. Effects of fatigue on peak vertical ground reaction force, time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate were evaluated by paired t-test. [Results] Fatigue shortened the time-to-peak duration of the vertical ground reaction force by 10% (non-fatigue, 44.0 ± 16.8 ms; fatigue, 39.6 ± 15.8 ms). Fatigue also yielded a 3.6% lowering in peak vertical ground reaction force and 9.4% increase in loading rate, although these effects were not significant. [Conclusion] The effects of fatigue in reducing time-to-peak of the vertical ground reaction force during single-leg anterior drop-jumps may increase the risk for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in males.
Tanaka, Kenta; Kamada, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Aikawa, Shizu; Irie, Shun; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Sakane, Masataka; Yamazaki, Masashi
[Purpose] Lower-limb deep vein thrombosis is a complication of orthopedic surgery. A leg-exercise apparatus named “LEX” was developed as a novel active-exercise apparatus for deep vein thrombosis prevention. Muscle activity was evaluated to assess the effectiveness of exercise with LEX in the prevention. [Subjects] Eight healthy volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] Muscle activities were determined through electromyography during exercise with LEX [LEX (+)] and during active ankle movements [LEX (−)]. The end points were peak % maximum voluntary contraction and % integrated electromyogram of rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus. [Results] LEX (+) resulted in higher average values in all muscles except the tibialis anterior. Significant differences were noted in the peak of the biceps femoris and gastrocnemius and in the integrated electromyogram of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius, and soleus. The LEX (+)/LEX (−) ratio of the peak was 2.2 for the biceps femoris and 2.0 for the gastrocnemius . The integrated electromyogram was 1.8 for the gastrocnemius, 1.5 for the rectus femoris, 1.4 for the vastus lateralis, and 1.2 for the soleus. [Conclusion] Higher muscle activity was observed with LEX (+). LEX might be a good tool for increasing lower-limb blood flow and deep vein thrombosis prevention. PMID:27134410
Elmer, Steven J; McDaniel, John; Martin, James C
One-legged cycling has served as a valuable research tool and as a training and rehabilitation modality. Biomechanics of one-legged cycling are unnatural because the individual must actively lift the leg during flexion, which can be difficult to coordinate and cause premature fatigue. We compared ankle, knee, and hip biomechanics between two-legged, one-legged, and counterweighted (11.64 kg) one-legged cycling. Ten cyclists performed two-legged (240 W), one-legged (120 W), and counterweighted one-legged (120 W) cycling (80 rpm). Pedal forces and limb kinematics were recorded to determine work during extension and flexion. During counterweighted one-legged cycling relative ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion work were less than one-legged but greater than two-legged cycling (all P < .05). Relative ankle plantar flexion and hip extension work for counterweighted one-legged cycling were greater than one-legged but less than two-legged cycling (all P < .05). Relative knee extension work did not differ across conditions. Counterweighted one-legged cycling reduced but did not eliminate differences in joint flexion and extension actions between one- and two-legged cycling. Even with these differences, counterweighted one-legged cycling seemed to have advantages over one-legged cycling. These results, along with previous work highlighting physiological characteristics and training adaptations to counterweighted one-legged cycling, demonstrate that this exercise is a viable alternative to one-legged cycling.
Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) commonly affects the hands and wrists with inflammation, deformity, pain, weakness and restricted mobility leading to reduced function. The effectiveness of exercise for RA hands is uncertain, although evidence from small scale studies is promising. The Strengthening And Stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand (SARAH) trial is a pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical and cost effectiveness of adding an optimised exercise programme for hands and upper limbs to best practice usual care for patients with RA. Methods/design 480 participants with problematic RA hands will be recruited through 17 NHS trusts. Treatments will be provided by physiotherapists and occupational therapists. Participants will be individually randomised to receive either best practice usual care (joint protection advice, general exercise advice, functional splinting and assistive devices) or best practice usual care supplemented with an individualised exercise programme of strengthening and stretching exercises. The study assessors will be blinded to treatment allocation and will follow participants up at four and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Hand function subscale of the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire, and secondary outcomes include hand and wrist impairment measures, quality of life, and resource use. Economic and qualitative studies will also be carried out in parallel. Discussion This paper describes the design and development of a trial protocol of a complex intervention study based in therapy out-patient departments. The findings will provide evidence to support or refute the use of an optimised exercise programme for RA of the hand in addition to best practice usual care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89936343 PMID:23176133
Karamanidis, Kiros; Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Niehoff, Anja; Epro, Gaspar; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter
Objective Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Methods Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry. Results Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention. Conclusions This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable
Eom, Jun Ho; Chung, Sin Ho; Shim, Jae Hun
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of squat exercises performed in toilet-using postures on the blood flow velocity of the lower extremities for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 students who were attending B University in Cheonan. They were divided into a group of 14 subjects of sitting toilet users and a group of 14 subjects of squat toilet users. [Methods] The subjects performed squat exercises in different toilet-using postures and we investigated the changes in blood flow velocity. [Results] The variations in blood flow velocities before and after the exercises showed significant differences in both groups but the differences between the two groups were not significant. [Conclusion] Based on the results of this study, we consider squat exercises are effective at improving the variation in lower-extremity blood flow velocity when using a toilet. PMID:25276042
Eom, Jun Ho; Chung, Sin Ho; Shim, Jae Hun
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of squat exercises performed in toilet-using postures on the blood flow velocity of the lower extremities for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 students who were attending B University in Cheonan. They were divided into a group of 14 subjects of sitting toilet users and a group of 14 subjects of squat toilet users. [Methods] The subjects performed squat exercises in different toilet-using postures and we investigated the changes in blood flow velocity. [Results] The variations in blood flow velocities before and after the exercises showed significant differences in both groups but the differences between the two groups were not significant. [Conclusion] Based on the results of this study, we consider squat exercises are effective at improving the variation in lower-extremity blood flow velocity when using a toilet.
Honda, Akiko; Sogo, Naota; Nagasawa, Seigo; Shimizu, Takuya; Umemura, Yoshihisa
The effect of jump exercise on middle-aged osteopenic rats was investigated. Forty-two 9-mo-old female rats were either sham-operated (Sham) or ovariectomized (OVX). Three months after surgery, the rats were divided into the following groups: Sham sedentary, Sham exercised, OVX sedentary, and OVX exercised. Rats in the exercise groups jumped 10 times/day, 5 days/wk, for 8 wk, with a jumping height of 40 cm. Less than 1 min was required for the jump training. After the experiment, the right tibia and femur were dissected, and blood was obtained from each rat. OVX rats were observed to have increased body weights and decreased bone mass in their tibiae and femurs. Jump-exercised rats, on the other hand, had significantly increased tibial bone mass, strength, and cortical areas. The bone mass and strength of OVX exercised rats increased to approximately the same extent as Sham exercised rats, despite estrogen deficiency or osteopenia. Our data suggest that jump exercise has beneficial effects on lower limb bone mass, strength, bone mineral density, and morphometry in middle-aged osteopenic rats, as well as in Sham rats.
Orava, S.; Puranen, J.
The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888
Ye, Byung Kook; Kim, Hyoung-Seop; Kim, Yong Wook
Parkinson disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by cardinal motor features including bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, postural instability, freezing gait, and fatigue. Of these, postural instability in the form of hyperflexion of the thoracolumbar spine upon standing and walking that disappears on recumbent positioning is called camptocormia. Many different trials have been conducted on the treatment of camptocormia, including physiotherapy, corsets, medications, and deep brain stimulation. However, there is insufficient evidence as to which treatment modality is the most valid in terms of effectiveness, cost, safety, and patient satisfaction. In this study, we present a patient whose symptom of camptocormia was effectively resolved using a cruciform anterior spinal hyperextension (CASH) brace and back extensor strengthening exercise which was modified through follow-ups based on a short-term outpatient setting for proper application with minimal discomfort. The patient was satisfied with the amount of correction provided by the brace and exercise.
Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.
Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.
Skovdal Rathleff, Michael; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas
Background Total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific (concentric and eccentric) time-under-tension (TUT) are important exercise-descriptors, as they are linked to the physiological and clinical response in exercise and rehabilitation. Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of total, single repetition, and contraction-phase specific TUT during shoulder abduction exercises, based on data from a stretch-sensor attached to an elastic exercise band. Methods A concurrent validity and interrater reliability study with two raters was conducted. Twelve participants performed five sets of 10 repetitions of shoulder abduction exercises with an elastic exercise band. Exercises were video-recorded to assess concurrent validity between TUT from stretch-sensor data and from video recordings (gold standard). Agreement between methods was calculated using Limits of Agreement (LoA), and the association was assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients. Interrater reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2.1). Results Total, single repetition, and contraction-phase specific TUT – determined from video and stretch-sensor data – were highly correlated (r>0.99). Agreement between methods was high, as LoA ranged from 0.0 to 3.1 seconds for total TUT (2.6% of mean TUT), from -0.26 to 0.56 seconds for single repetition TUT (6.9%), and from -0.29 to 0.56 seconds for contraction-phase specific TUT (13.2-21.1%). Interrater reliability for total, single repetition and contraction-phase specific TUT was high (ICC>0.99). Interrater agreement was high, as LoA ranged from -2.11 to 2.56 seconds for total TUT (4.7%), from -0.46 to 0.50 seconds for single repetition TUT (9.7%) and from -0.41 to 0.44 seconds for contraction-phase specific TUT (5.2-14.5%). Conclusion Data from a stretch-sensor attached to an elastic exercise band is a valid measure of total and single repetition time-under-tension, and the procedure is highly reliable
Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.
Plasma and red cell volumes, body density, and water balance were measured in 19 men (32-42 yr) confined to bed rest (BR). One group (n = 5) had no exercise training (NOE), another near-maximal variable-intensity isotonic exercise for 60 min/day (ITE; n = 7), and the third near-maximal intermittent isokinetic exercise for 60 min/day (IKE; n = 7). Caloric intake was 2,678-2,840 kcal/day; mean body weight (n = 19) decreased by 0.58 +/- 0.35 (SE) kg during BR due to a negative fluid balance (diuresis) on day 1. Mean energy costs for the NOE, and IKE, and ITE regimens were 83 (3.6 +/- 0.2 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), 214 (8.9 +/- 0.5 ml.min-1.kg-1), and 446 kcal/h (18.8 +/- 1.6 ml.min-1.kg-1), respectively. Body densities within groups and mean urine volumes (1,752-1,846 ml/day) between groups were unchanged during BR. Resting changes in plasma volume (ml/kg) after BR were -1.5 +/- 2.3% (NS) in ITE, -14.7 +/- 2.8% (P less than 0.05) in NOE, and -16.8 +/- 2.9% (P less than 0.05) in IKE, and mean water balances during BR were +295, -106, and +169 ml/24 h, respectively. Changes in red cell volume followed changes in plasma volume. The significant chronic decreases in plasma volume in the IKE and NOE groups and its maintenance in the ITE group could not be accounted for by water balance or by responses of the plasma osmotic, protein, vasopressin, or aldosterone concentrations or plasma renin activity. There was close coupling between resting plasma volume and plasma protein and osmotic content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
Effects and feasibility of exercise therapy combined with branched-chain amino acid supplementation on muscle strengthening in frail and pre-frail elderly people requiring long-term care: a crossover trial.
Ikeda, Takashi; Aizawa, Junya; Nagasawa, Hiroshi; Gomi, Ikuko; Kugota, Hiroyuki; Nanjo, Keigo; Jinno, Tetsuya; Masuda, Tadashi; Morita, Sadao
This study examined the effects and feasibility of a twice-weekly combined therapy of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and exercise on physical function improvement in frail and pre-frail elderly people requiring long-term care. We used a crossover design in which the combination of exercise and nutritional interventions was carried out twice a week during cycles A (3 months) and B (3 months) and the exercise intervention alone was performed during the washout period. The exercise intervention entailed the following 5 training sets: 3 sets of muscle training at 30% of maximum voluntary contraction, 1 set of aerobic exercise, and 1 set of balance training. For the nutritional intervention, 6 g of BCAAs or 6 g of maltodextrin was consumed 10 min before starting the exercise. We determined upper and lower limb isometric strength, performance on the Functional Reach Test (FRT) and the Timed Up and Go test, and activity level. In the comparison between the BCAA group and the control group after crossover, the improvement rates in gross lower limb muscle strength (leg press, knee extension) and FRT performance were significantly greater (by approximately 10%) in the BCAA group. In the comparison between different orders of BCAA administration, significant effects were shown for the leg press in both groups only when BCAAs were given. The combination of BCAA intake and exercise therapy yielded significant improvements in gross lower limb muscle strength and dynamic balance ability.
Quaresima, Valentina; Franceschini, Maria A.; Fantini, Sergio; Gratton, Enrico; Ferrari, Marco
Aim of this study was to investigate the oxygenation and the total hemoglobin concentration pattern in vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius muscle groups during a standardized treadmill exercise (n equals 6) by a new near infrared frequency-domain oximeter (ISS Oximeter model 96208). Vastus lateralis saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were 74 +/- 3% and 71 +/- 15 (mu) M at 0 mph and 72 +/- 5% and 79 +/- 16 (mu) M at 6 mph, respectively. Gastrocnemius saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were 74 +/- 2% and 107 +/- 18 (mu) M at 0 mph and 60 +/- 6% and 113 +/- 23 (mu) M at 6 mph, respectively. The saturation recovered gradually up to the baseline value when the speed was decreased.
Quaresima, Valentina; Franceschini, Maria-Angela; Fantini, Sergio; Gratton, Enrico; Ferrari, Marco
Aim of this study was to investigate the oxygenation and the total hemoglobin concentration pattern in vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius muscle groups during a standardized treadmill exercise (n equals 6) by a new near infrared frequency-domain oximeter (ISS Oximeter model 96208). Vastus lateralis saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were 74 +/- 3% and 71 +/- 15 (mu) M at 0 mph and 72 +/- 5% and 79 +/- 16 (mu) M at 6 mph, respectively. Gastrocnemius saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were 74 +/- 2% and 107 +/- 18 (mu) M at 0 mph and 60 +/- 6% and 113 +/- 23 (mu) M at 6 mph, respectively. The saturation recovered gradually up to the baseline value when the speed was decreased.
Kobsar, Dylan; Osis, Sean T.; Hettinga, Blayne A.; Ferber, Reed
Objective Muscle strengthening exercises have been shown to improve pain and function in adults with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis, but individual response rates can vary greatly. Predicting individuals who respond and those who do not is important in developing a more efficient and effective model of care for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use pre-intervention gait kinematics and patient-reported outcome measures to predict post-intervention response to a 6-week hip strengthening exercise intervention in patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA. Methods Thirty-nine patients with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis completed a 6-week hip-strengthening program and were subgrouped as Non-Responders, Low-Responders, or High-Responders following the intervention based on their change in Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Predictors of responder subgroups were retrospectively determined from baseline patient-reported outcome measures and kinematic gait parameters in a discriminant analysis of principal components. A 3–4 year follow-up on 16 of the patients with knee OA was also done to examine long-term changes in these parameters. Results A unique combination of patient-reported outcome measures and kinematic factors was able to successfully subgroup patients with knee osteoarthritis with a cross-validated classification accuracy of 85.4%. Lower patient-reported function in daily living (ADL) scores and hip frontal plane kinematics during the loading response were most important in classifying High-Responders from other sub-groups, while a combination of hip, knee, ankle kinematics were used to classify Non-Responders from Low-Responders. Conclusion Patient-reported outcome measures and objective biomechanical gait data can be an effective method of predicting individual treatment success to an exercise intervention. Measuring gait kinematics, along with patient-reported outcome measures in a clinical setting
Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann; Keller, Camilla; Doherty, Patrick; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Taylor, Rod S; Langberg, Henning
Introduction The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). Objective The objectives of this study were to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis and three different methods were used to estimate the ratio between the values obtained from the tests (ACLCratio). Results This paper included 41 studies with a total of 581 participants. The mean ACLCdiff across studies was 12.5 ml/kg/min and 0.89 l/min with a mean ACLCratio of 0.70. The ACLCdiff was lower in studies with higher mean age and lower aerobic capacity. Conclusion There is linear association between the AC and LC values in healthy adults. The AC values were on average 70% of the LC values. The magnitude of this difference appeared to be reduced in studies on older and less active populations. Level of evidence 3a PMID:27999717
Jaafar, Hamdi; Rouis, Majdi; Coudrat, Laure; Gélat, Thierry; Noakes, Timothy David; Driss, Tarak
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of emotional eliciting pictures on neuromuscular performance during repetitive supramaximal cycling exercises (RSE). In a randomized order, twelve male participants were asked to perform five 6-s cycle sprints (interspaced by 24 s of recovery) on a cycle ergometer in front of neutral, pleasant or unpleasant pictures. During each RSE, mean power output (MPO) and electromyographic activity [root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF)] of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles were analyzed. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of MPO to RMS. Higher RMS (232.17 ± 1.17 vs. 201.90 ± 0.47 μV) and MF (68.56 ± 1.78 vs. 64.18 ± 2.17 Hz) were obtained in pleasant compared to unpleasant conditions (p < 0.05). This emotional effect persisted from the first to the last sprint. Higher MPO was obtained in pleasant than in unpleasant conditions (690.65 ± 38.23 vs. 656.73 ± 35.95 W, p < 0.05). However, this emotional effect on MPO was observed only for the two first sprints. NME decreased from the third sprint (p < 0.05), which indicated the occurrence of peripheral fatigue after the two first sprints. These results suggested that, compared with unpleasant pictures, pleasant ones increased the neuromuscular performance during RSE. Moreover, the disappearance of the beneficial effect of pleasant emotion on mechanical output from the third sprint appears to be due to peripheral fatigue. PMID:26305334
... through — like when you try to break a green stick of wood. Most broken bones in children ... subside before they are casted. Immobilization Restricting the movement of a broken bone in your leg is ...
Williams, Hill, Jr.; Evans, Mel
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was any significant difference in overall leg strength gains in individuals with sickle-cell-trait as compared to non-sickle-cell-trait individuals, as measured by the leg dynamometer. Twenty black male first-year college students were used in this study. The subjects were divided into a control…
Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel
College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples.
... your lower leg that may have started after physical activity such as running or jumping?YesNoDo you have pain, swelling, redness or warmth in your calf?YesNoDo you have twisted dark blue or purple veins near the surface of the skin of your calf, and do you have pain ...
... Living with Chronic Lung Disease Common Feelings Anxiety Depression Sleep Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...
CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area, called ...
Ray, C. A.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.
Kelly, Marie; Jacobs, Dee; Wooten, Mary E.; Edeer, Ayse Ozcan
[Purpose] The purposes of this study were: 1) describe a hierarchy of electromyographic activity production, using percentage maximum voluntary contraction of lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles during prone, quadruped and sitting exercises; and 2) identify optimal recruitment exercises for both lumbar iliocostalis as a global multi-segmental stabilizer and lumbar multifidus as a segmental stabilizer. [Subjects] Twelve healthy volunteers (six male and six female) aged 24 to 45 participated. [Methods] Surface electromyographic activity data were collected bilaterally from lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles during exercises. [Results] Two-way ANOVA showed that prone extension, and prone alternate arm and leg lifting exercises produce a statistically significant difference in percent maximum voluntary contraction of lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus bilaterally compared to other exercises. Quadruped alternate arm and leg lifting exercises produce greater activity in lumbar multifidus muscle than sitting exercises [Conclusion] Prone exercises generate the greatest electromyographic activity and may be the most effective exercises for strengthening both lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles. Quadruped alternate arm and leg lifting produces electromyographic activity at the recommended percent maximum voluntary contraction for training the lumbar multifidus in its role as a segmental stabilizer and is an effective training exercise for this goal. PMID:27821968
Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem
The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and to enhance countermeasure development. The DAP Musculoskeletal Modeling effort is developing computational models to inform exercise countermeasure development and to predict physical performance capabilities after a length of time in space. For example, integrated exercise device-biomechanical models can determine localized loading, which will be used as input to muscle and bone adaptation models to estimate the effectiveness of the exercise countermeasure. In addition, simulations of mission tasks can be used to estimate the astronaut's ability to perform the task after exposure to microgravity and after using various exercise countermeasures. The software package OpenSim (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA) (Ref. 1) is being used to create the DAP biomechanical models and its built-in muscle model is the starting point for the DAP muscle model. During Exploration missions, such as those to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Therefore, the crew must have access to exercise countermeasures that can maintain their musculoskeletal and aerobic health. Exploration vehicles may have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities, even more so than the International Space Station (ISS). The exercise devices flown on Exploration missions must be designed to provide sufficient load during the performance of various resistance and aerobic/anaerobic exercises while meeting potential additional requirements of limited mass, volume and power. Given that it is not practical to manufacture and test (ground, analog and/or flight) all candidate devices, nor is it always possible to obtain data such as localized muscle and bone loading empirically, computational modeling can estimate the localized loading during various exercise modalities performed on
Evaluating the effectiveness of a self-management exercise intervention on wound healing, functional ability and health-related quality of life outcomes in adults with venous leg ulcers: a randomised controlled trial.
O'Brien, Jane; Finlayson, Kathleen; Kerr, Graham; Edwards, Helen
Exercise that targets ankle joint mobility may lead to improvement in calf muscle pump function and subsequent healing. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of an exercise intervention in addition to routine evidence-based care on the healing rates, functional ability and health-related quality of life for adults with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). This study included 63 patients with VLUs. Patients were randomised to receive either a 12-week exercise intervention with a telephone coaching component or usual care plus telephone calls at the same timepoints. The primary outcome evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention in relation to wound healing. The secondary outcomes evaluated physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life measures between groups at the end of the 12 weeks. A per protocol analysis complemented the effectiveness (intention-to-treat) analysis to highlight the importance of adherence to an exercise intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses for the primary outcome showed 77% of those in the intervention group healed by 12 weeks compared to 53% of those in the usual care group. Although this difference was not statistically significant due to a smaller than expected sample size, a 24% difference in healing rates could be considered clinically significant. The per protocol analysis for wound healing, however, showed that those in the intervention group who adhered to the exercise protocol 75% or more of the time were significantly more likely to heal and showed higher rates for wound healing than the control group (P = 0·01), that is, 95% of those who adhered in the intervention group healed in 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes of physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life were not significantly altered by the intervention. Among the secondary outcomes (physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life), intention-to-treat analyses did not support the
... make symptoms worse. Lifestyle changes, such as regular sleep habits, relaxation techniques, and moderate exercise during the day can help. If those don't work, medicines may reduce the symptoms of RLS. Most people with ... usually during sleep. PLMD and RLS can also affect the arms. ...
Tew, Garry A; Ruddock, Alan D; Saxton, John M
The impact of skin blood flow changes on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO(2)) and blood volume has not been fully established. We measured SmO(2) and total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) responses of the right vastus lateralis during rest and dynamic knee extension exercise in ten young, healthy males. The protocol was repeated four times: twice without thigh heating for reliability, and twice with different grades of thigh heating for assessing the impact of cutaneous vasodilation on SmO(2) and Δ[tHb]. The reliability of our SmO(2) and [tHb] measurements was good. Thigh heating at 37 and 42°C caused marked increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during rest and exercise (P < 0.001 between each condition), and small increases in SmO(2) during rest (from 69 ± 8% to 71 ± 7% and 73 ± 6%, respectively; P < 0.05 between each condition), but not during exercise (e.g. 1 min exercise: 51 ± 11% vs. 51 ± 11% and 52 ± 11%, respectively; P > 0.05 at all time points). In contrast, heating-induced increases in %CVC(peak) were accompanied by increases in [tHb] at rest and during exercise and a decrease in Δ[tHb] during exercise (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that NIRS-derived measures of SmO(2) and blood volume are differentially affected by skin blood flow at rest and during exercise. The findings from this study should be considered in NIRS experiments where skin blood flow can change markedly (e.g. high-intensity and/or prolonged exercise).
Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...
... legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg problems. For example, knee osteoarthritis, common in older people, can cause pain and ...
Winkelmann, A; Schilling, S; Neuerburg, C; Mutschler, W; Böcker, W; Felsenberg, D; Stumpf, U
In the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, movement with muscle strengthening and proprioceptive training plays a major role. This was taken into consideration in the guidelines by the governing body on osteoporosis (Dachverband Osteoporose, DVO) from 2014 on prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and in the DVO guidelines from 2008 on physiotherapy and exercise therapy for osteoporosis. Increases in lumbar bone density of between 0.5 % and 2.5 % can be achieved in women by strengthening exercises with high resistance. With this combination and strengthening of the quadriceps muscle a reduction of falls and hence the fracture risk could also be achieved. In traumatology, training for muscle strengthening is not always possible, especially for elderly patients. Practically relevant alternatives are regular walking and aquatraining, which may also lead to a significant increase in bone mineral density. Furthermore, large effects can be achieved with alternating side whole-body vibration (WBV) training with whole body vibration plates with only 3 days of training per week and with short training periods (15-20 min). Rates of increase in leg strength between 20 % and almost 40 % and in bone density between 0.5 % and 4 % in 6 months have been described. Whether and with what intensity whole body vibration therapy could be used for e.g. more rapid healing of fractures, is currently unclear. Initial positive results have been described in animal models.
Heine, P J; Williams, M A; Williamson, E; Bridle, C; Adams, J; O'Brien, A; Evans, D; Lamb, S E
This paper describes the development and implementation of a hand exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as part of a large multi-centred randomised controlled trial in a U.K. National Health Service (NHS) setting. Participants are eligible if diagnosed with RA according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, have a history of disease activity, functional deficit or impairment in the hand and/or wrist, and have been on a stable medication regime for at least 3 months. The intervention development was informed by the current evidence base, published guidelines, clinician and expert opinion, and a pilot study. The exercise programme targets known, potentially modifiable physical impairments of the hand with 5 exercise sessions and a home exercise component over a 12 week period. The intervention will be provided to 240 participants along with usual care. A further 240 will receive usual care only as part of the control arm. Specific details of the treatments delivered are described. [ISRCTN no: 89936343].
The Effectiveness of Specific Exercise Approach or Modifiable Heel Lift in the Treatment of Functional Leg Length Discrepancy in Early Post-surgery Inpatients after Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial with a PROBE design
NAKANOWATARI, Tatsuya; SUZUKAMO, Yoshimi; IZUMI, Shin-Ichi
Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of a specific exercise approach (SEA) or modifiable heel lift (MHL) to improve functional leg length discrepancy (LLD) after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods: The study was a randomized controlled trial with a PROBE (prospective, randomized, open, blinded-endpoint) design trial. Patients (n=33) with both functional and perceived LLDs, 1 week after THA, were randomized to the SEA, MHL, or control groups. Patients in the SEA group performed 2 weeks of exercises to improve hip contracture and lumbar scoliosis. Patients in the MHL group used an insole-type heel lift to correct functional LLD. The control group received normal postoperative care, comprising standard rehabilitation after THA. The primary outcomes were functional LLD, measured by a block test, and patient-perceived LLD at 3 weeks after the surgery. Secondary outcomes included the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) at 3 weeks after the surgery. Results: The functional LLDs (mean ± SD) for the SEA (3.3 ± 3.1 mm) and MHL (2.2 ± 2.1 mm) groups were significantly smaller than for the control group (6.4 ± 4.0 mm). The degree of patient-perceived LLD differed significantly between the SEA and the control groups (p=.005). Conclusions: SEA and MHL use, during early post-operative recovery, can produce relevant changes in functional LLD after THA. PMID:28289580
... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...
Comfort, Paul; Jones, Paul Anthony; Smith, Laura Constance; Herrington, Lee
Context Unilateral body-weight exercises are commonly used to strengthen the lower limbs during rehabilitation after injury, but data comparing the loading of the limbs during these tasks are limited. Objective To compare joint kinetics and kinematics during 3 commonly used rehabilitation exercises. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 9 men (age = 22.1 ± 1.3 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.08 m, mass = 80.1 ± 12.2 kg) participated. Intervention(s) Participants performed the single-legged squat, forward lunge, and reverse lunge with kinetic data captured via 2 force plates and 3-dimensional kinematic data collected using a motion-capture system. Main Outcome Measure(s) Peak ground reaction forces, maximum joint angles, and peak sagittal-joint moments. Results We observed greater eccentric and concentric peak vertical ground reaction forces during the single-legged squat than during both lunge variations (P ≤ .001). Both lunge variations demonstrated greater knee and hip angles than did the single-legged squat (P < .001), but we observed no differences between lunges (P > .05). Greater dorsiflexion occurred during the single-legged squat than during both lunge variations (P < .05), but we noted no differences between lunge variations (P = .70). Hip-joint moments were greater during the forward lunge than during the reverse lunge (P = .003) and the single-legged squat (P = .011). Knee-joint moments were greater in the single-legged squat than in the reverse lunge (P < .001) but not greater in the single-legged squat than in the forward lunge (P = .41). Ankle-joint moments were greater during the single-legged squat than during the forward lunge (P = .002) and reverse lunge (P < .001). Conclusions Appropriate loading progressions for the hip should begin with the single-legged squat and progress to the reverse lunge and then the forward lunge. In contrast, loading progressions for
Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter
Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength
Chen, Kun-Hui; Chen, Po-Chao; Liu, Kai-Chun; Chan, Chia-Tai
Since the knee joint bears the full weight load of the human body and the highest pressure loads while providing flexible movement, it is the body part most vulnerable and susceptible to osteoarthritis. In exercise therapy, the early rehabilitation stages last for approximately six weeks, during which the patient works with the physical therapist several times each week. The patient is afterwards given instructions for continuing rehabilitation exercise by him/herself at home. This study develops a rehabilitation exercise assessment mechanism using three wearable sensors mounted on the chest, thigh and shank of the working leg in order to enable the patients with knee osteoarthritis to manage their own rehabilitation progress. In this work, time-domain, frequency-domain features and angle information of the motion sensor signals are used to classify the exercise type and identify whether their postures are proper or not. Three types of rehabilitation exercise commonly prescribed to knee osteoarthritis patients are: Short-Arc Exercise, Straight Leg Raise, and Quadriceps Strengthening Mini-squats. After ten subjects performed the three kinds of rehabilitation activities, three validation techniques including 10-fold cross-validation, within subject cross validation, and leave-one-subject cross validation are utilized to confirm the proposed mechanism. The overall recognition accuracy for exercise type classification is 97.29% and for exercise posture identification it is 88.26%. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed mechanism which can help patients perform rehabilitation movements and progress effectively. Moreover, the proposed mechanism is able to detect multiple errors at once, fulfilling the requirements for rehabilitation assessment. PMID:25686308
Sarkar, P; Ballantyne, S
Leg ulcer is a leading cause of morbidity among older subjects, especially women in the Western world. About 400 years BC, Hippocrates wrote, "In case of an ulcer, it is not expedient to stand, especially if the ulcer be situated on the leg". Hippocrates himself had a leg ulcer. The best treatment of any leg ulcer depends upon the accurate diagnosis and the underlying aetiology. The majority of leg ulcers are due to venous disease and/or arterial disease, but the treatment of the underlying cause is far more important than the choice of dressing. The aetiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and the future trends in the management of the leg ulcers are discussed in this review. PMID:11060140
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of hamstring stretching on leg rotation during active knee extension. [Subjects] Subjects were 100 bilateral legs of 50 healthy women without articular disease. [Methods] Hamstring hardness, leg rotation and muscle activities of the knee extensors during active knee extension were measured before and after hamstring stretching. [Results] Hamstring hardness was significantly decreased after hamstring stretching. The leg rotation angle, variation in leg rotation angle, variation in leg external rotation angle, and muscle activities of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were significantly increased after hamstring stretching. A moderate positive correlation was found between variation in leg rotation and variation in muscle hardness in hamstring. [Conclusion] Leg rotation during active knee extension was increased by hamstring stretching. Hamstring stretching would be effective as a pretreatment for restoring proper leg rotation when knee extension is conducted as a therapeutic exercise.
Ju, Sung-kwang; Yoo, Won-gyu
[Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers. PMID:28356634
Ju, Sung-Kwang; Yoo, Won-Gyu
[Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers.
Marinović Kulisić, Sandra
Lower leg ulcers is the most common form of ulceration of the lower extremities. The prevalence of leg ulcer varies among studies from 0.1% to 0.6%. In the majority of studies, 1% of the population develop leg ulcer at least once in lifetime. The prevalence is higher in elderly people. There are several hypotheses used to explain the pathophysiological steps leading from the popliteal venous hypertension in value. Currently, the treatment of leg ulcer relies on due knowledge of ulcer pathophysiology and making an accurate diagnosis. Venous disease has a significant impact on quality of life and work productivity. In addition, costs associated with the prevention and treatment of lower leg ulcers are significant.
Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.
Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).
Kline, Julia E.; Huang, Helen J.; Snyder, Kristine L.; Ferris, Daniel P.
Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG) could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: (1) both arms and legs, (2) just legs, and (3) just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and supplementary motor
Bertisch, Suzanne M.; Muresan, Cristen; Schoerning, Laura; Winkelman, John W.; Taylor, J. Andrew
Study Objectives: To examine whether patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate specific alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control. Methods: Patients with moderate-severe restless legs syndrome (n = 20, 80% female) and controls (n = 20) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease were enrolled. We assessed cardiovagal baroreflex gain via the modified Oxford technique, sympathetically mediated vascular responses to isometric exercise to fatigue, bradycardiac response to Valsalva maneuver, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during paced breathing. Standard electrocardiography, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiration, and popliteal blood flow velocity were recorded continuously. Results: Resting blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups. However, baroreflex gain averaged 14.3 ± 1.4 msec/mm Hg in restless legs syndrome and was lower than in controls (22.6 ± 3.5 msec/mm Hg, P = 0.04). Hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise were similar between groups, though participants with restless legs syndrome had lower leg blood flow (P < 0.001), with greater leg vascular resistance (P < 0.0001), before and during isometric exercise. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva ratios were similar between groups. Neither baroreflex gain nor vascular resistance was correlated with sleep duration, sleep quality, or symptom duration. Conclusion: Patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate compromised cardiovagal control, specific to the arterial baroreflex, with greater peripheral vascular resistance, potentially due to heightened sympathetic outflow. These autonomic alterations may directly relate to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in restless legs syndrome. Citation: Bertisch SM, Muresan C, Schoerning L, Winkelman JW, Taylor JA. Impact of restless legs syndrome on cardiovascular autonomic control. SLEEP 2016;39(3):565–571. PMID:26564128
... lead to very unequal leg lengths. They include: Poliomyelitis Cerebral palsy Small, weak muscles or short, tight ( ... Cerebral palsy Legg-Calve-Perthes disease Long bones Polio Review Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: Neil ...
... due to an imbalance of the brain chemical dopamine, which sends messages to control muscle movement. Heredity ... in your legs. These include: Medications that increase dopamine in the brain. These medications reduce motion in ...
... feet or thighs might cramp as well. Forcefully stretching the contracted muscle relieves the pain. Most of ... include: Drinking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration Stretching your leg muscles or riding a stationary bicycle ...
Burch, J. L. (Inventor)
An actuator device is described for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes a first articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly carried by the prosthesis whereby energy from the movement of the natural leg is transferred by a compressible fluid from the first hip joint assembly to the second hip joint assembly for moving the artificial leg.
Schwandt, Douglas F.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Hargens, Alan R.
Essential for fitness on Earth, resistive exercise is even more important for astronauts, who must maintain muscle and bone strength in the absence of gravity. To meet this need, designers and scientists at NASA Ames Research Center, Life Science Division, have worked to develop more effective exercise devices for long-duration exposure to microgravity. One of these concepts is the Inter-Limb Resistance Device which allows the subject to exercise one limb directly against another, strengthening muscle groups in the arms, legs, and back. It features a modular harness with an inelastic cable and instrumented pulley. Forces similar to other high resistance exercise equipment are generated. Sensors in the pulley measure force and velocity for performance feedback display and data acquisition. This free-floating apparatus avoids vibration of sensitive experiments on board spacecraft. Compact with low mass, this hardware is also well suited for a 'safe haven' from radiation on board Space Station Freedom, and may prove useful in confined environments on Earth, such as Antarctic stations, submarines, and other underwater habitats. Potential spin-offs of this technology include products for personal strengthening and cardiovascular conditioning, rehabilitation of hospital patients, fitness exercise for the disabled, and retraining after sports injuries.
Knight, D. R.; Poole, D. C.; Schaffartzik, W.; Guy, H. J.; Prediletto, R.; Hogan, M. C.; Wagner, P. D.
It is not known whether the asymptotic behavior of whole body O2 consumption (VO2) at maximal work rates (WR) is explained by similar behavior of VO2 in the exercising legs. To resolve this question, simultaneous measurements of body and leg VO2 were made at submaximal and maximal levels of effort breathing normoxic and hypoxic gases in seven trained male cyclists (maximal VO2, 64.7 +/- 2.7 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), each of whom demonstrated a reproducible VO2-WR asymptote during fatiguing incremental cycle ergometry. Left leg blood flow was measured by constant-infusion thermodilution, and total leg VO2 was calculated as the product of twice leg flow and radial arterial-femoral venous O2 concentration difference. The VO2-WR relationships determined at submaximal WR's were extrapolated to maximal WR as a basis for assessing the body and leg VO2 responses. The differences between measured and extrapolated maximal VO2 were 235 +/- 45 (body) and 203 +/- 70 (leg) ml O2/min (not significantly different). Plateauing of leg VO2 was associated with, and explained by, plateauing of both leg blood flow and O2 extraction and hence of leg VO2. We conclude that the asymptotic behavior of whole body VO2 at maximal WRs is a direct reflection of the VO2 profile at the exercising legs.
Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids
Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L
The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518
Hooten, W Michael; Qu, Wenchun; Townsend, Cynthia O; Judd, Jeffrey W
Strength training and aerobic exercise have beneficial effects on pain in adults with fibromyalgia. However, the equivalence of strengthening and aerobic exercise has not been reported. The primary aim of this randomized equivalence trial involving patients with fibromyalgia admitted to an interdisciplinary pain treatment program was to test the hypothesis that strengthening (n=36) and aerobic (n=36) exercise have equivalent effects (95% confidence interval within an equivalence margin ± 8) on pain, as measured by the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Secondary aims included determining the effects of strengthening and aerobic exercise on peak Vo(2) uptake, leg strength, and pressure pain thresholds. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the mean (± standard deviation) pain severity scores for the strength and aerobic groups at study completion were 34.4 ± 11.5 and 37.6 ± 11.9, respectively. The group difference was -3.2 (95% confidence interval, -8.7 to 2.3), which was within the equivalence margin of Δ8. Significant improvements in pain severity (P<.001), peak Vo(2) (P<.001), strength (P<.001), and pain thresholds (P<.001) were observed from baseline to week 3 in the intent-to-treat analysis; however, patients in the aerobic group (mean change 2.0 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min) experienced greater gains (P<.013) in peak Vo(2) compared to the strength group (mean change 0.4 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min). Knowledge of the equivalence and physiological effects of exercise have important clinical implications that could allow practitioners to target exercise recommendations on the basis of comorbid medical conditions or patient preference for a particular type of exercise. This study found that strength and aerobic exercise had equivalent effects on reducing pain severity among patients with fibromyalgia.
Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S
Major hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell anemia, are becoming a global health issue. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of sickle cell disease and an important contributor to morbidity burden in this population. Leg ulcers following sickling disorders are extremely painful, and hard to heal. The clinical evidence for the optimal management of these ulcers is limited. Treating the cause and the strategies to prevent sickling are the mainstay of treatment. The basic principles of wound bed preparation and compression therapy is beneficial in these patients.
20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH CROSSED BRACE BLOCK, GROUND WIRES AND GUIDE WIRE. - Hat Point Fire Lookout Tower, Forest Service Road #4340, 24 miles from Imnaha, Imnaha, Wallowa County, OR
to bound. 3.2 Introduction Animals, including man, demonstrate feats of great mobility. Their legs allow them to move swiftly over terrain that is...135 Witt.D.C. A feasibility study on automatically-controlled powered lower-limb prosthesis . University of Oxford.. Department of Engineering Science
Feng, Jing; Pierce, Rosemary; Do, K Patrick; Aiona, Michael
Asymmetry between limbs in people with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HEMI) adversely affects limb coordination and energy generation and consumption. This study compared how the affected leg and the unaffected leg of children with HEMI would differ based on which leg trails. Full-body gait analysis data and force-plate data were analyzed for 31 children (11.9 ± 3.8 years) with HEMI and 23 children (11.1 ± 3.1 years) with typical development (TD). Results showed that peak posterior center of mass-center of pressure (COM-COP) inclination angles of HEMI were smaller than TD when the affected leg trailed but not when the unaffected leg trailed. HEMI showed greater peak medial COM-COP inclination angles and wider step width than TD, no matter which leg trailed. More importantly, when the affected leg of HEMI trailed, it did not perform enough positive work during double support to propel COM motion. Consequently, the unaffected leg had to perform additional positive work during the early portion of single support, which costs more energy. When the unaffected leg trailed, the affected leg performed more negative work during double support; therefore, more positive work was still needed during early single support, but energy efficiency was closer to that of TD. Energy recovery factor was lower when the affected leg trailed than when the unaffected leg trailed; both were lower than TD. These findings suggest that the trailing leg plays a significant role in propelling COM motion during double support, and the 'unaffected' side of HEMI may not be completely unaffected. It is important to strengthen both legs.
... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 51. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88( ...
Blum, Yvonne; Lipfert, Susanne W; Seyfarth, Andre
Leg stiffness is a common parameter used to characterize leg function during bouncing gaits, like running and hopping. In the literature, different methods to approximate leg stiffness based on kinetic and kinematic parameters are described. A challenging point in estimating leg stiffness is the definition of leg compression during contact. In this paper four methods (methods A-D) based on ground reaction forces (GRF) and one method (method E) relying on temporal parameters are described. Leg stiffness calculated by these five methods is compared with running patterns, predicted by the spring mass model. The best and simplest approximation of leg stiffness is method E. It requires only easily accessible parameters (contact time, flight time, resting leg length, body mass and the leg's touch down angle). Method D is of similar quality but additionally requires the time-dependent progression of the GRF. The other three methods show clear differences from the model predictions by over- or underestimating leg stiffness, especially at slow speeds. Leg stiffness is derived from a conceptual model of legged locomotion and does not exist without this model. Therefore, it is important to prove which experimental method is suited best for approximating the stiffness in a specific task. This will help to interpret the predictions of the conceptual model in comparison with experimental data.
Physical activity plays an important role in maintaining or enhancing bone health. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women. Proper exercise and sports activity at each life stage are important strategies for preventing osteoporosis.
Gardner, Andrew W
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a significant medical concern that is highly prevalent, costly, and deadly. Additionally, patients with PAD have significant impairments in functional independence and health-related quality of life due to leg symptoms and ambulatory dysfunction. Exercise therapy is a primary treatment for patients with PAD, as ambulatory outcome measures improve following a program of exercise rehabilitation. This review describes the outcomes that improve with exercise, the potential mechanisms for improved leg symptoms, key exercise program considerations for training patients with PAD with walking-based exercise, other exercise modalities that have been utilised, the use of on-site supervised exercise programs, and a major focus on historical and contemporary trials on conducting home-based, minimally supervised exercise program to treat PAD. The review concludes with recommendations for future exercise trials, with particular emphasis on reported greater details of the exercise prescription to more accurately quantify the total exercise dose of the program.
Bossuyt, F M; García-Pinillos, F; Raja Azidin, R M F; Vanrenterghem, J; Robinson, M A
This study investigated the utility of a 5-min high-intensity exercise protocol (SAFT(5)) to include in prospective cohort studies investigating ACL injury risk. 15 active females were tested on 2 occasions during which their non-dominant leg was analysed before SAFT(5) (PRE), immediately after (POST0), 15 min after (POST15), and 30 min after (POST30). On the first occasion, testing included 5 maximum isokinetic contractions for eccentric and concentric hamstring and concentric quadriceps and on the second occasion, 3 trials of 2 landing tasks (i. e., single-leg hop and drop vertical jump) were conducted. Results showed a reduced eccentric hamstring peak torque at POST0, POST15 and POST30 (p<0.05) and a reduced functional HQ ratio (Hecc/Qcon) at POST15 and POST30 (p<0.05). Additionally, a more extended knee angle at POST30 (p<0.05) and increased knee internal rotation angle at POST0 and POST15 (p<0.05) were found in a single-leg hop. SAFT(5) altered landing strategies associated with increased ACL injury risk and similar to observations from match simulations. Our findings therefore support the utility of a high-intensity exercise protocol such as SAFT(5) to strengthen injury screening tests and to include in prospective cohort studies where time constraints apply.
Myers, William Neil (Inventor)
Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.
Vivas, Alejandra; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Kirsner, Robert S
This issue provides a clinical overview of venous leg ulcers, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.
Gundo, Daniel; Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason; Loehr, James A.
A versatile mechanical device provides support for a user engaged in any of a variety of resistive exercises in a substantially horizontal orientation. The unique features and versatility of the device promise to be useful in bedrest studies, rehabilitation, and specialized strength training. The device affords a capability for selectively loading and unloading of portions of the user s body through its support mechanisms, so that specific parts of the body can be trained with little or no effect on other parts that may be disabled or in the process of recovery from injury. Thus, the device is ideal for rehabilitation exercise programs prescribed by physicians and physical therapists. The capability for selective loading and support also offers potential benefits to strength and conditioning trainers and athletes who wish to selectively strengthen selected parts. The principal innovative aspect of the device is that it supports the subject s weight while enabling the subject, lying substantially horizontally, to perform an exercise that closely approximates a full standing squat. The device includes mechanisms that support the subject in such a way that the hips are free to translate both horizontally and vertically and are free to rotate about the line connecting the hips. At the same time, the shoulders are free to translate horizontally while the upper back is free to rotate about the line connecting the shoulders. Among the mechanisms for hip motion and support is a counterbalance that offsets the weight of the subject as the subject s pelvis translates horizontally and vertically and rotates the pelvis about the line connecting the hips. The counterbalance is connected to a pelvic support system that allows these pelvic movements. The subject is also supported at the shoulder by a mechanism that can tilt to provide continuous support of the upper back while allowing the rotation required for arching the back as the pelvis is displaced. The shoulder support
Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Stager, Joel M; Abe, Takashi
It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate (>3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate) intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking, jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout, although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur independently of exercise mode and load.
Peng, Hsien-Te; Song, Chen-Yi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leg press and leg press with hip adduction exercise training on patellar alignment and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP). [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen patients participated in this study. Eight weeks of leg press or leg press with hip adduction training, including progressive lower-limb weight-training and stretching, was given. Patellar alignment (tilt and displacement) and pain measurements were conducted before and after leg press or leg press with hip adduction training. Patellar tilt angle and the bisect offset index were measured on axial computed tomography scans of the fully extended knee position with the quadriceps relaxed and contracted. Pain was assessed by using a 10-cm visual analog scale. [Results] No differences were found in patellar tilt and displacement with the quadriceps either relaxed or contracted after leg press and leg press with hip adduction. However, significant pain reduction was evident in both leg press and leg press with hip adduction. [Conclusion] The results indicated that patellar realignment does not appear to mediate pain alleviation. Furthermore, hip adduction in addition to leg press training had no additive beneficial effect on patellar realignment or pain reduction.
Peng, Hsien-Te; Song, Chen-Yi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leg press and leg press with hip adduction exercise training on patellar alignment and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP). [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen patients participated in this study. Eight weeks of leg press or leg press with hip adduction training, including progressive lower-limb weight-training and stretching, was given. Patellar alignment (tilt and displacement) and pain measurements were conducted before and after leg press or leg press with hip adduction training. Patellar tilt angle and the bisect offset index were measured on axial computed tomography scans of the fully extended knee position with the quadriceps relaxed and contracted. Pain was assessed by using a 10-cm visual analog scale. [Results] No differences were found in patellar tilt and displacement with the quadriceps either relaxed or contracted after leg press and leg press with hip adduction. However, significant pain reduction was evident in both leg press and leg press with hip adduction. [Conclusion] The results indicated that patellar realignment does not appear to mediate pain alleviation. Furthermore, hip adduction in addition to leg press training had no additive beneficial effect on patellar realignment or pain reduction. PMID:26834371
Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul
The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.
Graham, Matthew J.; Lucas, Samuel J. E.; Francois, Monique E.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Parr, Evelyn B.; Thomas, Kate N.; Cotter, James D.
Introduction: Exercise reduces arterial and central venous blood pressures during recovery, which contributes to its valuable anti-hypertensive effects and to facilitating hypervolemia. Repeated sprint exercise potently improves metabolic function, but its cardiovascular effects (esp. hematological) are less well-characterized, as are effects of exercising upper versus lower limbs. The purposes of this study were to identify the acute (<24 h) profiles of arterial blood pressure and blood volume for (i) sprint intervals versus endurance exercise, and (ii) sprint intervals using arms versus legs. Methods: Twelve untrained males completed three cycling exercise trials; 50-min endurance (legs), and 5*30-s intervals using legs or arms, in randomized and counterbalanced sequence, at a standardized time of day with at least 8 days between trials. Arterial pressure, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit were measured before, during and across 22 h after exercise, the first 3 h of which were seated rest. Results: The post-exercise hypotensive response was larger after leg intervals than endurance (AUC: 7540 ± 3853 vs. 3897 ± 2757 mm Hg·min, p = 0.049, 95% CI: 20 to 6764), whereas exercising different limbs elicited similar hypotension (arms: 6420 ± 3947 mm Hg·min, p = 0.48, CI: −1261 to 3896). In contrast, arterial pressure at 22 h was reduced after endurance but not after leg intervals (−8 ± 8 vs. 0 ± 7 mm Hg, p = 0.04, CI: 7 ± 7) or reliably after arm intervals (−4 ± 8 mm Hg, p = 0.18 vs. leg intervals). Regardless, plasma volume expansion at 22 h was similar between leg intervals and endurance (both +5 ± 5%; CI: −5 to 5%) and between leg and arm intervals (arms: +5 ± 7%, CI: −8 to 5%). Conclusions: These results emphasize the relative importance of central and/or systemic factors in post-exercise hypotension, and indicate that markedly diverse exercise profiles can induce substantive hypotension and subsequent hypervolemia. At least for endurance
Borvansky DISTIBUTIo~ j 3T ENT A Approved for pubtc (eLaz-; Distribution Unkn!r hd MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 90 oU3 2?. 0h22 RLAD INSTRUC.TIONS...DATE Advanced Research P rojects Agency September 1989 1400 Wilson Blvd. 13. NUMfiEROF PAGES Arlington, VA 22209 203 14 MONITORING AGENCY NAME A ...this researchi is to bl)id a founidation of knowledge that can leadl bothi to tile coiistl luctionl of useful legged veldlis and to a better
Choi, Kyuju; Bak, Jongwoo; Cho, Minkwon; Chung, Yijung
[Purpose] This study investigated the changes in the muscle activities of the trunk and lower limbs of healthy adults during a one-legged bridge exercise using a sling, and with the addition of hip abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven healthy individuals participated in this study (14 males and 13 females). The participants were instructed to perform the bridge exercises under five different conditions. Trunk and lower limb muscle activation of the erector spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) was measured using surface electromyography. Data analysis was performed using the mean scores of three trials performed under each condition. [Results] There was a significant increase in bilateral EO and contralateral GM with the one-legged bridge compared with the one-legged bridge with sling exercise. Muscle activation of the ipsilateral GM and BF was significantly less during the one-legged bridge exercise compared to the one-legged bridge with sling exercise, and was significantly greater during the one-legged bridge with hip abduction compared to the one-legged bridge exercise. The muscle activation of the contralateral GM and BF was significantly greater with the one-legged bridge with hip abduction compared to the general bridge exercise. [Conclusion] With the one-legged bridge with hip abduction, the ipsilateral EO, GM and BF muscle activities were significantly greater than those of the one-legged bridge exercise. The muscle activation of all trunk and contralateral lower extremity muscles increased with the bridge with sling exercises compared with general bridge exercises. PMID:27799708
Relationship between mean body temperature calculated by two- or three-compartment models and active cutaneous vasodilation in humans: a comparison between cool and warm environments during leg exercise
Demachi, Koichi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Tsuneoka, Hideyuki
The aim of this study was to assess whether the three-compartment model of mean body temperature (Tb3) calculated from the esophageal temperature (Tes), temperature in deep tissue of exercising muscle (Tdt), and mean skin temperature (Tsk) has the potential to provide a better match with the thermoregulatory responses than the two-component model of mean body temperature (Tb2) calculated from Tes and Tsk. Seven male subjects performed 40 min of a prolonged cycling exercise at 30% maximal oxygen uptake at 21°C or 31°C (50% relative humidity). Throughout the experiment, Tsk, Tb2, Tb3, and Tdt were significantly ( P < 0.01) lower at 21°C than at 31°C temperature conditions, while Tes was similar under both conditions. During exercise, an increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (skin blood flow / mean arterial pressure) over the chest (%CVCc) was observed at both 21°C and 31°C, while no increase was observed at the forearm at 21°C. Furthermore, the Tb3 and Tdt threshold for the onset of the increase in %CVCc was similar, but the Tes and Tb2 threshold differed significantly ( P < 0.05) between the conditions tested. These results suggest that active cutaneous vasodilation at the chest is related more closely to Tb3 or Tdt than that measured by Tes or Tb2 calculated by Tes and Tsk during exercise at both 21°C and 31°C.
Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A
The study investigated the effects of low-intensity exercise on muscular fitness when combined with vascular occlusion. Nineteen college male and female students performed two sets of a 5-min step exercise using a 12-inch bench three times per week for 5 weeks. During the step exercise, blood flow to one leg was restricted (vascular occlusion) with a blood pressure cuff, while the other leg was not occluded. Muscular strength of the occluded leg was significantly increased over the nonoccluded leg (p < 0. 05). Muscular endurance and muscle mass were improved after 5 weeks of training (p < 0.05); however, the changes between the two legs were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Exercise with vascular occlusion has the potential to be an alternative form of training to promote muscular strength.
Thompson, B J; Smith, D B; Sobolewski, E J; Fiddler, R E; Everett, L; Klufa, J L; Ryan, E D
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an acute bout of eccentric exercise on maximal isokinetic concentric peak torque (PT) of the leg flexors and extensors and the hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) strength ratio. Sixteen male (mean±SD: age=20.9±2 years; stature=177.0±4.4 cm; mass=76.8±10.0 kg) volunteers performed maximal, concentric isokinetic leg extension and flexion muscle actions at 60°·sec - 1 before and after (24-72 h) a bout of eccentric exercise. The eccentric exercise protocol consisted of 4 sets of 10 repetitions for the leg press, leg extension, and leg curl exercises at 120% of the concentric one repetition maximum (1-RM). The results indicated that the acute eccentric exercise protocol resulted in a significant (P<0.05) decrease in isokinetic leg flexion (13-19%) and leg extension (11-16%) PT 24-72 h post-exercise. However, the H:Q ratios were unaltered by the eccentric exercise protocol. These findings suggest that an acute bout of eccentric exercise utilizing both multi - and single - joint dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) exercises results in similar decreases in maximal isokinetic strength of the leg flexors and extensors, but does not alter the H:Q ratio.
Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W.; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch‐Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Secher, Niels H.
New Findings What is the central question of this study? Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non‐exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non‐exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature‐ and metabolism‐sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (T B), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher T B and limb V˙O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to T B (r 2 = 0.91; P < 0.05), plasma ATP (r 2 = 0.94; P < 0.05) and limb V˙O2 (r 2 = 0.99; P < 0.05). During incremental leg exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in T B and limb V˙O2, whereas ABF, arm T B and V˙O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V˙O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral T B and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery T B and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central
Guild, Diane; Espiner, Deborah
Rolling with Resilience (RwR) provides a springboard for developing strategies that build strengths and supports to foster developmental assets in children and youth (Benson, Scales, & Roehlkepartain, 2011). In Circle of Courage terms, resilience is strengthened by opportunities for Belonging, Mastery, Independence, and Generosity (Brendtro,…
Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.
A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.
Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol
Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…
Glasgow, T. K.; Kim, Y. G.; Curwick, L. R.; Merrick, H. F.
MA6000E alloy is strengthened at high temperatures by dispersion of yttrium oxide. Strength properties are about twice those of conventional nickel base alloys. Good thermal fatigue, intermediate temperature strength, and good oxidation resistance give alloy unique combination of benefits. Application in aircraft gas turbine is improved.
Although simple characterization of discomfort as cramps, heaviness, shooting pains, and so forth can be misleading, history and examination are key to accurate diagnosis. Absence of both dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses strongly suggests peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and the presence of either pulse makes PAD less likely. Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are a common cause of lower extremity myalgias. Restless legs syndrome causes nocturnal discomfort but must be distinguished from confounding“mimics." Neurologic causes of leg symptoms include lumbar spinal stenosis, radiculopathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, and entrapment neuropathy. Many common causes of leg discomfort can be managed conservatively.
Missmer, Stacey A.; Bove, Geoffrey M.
Radiating leg pain is a common symptom presenting in manual therapy practices. Although this symptom has been reported as a complication of endometriosis, its prevalence and characteristics have not been studied. We surveyed members of a national endometriosis support group with endometriosis using a self-administered, mailed questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the prevalence and characteristics of leg pain. Of 94 respondents, leg pain was reported by 48 women (51%), and was bilateral in 59% of these symptomatic women. The likelihood of experiencing leg pain was related to weight gain since age 18, age, and height. The most common treatments tried included exercise, over-the-counter medications, and massage therapy, all with variable results. These data support leg pain as a prevalent complication of endometriosis, and that the disease may affect multiple peripheral nerves. Manual therapists should remain aware to this possible etiology for radiating pain. PMID:21665106
Missmer, Stacey A; Bove, Geoffrey M
Radiating leg pain is a common symptom presenting in manual therapy practices. Although this symptom has been reported as a complication of endometriosis, its prevalence and characteristics have not been studied. We surveyed members of a national endometriosis support group with endometriosis using a self-administered, mailed questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the prevalence and characteristics of leg pain. Of 94 respondents, leg pain was reported by 48 women (51%), and was bilateral in 59% of these symptomatic women. The likelihood of experiencing leg pain was related to weight gain since age 18, age, and height. The most common treatments tried included exercise, over-the-counter medications, and massage therapy, all with variable results. These data support leg pain as a prevalent complication of endometriosis, and that the disease may affect multiple peripheral nerves. Manual therapists should remain aware to this possible etiology for radiating pain.
Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.
Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560
Wilk, Kevin E; Arrigo, Christopher A; Hooks, Todd R; Andrews, James R
The repetitive nature of throwing manifests characteristic adaptive changes to the shoulder, scapulothoracic, and hip/pelvis complexes that result in a set of unique physical traits in the overhead throwing athlete. An effective rehabilitation program is dependent upon an accurate evaluation and differential diagnosis to determine the causative factors for the athlete's pathologic features. The treatment program should be individualized with specific strengthening and flexibility exercises to achieve the dynamic stability that is required for overhead function. In this article we describe the characteristics of the throwing shoulder, along with a multiphased rehabilitation program that allows for the restoration of strength, mobility, endurance, and power and is aimed toward a return to unrestricted sporting activity. We also describe exercises that link the upper and lower extremities because of the importance of core control and leg strength in the development of power during the act of throwing. Additionally, proper throwing mechanics, utilization of pitch counts, appropriate rest, and proper off-season conditioning will help decrease overall injury risk in the overhead throwing athlete.
Miletić, Vladimir; Relja, Maja
Being of the most frequent causes of insomnia, which in the end leads to chronic fatigue, inadequate performance of daily activities, and serious disruption of quality of living, restless legs syndrome (RLS) is nowadays not only a serious medical problem but a socio-economical one as well. Prevalence of the disorder in general population is estimated at 5 to 15%. Family history is positive in over 50% of idiopathic RLS patients which points to genetic basis of the disorder. The characteristics of the secondary or acquired form of RLS are symptoms that start later in life as well as a rapid progression of the disease. On the other hand, idiopathic RLS more often starts at a younger age and the prognoses are better. Over twenty disorders and conditions are brought in connection with secondary RLS. Although the cause of primary RLS is still unknown, there is a strong connection between central metabolism of iron as well as dopamine levels and RLS manifestation. A differential diagnosis of RLS includes a wide specter of motor and sensory disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the history of disease. To correctly diagnose idiopathic RLS one must first eliminate secondary causes of RLS and then also exclude any disorders with clinical features that mimic those of RLS. It has been estimated that some 20 to 25% of patients need pharmacological therapy. Best initial therapy is the application of nonergot dopamine agonists. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and opioides can be given to patients who are refractory to dopaminergic therapy, those suffering from RLS with emphasized painful sensory component and those with RLS connected with insomnia.
Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung
[Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems. PMID:26157214
Mesfar, W; Shirazi-Adl, A
Open kinetic chain (OKC) extension exercises are commonly performed to strengthen quadriceps muscles and restore joint function in performance enhancement programs, in exercise therapies and following joint reconstruction. Using a validated 3D nonlinear finite element model, the detailed biomechanics of the entire joint in OKC extension exercises are investigated at 0, 30, 60 and 90 degrees joint angles. Two loading cases are simulated; one with only the weight of the leg and the foot while the second considers also a moderate resistant force of 30 N acting at the ankle perpendicular to the tibia. The presence of the 30 N markedly influences the results both in terms of the magnitude and the trend. The resistant load substantially increases the required quadriceps, patellar tendon, cruciate ligaments and joint contact forces, especially at near 90 degrees angles with the exception of ACL force that is increased at 0 degrees angle. At post-ACL reconstruction period or in the joint with ACL injury, the exercise should preferably be avoided at near full extension positions under large resistant forces.
Kim, Hyo Heon; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yong Ha; Seul, Jung Hyun; Shon, Oog Jin
We had an opportunity to perform replantation of both legs on a 2-year-old girl, and our decision to perform replantation rather than amputation surgery was carefully made taking her age, degree of crushing injury, ischaemic time and level of the amputation into consideration. Painstakingly designed rehabilitation treatments were continuously performed on this girl from the early stage after the operation, and the treatments were comprised of four parts; that is, flexion and extension exercise for the ankle in order to prevent it from stiffness or contracture, functional electrical stimulation (FES) in order to prevent muscular atrophy on the lower extremities, muscle strengthening exercise for the lower extremities, and electrical stimulation to regenerate the damaged nerves and to prevent muscular atrophy from occurring. For an objective assessment of the postoperative conditions, total active motion angles of the ankle joint were measured, and also EMG and NCV were conducted at the end of the first month as well as at the end of the 6th month. Total active motion angles of the ankle joint were increased progressively as time went on, from 15 to 60 degrees on the right and from 10 to 45 degrees on the left. NCV did not show any sensation or response from motor nerves, or amplitude decreased considerably 1 month after the operation; however, at the end of the 6th month conditions improved a great deal with both amplitude and latency. And most muscles that did not show any signals on EMG or showed less than normal at the end of the first month after the operation eventually recovered at the end of the 6th month. The patient had no particular difficulties in walking after 6 months or rather she started running in small steps showing her legs functioning superbly. An infant with both of lower extremities amputated is quite a rare case. We believe that the replantation surgery was successful due to the fact that carefully selected preoperative factors were taken into
press, double leg extension, military press, weighted situps, pull-downs, seated rows, preacher arm curls , and leg press. All exercises were performed...on Universal (Cedar Rapids, Iowa) equipment with the exception of preacher arm curls and weighted situps for which free weights were used. Workout
Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.
Exercise within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber in supine posture was compared with similar exercise against Earth's gravity (without LBNP) in upright posture in nine healthy male volunteers. We measured footward force with a force plate, pressure in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the leg with transducer-tipped catheters, calf volume by strain gauge plethysmography, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during two conditions: 1) exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber during 100-mmHg LBNP (exercise-LBNP) and 2) exercise in upright posture against Earth's gravity without LBNP (exercise-1 G). Subjects exercised their ankle joints (dorsi- and plantarflexions) for 5 min during exercise-LBNP and for 5 min during exercise-1 G. Mean footward force produced during exercise-LBNP (743 +/- 37 N) was similar to that produced during exercise-1 G (701 +/- 24 N). Peak contraction pressure in the antigravity soleus muscle during exercise-LBNP (115 +/- 10 mmHg) was also similar to that during exercise-1 G (103 +/- 13 mmHg). Calf volume increased significantly by 3.3 +/- 0.5% during exercise-LBNP compared with baseline values. Calf volume did not increase significantly during exercise-1 G. Heart rate was significantly higher during exercise-LBNP (99 +/- 5 beats/min) than during exercise-1 G (81 +/- 3 beats/min). These results indicate that exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber can produce similar musculoskeletal stress in the legs and greater systemic cardiovascular stress than exercise in the upright posture against Earth's gravity.
Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi
Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders. PMID:26504610
Pezzullo, D J; Karas, S; Irrgang, J J
In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated.
Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank
The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified.
Newby, Nate; Caldwell, Erin; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Peters,Brian; Fincke, Renita; DeWitt, John; Poutz-Snyder, Lori
Muscle and bone loss remain a concern for crew returning from space flight. The advanced resistance exercise device (ARED) is used for on-orbit resistance exercise to help mitigate these losses. However, characterization of how the ARED loads the body in microgravity has yet to be determined. Computational models allow us to analyze ARED exercise in both 1G and 0G environments. To this end, biomechanical models of the squat, single-leg squat, and deadlift exercise on the ARED have been developed to further investigate bone and muscle forces resulting from the exercises.
A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.
Zollinger, William T.
A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.
Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads; Hellsten, Ylva; Secher, Niels H; Saltin, Bengt
Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee-extensor training and 2 weeks of deconditioning of the other leg (leg cast). Hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotides were determined during exercise with the (1) deconditioned leg, (2) trained leg, and (3) trained leg with atrial pacing to the heart rate obtained with the deconditioned leg. Heart rate was ≈ 15 bpm lower during exercise with the trained leg (P<0.05), but stroke volume was higher (P<0.05) and cardiac output was similar. Arterial and central venous pressures, rate-pressure product, and ventilation were lower during exercise with the trained leg (P<0.05), whereas pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was similar. When heart rate was controlled by atrial pacing, stroke volume decreased (P<0.05), but cardiac output, peripheral blood flow, arterial pressures, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure remained unchanged. Circulating [norepinephrine], [lactate] and [K(+)] were lower and interstitial [ATP] and pH were higher in the trained leg (P<0.05). The lower cardioventilatory response to exercise with the trained leg is partly coupled to a reduced signaling from skeletal muscle likely mediated by K(+), lactate, or pH, whereas the lower cardiac afterload increases stroke volume. These results demonstrate that skeletal muscle training reduces the cardioventilatory response to exercise without compromising O2 delivery, and it can therefore be used to reduce the load on the heart during physical activity.
Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.
The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.
AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo
The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.
Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.
The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.
Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.
Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens
The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate-intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5-min one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24 +/- 1 W, mean +/- SD) without (Con) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine) and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) to inhibit the synthesis of nitric oxide and prostanoids, respectively. Leg blood flow and leg oxygen delivery throughout exercise was 25-50% lower (P < 0.05) in DB compared with Con. Leg oxygen extraction (arteriovenous O(2) difference) was higher (P < 0.05) in DB than in Con (5 s: 127 +/- 3 vs. 56 +/- 4 ml/l), and leg oxygen uptake was not different between Con and DB during exercise. The difference between leg oxygen delivery and leg oxygen uptake was smaller (P < 0.05) during exercise in DB than in Con (5 s: 59 +/- 12 vs. 262 +/- 39 ml/min). The present data demonstrate that muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery can be markedly reduced without affecting muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of moderate-intensity exercise, suggesting that blood flow does not limit muscle oxygen uptake at the onset of exercise. Additionally, prostanoids and/or nitric oxide appear to play important roles in elevating skeletal muscle blood flow in the initial phase of exercise.
Haines, R. F.
A battery of 11 body balance tests was administered to 7 men before and after 14 days of bedrest. Seven men who had not undergone bed rest served as controls. During bed rest, each subject underwent daily either isotonic, isometric, or no leg exercise. The results showed that, for the bed-rested no exercise, isotonic exercise, and isometric exercise groups, 2 weeks of bed rest produces significant body balance decrements on 3, 4, and 5 of the 11 tests, respectively. Daily leg exercise did not prevent the debilitating effects of bed rest on body balance. After bed rest, balance skill was relearned rapidly so that in most tests, performance had reached prebed-rest levels by the third recovery day. These data suggest that balance impairment is not due to loss of muscular strength in the legs but, perhaps, to a bed-rest-related change in the neurally coded information to postural control centers.
Farber, Eugene M.; Schmidt, Otto E. L.
Ischemic ulcers of the leg having characteristics different from those of ordinary leg ulcers have been observed in a small number of hypertensive patients, mostly women, during the past few years. Such ulcers are usually located above the ankle. They begin with a small area of purplish discoloration at the site of slight trauma, and progress to acutely tender ulceration. In studies of tissue removed from the margin and the base of an ulcer of this kind, obliterative arteriolar sclerotic changes, ischemic-appearing connective tissue and inflammatory changes were noted. Two additional cases are reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:15398887
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder related to abnormal and unpleasant sensations and movements in the legs. It usually occurs at nighttime and thus has a detrimental impact on the ability to sleep, leading to poor patient quality of life. UCB has been developing rotigotine transdermal patch system (Neupro; SPM-962) as a treatment for RLS. This system is designed to replace levels of dopamine in the body via once-daily application of the patch, in a bid to restore proper motor functioning. The rotigotine patch has been authorized for the treatment of RLS since August 2008.
Turner, Lisa M; Reed, Deborah B
This study examines the exercise habits and perceived barriers to exercise of a convenience sample of 300 commercial truck drivers. Participants reported minimal amounts of exercise, with nearly 20% not exercising in the past week. A high prevalence of obesity was found in this sample: 93.3% of study participants had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher. Drivers with BMIs of greater than 30 were significantly more likely to rate the exercise environment as terrible/bad. Drivers who had at least one health condition engaged in significantly less aerobic exercise, used fewer strengthening exercises, did not exercise for 30 minutes continuously, and had a higher BMI. Drivers who spent most of their off-duty time in their truck while their partner drove were also significantly more likely to not exercise regularly. Most drivers cited lack of time and place as the primary barriers to exercising. This study adds to the limited knowledge about exercise behaviors among commercial truck drivers.
McCarthy, J. P.; Bamman, M. M.; Yelle, J. M.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Rowe, R. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Lee, S. M.; Spector, E. R.; Fortney, S. M.
Resistance exercise has been suggested to increase blood volume, increase the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response (BARO), and decrease leg compliance, all factors that are expected to improve orthostatic tolerance. To further test these hypotheses, cardiovascular responses to standing and to pre-syncopal limited lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were measured in two groups of sedentary men before and after a 12-week period of either exercise (n = 10) or no exercise (control, n = 9). Resistance exercise training consisted of nine isotonic exercises, four sets of each, 3 days per week, stressing all major muscle groups. After exercise training, leg muscle volumes increased (P < 0.05) by 4-14%, lean body mass increased (P = 0.00) by 2.0 (0.5) kg, leg compliance and BARO were not significantly altered, and the maximal LBNP tolerated without pre-syncope was not significantly different. Supine resting heart rate was reduced (P = 0.03) without attenuating the heart rate or blood pressure responses during the stand test or LBNP. Also, blood volume (125I and 51Cr) and red cell mass were increased (P < 0.02) by 2.8% and 3.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that intense resistance exercise increases blood volume but does not consistently improve orthostatic tolerance.
Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.
Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.
Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn
This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…
... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...
Anderson, Irene; King, Brenda; Knight, Susan; Keynes, Milton
In a webchat on leg ulcer management issues, hosted by Nursing Times, participants raised three key areas of care: the role of healthcare assistants in compression bandaging; reporting and investigating damage caused by compression therapy; and recommendations for dressings to be used under compression. This article discusses each of these in turn.
Jones, W. C.; Owens, L. J.
Device is installed in standard 30 millimeter tubing used for lower leg prosthetics. Unit allows proper rotation (about 3 degrees) of foot relative to the hip, during normal walking or running. Limited rotational movement with restoring force results in a more natural gait.
Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb
Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…
Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.
Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis was evaluated using the joint space width and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic classification. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean medial joint space width found in the one-leg and in the both-legs standing view were measured at 1.8 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7). 33%, 47.4% and 23.1% of the knees diagnosed with a KL grade of I, II and III in the both-legs standing views were changed to KL grade II, III and IV in the one-leg standing views, respectively. No changes for KL IV osteoarthritis diagnoses have been found between both- and one-leg standing views. Conclusions One-leg standing radiographs better represent joint space width than both-legs standing radiographs. 32% of both-legs standing radiographs have changed the KL grading to a more severe grade than that in the one-leg standing radiographs. Cite this article: P. Pinsornsak, K. Naratrikun, S. Kanitnate, T. Sangkomkamhang. The one-leg standing radiograph: An improved technique to evaluate the severity of knee osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:436–441. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0049.R1. PMID:27683299
Strange, S; Secher, N H; Pawelczyk, J A; Karpakka, J; Christensen, N J; Mitchell, J H; Saltin, B
1. Nine subjects performed dynamic knee extension by voluntary muscle contractions and by evoked contractions with and without epidural anaesthesia. Four exercise bouts of 10 min each were performed: three of one-legged knee extension (10, 20 and 30 W) and one of two-legged knee extension at 2 x 20 W. Epidural anaesthesia was induced with 0.5% bupivacaine or 2% lidocaine. Presence of neural blockade was verified by cutaneous sensory anaesthesia below T8-T10 and complete paralysis of both legs. 2. Compared to voluntary exercise, control electrically induced exercise resulted in normal or enhanced cardiovascular, metabolic and ventilatory responses. However, during epidural anaesthesia the increase in blood pressure with exercise was abolished. Furthermore, the increases in heart rate, cardiac output and leg blood flow were reduced. In contrast, plasma catecholamines, leg glucose uptake and leg lactate release, arterial carbon dioxide tension and pulmonary ventilation were not affected. Arterial and venous plasma potassium concentrations became elevated but leg potassium release was not increased. 3. The results conform to the idea that a reflex originating in contracting muscle is essential for the normal blood pressure response to dynamic exercise, and that other neural, humoral and haemodynamic mechanisms cannot govern this response. However, control mechanisms other than central command and the exercise pressor reflex can influence heart rate, cardiac output, muscle blood flow and ventilation during dynamic exercise in man. PMID:8308750
Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E
AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children. METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repeatability for the BIA method was established from duplicate measurements. Body composition was then determined by BIA in 1139 girls and 1243 boys aged 7-16 years, who were randomly sampled in eight local primary and secondary schools to establish reference ranges. RESULTS—The 95% limits of agreement between BIA and DXA methods were considered acceptable (−3.3 kg to −0.5 kg fat mass and −3.9 to 0.6% body fat). The percentage body fat increased with increasing age. Compared to the 1993 Hong Kong growth survey, these children had higher body mass index. Mean (SD) percentage body fat at 7years of age was 17.2% (4.4%) and 14.0% (3.4%) respectively for boys and girls, which increased to 19.3% (4.8%) and 27.8% (6.3%) at age 16. CONCLUSION—Leg to leg BIA is a valid alternative method to DXA for the measurement of body fat. Provisional reference ranges for percentage body fat for Hong Kong Chinese children aged 7-16 years are provided. PMID:11517118
Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol L.
This bulletin summarizes the results of a training and technology transfer program focussing on strengthening families for the prevention of delinquency. A national search was conducted for representative family strengthening programs, and through a process that involved national conferences, regional training sessions, and technical assistance,…
Bennett, John P.
This set of instructions is designed for use by instructors in aerobic dance, although the instructions can also be used by individuals for an exercise program. Descriptions are given of specific exercises for the head and neck, shoulders, arms, legs, and chest and trunk. Routines for a complete aerobic dance session (warm-up, aerobic, and…
Sulowska, Iwona; Oleksy, Łukasz; Mika, Anna; Bylina, Dorota; Sołtan, Jarosław
Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two kinds of plantar short foot muscles exercise on foot posture and fundamental movement patterns in long-distance runners. Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with 6-week follow-up. Methods Twenty five long-distance runners aged 22–35 years. They were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n = 13) subjects performed the exercise “Vele’s Forward Lean” and “Reverse Tandem Gait” and in Group 2 (n = 12) the “Short Foot Exercise.” The runners performed the exercises daily for 6 weeks. The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6) and The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) tests were performed twice: at baseline and after 6 weeks of the exercise. Results A significant improvement was observed in FPI -6 (talar head palpation in Group 1, and inversion/eversion of the calcaneus in Group 2). Also in Group 1 a significant improvement was noted in FMS tests: deep squat, active straight leg raise and in total score. Conclusions Short foot muscles strengthening exercises have beneficial effect on functional movement patterns and on foot posture, therefore they should be included as a part of daily training program of runners. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615001200572 PMID:27336689
Frantsevich, Leonid; Wang, Weiying
We studied the common kinematic features of the coxa and trochanter in cursorial and raptorial legs, which are the short size of the podomers, predominantly monoaxial joints, and the approximate orthogonality of adjacent joint axes. The chain coxa-trochanter with its short elements and serial orthogonality of joint axes resembles the gimbals which combine versatility and tolerance to external perturbations. The geometry of legs was studied in 23 insect species of 12 orders. Insects with monoaxial joints were selected. The joint between the trochanter and the femur (TFJ) is defined either by two vestigial condyles or by a straight anterior hinge. Direction of the joint axes in the two basal podomers was assessed by 3D measurements or by goniometry in two planes. Length of the coxa is <15% (mostly <8%) of the total length of the cursorial leg, that of the trochanter <10%. Angles between the proximal and distal joint axes in the middle coxa range from 124 to 84 degrees (mean 97+/-14 degrees ), in the trochanter (in all legs studied) from 125 to 72 degrees (mean 90+/-13 degrees ). Vectors of the distal axis in the coxa are concentrated about the normal to the plane defined by the proximal axis and the midpoint between the distal condyles. These vectors in the trochanter lie at various angles to the normal; angles are correlated with the direction of the TFJ relative to the femur. Range of reduction about the TFJ is over 60 degrees in the foreleg of Ranatra linearis, Mantispa lobata and the hind leg in Carabus coriaceus (confirming observations of previous authors), 40-60 degrees in the foreleg of Vespa crabro and in the middle one in Ammophila campestris, 10-30 degrees in other studied specimens. The special role of the trochanter in autotomy and in active propulsion in some insect groups is discussed. The majority of insects possess small trochanters and slightly movable TFJs with the joint axis laying in the femur-tibia plane. We pose the hypothesis that the TFJ
Dudley, Gary A.; Golden, Catherine L.; Tesch, Per A.; Harris, Robert T.; Buchanan, Paul
The contributions of concentric (con) and eccentric (ecc) muscle actions are evaluated with respect to increasing the metabolic cost of resistance exercise. Male subjects perform leg exercise with either con and ecc actions or only con actions while the net energy cost of the exercise is measured by oxygen consumption data. In both groups, the con actions require 290 J/kg body weight of total work, with an energy cost of 0.003 cal/J. The energy costs for the con/ecc actions of the second group is increased by 14 percent. The metabolic cost of leg exercise is concluded to be primarily generated by the con leg actions, and ecc leg actions increase the resistance with only a slight increase in required energy. The findings are significant for practical applications that emphasize the conservation of energy expenditure during exercise in spacecraft environments.
Hirth, Christopher J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.
Objective: Anecdotal evidence suggests that use of Exercise Sandals results in a number of positive clinical outcomes. However, little research has been conducted to determine their efficacy objectively. Our purposes were to determine the effect of Exercise Sandals on lower leg electromyography (EMG) during activities in the Exercise Sandals and to compare EMG associated with Exercise Sandals with traditional lower extremity rehabilitation exercises. Design and Setting: Two within-subjects, repeated-measures designs were used to identify differences in lower extremity EMG: (1) between activities with and without Exercise Sandals and (2) between Exercise Sandals activities and traditional rehabilitation activities. All data were collected in the Sports Medicine Research Laboratory. Subjects: Eighteen subjects involved in rehabilitation using Exercise Sandals for at least 2 weeks within the year before data collection. Measurements: Mean EMG amplitudes from the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, soleus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were measured during single-leg stance, side stepping, and “high knees,” all performed with and without the Exercise Sandals, as well as single-leg stance on a foam surface and T-band kicks in the sagittal and frontal planes. Results: Exercise Sandals increased lower leg EMG activity, particularly in the ankle invertors and evertors. Also, activities involving the Exercise Sandals resulted in EMG activity similar to or exceeding that associated with traditional ankle-rehabilitation exercises. Conclusions: These results, coupled with the fact that Exercise Sandals are used in a functional closed kinetic chain manner, suggest that they are an effective means of increasing lower extremity muscle activity. PMID:14608427
Dissemond, J; Protz, K; Reich-Schupke, S; Stücker, M; Kröger, K
Compression therapy is well-tried treatment with only few side effects for most patients with leg ulcers and/or edema. Despite the very long tradition in German-speaking countries and good evidence for compression therapy in different indications, recent scientific findings indicate that the current situation in Germany is unsatisfactory. Today, compression therapy can be performed with very different materials and systems. In addition to the traditional bandaging with Unna Boot, short-stretch, long-stretch, or multicomponent bandage systems, medical compression ulcer stockings are available. Other very effective but far less common alternatives are velcro wrap systems. When planning compression therapy, it is also important to consider donning devices with the patient. In addition to compression therapy, intermittent pneumatic compression therapy can be used. Through these various treatment options, it is now possible to develop an individually accepted, geared to the needs of the patients, and functional therapy strategy for nearly all patients with leg ulcers.
Wernbom, Mathias; Paulsen, Gøran; Nilsen, Tormod S; Hisdal, Jonny; Raastad, Truls
Conflicting findings have been reported regarding muscle damage with low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) by pressure cuffs. This study investigated muscle function and muscle fibre morphology after a single bout of low-intensity resistance exercise with and without BFR. Twelve physically active subjects performed unilateral knee extensions at 30% of their one repetition maximum (1RM), with partial BFR on one leg and the other leg without occlusion. With the BFR leg, five sets were performed to concentric torque failure, and the free-flow leg repeated the exact same number of repetitions and sets. Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis before and 1, 24 and 48 h after exercise. Maximum isometric torque (MVC) and resting tension were measured before and after exercise and at 4, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h post-exercise. The results demonstrated significant decrements in MVC (lasting ≥48 h) and delayed onset muscle soreness in both legs, and increased resting tension for the occluded leg both acutely and at 24 h post-exercise. The percentage of muscle fibres showing elevated intracellular staining of the plasma protein tetranectin, a marker for sarcolemmal permeability, was significantly increased from 9% before exercise to 27-38% at 1, 24 and 48 h post-exercise for the BFR leg. The changes in the free-flow leg were significant only at 24 h (19%). We conclude that an acute bout of low-load resistance exercise with BFR resulted in changes suggesting muscle damage, which may have implications both for safety aspects and for the training stimulus with BFR exercise.
Arnaud, S.; Berry, P; Cohen, M.; Danelis, J.; Deroshia, C.; Greenleaf, J.; Harris, B.; Keil, L.; Bernauer, E.; Bond, M.; Ellis, S.; Lee, P.; Selzer, R.; Wade, C.
Report describes experiment to investigate effects of isotonic and isokinetic leg exercises in counteracting effects of bed rest upon physical and mental conditions of subjects. Data taken on capacity for work, endurance and strength, tolerance to sitting up, equilibrium, posture, gait, atrophy, mineralization and density of bones, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid and electrolyte balances, intermediary metabolism of muscles, mood, and performance.
Watenpaugh, Donald E. (Inventor)
An exercise device, especially suitable for zero gravity workouts, has a collapsible chamber which generates negative pressure on the lower portion of a body situated therein. The negative pressure is generated by virtue of leg, hand and shoulder interaction which contracts and expands the chamber about the person and by virtue of air flow regulation by valve action.
Ribisl, Paul M.
If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…
Marsh, G D; Paterson, D H; Govindasamy, D; Cunningham, D A
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the anaerobic exercise performance of young and older men. Eight healthy, active older (68.5 +/- 2.4 years old, mean S.D.) and eight healthy, active young (30.6 +/- 4.5 years old) subjects were assessed for peak and mean power output (PP and MP, respectively) of the legs and arms, during 30 s Wingate tests. PP during leg exercise was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the young (14.6 +/- 1.6 W kg-1) compared with the older (10.7 +/- 1.0 W kg-1) group. MP of the legs was also greater in the young subjects (10.7 +/- 0.7 vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 W kg-1). These differences in PP and MP remained significant when expressed relative to lean leg volume. PP during arm cranking was significantly greater in the young subjects (8.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 7.5 +/- 0.6 W kg-1) as was MP (6.4 +/- 0.7 vs. 5.0 +/- 0.7 W kg-1). Post-exercise blood lactate concentration in the older group (7.0 +/- 1.6 mmol l-1) was less (P < 0.05) than in the young group (10.6 +/- 2.0 mmol l-1), for leg work only. The significant loss of anaerobic power in the older group could not be explained by a difference in muscle mass. Power output was also lower in the arms, but to a lesser extent. The results of this study suggest that a reduction in the ability to perform high intensity exercise may be an inevitable consequence of ageing. The extent, however, of this decline varies with different muscle groups.
Dawson, Lance G.; Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tiidus, Peter M.
Massage therapy is commonly used following endurance running races with the expectation that it will enhance post-run recovery of muscle function and reduce soreness. A limited number of studies have reported little or no influence of massage therapy on post-exercise muscle recovery. However, no studies have been conducted in a field setting to assess the potential for massage to influence muscle recovery following an actual endurance running race. To evaluate the potential for repeated massage therapy interventions to influence recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle soreness, recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and reduction of upper leg muscle swelling over a two week recovery period following an actual road running race. Twelve adult recreational runners (8 male, 4 female) completed a half marathon (21.1 km) road race. On days 1,4, 8, and 11 post-race, subjects received 30 minutes of standardized massage therapy performed by a registered massage therapist on a randomly assigned massage treatment leg, while the other (control) leg received no massage treatment. Two days prior to the race (baseline) and preceding the treatments on post-race days 1, 4, 8, and 11 the following measures were conducted on each of the massage and control legs: strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, leg swelling, and soreness perception. At day 1, post-race quadriceps peak torque was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), and soreness and leg circumference significantly elevated (p < 0.05) relative to pre-race values with no difference between legs. This suggested that exercise-induced muscle disruption did occur. Comparing the rate of return to baseline measures between the massaged and control legs, revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). All measures had returned to baseline at day 11. Massage did not affect the recovery of muscles in terms of physiological measures of strength, swelling, or soreness. However, questionnaires revealed that 7 of the 12
Stein, J. A.; Helble, D. R.
Jaws on new insertion tool contain upset point and anvil. Point forces cotter-pin legs into loop as it engages anvil. Cotter pin before insertion consists of loop and straight shaft composed of two legs welded together as tips. After insertion, welded legs have been shaped into loop. Tool used to prevent bent loose ends of cotter pins from scratching workers' fingers or cutting and entangling wires.
Kolettis, M T; Kalogeropoulos, C K; Tzannetis, G C; Vitakis, S K; Xaplanteris, P P; Novas, I A
Pain radiated from the chest to one or both legs (17 cases), or from the legs to the chest (two cases) in 19 patients with angina or acute myocardial infarction. The leg pain was assumed to be related to the angina pectoris when both were of a similar character and occurred together, when the leg pain occurred at rest, and when there were normal peripheral pulses in the leg. Pain was felt in the left leg by 10 patients, the right leg by two patients, and in both legs by seven. Three patients experienced pain in the thigh(s), six in the shin(s), and 10 had pain in both. In six patients the pain extended down to the inner two to four toes. The pain was always felt in front of the legs. This distribution accords with the suggestion that some sensory cardiac nerve fibres occur in the lumbar sympathetic ganglia and that pain is projected into the corresponding dermatomes. PMID:3942655
Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.
While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?
Sakamoto, Masanori; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Endoh, Takashi; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi
Recent studies indicate that human locomotion is quadrupedal in nature. An automatic rhythm-generating system is thought to play a crucial role in controlling arm and leg movements. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate differences between intrinsic arm and leg automaticity by investigating cadence variability during simultaneous arm and leg (AL) cycling. Participants performed AL cycling with visual feedback of arm or leg cadence. Participants were asked to focus their attention to match the predetermined cadence; this affects the automaticity of the rhythm-generating system. Leg cadence variability was only mildly affected when the participants intended to precisely adjust either their arm or leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. In contrast, arm cadence variability significantly increased when the participants adjusted their leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the automaticities of arm and leg cycling and that the latter is stronger than the former during AL cycling.
Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori
Background: In order to evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a space flight analog prior to validation on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is sponsoring a multi-investigator bedrest campaign that utilizes a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistive and aerobic exercise protocols. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware and how they are used to support current bedrest studies at NASA's Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, TX. Discussion: To implement candidate exercise countermeasure studies during extended bed rest studies the following analog hardware are being utilized: Stand alone Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulator (sZLS) -- a custom built device by NASA, the sZLS allows bedrest subjects to remain supine as they run on a vertically-oriented treadmill (0-15 miles/hour). The treadmill includes a pneumatic subject loading device to provide variable body loading (0-100%) and a harness to keep the subject in contact with the motorized treadmill to provide a ground reaction force at their feet that is quantified by a Kistler Force Plate. Supine Cycle Ergometer -- a commercially available supine cycle ergometer (Lode, Groningen, Netherlands) is used for all cycle ergometer sessions. The ergometer has adjustable shoulder supports and handgrips to help stabilize the subject during exercise. Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) -- a custom built device by Quantum Fitness Corp (Stafford, TX), the HSD allows for squat exercises to be performed while lying in a supine position. The HSD can provide 0 to 600 pounds of force in selectable 5 lb increments, and allows hip translation in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Prone Leg Curl -- a commercially available prone leg curl machine (Cybex International Inc., Medway, MA) is used to complete leg curl exercises. Horizontal Leg Press -- a commercially available horizontal leg press (Quantum Fitness Corporation) is
... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...
... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...
... To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your pelvic floor muscles. The part of your body including your ... bone. Kegel exercises are designed to make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These are the muscles that hold ...
... also can help prevent exercise headaches. References Cutrer FM, et al. Cough, exercise, and sex headaches. Neurology ... aspx?bookid=690. Accessed Jan. 19, 2015. Cutrer FM. Exertional headaches. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ...
Seals, Douglas R.; Mullin, John P.
The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of well-trained upper body athletes was compared to that of untrained individuals in four types of exercise: arm cranking, legs only cycling, graded treadmill running, and combined arm cranking and leg cycling. Results of the study showed that well-trained upper body athletes attained a significantly higher…
Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.
The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…
Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T
Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their
... minutes at a time throughout your day. Remember: exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none.How ... The cost might give you an incentive to exercise on a regular basis.Benefits of regular exerciseReduces your risk of heart disease, ...
Schmitt, Natalie Crohn
In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…
Ribeiro, Beatriz G; Morales, Anderson P; Sampaio-Jorge, Felipe; Barth, Thiago; de Oliveira, Marcio B C; Coelho, Gabriela M D O; Leite, Tiago C
Ribeiro, BG, Morales, AP, Sampaio-Jorge, F, Barth, T, de Oliveira, MBC, Coelho, GMdO, and Leite, TC. Caffeine attenuates decreases in leg power without increased muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2354-2360, 2016-Caffeine ingestion has been shown to be an effective ergogenic aid in several sports. Caffeine administration may increase exercise capacity, which could lead to a greater degree of muscle damage after exercise. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Six male handball athletes ingested placebo (PLA) or caffeine (CAF) (6 mg·kg body mass) capsules on 2 different occasions. Sixty minutes after ingestion of the capsules, serum CAF levels were evaluated. Thereafter, all participants performed a protocol of vertical jumps (VJs). The protocol consisted of 4 sets of 30 seconds of continuous VJs with 60 seconds of recovery between sets. Blood lactate (LAC) and creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined before and after the protocol. We found significant differences in serum CAF levels between PLA (0.09 ± 0.18 µg·ml) vs. CAF (6.59 ± 4.44 µg·ml) (p < 0.001). Caffeine elicited a 5.23% (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in the leg power compared with PLA. The CAF trial displayed higher LAC (p ≤ 0.05) compared with PLA (6.26 ± 2.01 vs. 4.39 ± 2.42 mmol·L, respectively) after protocol of VJs, whereas no difference in CK was observed between trials (p > 0.05). These results indicate that immediate ingestion of CAF (6 mg·kg body weight) can reduce the level of muscle fatigue and preserve leg power during the test, possibly resulting in increase in LAC. There was no increase in muscle damage, which indicates that immediate administration of (6 mg·kg body weight) CAF is safe. Thus, nutritional interventions with CAF could help athletes withstand a greater physiological overload during high-intensity training sessions. The results of this study would be applicable to sports and activities that require repetitive leg power.
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) Print A A A ... español Radiografía: fémur What It Is A femur X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...
Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A
A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation.
... of restless legs syndrome varies from person to person. In some cases the cause is unknown, or it can be caused by or made worse by other health issues or medication. This may include: Low iron levels This can cause problems with brain cell communication that can lead to restless legs syndrome. ...
... T, Wichmann HE, Müller-Myhsok B, Meitinger T. Genome-wide association study identifies novel restless legs syndrome susceptibility loci on ... HE, Holsboer F, Müller-Myhsok B, Meitinger T. Genome-wide association study of restless legs syndrome identifies common variants in ...
Mier, Constance M.; Feito, Yuri
We measured the effects of stride rate, resistance, and combined arm-leg use on energy expenditure during elliptical trainer exercise and assessed the accuracy of the manufacturer's energy expenditure calculations. Twenty-six men and women (M age = 29 years, SD = 8; M body weight = 73.0 kg, SD = 15.2) participated. Twenty-two participants…
Lopez, M A; Broggio, D; Capello, K; Cardenas-Mendez, E; El-Faramawy, N; Franck, D; James, A C; Kramer, G H; Lacerenza, G; Lynch, T P; Navarro, J F; Navarro, T; Perez, B; Rühm, W; Tolmachev, S Y; Weitzenegger, E
A collaboration of the EURADOS working group on 'Internal Dosimetry' and the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) has taken place to carry out an intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling determining americium deposited in the bone of a USTUR leg phantom. Preliminary results and conclusions of this intercomparison exercise are presented here.
Hwang, Seon-Wook; Hong, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Jong-Keun; Sung, Ho-Suk
Hydroxyurea is a cytostatic agent that has recently become the drug of choice in the treatment of various myeloproliferative diseases. The cutaneous side effects of hydroxyurea include xerosis, hyperpigmentation, nail discoloration, and scaling. Leg ulcers have only rarely been reported in association with hydroxyurea treatment. A 75-year-old woman presented with leg ulcers, nail discoloration, and xerosis. The leg ulcers were refractory to conventional treatment. She had been taking oral hydroxyurea since being diagnosed with essential thrombocytosis in 2002. Hence, we suspected hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcers and discontinued her hydroxyurea treatment; the ulcers gradually healed thereafter. We present a rare case of hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcers in Korea. PMID:20548853
Restless legs syndrome can be very troublesome but it has no serious physical complications. The underlying causes are unknown, but it can be triggered or aggravated by a drug. In early 2010, about 60 cases of drug-induced restless legs syndrome had been published in detail. The drugs implicated were mainly psychotropics, especially antidepressants and neuroleptics. Some drugs used to treat restless legs syndrome, especially dopaminergic drugs, can in fact aggravate symptoms. Drug-induced restless legs syndrome generally resolves when the dose is reduced or the drug is withdrawn. Dysfunction of the dopaminergic system has been implicated in some cases. In practice, when a patient presents with restless legs syndrome, the role of a drug, especially a psychotropic, should be considered. Drug withdrawal or a dose reduction may be beneficial.
... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...
Sarabon, Nejc; Panjan, Andrej; Rosker, Jernej; Fonda, Borut
The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production), kinaesthesia (active torque tracking) and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles. Key Points Hamstring function is significantly reduced following specifically damaging exercise. It fully recovers 120 hours after the exercise. Prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage is cruicial for maintaining normal training regime. PMID:24149148
Sarabon, Nejc; Panjan, Andrej; Rosker, Jernej; Fonda, Borut
The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production), kinaesthesia (active torque tracking) and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles. Key PointsHamstring function is significantly reduced following specifically damaging exercise.It fully recovers 120 hours after the exercise.Prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage is cruicial for maintaining normal training regime.
Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis
The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions.
Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand
The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that
Pezzullo, David J.; Karas, Steven; Irrgang, James J
In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13.Fig 14.Fig 15. PMID:16558304
CAMPBELL, ROALD F.; AND OTHERS
MAJOR FINDINGS OF A SUMMER SEMINAR HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO IN 1966 DEFINE CURRENT ISSUES RELATED TO STATE DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION (SDE) AND LEAD TO 23 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STRENGTHENING THESE DEPARTMENTS SO THAT THEY MAY BE EFFECTIVE PARTNERS IN THE GOVERNMENT OF EDUCATION. SDE'S ARE EVALUATED WITH RESPECT TO FIVE MAJOR…
Yuh, C.Y.; Haung, C.M.; Johnsen, R.
The present baseline electrolyte matrix is a porous ceramic powder bed impregnated with alkali carbonate electrolyte. The matrix provides both ionic conduction and gas sealing. During fuel cell stack operation, the matrix experiences both mechanical and thermal stresses. Different mechanical characteristics of active and wet seal areas generate stress. Thermal stress is generated by nonuniform temperature distribution and thermal cycling. A carbonate fuel cell generally may experience planned and unplanned thermal cycles between 650 C and room temperature during its 40,000h life. During the cycling, the electrolyte matrix expands and contracts at a different rate from other cell components. Furthermore, the change in electrolyte volume associated with freezing/melting may generate additional thermal stress. Strengthening of the matrix may be beneficial for longer-term stability of the carbonate fuel cell with respect to repeated thermal cycling. Several promising strengtheners with improved chemical and mechanical stabilities were identified. Fibers provide the highest strengthening effect, followed by particulates. Matrix fabrication technique was successfully modified for uniformly incorporating the advanced strengtheners, maintaining the desired aspect ratio. Enhanced gas sealing demonstrated using the advanced matrices.
Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Treichler, David P; Casey, Darren P
The influence of aging on contraction-induced rapid vasodilation has been well characterized in the forearm. We sought to examine the impact of aging on contraction-induced rapid vasodilation in the leg following single muscle contractions and determine whether potential age-related impairments were similar between limbs (leg vs. arm). Fourteen young (23 ± 1 years) and 16 older (66 ± 1 years) adults performed single leg knee extensions at 20%, 40%, and 60% of work rate maximum. Femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Limb vascular conductance (VC) was calculated using blood flow (mL·min−1) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). Peak and total vasodilator responses in the leg (change [Δ] in VC from baseline) were blunted in older adults by 44–50% across exercise intensities (P < 0.05 for all). When normalized for muscle mass, age-related differences were still evident (P < 0.05). Comparing the rapid vasodilator responses between the arm and the leg of the same individuals at similar relative intensities (20% and 40%) reveals that aging influences peak and total vasodilation equally between the limbs (no significant age × limb interaction at either intensity, P = 0.28–0.80). Our data demonstrate that (1) older adults exhibit an attenuated rapid hyperemic and vasodilator response in the leg; and (2) the age-related reductions in rapid vasodilation are similar between the arm and the leg. The mechanisms contributing to the age-related differences in contraction-induced rapid vasodilation are perhaps similar to those seen with the forearm model, but have not been confirmed. PMID:26320213
Donohue, Michael R; Ellis, Samantha M; Heinbaugh, Erika M; Stephenson, Mitchell L; Zhu, Qin; Dai, Boyi
Landing and squat tasks have been utilized to assess lower extremity biomechanics associated with anterior cruciate ligament loading and injury risks. The purpose of this study was to identify the differences and correlations in knee and hip mechanics during a single-leg landing, a single-leg squat, a double-leg landing, and a double-leg squat. Seventeen male and 17 female recreational athletes performed landings and squats when kinematic and kinetic data were collected. ANOVAs showed significant differences (p < 0.00001) for maximum knee flexion angles, maximum hip flexion angles, maximum knee abduction angles, maximum hip adduction angles, and maximum external knee abduction moments among squats and landings. For maximum knee and hip flexion angles, significant correlations (r ≥ 0.5, p ≤ 0.003) were observed between the two landings and between the two squats. For maximum knee abduction and hip adduction angles and maximum external knee abduction moments, significant correlations were mostly found between the two landings, and between the single-leg squat and landings (r ≥ 0.54, p ≤ 0.001). Individuals are likely to demonstrate different profiles of injury risks when screened using different tasks. While a double-leg landing should be considered as a priority in screening, a single-leg squat may be used as a surrogate to assess frontal plane motion and loading.
In a proposed alternative to previous approaches to making hot-shoe contacts to the legs of thermoelectric devices, one relies on differential thermal expansion to increase contact pressures for the purpose of reducing the electrical resistances of contacts as temperatures increase. The proposed approach is particularly applicable to thermoelectric devices containing p-type (positive-charge-carrier) legs made of a Zintl compound (specifically, Yb14MnSb11) and n-type (negative charge-carrier) legs made of SiGe. This combination of thermoelectric materials has been selected for further development, primarily on the basis of projected thermoelectric performance. However, it is problematic to integrate, into a practical thermoelectric device, legs made of these materials along with a metal or semiconductor hot shoe that is required to be in thermal and electrical contact with the legs. This is partly because of the thermal-expansion mismatch of these materials: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SiGe is 4.5 x 10(exp -6) C (exp -1), while the CTE of Yb14MnSb11 is 20 x 10(exp -6) C(exp -1). Simply joining a Yb14MnSb11 and a SiGe leg to a common hot shoe could be expected to result in significant thermal stresses in either or both legs during operation. Heretofore, such thermal stresses have been regarded as disadvantageous. In the proposed approach, stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch would be turned to advantage.
... CAAHEP). High school students interested in postsecondary exercise physiology programs should take courses in anatomy, physiology, and physics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Louisiana is ...
With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).
Vila-Chã, Carolina; Riis, Simone; Lund, Ditte; Møller, Anders; Farina, Dario; Falla, Deborah
The study investigates the effects of eccentric exercise of the quadriceps on proprioception of the knee in weight and non-weight bearing tasks. Proprioception of the exercised leg was assessed at 120° and 150° of knee extension in 15 healthy adults (age 25.0 ± 3.6 yrs) before, immediately after, and 24h following eccentric exercise of the quadriceps. Three tests of proprioception were performed: 1. matching the position of the exercised leg (right leg) to the reference leg (left leg) in sitting (non-weight bearing matching task); 2. repositioning the exercised leg after active movement in sitting (non-weight bearing repositioning task); 3. repositioning the exercised leg after active movement in standing (weight bearing task). Maximum knee extension force was reduced by 77.0 ± 12.3 % immediately after the exercise, and by 82.7 ± 16.2% 24h post exercise, with respect to baseline (P<0.001). The absolute error in the non-weight bearing matching task at 120° of knee extension was greater immediately following eccentric exercise (12.3 ± 5.6, P<0.001) and 24h after exercise (8.1 ± 4.5, P<0.05) compared to baseline (5.8 ± 2.7). Similarly, the absolute error in the non-weight bearing repositioning task at 120° was greater both immediately (5.9 ± 3.1°, P<0.01) and 24h post exercise (5.2 ± 3.0°, P<0.05) compared to baseline (4.5 ± 2.6°). Therefore, in both non-weight bearing tasks, the subjects matched the position of their leg after eccentric exercise by adopting a more extended knee position of the exercised limb. Furthermore, the subjects showed higher variability in their performance immediately post exercise (P<0.05, compared to baseline) but not 24h after. In contrast, eccentric exercise did not affect the repositioning errors in the weight bearing task. In conclusion, eccentric exercise of the quadriceps impairs proprioception of the knee both immediately after and 24h post exercise, but only in non-weight bearing tasks.
EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.
Kermond, John; Konz, Stephen
Maximum distance in football punt kicking is associated with a maximum force transfer to the ball rather than a maximum force transfer through the ground via the support leg. For maximum distance, tred lightly. (Author)
Foot pain discourages physical activity, and less activity harms overall health. Bunion, extra bone and tissue at the base of the big toe, is a frequent cause of foot pain. More than 64 million Americans have bunions that can lead to painful walking. Bunions affect some 35% of women over the age of 65. Bunions can be removed by surgery, which can reduce pain and improve your ability to walk and exercise, but up to 15% of bunions return. Weak muscles may play a role in bunion-related pain and movement problems. In a review of prior research and commentary on this topic published in the July 2016 issue of JOSPT, the author identifies muscle-strengthening exercises that may help people with bunions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):606. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0504.
Boone, Jan; Bouckaert, Jacques; Barstow, Thomas J; Bourgois, Jan
The aim of the present study was to gain better insight into the mechanisms underpinning the sigmoid pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] during incremental exercise by assessing the changes in the profile following prior high-intensity exercise. Ten physically active students performed two incremental ramp (25 W min(-1)) exercises (AL and LL, respectively) preceded on one occasion by incremental arm (10 W min(-1)) and on another occasion by incremental leg exercise (25 W min(-1)), which served as the reference test (RT). Deoxy[Hb + Mb] was measured by means of near-infrared spectroscopy and surface EMG was recorded at the Vastus Lateralis throughout the exercises. Deoxy[Hb + Mb], integrated EMG and Median Power Frequency (MdPF) were expressed as a function of work rate (W) and compared between the exercises. During RT and AL deoxy[Hb + Mb] followed a sigmoid increase as a function of work rate. However, during LL deoxy[Hb + Mb] increased immediately from the onset of the ramp exercise and thus no longer followed a sigmoid pattern. This different pattern in deoxy[Hb + Mb] was accompanied by a steeper slope of the iEMG/W-relationship below the GET (LL: 0.89 ± 0.11% W(-1); RT: 0.74 ± 0.08% W(-1); AL: 0.72 ± 0.10% W(-1)) and a more pronounced decrease in MdPF in LL (17.2 ± 4.5%) compared to RT (5.0 ± 2.1%) and AL (3.9 ± 3.2%). It was observed that the sigmoid pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] was disturbed when the ramp exercise was preceded by priming leg exercise. Since the differences in deoxy[Hb + Mb] were accompanied by differences in EMG it can be suggested that muscle fibre recruitment is an important underlying mechanism for the pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] during ramp exercise.
Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian
The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.
Owens, L. J.; Jones, W. C. (Inventor)
A rotational joint assembly for a prosthetic leg has been devised, which enables an artificial foot to rotate slightly when a person is walking, running or turning. The prosthetic leg includes upper and lower tubular members with the rotational joint assembly interposed between them. The assembly includes a restrainer mechanism which consists of a pivotably mounted paddle element. This device applies limiting force to control the rotation of the foot and also restores torque to return the foot back to its initial position.
... of a Good Thing? We all know the benefits of exercise, and it seems that everywhere we turn, we ... stress. So how can something with so many benefits have the potential to cause ... out because it's fun or it makes them feel good, but exercise can become a compulsive habit when it is ...
... eating . Compulsive exercise behavior can grow out of student athletes' demanding practice schedules and their quest to ... negative image of themselves and feel worthless. Their social and academic lives may suffer as they ... and abandons responsibilities to make more time for exercise seems to ...
Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Raven, P. B.; Secher, N. H.
1. This investigation was designed to determine the contribution of the exercise pressor reflex to the resetting of the carotid baroreflex during exercise. 2. Ten subjects performed 3.5 min of static one-legged exercise (20 % maximal voluntary contraction) and 7 min dynamic cycling (20 % maximal oxygen uptake) under two conditions: control (no intervention) and with the application of medical anti-shock (MAS) trousers inflated to 100 mmHg (to activate the exercise pressor reflex). Carotid baroreflex function was determined at rest and during exercise using a rapid neck pressure/neck suction technique. 3. During exercise, the application of MAS trousers (MAS condition) increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma noradrenaline concentration (dynamic exercise only) and perceived exertion (dynamic exercise only) when compared to control (P < 0.05). No effect of the MAS condition was evident at rest. The MAS condition had no effect on heart rate (HR), plasma lactate and adrenaline concentrations or oxygen uptake at rest and during exercise. The carotid baroreflex stimulus-response curve was reset upward on the response arm and rightward to a higher operating pressure by control exercise without alterations in gain. Activation of the exercise pressor reflex by MAS trousers further reset carotid baroreflex control of MAP, as indicated by the upward and rightward relocation of the curve. However, carotid baroreflex control of HR was only shifted rightward to higher operating pressures by MAS trousers. The sensitivity of the carotid baroreflex was unaltered by exercise pressor reflex activation. 4. These findings suggest that during dynamic and static exercise the exercise pressor reflex is capable of actively resetting carotid baroreflex control of mean arterial pressure; however, it would appear only to modulate carotid baroreflex control of heart rate.
Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)
Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular
Hayward, David R.
The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening (CDS) on neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects was a 39 year-old woman with neck pain and KFS that included incomplete block vertebrae in the C2-3 segments and block vertebrae in the C6-7 segments. The subject performed an exercise program including cervical strengthening exercise (level 1) and CDS exercise (level 2) for 6 weeks. Neck pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT). All measurements were obtained before and after the CDS exercise program. [Results] The VAS and PPT measurements decreased; range of motion in the cervical joint increased. [Conclusion] CDS exercises were effective interventions for reducing neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome.
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening (CDS) on neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects was a 39 year-old woman with neck pain and KFS that included incomplete block vertebrae in the C2–3 segments and block vertebrae in the C6–7 segments. The subject performed an exercise program including cervical strengthening exercise (level 1) and CDS exercise (level 2) for 6 weeks. Neck pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT). All measurements were obtained before and after the CDS exercise program. [Results] The VAS and PPT measurements decreased; range of motion in the cervical joint increased. [Conclusion] CDS exercises were effective interventions for reducing neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:25540517
Ng, Evelyn K.
Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing
Kaya, Defne; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Callaghan, Michael
Summary Purpose: the aim of this article was to review the clinical approach of quadriceps strengthening programmes. Methods: a literature search was carried out from 1980 up to September 2011. Eligible studies were those that: (1) evaluated the patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (not healthy or asymptomatic subjects) (2) examined the effect of kinetic chain exercises (3) examined the effect of weight-bearing exercises (4) compared the effect of the combined exercises programme in the treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Results and conclusion: patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome may tolerate a closed kinetic chain exercises programme better than open kinetic chain. Weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing quadriceps exercises can significantly improve subjective and clinical outcomes in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Combining treatments as an initial approach to treating patellofemoral pain but developing individualized more functional, global treatments are essential. PMID:23738270
Mortensen, S P; Mørkeberg, J; Thaning, P; Hellsten, Y; Saltin, B
During exercise, contracting muscles can override sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity (functional sympatholysis). ATP and adenosine have been proposed to play a role in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation. However, little is known about the role of muscle training status on functional sympatholysis and ATP- and adenosine-induced vasodilation. Eight male subjects (22 ± 2 yr, Vo(2max): 49 ± 2 ml O(2)·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were studied before and after 5 wk of one-legged knee-extensor training (3-4 times/wk) and 2 wk of immobilization of the other leg. Leg hemodynamics were measured at rest, during exercise (24 ± 4 watts), and during arterial ATP (0.94 ± 0.03 μmol/min) and adenosine (5.61 ± 0.03 μmol/min) infusion with and without coinfusion of tyramine (11.11 μmol/min). During exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was lower in the trained leg (2.5 ± 0.1 l/min) compared with the control leg (2.6 ± 0.2 l/min; P < 0.05), and it was higher in the immobilized leg (2.9 ± 0.2 l/min; P < 0.05). Tyramine infusion lowers LBF similarly at rest, but, when tyramine was infused during exercise, LBF was blunted in the immobilized leg (2.5 ± 0.2 l/min; P < 0.05), whereas it was unchanged in the control and trained leg. Mean arterial pressure was lower during exercise with the trained leg compared with the immobilized leg (P < 0.05), and leg vascular conductance was similar. During ATP infusion, the LBF response was higher after immobilization (3.9 ± 0.3 and 4.5 ± 0.6 l/min in the control and immobilized leg, respectively; P < 0.05), whereas it did not change after training. When tyramine was coinfused with ATP, LBF was reduced in the immobilized leg (P < 0.05) but remained similar in the control and trained leg. Training increased skeletal muscle P2Y2 receptor content (P < 0.05), whereas it did not change with immobilization. These results suggest that muscle inactivity impairs functional sympatholysis and that the magnitude of hyperemia and blood pressure response to exercise
Long, Littleton, Ed.
This collection focuses on writing exercises, both expository and creative, as well as areas of adjacent concern. The book is divided into nine major sections: prewriting; diction; theme, thesis, and paragraph; style; ideas for whole papers and special topics; description; research; the short story; and rewriting. The exercises deal with such…
Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E
High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.
In the late 1990s, Lambda Research Inc., of Cincinnati, Ohio, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn Research Center to demonstrate low plasticity burnishing (LPB) on metal engine components. By producing a thermally stable deep layer of compressive residual stress, LPB significantly strengthened turbine alloys. After Lambda patented the process, the Federal Aviation Administration accepted LPB for repair and alteration of commercial aircraft components, the U.S. Department of Energy found LPB suitable for treating nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain. Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration confirmed LPB to completely eliminate the occurrence of fretting fatigue failures in modular hip implants.
... Strengthening bonds. In any instance where the penal sum of the bond on file becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum or give a... limiting the amount of either bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds will show...
... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of... surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to cover the entire liability. Strengthening... penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date of execution and the effective date....
... Strengthening bonds. In all cases when the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new... amount of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...
Roberts, William O.
Describes a classification system devised for exercise-associated collapse in endurance events based on casualties observed at six Twin Cities Marathons. Major diagnostic criteria are body temperature and mental status. Management protocol includes fluid and fuel replacement, temperature correction, and leg cramp treatment. (Author/SM)
Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A
Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383
Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A
Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.
Caulfield, Brian; Crowe, Louis; Coughlan, Garrett; Minogue, Conor
We need to find novel ways of increasing exercise participation, particularly in those populations who find it difficult to participate in voluntary exercise. In recent years researchers have started to investigate the potential for using electrical stimulation to artificially stimulate a pattern of muscle activity that would induce a physiological response consistent with cardiovascular exercise. Work to date has indicated that this is best achieved by using a stimulation protocol that results in rapid rhythmical isometric contractions of the large leg muscle groups at sub tetanic frequencies. Studies completed by our group indicate that this technique can serve as a viable alternative to voluntary cardiovascular exercise. Apart from being able to induce a cardiovascular exercise effect in patient populations (e.g. heart failure, COPD, spinal cord injury, obesity), this approach may also have value in promotion of exercise activity in a microgravity environment.
... diets, and for some, this may develop into eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. And some people ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and ...
Biguet, Gabriele; Elfving, Britt
Objective: To identify and describe the qualitative variations in how physical activity is perceived and understood by individuals with current or previous venous leg ulcer. Design: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Method: Twenty-two individuals aged 60–85 years were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by three researchers using a phenomenographic research approach. A set of categories of descriptions and their internal relationships were constructed based on the essential features of the variation in patients’ perceptions of physical activity. Results: Four categories of descriptions were identified: (i) ‘self-management’, (ii) ‘instructions and support’, (iii) ‘fear of injury’ and (iv) ‘a wish to stay normal’. The categories could be interpreted by a two-dimensional construct: (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. Chronicity and behaviour combined together formed a 2 × 2 square housing the four qualitatively different categories. Irrespective of category, the participants reported that information given by caregivers regarding leg ulcer and physical activity was insufficient or contradictory. Written information or exercise programmes were not obtained regularly and not at all in primary care. Conclusion: A dichotomous view emerged from participants’ experiences of physical activity based on (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. PMID:21148268
Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard
Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs.
Peterson, Carrie L; Cheng, Jing; Kautz, Steven A; Neptune, Richard R
Forward propulsion is a central task of walking that depends on the generation of appropriate anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (AP GRFs). The AP impulse (i.e., time integral of the AP GRF) generated by the paretic leg relative to the non-paretic leg is a quantitative measure of the paretic leg's contribution to forward propulsion and is variable across hemiparetic subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of propulsion generation in hemiparetic walking by identifying the biomechanical predictors of AP impulses. Three-dimensional kinematics and GRFs were recorded from 51 hemiparetic and 21 age-matched control subjects walking at similar speeds on an instrumented treadmill. Hierarchical regression models were generated for each leg to predict the AP impulse from independent biomechanical variables. Leg extension was a significant predictor and positively related to the propulsive impulse in the paretic, non-paretic and control legs. Secondarily, the hip flexor moment impulse was negatively related to the propulsive impulse. Also, the relationship of paretic and non-paretic ankle moments with the propulsive impulse depended on the paretic step ratio, suggesting the plantar flexor contribution to the propulsive impulse depends on leg angle. These results suggest that increasing paretic leg extension will increase propulsion. Increasing paretic plantar flexor output and decreasing paretic hip flexor output could also increase paretic leg propulsion. While increased pre-swing hip flexor output has been suggested to compensate for decreased plantar flexor output, such output may further impair propulsion by the paretic leg if it occurs too soon in the gait cycle.
Hargens, Alan R.; Breit, G. A.; Gross, J. H.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Chance, B.
Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) is characterized by muscle ischemia, usually in the anterior oompartment of the leg, caused by high intramuscular pressure during exercise. Dual-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an optical technique that allows noninvasive tracking of variations in muscle tissue oxygenation (Chance et al., 1988). We hypothesized that with a model CCS, muscle tissue oxygenation will show a greater decline during exercise and a slower recovery post-exercise than under normal conditions.
Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan
Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results. PMID:23960288
Pop, F.; Lovasz, E.-Ch; Pop, C.; Dolga, V.
An eight bar leg mechanism dimensional synthesis is presented. The mathematical model regarding the synthesis is described and the results obtained after computation are verified with help of 2D mechanism simulation in Matlab. This mechanism, inspired from proposed solution of Theo Jansen, is integrated into the structure of a 2 DOF quadruped robot. With help of the kinematic synthesis method described, it is tried to determine new dimensions for the mechanism, based on a set of initial conditions. These are established by taking into account the movement of the end point of the leg mechanism, which enters in contact with the ground, during walking. An optimization process based on the results obtained can be conducted further in order to find a better solution for the leg mechanism.
Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A
The probability of failure, Pf, for various square-arrayed thermoelectric device designs using bismuth telluride, lead telluride, or skutterudite thermoelectric materials were estimated. Only volume- or bulk-based Pf analysis was considered in this study. The effects of the choice of the thermoelectric material, the size of the leg array, the height of the thermoelectric legs, and the boundary conditions on the Pf of thermoelectric devices were investigated. Yielding of the solder contacts and mounting layer was taken into account. The modeling results showed that the use of longer legs, using skutterudites, allowing the thermoelectric device to freely deform while under a thermal gradient, and using smaller arrays promoted higher probabilities of survival.
Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Karvat, Jhenifer; Peretti, Ana Luiza; Vieira, Lizyana; Higuchi, Guilherme Hideaki; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko
Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury), exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise), lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise), and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise). LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p = 0.012) and larger than LG and LEG (p < 0.001). Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons. PMID:27594795
Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Sinka, Joe; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori
To evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a spaceflight analog setting before validation on the International Space Station, NASA’s Human Research Program is sponsoring a multi-investigator bed rest campaign that uses a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistance and aerobic exercise protocols. These devices include the stand alone zero-gravity locomotion simulator, horizontal squat device, Lode commercial supine cycle ergometer, Cybex commercial prone leg curl machine, and Quantum Fitness commercial horizontal leg press. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware that are used to support current bed rest studies at NASA’s Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, Texas, USA.
Balantrapu, Swathi; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Pula, John H; Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W
Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal) and 4 (contracted). Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW), timed 25 foot walk (T25FW), and timed up-and-go (TUG), and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc.) for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n = 44) of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P = 0.0001, d = -0.86), T25FW (P = 0.003, d = 0.72), TUG (P = 0.001, d = 0.84), MSWS-12 (P = 0.0001, d = 1.09), O2 cost of walking (P = 0.001, d = 0.75), average steps/day (P < 0.05, d = -0.45), and walking velocity (P < 0.05, d = -0.53) and cadence (P < 0.05, d = -0.46). Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking.
Balantrapu, Swathi; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Pula, John H.; Sandroff, Brian M.; Motl, Robert W.
Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal) and 4 (contracted). Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW), timed 25 foot walk (T25FW), and timed up-and-go (TUG), and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc.) for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n = 44) of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P = 0.0001, d = −0.86), T25FW (P = 0.003, d = 0.72), TUG (P = 0.001, d = 0.84), MSWS-12 (P = 0.0001, d = 1.09), O2 cost of walking (P = 0.001, d = 0.75), average steps/day (P < 0.05, d = −0.45), and walking velocity (P < 0.05, d = −0.53) and cadence (P < 0.05, d = −0.46). Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking. PMID:24999434
Robinson, Mark; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor
Abdominal exercises are widely used to develop the anterior muscles of the trunk. These exercises can be undertaken without the aid of equipment, but increasingly manufacturers are developing equipment which purportedly enhances the training effect for abdominal muscles. As there are many different products and exercises used for abdominal muscle development, it is likely that some are more effective than others. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of five commonly performed abdominal exercises. A second aim was to investigate the effects of fatigue on these exercises. Five different types of abdominal exercise [standard crunch (sit-up) with bent knees, gym ball crunch, crunch with 5 kg weight held behind the head, legs raised crunch and a commercially manufactured roller crunch] were examined using integrated surface electromyography (IEMG). The lower rectus abdominis (LRA), upper rectus abdominis (URA) and obliquus externus abdominis (EO) of 15 healthy male participants [age (mean +/- SD) 22.2 +/- 6.8 years; height 1.77 +/- 0.06 m; mass 79.3 +/- 10.7 kg] were monitored using a four-channel special purpose EMG data logger. Three trials of each exercise were performed in random order and normalized to enable comparisons between muscles and exercises. At a later date, ten participants were then re-tested when fresh and after a 30 min whole-body fatigue protocol that specifically targeted the abdominal muscles. Two exercises were evaluated, the abdominal roller crunch and legs raised crunch, which were judged to be the least and most effective, respectively, of the five exercises previously used. The normalized IEMG showed significant (p < 0.001) differences between exercises (gym ball crunch = 86.0 +/- 7.5%; legs raised crunch = 79.9 +/- 5.1%; 5 kg weight crunch = 65.1 +/- 13.4%; standard crunch = 56.2 +/- 3.2%; and roller crunch = 45.0 +/- 11.4%). Post-fatigue, the normalized mean IEMG for both exercises increased significantly (p < 0.05) for LRA and
White, Steven R; Scalapino, D J
While density matrix renormalization group calculations find stripes on doped n-leg t-J ladders, little is known about the possible formation of stripes on n-leg Hubbard ladders. Here we report results for a 7x6 Hubbard model with four holes. We find that a stripe forms for values of U/t ranging from 6 to 20. For U/t approximately 3-4, the system exhibits the domain wall feature of a stripe, but the hole density is very broadened.
Goldfarb, Michael; Lawson, Brian E; Shultz, Amanda H
Recent advances in robotics technology are enabling the emergence of robotic leg prostheses that can emulate the full biomechanical functionality of the healthy limb. The behavior of such prostheses is software-controllable, in an analogous manner to the way in which the central nervous system controls the human musculoskeletal system. Although these prostheses have the capability of reproducing the biomechanical behavior of the healthy limb, their ability to do so is a function of how well the prosthesis control system coordinates the movement of the leg with the movement of the user.
Aksöz, Efe Anil; Laubacher, Marco; Binder-Macleod, Stuart; Hunt, Kenneth J.
Recumbent cycling exercise achieved by functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the paralyzed leg muscles is effective for cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal conditioning after spinal cord injury, but its full potential has not yet been realized. Mechanical power output and efficiency is very low and endurance is limited due to early onset of muscle fatigue. The aim of this work was to compare stochastic modulation of the inter-pulse interval (IPI) to constant-frequency stimulation during an isokinetic leg extension task similar to FES-cycling. Seven able-bodied subjects participated: both quadriceps muscles were stimulated (n = 14) with two activation patterns (P1-constant frequency, P2-stochastic IPI). There was significantly higher power output with P2 during the first 30 s (p = 0.0092), the last 30 s (p = 0.018) and overall (p = 0.0057), but there was no overall effect on fatiguability when stimulation frequency was randomly modulated. PMID:27990242
Mepani, Rachel; Antonik, Stephen; Massey, Benson; Kern, Mark; Logemann, Jerilyn; Pauloski, Barbara; Rademaker, Alfred; Easterling, Caryn; Shaker, Reza
Earlier studies of the effect of 6 weeks of the Shaker Exercise have shown significant increase in UES opening and anterior excursion of larynx and hyoid during swallowing in patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, resulting in elimination of aspiration and resumption of oral intake. This effect is attributed to strengthening of the suprahyoid muscles, as evidenced by comparison of electromyographic changes in muscle fatigue before and after completion of the exercise regime. The effect of this exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening is unknown. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening. We studied 11 dysphagic patients with UES dysfunction. Six were randomized to traditional swallowing therapy and five to the Shaker Exercise. Videofluoroscopy was used to measure deglutitive thyrohyoid shortening before and after completion of assigned therapy regimen. Maximum thyrohyoid muscle shortening occurred at close temporal proximity to the time of maximal thyroid cartilage excursion. The percent change in thyrohyoid distance from initiation of deglutition to maximal anterior/superior hyoid excursion showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups prior to either therapy (p = 0.54). In contrast, after completion of therapy, the percent change in thyrohyoid distance in the Shaker Exercise group was significantly greater compared to the traditional therapy (p = 0.034). The Shaker Exercise augments the thyrohyoid muscle shortening in addition to strengthening the suprahyoid muscles. The combination of increased thyrohyoid shortening and suprahyoid strengthening contributes to the Shaker Exercise outcome of deglutitive UES opening augmentation.
Minnini, Margot; Elkhamri, Oksana O.
President Obama’s decision over four years ago to ”pivot” toward Asia represented an important strategic shift in American foreign policy and a rebalancing of U.S. economic and security engagement in the Asia-Pacific countries. The United States has since supported a variety of regional initiatives aimed at promoting nuclear security and safeguards. When a new regional organization, the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN) was established in 2010, DOE/NNSA became an early member and enthusiastic advocate. Launched on the initiative of Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Indonesia, the APSN aims to strengthen the quality and effectiveness of safeguards implementation in the Asia-Pacific region.
Mehta, U; Dheda, M; Steel, G; Blockman, M; Ntilivamunda, A; Maartens, G; Pillay, Y; Cohen, K
This report outlines findings and recommendations of a national pharmacovigilance workshop held in August 2012 in South Africa (SA). A survey of current pharmacovigilance activities, conducted in preparation for the meeting, identified multiple programmes collecting drug safety data in SA, with limited co-ordination at national level. The meeting resolved that existing pharmacovigilance programmes need to be strengthened and consolidated to ensure that important local safety issues are addressed, data can be pooled and compared and outputs shared more widely. Pharmacovigilance activities should inform treatment guidelines with the goal of improving patient care. A variety of pharmaco-epidemiological approaches should be employed, including nesting drug safety studies within existing sentinel cohorts and the creation of a pregnancy exposure registry. The attendees agreed on key principles that will inform a national pharmacovigilance plan and compiled a list of priority pharmacovigilance issues facing public health programmes in SA.
Manconi, Mauro; Zavalko, Irina; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Colamartino, Elisabetta; Pons, Marco; Ferri, Raffaele
Study Objectives: To describe the time structure of leg movements (LM) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, in order to advance understanding of their clinical significance. Location: Sleep Research Centre, Oasi Institute (IRCCS), Troina, Italy. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Eighty-four patients (16 females, 68 males, mean age 55.1 y, range 29-74 y). Methods: Respiratory-related leg movements (RRLM) and those unrelated to respiratory events (NRLM) were examined within diagnostic polysomnograms alone and together for their distributions within the sleep period and for their periodicity. Measurements and Results: Patients with OSA and RRLM exhibited more periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS), particularly in NREM sleep. A gradual decrease in number of NRLM across the sleep period was observed in patients with RRLM. This pattern was less clear for RRLM. Frequency histograms of intermovement intervals of all LMs in patients with RRLM showed a prominent first peak at 4 sec, and a second peak at approximately 24 sec coincident with that of PLMS occurring in the absence of OSA. A third peak of lowest amplitude was the broadest with a maximum at approximately 42 sec. In patients lacking RRLM, NRLM were evident with a single peak at 2-4 sec. A stepwise linear regression analysis showed that, after controlling for a diagnosis of restless legs syndrome and apnea-hypopnea index, PLMS remained significantly associated with RRLM. Conclusion: The time structure of leg movements occurring in conjunction with respiratory events exhibit features of periodic leg movements in sleep occurring alone, only with a different and longer period. This brings into question the validity, both biologic and clinical, of scoring conventions with their a priori exclusion from consideration as periodic leg movements in sleep. Citation: Manconi M; Zavalko I; Bassetti CL; Colamartino E; Pons M; Ferri R. Respiratory-related leg movements and their relationship with periodic leg movements
Foster, Philip P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Woodruff, Kristin K.; Schneider, Susan M.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)
A 10 min aerobic prebreathe exercise up to 75% V-O2(sub max) on a dual-cycle ergometer, included in the 2-hour prebreathe protocol, has been shown to dramatically reduce the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) at altitude. In-flight only leg ergometry will be available. A balanced exercise was developed using surgical tubing with the ergometer on-orbit. We hypothesize that a 75% V02max workload, individually prescribed, would be achieved using a target heart rate to regulate the intensity of the arm exercise. VO2, heart rate (HR) / ECG, V-CO2 /V-O2, V(sub E), and V(sub T), and rate of perceived exertion (Borg scale) were measured in eleven healthy subjects who passed a US Air Force Class III Physical examination. A V-O2 peak test was performed to assess the sub-maximal exercise prescription. Two series of sub-maximal tests were performed: (1) leg ergometer/hand ergometer and (2) leg ergometer/surgical tubes. We found no significant differences (P > 0.05) in comparing the means for V-O2 and HR between the predicted and measured values during the final 4 minute-stage at "75% V-O2 workload" or between the two types of sub-maximal tests. The prescribed prebreathe sub-maximal exercise performed with flight certified surgical tubes was achieved using the target HR.
Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu
Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced.
Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot. PMID:27134364
Gaught, Amber M; Carneiro, Kevin A
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease that affects more than one-third of older adults (age > 65 years), most often involving the hip and knee. Osteoarthritis causes pain and limits mobility, thereby reducing patient quality of life. Conservative, nonsurgical, nonpharmacologic treatment strategies include weight reduction, orthotics, physical therapy modalities, acupuncture, massage, and exercise. The breadth of the current literature on OA can make determining the appropriate exercise prescription challenging. Aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, Tai chi, and aquatic exercise can all alleviate pain and improve function in patients with OA. The choice of the specific type and mode of delivery of the exercise should be individualized and should consider the patient's preferences. Ongoing monitoring and supervision by a health care professional are essential for patients to participate in and benefit from exercise.
Kim, Kanghoon; Lee, Taesik
[Purpose] This study compared the muscle activities of sit-up and leg-raise. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were healthy students in their 20s. For electromyography of sit-ups and leg-raises in the supine position, 5 muscle groups of the abdomen were selected for the attachment of sensors: the upper and lower rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris, and the iliopsoas. SPSS 20.0 was used for the statistical analysis. One-way ANOVA with repeated measures of all factors was performed to verify the statistical significance of the measurements taken for the muscle activities and follow-up verification was made with the Bonferroni post hoc test. [Results] Sit-up and leg raise showed a significant difference. The eccentric sit-up exercise elicited a significant increase in the activation of the abdominal muscle. The leg raise and eccentric sit-up exercises elicited significant increases in the activation of hip flexor muscle. [Conclusion] The eccentric sit-up had the most outstanding effect on the abdominal muscles involved in stability of the trunk.
Kim, Kanghoon; Lee, Taesik
[Purpose] This study compared the muscle activities of sit-up and leg-raise. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were healthy students in their 20s. For electromyography of sit-ups and leg-raises in the supine position, 5 muscle groups of the abdomen were selected for the attachment of sensors: the upper and lower rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris, and the iliopsoas. SPSS 20.0 was used for the statistical analysis. One-way ANOVA with repeated measures of all factors was performed to verify the statistical significance of the measurements taken for the muscle activities and follow-up verification was made with the Bonferroni post hoc test. [Results] Sit-up and leg raise showed a significant difference. The eccentric sit-up exercise elicited a significant increase in the activation of the abdominal muscle. The leg raise and eccentric sit-up exercises elicited significant increases in the activation of hip flexor muscle. [Conclusion] The eccentric sit-up had the most outstanding effect on the abdominal muscles involved in stability of the trunk. PMID:27065536
Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian
Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777
Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W
One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses.
Full, R J; Tu, M S
Six-legged pedestrians, cockroaches, use a running gait during locomotion. The gait was defined by measuring ground reaction forces and mechanical energy fluctuations of the center of mass in Blaberus discoidalis (Serville) as they travelled over a miniature force platform. These six-legged animals produce horizontal and vertical ground-reaction patterns of force similar to those found in two-, four- and eight-legged runners. Lateral forces were less than half the vertical force fluctuations. At speeds between 0.08 and 0.66 ms-1, horizontal kinetic and gravitational potential energy changes were in phase. This pattern of energy fluctuation characterizes the bouncing gaits used by other animals that run. Blaberus discoidalis attained a maximum sustainable stride frequency of 13 Hz at 0.35 ms-1, the same speed and frequency predicted for a mammal of the same mass. Despite differences in body form, the mass-specific energy used to move the center of mass a given distance (0.9 J kg-1m-1) was the same for cockroaches, ghost crabs, mammals, and birds. Similarities in force production, stride frequency and mechanical energy production during locomotion suggest that there may be common design constraints in terrestrial locomotion which scale with body mass and are relatively independent of body form, leg number and skeletal type.
Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.
Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078
... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Why Exercise Is Wise KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Exercise Is ... exercise, strength training, and flexibility training. continue Aerobic Exercise Like other muscles, the heart enjoys a good ...
... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Exercise A A ... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who ...
... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...
... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...
... Training Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Ask a Question Find a Doctor ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...
... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000083.htm Diabetes and exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... not exercising at all. Your Blood Sugar and Exercise Check your blood sugar before you exercise. Also, ...
Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...
Greenleaf, John (Editor)
The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.
Cantwell, W.; Selstad, R.
Tandem wheel drop-leg device provides a semitrailer with fore and aft mobility that allows it to be moved without a prime mover. The modified drop-legs have trunnion dual wheels and an adjustable brace.
11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE
A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.
Pingel, J; Langberg, H; Skovgård, D; Koskinen, S; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J; Kjær, M; Hansen, M
Menopause is associated with loss of collagen content in the skin and tendon as well as accumulation of noncontractile tissue in skeletal muscle. The relative role of hormones and physical activity on these changes is not known. Accordingly, in a randomized, controlled, crossover study we investigated effects of transdermal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on type I collagen synthesis in tendon and skeletal muscle in 11 postmenopausal women. Patches with estrogen (Evorel) were placed on the skin above the patellar tendons and compared with no patch (control period). On day 2 all subjects performed one-legged exercise, and thereafter the exercised leg (EX leg) was compared with the nonexercised leg (Rest leg). Microdialysis catheters were placed in front of the patellar tendons and in the vastus lateralis muscle of both legs at days 3 and 5. The collected dialysate was analyzed for procollagen type I NH(2)-terminal propeptide (PINP), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Neither loading (Rest leg vs. EX leg) nor treatment (control vs. ERT) influenced peritendinous PINP, whereas combined exercise and ERT enhanced muscle PINP after 72 h (interaction between loading and treatment P = 0.008). In neither skeletal muscle nor peritendinous fluid were IGF-I and IL-6 influenced by treatment or exercise. In conclusion, ERT was associated with enhanced synthesis of type I collagen in the skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. In perspective, this indicates that the availability of estrogen in postmenopausal women is important for repair of muscle damage or remodeling of the connective tissue within the skeletal muscle after exercise.
Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Pehlivanidis, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Valle, Xavier; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola
Hamstring strain injuries are the most prevalent muscle injuries in track and field (TF). These injuries often cause prolonged symptoms and a high risk of re-injury. Strengthening of the hamstring muscles has been recommended for injury prevention. The authors review the possible role of eccentric training in TF hamstring injury prevention and introduce exercise classification criteria to guide clinicians in designing strengthening programmes adapted to TF. The principles exposed may serve as a foundation for future development and application of new eccentric programmes to decrease the high incidence of this type of injury in other sports.
Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Hedge, Vickie; Coleman, Eugen; Moore, Thomas P.
Leg volume changes were studied in six subjects during 150 min of horizontal, 6 deg headdown tilt and supine immersion. Results were compared to previously obtained space flight data. It is found that, at equivalent study times, the magnitude of the leg volume changes during the simulations was less than one half that seen during space flight. Relative and absolute losses from the upper leg were greater during space flight, while relative losses were greater from the lower leg during simulations.
Ohn, Jungyoon; Byun, Sang Young; Kim, In Su
Venous leg ulcers, the most common form of leg ulcers, are relevant to the pathogenicity of pericapillary fibrin cuff. Sarcoidosis, a multiorgan granulomatous disease, causes fibrin deposition in tissues. We report a case of a 50-year-old man with venous leg ulcers coexisting with sarcoidosis. On the basis of the histologic findings, we propose the hypothesis that sarcoidosis patients are prone to the development of venous leg ulcers. PMID:26719645
Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)
An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.
Greenleaf, J. E.; Spaul, W. A.; Kravik, S. E.; Wong, N.; Elder, C. A.
The present investigation is concerned with thermoregulation at rest and during exercise after water-immersion deconditioning, giving particular attention to the effects of fluid shifts and negative water balance on sweat rate and rectal temperature. Six healthy males 20-35 years old were used in the experiments. Rectal and mean skin temperature, skin heat conductance, heart rate, and total body sweat rate were measured during 70 min of supine leg exercise at 50 percent of peak O2 uptake. The data were taken after a 6-h control period in air and after immersion to the neck in water (34.5 C) for 6 h after overnight food and fluid restriction. Attention is given to end exercise heart rates and data during exercise. The obtained results suggest that, compared with control responses, the equilibrium level of core temperature during submaximal exercise is regulated at a higher level after immersion.
It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders.
Sakamoto, Keiko; Nakamura, Takeshi; Umemoto, Yasunori; Koike, Yumi; Sasaki, Yusuke; Tajima, Fumihiro
Isometric muscle contraction (static exercise) induces circulatory response. Static exercise in individuals with thoracic spinal cord injury (TSCI) induces cardiovascular response and blood redistribution to the non-exercising muscles. The aim of our study was to determine the circulatory response during arm static exercise in individuals with TSCI and able-bodied (AB) controls. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), leg skin blood flow (SBF), and leg muscle blood flow (MBF) were recorded noninvasively, total peripheral resistance (TPR) was estimated by dividing MBP by CO, and hormonal changes were measured before, during and after static 35% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the arm flexor muscles in seven male individuals with TSCI (T7-T11) and seven age-comparable AB control (32.2 ± 7.6 and 31.0 ± 4.7 years, respectively). The 35% MVC was similar in TSCI and AB individuals (107.3 ± 28.2 and 101.0 ± 22.5 N, respectively). HR, CO, MBP, TPR, SBF and MBF increased in both groups during arm static exercise. Plasma epinephrine concentration increased during arm static exercise in AB controls only (P < 0.05). Circulation to leg muscles was similar in TSCI and AB individuals and the lack of sympathetic vasoconstriction in the paralyzed leg area did not alter the cardiovascular responses during 35% MVC of arm static exercise. We conclude that sympathetic vasoconstriction in the resting leg area did not contribute to the pressor reflex during 35% MVC of arm static exercise.
Mizuno, S; Morii, I; Tsuchiya, Y; Goto, K
The present study examined the effects of wearing a lower-body compression garment (CG) after endurance exercise on recovery of physiological function. 18 males were divided into 2 experiments, the downhill running (n=10, DHR) experiments and the level running (n=8, LR) experiments. Subjects performed 30 min of DHR (gradient: - 10%) or LR (gradient: 0%) at 70% of ˙VO2max with either wearing a CG (CG trial) or normal garment (CON trial) for 24 h after running. Changes in jump performance (counter movement jump; CMJ, rebound jump; RJ, drop jump; DJ), subjective feelings, circumferences of leg, and blood variables (creatine kinase, myoglobin, interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were evaluated before exercise, immediately after exercise, 1, 3 and 24 h following exercise. Running economy was evaluated at 24 h following exercise. CMJ height and RJ index were significantly higher in the CG trial than in the CON trial 24 h after running (P<0.05). Although changes in muscle soreness and blood variables were significantly greater in the DHR experiment than in the LR experiment, there was no significant difference between the trials in either experiment. Wearing a CG following endurance exercise facilitated recovery of jump performance under situations with severe exercise-induced muscle damage.
Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Trowbridge, T. S.; Wade, C. E.
Results are presented from a study to determine whether or not short-term variable intensity isotonic and intermittent high-intensity isokinetic short-duration leg exercise is effective for the maintenance of peak O2 (VO2) uptake and muscular strength and endurance, respectively, during 30 days of -6 deg head-down bed rest deconditioning. The results show no significant changes in leg peak torque, leg mean total work, arm total peak torque, or arm mean total work for members of the isotonic, isokinetic, and controls groups. Changes are observed, however, in peak VO2 levels. The results suggest that near-peak variabile intensity, isotonic leg excercise maintains peak VO2 during 30 days of bed rest, while peak intermittent, isokinetic leg excercise protocol does not.
Wade, C. E.; Stanford, K. I.; Stein, T. P.; Greenleaf, J. E.
Spaceflight and prolonged bed rest (BR) alter plasma hormone levels inconsistently. This may be due, in part, to prescription of heavy exercise as a countermeasure for ameliorating the adverse effects of disuse. The initial project was to assess exercise programs to maintain aerobic performance and leg strength during BR. The present study evaluates the effect of BR and the performance of the prescribed exercise countermeasures on plasma steroid levels. In a 30-day BR study of male subjects, the efficacy of isotonic (ITE, n = 7) or isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training was evaluated in contrast to no exercise (n = 5). These exercise countermeasures protected aerobic performance and leg strength successfully. BR alone (no-exercise group) did not change steroidogenesis, as assessed by the plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, aldosterone, and free (FT) and total testosterone (TT). In the exercise groups, both FT and TT were decreased (P < 0.05): FT during IKE from 24 +/- 1.7 to 18 +/- 2.0 pg/ml and during ITE from 21 +/- 1.5 to 18 +/- 1 pg/ml, and TT during IKE from 748 +/- 68 to 534 +/- 46 ng/dl and during ITE from 565 +/- 36 to 496 +/- 38 ng/dl. The effect of intensive exercise countermeasures on plasma testosterone was not associated with indexes of overtraining. The reduction in plasma testosterone associated with both the IKE and ITE countermeasures during BR supports our hypothesis that intensive exercise countermeasures may, in part, contribute to changes in plasma steroid concentrations during spaceflight.
Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.
Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 17.107 Section 17.107 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and in effect becomes insufficient, the principal may give a strengthening bond in a sufficient...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 17.107 Section 17.107 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and in effect becomes insufficient, the principal may give a strengthening bond in a sufficient...
... bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to... of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...
The prevalence of leg ulcers, which are most commonly caused by venous insufficiency, is high in Europe. Current treatments are fairly unsatisfactory, with long healing times in many cases, as well as a high risk of relapse. Over the last 15 years, improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms at work in delayed wound healing has contributed to the development of cellular therapy in this field. The use of keratinocytes or cultured fibroblasts, whether autogenic or allogenic, has been of little value in terms of either healing times or rates of complete healing. For the moment, there are very few allogenic skin substitutes available; they are expensive and have been insufficiently studied in the indication of leg ulcers. Pluripotent mesenchymal adult stem cells have proved capable of accelerating wound healing in animal models and their study in chronic wounds in humans is currently awaited.
Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.
Following exposure to weightlessness, alterations in the return of blood from the legs play a crucial role in orthostatic tolerance and may be an important factor in work tolerance. To investigate some of the hemodynamic mechansism involved, an experiment was performed on the Skylab 3 and Skylab 4 missions to study arterial blood flow, venous compliance, and muscle pumping of blood. Skylab 4 results indicated that the most likely cause of increased blood flow was an increase in cardiac output secondary to increased central venous pressure caused by blood redistribution. Changes in venous compliance are thought to be primarily changes in somatic musculature which is postulated to primarily determine venous compliance of the legs. This was also thought to be demonstrated by the changes in muscle pumping. It is thought that these compliance changes, when taken with the decreased blood volume; provide a basis for the changes seen in orthostatic tolerance, work capacity and lower body negative pressure response.
Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.
A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.
Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl
This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.
Alexander, Gregory Czerniak , Dr. Dave Bednarz and Sean Hadley, my co-authors on related conference publications. My committee members Professor C. J...2008) Bipedal Walkiing Army Science Conference. Orlando, FL. 102 Muench. P., Cheok, K. C., Czerniak , G., & Bednarz, D. (2009). Optimal Time and...Muench, P., Cheok, K.C., Czerniak , G., (2010) Optimal Powering Schemes for Legged Robotics. SPl£. Orlando, FL. NeIder. 1. A., and Mead, R. (1965). A
Dormandy, J A
In terms of prevalence, total cost and morbidity, venous leg ulcers are probably by far the most important type of ulcerations in the leg. The macrocirculatory defect leading to a raised ambulatory venous pressure is now accepted as a common initial pathologic pathway. Most current treatment modalities, such as surgery or external compression, are designed to control the macrovascular defect. However, it is the microcirculatory consequences of the venous hypertension that give rise to the trophic skin changes and ultimately to ulceration. At this microcirculatory level, pharmacotherapy may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. The microcirculatory pathophysiologic changes include decreased fibrinolytic activity, elevated plasma fibrinogen, microcirculatory thrombi, and inappropriate activation of the white blood cells. The oxidative burst from the activated white cells probably plays a key role by releasing locally leukocyte-derived free radicals, proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, platelet-activating factor, and a number of other noxious mediators. An important additional component in recalcitrant venous ulcers is co-existing arterial disease, which is probably present in 15-20% of cases. Decreased arterial perfusion pressure will further aggravate the ischemic changes caused by the venous hypertension. Pentoxifylline downregulates leukocyte activation, reduces leukocyte adhesion, and also has fibrinolytic effects. A number of clinical studies have therefore been carried out to examine the clinical efficacy of pentoxifylline in treatment of venous leg ulcers. Probably the largest published placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study was reported in 1990. In this study, 80 patients received either pentoxifylline 400 mg three times a day orally or matching placebo for 6 months or until their reference ulcer healed if this occurred sooner. Complete healing of the reference ulcer occurred in 23 of the 38 patients treated with pentoxifylline
Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.
Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.
Lee, Hyo-Cheol; Lee, Mi Lim; Kim, Seon-Rye
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an exercise intervention on the balance ability and muscle function of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were randomly divided into a control group (n=10) and an exercise group (n=10). [Methods] The subjects participated in an elastic band exercise program lasting for 8 weeks, exercising for 40 minutes, four days a week with resting terms of 60 sec. Subjects used a band corresponding to 60% of the strength of the color band with which repetitive exercise was possible up to twelve times. The subjects performed elastic band exercises, with variations to the number of band exercises according to the improvement of their physical fitness levels. When fifteen repetitive elastic band exercises could be performed with no damage of the body, we changed the band for one which was one level up from the former one and subjects used the same band for the upper body and lower body. [Results] Leg muscular strength measured as sit-stand repetitions in 30 s significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. Leg muscular endurance measured as the number of knee ups in 2 minutes significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. Balance measured by one-leg standing time with the eyes open significantly improved in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. [Conclusion] Balance ability and muscle function significantly improved in the exercise group and showing that the intervention is effective at improving balance, muscle strength, and muscle endurance of elderly women. PMID:25995539
Leg contracture, defined as the difference in extensibility of the control and irradiated hind legs of mice, was found to correlate with single doses of radiation from about 20 to 80 Gy. The time of development of the early phase of the response coincided with that reported for the appearance of the acute skin response, and in some cases, partially reversed as this reaction healed. The contracture then progressed again at a moderate rate through 90 days, and then more slowly through one year. Skin contraction, measured by decrease in intertattoo distance, was assayed in the same mice. It followed the same time course as leg contracture, but had a different dose-response relationship. To determine the contribution of skin contraction to the overall leg contracture response, mice were sacrificed and the leg contracture measured before and after the removal of the skin of the leg. After doses of up to 30 Gy, little contracture remained from skinning the leg, indicating that skin contraction was largely responsible for leg contracture in this dose range. After doses of about 45 Gy and above, some contracture remained in the skinned legs, although less than in intact legs. There was little or no enhancement of either skin contraction or leg contracture by the hypoxic cell sensitizers metronidazole or misonidazole.
Aldrete, J A; Couto da Silva JM
Despite the increasing popularity of intrathecal infusions to treat patients with long-term non-cancer-related pain, this therapy is not without serious side-effects. Five out of 23 patients who had intrathecal infusions of opiates for longer than 24 months developed leg and feet edema. As predisposing factors, cardiovascular disease, deep venous thrombosis, peripheral vascular disease, and venous stasis of the lower extremities were considered. Every patient who developed pedal and leg edema after the implantation of an infusion pump was also found to have leg edema and venous stasis prior to the time when the pump was inserted. This complication was severe enough to limit their physical activity, and to produce lymphedema, ulcerations and hyperpigmentation of the skin. Reduction of the edema occurred when the dose of the opiate was decreased, and in two cases in which the infusion was discontinued, there was almost complete resolution of the syndrome. It appears that the pre-existence of pedal edema and of venous stasis is a relative contraindication to the long-term intrathecal infusion of opiates in patients with chronic non-cancer pain.
Rieser, Jennifer; Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel
Animals traverse a wide variety of complex environments, including situations in which the ground beneath them can yield (e.g. dry granular media in desert dunes). Locomotion strategies that are effective on level granular media can fail when traversing a granular slope. Taking inspiration from successful legged-locomotors in sandy, uneven settings, we explore the ability of a small (15 cm long, 100 g), six-c-shaped legged robot to run uphill in a bed of 1-mm-diameter poppy seeds, using an alternating tripod gait. Our fully automated experiments reveal that locomotor performance can depend sensitively on both environmental parameters such as the inclination angle and volume fraction of the substrate, and robot morphology and control parameters like leg shape, step frequency, and the friction between the feet of the robot and the substrate. We assess performance by measuring the average speed of the robot, and we find that the robot tends to perform better at higher step frequency and lower inclination angles, and that average speed decreases more rapidly with increasing angle for higher step frequency.
Molodoi, Andreea Dana; Dimitriu, Andreea; Andronic, Cătălina Diana; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Bădescu, Aida; Boda, D; Brănisteanu, Daciana Elena
Pyoderma vegetans is a rare disorder that more commonly affects middle-aged persons, with a male predilection. It is characterized by vegetating lesions that coalescence into a plaque with eroded surface, covered by purulent discharge and crusts. The etiology of this disease is not known with certainty, but it is often associated with bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a 73-year-old men who presented to the Iasi Dermatology Clinic with a large, irregular, relatively well-defined dermohypodermic ulcer, with infiltrated sclerosing borders, accompanied by pain, with the floor covered in the Northern part by a proliferative, vegetative bleeding area, and the rest by a yellowish secretion and cellular debris, located on the left leg. Bacteriological examination of ulcer secretion identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Anatomopathological examination confirmed the development of Pyoderma vegetans on chronic leg ulcer. Under specific treatment for chronic leg ulcer and eradication of infectious focus the outcome was favorable both in terms of trophic ulcer scar- ring and Pyoderma vegetans healing.
Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team
Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.
A close-up view of the foot of Scientist-Astronaut William E. Thonton as he demonstrates the use of a treadmill-like exercise device developed for maintaining the leg and back muscles of the Skylab 4 crewmen. The treadmill device consists of a Teflon-coated aluminum plate or sheet bolted to the floor of the Skylab Orbital Workshop. The astronaut will wear the bicycle ergometer harness while exercising. Bungee cords attached to the floor and to the harness will supply the downward pressure or force for the back and leg muscles. The astronaut's feet will slide over the Teflon-coated plate as he 'marches in place.'
Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S
Leg ulcerations are a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% in the adult population. Venous leg ulcers are primarily treated in outpatient settings and often are managed by dermatologists. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers combined with available evidence-based data will provide an update on this topic. A systematized approach and the judicious use of expensive advanced therapeutics are critical. Specialized arterial and venous studies are most commonly noninvasive. The ankle brachial pressure index can be performed with a handheld Doppler unit at the bedside by most clinicians. The vascular laboratory results and duplex Doppler findings are used to identify segmental defects and potential operative candidates. Studies of the venous system can also predict a subset of patients who may benefit from surgery. Successful leg ulcer management requires an interdisciplinary team to make the correct diagnosis, assess the vascular supply, and identify other modifiable factors to optimize healing. The aim of this continuing medical education article is to provide an update on the management of venous leg ulcers. Part I is focused on the approach to venous ulcer diagnostic testing.
Raven, P. B.
Astronauts are often required to work (exercise) at moderate to high intensities for extended periods while performing extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Although the physiologic responses associated with prolonged exercise have been documented, the mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation under these conditions have not yet been fully elucidated. An understanding of this issue is pertinent to the ability of humans to perform work in microgravity and complies with the emphasis of NASA's Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program. Prolonged exercise at a constant workload is know to result in a progressive decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) concomitant with a decrease in stroke volume and a compensatory increase in heart rate. The continuous decrease in MAP during the exercise, which is related to the thermoregulatory redistribution of circulating blood volume to the cutaneous circulation, raises the question as to whether there is a loss of baroreflex regulation of arterial blood pressure. We propose that with prolongation of the exercise to 60 minutes, progressive increases on central command reflect a progressive upward resetting of the carotid baroreflex (CBR) such that the operating point of the CBR is shifted to a pressure below the threshold of the reflex rendering it ineffectual in correcting the downward drift in MAP. In order to test this hypothesis, experiments have been designed to uncouple the global hemodynamic response to prolonged exercise from the central command mediated response via: (1) continuous maintenance of cardiac filling volume by intravenous infusion of a dextran solution; and (2) whole body surface cooling to counteract thermoregulatory cutaneous vasodialation. As the type of work (exercise) performed by astronauts is inherently arm and upper body dependent, we will also examine the physiologic responses to prolonged leg cycling and arm ergometry exercise in the supine positions with and without level lower body negative
Objective To describe the diagnostic features of a patient who presented to a chiropractor with restless legs syndrome (RLS), a common but often under-diagnosed condition. Clinical Features A 42-year-old male patient presented with twitching and deep pressure in the legs bilaterally; described also as an uncomfortable urge to move the legs that followed a circadian rhythm occurring in the evening. The symptoms were initiated after periods of rest and they were relieved by movement. Physical examination was non-contributory which is common in RLS except in secondary forms of the condition. Discussion The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown but several treatments have been studied. Non-pharmacologic treatment options include education on improving sleep hygiene, decreasing alcohol and caffeine intake, moderate exercise and supplements. Pharmacological treatment options are available, with L-dopa being the most effective. Conclusion The symptoms of RLS were 65% resolved in the case presented in one month. Awareness and proper diagnosis by all primary contact practitioners is necessary for effective management of RLS. PMID:18516284
Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara
Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises – concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661
[Purpose] This study assessed the use of different exercise speeds and isokinetic feedback on the middle and lower serratus anterior muscles during push-up exercises. [Subjects] Ten male workers voluntarily consented to participate in the study. [Methods] The subjects performed push-up exercises under three conditions. Surface electrodes were placed on the dominant right side of the middle and lower serratus anterior muscles. [Results] The middle and lower SA muscle activities under condition 2 were significantly decreased when compared with those under conditions 1 and 3. The middle SA activity under condition 3 was significantly increased when compared with that under condition 1. [Conclusion] This study suggests that proper selection of push-up exercise speed may be necessary for selective strengthening of the SA and that isokinetic feedback information obtained using an accelerator can help in selective strengthening of the middle SA.
Fernandez-Gonzalo, R; Tesch, P A; Linnehan, R M; Kreider, R B; Di Salvo, V; Suarez-Arrones, L; Alomar, X; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Rodas, G
This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare individual muscle use in exercises aimed at preventing hamstring injuries. Thirty-six professional soccer players were randomized into 4 groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg curl, Russian belt or conic-pulley exercise. MRIs were performed before and immediately after a bout of 4 sets of 8 repetitions. Pre-post exercise differences in contrast shift (T2) were analyzed for the long (BFLh) and short head (BFSh) of biceps femoris, semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and gracilis (GR) muscles. Flywheel leg curl increased (P<0.001) T2 of GR (95%), ST (65%), BFSh (51%) and BFLh (14%). After the Nordic hamstring, GR (39%), ST (16%) and BFSh (14%) showed increased T2 (P<0.001). Russian belt and conic-pulley exercise produced subtle (P<0.02) T2 increases of ST (9 and 6%, respectively) and BFLh (7 and 6%, respectively). Russian belt increased T2 of SM (7%). Among exercises examined, flywheel leg curl showed the most substantial hamstring and GR muscle use. However, no single exercise executed was able to increase T2 of all hamstring and synergist muscles analyzed. It is therefore suggested that multiple exercises must be carried out to bring in, and fully activate all knee flexors and hip extensors.
Carpenter, Roger; Gilleland, Diana
Adherence to exercise is one of the most problematic health behaviors. This pilot study describes the impact of an exercise program on adherence to exercise and fitness indicators for overweight and obese adults enrolled in an insurance reimbursed exercise plan. Chart reviews were conducted retrospectively in a convenience sample of 77 subjects from a human performance lab (HPL) at a large southern university. Charts from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed for health history, fitness indicators (fitness level, weight, BMI, hip/waist ratio, % body fat, BP, HR, cholesterol), and adherence (number of exercise sessions/month). Exercise supervision was operationalized in two phases over 12 months: Phase I (3 months supervised exercise) and Phase II (9 months unsupervised exercise). Fifty-eight participants completed Phase I, and 8 completed Phase II. Six-nine percent of those completing Phase I visited the gym at least 8 times/month with significant (α=.05) improvement in all fitness indicators. Those visiting <8 times/month had improvement in fitness level, weight, BMI, and % body fat. Twenty-four subjects continued into Phase II, with only eight completing Phase II. Of those eight, only one subject visited the HPL at least 8 times/month. Health history data including co-morbidities, symptoms, habits, perceived tension, job stress, and fitness level were not associated with adherence. Symptoms of swollen, stiff, painful joints, and swollen ankles and legs were associated with decreased adherence to exercise. Supervised exercise was positively related to adherence and improved fitness indicators. Adults with joint symptoms may require more support. Based on these pilot data, designing a study with a larger sample and the inclusion of barriers and facilitators for adherence to self-directed exercise would allow additional analysis. Innovative interventions are needed that mimic the supervised environment, shifting responsibility for the exercise plan from the supervisor to
Wilson, Thad E; Dyckman, Damian J; Ray, Chester A
Exercise-induced increases in skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) are similar between isometric handgrip (IHG) and leg extension (IKE) performed at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). However, the precise effect of exercise intensity and level of fatigue on this relationship is unclear. This study tested the following hypotheses: 1) exercise intensity and fatigue level would not affect the magnitude of exercise-induced increase in SSNA between IHG and IKE, and 2) altering IHG muscle mass would also not affect the magnitude of exercise-induced increase in SSNA. In protocol 1, SSNA (peroneal microneurography) was measured during baseline and during the initial and last 30 s of isometric exercise to volitional fatigue in 12 subjects who randomly performed IHG and IKE bouts at 15, 30, and 45% MVC. In protocol 2, SSNA was measured in eight subjects who performed one-arm IHG at 30% MVC with the addition of IHG of the contralateral arm in 10-s intervals for 1 min. Exercise intensity significantly increased SSNA responses during the first 30 s of IHG (34+/-13, 70+/-11, and 92+/-13% change from baseline) and IKE (30+/-17, 69+/-12, and 76+/-13% change from baseline) for 15, 30, and 45% MVC. During the last 30 s of exercise to volitional fatigue, there were no significant differences in SSNA between exercise intensities or limb. SSNA did not significantly change between one-arm and two-arm IHG. Combined, these data indicate that exercise-induced increases in SSNA are intensity dependent in the initial portion of isometric exercise, but these differences are eliminated with the development of fatigue. Moreover, the magnitude of exercise-induced increase in SSNA responses is not dependent on either muscle mass involved or exercising limb.
Matsui, Isao; Ono, Satoshi; Hanaoka, Yudai; Uesugi, Tokuteru; Takigawa, Yorinobu; Higashi, Kenji
Enthalpies of solutions and misfit strains for the Al-X (X = H, B, C, N, and O) binary alloys were determined by first-principles calculations to estimate the strengthening of solid solutions caused by interstitial atoms. The results indicate that interstitial solute atoms produced large misfit strains. Electrodeposited Al containing 0.12-1.32 at.% C was used to assess the validity of solid-solution strengthening by interstitial solute atoms. The role that interstitial carbon plays in strengthening electrodeposited Al is discussed.
Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo
Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212
Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.
There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.
Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis
In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode.
Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa
Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of gluteus medius activity strengthening due to squat with isometric hip adduction and hip abduction in side-lying exercise on knee joint function index and pain in meniscal surgery patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study selected sample of 26 patients who had meniscal surgery more than 4 weeks ago. The patients were divided into squat with isometric hip adduction exercise group I (n=8), hip abduction in side-lying exercise group II (n=9), and combined exercise group III. The lysholm score was used to evaluate knee joint function and visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain index of knee joint. [Results] Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the lysholm score and visual analog scale and showed significant interaction between the groups and durations. [Conclusion] Strengthening vastus medialis oblique and gluteus medius improved functional recovery and pain reduction of knee joint in meniscal injury surgery patients. Gluteus medius strengthening exercise is essential to meniscal injury surgery patients and should be included in rehabilitation program in early stages to be conducted systematically. PMID:27821928
Connor, James R; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Patton, Stephanie M; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J
Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest. Data from a variety of sources provide a compelling argument that the amount of iron in the brain is lower in individuals with restless legs syndrome compared with neurologically normal individuals. Moreover, a significant percentage of patients with restless legs syndrome are responsive to intravenous iron therapy. The mechanism underlying the decreased iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome brains is unknown. We hypothesize that the source of the brain iron deficit is at the blood-brain interface. Thus we analysed the expression of iron management proteins in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and the brain microvasculature in post-mortem tissues. The choroid plexus, obtained at autopsy, from 18 neurologically normal controls and 14 individuals who had primary restless legs syndrome was subjected to histochemical staining for iron and immunostaining for iron management proteins. Iron and heavy chain ferritin staining was reduced in the epithelial cells of choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Divalent metal transporter, ferroportin, transferrin and its receptor were upregulated in the choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Microvessels were isolated from the motor cortex of 11 restless legs syndrome and 14 control brains obtained at autopsy and quantitative immunoblot analyses was performed. Expression of heavy chain ferritin, transferrin and its receptor in the microvessels from restless legs syndrome was significantly decreased compared with the controls but divalent metal protein 1, ferroportin, prohepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and light-chain ferritin remained unchanged. The presence of an iron regulatory protein was demonstrated in the brain microvasculature and the activity of this protein is decreased in restless legs syndrome; a finding similar to our earlier report in neuromelanin cells from the substantia nigra
Cippà, Maria A T; Baumann, Christian R; Siccoli, Massimiliano M; Bassetti, Claudio L; Poryazova, Rositsa; Werth, Esther
The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) relies upon diagnostic criteria which are based on history only, and dopaminergic treatment is not normally the first choice of treatment for all patients. It would be worthwhile to identify patients non-responsive to dopaminergic treatment beforehand, because they may suffer from a restless legs-like syndrome and may require alternative treatment. We included retrospectively 24 adult patients fulfilling the four essential criteria for restless legs and 12 age-matched healthy controls. They were investigated by ambulatory actigraphy from both legs over three nights, and patients started treatment with dopamine agonists after this diagnostic work-up. We examined 12 responders to dopaminergic treatment and 12 non-responders and studied the association between response to dopaminergic treatment and the periodic limb movement index (PLMI) as assessed with actigraphy. Demographic characteristics, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue at baseline were similar in all three groups. Baseline RLS severity was similar between responders and non-responders [International Restless Legs Severity Scale (IRLS): 25 ± 9 and 24 ± 8]. Group comparisons of PLMI before treatment initiation showed significant differences between the three groups. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that healthy controls had significantly lower PLMI (4.9 ± 4.5) than responders (29.3 ± 22.7) and non-responders (13.3 ± 11.2). Similarly, the PLMI in responders was lower than in non-responders. PLMI day-to-day variability did not differ between responders and non-responders and there was no correlation between treatment effect, as assessed by the decrease of the IRLS and baseline PLMI. Our retrospective study indicates that actigraphy to assess periodic limb movements may contribute to a better diagnosis of dopamine-responsive restless legs syndrome.
Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo
The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667
Kim, Wangdo; João, Filipa; Tan, John; Mota, Patricia; Vleck, Veronica; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, Antonio
When a human being runs, muscles, tendons, and ligaments together behave like a single linear spring. This "leg spring" can be described remarkably well by spring/mass models. Although leg-stiffness during running (and logically, therefore, in hopping) has been shown to be adjusted in line with the individual characteristics of the external contact surface, the relative contribution of each of the sub-components of the leg spring to the mechanics of running is unclear. We proposed the three-degree-of-freedom leg spring chain in a position of stable equilibrium under the action of the leg stiffness. If the leg spring receives a displacement in hopping, the forces will no longer equilibrate, but the system will be exposed to the action of a force on a leg spring chain. We thus have two corresponding sets of modes, one set being the mode about which the chain is displaced, the other set for the forces which are evoked in consequence of the displacement. We found that if the leg has been displaced from a position of equilibrium about one of harmonic modes, then a vibration about this harmonic mode evokes a system of forces in the leg spring which in its turn tends to produce a motion on the original harmonic mode, and thus produce oscillation about the same harmonic mode. Our results suggest that the desired harmonic mode can be explained in terms of the natural shock absorption ability of the leg.
McGowan, Craig P; Grabowski, Alena M; McDermott, William J; Herr, Hugh M; Kram, Rodger
Running-specific prostheses (RSF) are designed to replicate the spring-like nature of biological legs (bioL) during running. However, it is not clear how these devices affect whole leg stiffness characteristics or running dynamics over a range of speeds. We used a simple spring-mass model to examine running mechanics across a range of speeds, in unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputees and performance-matched controls. We found significant differences between the affected leg (AL) of unilateral amputees and both ALs of bilateral amputees compared with the bioL of non-amputees for nearly every variable measured. Leg stiffness remained constant or increased with speed in bioL, but decreased with speed in legs with RSPs. The decrease in leg stiffness in legs with RSPs was mainly owing to a combination of lower peak ground reaction forces and increased leg compression with increasing speeds. Leg stiffness is an important parameter affecting contact time and the force exerted on the ground. It is likely that the fixed stiffness of the prosthesis coupled with differences in the limb posture required to run with the prosthesis limits the ability to modulate whole leg stiffness and the ability to apply high vertical ground reaction forces during sprinting.
Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo
The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.
Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.
Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower
Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U
Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities
Graham, Terry E; Helge, Jorn W; MacLean, David A; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A
This study examined the effect of ingesting caffeine (6 mg kg−1) on muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during steady-state exercise in humans. Young male subjects (n = 10) performed 1 h of exercise (70 % maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2,max)) on two occasions (after ingestion of placebo and caffeine) and leg metabolism was quantified by the combination of direct Fick measures and muscle biopsies. Following caffeine ingestion serum fatty acid and glycerol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest, suggesting enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis. In addition circulating adrenaline concentration was increased (P ≤ 0.05) at rest following caffeine ingestion and this, as well as leg noradrenaline spillover, was elevated (P ≤ 0.05) above placebo values during exercise. Caffeine resulted in a modest increase (P ≤ 0.05) in leg vascular resistance, but no difference was found in leg blood flow. Arterial lactate and glucose concentrations were increased (P ≤ 0.05) by caffeine, while the rise in plasma potassium was dampened (P ≤ 0.05). There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio or in leg glucose uptake, net muscle glycogenolysis, leg lactate release or muscle lactate, or glucose 6-phosphate concentration. Similarly there were no differences between treatments in leg fatty acid uptake, glycerol release or muscle acetyl CoA concentration. These findings indicate that caffeine ingestion stimulated the sympathetic nervous system but did not alter the carbohydrate or fat metabolism in the monitored leg. Other tissues must have been involved in the changes in circulating potassium, fatty acids, glucose and lactate. PMID:11118510
Stasinopoulos, D; Stasinopoulou, K; Johnson, M
Background: Home exercise programmes and exercise programmes carried out in a clinical setting are commonly advocated for the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET), a very common lesion of the arm with a well-defined clinical presentation. The aim of this study is to describe the use and effects of strengthening and stretching exercise programmes in the treatment of LET. Eccentric exercises: Slow progressive eccentric exercises for LET should be performed with the elbow in extension, forearm in pronation, and wrist in extended position (as high as possible). However, it is unclear how the injured tendon, which is loaded eccentrically, returns to the starting position without experiencing concentric loading and how the "slowness" of eccentric exercises should be defined. Nor has the treatment regimen of the eccentric exercises of a supervised exercise programme been defined. Stretching exercises: Static stretching is defined as passively stretching a given muscle-tendon unit by slowly placing and maintaining it in a maximal position of stretch. We recommend the position should be held for 30–45 s, three times before and three times after eccentric exercises during each treatment session with a 30 s rest interval between each procedure. The treatment region of static stretching exercises when a supervised exercise programme is performed is unknown. Discussion: A well designed trial is needed to study the effectiveness of a supervised exercise programme for LET consisting of eccentric and static stretching exercises. The issues relating to the supervised exercise programme should be defined so that therapists can replicate the programme. PMID:16306504
Lewis, M.A.K.; Hill, M.A.; Rollett, A.D.; Dunn, P.S.; Mortensen, A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA )
Tungsten powder reinforced uranium exhibits a three-fold increase in yield strength due to precipitation hardening. The tungsten-rich interphase precipitates form at moving phase boundaries during slow cooling. Further increases in yield strength, attained with increasing tungsten content, are due to composite strengthening; this is verified by increasing elastic modulus with increasing tungsten content. Age hardening behavior is observed, with strengthening occurring at aging temperatures low in the alpha phase. Aging higher in alpha gives initial strengthening followed by rapid overaging. Beta phase aging results in a very soft structure with precipitates visible optically. Wrought material exhibits significant strain hardening as well as composite strengthening due to elongation of the tungsten particles. 7 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.
Scheffel, Kent; McLemore, Yvette; Lowe, Adam
This chapter describes how implementing the National Alliance of Concurrent Enrollment Partnerships' 17 accreditation standards strengthens a concurrent enrollment program, enhances secondary-postsecondary relations, and benefits students, their families, and secondary and postsecondary institutions.
Zhang, Yongfeng; Huang, Hanchen
It has been widely reported that twin boundaries strengthen nanowires regardless of their morphology-that is, the strength of nanowires goes up as twin spacing goes down. This article shows that twin boundaries do not always strengthen nanowires. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the authors show that whether twin boundaries strengthen nanowires depends on the necessary stress for dislocation nucleation, which in turn depends on surface morphologies. When nanowires are circular cylindrical, the necessary stress of dislocation nucleation is high and the presence of twin boundaries lowers this stress; twin boundaries soften nanowires. In contrast, when nanowires are square cylindrical, the necessary stress of dislocation nucleation is low, and a higher stress is required for dislocations to penetrate twin boundaries; they strengthen nanowires.
Stickford, Abigail S; Chapman, Robert F; Johnston, Jeanne D; Stager, Joel M
The efficacy of and mechanisms behind the widespread use of lower-leg compression as an ergogenic aid to improve running performance are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether wearing graduated lower-leg compression sleeves during exercise evokes changes in running economy (RE), perhaps due to altered gait mechanics. Sixteen highly trained male distance runners completed 2 separate RE tests during a single laboratory session, including a randomized-treatment trial of graduated calf-compression sleeves (CS; 15-20 mm Hg) and a control trial (CON) without compression sleeves. RE was determined by measuring oxygen consumption at 3 constant submaximal speeds of 233, 268, and 300 m/min on a treadmill. Running mechanics were measured during the last 30 s of each 4-min stage of the RE test via wireless triaxial 10-g accelerometer devices attached to the top of each shoe. Ground-contact time, swing time, step frequency, and step length were determined from accelerometric output corresponding to foot-strike and toe-off events. Gait variability was calculated as the standard deviation of a given gait variable for an individual during the last 30 s of each stage. There were no differences in VO2 or kinematic variables between CON and CS trials at any of the speeds. Wearing lower-leg compression does not alter the energetics of running at submaximal speeds through changes in running mechanics or other means. However, it appears that the individual response to wearing lower-leg compression varies greatly and warrants further examination.
Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; An, Xiangde; Li, Yong; Onoda, Ko; Li, Desheng; Huang, Qiuchen; Maruyama, Hitoshi
[Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the changes in lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics, and reliability of measurement during different paces of barefoot racewalking on treadmill. [Subjects] Eleven junior racewalking men participated in this study. [Methods] To identify changes in lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics, during different paces of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill, a wireless motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) was used. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1, 2) were used to estimate reliability. [Results] There were significant differences in the lower leg proximal end and forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotations at a pace of 9 km/h compared with those at a pace of 5 km/h pace. The intra-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.82 and 0.89 to 0.87 and 0.93 for lower leg proximal end inversion/eversion rotation and medial/lateral rotation, and from 0.92 and 0.84 to 0.93 and 0.91 for forefoot inversion/eversion rotation and medial/lateral rotation. [Conclusion] We conclude that the lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill are influenced by different paces and that assessment of lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics by means of the wireless motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) is adequately reliable. This information may be useful for determining exercise prescriptions.
Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; An, Xiangde; Li, Yong; Onoda, Ko; Li, Desheng; Huang, Qiuchen; Maruyama, Hitoshi
[Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the changes in lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics, and reliability of measurement during different paces of barefoot racewalking on treadmill. [Subjects] Eleven junior racewalking men participated in this study. [Methods] To identify changes in lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics, during different paces of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill, a wireless motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) was used. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1, 2) were used to estimate reliability. [Results] There were significant differences in the lower leg proximal end and forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotations at a pace of 9 km/h compared with those at a pace of 5 km/h pace. The intra-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.82 and 0.89 to 0.87 and 0.93 for lower leg proximal end inversion/eversion rotation and medial/lateral rotation, and from 0.92 and 0.84 to 0.93 and 0.91 for forefoot inversion/eversion rotation and medial/lateral rotation. [Conclusion] We conclude that the lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill are influenced by different paces and that assessment of lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics by means of the wireless motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) is adequately reliable. This information may be useful for determining exercise prescriptions. PMID:27190445
Hsu, Chao-Jung; George, Steven Z.; Chmielewski, Terese L.
Background: Clinicians use the single-leg hop test to assess readiness for return to sports after knee injury. Few studies have reported the results of single-leg hop testing after meniscectomy. Additionally, the contributions of impairments in quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors to single-leg hop performance are unknown. Purpose: To compare single-leg hop performance (distance and landing mechanics) between limbs and to examine the association of single-leg hop performance with quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors in patients with meniscectomy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: A total of 22 subjects who underwent meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears received either standard rehabilitation alone or with additional quadriceps strengthening. Testing was conducted immediately postrehabilitation and at 1 year postsurgery. A single-leg hop test was performed bilaterally, and hop distance was used to create a hop symmetry index. Landing mechanics (peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, and peak vertical ground-reaction force) were analyzed with a motion-capture system and a force plate. An isokinetic dynamometer (60 deg/s) assessed knee extensor peak torque and rate of torque development (RTD0-200ms and RTD0–peak torque). Questionnaires assessed fear of reinjury (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) and self-efficacy (Knee Activity Self-Efficacy [KASE]). Results: Rehabilitation groups did not significantly differ in single-leg hop performance; therefore, groups were combined for further analyses. The mean hop symmetry index was 88.6% and 98.9% at postrehabilitation and 1 year postsurgery, respectively. Compared with the nonsurgical limb, the surgical limb showed decreased peak knee flexion angle at postrehabilitation and decreased knee extension moment at 1 year postsurgery. The hop symmetry index was positively associated with peak torque, RTD0-200ms, and the KASE score at postrehabilitation. Moreover, at
Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian
This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature.
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma ... they choose. previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with ...
... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...
Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...
Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Shim, Jemyung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Haroo
[Purpose] This study analyzed the activities of the back and hip muscles during Pilates exercises conducted in a prone position. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy women volunteers who had practiced at a Pilates center for more than three months. [Methods] The subjects performed three Pilates exercises. To examine muscle activity during the exercises, 8-channel surface electromyography (Noraxon USA, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) was used. The surface electrodes were attached to the bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus, and semitendinous muscle. Three Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) double leg kick (DLK), (2) swimming (SW), and (3) leg beat (LB). Electrical muscle activation was normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation levels among the exercises. [Results] The activity of the multifidus muscle was significantly high for the SW (52.3±11.0, 50.9±9.8) and LB exercises(51.8±12.8, 48.3±13.9) and the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was higher for the LB exercise (49.2±8.7, 52.9±9.3) than for the DLK and SW exercises. [Conclusion] These results may provide basic material for when Pilates exercises are performed in a prone position and may be useful information on clinical Pilates for rehabilitation programs.
Bosomworth, Neil J.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine whether physical exercise constitutes a benefit or a risk in the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, ACP Journal Club, and Cochrane databases were searched from registry inception to January 2009 using MeSH headings or text words, including osteoarthritis, arthritis and knee and exercise, physical training, and run. Reference lists from retrieved articles, citation listings when available, and related articles suggested in PubMed were also evaluated. For individuals without osteoarthritis, strong level II evidence was found (limited by problems with blinding and randomization); for those with pre-existing knee osteoarthritis, robust level I evidence was available. MAIN MESSAGE Knee osteoarthritis is a major contributor to disability in seniors, and patients have expressed concern that continued exercise might lead to knee symptoms in later years. Studies done on subjects self-selected for exercise and followed for substantial periods of time show no evidence of accelerated development of osteoarthritis, provided injury is avoided. Further, there is good evidence for reduced pain and disability with exercise in this cohort compared with controls. Patients with established osteoarthritis are shown to derive uniform benefit to physical functioning, with reduction of pain and disability, using aerobic, muscle strengthening, aquatic, or physiotherapy-based exercise modalities. CONCLUSION Provided trauma is avoided, moderate exercise does not lead to acceleration of knee osteoarthritis, whether or not there is evidence of pre-existing disease. In either case there appears to be improved physical functioning and reduction of pain and disability in those who exercise. It is likely that exercise interventions are underused in the management of established knee osteoarthritis symptoms. PMID:19752252
Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C
Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption
Yabuno, Yuto; Tosa, Mamiko; Iwakiri, Itaru; Nomoto, Shunichi; Kaneko, Mayuko; Kuwahara, Kousuke; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Murakami, Masahiro
We present a man with refractory leg ulcers, bilateral varicosis of the lower extremities, and Buerger disease. Autoimmune work-up was negative. However, chromosome analysis showed Klinefelter syndrome (48 XXY). Ulcerative lesions of the lower extremities are a complication of Klinefelter syndrome. To date, the pathogenesis of ulcers in Klinefelter syndrome has not been clarified, but several factors, such as abnormalities of fibrinolysis and prothrombotic states, might be involved. Our present case emphasizes the importance of considering Klinefelter syndrome in the differential diagnosis of a male patient with nonhealing ulcers of the lower extremities.
Fernandes, Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; dos Santos, Talita Suzany Siqueira; Lopes, Ramon Rodrigues de Macedo
In Brazil, leprosy is a widespread infectious and contagious disease. Clinicians and specialists view leprosy broadly as a systemic infection, since, in its manifestations, it mimics many conditions, such as rheumatic, vascular, ENT, neurological and dermatological diseases. There are few studies that characterize the factors associated with ulcers in leprosy. These injuries should be prevented and treated promptly to avoid serious problems like secondary infections, sepsis, carcinomatous degeneration and amputations. We describe a patient with ulcers on his legs, involving late diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy. PMID:27828650
Background This study examined the effects of different levels of compression (0, 20 and 40 mmHg) produced by leg garments on selected psycho-physiological measures of performance while exposed to passive vibration (60 Hz, amplitude 4-6 mm) and performing 3-min of alpine skiing tuck position. Methods Prior to, during and following the experiment the electromygraphic (EMG) activity of different muscles, cardio-respiratory data, changes in total hemoglobin, tissue oxygenation and oscillatory movement of m. vastus lateralis, blood lactate and perceptual data of 12 highly trained alpine skiers were recorded. Maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance were assessed before and after the experiment. Results The knee angle (−10°) and oscillatory movement (−20-25.5%) were lower with compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). The EMG activities of the tibialis anterior (20.2-28.9%), gastrocnemius medialis (4.9-15.1%), rectus femoris (9.6-23.5%), and vastus medialis (13.1-13.7%) muscles were all elevated by compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). Total hemoglobin was maintained during the 3-min period of simulated skiing with 20 or 40 mmHg compression, but the tissue saturation index was lower (P < 0.05) than with no compression. No differences in respiratory parameters, heart rate or blood lactate concentration were observed with or maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance following simulated skiing for 3 min in the downhill tuck position were the same as in the absence of compression. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that with leg compression, alpine skiers could maintain a deeper tuck position with less perceived exertion and greater deoxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle, with no differences in whole-body oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. These changes occurred without compromising maximal leg strength, jumping performance or balance
Conceição, Filipe; Fernandes, Juvenal; Lewis, Martin; Gonzaléz-Badillo, Juan José; Jimenéz-Reyes, Pedro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between movement velocity and relative load in three lower limbs exercises commonly used to develop strength: leg press, full squat and half squat. The percentage of one repetition maximum (%1RM) has typically been used as the main parameter to control resistance training; however, more recent research has proposed movement velocity as an alternative. Fifteen participants performed a load progression with a range of loads until they reached their 1RM. Maximum instantaneous velocity (Vmax) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) of the knee extension phase of each exercise were assessed. For all exercises, a strong relationship between Vmax and the %1RM was found: leg press (r(2)adj = 0.96; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0244, -0.0258], P < 0.0001), full squat (r(2)adj = 0.94; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0144, -0.0139], P < 0.0001) and half squat (r(2)adj = 0.97; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0135, -0.00143], P < 0.0001); for MPV, leg press (r(2)adj = 0.96; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0169, -0.0175], P < 0.0001, full squat (r(2)adj = 0.95; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0136, -0.0128], P < 0.0001) and half squat (r(2)adj = 0.96; 95% CI for slope is [-0.0116, 0.0124], P < 0.0001). The 1RM was attained with a MPV and Vmax of 0.21 ± 0.06 m s(-1) and 0.63 ± 0.15 m s(-1), 0.29 ± 0.05 m s(-1) and 0.89 ± 0.17 m s(-1), 0.33 ± 0.05 m s(-1) and 0.95 ± 0.13 m s(-1) for leg press, full squat and half squat, respectively. Results indicate that it is possible to determine an exercise-specific %1RM by measuring movement velocity for that exercise.
Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul
Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.
Adhau, Rajesh; Angrish, Piyush; Ahuja, Ashok; Sandhu, Avtar Singh
Summary Background: to describe role of alternative management as an approach to management and rehabilitation of multiple hip muscles tears by the use of 1 RM (Repetition Maximum) testing and hip muscle strengthening program along with the use of sports specific drills for rehabilitation and recovery. There is very limited literature describing multiple hip muscle tears and the conservative management of the same. 1RM testing and strengthening of hip muscles is an approach that is able to help in the return to sports of an athlete without surgical intervention. Methods: the patient, is a 21-year-old male hockey player who presented with pain right buttock, right lower leg and a limp on the right side while walking. Physical examination revealed a positive Trendelenburg sign both in stance and gait phase. Hip rotational movements showed a normal range of motion, there was a severe pain in the right buttock on movements which he described at 8/10 on VAS (Visual Analogue Scale). Strength assessment revealed weakness of the right hip flexors and extensors and also of the abductor and external hip rotator muscles. Treatment protocol followed was based on 1 RM testing of muscles and hip strengthening exercises and sports specific drills. Results: following the intervention, the patient reported pain at 0/10 VAS while doing all activities and also showed good muscle control with no limp. Conclusions: this highlights an alternative protocol for treating multiple hip muscle tears and illustrates the importance of 1 RM testing as a part of examination and sports medicine intervention. PMID:25332927
Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Butler, M.S.; D'Angio, G.J.; Rate, W.R. )
Leg length inequality developed in 12 of 67 children who were treated with radiation therapy to the kidney, abdomen, pelvis, or lower extremities. All these children survived childhood cancer to the age of skeletal maturity. Of the 12 with anisomelia, seven were symptomatic. There were significant relationships between the development of leg length inequality and the total dose of radiation to the pelvic area, asymmetric irradiation to the pelvis, and high-dose irradiation to the leg.
Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.
Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.
Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.
The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.
Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease with the hip and knee being commonly affected lower limb sites. Osteoarthritis causes pain, stiffness, swelling, joint instability and muscle weakness, all of which can lead to impaired physical function and reduced quality of life. This review of evidence provides recommendations for exercise prescription in those with hip or knee OA. A narrative review was performed. Conservative non-pharmacological strategies, particularly exercise, are recommended by all clinical guidelines for the management of OA and meta-analyses support these exercise recommendations. Aerobic, strengthening, aquatic and Tai chi exercise are beneficial for improving pain and function in people with OA with benefits seen across the range of disease severities. The optimal exercise dosage is yet to be determined and an individualized approach to exercise prescription is required based on an assessment of impairments, patient preference, co-morbidities and accessibility. Maximising adherence is a key element dictating success of exercise therapy. This can be enhanced by the use of supervised exercise sessions (possibly in class format) in the initial exercise period followed by home exercises. Bringing patients back for intermittent consultations with the exercise practitioner, or attendance at "refresher" group exercise classes may also assist long-term adherence and improved patient outcomes. Few studies have evaluated the effects of exercise on structural disease progression and there is currently no evidence to show that exercise can be disease modifying. Exercise plays an important role in managing symptoms in those with hip and knee OA.
Menciassi, Arianna; Stefanini, Cesare; Orlandi, Giovanni; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo
This paper illustrates the problem of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract for endoscopic capsules. Authors analyze the problem of locomotion in unstructured, flexible and tubular environments and explain the reasons leading to the selection of a legged system. They present a theoretical simulation of legged capsule locomotion, which is used to define the optimal parameters for capsule design and gait selection. Finally, a legged capsule--about 3 cm3 in volume--is presented; it consists of 4 back legs whose actuation is achieved thanks to a miniaturized DC brushless motor. In vitro tests demonstrate good performance in terms of achievable speed (92 mm/min).
O'Brien, Seamus; Kernohan, George; Fitzpatrick, Claire; Hill, Janet; Beverland, David
Lower limb length differences of up to 10mm exist in 60% - 95% of the population.There are usually no symptoms or functional effects. Following Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA), satisfactory clinical results can be spoiled by dissatisfaction due to a change in leg length. Although the change in leg length may be modest in comparison to the normal variation, the patient may perceive this as a leg length discrepancy. To study the average threshold for perception, artificial leg length discrepancies of 5 mm to 25 mm were created in 30 young healthy adults using calibrated wooden blocks. Responses were recorded and analysed using a chi-squared test for independence and an independent measures t-test. Awareness of leg length discrepancy was related to the magnitude of the discrepancy (X2 (15)= 156.6, p<0.05 on the right side, and X2 (15)= 178.725 p<0.05 on the left side). It was shown that no subject reported a 5mm increase in leg length to be uncomfortable while all subjects were aware of leg length discrepancies of 20 mm and 25 mm. When there was a discrepancy of 10 mm in either lower limb, 29 out of 30 subjects (96.7%) thought there was a difference in leg length. Consequently it is suggested that during total hip arthroplasty the surgeon should aim for a leg length discrepancy of less than 10 mm.
Chiesa, Scott T.; Trangmar, Steven J.; Kalsi, Kameljit K.; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Banker, Devendar S.; Lotlikar, Makrand D.; Ali, Leena
Limb tissue and systemic blood flow increases with heat stress, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that heat stress-induced increases in limb tissue perfusion are primarily mediated by local temperature-sensitive mechanisms. Leg and systemic temperatures and hemodynamics were measured at rest and during incremental single-legged knee extensor exercise in 15 males exposed to 1 h of either systemic passive heat-stress with simultaneous cooling of a single leg (n = 8) or isolated leg heating or cooling (n = 7). Systemic heat stress increased core, skin and heated leg blood temperatures (Tb), cardiac output, and heated leg blood flow (LBF; 0.6 ± 0.1 l/min; P < 0.05). In the cooled leg, however, LBF remained unchanged throughout (P > 0.05). Increased heated leg deep tissue blood flow was closely related to Tb (R2 = 0.50; P < 0.01), which is partly attributed to increases in tissue V̇O2 (R2 = 0.55; P < 0.01) accompanying elevations in total leg glucose uptake (P < 0.05). During isolated limb heating and cooling, LBFs were equivalent to those found during systemic heat stress (P > 0.05), despite unchanged systemic temperatures and hemodynamics. During incremental exercise, heated LBF was consistently maintained ∼0.6 l/min higher than that in the cooled leg (P < 0.01), with LBF and vascular conductance in both legs showing a strong correlation with their respective local Tb (R2 = 0.85 and 0.95, P < 0.05). We conclude that local temperature-sensitive mechanisms are important mediators in limb tissue perfusion regulation both at rest and during small-muscle mass exercise in hyperthermic humans. PMID:25934093
Forster, H V; Pan, L G; Bisgard, G E; Flynn, C; Dorsey, S M; Britton, M S
The objective of this study was to determine whether changes in limb motion per se influence arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) during muscular exercise in ponies. Fifteen ponies were studied at rest and during 8 min of treadmill exercise when the work load was constant or when the work load was increased after the 4th min. Five different treadmill settings were selected to provide for a range of metabolic rate achieved with primary changes in either speed or grade (1.8 mph at 3, 8, and 15% grade; or 3 and 6 mph at 3% grade). The ponies exercised either on all four legs or on only the hindlegs. Step frequencies were 49, 66, and 99 at 1.8, 3, and 6 mph, respectively. During all work tasks PaCO2 decreased maximally 30-60 s after the work task was initiated from rest or from a less intense level of exercise. This nadir in PaCO2 was followed by some recovery with a stable level of mild hypocapnia (delta PaCO2) maintained after 3-4 min. The delta PaCO2 was directly related to O2 consumption (VO2) (P less than 0.01). The delta PaCO2-VO2 regression slopes did not differ between speed and grade VO2 changes nor between four- and two-legged exercise (P greater than 0.10). These data suggest that neither frequency of limb movement nor the number of limbs moving are major factors in the PaCO2 (and alveolar ventilation) response to exercise in ponies. We conclude that the apparent difference in PaCO2 regulation during exercise between ponies (hypocapnia) and humans (isocapnia during walking and bicycling) is not related to a species difference in the number of limbs employed in the exercise task.
Zhao, Mangsuo; Geng, Tongchao; Qiao, Liyan; Zhang, Mingjie; Shi, Jie; Huang, Fangjie; Lin, Xianzhong; Wang, Jing; Zuo, Huancong
Only nine patients with olanzapine-induced restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been reported in the literature to our knowledge. We describe two patients with olanzapine-induced RLS treated at our hospital and review the nine reported patients. There were five women and six men aged between 28 and 62 years in the overall group. RLS symptoms emerged at olanzapine doses between 2.5 and 20mg. The symptoms improved in all patients when the dose was reduced and immediately disappeared when the medication was stopped. International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) scores ranged from 10 to 35. Three patients had a family history of idiopathic RLS. Supplemental drugs were administered to control RLS symptoms in five patients. Ropinirole was effective in one patient, while two patients did not respond to the drug. Propoxyphene effectively relieved symptoms in one patient who did not respond to ropinirole or clonazepam. RLS symptoms did not recur following substitution of other antipsychotic drugs for olanzapine. In conclusion, olanzapine can induce RLS, particularly in patients with a family history of idiopathic RLS. More than half of the patients experienced severe to very severe symptoms. A dose-dependent relationship was observed between olanzapine and RLS symptoms. A gradual increase in dose may prevent olanzapine-induced RLS. The optimal treatment for olanzapine-induced RLS is discontinuation of olanzapine.
Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309
Margaritelis, Nikos V; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G
The current consensus in exercise physiology is that the repeated bout effect always appears after few eccentric exercise sessions. This is the first attempt to challenge this tenet, by exploiting specificity in muscle plasticity. More specifically, we examined whether the opposing adaptations in muscle induced after concentric and eccentric exercise can attenuate and/or remove the repeated bout effect. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned into one of the following groups: (1) the alternating eccentric-concentric exercise group; and (2) the eccentric-only exercise group. Both groups performed 8 weeks of resistance exercise using the knee extensors of both legs on an isokinetic dynamometer. The alternating eccentric-concentric exercise group performed an alternating exercise protocol, switching between eccentric-only and concentric-only exercise every 4 weeks, while the eccentric-only group performed eccentric exercise. Evaluation of muscle damage using physiological (isometric torque, delayed onset muscle soreness, and range of movement) and biochemical (creatine kinase) markers and inflammation (C-reactive protein) was performed at weeks 1, 5, and 10. Baseline isometric peak torque was also evaluated at week 14 after another cycle (4 weeks) of alternating or eccentric-only exercise training. In the alternating eccentric-concentric exercise group, the concentric exercise training performed prior to eccentric exercise reduced dramatically the repeated bout effect by reversing muscle back to its unaccustomed state. On the contrary, the eccentric-only exercise group exhibited a typical manifestation of the repeated bout effect. Interestingly, muscle strength was elevated similarly for both alternating and eccentric-only exercise groups after 13 weeks of training. The alternating eccentric-concentric exercise scheme, implemented in the present study, has for the first time successfully overcame the repeated bout effect. The similarity in muscle strength
Sugisaki, Norihide; Okada, Junichi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki
The present study aimed to quantify the intensity of lower extremity plyometric exercises by determining joint mechanical output. Ten men (age, 27.3 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.6 ± 5.4 cm; weight, 69.4 ± 6.0 kg; 1-repetition maximum [1RM] load in back squat 118.5 ± 12.0 kg) performed the following seven plyometric exercises: two-foot ankle hop, repeated squat jump, double-leg hop, depth jumps from 30 and 60 cm, and single-leg and double-leg tuck jumps. Mechanical output variables (torque, angular impulse, power, and work) at the lower limb joints were determined using inverse-dynamics analysis. For all measured variables, ANOVA revealed significant main effects of exercise type for all joints (P < 0.05) along with significant interactions between joint and exercise (P < 0.01), indicating that the influence of exercise type on mechanical output varied among joints. Paired comparisons revealed that there were marked differences in mechanical output at the ankle and hip joints; most of the variables at the ankle joint were greatest for two-foot ankle hop and tuck jumps, while most hip joint variables were greatest for repeated squat jump or double-leg hop. The present results indicate the necessity for determining mechanical output for each joint when evaluating the intensity of plyometric exercises.
Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear
Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint
Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K; Reitelseder, Søren; Drummond, Micah J; Schjerling, Peter; Scheike, Thomas; Serena, Anja; Holm, Lars
The present study investigated whether well-tolerated light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects skeletal muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and anabolic intracellular signaling as a way to counteract age-related loss of muscle mass. Untrained healthy elderly (>65-yr-old) men were subjected to 13 h of supine rest. After 2.5 h of rest, unilateral LL-RE, consisting of leg extensions (10 sets, 36 repetitions) at 16% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), was conducted. Subsequently, the subjects were randomized to oral intake of 4 g of whey protein per hour (PULSE, n = 10), 28 g of whey protein at 0 h and 12 g of whey protein at 7 h postexercise (BOLUS, n = 10), or 4 g of maltodextrin per hour (placebo, n = 10). Quadriceps muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 7, and 10 h postexercise from the resting and the exercised leg of each subject. Myofibrillar FSR and activity of select targets from the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1-signaling cascade were analyzed from the biopsies. LL-RE increased myofibrillar FSR compared with the resting leg throughout the 10-h postexercise period. Phosphorylated (T308) AKT expression increased in the exercised leg immediately after exercise. This increase persisted in the placebo group only. Levels of phosphorylated (T37/46) eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 increased throughout the postexercise period in the exercised leg in the placebo and BOLUS groups and peaked at 7 h. In all three groups, phosphorylated (T56) eukaryotic elongation factor 2 decreased in response to LL-RE. We conclude that resistance exercise at only 16% of 1 RM increased myofibrillar FSR, irrespective of nutrient type and feeding pattern, which indicates an anabolic effect of LL-RE in elderly individuals. This finding was supported by increased signaling for translation initiation and translation elongation in response to LL-RE.
Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... To build up bone density, the exercise must make your muscles pull on your bones. These are called weight-bearing exercises. Some of them are: ...
Gavin, James Peter; Myers, Stephen; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus
The study investigated the accumulative effect of concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular responses to low-intensity exercise performed hours later. Fourteen young men cycled at low-intensity (~60 rpm at 50% maximal oxygen uptake) for 10 min before, and 12 h after: concentric-biased, single-leg cycling exercise (CON) (performed ~19:30 h) and eccentric-biased, double-leg knee extension exercise (ECC) (~06:30 h the following morning). Respiratory measures were sampled breath-by-breath, with oxidation values derived from stoichiometry equations. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was assessed before and after CON and ECC. Cardiorespiratory responses during low-intensity cycling were unchanged by accumulative CON and ECC. The RER was lower during low-intensity exercise 12 h after CON and ECC (0.88 ± 0.08), when compared to baseline (0.92 ± 0.09; p = 0.02). Fat oxidation increased from baseline (0.24 ± 0.2 g·min−1) to 12 h after CON and ECC (0.39 ± 0.2 g·min−1; p = 0.01). Carbohydrate oxidation decreased from baseline (1.59 ± 0.4 g·min−1) to 12 h after CON and ECC (1.36 ± 0.4 g·min−1; p = 0.03). These were accompanied by knee extensor force loss (right leg: −11.6%, p < 0.001; left leg: −10.6%, p = 0.02) and muscle soreness (right leg: 2.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.0001; left leg: 2.3 ± 1.2, p < 0.01). Subsequent concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise led to increased fat oxidation and decreased carbohydrate oxidation, without impairing cardiorespiration, during low-intensity cycling. An accumulation of fatiguing and damaging exercise increases fat utilisation during low intensity exercise performed as little as 12 h later. PMID:26839613
Gavin, James Peter; Myers, Stephen; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus
The study investigated the accumulative effect of concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular responses to low-intensity exercise performed hours later. Fourteen young men cycled at low-intensity (~60 rpm at 50% maximal oxygen uptake) for 10 min before, and 12 h after: concentric-biased, single-leg cycling exercise (CON) (performed ~19:30 h) and eccentric-biased, double-leg knee extension exercise (ECC) (~06:30 h the following morning). Respiratory measures were sampled breath-by-breath, with oxidation values derived from stoichiometry equations. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was assessed before and after CON and ECC. Cardiorespiratory responses during low-intensity cycling were unchanged by accumulative CON and ECC. The RER was lower during low-intensity exercise 12 h after CON and ECC (0.88 ± 0.08), when compared to baseline (0.92 ± 0.09; p = 0.02). Fat oxidation increased from baseline (0.24 ± 0.2 g·min(-1)) to 12 h after CON and ECC (0.39 ± 0.2 g·min(-1); p = 0.01). Carbohydrate oxidation decreased from baseline (1.59 ± 0.4 g·min(-1)) to 12 h after CON and ECC (1.36 ± 0.4 g·min(-1); p = 0.03). These were accompanied by knee extensor force loss (right leg: -11.6%, p < 0.001; left leg: -10.6%, p = 0.02) and muscle soreness (right leg: 2.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.0001; left leg: 2.3 ± 1.2, p < 0.01). Subsequent concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise led to increased fat oxidation and decreased carbohydrate oxidation, without impairing cardiorespiration, during low-intensity cycling. An accumulation of fatiguing and damaging exercise increases fat utilisation during low intensity exercise performed as little as 12 h later.
Górski, Marcin; Krzywoń, Rafał; Dawczyński, Szymon; Szojda, Leszek; Salvado, Rita; Lopes, Catarina; Araujo, Pedro; Velez, Fernando Jose; Castro-Gomes, Joao
This paper presents results of mechanical tests on a prototype of an innovative structural strengthening in form of self-monitoring fabric. Smart textile employs carbon fibers conductivity for measuring strains while monitoring changes of electric resistance under increasing load. A general solution was tested in a series of calibrating tests on strengthening of small size concrete slabs. Promising results of simple specimen, has encouraged the research team to perform the next tests using mastered carbon fibre reinforced fabric. Main tests were performed on natural scale RC beam. Smart textile proved its efficiency in both: strengthening and monitoring of strains during load increase. New strengthening proposal was given 10% increase of loading capacity and the readings of strain changes were similar to those obtained in classical methods. In order to calibrate the prototype and to define range limits of solution usability, textile sensor was tested in areas of large deformations (timber beam) and aswell as very small strains (bridge bearing block). In both cases, the prototype demonstrated excellent performance in the range of importance for structural engineering. This paper also presents an example of use of the smart strengthening in situ, in a real life conditions.
Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey
Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise.
Presern-Strukelj, Metka; Poredos, Pavel
The aim of the authors' study was to investigate, in patients with one leg amputated, the influence of electrostimulation on the arterial circulation of the other lower limb and on the ability of a leg with deteriorated blood flow to perform work. The study encompassed 50 patients who were admitted to the rehabilitation center to obtain a leg prosthesis and learn to walk after amputation of 1 lower limb because of severe circulatory disturbance. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The first group contained 25 patients treated with a standard exercise program for patients with limb amputation (control group, C). In this control group, according to the Fontaine's classification of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), 15 patients were in stage I and 10 patients were in stage II. In the second group, the electro stimulated (ES) group, there were also 25 patients that had the same rehabilitation program, to which electrostimulation of the gastrocnemius muscle of the remaining leg was added. In this group, 14 patients were in stage I, 10 patients were in stage II, and 1 patient was in stage III of PAOD. For electrostimulation, biphasic charge-balanced asymmetrical current stimuli with a pulse duration of 0.25 ms were used. The electrostimulation program consisted of 2 hours of electrostimulation per day for 8 weeks. Each patient was examined at the start of the rehabilitation program (examination I), at the end of the 8-week program (examination II) and at the end of a 1-year follow-up period (examination III). The effects of the treatment were followed using clinical examination, determination of the ankle-brachial index (ABI), and by measuring the partial oxygen pressure (TcPO2) on the skin surface of the diseased leg at rest and during exercise. After 8 weeks of treatment, in 3 patients of the ES group, claudication disappeared, and they thus moved from clinical stage II to stage I. In the control group, there were no changes in the clinical
Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Chuang, Chih-Cheng; Tseng, Ching-Shiang; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Lin, Yi-Jia
Home exercise is often recommended for management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS); however, what kind of home exercise is more beneficial for patients with AS has not been determined yet. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of combined home exercise (COMB) and range-of-motion home exercise (ROM) in patients with AS. Nineteen subjects with AS completed either COMB (n = 9) or ROM (n = 10) program. The COMB program included range-of-motion, strengthening, and aerobic exercise while the ROM program consisted of daily range-of-motion exercise only. After exercise instruction, subjects in each group performed home exercise for 3 months. Assessment included cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function test, spinal mobility measurement, chest expansion, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and other functional ability and laboratory tests. After exercise, the COMB group showed significant improvement in peak oxygen uptake (12.3%, P = 0.008) and BASFI (P = 0.028), and the changed score between pre- and postexercise data was significantly greater in the COMB group regarding peak oxygen uptake and BASFI. Significant improvement in finger-to-floor distance after 3-month exercise was found only in the COMB group (P = 0.033). This study demonstrates that a combined home exercise is more effective than range-of-motion home exercise alone in aerobic capacity and functional ability.
Lameness in breeding age gilts and sows is a major cause of early culling, causing increase economic loses and welfare concerns. Stall housed sows tend to have more joint, foot and leg problems than group housed sows. The aims of this study was to determine if exercise would decrease lameness, and...
Saadat, Mozafar; Borboni, Alberto
The aim of this study is to investigate the capability of a 6-DoF parallel robot to perform various rehabilitation exercises. The foot trajectories of twenty healthy participants have been measured by a Vicon system during the performing of four different exercises. Based on the kinematics and dynamics of a parallel robot, a MATLAB program was developed in order to calculate the length of the actuators, the actuators' forces, workspace, and singularity locus of the robot during the performing of the exercises. The calculated length of the actuators and the actuators' forces were used by motion analysis in SolidWorks in order to simulate different foot trajectories by the CAD model of the robot. A physical parallel robot prototype was built in order to simulate and execute the foot trajectories of the participants. Kinect camera was used to track the motion of the leg's model placed on the robot. The results demonstrate the robot's capability to perform a full range of various rehabilitation exercises. PMID:27799727
Rastegarpanah, Alireza; Saadat, Mozafar; Borboni, Alberto
The aim of this study is to investigate the capability of a 6-DoF parallel robot to perform various rehabilitation exercises. The foot trajectories of twenty healthy participants have been measured by a Vicon system during the performing of four different exercises. Based on the kinematics and dynamics of a parallel robot, a MATLAB program was developed in order to calculate the length of the actuators, the actuators' forces, workspace, and singularity locus of the robot during the performing of the exercises. The calculated length of the actuators and the actuators' forces were used by motion analysis in SolidWorks in order to simulate different foot trajectories by the CAD model of the robot. A physical parallel robot prototype was built in order to simulate and execute the foot trajectories of the participants. Kinect camera was used to track the motion of the leg's model placed on the robot. The results demonstrate the robot's capability to perform a full range of various rehabilitation exercises.
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...
... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ... want to join a gym but want the benefits of having someone to exercise with, ask a friend to be your workout ...
Kline, Jessica Beckmann; Krauss, John R; Maher, Sara F; Qu, Xianggui
Estimates of low back pain prevalence in USA ballet dancers range from 8% to 23%. Lumbar stabilization and extensor muscle training has been shown to act as a hypoalgesic for low back pain. Timing and coordination of multifidi and transverse abdominis muscles are recognized as important factors for spinal stabilization. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of training methods using home exercises and a dynamic sling system on core strength, disability, and low back pain in pre-professional ballet dancers. Five participants were randomly assigned to start a traditional unsupervised lumbar stabilization home exercise program (HEP) or supervised dynamic sling training to strengthen the core and lower extremities. Measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6 for disability using the patient specific functional scale (PSFS), pain using the Numerical Pain Rating System (NPRS), core strength and endurance using timed plank, side-plank, and bridge positions, and sciatic nerve irritability using the straight leg raise (SLR). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. From initial to final measurements, all participants demonstrated an improvement in strength and SLR range, and those with initial pain and disability reported relief of symptoms. These results suggest that dynamic sling training and a HEP may help to increase strength, decrease pain, and improve function in dancers without aggravating sciatic nerve irritation.
Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.
Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1 year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014
Wright, N B; Carty, H M
Children who present with unilateral or bilateral swelling of the legs are often suspected of having a deep venous thrombosis. The incidence of deep venous thrombosis in children is low and lymphoedema may be a more appropriate diagnosis. Lymphoedema can be primary or secondary. In childhood, primary lymphoedema is more common and may be seen associated with other congenital abnormalities, such as cardiac anomalies or gonadal dysgenesis. Primary hypoplastic lymphoedema is the most often encountered type. It is more common in girls, especially around puberty, and is typically painless. Atypical presentations produce diagnostic confusion and may require imaging to confirm the presence, extent, and precise anatomical nature of the lymphatic dysplasia. This article describes four patients presenting with limb pain and reviews the clinical features and imaging options in children with suspected lymphoedema. Images PMID:8067792
Pratt, Jerry E.; Krupp, Benjamin T.
Series Elastic Actuators provide many benefits in force control of robots in unconstrained environments. These benefits include high force fidelity, extremely low impedance, low friction, and good force control bandwidth. Series Elastic Actuators employ a novel mechanical design architecture which goes against the common machine design principal of "stiffer is better." A compliant element is placed between the gear train and driven load to intentionally reduce the stiffness of the actuator. A position sensor measures the deflection, and the force output is accurately calculated using Hooke"s Law (F=Kx). A control loop then servos the actuator to the desired output force. The resulting actuator has inherent shock tolerance, high force fidelity and extremely low impedance. These characteristics are desirable in many applications including legged robots, exoskeletons for human performance amplification, robotic arms, haptic interfaces, and adaptive suspensions. We describe several variations of Series Elastic Actuators that have been developed using both electric and hydraulic components.
Mahfooz, Najmus; Turchyn, Nataliya; Mihajlovic, Michelle; Hrycaj, Steven; Popadić, Aleksandar
Differential enlargement of hind (T3) legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s) responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket). In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs. PMID:17848997
Leipelt, Klaus Guido; Suhling, Frank; Gorb, Stanislav N
Anisopteran leg functions change dramatically from the final larval stadium to the adult. Larvae use legs mainly for locomotion, walking, climbing, clinging, or burrowing. Adults use them for foraging and grasping mates, for perching, clinging to the vegetation, and for repelling rivals. In order to estimate the ontogenetic shift in the leg construction from the larva to the adult, this study quantitatively compared lengths of fore, mid, and hind legs and the relationships between three leg segments, femur, tibia, and tarsus, in larval and adult Anisoptera of the families Gomphidae, Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae, Corduliidae, and Libellulidae, represented by two species each. We found that leg segment length ratio as well as ontogenetic shift in length ratios was different between families, but rather similar within the families. While little ontogenetic shift occurred in Aeshnidae, there were some modifications in Corduliidae and Libellulidae. The severest shift occurred in Gomphidae and Cordulegastridae, both having burrowing larvae. These two families form a cluster, which is in contrast to their taxonomic relationship within the Anisoptera. Cluster analysis implies that the function of larval legs is primarily responsible for grouping, whereas adult behavior or the taxonomic relationships do not explain the grouping. This result supports the previous hypothesis about the convergent functional shift of leg characters in the dragonfly ontogenesis.
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) A A ... Radiografía: tibia y peroné What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a safe ...
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) Print A ... Radiografía: tibia y peroné What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a safe ...
Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.
ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.
Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard
In locomotion, humans have to deal with changes in ground level like pavement or stairs. When they encounter uneven ground with changes in terrain height, they reduce their angle of attack and leg stiffness on a step. This strategy was found for the single step upward movement. However, are these adjustments the result of a general strategy? In our study we focused on leg adjustments while running up and down, implying permanent adaptation to a new track level. To investigate this, we measured ten healthy participants as they ran along a runway with 10 cm increased and 10 cm lowered steps. We found that ground reaction force, leg length, leg stiffness, and angle of attack were adjusted to the direction of the vertical disturbance (up or down) but also to its length. When running upwards, leg stiffness decreased by about 20.4% on the single step and by about 9.3% on the permanently elevated track step. In addition to that - when running downwards - leg stiffness decreased in preparation for the downward step by about 18.8%. We also observed that the angle of attack diminished on elevated contact from 61 degrees to 59 degrees, and increased on lowered contact from 61 degrees to 65 degrees. The adjustment of leg stiffness seemed to be actively achieved, whereas the angle of attack appeared to be passively adjusted, consistent with a running model that includes leg retraction in late swing phase.
Frost, M L; Treadwell, P
A 58-year-old black man with leg ulcers of 43 years duration responded to pentoxifylline 400 mg tid in 8 months. The ability of pentoxifylline to increase erythrocyte flexibility and decrease blood viscosity was the basis for our use of this agent. Oral pentoxifylline may be a useful adjunct in healing sickle cell leg ulcers and preventing their recurrence.
Goolsby, A.D.; Smith, J.D.
In 1986, Shell began investigating corrosion control systems for a generic 3,000 ft. water depth Tension Leg Platform (TLP) type structure to be located in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. In 1987, the 2,850 ft. deep Garden Banks block 426 ``Auger`` location was chosen for the first TLP, and the detailed design process began in earnest. During late 1993 and early 1994, the Auger hull was mated with the other components at its permanent site, and first oil and gas production began April 15, 1994. This paper describes the corrosion control design for the exterior submerged and buried steel surfaces of the 2,850 ft. (869 m) water depth Auger Tension Leg Platform structure. Each major type of component (hull, subsea marine wellhead/guidebase, tendon foundation template, tendon, and production riser) has its own combination of coating system and cathodic protection system designed for a thirty five year lifetime. Cathodic protection (CP) is achieved using a variety of sacrificial anode alloys and geometries (e.g. bracelet, flush-mount, and standoff anodes). Anode and cathode CP design parameters for each component depend upon water depth, and were developed using field test data, laboratory studies, field measurements on existing structures, and available literature information. CP design was performed using design spreadsheets constructed for each component, which optimized anode geometries. Extensive quality assurance efforts were part of the anode procurement process, to ensure performance for the intended life of the corrosion-control systems. Results of early in-service CP surveys of the tendons and guidebases are presented, showing the successful achievement of cathodic protection against seawater corrosion. Corrosion control of one additional system, the eight point lateral mooring system, is not addressed here.
Haas, Tara L; Lloyd, Pamela G; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12 to 15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50% to 1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking approximately five times per week, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Preclinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a lifestyle pattern that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations is the most desirable and beneficial.
Haas, Tara L.; Lloyd, Pamela G.; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12–15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50–1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking ~5 times/wk, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Pre-clinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including: improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a life style pattern, that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations, is the most desirable and beneficial. PMID:23720270
Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Paunescu, Lelia Adelina; Pereira, Chelsea; Smith, Charles P.; Soller, Babs R.
The effect of leg dominance on the symmetry of the biomechanics during cycling remains uncertain -- asymmetries have been observed in kinematics and kinetics, while symmetries were found in muscle activation. No studies have yet investigated the symmetry of muscle metabolism during cycling. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to investigate the metabolic responses of specific muscles during cycling. PURPOSE: To determine whether there was an effect of leg dominance on thigh muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) during incrementally loaded submaximal cycling using NIRS. METHODS: Eight right leg dominant, untrained subjects (5 men, 3 women; 31+/-2 yrs; 168.6+/-1.0 cm; 67.2+/-1.8 kg, mean +/- SE) volunteered to participate. Spectra were collected bilaterally from the vastus lateralis (VL) during supine rest and cycling. SmO2 was calculated using previously published methods. Subjects pedaled at 65 rpm while resistance to pedaling was increased in 0.5 kp increments from 0.5 kp every 3 min until the subject reached 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. SmO2 was averaged over 3 min for each completed stage. A two-way ANOVA was performed to test for leg differences. A priori contrasts were used to compare work levels to rest. RESULTS: VL SmO2 was not different between the dominant and non-dominant legs at rest and during exercise (p=0.57). How SmO2 changed with workload was also not different between legs (p=0.32). SmO2 at 0.5 kp (60.3+/-4.0, p=0.12) and 1.0 kp (59.5+/-4.0, p=0.10) was not different from rest (69.1+/-4.0). SmO2 at 1.5 kp (55.4 4.0, p=0.02), 2.0 kp (55.7+/-5.0, p=0.04), and 2.5 kp (43.4+/-7.9, p=0.01) was significantly lower than rest. CONCLUSION: VL SmO2 during cycling is not different between dominant and non-dominant legs and decreases with moderate workload in untrained cyclists. Assuming blood flow is directed equally to both legs, similar levels of oxygen extraction (as indicated by SmO2) suggests the metabolic load of
Sotelo-Barroso, Fernando; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Caudillo-Cisneros, Cipriana
To evaluate differences in surface electromyography (EMGs) activity of lumbar, pelvic and leg muscles in adolescents with and without LLD. EMGs activity records were taken during rest and maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC). Peak to peak amplitude (PPA), mean rectified voltage (MRV) and root mean square (RMS), were analyzed. Statistical differences between short and large sides of LLD adolescents, were found (p<0.05). Higher values occurred in shorter limb muscles. No significative differences were found between left and right legs of the control subjects. When EMGs values were compared between short and large sides of LLD subjects with ipsilateral sides of controls, selective, statistically different EMGs values were exhibited. It is suggested that adaptative behavior to secondary biomechanical and/or neural changes occurred, even when none clinical symptoms were reported. The observations were remarked by the absence of EMGs differences between right and left sides of control subjects.
Device for absorbing horizontally directed impact loads on the supporting legs of an artificial island comprising a pontoon and legs that are movable in the vertical direction and can be locked when the legs are lowered or lifted respectively further comprising energy absorbing and/or transfering means (2) extending downwardly from the lower part (1) of each of the legs.
Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Magnusson, Peter; Jensen, Charlotte H; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Olesen, Jens L; Suetta, Charlotte; Teisner, Børge; Kjaer, Michael
No studies to date have reported activation of satellite cells in vivo in human muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. In this investigation, eight individuals performed a single bout of high intensity exercise with one leg, the contralateral leg being the control. A significant increase in mononuclear cells staining for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were observed within the exercised human vastus lateralis muscle on days 4 and 8 post exercise. In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of the FA1 protein was determined in intramuscular dialysate samples taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of the exercising leg (day 0: 1.89 ± 0.82 ng ml−1; day 2: 1.68 ± 0.37 ng ml−1; day 4: 3.26 ± 1.29 ng ml−1, P < 0.05 versus basal; day 8: 4.68 ± 2.06 ng ml−1, P < 0.05 versus basal and control). No change was noted in the control leg. Despite this increase in N-CAM- and FA1-positive mononuclear cells, an increased expression of myogenin and the neonatal isoform of the myosin heavy chain (MHCn) was not observed. Interestingly, myofibre lesions resulting from extensive damage to the proteins within the myofibre, particularly desmin or dystrophin, were not observed, and hence did not appear to induce the expression of either N-CAM or FA1. We therefore propose that satellite cells can be induced to re-enter the cell growth cycle after a single bout of unaccustomed high intensity exercise. However, a single bout of exercise is not sufficient for the satellite cell to undergo terminal differentiation. PMID:15121802
Zhou, Xiaodong; Bi, Shusheng
The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks.
Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah
[Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270
Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven
The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present. PMID:27213008
Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Ostergaard, Kristine H; Andresen, Joergen; Broegger, Torbjoern; Skovgaard, Nini; Telinius, Niklas; Laher, Ismael; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Smerup, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Brøndum, Emil; Hasenkam, John M; Wang, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik; Aalkjaer, Christian
The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along the artery. Histology of the isolated median artery confirmed dense sympathetic innervation at the narrowing. Structure and contractility of small arteries from muscular beds in the leg and neck were compared. The arteries from the legs demonstrated an increased media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio, increased media volume, and increased numbers of smooth muscle cells per segment length and furthermore, they contracted more strongly than arteries from the neck (500 ± 49 vs. 318 ± 43 mmHg; n = 6 legs and neck, respectively). Finally, the transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure following injection of saline was 5.5 ± 1.7 times larger (n = 8) in the leg than in the neck. We conclude that 1) tissue compliance in the legs is low; 2) large arteries of the legs function as resistance arteries; and 3) structural adaptation of small muscle arteries allows them to develop an extraordinary tension. All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure.
Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Brito, Ciro José; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel; Bouzas Marins, João Carlos
Background: Infrared thermography (IRT) does not require contact with the skin, and it is a convenient, reliable and non-invasive technique that can be used for monitoring the skin temperature (TSK). Objectives: The aim of this study was to monitor the variations in the regional TSK during exercise on 28 regions of interest (ROIs) (forehead, face, chest, abdomen, back, lumbar, anterior and posterior neck, and posterior and anterior views of the right and left hands, forearms, upper arms, thighs, and legs) with IRT. Patients and Methods: 12 physically active young males were monitored with IRT during the following three phases: a) 30 minutes before exercise b) while performing one hour of moderate intensity exercise on a treadmill at 60% of the VO2max, and c) 60 minutes after exercise. Results: During pre-exercise, all TSK reached a steady-state (P ≤ 0.05), which ensured adequate thermal stabilisation. At the beginning of exercise, there was a significant reduction in the TSK in most ROIs after 10 minutes of activity, except for the lower limbs (legs and thighs). After one hour of recovery, in the anterior view of the hands and thighs and in the posterior view of the legs, there were significant increases in the TSK compared to pre-exercise. Conclusions: There were significant distinctions in the skin temperature distribution during exercise according to the activity of the area under consideration during exercise, which may be important in the development of physiological models and heat flux analyses for different purposes. PMID:27217931